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Sample records for central america genetic

  1. Differential effects of landscape-level environmental features on genetic structure in three codistributed tree species in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelchau, Monica F; Hamrick, J L

    2012-10-01

    Landscape genetic studies use spatially explicit population genetic information to determine the physical and environmental causes of population genetic structure on regional scales. Comparative studies that identify common barriers to gene flow across multiple species within a community are important to both understand the evolutionary trajectories of populations and prioritize habitat conservation. Here, we use a comparative landscape genetic approach to ask whether gradients in temperature or precipitation seasonality structure genetic variation across three codistributed tree species in Central America, or whether a simpler (geographic distance) or more complex, species-specific environmental niche model is necessary to individually explain population genetic structure. Using descriptive statistics and causal modelling, we find that different factors best explain genetic distance in each of the three species: environmental niche distance in Bursera simaruba, geographic distance in Ficus insipida and historical barriers to gene flow or cryptic reproductive barriers for Brosimum alicastrum. This study confirms suggestions from previous studies of Central American tree species that imply that population genetic structure of trees in this region is determined by complex interactions of both historical and current barriers to gene flow.

  2. Ecodesign in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.M.

    2003-01-01

    This PhD thesis describes and analyses the change process started by the Ecodesign project in Central America, executed between 1998 and 2002. The project started using the concept and praxis developed in Europe. Nine ecodesign projects were performed in industry, and ecodesign was introduced to cou

  3. The complex biogeography of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa: genetic evidence of introductions and Subspecific introgression in Central America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Nunney

    Full Text Available The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen with a history of economically damaging introductions of subspecies to regions where its other subspecies are native. Genetic evidence is presented demonstrating the introduction of two new taxa into Central America and their introgression into the native subspecies, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa. The data are from 10 genetic outliers detected by multilocus sequence typing (MLST of isolates from Costa Rica. Six (five from oleander, one from coffee defined a new sequence type (ST53 that carried alleles at six of the eight loci sequenced (five of the seven MLST loci diagnostic of the South American subspecies Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca which causes two economically damaging plant diseases, citrus variegated chlorosis and coffee leaf scorch. The two remaining loci of ST53 carried alleles from what appears to be a new South American form of X. fastidiosa. Four isolates, classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa, showed a low level of introgression of non-native DNA. One grapevine isolate showed introgression of an allele from X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca while the other three (from citrus and coffee showed introgression of an allele with similar ancestry to the alleles of unknown origin in ST53. The presence of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca in Central America is troubling given its disease potential, and establishes another route for the introduction of this economically damaging subspecies into the US or elsewhere, a threat potentially compounded by the presence of a previously unknown form of X. fastidiosa.

  4. The complex biogeography of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa: genetic evidence of introductions and Subspecific introgression in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunney, Leonard; Ortiz, Beatriz; Russell, Stephanie A; Ruiz Sánchez, Rebeca; Stouthamer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen with a history of economically damaging introductions of subspecies to regions where its other subspecies are native. Genetic evidence is presented demonstrating the introduction of two new taxa into Central America and their introgression into the native subspecies, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa. The data are from 10 genetic outliers detected by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of isolates from Costa Rica. Six (five from oleander, one from coffee) defined a new sequence type (ST53) that carried alleles at six of the eight loci sequenced (five of the seven MLST loci) diagnostic of the South American subspecies Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca which causes two economically damaging plant diseases, citrus variegated chlorosis and coffee leaf scorch. The two remaining loci of ST53 carried alleles from what appears to be a new South American form of X. fastidiosa. Four isolates, classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa, showed a low level of introgression of non-native DNA. One grapevine isolate showed introgression of an allele from X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca while the other three (from citrus and coffee) showed introgression of an allele with similar ancestry to the alleles of unknown origin in ST53. The presence of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca in Central America is troubling given its disease potential, and establishes another route for the introduction of this economically damaging subspecies into the US or elsewhere, a threat potentially compounded by the presence of a previously unknown form of X. fastidiosa. PMID:25379725

  5. Biologic and genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Nicaragua, Central America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J.P.; Sundar, N.; Pineda, N.;

    2006-01-01

    :10 or less were pooled and fed to three T. gondii-free cats. Hearts and brains of 66 chickens with titers of 1:20 or higher were bioassayed in mice. Feces of cats were examined for oocysts. The cat fed tissues from eight chickens with titers of 1:10 shed T. gondii oocysts. The two cats fed tissues of 24...... from the same household, indicating multiple genotypes were circulating in the same environment. This may explain the high frequency of mixed infections observed. High rate of mixed infection in intermediate hosts such as chickens may facilitate genetic exchange between different parasite lineages...... in definitive feline hosts. This is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from Nicragua, Central America....

  6. Drug resistance associated genetic polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax collected in Honduras, Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Jovel Irina T; Mejía Rosa E; Banegas Engels; Piedade Rita; Alger Jackeline; Fontecha Gustavo; Ferreira Pedro E; Veiga Maria I; Enamorado Irma G; Bjorkman Anders; Ursing Johan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In Honduras, chloroquine and primaquine are recommended and still appear to be effective for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of resistance associated genetic polymorphisms in P. falciparum and P. vivax collected in Honduras. Methods Blood samples were collected from patients seeking medical attention at the Hospital Escuela in Tegucigalpa from 2004 to 2006 as well as three regional hospi...

  7. Drug resistance associated genetic polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax collected in Honduras, Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovel Irina T

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Honduras, chloroquine and primaquine are recommended and still appear to be effective for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of resistance associated genetic polymorphisms in P. falciparum and P. vivax collected in Honduras. Methods Blood samples were collected from patients seeking medical attention at the Hospital Escuela in Tegucigalpa from 2004 to 2006 as well as three regional hospitals, two health centres and one regional laboratory during 2009. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt, multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1, dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr and dihydropteroate synthase (pfdhps genes and in P. vivax multidrug resistance 1 (pvmdr1 and dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr genes were detected using PCR based methods. Results Thirty seven P. falciparum and 64 P. vivax samples were collected. All P. falciparum infections acquired in Honduras carried pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhps and pfdhfr alleles associated with chloroquine, amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine sensitivity only. One patient with parasites acquired on a Pacific Island had pfcrt 76 T and pfmdr1 86Y alleles. That patient and a patient infected in West Africa had pfdhfr 51I, 59 R and 108 N alleles. Pvmdr1 976 F was found in 7/37 and two copies of pvmdr1 were found in 1/37 samples. Pvdhfr 57 L + 58 R was observed in 2/57 samples. Conclusion The results indicate that P. falciparum from Honduras remain sensitive to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. This suggests that chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine should be efficacious for treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria, supporting current national treatment guidelines. However, genetic polymorphisms associated with chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine tolerance were detected in local P. vivax and imported P. falciparum infections. Continuous

  8. Demographic tensions in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    This discussion of Central America focuses on the rapid growth of its population, its stagnating economy, and those countries that are socioeconomically advanced. Between 1950-85 the population of Central America tripled, from 9.1 million to 26. 4 million, due to marked mortality declines and the absence of off-setting fertility declines. The distribution of Central Americas's growing populations sets its population growth apart from that of other developing regions. Currently, almost half of all Central Americans live in cities. Although the average growth rate for Central American countries has fallen and is expected to drop further, the decline does not counterbalance the effect of the absolute rise in population numbers. The average annual growth rate of more than 3% annually in the 1960s fell to about 2.6% in recent years, but this decline is due primarily to socioeconomically advanced Costa Rica and Panama. Central America's age structure further complicates the population crisis. About 43% of Central Americans are under the age of 15. When the increasingly larger young population group enters it reproductive years, the potential for future growth (albeit the falling rate of population increase) is unparalleled. UN population projections show the region's population at 40 million by the year 2000. The 1973 oil crisis began a downward spiral for the buoyant post World War II Central American economy. Between 1950-79, real per capita income growth in Central America doubled, with Central American economies growing an average of 5.3% annually. By the early 1980s, overseas markets of the trade-dependent countries of Central America had dried up due to protectionism abroad and slumping basic commodity prices. These and other factors plunged Central America into its current economic malaise of falling real per capita income, rising unemployment, curtailed export led economic growth, and a rising cost of living. In general, economic growth in Central America

  9. The Mediterranean fruit fly in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various methods of controlling the medfly are available and include the use of insecticides, bait sprays and the sterile insect technique (SIT). Each of these control strategies may be used alone or in sequence. With regard to the application of the SIT, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture through its Insect and Pest Control Section and Entomology Laboratory is in an excellent position to assist in containing the medfly in Central America. For the past 12 years, the laboratory has participated in all phases of medfly control by sterile insect releases in various climates. This involvement has included planning of medfly campaigns, development of pre-release techniques (bait spraying, trapping, etc.) and shipment and release of sterilized medflies. Small-scale field tests utilizing the SIT have been carried out by nine countries: Italy (Procida, Capri), Spain, Cyprus, Israel, Tunisia, Peru, Panama, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Other field projects presently being counselled and serviced are located in Argentina, Venezuela and the Canary Islands. The research and development that are still needed to effectively stabilize and gain control of the medfly situation in Central America include: The development and use of effective quarantine procedures in various countries; Development of effective conventional medfly control procedures under the conditions found in Central America; Development of methods to determine the geographic origin of medflies introduced into new areas; Medfly mass production (viz. all aspects of rearing Central American strains); Assessing the performance (competitiveness, etc.) of various strains; Logistics, including the development of systems for releasing pre-adult stages; Genetic rearing methods: developmental research in this area is particularly promising since the preferential production of males would allow considerable savings in the rearing costs of medflies for release; Development of adequate surveillance

  10. Genetic and morphological divergence among Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) populations breeding in north-central and western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Rosenfield, Robert N.; Bielefeldt, John; Murphy, Robert K.; Stewart, Andrew C.; Stout, William C.; Driscoll, Timothy G.; Bozek, Michael A.; Sloss, Brian L.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) populations breeding in the northern portion of the species' range exhibit variation in morphological traits that conforms to predictions based on differences in prey size, tree stand density, and migratory behavior. We examined genetic structure and gene flow and compared divergence at morphological traits (PST) and genetic markers (FST) to elucidate mechanisms (selection or genetic drift) that promote morphological diversification among Cooper's Hawk populations. Cooper's Hawks appear to conform to the genetic pattern of an east-west divide. Populations in British Columbia are genetically differentiated from north-central populations (Wisconsin, Minnesota, and North Dakota; pairwise microsatellite FST= 0.031-0.050; mitochondrial DNA ΦST = 0.177-0.204), which suggests that Cooper's Hawks were restricted to at least two Pleistocene glacial refugia. The strength of the Rocky Mountains—Great Plains area as a barrier to dispersal is further supported by restricted gene-flow rates between British Columbia and other sampled breeding populations. Divergence in morphological traits (PST) was also observed across study areas, but with British Columbia and North Dakota differentiated from Wisconsin and Minnesota, a pattern not predicted on the basis of FST and ΦST interpopulation estimates. Comparison of PSTand FSTestimates suggests that heterogeneous selection may be acting on Cooper's Hawks in the northern portion of their distribution, which is consistent with hypotheses that variation in prey mass and migratory behavior among populations may be influencing overall body size and wing chord. We were unable to distinguish between the effects of genetic drift and selection on tail length in the study populations.

  11. Biomass energy in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  12. Phylogeography and genetic variation of Triatoma dimidiata, the main Chagas disease vector in Central America, and its position within the genus Triatoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Bargues

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among Chagas disease triatomine vectors, the largest genus, Triatoma, includes species of high public health interest. Triatoma dimidiata, the main vector throughout Central America and up to Ecuador, presents extensive phenotypic, genotypic, and behavioral diversity in sylvatic, peridomestic and domestic habitats, and non-domiciliated populations acting as reinfestation sources. DNA sequence analyses, phylogenetic reconstruction methods, and genetic variation approaches are combined to investigate the haplotype profiling, genetic polymorphism, phylogeography, and evolutionary trends of T. dimidiata and its closest relatives within Triatoma. This is the largest interpopulational analysis performed on a triatomine species so far. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: Triatomines from Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Cuba, Colombia, Ecuador, and Brazil were used. Triatoma dimidiata populations follow different evolutionary divergences in which geographical isolation appears to have had an important influence. A southern Mexican-northern Guatemalan ancestral form gave rise to two main clades. One clade remained confined to the Yucatan peninsula and northern parts of Chiapas State, Guatemala, and Honduras, with extant descendants deserving specific status. Within the second clade, extant subspecies diversity was shaped by adaptive radiation derived from Guatemalan ancestral populations. Central American populations correspond to subspecies T. d. dimidiata. A southern spread into Panama and Colombia gave the T. d. capitata forms, and a northwestern spread rising from Guatemala into Mexico gave the T. d. maculipennis forms. Triatoma hegneri appears as a subspecific insular form. CONCLUSIONS: The comparison with very numerous Triatoma species allows us to reach highly supported conclusions not only about T. dimidiata, but also on different, important Triatoma species groupings and their evolution. The very large intraspecific genetic

  13. A First for Central America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    FTA gives impetus to China’s trade with Costa Rica and other countries in the region The free trade agreement (FTA) between China and Costa Rica, signed in April 2010,came into effect on August 1.It was the first free trade pact between China and a Central

  14. Post-War Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Kruijt

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available – Terror in the Countryside. Campesino Responses to Political Violence in Guatemala, 1954-1985, by Rachel A. May. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies/Research in International Studies/Latin America Series #35, 2001. – La guerrilla fue mi camino. Epitafio para César Montes, by Julio César Macías. Guatemala: Piedra Santa/Colección Afluentes de Modernidad, 1999. – Testigo de conciencia (Periodismo de Opinión Documentado, by Marco A. Mérida. Guatemala: ARCASAVI, 2000. – Centroamérica 2002. Un nuevo modelo de desarrollo regional, edited by Klaus Bodemer and Eduardo Gamarra. Caracas: Nueva Sociedad, 2002. – Who Governs? Guatemala Five years After the Peace Accords, by Rachel Sieder, Megan Thomas, George Vickers and Jack Spence. Cambridge, Mass.: Hemispheric Initiatives/Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA, January 2002. – Pasos hacia una nueva convivencia: Democracia y participación en Centroamérica, edited by Ricardo Córdova Macías, Günther Maihold and Sabina Kurtenbach. San Salvador: FUNDAUNGO, Instituto de Estudios Iberoamericanos de Hamburgo and Instituto Iberoamericano de Berlin, 2001. – Los desafíos de la democracia en Centroamérica, by René Poitevin and Alexander Sequén-Mónchez. Guatemala: FLACSO, 2002. – Más allá de las elecciones: Diez años después de los acuerdos de paz, edited by Hector Dada Hirezi. San Salvador: FLACSO, 2002. – Guatemala, un proyecto inconcluso: La multiculturalidad, un paso hacia la democracia, by Hugo Cayzac. Guatemala: FLACSO, 2001. – La violencia en el contexto del posconflicto, según la percepción de comunidades urbanas pobres de Guatemala, by Caroline Moser and Cathy McIlwaine. Washington/Bogotá: Banco Mundial-Región de Latinoamérica y el Caribe/Tercer Mundo Editores, 2001. – El lado oscuro de la eterna primavera. Violencia, criminalidad y delincuencia en la postguerra, by Manolo Vela, Alexander Sequén-Mónchez and Hugo Antonio Solares

  15. Pandillas and Security in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas C. Bruneau

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the topic of pandillas (street gangs) and their implications for security in Central America. There is minimal scholarly literature on pandillas and security. In part this is due to serious challenges in analyzing pandillas. First, pandilla members consider truth to be situational; data derived directly from them is suspect. Second, those who know most about them are involved in NGOs that rely on foreign assistance for their work. The project reports the...

  16. Fragile isthmus under pressure. Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ypsilantis, J

    1992-01-01

    In Costa Rica the 1300 hectares of rainforest that comprise La Selva Biological Station support more than 1.5 times the number of plant and animal species found in California. In Central America over 2/3 of all deforestation has occurred since 1950, and closed canopy forest has shrunk dramatically during the past 40 years. The population in Central America, plus Mexico, grew by around 28% during the period 1977-87. At the same time the surface of forests and woodlands decreased by 13%, to 26% of the total land area. Croplands grew by 4% during these 10 years, to 13% of the total land area, and pastures by 2% to 37%; and unproductive lands grew by 14% to 24% of total land area. 50% of land is seriously eroded or degraded in El Salvador and over 30% in Guatemala. Central America's population was 22 million in 1980, 29 million in 1990, and it is anticipated to reach 63 million by 2025. Central America's urban population reached 46% in the 1990s: over 13 million with continuing increases in the next few decades. The growing population's need for fuelwood and the demand for agricultural land pose the main threat to forests in the coming decades. Close to 90% of the energy used by households comes from fuelwood. In the Telire reserve in Costa Rica 366 Cabecars are not yet an environmental threat for the forest. The Peten area in Guatemala is inhabited by around 300,000 people whose destructive slash and burn practices pose a serious threat to the environment which is exacerbated by a high population growth rate of 5.5% a year. PMID:12317701

  17. Sources of Economic Fluctuations in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Toledo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using panel data from Central America, this paper studies the determining factors of inflation and aggregate output fluctuations by estimating two Structural Vector Autoregressive (SVAR models. Price and output variables are included in one of the models, whereas M2 and the price of oil are additional variables in the other one. Findings of this study suggest that price is determined by the demand, while output seems to be influenced mainly by the supply shocks in that area. It was also evidenced that the price of oil does not have a significant impact on the general price level in that region.

  18. Legislation on renewable energy sources in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the development of renewable energy in Central America and the cooperation given by the European Comission in the promotion of renewable energy sources. Also discuss the current situation in energy demand in Central America and possible solutions linked to legislation that promotes the inversion of the private sector. The legal framework in each country of Central America is presented and its impact in the increasing of generation of energy through tax reductions, trading and prices

  19. Commercial Agriculture and Modern Transport in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Oscar H.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an exercise for use in college-level geography courses dealing with the tandem development of transport networks and commercial agriculture in Central America. Using six maps, the author shows the parallels between highway and railroad construction and commercial crops, (coffee, bananas, and cotton) in Central America between 1855-1975.…

  20. Mantle Structure Beneath Central South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecar, J. C.; Silver, P. G.; James, D. E.; Assumpcao, M.; Schimmel, M.; Zandt, G.

    2003-12-01

    Making use of 60 digital broadband seismic stations that have operated across central South America in recent years, we have undertaken an inversion for the upper- and uppermost lower-mantle P- and S-wave velocity structures beneath the region. We have combined data from four portable PASSCAL-type experiments as well as the 3 GTSN permanent stations (LPAZ, BDFB and CPUP) and 1 Geoscope station (SPB) located in the region. The portable data were deployed at various times between 1992 and 1999 and include: 28 sites from the Brazilian Lithosphere Seismic Project (BLSP: Carnegie Institution of Washington and Universidade de Sao Paulo), 16 sites from the Broadband ANdean JOint experiment (BANJO: Carnegie Institution of Washington and University of Arizona), 8 sites from the Seismic Exploration of the Deep Altiplano project (SEDA: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) and 4 sites from the University of Brasilia. The P- and S-wave relative delay times are independently obtained via a multi-channel cross correlation of band-passed waveforms for each teleseismic event. These data are then inverted using an iterative, robust, non-linear scheme which parameterizes the 3-D velocity variations as splines under tension constrained at over 120,000 nodes across South America between latitudes of 15 and 30 degrees South. Amongst other features, we robustly image the high-velocity subducting Nazca plate penetrating into the lower mantle and the high-velocity root of the ~3.2 Gyr old Sao Francisco Craton extending to depths of 200-300 km. We will discuss the consistency between our tomographic models and predictions of dynamic mantle models based on plate tectonic reconstructions of subduction.

  1. Private Higher Education in a Cold War World: Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James J.

    2009-01-01

    In Central America the Cold War support of the elites by the United States was designed to ward off the communist threat. At the same time social and economic demands by the working and middle classes created revolutionary movements in the face of rigid and violent responses by Central American governments. Issues of social justice pervaded the…

  2. Collaborative studies target volcanic hazards in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, Gregg J. S.; Rose, William I.

    Central America is the second-most consistently active volcanic zone on Earth, after Indonesia. Centuries of volcanic activity have produced a spectacular landscape of collapsed calderas, debris flows, and thick blankets of pyroclastic materials. Volcanic activity dominates the history, culture, and daily life of Central American countries.January 2002 marked the third consecutive year in which a diverse group of volcanologists and geophysicists conducted focused field studies in Central America. This type of multi-institutional collaboration reflects the growing involvement of a number of U.S. and non-U.S. universities, and of other organizations, in Guatemala and El Salvador (Table 1).

  3. Intestinal Parasites in Immigrant Children From Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Sarfaty, Mona; Rosenberg, Zeil; Siegel, Jay; Levin, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    To begin to characterize the health needs of the growing number of refugees from Central America, we compiled the results of examinations for ova and parasites of a single stool specimen of each of 128 children of Central American and Mexican background who entered our health center during a four-month period. Among the 96 children who were born in Central America or Mexico, there was a 65% prevalence of parasitic infestation. Pathogens were found in 46% and multiple pathogens in 14%. Among t...

  4. 9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Central America and the... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from Central America and...

  5. Pathways to marriage and cohabitation in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Grace; Stuart Sweeney

    2014-01-01

    Background: The notion that increasing prevalence of cohabitation relative to marriage, and increasing age at first marriage are part of a broader shift in societal norms -- a second demographic transition -- is now well supported by studies focused on US and European populations. Recent research points to the similarly high prevalence of cohabitation in Latin America as perhaps signaling the diffusion of modern ideals and norms about union formation. In Central America this is unlikely to be...

  6. Comparative phylogeography of Oryzomys couesi and Ototylomys phyllotis; historic and geographic implications for the Central America conformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Anaid Gutiérrez-García

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Central America is an ideal region for comparative phylogeographic studies because of its intricate geologic and biogeographic history, diversity of habitats and dynamic climatic and tectonic history. The aim of this work was to assess the phylogeography of two rodents codistributed throughout Central America, in order to identify if they show concordant genetic and phylogeographic patterns. The synopsis includes four parts: (1 an overview of the field of comparative phylogeography; (2 a detailed review that describes how genetic and geologic studies can be combined to elucidate general patterns of the biogeographic and evolutionary history of Central America; and a phylogeographic analysis of two species at both the (3 intraspecific and (4 comparative phylogeographic levels. The last incorporates specific ecological features and evaluates their influence on the species’ genetic patterns. Results showed a concordant genetic structure influenced by geographic distance for both rodents, but dissimilar dispersal patterns due to ecological features and life history. 

  7. (Human Security in Central America: A Return to the Past?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Urgell García

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available After having become one of the principal scenarios of the Cold War, the pacification and democratisation of Central America in the 1990s were forged under the protection of the Esquipulas Process and the birth of the concept of human security. The resulting model of security was founded on the Framework Treaty on Democratic Security, which incorporated some of the basic postulates of human security and became one of its first institutional implementations. Nevertheless, the performance of this model has been eclipsed and questioned by the evolution of events in Central America (such as the impact of 9-11 on security agendas or the emergence of new forms of violence in the region, which open the door to a new security instrument (the Rapid Reaction Force, generate fears about an eventual regression of Central America in the area of security and raise doubts about the habitual assumptions of human security.

  8. Caupolicana in Central America (Hymenoptera, Colletidae, Diphaglossinae

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    Charles Michener

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Caupolicana (Zikanapis wileyi n. sp. from Guatemala is described. New locality records are noted for other species, and the hitherto unknown female of C. (Z. rozenorum Michener, Engel, and Ayala from Guatemala is described. A key for the identification of Central American Caupolicana is provided.

  9. National Geothermal Association Trade Mission to Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States (US) geothermal industry, the world's most technically proficient, has been unable to achieve penetration into the markets of the developing nations. This report details the findings of an industry Trade Mission to Central America, tasked with determining the reasons for this shortfall and with developing a US industry geothermal export strategy designed to achieve immediate and long-term export benefits

  10. Contextualizing the trauma experience of women immigrants from Central America, South America, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltman, Stacey; Hurtado de Mendoza, Alejandra; Gonzales, Felisa A; Serrano, Adriana; Guarnaccia, Peter J

    2011-12-01

    Trauma has been understudied among Latina immigrants from Central and South America. This study examined the types and context of trauma exposure experienced by immigrant women from Central America, South America, and Mexico living in the United States. Twenty-eight women seeking care in primary care or social service settings completed life history interviews. The majority of the women reported some type of trauma exposure in their countries of origin, during immigration, and/or in the United States. In the interviews, we identified types of trauma important to the experience of these immigrants that are not queried by trauma assessments typically used in the United States. We also identified factors that are likely to amplify the impact of trauma exposure. The study highlights the importance of utilizing a contextualized approach when assessing trauma exposure among immigrant women.

  11. Remittances in Central America: Whose Money is it Anyway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Rocha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In opposition to optimistic visions that present remittances as an opportunity for developing countries, this paper shows they are part and parcel of a process of economic imperialism, whereby their use and final destinations are strictly conditioned. In order to go beyond a conception of remittances as epiphenomenon, and in order to trace the role they play, this paper focuses on the transnational strategies of capital. It finds that remittances enable an increase in foreign investment and import production by facilitating the rise of a new class of consumers in Central America. Remittances create and feed a purchasing power that would not exist in their absence. Factories, fast food restaurants, communications companies, banks, travel agencies, and supermarkets are opening new branches throughout Central America in order to benefit from transnational savings that would otherwise be used differently. In this way, remittances are conditioned and co-opted by transnational capital’s strategies to sustain an ever growing market, with Central America more generally – and once again – potentially at risk of becoming characterized by enclave economies and chronic commercial deficits. The remittance-based economic model furthermore cannot be sustainable in the long run unless Central American countries keep exporting workers ad infinitum, something that is obviously not possible.

  12. Skylab photography applied to geologic mapping in northwestern Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W. I., Jr.; Johnson, D. J.; Hahn, G. A.; Johns, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Two photolineation maps of southwestern Guatemala and Chiapas were made from S190 photographs along a ground track from Acajutla, El Salvador to San Cristobal de las Casas, Mexico. The maps document a structural complexity spanning the presumed triple junction of the Cocos, Americas, and Caribbean plates. The Polochic fault zone, supposedly the Americas-Caribbean plate boundary, is a sharply delineated feature across western Guatemala. Westward of the Mexican border it splays into a large number of faults with NW to SW trends. The structural pattern is quite different to the north (Americas plate) and to the south (Caribbean plate) of the Polochic fault, though both areas are dominated by NW-trending lineations. Within the Central American volcanic chain, the lineation patterns support the segmented model of the Benioff Zone, by showing a concentration of transverse lineations in the predicted locations, most notably NE-trending elements near Quezaltenango, Guatemala. The structural pattern obtained from the maps are compared to patterns described on recently published maps of more southerly parts of Central America, to begin a synthesis of the structure of the convergent plate boundary.

  13. (Human) Security in Central America: A Return to the Past?

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Urgell García

    2007-01-01

    After having become one of the principal scenarios of the Cold War, the pacification and democratisation of Central America in the 1990s were forged under the protection of the Esquipulas Process and the birth of the concept of human security. The resulting model of security was founded on the Framework Treaty on Democratic Security, which incorporated some of the basic postulates of human security and became one of its first institutional implementations. Nevertheless, the performance of thi...

  14. National Geothermal Association Trade Mission to Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    The United States (US) geothermal industry, the world`s most technically proficient, has been unable to achieve penetration into the markets of the developing nations. This report details the findings of an industry Trade Mission to Central America, tasked with determining the reasons for this shortfall and with developing a US industry geothermal export strategy designed to achieve immediate and long-term export benefits.

  15. National Geothermal Association Trade Mission to Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    The United States (US) geothermal industry, the world's most technically proficient, has been unable to achieve penetration into the markets of the developing nations. This report details the findings of an industry Trade Mission to Central America, tasked with determining the reasons for this shortfall and with developing a US industry geothermal export strategy designed to achieve immediate and long-term export benefits.

  16. Sustainability of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Sabogal, Raquel I.; Medlin, Elizabeth; Aquino, Gonzalo; Gelting, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The American Red Cross and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated on a sustainability evaluation of post-hurricane water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions in Central America. In 2006 and 2009, we revisited six study areas in rural El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua to assess sustainability of WASH interventions finalized in 2002, after 1998’s Hurricane Mitch. We used surveys to collect data, calculate indicators and identify factors that influence ...

  17. Narco-scapes: Cocaine Trafficking and Deforestation in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrathall, D.; McSweeney, K.; Nielsen, E.; Pearson, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Narcotics trafficking and drug interdiction efforts have resulted in a well-documented social crisis in Central America, but more recently, has been tightly linked to environmental catastrophe and accelerated deforestation in transit zones. This talk will outline synthesis findings from multi-country, interdisciplinary research on cocaine trafficking as an engine of forest loss in Central America. During the "narco-boom" of the mid-2000s, we observed a geographical evolution of cocaine flows into Central America, and the transit of cocaine through new spaces, accompanied by specific patterns of social and environmental change in new nodes of transit. We coarsely estimated that the total amount of cocaine flowing through Central America increased from 70 metric tons in 2000 to 350 mt in 2012, implying that total cocaine trafficking revenue in the region increased from roughly 600 million dollars to 3.5 billion in that time. We describe the mechanism by which these locally captured cocaine rents resulted in a rapid conversion of forest into cattle pasture. Narco-traffickers are drawn to invest in the cattle economy, as a direct means of laundering and formalizing proceeds. Ranching is a land intensive activity, and new narco-enriched cattle pastures can be isolated from other forms forest loss solely by their spatial and temporal change characteristics. A preliminary forest change study in Honduras, for example, indicated that areas of accelerated deforestation were in close proximity to known narcotics trafficking routes and were thirteen times more extensive on average than other forest clearings. Deforested areas commonly appeared in isolated and biodiverse lowland tropical rainforest regions that often intersected with protected areas and indigenous reserves. We find that narco-deforestation is a readily identifiable signal of the extent and health of the cocaine economy. This talk will feature summaries of both ethnographic and land cover change we have observed

  18. Are the Maras Overwhelming Governments in Central America?

    OpenAIRE

    Boraz, Steven C.; Thomas C. BRUNEAU

    2006-01-01

    Military Review, November - December 2006 Violence in Central America has grown so much in the last half decade that Colombia is no longer the homicide capital of the region. In fact, it now ranks fourth in that ignominious distinction behind El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala.1 The violence is mostly due to the phenomenon of street gangs, also called pandillas or gangas, but most often maras. They have grown in number, sophistication, and stature and have largely...

  19. Geoenvironmental problems and cross-border cooperation in Central America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Graniczny; Jonas Satkunas; Jurga Lazauskiene; Jiri Sebesta

    2006-01-01

    @@ The International Workshop on "Geoenvironmental problems and cross-border cooperation in Central America" was organized in Managua, Nicaragua, 5-8 December, 2005 by the Working Group International Borders-Geoenvironmental Concerns (IBC), under the IUGS Commission on Geosciences for Environmental Management (GEM) and in the framework of the IUGS funded project "Application of geosciences for sustainable development of cross-border areas(GEOCrossBorder)".

  20. Are there trends towards drier hydrological conditions in Central America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, H. G.

    2013-12-01

    A summary of hydrological projections at the end of the century from 30 General Circulation Models (GCMs) is presented; and several hydrometeorological parameters are analyzed to validate if there are hydroclimatological trends during the observational period (1982-2005) consistent with the GCMs results. At the end of the century the median of 30 GCM simulations projects a drier future for Tegucigalpa and San Jose, with a marked increment in evapotranspiration in the first half of the rainy season along with reductions of soil moisture. With respect to the observations (1982-2005): 1) the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index showed negative trends in the North Pacific coast of Costa Rica, the border of Honduras and Nicaragua, and especially in southern Mexico (except the Yucatan Peninsula). Positive trends were found in the several parts of Central America, 2) the Palmer Drought Severity Index showed strong and consistent trends from Nicaragua to the North of Central America and southern Mexico (not including Yucatan), consistent with the direction of GCM projections; 3) negative precipitation trends in satellite data were found in Nicaragua, with strong trends in its Caribbean coast; 4) NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis precipitation showed strong negative trends in northern Central America, the Central Valley, the Dry Pacific of Costa Rica and the South-Pacific coast of Nicaragua, all consistent with the direction of GCM projections; and 5) station data showed no significant trends however, and 6) Reanalysis' temperature showed positive trends in southern Mexico (not including Yucatan) and negative trends in El Salvador. It can be concluded that several trends in drought indexes and precipitation are consistent with the future projected by the GCMs; that is, with some exceptions some of the trends were validated towards a drier future for the region, especially in the northern part.

  1. Central and South America GPS geodesy - CASA Uno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, James N.; Dixon, Timothy H.

    1990-01-01

    In January 1988, scientists from over 25 organizations in 13 countries and territories cooperated in the largest GPS campaign in the world to date. A total of 43 GPS receivers collected approximately 590 station-days of data in American Samoa, Australia, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Sweden, United States, West Germany, and Venezuela. The experiment was entitled CASA Uno. Scientific goals of the project include measurements of strain in the northern Andes, subduction rates for the Cocos and Nazca plates beneath Central and South America, and relative motion between the Caribbean plate and South America. A second set of measurements are planned in 1991 and should provide preliminary estimates of crustal deformation and plate motion rates in the region.

  2. Pathways to marriage and cohabitation in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Grace

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The notion that increasing prevalence of cohabitation relative to marriage, and increasing age at first marriage are part of a broader shift in societal norms -- a second demographic transition -- is now well supported by studies focused on US and European populations. Recent research points to the similarly high prevalence of cohabitation in Latin America as perhaps signaling the diffusion of modern ideals and norms about union formation. In Central America this is unlikely to be the case given the long history and enduring acceptance of cohabitation that is unrelated to modern ideals. While there are studies that have documented this history and current prevalence, there is no research examining the intersecting life course pathways from adolescence through early adulthood that lead to marriage or cohabitation. This is not surprising given that available data for Central American countries are not ideally suited to studying the process. Methods: We use retrospective questions from large, nationally representative Central American surveys (Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua to establish the timing of marriage or cohabitation and events that are closely tied to union formation. We utilize additive causespecific hazard models, and predicted transition probabilities based on selected covariate pathways, to study the competing risks of exiting from the status of never in union. Results: Our results identify sexual activity and pregnancy as the primary drivers of union formation and indicate that education serves as a protective factor against union formation. We also find distinct differences among countries and a strong indication that cohabitations are less stable unions.

  3. A Single Early Introduction of HIV-1 Subtype B into Central America Accounts for Most Current Cases

    OpenAIRE

    W. Murillo; Veras, N.; Prosperi, M; de Rivera, I L; Paz-Bailey, G.; Morales-Miranda, S.; Juarez, S. I.; Yang, C; Devos, J.; Marin, J. P.; Mild, M.; J. Albert; Salemi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants show considerable geographical separation across the world, but there is limited information from Central America. We provide the first detailed investigation of the genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in six Central American countries. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on 625 HIV-1 pol gene sequences collected between 2002 and 2010 in Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and Belize. Published sequences ...

  4. Geothermal corehole drilling and operations, Platanares, Honduras, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.; Rufenacht, H.D.; Laughlin, A.W.; Adams, A.; Planner, H.; Ramos, N.

    1987-01-01

    Two slim exploration coreholes to depths of 650 m and 428 m, respectively, have been completed at the Platanares geothermal site, Honduras, Central America. A third corehole is now being drilled. These boreholes have provided information on the stratigraphy, temperature variation with depth, nature and compositions of fluids, fracturing, permeability, and hydrothermal alterations associated with the geothermal reservoir. Eruptions of hot water occurred during the drilling of both the first and third boreholes. Recovery of >98% core has been obtained even under difficult superheated conditions.

  5. Violence, Rule of Law, and Punitive Policies in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica De la Torre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that high levels of violence and crime in the so called North Triangle of Central America (Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras, together with the incapacity of the state of enforcing the rule of law, are causing growing anxiety among the population and are attracting the support of the community to implement authoritarian measures to fight crime. The response of the governments of the region in the face of the rise of crime and public demand for security has been the policies of "iron fist", and the use of "populist punitiveness" as a strategy to gain the backing of an electorate deeply concerned by insecurity.

  6. Are civil wars to blame for crime in Central America?

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Sofia Cardenal Izquierdo

    2008-01-01

    The countries of Central America are high up on the list of nations with the highest crime rates in the world. According to the literature, the most common argument is that these high crimerates are a legacy of the armed conflicts of the 1980s. This article subjects this theory to an empirical examination. Even though the analysis is preliminary and limited, the results serve to question theexistence of such a link between war and crime. The data show that the areas most affected by war in E...

  7. Environmental impacts during geothermal development: Some examples from Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of geothermal development projects are usually positive. However, without appropriate monitoring plans and mitigation actions firmly incorporated into the project planning process, there exists the potential for significant negative environmental impacts. The authors present five examples from Central America of environmental impacts associated with geothermal development activities. These brief case studies describe landslide hazards, waste brine disposal, hydrothermal explosions, and air quality issues. Improved Environmental Impact Assessments are needed to assist the developing nations of the region to judiciously address the environmental consequences associated with geothermal development

  8. Exploration geothermal gradient drilling, Platanares, Honduras, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.J.; Laughlin, A.W.; Ruefenacht, H.D.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.; Ramos, N.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is a review and summary of the core drilling operations component of the Honduras Geothermal Resource Development Project at the Platanares geothermal prospect in Honduras, Central America. Three intermediate depth (428 to 679 m) coreholes are the first continuously cored geothermal exploration boreholes in Honduras. These coring operations are part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) effort funded by the Agency for International Development (AID) and implemented by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) in cooperation with the Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica (ENEE) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). This report emphasizes coring operations with reference to the stratigraphy, thermal gradient, and flow test data of the boreholes. The primary objectives of this coring effort were (1) to obtain quantitative information on the temperature distribution as a function of depth, (2) to recover fluids associated with the geothermal reservoir, (3) to recover 75% or better core from the subsurface rock units, and (4) to drill into the subsurface rock as deeply as possible in order to get information on potential reservoir rocks, fracture density, permeabilities, and alteration histories of the rock units beneath the site. The three exploration coreholes drilled to depths of 650, 428 and 679 m, respectively, encountered several hot water entries. Coring operations and associated testing began in mid-October 1986 and were completed at the end of June 1987.

  9. Evolution of the Earthquake Catalog in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, W.; Camacho, E. I.; Marroquín, G.; Molina, E.; Talavera, E.; Benito, M. B.; Lindholm, C.

    2013-05-01

    Central America (CA) is known as a seismically active region in which several historic destructive earthquakes have occurred. This fact has promoved the development of seismic hazard studies that provide necessary estimates for decision making and risk assessment efforts, requiring a complete and standardized seismic catalog. With this aim, several authors have contributed to the study of the historical seismicity of Central America (e.g. Grases, Feldaman; White y Harlow, 1993; White et al. 2004; Ambraseys y Adams, 2001; Peraldo y Montero, 1999), who complied historical data. A first catalogue was developed by Rojas (1993) that comprises the 1522 to 1993 period. This information was integrated in 2007, together with data from the International Seismological Centre (CASC) and the national catalogs of CA countries in a new regional catalogue. Since 2007 a continuous effort has been done in order to complete and update this CA earthquake catalog. In particular, two workshops were held in 2008 and 2011 in the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain), joining experts from the different CA countries who worked each one in its own catalogue covering the entire region and the border with northwestern Colombia and southern Mexico. These national catalogues were later integrated in a common regional catalogue in SEISAN format. At this aim it was necessary to solve some problems, like to avoid duplicity of events, specially close to the boundaries, to consider the different scales of magnitude adopted by different countries, to take into account the completeness by the different national networks, etc. Some solutions were adopted for obtaining a homogenized catalogue to Mw, containing historical and instrumental events with Mw > 3.5 from 1522 up to 2011. The catalogue updated to December 2007 was the basis for the first regional hazard study carried out by Benito et al., (2011) as part of the collaborative RESIS II project under coordination of NORSAR. The ones updated to

  10. Smart power and foreign policy of the People's Republic of China: the case of Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Villegas Mendoza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the most relevant aspects of the academic debate on smart power, in order to apply this concept to analyze the foreign policy of the Republic of China on Latin America and the Caribbean, but especially to Central America; where the dispute between China and Taiwan for international recognition is evident. It is argued that the smart power of China to Central America is expressed in the attractiveness of having privileged access to the Chinese market and its funding programs and official development assistance. While this country has a large presence in Latin America and the Caribbean, in Central America such influence is counteracted in the light of the close relationship that all Central American countries except Costa Rica, maintain with Taiwan. Based on the development of China as a world power, it is expected that this condition changed, so that this country would increase its influence in Central America.

  11. Are civil wars to blame for crime in Central America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Cardenal Izquierdo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The countries of Central America are high up on the list of nations with the highest crime rates in the world. According to the literature, the most common argument is that these high crimerates are a legacy of the armed conflicts of the 1980s. This article subjects this theory to an empirical examination. Even though the analysis is preliminary and limited, the results serve to question theexistence of such a link between war and crime. The data show that the areas most affected by war in El Salvador and Guatemala are not the ones that show the highest rates of crime. Furthermore, no direct relation exists between the presence of armed conflict and crime rates at a national level. The presence of armed conflict is neither a necessary factor nor a sufficient one for criminal violence. Onthe contrary, this work points to a close link between inequality and crime rates at a national level.

  12. [Mangrove characterization of Central America with remote sensors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizano, O G; Amador, J; Soto, R

    2001-12-01

    Satellite images were used to study the mangrove distribution patterns in two different climatic regions of Central America: Gulf of Fonseca in Honduras-El Salvador and Sierpe-Térraba in Costa Rica. The Gulf of Fonseca has higher temperature and solar radiation, and lower precipitation, which can explain the higher structural development and species mixing of the Sierpe-Térraba mangrove. In the latter the transition between species or between heights in the same species is clear. The automatic classification made by the Geographic Information System (IDRISI) fits well the field mangrove distribution, but it was necessary to regroup some subdivisions that represent the same land use as identified by transects and an aerial video. Mixed species and clouds produced less satisfactory results in Sierpe-Térraba indicating a need for better satellite image resolution. PMID:15264547

  13. Renewable energies. A challenge and an opportunity for Central America; Energias renovables. Un reto y una oportunidad para America Central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, Leo; Castro S, Rene [Instituto Centroamericano de Administracion de Empresas (INCAE) (Costa Rica)

    2007-07-15

    There are analyzed in this working paper the following aspects: the Central America countries and their relations with the regional energy potencies -Mexico and Venezuela- and the impact they have in the energy supply. There are also explore the following aspects: the San Jose Agreement linked to the fossil fuels supply, the emerging scope boosted by Brazil and Colombia regarding to the alternative fuels. [Spanish] Este trabajo analiza los paises centroamericanos y sus relaciones con las potencias energeticas regionales como Mexico y Venezuela, y como estas impactan el suministro de energia en la region. Tambien se exploran mecanismos como el Pacto de San Jose, ligado al suministro de combustibles fosiles y las oportunidades emergentes impulsadas por Brasil y Colombia con combustibles alternativos.

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25... § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be imported into the... section and all other applicable provisions of this subpart. (a) The papayas were grown and packed...

  15. Microsatellite data suggest significant population structure and differentiation within the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achee Nicole L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles darlingi is the most important malaria vector in the Neotropics. An understanding of A. darlingi's population structure and contemporary gene flow patterns is necessary if vector populations are to be successfully controlled. We assessed population genetic structure and levels of differentiation based on 1,376 samples from 31 localities throughout the Peruvian and Brazilian Amazon and Central America using 5–8 microsatellite loci. Results We found high levels of polymorphism for all of the Amazonian populations (mean RS = 7.62, mean HO = 0.742, and low levels for the Belize and Guatemalan populations (mean RS = 4.3, mean HO = 0.457. The Bayesian clustering analysis revealed five population clusters: northeastern Amazonian Brazil, southeastern and central Amazonian Brazil, western and central Amazonian Brazil, Peruvian Amazon, and the Central American populations. Within Central America there was low non-significant differentiation, except for between the populations separated by the Maya Mountains. Within Amazonia there was a moderate level of significant differentiation attributed to isolation by distance. Within Peru there was no significant population structure and low differentiation, and some evidence of a population expansion. The pairwise estimates of genetic differentiation between Central America and Amazonian populations were all very high and highly significant (FST = 0.1859 – 0.3901, P DA and FST distance-based trees illustrated the main division to be between Central America and Amazonia. Conclusion We detected a large amount of population structure in Amazonia, with three population clusters within Brazil and one including the Peru populations. The considerable differences in Ne among the populations may have contributed to the observed genetic differentiation. All of the data suggest that the primary division within A. darlingi corresponds to two white gene genotypes between Amazonia (genotype 1

  16. Recent crustal deformation in west-central South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Matthew Earl

    I use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) to create maps of crustal deformation along the coast and within the volcanic arc of central South America. I image deformation associated with six subduction zone earthquakes, four volcanic centers, at least one shallow crustal earthquake, and several salt flats. In addition, I constrain the magnitude and location of post-seismic deformation from the aforementioned subduction zone earthquakes. I combine InSAR observations with data from the Global Positioning System (GPS) and teleseismic data to explore each source of deformation. I use the observations to constrain earthquake and volcanic processes of this subduction zone, including the plumbing system of the volcanoes and the decadal along strike variations in the subduction zone earthquake cycle. I created interferograms of over 900 volcanoes in the central Andes spanning 1992--2002, and found four areas of deformation. I constrained the temporal variability of the deformation, the depth of the sources of deformation assuming a variety of source geometries and crustal structures, and the possible cause of the deformation. I do not observe deformation associated with eruptions at several volcanoes, and I discuss the possible explanations for this lack of deformation. In addition, I constrain the amount of co-seismic and post-seismic slip on the subduction zone fault interface from the following earthquakes: 1995 Mw 8.1 Antofagasta, Chile; 1996 Mw 7.7 Nazca, Peru; 1998 Mw 7.1 Antofagasta, Chile; and 2001 Mw 8.4 Arequipa, Peru. In northern Chile, I compare the location and magnitude of co-seismic slip from 5 Mw > 7 earthquakes during the past 15 years with the post-seismic slip distribution. There is little post-seismic slip from the 1995 and 1996 earthquakes relative to the 2001 event and other recent subduction zone earthquakes.

  17. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiman, W.D.

    1988-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987 showed significant increases in seismic acquisition in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru, and a decrease in Chile and Venezuela. Exploratory drilling increased in most major producing countries but was accompanied by a decline in development drilling. Most of the increase could be attributed to private companies fulfilling obligations under risk contracts; however, state oil companies in Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia showed significant increased activity, with only Mexico showing a decrease. Colombia again had a dramatic increase in production (29% from 1986). Noteworthy discoveries were made in Bolivia (Villamontes-1); Brazil, in the Solimoes basin (1-RUC-1-AM); Chile (Rio Honda-1); Colombia, in the Llanos basin (Austral-1, La Reforma-1, Libertad Norte-1, Cravo Este-1, and Cano Yarumal-1), in the Upper Magdalena basin (Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1); Ecuador (Frontera-1, a joint-exploration venture with Colombia); Mexico, in the Chiapas-Tabasco region (Guacho-1 and Iridi-1), in the Frontera Norte area (Huatempo-1); Peru, in the Madre de Dios basin (Armihuari-4X); Trinidad (West East Queen's Beach-1); and Venezuela (Musipan-1X). Brazil's upper Amazon (Solimoes basin) discovery, Colombia's Upper Magdalena basin discoveries Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1, Mexico's Chiapas-Tabasco discoveries, Peru's confirmation of the giant Cashiriari discovery of 1986, and Venezuela's success in Monagas state were the highlights of 1987. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Managing weather and climate risks to agriculture in North America, Central America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlan D. Shannon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, numerous weather- and climate-related natural disasters have impacted North America, Central America, and the Caribbean, repeatedly demonstrating how vulnerable local agriculture is to extreme episodic events. Given this recent history, and expectations that the frequency and intensity of some episodic events will increase with climate change, it is becoming increasingly important for farmers to proactively manage weather and climate risks to agriculture to protect their livelihoods. Some farmers in this region already apply various strategies to help reduce weather and climate risks and uncertainties, including farming in multiple locations, diversifying crops and varieties, seeking alternative sources of income, and purchasing crop insurance. Such efforts often help farmers maintain a more stable income while also protecting and preserving the productivity of the land. Other farmers, however, have failed to implement basic risk management strategies despite the clear benefits. Reasons for these failures can be attributed to inadequate farmer education and training, a lack of tools to help facilitate the practical application of risk management concepts, and poor communications between the agrometeorological and farming communities. The agrometeorological community can help overcome these obstacles by building upon existing efforts that have successfully educated farmers about weather and climate risks to agriculture and have equipped farmers with the data, tools, and applications necessary to manage these risks. Farmer input is critical to preparing effective educational and training materials and developing user-friendly risk management tools. The agrometeorological community should solicit input from farmers regularly to ensure that farmers are obtaining the information necessary to effectively manage weather and climate risks to agriculture.

  19. Geostrophic circulation between the Costa Rica Dome and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, C. L.; Lavín, M. F.; Mascarenhas, Affonso S.

    2008-05-01

    The geostrophic circulation between the Costa Rica Dome and Central America is described from CTD observations collected in two surveys: (a) The Wet Cruise in September-October 1993, and the Jet Cruise in February-March 1994. Poleward coastal flow was present on both occasions, but the transition from flow around the dome to the poleward Costa Rica Coastal Current flow was quite tortuous because of the presence of mesoscale eddies. In particular, a warm anticyclonic eddy was found off the Gulf of Fonseca during both cruises, at an almost identical position and with similar dimensions (150 m deep, 250 km in diameter) and surface speed (0.5 m s -1). In the Gulf of Panama, poleward flow was also observed, weaker in February-March 1994 than in September-October 1993, when it penetrated to 600 m depth and transported 8.5 Sv. In September-October 1993, the current between the dome and the coast was mostly ˜100 m deep and weak (˜0.15 m s -1), although in its southern side it was deeper (˜450 m) and faster at 0.3 m s -1. The poleward transport between the dome and the coast was ˜7 Sv. In February-March 1994 the Costa Rica Dome was a closed ring adjacent to the continental shelf, ˜500 km in diameter, at least 400 m deep, had geostrophic surface speeds ˜0.25 m s -1, and subsurface maximum speed (0.15-0.20 m s -1) at ˜180 m depth; the associated uplift of the isotherms was ˜150 m. The flow in the south part of the dome splits into two branches, the weakest one going around the dome and the strongest one continuing east and turning south before reaching the Gulf of Panama.

  20. Zika virus in the Americas: Early epidemiological and genetic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Souza, Renato; Cunha, Mariana Sequetin; Hill, Sarah C; Thézé, Julien; Bonsall, Michael B; Bowden, Thomas A; Rissanen, Ilona; Rocco, Iray Maria; Nogueira, Juliana Silva; Maeda, Adriana Yurika; Vasami, Fernanda Giseli da Silva; Macedo, Fernando Luiz de Lima; Suzuki, Akemi; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Cruz, Ana Cecilia Ribeiro; Nunes, Bruno Tardeli; Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Rodrigues, Daniela Sueli Guerreiro; Nunes Queiroz, Alice Louize; da Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto; Henriques, Daniele Freitas; Travassos da Rosa, Elisabeth Salbe; de Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Martins, Livia Caricio; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Casseb, Livia Medeiros Neves; Simith, Darlene de Brito; Messina, Jane P; Abade, Leandro; Lourenço, José; Carlos Junior Alcantara, Luiz; de Lima, Maricélia Maia; Giovanetti, Marta; Hay, Simon I; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Santos; Lemos, Poliana da Silva; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; Franco, Luciano; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Vianez-Júnior, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves; Mir, Daiana; Bello, Gonzalo; Delatorre, Edson; Khan, Kamran; Creatore, Marisa; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Tesh, Robert; Pybus, Oliver G; Nunes, Marcio R T; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2016-04-15

    Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015, and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. We performed next-generation sequencing to generate seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes sampled from four self-limited cases, one blood donor, one fatal adult case, and one newborn with microcephaly and congenital malformations. Results of phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show a single introduction of ZIKV into the Americas, which we estimated to have occurred between May and December 2013, more than 12 months before the detection of ZIKV in Brazil. The estimated date of origin coincides with an increase in air passengers to Brazil from ZIKV-endemic areas, as well as with reported outbreaks in the Pacific Islands. ZIKV genomes from Brazil are phylogenetically interspersed with those from other South American and Caribbean countries. Mapping mutations onto existing structural models revealed the context of viral amino acid changes present in the outbreak lineage; however, no shared amino acid changes were found among the three currently available virus genomes from microcephaly cases. Municipality-level incidence data indicate that reports of suspected microcephaly in Brazil best correlate with ZIKV incidence around week 17 of pregnancy, although this correlation does not demonstrate causation. Our genetic description and analysis of ZIKV isolates in Brazil provide a baseline for future studies of the evolution and molecular epidemiology of this emerging virus in the Americas.

  1. Seismic swarms and fluid flow offshore Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierma, Yvonne; Thorwart, Martin; Hensen, Christian; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Wolf, Florian

    2010-05-01

    Offshore Nicaragua and Northern Costa Rica, the Cocos Plate subducts beneath the Caribbean Plate, carrying with it a large amount of fluids and volatiles. While some of these are set free at great depth beneath the volcanic arc, causing the extremely high water content observed in Nicaraguan mafic magmas (Carr et al., 2003; Kutterolf et al., 2007), some early dehydration reactions already release fluids from the subducting plate underneath the continental slope. Unlike in accretionary margins, where these fluids migrate up along the decollement towards the deformation front, fluid release at erosional margins seems to occur through fractures in the overriding plate (Ranero et al., 2008). Fluid seeps in this region have be observed at seafloor mounds, appearing as side-scan sonar backscatter anomalies or revealed by the presence of chemosynthetic communities (Sahling et al., 2008). In the framework of the General Research Area SFB 574 "Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones", a network of 20 ocean-bottom-stations was deployed offshore Sta Elena Peninsula, Northern Costa Rica, from December 2005 to June 2006. Several distinct swarms of small earthquakes were observed at the seismic stations, which occurred clustered over a time period of several days and have very similar seismic waveforms. Since a correlation of fluid-release sites with the occurrence of sporadic seismic swarms would indicate that fluid migration and fracturing is the mechanism responsible for triggering the earthquake swarms, the events are re-analysed by double-difference localisation to enhance the resolution of the earthquake locations. The results are then considered to estimate the migration velocity and direction and compare the localisations with the known mound sites. Carr, M., Feigenson, M. D., Patino, L. C., and Walker, J. A., 2003: Volcanism and geochemistry in Central America: Progress and problems, in Eiler, J. (ed.), Inside the subduction factory, pp. 153-179, American Geophysical

  2. Scorpionism in Central America, with special reference to the case of Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, A.; RJ Miranda; JM Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Scorpionism in the Americas occurs mainly in Mexico, northern South America and southeast Brazil. This article reviews the local scorpion fauna, available health statistics, and the literature to assess scorpionism in Central America. Notwithstanding its high toxicity in Mexico, most scorpion sting cases in Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica are produced by species in the genus Centruroides that are only mildly toxic to humans despite the existence of ion channel-active...

  3. Patterns of illness in travelers visiting Mexico and Central America: the GeoSentinel experience

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Figueroa, J; Okhuysen, P C; von Sonnenburg, F.; DuPont, H L; Libman, M D; Keystone, J S; Hale, D C; Burchard, G; Han, P V; Wilder-Smith, A.; Freedman, D O

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mexico and Central America are important travel destinations for North American and European travelers. There is limited information on regional differences in travel related morbidity. METHODS: We describe the morbidity among 4779 ill travelers returned from Mexico and Central America who were evaluated at GeoSentinel network clinics during December 1996 to February 2010. RESULTS: The most frequent presenting syndromes included acute and chronic diarrhea, dermat...

  4. Dealing with the coffee crisis in Central America - impacts and strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Varangis, Panos; Siegel, Paul; Giovannucci, Daniele; Lewin, Bryan

    2003-01-01

    Current coffee prices are at record lows and below the cost of production for many producers in Central America. Moreover, the coffee crisis is structural, and changes in supply and demand do not indicate a quick recovery of prices. So, coffee producers in Central America are facing new challenges-as are coffee laborers, coffee exporters, and others linked to the coffee sector. Coffee plays a major economic role in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. The coffee crisis...

  5. Dealing with the Coffee Crisis in Central America : Impacts and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Varangis, Panos; Siegel, Paul; Giovannucci, Daniele; Lewin, Bryan

    2003-01-01

    Current coffee prices are at record lows and below the cost of production for many producers in Central America. Moreover, the coffee crisis is structural, and changes in supply and demand do not indicate a quick recovery of prices. So, coffee producers in Central America are facing new challenges-as are coffee laborers, coffee exporters, and others linked to the coffee sector. Coffee play...

  6. Remittances as a Development Tool in Central America: Empowering Microfinance

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2003-01-01

    Presents the interest of the Multilateral Investment Fund (MIF) of the Inter-American Development Bank, to increase the impact of remittances on developing countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, through the promotion of innovative projects and dissemination more comprehensive information on this market in the region.

  7. Reconstructing the timing and dispersion routes of HIV-1 subtype B epidemics in the Caribbean and Central America: a phylogenetic story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, Israel; Holguín, Africa

    2013-01-01

    The Caribbean and Central America are among the regions with highest HIV-1B prevalence worldwide. Despite of this high virus burden, little is known about the timing and the migration patterns of HIV-1B in these regions. Migration is one of the major processes shaping the genetic structure of virus populations. Thus, reconstruction of epidemiological network may contribute to understand HIV-1B evolution and reduce virus prevalence. We have investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of the HIV-1B epidemic in The Caribbean and Central America using 1,610 HIV-1B partial pol sequences from 13 Caribbean and 5 Central American countries. Timing of HIV-1B introduction and virus evolutionary rates, as well as the spatial genetic structure of the HIV-1B populations and the virus migration patterns were inferred. Results revealed that in The Caribbean and Central America most of the HIV-1B variability was generated since the 80 s. At odds with previous data suggesting that Haiti was the origin of the epidemic in The Caribbean, our reconstruction indicated that the virus could have been disseminated from Puerto Rico and Antigua. These two countries connected two distinguishable migration areas corresponding to the (mainly Spanish-colonized) Easter and (mainly British-colonized) Western islands, which indicates that virus migration patterns are determined by geographical barriers and by the movement of human populations among culturally related countries. Similar factors shaped the migration of HIV-1B in Central America. The HIV-1B population was significantly structured according to the country of origin, and the genetic diversity in each country was associated with the virus prevalence in both regions, which suggests that virus populations evolve mainly through genetic drift. Thus, our work contributes to the understanding of HIV-1B evolution and dispersion pattern in the Americas, and its relationship with the geography of the area and the movements of human populations.

  8. Reconstructing the timing and dispersion routes of HIV-1 subtype B epidemics in the Caribbean and Central America: a phylogenetic story.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Pagán

    Full Text Available The Caribbean and Central America are among the regions with highest HIV-1B prevalence worldwide. Despite of this high virus burden, little is known about the timing and the migration patterns of HIV-1B in these regions. Migration is one of the major processes shaping the genetic structure of virus populations. Thus, reconstruction of epidemiological network may contribute to understand HIV-1B evolution and reduce virus prevalence. We have investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of the HIV-1B epidemic in The Caribbean and Central America using 1,610 HIV-1B partial pol sequences from 13 Caribbean and 5 Central American countries. Timing of HIV-1B introduction and virus evolutionary rates, as well as the spatial genetic structure of the HIV-1B populations and the virus migration patterns were inferred. Results revealed that in The Caribbean and Central America most of the HIV-1B variability was generated since the 80 s. At odds with previous data suggesting that Haiti was the origin of the epidemic in The Caribbean, our reconstruction indicated that the virus could have been disseminated from Puerto Rico and Antigua. These two countries connected two distinguishable migration areas corresponding to the (mainly Spanish-colonized Easter and (mainly British-colonized Western islands, which indicates that virus migration patterns are determined by geographical barriers and by the movement of human populations among culturally related countries. Similar factors shaped the migration of HIV-1B in Central America. The HIV-1B population was significantly structured according to the country of origin, and the genetic diversity in each country was associated with the virus prevalence in both regions, which suggests that virus populations evolve mainly through genetic drift. Thus, our work contributes to the understanding of HIV-1B evolution and dispersion pattern in the Americas, and its relationship with the geography of the area and the movements of

  9. Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2011-03-01

    The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

  10. Neurocysticercosos in South-Central America and the Indian Subcontinent: a comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Singh

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is an important public health problem in South-Central America and South Asia. A review of the differences in epidemiological and clinical attributes of cysticercosis and taeniasis in South Central America and India, respectively, is undertaken in the present communication. Intestinal taeniasis is hyperendemic in several American countries. In comparison, the prevalence of Taenia solium infestation is lower in India. The clinical manifestations in several American neurocysticercosis series comprise epilepsy, intracranial hypertension and meningeal - racemose cysticercosis, in roughly equal proportions. An overwhelming majority of the Indian subjects present with seizures. The commonest pathological substrate of the disorder in Indian patients is the solitary parenchymal degenerating cyst. The reasons for the predominance of solitary forms in India, and of multilesional forms in South Central America are discussed. The magnitude of Taenia solium infestation and the frequency of pork consumption in a given population appear to influence the quantum of cyst load in affected individuals.

  11. Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Carina; Koethe, John R; Giganti, Mark J; Rebeiro, Peter; Althoff, Keri N; Napravnik, Sonia; Mayor, Angel; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Padgett, Denis; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Sterling, Timothy R; Willig, James; Levison, Julie; Kitahata, Mari; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine; Shepherd, Bryan E; Cahn, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART) services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods HIV-positive adults initiating ART at Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV (CCASAnet) sites were compared to Latino patients (based on country of origin or ethnic identity) starting treatment at North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) sites in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models compared mortality, treatment interruption, antiretroviral regimen change, virologic failure and loss to follow-up between cohorts. Results The study included 8400 CCASAnet and 2786 NA-ACCORD patients initiating ART. CCASAnet patients were younger (median 35 vs. 37 years), more likely to be female (27% vs. 20%) and had lower nadir CD4 count (median 148 vs. 195 cells/µL, p<0.001 for all). In multivariable analyses, CCASAnet patients had a higher risk of mortality after ART initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 to 1.96), particularly during the first year, but a lower hazard of treatment interruption (AHR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.50), change to second-line ART (AHR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.62) and virologic failure (AHR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.57). Conclusions HIV-positive Latinos initiating ART in Latin America have greater continuity of treatment but are at higher risk of death than Latinos in North America. Factors underlying these differences, such as HIV testing, linkage and access to care, warrant further investigation. PMID:26996992

  12. Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Cesar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods: HIV-positive adults initiating ART at Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV (CCASAnet sites were compared to Latino patients (based on country of origin or ethnic identity starting treatment at North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD sites in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models compared mortality, treatment interruption, antiretroviral regimen change, virologic failure and loss to follow-up between cohorts. Results: The study included 8400 CCASAnet and 2786 NA-ACCORD patients initiating ART. CCASAnet patients were younger (median 35 vs. 37 years, more likely to be female (27% vs. 20% and had lower nadir CD4 count (median 148 vs. 195 cells/µL, p<0.001 for all. In multivariable analyses, CCASAnet patients had a higher risk of mortality after ART initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.32 to 1.96, particularly during the first year, but a lower hazard of treatment interruption (AHR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.50, change to second-line ART (AHR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.62 and virologic failure (AHR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.57. Conclusions: HIV-positive Latinos initiating ART in Latin America have greater continuity of treatment but are at higher risk of death than Latinos in North America. Factors underlying these differences, such as HIV testing, linkage and access to care, warrant further investigation.

  13. Development of Renewable Energies in the liberation of the energy market in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the diagnostic of the current situation on renewable energy in Central America, including socio-economical situation, with economical index, supply and demand of energy and planning of wind resources. The experience of Europe in the promotion for the market of renewable energy, discussing the policies and cooperation between private sector and the government is included. A list of potential projects of renewable energy in each country of Central America based on biomass, hydro power, wind and other energy sources for power generation is presented

  14. Genetics Home Reference: central core disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abnormalities such as abnormal curvature of the spine ( scoliosis ), hip dislocation, and joint deformities called contractures that ... health conditions: Diagnostic Tests Drug Therapy Surgery and Rehabilitation Genetic Counseling Palliative Care Related Information How are ...

  15. Scholastic Achievement of Adolescent Refugees from Cambodia and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Cecile; Drapeau, Aline

    2000-01-01

    Central American and Cambodian students in six Canadian high schools and their parents were interviewed to assess the students' emotional problems and pre- and postmigration family environment. Findings indicate that the relationship between the emotional problems and scholastic achievement of teenaged refugees was tenuous. (Author/MKA)

  16. Improving the Monetary Policy Frameworks in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Medina Cas; Alejandro Carrion-Menendez; Florencia Frantischek

    2011-01-01

    Several Central American (CADR) countries with independent monetary policies are strengthening their monetary frameworks and some have implemented or are moving towards inflation targeting (IT) regimes. Strengthening the monetary policy frameworks of CADR is key to improving the effectiveness of monetary policy. The paper reviews the literature on the reforms needed for strengthening the monetary policy frameworks, and examines the experiences of IT countries, Chile, Peru, and Uruguay to help...

  17. Health System Innovations in Central America : Lessons and Impact of New Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Health Systems Innovations in Central America reports on how these experiences fared -- a hospital in Panama, a nutrition program in Honduras, primary care extension in Guatemala, a subset of hospitals and primary care units in Costa Rica and a social security-managed health care program in Nicaragua. The studies report on the performance of the innovations, the policy environment in which...

  18. Book review: Vetter, H. 2005. Terralog. Turtles of the World. Vol. 3. Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Book review: Vetter, H. 2005. Terralog. Turtles of the World. Vol. 3. Central and South America/Schildkröten der Welt Band 3. Mittel- und Südamerika: 1-128, color pictures 606 + 9. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, Germany.ISBN 3-930612-82-8; 29.7 x 20.8 cm

  19. Planting the Seeds of a New Agriculture: Living with the Land in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriance, Jim

    1995-01-01

    Central America's macroeconomics, land tenure patterns, and population growth are forcing small-scale farmers to alternatives based on farmer-to-farmer teaching and farming in concert with the environment. Discusses major schools of thought that have fueled this phenomenon, and how extension services and isolated groups are joining to form a…

  20. 77 FR 51828 - Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Extension of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... of the Secretary Dominican Republic--Central America--United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of... Republic--Central America--United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR). On December 22, 2011, OTLA... International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. The Office of Trade and Labor...

  1. Molecular characterization of adenovirus circulating in Central and South America during the 2006–2008 period

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Josefina; Sovero, Merly; Laguna‐Torres, Victor Alberto; Gomez, Jorge; Chicaiza, Wilson; Barrantes, Melvin; Sanchez, Felix; Jimenez, Mirna; Comach, Guillermo; De Rivera, Ivette L.; Agudo, Roberto; Arango, Ana E.; Barboza, Alma; Aguayo, Nicolas; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2009-01-01

    Background  Human Adenoviruses are recognized pathogens, causing a broad spectrum of diseases. Serotype identification is critical for epidemiological surveillance, detection of new strains and understanding of HAdvs pathogenesis. Little data is available about HAdvs subtypes in Latin America. Methods  In this study, we have molecularly characterized 213 adenoviruses collected from ILI presenting patients, during 2006‐08, in Central and South America. Results  Our results indicate that 161(76%) adenoviruses belong to subgroup C, 45 (21%) to subgroup B and 7 (3%) to subtype E4. PMID:19903214

  2. Hydrogeochemical investigation of six geothermal sites in Honduras, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.E.; Truesdell, A.H.; Grigsby, C.O.; Janik, C.J.; Shevenell, L.A.; Paredes, J.R.; Gutierrez, J.W.; Trujillo, Jr.; Counce, D.A.

    1987-06-01

    We conducted detailed hydrogeochemical investigations at six geothermal sites in western Honduras: Azacualpa, El Olivar, Pavana, Platanares, Sambo Creek, and San Ignacio. None of the sites is associated with Quaternary silicic volcanism, although El Olivar lies adjacent to a small Quaternary basalt field and Pavana is part of a belt of hot spring activity parallel to and 35 km east of the Central American volcanic arc. None of the sites contains acid-sulfate waters indicative of vapor-dominated conditions. Thermal fluids are characterized by pH between 7 and 10, Cl<125 mg/l, HCO/sub 3/>Cl, SO/sub 4/greater than or equal toCl, Bless than or equal to17 mg/l, Liless than or equal to4 mg/l, and Asless than or equal to1.25 mg/l. Stable isotope analyses of the water show that recharge to the geothermal systems generally occurs from areas of higher elevation adjacent to the sites. Tritium contents of apparently undiluted thermal fluids range from 0 to 0.4 T.U., indicating residence times of fluids in the systems of more than 500 y. Various geochemical indicators show that mixing of hot and cold end-member fluids occurs in the system at Platanares and, to a lesser degree, in the systems at San Ignacio and Azacualpa. No mixing is apparent in the fluids discharging at Pavana, Sambo Creek, or El Olivar. Boiling is the dominant process responsible for subtle geochemical variations at Azacualpa and, possibly, San Ignacio. Our best estimates of subsurface reservoir temperatures are 225/sup 0/C at Platanares, 190/sup 0/C at San Ignacio, 185/sup 0/C at Azacualpa, 155/sup 0/C at Sambo Creek, 150/sup 0/C at Pavana, and 120/sup 0/C at El Olivar. The estimated power output of the three hottest sites is 45 thermal megawatts at Platanares, 14 thermal megawatts at San Ignacio, and 13 thermal megawatts at Azacualpa.

  3. A five-century sedimentary geochronology of biomass burning in Nicaragua and Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the extensive use of fire as an agricultural agent in Central America today, little is known of its history of biomass burning or agriculture. As an indicator of the burning practices on the adjacent land, a sedimentary record of carbonized particles sheds light on the trends in frequency and areal extent of biomass burning. This research focuses on a sediment core recovered from an anoxic site in the Pacific Ocean adjacent to the Central American Isthmus and reports a five-century record of charcoal deposition. The research illustrates that biomass burning has been an important ecological factor in the Pacific watershed of Central America at least during the past five centuries. Fluxes of charcoal have generally decreased toward the present suggesting a reduction in the charcoal source function. Perhaps, five centuries ago, the frequency of biomass burning was greater than it is today, larger areas were burned, or biomass per unit area of burned grassland was greater. The major type of biomass burned throughout this five-century period has been grass, as opposed to woods, indicating that any major deforestation of the Pacific watershed of Central America occurred prior to the Conquest

  4. Mapping agricultural landscapes and characterizing adaptive capacity in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, M. B.; Imbach, P. A.; Bouroncle, C.; Donatti, C.; Leguia, E.; Martinez, M.; Medellin, C.; Saborio-Rodriguez, M.; Shamer, S.; Zamora, J.

    2013-12-01

    One of the key challenges in developing adaptation strategies for smallholder farmers in developing countries is that of a data-poor environment, where spatially-explicit information about where the most vulnerable smallholder communities are located is lacking. Developing countries tend to lack consistent and reliable maps on agricultural land use, and have limited information available on smallholder adaptive capacity. We developed a novel participatory and expert mapping process to overcome these barriers and develop detailed national-scale maps that allow for a characterization of unique agricultural landscapes based on profiles of adaptive capacity for smallholder agriculture in each area. This research focuses specifically on the Central American nations of Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Honduras, where our focus is on coffee and basic grains as the two main cropping systems. Here we present the methodology and results of a series of in-depth interviews and participatory mapping sessions with experts working within the broader agricultural sector in each country. We held individual interviews and mapping sessions with approximately thirty experts from each country, and used a detailed survey instrument for each mapping session to both spatially identify distinct agricultural landscapes, and to further characterize each area based on specific farm practices and social context. The survey also included a series of questions to help us assess the relative adaptive capacity of smallholder agriculture within each landscape. After all expert mapping sessions were completed in each country we convened an expert group to assist in both validating and refining the set of landscapes already defined. We developed a characterization of adaptive capacity by aggregating indicators into main assets-based criteria (e.g. land tenure, access to credit, access to technical assistance, sustainable farm practices) derived from further expert weighting of indicators through an online

  5. The implications of trade liberalization for diet and health: a case study from Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Corinna

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central America has undergone extensive trade liberalization over the past two decades, and has recently signed a Free Trade Agreement with the United States. The region is also experiencing a dual burden of malnutrition with the growth of dietary patterns associated with the global 'nutrition transition'. This study describes the relationship between trade liberalization policies and food imports and availability, and draws implications for diet and health, using Central America as a case study region. Methods Changes in tariff and non-tariff barriers for each country were documented, and compared with time-series graphs of import, production and availability data to show the outcome of changes in trade policy in relation to food imports and food availability. Results Changes in trade policy in Central America have directly affected food imports and availability via three avenues. First, the lowering of trade barriers has promoted availability by facilitating higher imports of a wide range of foods. Second, trade liberalization has affected food availability through promoting domestic meat production. Third, reductions in barriers to investment appear to be critical in expansion of processed food markets. This suggests that changes in trade policies have facilitated rising availability and consumption of meat, dairy products, processed foods and temperate (imported fruits in Central America. Conclusion This study indicates that the policies of trade liberalization in Central American countries over the past two decades, particularly in relation to the United States, have implications for health in the region. Specifically, they have been a factor in facilitating the "nutrition transition", which is associated with rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Given the significant cost of chronic disease for the health care system, individuals and the wider community, it is critical

  6. A rapid diversification of rainforest trees (Guatteria; Annonaceae) following dispersal from Central into South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, Roy H J; Chatrou, Lars W; Maas, Jan W; van der Niet, Timotheüs; Savolainen, Vincent

    2007-07-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that a substantial portion of today's plant diversity in the Neotropics has resulted from the dispersal of taxa into that region rather than vicariance, but more data are needed to substantiate this claim. Guatteria (Annonaceae) is, with 265 species, the third largest genus of Neotropical trees after Inga (Fabaceae) and Ocotea (Lauraceae), and its widespread distribution and frequent occurrence makes the genus an excellent model taxon to study diversification patterns. This study reconstructed the phylogeny of Guatteria and inferred three major biogeographical events in the history of the genus: (1) a trans-oceanic Miocene migration from Central into South America before the closing of the Isthmus of Panama; (2) a major diversification of the lineage within South America; and (3) several migrations of South American lineages back into Central America via the closed Panamanian land bridge. Therefore, Guatteria is not an Amazonian centred-genus sensu Gentry but a major Miocene diversification that followed its dispersal into South America. This study provides further evidence that migration into the Neotropics was an important factor in the historical assembly of its biodiversity. Furthermore, it is shown that phylogenetic patterns are comparable to those found in Ocotea and Inga and that a closer comparison of these genera is desirable.

  7. Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South America

    OpenAIRE

    Carina Cesar; Koethe, John R; Mark J Giganti; Peter Rebeiro; Althoff, Keri N; Sonia Napravnik; Angel Mayor; Beatriz Grinsztejn; Marcelo Wolff; Denis Padgett; Juan Sierra-Madero; Eduardo Gotuzzo; Sterling, Timothy R; James Willig; Julie Levison

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART) services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods: HIV-positive adult...

  8. Asymmetric forest transition driven by the interaction of socioeconomic development and environmental heterogeneity in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Redo, Daniel J.; Grau, H. Ricardo; Aide, T. Mitchell; Matthew L. Clark

    2012-01-01

    Forest transitions (FT) have been observed in many developed countries and more recently in the developing world. However, our knowledge of FT from tropical regions is mostly derived from case studies from within a particular country, making it difficult to generalize findings across larger regions. Here we overcome these difficulties by conducting a recent (2001–2010) satellite-based analysis of trends in forest cover across Central America, stratified by biomes, which we related to socioeco...

  9. Street Gangs in Central America: Combating them with Intelligence Fusion Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Bruneau, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Street gangs – pandillas in Spanish – are a major security challenge in the three Northern Triangle countries of Central America – El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras.[1] They are also considered a threat in many US cities, with particular focus on the Mara Salvatrucha, MS-13. Domestic party politics in the three countries have resulted in the reliance of heavy hand (mano dura) responses to the gangs, which have mainly served to exacerbate the problem. The anomalous situation of ...

  10. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Í. Aniel-Quiroga; O. Q. Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez; J. Larreynaga; González, M.; M. Castro; F. Gavidia; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; P. González-Riancho; Carreño, E

    2013-01-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has approximately a length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there have been 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and hundreds of victims. The hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached from both Probabilistic and D...

  11. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models.

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; O. Q. Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez; J. Larreynaga; González, M.; M. Castro; F. Gavidia; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; P. González-Riancho; Carreño, E

    2013-01-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and determinis...

  12. Cetaceans and gillnet fisheries in Mexico, Central America and the Wider Caribbean: a preliminary review

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, O.; Van Waerebeek, K.; Findley, L.T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews published and unpublished information on the mortality of cetaceans in gillnets in Mexico, Central America and the wider Caribbean. Data on this incidental mortality are provided from only nine of the 36 nations in the area (Colombia, the Dominican Republic. French Guiana, Honduras, Mexico. Panama, Surinam, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela); the lack of mortality records from the other countries reflects poor or non-existent documentation. We surveyed those types of passi...

  13. A dynamic landslide hazard assessment system for Central America and Hispaniola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Kirschbaum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Landslides pose a serious threat to life and property in Central America and the Caribbean Islands. In order to allow regionally coordinated situational awareness and disaster response, an online decision support system was created. At its core is a new flexible framework for evaluating potential landslide activity in near real-time: Landslide Hazard Assessment for Situational Awareness. This framework was implemented in Central America and the Caribbean by integrating a regional susceptibility map and satellite-based rainfall estimates into a binary decision tree, considering both daily and antecedent rainfall. Using a regionally distributed, percentile-based threshold approach, the model outputs a pixel-by-pixel nowcast in near real-time at a resolution of 30 arcsec to identify areas of moderate and high landslide hazard. The daily and antecedent rainfall thresholds in the model are calibrated using a subset of the Global Landslide Catalog in Central America available for 2007–2013. The model was then evaluated with data for 2014. Results suggest reasonable model skill over Central America and poorer performance over Hispaniola, due primarily to the limited availability of calibration and validation data. The landslide model framework presented here demonstrates the capability to utilize globally available satellite products for regional landslide hazard assessment. It also provides a flexible framework to interchange the indiviual model components and adjust or calibrate thresholds based on access to new data and calibration sources. The availability of free, satellite-based near real-time rainfall data allows the creation of similar models for any study area with a spatiotemporal record of landslide events. This method may also incorporate other hydrological or atmospheric variables such as numerical weather forecasts or satellite-based soil moisture estimates within this decision tree approach for improved hazard analysis.

  14. Neoliberal Forms of Capital and The Rise of Social Movement Partyism in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Historical shifts in global economic formations shape the strategies of resistance movements in the global South. Neoliberal forms of economic development over the past thirty years in Central America have weakened traditional actors sponsoring popular mobilization such as labor unions and rural cooperatives. At the same time, the free market reforms produced new threats to economic livelihood and well-being throughout the region. The neoliberal measures that have generated the greatest level...

  15. Modeling the Agroecological Land Suitability for Coffea arabica L. in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Leonel; Rasche, Livia; Schneider, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Coffee production is an important income source for small farms in Central America, but climate change threatens the production. In order to develop efficient adaptation strategies, an assessment of local conditions and opportunities is essential. Lack or uncertainty of information are common challenges for such assessments. A tool to resolve these challenges is Bayesian network analysis. In this study, we developed ALECA, the first Bayesian network model to evaluate the agroecological land suitability for Coffea arabica L. A new set of suitability functions was created and subsequently used to populate the conditional probability tables of the variables. The variables include temperature, precipitation and dry season length for the climate, slope and aspect for the landform, and soil pH, cation exchange capacity and texture for the soil component. We validated ALECA by comparing a map of current coffee areas, and specific coffee areas with known suitability for coffee production in Central America to the suitability evaluations of the model; and proceeded to explore 1) the capabilities of the model to manage data uncertainty, and 2) the changes to suitability scores under climate change. The results showed that the area suitable for coffee production will decline in Central America under climate change, underlining the need for models like ALECA, which can be used to produce reliable land evaluations at local, national and regional scales under uncertainty.

  16. Parvitermes (Isoptera, Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae) in Central America: Two new termite species and reassignment of Nasutitermes mexicanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffrahn, Rudolf H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The termite genus Parvitermes is now recognized on the Central American mainland to include Parvitermes mexicanus, new combination (previously in Nasutitermes) and two new species, Parvitermes mesoamericanus sp. n. and Parvitermes yucatanus sp. n., herein described from soldiers and workers. These three species, nine West Indian Parvitermes, and Antillitermes subtilis all share characteristic enteric valve spines that orientate against intestinal flow. All species are subterranean nesters and cellulose feeders. Evidence is mounting that generic-level endemicity may be completely absent among the West Indian nasutitermitine fauna and that its origins stem from Central America. PMID:27667954

  17. Making central-local relations work:Comparing America and China environmental governance systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan GUTTMAN; SONG Yaqin

    2007-01-01

    The challenge of making central requirements work at local levels is a common problem for environmental governance throughout the world.Countries can learn from one another's approaches,but must understand the local con text in which they are set.This paper compares the features of the China and US environmental governance systems that need be understood by those working between the systems.Key features include:(1) common values which shape the environmental governance choices in both countries,but which may have different practical meanings in each country;(2) America's common law-based environmental governance system,and China's civil law system,which involves plan(s)as well as law;(3) America's Federal central-local system,and China's unitary central local system.This paper concludes by suggesting areas in which further comparative understanding may be of value,including:(1) better under standing of the role of plan and law in China's governance system;(2) comparing the American Federal-state agreement system for implementation of environmental law with the China central-local system of target responsibility agreements for plan implementation;(3) improving understanding of nongovernmental resources needed to assure compliance with environmental laws and plans;(4) identifying institutions that can coordinate central-local and cross-border environmental governance.

  18. Genetic characterization of Chikungunya virus in the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desdouits, Marion; Kamgang, Basile; Berthet, Nicolas; Tricou, Vianney; Ngoagouni, Carine; Gessain, Antoine; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2015-07-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by the bite of mosquito vectors. Over the past 10 years, the virus has gained mutations that enhance its transmissibility by the Aedes albopictus vector, resulting in massive outbreaks in the Indian Ocean, Asia and Central Africa. Recent introduction of competent A. albopictus vectors into the Central African Republic (CAR) pose a threat of a Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) epidemic in this region. We undertook this study to assess the genetic diversity and background of CHIKV strains isolated in the CAR between 1975 and 1984 and also to estimate the ability of local strains to adapt to A. albopictus. Our results suggest that, local CHIKV strains have a genetic background compatible with quick adaptation to A. albopictus, as previously observed in other Central African countries. Intense surveillance of the human and vector populations is necessary to prevent or anticipate the emergence of a massive CHIKF epidemic in the CAR.

  19. Prevalence, Distributions and Determinants of Obesity and Central Obesity in the Southern Cone of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzano, Lydia; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Calandrelli, Matias; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Elorriaga, Natalia; Gutierrez, Laura; Manfredi, Jose A.; Seron, Pamela; Mores, Nora; Poggio, Rosana; Ponzo, Jacqueline; Olivera, Hector; He, Jiang; Irazola, Vilma E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major determinant of cardiovascular disease in South America. However, population-based data are limited. Methods A total of 7,524 women and men, aged 35 to 74 years old, were randomly selected from 4 cities in the Southern Cone of Latin America between February 2010 and December 2011. Obesity clinical measurements and cardiovascular risk factors were measured using standard methodology. Results The prevalence of obesity and central obesity were 35.7% and 52.9%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity and central obesity were higher in women, and even higher in women with lower education compared with women with higher education. In men and women obesity was associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes, odds ratio (OR) 2.38 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.86 to 3.05) and 3.01 (95%CI 2.42 to 3.74) respectively, hypertension (OR 2.79 (95%CI 2.32 to 3.36) and 2.40 (95%CI 2.05 to 2.80) respectively, dyslipidemia (OR 1.83 (95%CI 1.50 to 2.24) and 1.69 (95%CI 1.45 to 1.98), respectively, low physical activity (OR 1.38(95%CI 1.14 to 1.68) and 1.38 (95%CI 1.18 to 1.62) respectively and a lower prevalence of smoking (OR, 0.65 (95%CI 0.53 to 0.80) and 0.58(95%CI 0.48 to 0.70) respectively. Conclusions Obesity and central obesity are highly prevalent in the general population in the Southern Cone of Latin America and are strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factor prevalence. These data suggest that efforts toward prevention, treatment, and control of obesity should be a public health priority in the Southern Cone of Latin America. PMID:27741247

  20. Spanish Cooperation with Central America: Political will or Transfer of Resources?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Àngels Miralpeix i Güell

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available The economies of the six states of Central America do not form a homogeneous block although they share the common denominators of underdevelopment and dependence. The great dependence of Central American economies on only a few export products whose value has been drastically reduced in international markets was one of the fundamental causes of the economic crisis. The reactivation of the subregional economy largely depends on the opening up of foreign markets, the availability of modern technology, debt renegotiation and the fostering of direct investments.Spanish foreign policy towards Central America has been characterized by a clear political committment to the peace process which set it on the long road towards the end of the so-called Central American crisis. But we can show that the Spanish Policy for Development and Cooperation towards the isthmus has not always been translated into the transfer of resources. The present study which has, as its objective, the analysis of this policy, is based on the study of the PACI-Report (1990-1992 and on the PACIPrevisions (1987-1989 and 1993-1994 given the non-availability of its documented achievements in these years. In order that the political committments taken on by Spain are translated into the assuming of economic responsibilites, it is inevitable that the cooperation be largely technical, based on projects designed in connection with the governments of the isthmus as well as with regional institutions.Political peace will be impossible to reach if the grave economic and social problems are not solved and if the process of democratization and modernization of the State is not consolidated. All these challenges cannot be confronted without intense external support such as that given during the political crisis; regional integration both political (strengthening the Central American Parlament and economic (reactivation of the Central American Common Market offers a clear opportunity for

  1. Scorpionism in Central America, with special reference to the case of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Borges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpionism in the Americas occurs mainly in Mexico, northern South America and southeast Brazil. This article reviews the local scorpion fauna, available health statistics, and the literature to assess scorpionism in Central America. Notwithstanding its high toxicity in Mexico, most scorpion sting cases in Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica are produced by species in the genus Centruroides that are only mildly toxic to humans despite the existence of ion channel-active toxins in their venoms. Regional morbidity is low with the exception of Panama, where an incidence of 52 cases per 100,000 inhabitants was recorded for 2007, with 28 deaths from 1998 to 2006. Taxa belonging to the genus Tityus (also present in the Atlantic coast of Costa Rica are responsible for fatalities in Panama, with Tityus pachyurus being the most important species medically. Most Tityus species inhabiting Panama are also found in northern South America from which they probably migrated upon closure of the Panamanian isthmus in the Miocene era. Incorporation of Panama as part of the northern South American endemic area of scorpionism is thereby suggested based on the incidence of these accidents and the geographical distribution of Panamanian Tityus species.

  2. Genetic Relationships Between Cercospora kikuchii Populations from South America and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazaki, I; Homma, Y; Kato, M; Vallone, S; Yorinori, J T; Henning, A A; Iizumi, H; Koizumi, S

    2006-09-01

    ABSTRACT A collection 160 isolates of Cercospora kikuchii was made from South America and 245 from Japan. DNA fingerprint patterns were analyzed based on amplified fragment length polymorphism among the sample isolates, dividing the isolates into seven lineages (I to VII). Partial nucleotide sequence analyses of the beta-tubulin gene supported this division into seven lineages. Lineages I and III commonly existed in South America and Japan. In all, 136 of the 160 isolates from South America and 223 of the 245 isolates from Japan belonged to lineage I, indicating that lineage I was the major lineage in each area; 5 isolates from South America and 8 isolates from Japan belonged to lineage III. Lineages II (12 isolates) and IV (2 isolates) were specific to Japan and lineages V (3 isolates), VI (1 isolate), and VII (15 isolates) specifically existed in South America. These results suggest that the population genetic structure of C. kikuchii was different between South America and Japan, but the dominance of lineage I was common between the two areas.

  3. Landscape evolution within a retreating volcanic arc, Costa Rica, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffrey S.; Idleman, Bruce D.; Gardner, Thomas W.; Fisher, Donald M.

    2003-05-01

    Subduction of hotspot-thickened seafloor profoundly affects convergent margin tectonics, strongly affecting upper plate structure, volcanism, and landscape evolution. In southern Central America, low-angle subduction of the Cocos Ridge and seamount domain largely controls landscape evolution in the volcanic arc. Field mapping, stratigraphic correlation, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology for late Cenozoic volcanic rocks of central Costa Rica provide new insights into the geomorphic response of volcanic arc landscapes to changes in subduction parameters (slab thickness, roughness, dip). Late Neogene volcanism was focused primarily along the now-extinct Cordillera de Aguacate. Quaternary migration of the magmatic front shifted volcanism northeastward to the Caribbean slope, creating a new topographic divide and forming the Valle Central basin. Stream capture across the paleo Aguacate divide led to drainage reversal toward the Pacific slope and deep incision of reorganized fluvial networks. Pleistocene caldera activity generated silicic ash flows that buried the Valle Central and descended the Tárcoles gorge to the Orotina debris fan at the coast. Growth of the modern Cordillera Central accentuated relief along the new divide, establishing the Valle Central as a Pacific slope drainage basin. Arc migration, relocation of the Pacific-Caribbean drainage divide, and formation of the Valle Central basin resulted from slab shallowing as irregular, hotspot-thickened crust entered the subduction zone. The geomorphic evolution of volcanic arc landscapes is thus highly sensitive to changes in subducting plate character.

  4. A crustal section of northern Central America as inferred from wide angle reflections from shallow earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. J.

    A three-layered crustal structure for a portion of northern Central America is derived using both travel time and amplitude data from seismograms recorded at Tegucigalpa, Honduras. The sources are shallow earthquakes that occurred along the Motagua fault in Guatemala 200 to 450 km (25-50 seconds in terms of S-P time) from the station. Since ray paths are almost parallel to the axis of the Middle America trench, approximately 250 km away, a homogeneous, horizontally layered crust may be reasonably assumed. At this distance range, which is far beyond critical distance for reflections from within the crust, shallow sources always generate a small first arrival followed by several large later arrivals. The first arrival is interpreted as Pn (the head wave from the Mohorovicic discontinuity) and the later arrivals are interpreted as wide angle (over-critical) reflections from layer boundaries. Three wide angle reflections (PmP, PiP, and PgP) are identified.

  5. Detailed genetic structure of European bitterling populations in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Bartáková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus is a small cyprinid fish whose populations declined markedly between 1950 and 1980. However, its range currently expands, partly due to human-assisted introductions. We determined the genetic variability and detailed spatial structure among bitterling populations in Central Europe and tested alternative hypotheses about colonization of this area. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci on a large sample of 688 individuals had been used to analyse genetic variability and population structure. Samples originated from 27 localities with emphasis on area of the Czech Republic where three major sea drainages (Black, Baltic, and Northern Sea meet. Highly variable level of intrapopulation genetic variability had generally been detected and a recent decrease in numbers (“bottleneck” had been indicated by genetic data among six populations. High level of interpopulation differentiation was identified even within the basins. There was a significant role of genetic drift and indications of low dispersal ability of R. amarus. Surprisingly, the Odra River was inhabited by two distinct populations without any genetic signatures of a secondary contact. Czech part of the Odra (Baltic basin was colonized from the Danubian refugium (similarly to adjacent Danubian basin rivers including the Morava, while Polish part of the Odra was genetically similar to the populations in the Vistula River (Baltic basin, that has been colonized by a different (Eastern phylogeographic lineage of R. amarus. Most Czech R. amarus populations were colonized from the Danubian refugium, suggesting potential for a human-mediated colonization of the Odra or Elbe Rivers by R. amarus. One Elbe basin population was genetically mixed from the two (Danubian and Eastern phylogeographic lineages. In general the Czech populations of R. amarus were genetically stable except for a single population which has probably been recently introduced. This research

  6. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmalkar, Ambarish V. [University of Oxford, School of Geography and the Environment, Oxford (United Kingdom); Bradley, Raymond S. [University of Massachusetts, Department of Geosciences, Amherst, MA (United States); Diaz, Henry F. [NOAA/ESRL/CIRES, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation and also in capturing regional climate features such as the bimodal annual cycle of precipitation and the Caribbean low-level jet. A variety of climate regimes within the model domain are also better identified in the regional model simulation due to improved resolution of topographic features. Although, the model suffers from large precipitation biases, it shows improvements over the coarse-resolution driving model in simulating precipitation amounts. The model shows a dry bias in the wet season and a wet bias in the dry season suggesting that it's unable to capture the full range of precipitation variability. Projected warming under the A2 scenario is higher in the wet season than that in the dry season with the Yucatan Peninsula experiencing highest warming. A large reduction in precipitation in the wet season is projected for the region, whereas parts of Central America that receive a considerable amount of moisture in the form of orographic precipitation show significant decreases in precipitation in the dry season. Projected climatic changes can have detrimental impacts on biodiversity as they are spatially similar, but far greater in magnitude, than those observed during the El Nino events in recent decades that adversely affected species in the region. (orig.)

  7. Characterising droughts in Central America with uncertain hydro-meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada Montano, B.; Westerberg, I.; Wetterhall, F.; Hidalgo, H. G.; Halldin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Droughts studies are scarce in Central America, a region frequently affected by droughts that cause significant socio-economic and environmental problems. Drought characterisation is important for water management and planning and can be done with the help of drought indices. Many indices have been developed in the last decades but their ability to suitably characterise droughts depends on the region of application. In Central America, comprehensive and high-quality observational networks of meteorological and hydrological data are not available. This limits the choice of drought indices and denotes the need to evaluate the quality of the data used in their calculation. This paper aimed to find which combination(s) of drought index and meteorological database are most suitable for characterising droughts in Central America. The drought indices evaluated were the standardised precipitation index (SPI), deciles (DI), the standardised precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and the effective drought index (EDI). These were calculated using precipitation data from the Climate Hazards Group Infra-Red Precipitation with station (CHIRPS), CRN073, the Climate Research Unit (CRU), ERA-Interim and station databases, and temperature data from the CRU database. All the indices were calculated at 1-, 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-month accumulation times. As a first step, the large-scale meteorological precipitation datasets were compared to have an overview of the level of agreement between them and find possible quality problems. Then, the performance of all the combinations of drought indices and meteorological datasets were evaluated against independent river discharge data, in form of the standardised streamflow index (SSI). Results revealed the large disagreement between the precipitation datasets; we found the selection of database to be more important than the selection of drought index. We found that the best combinations of meteorological drought index and database were

  8. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmalkar, Ambarish V.; Bradley, Raymond S.; Diaz, Henry F.

    2011-08-01

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation and also in capturing regional climate features such as the bimodal annual cycle of precipitation and the Caribbean low-level jet. A variety of climate regimes within the model domain are also better identified in the regional model simulation due to improved resolution of topographic features. Although, the model suffers from large precipitation biases, it shows improvements over the coarse-resolution driving model in simulating precipitation amounts. The model shows a dry bias in the wet season and a wet bias in the dry season suggesting that it's unable to capture the full range of precipitation variability. Projected warming under the A2 scenario is higher in the wet season than that in the dry season with the Yucatan Peninsula experiencing highest warming. A large reduction in precipitation in the wet season is projected for the region, whereas parts of Central America that receive a considerable amount of moisture in the form of orographic precipitation show significant decreases in precipitation in the dry season. Projected climatic changes can have detrimental impacts on biodiversity as they are spatially similar, but far greater in magnitude, than those observed during the El Niño events in recent decades that adversely affected species in the region.

  9. Seismic hazard maps of Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, James G.; Shedlock, Kaye M.

    2004-10-01

    The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard and/or economic constraints. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. We have produced a suite of seismic hazard estimates for Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. One of the preliminary maps in this suite served as the basis for the Caribbean and Central and South America portion of the Global Seismic Hazard Map (GSHM) published in 1999, which depicted peak ground acceleration (pga) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for rock sites. Herein we present maps depicting pga and 0.2 and 1.0 s spectral accelerations (SA) with 50%, 10%, and 2% chances of exceedance in 50 years for rock sites. The seismicity catalog used in the generation of these maps adds 3 more years of data to those used to calculate the GSH Map. Different attenuation functions (consistent with those used to calculate the U.S. and Canadian maps) were used as well. These nine maps are designed to assist in global risk mitigation by providing a general seismic hazard framework and serving as a resource for any national or regional agency to help focus further detailed studies required for regional/local needs. The largest seismic hazard values in Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America generally occur in areas that have been, or are likely to be, the sites of the largest plate boundary earthquakes. High hazard values occur in areas where shallow-to-intermediate seismicity occurs frequently.

  10. Seismic hazard maps of Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J.G.; Shedlock, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard and/or economic constraints. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. We have produced a suite of seismic hazard estimates for Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. One of the preliminary maps in this suite served as the basis for the Caribbean and Central and South America portion of the Global Seismic Hazard Map (GSHM) published in 1999, which depicted peak ground acceleration (pga) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for rock sites. Herein we present maps depicting pga and 0.2 and 1.0 s spectral accelerations (SA) with 50%, 10%, and 2% chances of exceedance in 50 years for rock sites. The seismicity catalog used in the generation of these maps adds 3 more years of data to those used to calculate the GSH Map. Different attenuation functions (consistent with those used to calculate the U.S. and Canadian maps) were used as well. These nine maps are designed to assist in global risk mitigation by providing a general seismic hazard framework and serving as a resource for any national or regional agency to help focus further detailed studies required for regional/local needs. The largest seismic hazard values in Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America generally occur in areas that have been, or are likely to be, the sites of the largest plate boundary earthquakes. High hazard values occur in areas where shallow-to-intermediate seismicity occurs frequently. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Diarrhea and respiratory symptoms among travelers to Asia, Africa, and South and Central America from Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Christopher Allan; Maclennan, Alice; Wilson, Eleanor; Walker, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Surveillance using admissions to hospital, while being useful, is a poor indicator of the real incidence of disease encountered by travelers. An alternative is self-reported illness among those who attended at a pretravel clinic prior to their travels. Estimates of incidence and risk factors were determined for attendees at a travel clinic in Scotland using a questionnaire. Analysis for risk factors was carried out for those travelers visiting countries in Africa, Asia, or South and Central America, who had traveled for 1 week or more and had returned between 1997 and 2001 (N= 4,856). Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the hypotheses that time abroad and age-group would be significant for both respiratory and diarrheal symptoms regardless of which of the three geographical areas are visited. From 2006 returned questionnaires (response rate = 41.3%), diarrhea and respiratory symptoms were reported by 44.2 and 16.8% of respondents, respectively; the incidence was significantly greater among travelers to Asia for both diarrheal (55.5%) and respiratory (23.7%) symptoms than among travelers to Africa (36.6 and 12.2%, respectively) or South and Central America (39.5 and 16.2%, respectively). For diarrhea, age was a highly significant risk factor for travelers to Asia, South and Central America, and Africa. Being a self-organized tourist/backpacker, traveling to Asia was associated with increased risk, while for Africa and South and Central America visiting family or friends was associated with a lower risk. For travelers to Asia, traveling to the Indian subcontinent was significantly associated with increased risk. The majority of travelers had an adverse event while traveling abroad, with diarrhea and respiratory conditions being especially common despite attending a travel clinic for advice prior to departure. However, the limitations of this surveillance-based strategy have highlighted the requirement for more research to understand more fully the

  12. Interannual variability of the midsummer drought in Central America and the connection with sea surface temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Tito; Rutgersson, Anna; Alfaro, Eric; Amador, Jorge; Claremar, Björn

    2016-04-01

    The midsummer drought (MSD) in Central America is characterised in order to create annual indexes representing the timing of its phases (start, minimum and end), and other features relevant for MSD forecasting such as the intensity and the magnitude. The MSD intensity is defined as the minimum rainfall detected during the MSD, meanwhile the magnitude is the total precipitation divided by the total days between the start and end of the MSD. It is shown that the MSD extends along the Pacific coast, however, a similar MSD structure was detected also in two stations in the Caribbean side of Central America, located in Nicaragua. The MSD intensity and magnitude show a negative relationship with Niño 3.4 and a positive relationship with the Caribbean low-level jet (CLLJ) index, however for the Caribbean stations the results were not statistically significant, which is indicating that other processes might be modulating the precipitation during the MSD over the Caribbean coast. On the other hand, the temporal variables (start, minimum and end) show low and no significant correlations with the same indexes.The results from canonical correlation analysis (CCA) show good performance to study the MSD intensity and magnitude, however, for the temporal indexes the performance is not satisfactory due to the low skill to predict the MSD phases. Moreover, we find that CCA shows potential predictability of the MSD intensity and magnitude using sea surface temperatures (SST) with leading times of up to 3 months. Using CCA as diagnostic tool it is found that during June, an SST dipole pattern upon the neighbouring waters to Central America is the main variability mode controlling the inter-annual variability of the MSD features. However, there is also evidence that the regional waters are playing an important role in the annual modulation of the MSD features. The waters in the PDO vicinity might be also controlling the rainfall during the MSD, however, exerting an opposite effect at

  13. The social perspective of desertification: Analysis of the public administration perception in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desertification is a complex problem and not only represents terrestrial ecosystems degradation. Today, it is well known that this process is linked to environmental deterioration as well as to economic and social factors, producing relevant impact in food security, poverty, migration and imbalance in many countries. Desertification perception analysis is essential in the design of the policies to fight this problem. Perception analysis in Central America is a very controversial issue and should be part of administration instruments and application strategies such as international agreements that will be included in public policies of the different States.

  14. Genetic variability of Aedes aegypti in the Americas using a mitochondrial gene: evidence of multiple introductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Bracco

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the genetic relatedness and phylogeographic structure of Aedes aegypti, we collected samples from 36 localities throughout the Americas (Brazil, Peru, Venezuela, Guatemala, US, three from Africa (Guinea, Senegal, Uganda, and three from Asia (Singapore, Cambodia, Tahiti. Amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 gene identified 20 distinct haplotypes, of which 14 are exclusive to the Americas, four to African/Asian countries, one is common to the Americas and Africa, and one to the Americas and Asia. Nested clade analysis (NCA, pairwise distribution, statistical parsimony, and maximum parsimony analyses were used to infer evolutionary and historic processes, and to estimate phylogenetic relationships among haplotypes. Two clusters were found in all the analyses. Haplotypes clustered in the two clades were separated by eight mutational steps. Phylogeographic structure detected by the NCA was consistent with distant colonization within one clade and fragmentation followed by range expansion via long distance dispersal in the other. Three percent of nucleotide divergence between these two clades is suggestive of a gene pool division that may support the hypothesis of occurrence of two subspecies of Ae. aegypti in the Americas.

  15. Genetic distinctions between autoimmune hepatitis in Italy and North America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paolo Muratori; Marco Lenzi; Francesco B. Bianchi; Albert J. Czaja; Luigi Muratori; Georgios Pappas; Silvana Maccariello; Fabio Cassani; Alessandro Granito; Rodolfo Ferrari; Vilma Mantovani

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Our goals were to analyze the known genetic predispositions for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in AIH Italian population and to compare them with North American counterparts.METHODS: Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) B8, C7, DR3,DR4, DR7, DR11, DR13, DQ2 and the B8-DR3-DQ2phenotype were determined by microlymphocytotoxicity and polymerase chain reaction in 74 Italian patients (57with type 1 and 17 with type 2 AIH) and 149 North American patients with type 1 AIH, and in adequate controls.RESULTS: B8-DR3-DQ2 occurred more frequently in Italian patients with type 1 AIH than in Italian controls (30% vs 7%, P<0.0001), but less frequently than in North American counterparts (30% vs48%, P = 0.02). DR4 occurred less frequently in Italian patients with type 1 AIH (23% vs43%,P= 0.01) and in controls (16% vs34%, P= 0.0003) than in North American counterparts. No differences were found in alleles' frequency between type 1 and type 2Italian AIH patients. DR11 had a frequency lower in type 1 Italian AIH patients than controls (17% vs35%, P= 0.01).CONCLUSION: HLA DR4 is not associated with AIH in Italy. The known HLA risk factors for ATH occur similarly in Italian patients with type 1 and type 2 AIH, and they are less frequent than in North American patients. B8-DR3-DQ2 is the predominant phenotype of type 1 AIH also in Italy, and HLA DR11 may be a regionally distinctive protective factor against type 1 AIH.

  16. Achievements and pending issues in psychiatric reform in Panama and Spanish speaking Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Aparicio Basauri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The return to democracy in Central America has led to economic and social development policies that have had effects on the health sector and, likewise, on mental health plans. From 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO developed a mental health strategy with the purpose of reducing the gap between mental health population needs and resources that are effectively assigned to this area. This article describes and analyzes the results of mental health care systems assessments that were undertaken in the Central American countries based on the Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO. These results lead to optimism in the implementation of the Regional Strategy and Action Plan for Mental Health of the Pan-American Health Organization for 2010-2019, but also open the way to new challenges for the region.

  17. Tectonics and sedimentary evolution of the Sandino forearc basin off Nicaragua, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Pisani, P.; Silver, E.; McIntosh, K.; Ahmed, I.; Ranero, C. R.; Taylor, B.

    2003-04-01

    The Sandino basin is the Nicaragua sector of the Central American forearc, where the Cocos plate subducts beneath the Middle America trench. Recently, Ranero et al. have interpreted a seismic section across the margin and proposed a history of formation of the forearc which is constrained by industry drilling in the basin. They suggested a late Cretaceous to Paleocene accretion event, followed by later subduction erosion processes. The margin wedge consists of the ophiolitic Nicoya complex. The seismic units, unconformities and tectonic features record a rich history of both local and regional vertical movements occurring since the Middle Eocene, which are linked to the evolution of the Pacific convergent margin. During June, 2000, 2800 kms of multichannel seismic reflection data were collected on the R/V Ewing off Nicaragua. Analysis of the 240 channels dataset indicates rapid changes along strike in the Sandino basin. The basin is relatively thin in the southern part, thinning quite rapidly southward against the Nicoya complex of the Santa Elena peninsula of Costa Rica. The forearc sediments thickness approaches and locally exceeds 10 kms in the central and northern parts of the Sandino basin. The oldest units (Upper Cretaceous-Middle Eocene) are very thick off northern Nicaragua, with relatively thin middle to late Cenozoic deposits. However, off central Nicaragua the latter units (Middle-Upper Miocene) attain great thicknesses and the older units appear to thin. This pattern suggests a history of successive deepening of the basin from north to south, after the convergent system evolved from accretion to subduction erosion processes. Present efforts are devoted to quantifying this change in development and using it to understand the dynamics of forearc basin evolution offshore of Central America.

  18. SALTRA: a regional program for workers' health and sustainable development in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Catharina; Aragón, Aurora; Elgstrand, Kaj; Flores, Reinaldo; Hogstedt, Christer; Partanen, Timo

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, the university-based Program on Work and Health in Central America, SALTRA, was launched to build national and regional capacities in occupational safety and health with the goal of preventing and reducing poverty in Central America. SALTRA has implemented 20 projects including action projects in priority sectors (e.g., construction, sugarcane, hospitals, migrant coffee workers); strengthening of surveillance (occupational health profiles, carcinogenic exposures, fatal injuries and pesticides); a participatory model for training and risk monitoring by workers; building occupational health capacity for professionals, employers, and workers, with collaborating networks between the countries; strengthening of universities in work, environment, and health; studies of serious occupational and environmental situations; communication channels; and continued efforts to raise political awareness. SALTRA has placed issues of workers' health on political, business, and academic agendas throughout the region and has laid the foundations for achieving substantial future improvements in health conditions of all workers in the region. External evaluators envisioned SALTRA as an innovative development model.

  19. Do pathogens become more virulent as they spread? Evidence from the amphibian declines in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Ben L; Puschendorf, Robert

    2013-09-01

    The virulence of a pathogen can vary strongly through time. While cyclical variation in virulence is regularly observed, directional shifts in virulence are less commonly observed and are typically associated with decreasing virulence of biological control agents through coevolution. It is increasingly appreciated, however, that spatial effects can lead to evolutionary trajectories that differ from standard expectations. One such possibility is that, as a pathogen spreads through a naive host population, its virulence increases on the invasion front. In Central America, there is compelling evidence for the recent spread of pathogenic Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and for its strong impact on amphibian populations. Here, we re-examine data on Bd prevalence and amphibian population decline across 13 sites from southern Mexico through Central America, and show that, in the initial phases of the Bd invasion, amphibian population decline lagged approximately 9 years behind the arrival of the pathogen, but that this lag diminished markedly over time. In total, our analysis suggests an increase in Bd virulence as it spread southwards, a pattern consistent with rapid evolution of increased virulence on Bd's invading front. The impact of Bd on amphibians might therefore be driven by rapid evolution in addition to more proximate environmental drivers.

  20. Phylogeny and biogeography of the Poecilia sphenops species complex (Actinopterygii, Poeciliidae) in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alda, Fernando; Reina, Ruth G; Doadrio, Ignacio; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2013-03-01

    We inferred the phylogenetic relationships among members of the Poecilia sphenops species complex to resolve the colonization process and radiation of this group in Central America. We analyzed 2550 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), including ATP synthase 6 and 8, cytochrome oxidase subunit I and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 genes, and 906bp of the nuclear S7 ribosomal protein of 86 ingroup individuals from 61 localities spanning most of its distribution from Mexico to Panama. Our mitochondrial data rendered a well-supported phylogeny for the P. sphenops complex that differed with the nuclear data set topology, which did not recover the monophyly of the P. mexicana mitochondrial lineage. Coalescent-based simulations tests indicated that, although hybridization cannot be completely ruled out, this incongruence is most likely due to incomplete lineage sorting in this group, which also showed the widest geographic distribution. A single colonization event of Central America from South America was estimated to have occurred between the early Paleocene and Oligocene (53-22millionyears ago). Subsequently, two largely differentiated evolutionary lineages diverged around the Early Oligocene-Miocene (38-13million years ago), which are considered two separate species complexes: P. sphenops and P. mexicana, which can also be distinguished by their tricuspid and unicuspid inner jaw teeth, respectively. Ultimately, within lineage diversification occurred mainly during the Miocene (22-5million years ago). All major cladogenetic events predated the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama. The allopatric distribution of lineages together with the long basal internodes suggest that vicariance and long term isolations could be the main evolutionary forces promoting radiation in this group, although dispersal through water barriers might also have occurred. Lastly, our results suggest the need to review the current species distribution and taxonomy of the P. sphenops

  1. Investigation of Genetic Variation Underlying Central Obesity amongst South Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, William R.; Zhang, Weihua; Loh, Marie; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Lehne, Benjamin; Afzal, Uzma; Peralta, Juan; Saxena, Richa; Ralhan, Sarju; Wander, Gurpreet S.; Bozaoglu, Kiymet; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Elliott, Paul; Scott, James; Chambers, John C.; Kooner, Jaspal S.

    2016-01-01

    South Asians are 1/4 of the world’s population and have increased susceptibility to central obesity and related cardiometabolic disease. Knowledge of genetic variants affecting risk of central obesity is largely based on genome-wide association studies of common SNPs in Europeans. To evaluate the contribution of DNA sequence variation to the higher levels of central obesity (defined as waist hip ratio adjusted for body mass index, WHR) among South Asians compared to Europeans we carried out: i) a genome-wide association analysis of >6M genetic variants in 10,318 South Asians with focused analysis of population-specific SNPs; ii) an exome-wide association analysis of ~250K SNPs in protein-coding regions in 2,637 South Asians; iii) a comparison of risk allele frequencies and effect sizes of 48 known WHR SNPs in 12,240 South Asians compared to Europeans. In genome-wide analyses, we found no novel associations between common genetic variants and WHR in South Asians at P<5x10-8; variants showing equivocal association with WHR (P<1x10-5) did not replicate at P<0.05 in an independent cohort of South Asians (N = 1,922) or in published, predominantly European meta-analysis data. In the targeted analyses of 122,391 population-specific SNPs we also found no associations with WHR in South Asians at P<0.05 after multiple testing correction. Exome-wide analyses showed no new associations between genetic variants and WHR in South Asians, either individually at P<1.5x10-6 or grouped by gene locus at P<2.5x10−6. At known WHR loci, risk allele frequencies were not higher in South Asians compared to Europeans (P = 0.77), while effect sizes were unexpectedly smaller in South Asians than Europeans (P<5.0x10-8). Our findings argue against an important contribution for population-specific or cosmopolitan genetic variants underlying the increased risk of central obesity in South Asians compared to Europeans. PMID:27195708

  2. Investigation of Genetic Variation Underlying Central Obesity amongst South Asians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R Scott

    Full Text Available South Asians are 1/4 of the world's population and have increased susceptibility to central obesity and related cardiometabolic disease. Knowledge of genetic variants affecting risk of central obesity is largely based on genome-wide association studies of common SNPs in Europeans. To evaluate the contribution of DNA sequence variation to the higher levels of central obesity (defined as waist hip ratio adjusted for body mass index, WHR among South Asians compared to Europeans we carried out: i a genome-wide association analysis of >6M genetic variants in 10,318 South Asians with focused analysis of population-specific SNPs; ii an exome-wide association analysis of ~250K SNPs in protein-coding regions in 2,637 South Asians; iii a comparison of risk allele frequencies and effect sizes of 48 known WHR SNPs in 12,240 South Asians compared to Europeans. In genome-wide analyses, we found no novel associations between common genetic variants and WHR in South Asians at P<5x10-8; variants showing equivocal association with WHR (P<1x10-5 did not replicate at P<0.05 in an independent cohort of South Asians (N = 1,922 or in published, predominantly European meta-analysis data. In the targeted analyses of 122,391 population-specific SNPs we also found no associations with WHR in South Asians at P<0.05 after multiple testing correction. Exome-wide analyses showed no new associations between genetic variants and WHR in South Asians, either individually at P<1.5x10-6 or grouped by gene locus at P<2.5x10-6. At known WHR loci, risk allele frequencies were not higher in South Asians compared to Europeans (P = 0.77, while effect sizes were unexpectedly smaller in South Asians than Europeans (P<5.0x10-8. Our findings argue against an important contribution for population-specific or cosmopolitan genetic variants underlying the increased risk of central obesity in South Asians compared to Europeans.

  3. Genetic affinities of the central Indian tribal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Sharma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The central Indian state Madhya Pradesh is often called as 'heart of India' and has always been an important region functioning as a trinexus belt for three major language families (Indo-European, Dravidian and Austroasiatic. There are less detailed genetic studies on the populations inhabited in this region. Therefore, this study is an attempt for extensive characterization of genetic ancestries of three tribal populations, namely; Bharia, Bhil and Sahariya, inhabiting this region using haploid and diploid DNA markers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mitochondrial DNA analysis showed high diversity, including some of the older sublineages of M haplogroup and prominent R lineages in all the three tribes. Y-chromosomal biallelic markers revealed high frequency of Austroasiatic-specific M95-O2a haplogroup in Bharia and Sahariya, M82-H1a in Bhil and M17-R1a in Bhil and Sahariya. The results obtained by haploid as well as diploid genetic markers revealed strong genetic affinity of Bharia (a Dravidian speaking tribe with the Austroasiatic (Munda group. The gene flow from Austroasiatic group is further confirmed by their Y-STRs haplotype sharing analysis, where we determined their founder haplotype from the North Munda speaking tribe, while, autosomal analysis was largely in concordant with the haploid DNA results. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Bhil exhibited largely Indo-European specific ancestry, while Sahariya and Bharia showed admixed genetic package of Indo-European and Austroasiatic populations. Hence, in a landscape like India, linguistic label doesn't unequivocally follow the genetic footprints.

  4. Central Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism: Genetic Complexity of a Complex Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Marino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Central hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH is an emerging pathological condition frequently associated with overweight, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and midline defects. The genetic mechanisms involve mutations in at least twenty-four genes regulating GnRH neuronal migration, secretion, and activity. So far, the mechanisms underlying CHH, both in prepubertal and in adulthood onset forms, remain unknown in most of the cases. Indeed, all detected gene variants may explain a small proportion of the affected patients (43%, indicating that other genes or epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the onset of CHH. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on genetic background of CHH, organizing the large amount of data present in the literature in a clear and concise manner, to produce a useful guide available for researchers and clinicians.

  5. An update on the genetic causes of central precocious puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Central precocious puberty (CPP) is caused by the premature reactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Genetic, nutritional, and environmental factors play a crucial role in determining pubertal timing. Recently mutations in kisspeptin (KISS1), kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R), and makorin RING finger protein 3 (MKRN3) genes have been identified as genetic causes of CPP. In particular, the MKRN3 gene is known to affect pubertal initiation. The MKRN3 gene is located on chromosome 15q11-q13 in the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) critical region. MKRN3 deficiency, due to a loss of function mutation, leads to the withdrawal of hypothalamic inhibition and prompts pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion, resulting in precocious puberty. The exact functions of these genes associated with CPP are still not well understood. Larger studies are required to discover the mechanisms involved in pubertal development. PMID:27462581

  6. Neogene north American-Caribbean plate boundary across Northern Central America: Offset along the polochic fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Burke

    1983-12-01

    The Polochic fault was a segment of the North American-Caribbean plate boundary across Central America in the Neogene. Its 130 km of left slip was previously determined by matching structures and stratigraphie outcrop patterns of northwest and central Guatemala across the fault. Additional support for the model and the youthfulness of the recorded offset comes from an essentially perfect match of major geomorphic features across the fault. A reconstruction process which eliminates 123 km of left slip brings together rivers and drainage divides that existed before the Polochic became active. With the reconstruction carried across the isthmus on an east-west fault the regional structural geology assumes the coherent pattern of a continuous orogenic belt whose geometry is compatible with the model of collisional tectonics centered on the Motagua "suture zone". Confined within this belt, narrowed to some 60 km by the reconstruction, lie the major Laramide thrusts, folds and tectonically emplaced serpentinites of Guatemala. Crystalline rocks of Guatemala re-join the Chiapas Massif and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, exposed in the core of an almost-continuous anticlinorium, extend from southern Chiapas to Lake Izabal. The Polochic does not bend in eastern Guatemala but continues eastward to the Motagua fault where it dies. Westward drift of the northern block resulted in rifting which extended from eastern Guatemala into the Caribbean along the Cayman trough. The Honduras depression may represent an element of a triple junction along with the Polochic and Izabal-Cayman rift. The Polochic continues westward into the Pacific Ocean and offsets the Middle America trench. The Polochic has offset the Miocene volcanic belt of northern Central America, confirming the previous estimate of a Neogene time of movement. About 300 km of relative east-west Neogene displacement has been recorded on the Mid-Cayman rise, only 130 km of which can be accounted for across the Polochic. It is

  7. Simulating Climate Change in Central America Using PRECIS Regional Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmalkar, A. V.; Bradley, R. S.; Diaz, H. F.

    2006-12-01

    Highland tropical forests are rich in endemic species and crucial in maintaining freshwater resources in many regions. Much of their remarkable biodiversity is due to the steep climate gradients found on tropical mountains. These gradients are significantly altered due to warming, affecting many species living on the mountain slopes. Costa Rica's Monteverde Cloud Forest shows biological changes associated with changes in climatic patterns. Our goal is to understand climate change at areas of high relief in the tropics and its potential impacts on ecosystem dynamics. We address this question by focusing on Central America, which is considered to be a biodiversity hotspot. The model used is the UK Hadley Center PRECIS(Providing REgional Climates for Impact Studies) model. The model is based on HadAM3H, an improved version of the atmospheric component of the latest Hadley Center coupled AOGCM, HadCM3 and is forced at the lateral boundaries by HadAM3P GCM. The surface boundary conditions include observed SSTs and sea-ice. We carried out a baseline run (1961-1990) and a doubled CO2 run (SRES A2 2071-2100) at a resolution of 25 km (0.22°) over the region of Central America that includes several biodiversity hotspots. Model verification is performed by comparing control run results with observations and reanalysis data. Preliminary analysis shows that PRECIS has successfully captured present-day spatial and temporal climate variability that has been observed in Central America. Elevation dependency of temperature is one of the important results of this study and will be investigated in great detail. The SRES A2 run shows average warming of about 3K, with more warming at higher altitudes in general. Precipitation and relative humidity analysis shows drier conditions in the region in 2 × CO2 world. Additional techniques are being developed to better quantify model performance in areas of high relief. We plan to expand this project to other models, and to additional

  8. Drought assessment for cropland of Central America using course-resolution remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. F.; Nguyen, S. T.; Chen, C. R.; Chiang, S. H.; Chang, L. Y.; Khin, L. V.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is one of the most frequent and costliest natural disasters, which imposes enormous effects to human societies and ecosystems. Agricultural drought is referred to an interval of time, such as weeks or months, when the soil moisture supply of a region consistently falls below the appropriate moisture supply leading to negative impacts on agricultural production. Millions of households in Central America were dependent upon major food crops, including maize, beans, and sorghum, for their daily subsistence. In recent years, impacts of climate change through global warming in forms of higher temperature and widespread rainfall deficits have however triggered severe drought during the primera cropping season (April-August) in the study region, causing profound impacts on agriculture, crop production losses, increased market food prices, as well as food security issues. This study focuses on investigating agricultural droughts for cropland of Central America using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. We processed the data for a normal year 2013 and an abnormal year 2014 using a simple vegetation health index (VHI) that is developed based on the temperature condition index (TCI) and vegetation condition index (VCI). The VHI results were validated using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) precipitation data and temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI) that is developed based on the empirical analysis of TCI and VCI data. The correlation coefficients (r) obtained by comparisons between the VHI data and the AMSR2 precipitation and TVDI data were higher than 0.62 and -0.61, respectively. The severe drought was intensive during the dry season (January-April) and likely backed to normal conditions in May with the onset of rainy season. The larger area of serve drought was observed for the 2014 primera season, especially during April-July. When investigating the cultivated areas affected by severe drought in the primera

  9. Multi-year GNSS monitoring of atmospheric IWV over Central and South America for climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Clara Eugenia; Mendoza, Luciano Pedro Oscar; Fernández, Laura Isabel; Natali, María Paula; Meza, Amalia Margarita; Francisco Moirano, Juan

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric water vapour has been acknowledged as an essential climate variable. Weather prediction and hazard assessment systems benefit from real-time observations, whereas long-term records contribute to climate studies. Nowadays, ground-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) products have become widely employed, complementing satellite observations over the oceans. Although the past decade has seen a significant development of the GNSS infrastructure in Central and South America, its potential for atmospheric water vapour monitoring has not been fully exploited. With this in mind, we have performed a regional, 7-year-long and homogeneous analysis, comprising 136 GNSS tracking stations, obtaining high-rate and continuous observations of column-integrated water vapour and troposphere zenith total delay. As a preliminary application for this data set, we have estimated local water vapour trends, their significance, and their relation with specific climate regimes. We have found evidence of drying at temperate regions in South America, at a rate of about 2 % per decade, while a slow moistening of the troposphere over tropical regions is also weakly suggested by our results. Furthermore, we have assessed the regional performance of the empirical model GPT2w to blindly estimate troposphere delays. The model reproduces the observed mean delays fairly well, including their annual and semi-annual variations. Nevertheless, a long-term evaluation has shown systematical biases, up to 20 mm, probably inherited from the underlying atmospheric reanalysis. Additionally, the complete data set has been made openly available as supplementary material.

  10. Suitability of soil bioengineering techniques in Central America: a case study in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petrone

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years "D. I. A. F." (Department of Agriculture and Forestry Engineering of Florence University, has been testing the effectiveness of Soil Bio-Engineering techniques in Central America. The focus of the present study was to find out which native plants were most suited for soil bio-engineering purposes, particularly in the realization of riverbank protection. Furthermore, we have also been aiming at economic efficiency. In the context of sustainable watershed management, these techniques seem to be appropriate, especially in underdeveloped countries. Concerning the plants to be used, we considered three native species, Gliricidia Sepium, Cordia dentata and Jatropha curcas, to be appropriate for this type of work. Economically speaking, the low cost of such interventions in underdeveloped countries, has been shown by the construction of riverbank protection using vegetated crib-walls in Nicaragua.

  11. Suitability of soil bioengineering techniques in Central America: a case study in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2008-10-01

    In the last few years "D. I. A. F." (Department of Agriculture and Forestry Engineering of Florence University), has been testing the effectiveness of soil bioengineering techniques in Central America. The focus of the present study was to find out which native plants were most suited for soil bioengineering purposes, particularly in the realization of riverbank protection in Nicaragua. Furthermore, we have also been aiming at economic efficiency. These techniques are appropriate for sustainable watershed management especially in underdeveloped countries. Concerning the plants to be used we experimented four native species. Gliricidia Sepium, Cordia dentata and Jatropha curcas are suitable for soil bioengineering more than Bursera Simaruba. Economically speaking, the sustainability of such interventions in underdeveloped countries, has been shown by the evaluation of the cost of riverbank protection using vegetated crib-walls in Nicaragua compared to the cost in different contexts.

  12. The Spanish decentralised international cooperation in Central America in the area of municipalism and decentralisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Haedo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to link the international dimension with the local one, this article lays out an approach to the situation of Spanish decentralised international cooperation in the area of municipalism and decentralisation in the countries of Central America. In the firstplace, it offers a characterisation of the current state of Spanish decentralised cooperation in order to thus frame the cooperation actions carried out by the Barcelona Provincial Council; the UIM (Unión Iberoamericana de Municipios together with CEMCI (Centro de Estudios Municipales y de Cooperación Internacional; and the Confederación de Fondos de Cooperación y Solidaridad. Finally, it describes bankruptcies and it recovers some of the achievements ofthis kind of cooperation specifically in reference to the field of municipalism.

  13. Geothermal power plants of Mexico and Central America: a technical survey of existing and planned installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo. R.

    1978-07-01

    In this report, the fifth in a series describing the geothermal power plants of the world, the countries of Mexico and of Central America are studied. The geothermal plants are located in areas of recent and active volcanism; the resources are of the liquid-dominated type. Details are given about the plants located at Cerro Prieto in Mexico and at Ahuachapan in El Salvador. In both cases, attention is paid to the geologic nature of the fields, the well programs, geofluid characteristics, energy conversion systems, materials of construction, effluent handling systems, economic factors and plant operating experience. Exploration and development activities are described for other promising geothermal areas in Mexico and El Salvador, along with those in the countries of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama.

  14. First record of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in Honduras, Central America

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    Salgado-Maldonado Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the first report of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, in Honduras. The cestode was found in Profundulus portillorum (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae, which represents a new host record, and which is a member of a genus faced with a variety of conservation challenges, now potentially complicated by the presence of this pathogenic cestode. Nearly complete sequence data from the ITS-1 5.8S and ITS-2 regions corroborate the determination based on morphological characteristics. Several species of carp were introduced to Honduras for aquaculture purposes in the early 1980s and the presence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Honduras may be related to these introductions. In addition, this report documents the currently known geographical distribution of this parasite in Central America, first recorded from Panamá and now from Honduras.

  15. First record of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in Honduras, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Kreiser, Brian R; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the first report of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, in Honduras. The cestode was found in Profundulus portillorum (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae), which represents a new host record, and which is a member of a genus faced with a variety of conservation challenges, now potentially complicated by the presence of this pathogenic cestode. Nearly complete sequence data from the ITS-1 5.8S and ITS-2 regions corroborate the determination based on morphological characteristics. Several species of carp were introduced to Honduras for aquaculture purposes in the early 1980s and the presence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Honduras may be related to these introductions. In addition, this report documents the currently known geographical distribution of this parasite in Central America, first recorded from Panamá and now from Honduras.

  16. A new species of arboreal pitviper from the Atlantic versant of northern Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J A; Smith, E N

    2000-12-01

    A new species of green, prehensile-tailed pitviper of the genus Bothriechis is described from the Atlantic slopes of eastern Guatemala and western Honduras. This species appears to be most closely related to B. bicolor of the Pacific versant of Chiapas (Mexico) and Guatemala. Several other species of Bothriechis occur on the Atlantic versant of northern Central America, including two montane species, B. aurifer and B. marchi but, with one possible exception, these are not known to be sympatric with the new species and occur in different mountain ranges. The widespread B. schlegelii occurs up to at least 900 m on the Sierra de Caral, where the lowest elevation recorded for the new species is 885 m. PMID:11487920

  17. Characterization of Trypanosoma rangeli Strains Isolated in Central and South America: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grisard Edmundo C

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma rangeli is a hemoflagelate parasite that infects domestic and sylvatic animals, as well as man, in Central and South America. T. rangeli has an overlapping distribution with T. cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, sharing several animal reservoirs and triatomine vectors. We have isolated T. rangeli strains in the State of Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil, which dramatically increased the distribution area of this parasite. This brief review summarizes several studies comparing T. rangeli strains isolated in Santa Catarina with others isolated in Colombia, Honduras and Venezuela. The different methods used include indirect immunofluorescence and western blot assays, lectin agglutination, isoenzyme electrophoresis and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, triatomine susceptibility, in vitro cell infection assays, and mini-exon gene analysis.

  18. Screening of anti-bacterial activity of medicinal plants from Belize (Central America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporese, A; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Morsellino, N; De Simone, F; Tubaro, A

    2003-07-01

    Twenty-one extracts from seven herbal drugs, Aristolochia trilobata (Aristolochiaceae) leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) bark, Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae) bark, Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae) leaves and Syngonium podophyllum (Araceae) leaves and bark, used in traditional medicine of Belize (Central America) as deep and superficial wound healers, were evaluated for their anti-bacterial properties. Activity was tested against standard strains of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Almost all the extracts were able to inhibit the growth of one or more of the bacterial strains, except that of Enterococcus faecalis. For the first time an anti-microbial activity is reported for Aristolochia trilobata as well as for Syngonium podophyllum. The hexane extracts of Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark were the most active extracts against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC=0.31 and 0.625mg/ml, respectively).

  19. Satellite-based detection of volcanic sulphur dioxide from recent eruptions in Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Loyola

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions can emit large amounts of rock fragments and fine particles (ash into the atmosphere, as well as several gases, including sulphur dioxide (SO2. These ejecta and emissions are a major natural hazard, not only to the local population, but also to the infrastructure in the vicinity of volcanoes and to aviation. Here, we describe a methodology to retrieve quantitative information about volcanic SO2 plumes from satellite-borne measurements in the UV/Visible spectral range. The combination of a satellite-based SO2 detection scheme and a state-of-the-art 3D trajectory model enables us to confirm the volcanic origin of trace gas signals and to estimate the plume height and the effective emission height. This is demonstrated by case-studies for four selected volcanic eruptions in South and Central America, using the GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 instruments.

  20. GIS Representation of Coal-Bearing Areas in North, Central, and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewalt, Susan J.; Kinney, Scott A.; Merrill, Matthew D.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide coal consumption and international coal trade are projected to increase in the next several decades (Energy Information Administration, 2007). A search of existing literature indicates that in the Western Hemisphere, coal resources are known to occur in about 30 countries. The need exists to be able to depict these areas in a digital format for use in Geographic Information System (GIS) applications at small scales (large areas) and in visual presentations. Existing surficial geology GIS layers of the appropriate geologic age have been used as an approximation to depict the extent of coal-bearing areas in North, Central, and South America, as well as Greenland (fig. 1). Global surficial geology GIS data were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for use in world petroleum assessments (Hearn and others, 2003). These USGS publications served as the major sources for the selection and creation of polygons to represent coal-bearing areas. Additional publications and maps by various countries and agencies were also used as sources of coal locations. GIS geologic polygons were truncated where literature or hardcopy maps did not indicate the presence of coal. The depicted areas are not adequate for use in coal resource calculations, as they were not adjusted for geologic structure and do not include coal at depth. Additionally, some coal areas in Central America could not be represented by the mapped surficial geology and are shown only as points based on descriptions or depictions from scientific publications or available maps. The provided GIS files are intended to serve as a backdrop for display of coal information. Three attributes of the coal that are represented by the polygons or points include geologic age (or range of ages), published rank (or range of ranks), and information source (published sources for age, rank, or physical location, or GIS geology base).

  1. Seismic hazard map of North and Central America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Shedlock

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes, emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of North and Central America and the Caribbean is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful regional seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions specify the horizontal force a building should be able to withstand during an earthquake. This seismic hazard map of North and Central America and the Caribbean depicts the likely level of short-period ground motion from earthquakes in a fifty-year window. Short-period ground motions effect short-period structures (e.g., one-to-two story buildings. The highest seismic hazard values in the region generally occur in areas that have been, or are likely to be, the sites of the largest plate boundary earthquakes.

  2. Warm and Dry Spells (WDS in Austral Winter over Central South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Satyamurty

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The horizontal and vertical structure of unusually warm and dry spells (WDS over the central parts of South America during the winter and post-winter months (JJAS are studied. During WDS the mean temperature and humidity anomalies over central Brazil are about +4.1°C and −13.2%, respectively. The mean duration of WDS is 11 days and their mean frequency is less than one per year during the months of JJAS. Apparently, WDS have no preference for the phase of ENSO. Widespread and persistent subsidence in the middle troposphere is observed in tropical Brazil during WDS, which renders the lower tropospheric air warm and dry. The negative anomalies of the specific humidity are observed to be associated with the subsidence regions. A strong, slow moving ridge in the eastern South Pacific and a low-pressure center in northern Argentina are important surface characteristics during the WDS. A more detailed investigation of two specific WDS events, a strong event (August–September 1999 and a moderate one (June 2002, shows a blocking-like situation in the 500-hPa geopotential and surface pressure fields in the Pacific. The South Atlantic subtropical high somewhat approaches the continent. Strong northerlies over the central and eastern parts of Brazil are also observed in the lower troposphere. During WDS the regional circulation acquires summertime characteristics, except for the absence of precipitation, and the circulation in the meridional plane is in the opposite sense from the Hadley circulation. A frontal system, supported by a 500-hPa trough, advances into central Brazil, causing the dissipation of the anomalous situation.

  3. Phylogeny and biogeography of Poecilia (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliinae) across Central and South America based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Adeljean L F C; Pruett, Christin L; Lin, Junda

    2016-08-01

    Poeciliids are a diverse group of small Neotropical fishes, and despite considerable research attention as models in ecology and evolutionary biology, our understanding of their biogeographic and phylogenetic relationships is still limited. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships of South and Central American Poecilia, by examining 2395 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA (ATPase 8/6, COI) and nuclear DNA (S7) for 18 species across six subgenera. Fifty-eight novel sequences were acquired from newly collected specimens and 20 sequences were obtained from previously published material. Analyses of concatenated and partitioned mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA sets resulted in a well-supported phylogeny that resolved several monophyletic groups corresponding to previously hypothesized subgenera and species complexes. A divergence-dating analysis supported the hypothesis of the genus Poecilia dispersing into Central America in the early Pliocene (ancestors of Psychropoecilia+Allopoecilia+Mollienesia: 7.3-2.0Mya) from predominantly South America. Subsequently, one lineage (subgenus Allopoecilia: 5.1-1.3Mya) expanded deeper into South America from Lower-Central America, and one lineage expanded from Nuclear-Central America into South America (subgenus Mollienesia: 0.71-0.14Mya). The subgenus Mollienesia diverged into three monophyletic groups that can be identified by nuptial male dorsal fin morphology and inner jaw dentition. A subclade of the unicuspid short-fins (subgenus Mollienesia) was the lineage that expanded into South America during the middle Pleistocene. Species in this subclade are now distributed across northern South America, where they are partially sympatric with Allopoecilia. However the P. (A.) caucana complex was not monophyletic, with P. (A.) wandae clustering in the Mollienesia subclade that expanded into South America. It is apparent that characters (body size, scale count, pigmentation, and gonopodium morphology) used to define the P. (A

  4. 75 FR 53370 - RailAmerica, Inc., Palm Beach Holding, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation Corp., Central Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    .... (DTC), subject to labor protective conditions. Pursuant to an agreement that CERA, a Class III rail carrier, intends to enter into with Bunge North America (East), LLC (Bunge), the parent company of DTC, CERA will acquire from Bunge all of the issued and outstanding shares of stock of DTC and will...

  5. Attitudes to and visions of civil society/state relations in Central America: implications for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon, Barry; Hume, Mo

    2010-01-01

    This paper will present results of a research project on civil society held in three Central American states, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Honduras, in July and August, 2009, as part of the Irish Aid funded and DCU led Active Citizenship in Central America project. The paper is based on a wide range of events and interviews held in these three countries, with five distinct populations, many of them involved in the Active Citizenship Project: students of NGO Management and Municipal Leadership D...

  6. A revision of the Yelicones species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Rogadinae) from Central America, with descriptions of sixteen new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quicke, D.L.J.; Chishti, M.J.K.; Basibuyuk, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    The genus Yelicones Cameron, 1887, from North and Central America is revised. Ninteen species are recognized: Y. arizonus spec. nov. from U.S.A. (Arizona) and Mexico; Y. barroci spec. nov. from Panama; Y. bicoloripes spec. nov. from Costa Rica and Panama; Y. canalensis spec. nov. from Panama; Y. con

  7. Promoting Healthy Living and Aging in Central America : Multi-sectoral Approaches to Prevent Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla-Chacin, Maria Eugenia; Vásquez, Luis T. Marcano

    2012-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the main cause of death and disability in Central America. However, communicable diseases and maternal and child conditions remain important causes of death and disability as well as injuries. With the aging of the population and improvements in the control of infectious diseases, the share of NCDs in the total burden of disease is likely to increase. H...

  8. Anti-gang policies and gang responses in the Northern Triangle : The Evolution of the Gang Phenomenon in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Borgh, G.J.C.; Savenije, W.

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, gangs have become a powerful and violent presence in El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras, the ‘Northern Triangle’ of Central America. 1 The particular evolution of the gang phenomenon has been deeply shaped by a series of reactions and adaptations to ill-developed security po

  9. A comparative study of Taiwan's short-term medical missions to the South Pacific and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Ya-Wen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taiwan has been dispatching an increasing number of short-term medical missions (STMMs to its allied nations to provide humanitarian health care; however, overall evaluations to help policy makers strengthen the impact of such missions are lacking. Our primary objective is to identify useful strategies by comparing STMMs to the South Pacific and Central America. Methods The data for the evaluation come from two main sources: the official reports of 46 missions to 11 countries in Central America and 25 missions to 8 countries in the South Pacific, and questionnaires completed by health professionals who had participated in the above missions. In Central America, STMMs were staffed by volunteer health professionals from multiple institutions. In the South Pacific, STMMs were staffed by volunteer health professionals from single institutions. Results In comparison to STMMs to Central America, STMMs to the South Pacific accomplished more educational training for local health providers, including providing heath-care knowledge and skills (p Conclusions Health-care services provided by personnel from multiple institutions are as efficient as those from single institutions. Proficiency in the native language and provision of education for local health-care workers are essential for conducting a successful STMM. Our data provide implications for integrating evidence into the deployment of STMMs.

  10. Genetic diversity of human blastocystis isolates in khorramabad, central iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Badparva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There are some genetic differences in Blastocystis that show the existence of species or genotypes. One of these genes that help in identifying Blastocystis is SSUrRNA. The aim of this study was assessment of genetic diversity of Blastocystis by PCR with seven pairs of STS primers.This study was done on 511 stool samples collected from patients referred to the health care centers of Khorramabad, Central Iran, in 2012. Genomic DNA was extracted and in order to determine the Blastocystis subtype in contaminated samples, seven pairs of primers STS (subtype specific sequence-tagged site were used.Out of 511 samples, 33 (6.5% samples were infected with Blastocystis. Subtype (ST of 30 samples was identified and three subtypes 2, 3 and 4 were determined. Mix infection was reported 10% which 3.33% of the infection was for the mixture of ST 3 and ST5 and 6.67% was for the mixture of ST 2 and ST 3.The predominant subtype was ST3 that is the main human subtype. The dominance of ST2 and 5 are important in this study. This superiority has been reported in some of the studies in ST 2 which is different from the studies in other countries, because they have announced priorities of the ST1 and ST6 after ST3.

  11. International relations among Tom Thumbs: Taiwan as provider of aid Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Haro Navejas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Official Development Aid (AOD that has as its source Taiwan and as its destination Central America. It has three basic aims: Firstly, there is a huge bibliographic vacuum on the topic of these pages. Beginning filling it is an academic need. Even some intellectuals feel that they should lean against either Beijing or Taipei, that if they write on Taiwan they should defend or attack one of the contending parties. Here it is seen that a study close to objectivity is possible. Secondly, most of the research in International Relations has been focused on topics related with power itself or with just elements related with hard power. AOD is both hard and soft power, therefore this paper shades light to the dark side partially viewing international relations from a theoretical perspective were interactions help to construct identities and cooperation is an essential variable of world politics. Finally, it will be seen below that the Taiwanese cooperativeeconomic actions are helpful to the progress of poor parts of the Central American region and are helpful to create domestic markets with strong links with the world market deepening the economic integration both regional and global. Aid from Taiwan and some other countries, mainly through the transmission of know how, could be of assistance in surmounting huge troubles. Aid is vital because some of Central American’s problems are being exported mainly to México and the United States under the form, just to give an example, of Mara Salvatrucha gangs source of violence and drug trafficking. It is not meaningless to stress that Taiwanese ODA is by far not enough and is very small in the international context.

  12. Development of food crops by modern biotechnology techniques in Central America Desarrollo de cultivos y alimentos por técnicas de biotecnología moderna en Centroamérica

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Garro Monge

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, the adoption of Genetically Modified Crops (GMC) has increased in stages worldwide. The worldwide total area planted with biotech crops reached 148 million hectares by 2010, also increasing the number of farmers around the world who decided to produce crops with this technology. At the regional level there are different responses of government agencies by generating rules and regu- lations according to the reality of these countries. In Central America, countries with grea...

  13. Projected impact of twenty-first century ENSO changes on rainfall over Central America and northwest South America from CMIP5 AOGCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, Daniel F.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Clark, Martyn P.

    2015-03-01

    Due to the importance that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has on rainfall over the tropical Americas, future changes in ENSO characteristics and teleconnections are important for regional hydroclimate. Projected changes to the ENSO mean state and characteristics, and the resulting impacts on rainfall anomalies over Central America, Colombia, and Ecuador during the twenty-first century are explored for several forcing scenarios using a suite of coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (AOGCMs) from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Mean-state warming of eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, drying of Central America and northern Colombia, and wetting of southwest Colombia and Ecuador are consistent with previous studies that used earlier versions of the AOGCMs. Current and projected future characteristics of ENSO (frequency, duration, amplitude) show a wide range of values across the various AOGCMs. The magnitude of ENSO-related rainfall anomalies are currently underestimated by most of the models, but the model ensembles generally simulate the correct sign of the anomalies across the seasons around the peak ENSO effects. While the models capture the broad present-day ENSO-related rainfall anomalies, there is not a clear sense of projected future changes in the precipitation anomalies.

  14. Genetic perspectives on the ascidian central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Locascio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, date of publication of the Ciona intestinalis genome, ascidians entered the post-genomic era. This tool had a fundamental role and has become the starting point for a series of new functional and genomic studies. Recently, great efforts have been done to characterize the genetic cascades of genes having a key role in early embryonic development and to draw the regulatory networks in which they are involved. In this review, we focused our attention on the last advances obtained in the attempt to clarify the complex molecular events governing ascidian central nervous system development with a special interest for anterior neural and sensory structures. We discussed the more recent theories on its early induction and late regionalization. In particular, we used some conserved genes fully or partially characterized as examples to compare ascidian and vertebrate central nervous system (CNS.By integrating the various results obtained with microarray, morpholino loss of function and promoter analyses, we showed that many progresses have been done to unravel the gene networks controlling early CNS induction and formation. Unfortunately, fewer advances have been done in the identification of the regulatory cascades controlling late CNS regionalization and sensory organs differentiation. Some results are discussed to point out the importance of fully characterizing also these specific regulatory cascades.

  15. Genetic structure of avian influenza viruses from ducks of the Atlantic flyway of North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Huang

    Full Text Available Wild birds, including waterfowl such as ducks, are reservoir hosts of influenza A viruses. Despite the increased number of avian influenza virus (AIV genome sequences available, our understanding of AIV genetic structure and transmission through space and time in waterfowl in North America is still limited. In particular, AIVs in ducks of the Atlantic flyway of North America have not been thoroughly investigated. To begin to address this gap, we analyzed 109 AIV genome sequences from ducks in the Atlantic flyway to determine their genetic structure and to document the extent of gene flow in the context of sequences from other locations and other avian and mammalian host groups. The analyses included 25 AIVs from ducks from Newfoundland, Canada, from 2008-2011 and 84 available reference duck AIVs from the Atlantic flyway from 2006-2011. A vast diversity of viral genes and genomes was identified in the 109 viruses. The genetic structure differed amongst the 8 viral segments with predominant single lineages found for the PB2, PB1 and M segments, increased diversity found for the PA, NP and NS segments (2, 3 and 3 lineages, respectively, and the highest diversity found for the HA and NA segments (12 and 9 lineages, respectively. Identification of inter-hemispheric transmissions was rare with only 2% of the genes of Eurasian origin. Virus transmission between ducks and other bird groups was investigated, with 57.3% of the genes having highly similar (≥99% nucleotide identity genes detected in birds other than ducks. Transmission between North American flyways has been frequent and 75.8% of the genes were highly similar to genes found in other North American flyways. However, the duck AIV genes did display spatial distribution bias, which was demonstrated by the different population sizes of specific viral genes in one or two neighbouring flyways compared to more distant flyways.

  16. Genetic diversity and population genetics of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae: Culex spp.) from the Sonoran Desert of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Edward; Flores-López, Carlos A; Mada-Vélez, Jesús Gerardo; Escalante-Verdugo, Juan; Markow, Therese A

    2013-01-01

    The population genetics and phylogenetic relationships of Culex mosquitoes inhabiting the Sonoran Desert region of North America were studied using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite molecular markers. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) from mosquitoes collected over a wide geographic area, including the Baja California peninsula, and mainland localities in southern Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico, showed several well-supported partitions corresponding to Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tarsalis, and two unidentified species, Culex sp. 1 and sp. 2. Culex quinquefasciatus was found at all localities and was the most abundant species collected. Culex tarsalis was collected only at Tucson, Arizona and Guaymas, Sonora. The two unidentified species of Culex were most abundant at Navojoa in southern Sonora. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities in the COI gene segment were substantially lower in Cx. quinquefasciatus compared with the other three species. Analysis of molecular variance revealed little structure among seven populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus, whereas significant structure was found between the two populations of Cx. tarsalis. Evidence for an historical population expansion beginning in the Pleistocene was found for Cx. tarsalis. Possible explanations for the large differences in genetic diversity between Cx. quinquefasciatus and the other species of Culex are presented.

  17. Genetic Diversity and Population Genetics of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae: Culex spp. from the Sonoran Desert of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Pfeiler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The population genetics and phylogenetic relationships of Culex mosquitoes inhabiting the Sonoran Desert region of North America were studied using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite molecular markers. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI from mosquitoes collected over a wide geographic area, including the Baja California peninsula, and mainland localities in southern Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico, showed several well-supported partitions corresponding to Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tarsalis, and two unidentified species, Culex sp. 1 and sp. 2. Culex quinquefasciatus was found at all localities and was the most abundant species collected. Culex tarsalis was collected only at Tucson, Arizona and Guaymas, Sonora. The two unidentified species of Culex were most abundant at Navojoa in southern Sonora. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities in the COI gene segment were substantially lower in Cx. quinquefasciatus compared with the other three species. Analysis of molecular variance revealed little structure among seven populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus, whereas significant structure was found between the two populations of Cx. tarsalis. Evidence for an historical population expansion beginning in the Pleistocene was found for Cx. tarsalis. Possible explanations for the large differences in genetic diversity between Cx. quinquefasciatus and the other species of Culex are presented.

  18. Genetic Diversity and Population Genetics of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae: Culex spp.) from the Sonoran Desert of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Edward; Flores-López, Carlos A.; Mada-Vélez, Jesús Gerardo; Escalante-Verdugo, Juan; Markow, Therese A.

    2013-01-01

    The population genetics and phylogenetic relationships of Culex mosquitoes inhabiting the Sonoran Desert region of North America were studied using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite molecular markers. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) from mosquitoes collected over a wide geographic area, including the Baja California peninsula, and mainland localities in southern Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico, showed several well-supported partitions corresponding to Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tarsalis, and two unidentified species, Culex sp. 1 and sp. 2. Culex quinquefasciatus was found at all localities and was the most abundant species collected. Culex tarsalis was collected only at Tucson, Arizona and Guaymas, Sonora. The two unidentified species of Culex were most abundant at Navojoa in southern Sonora. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities in the COI gene segment were substantially lower in Cx. quinquefasciatus compared with the other three species. Analysis of molecular variance revealed little structure among seven populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus, whereas significant structure was found between the two populations of Cx. tarsalis. Evidence for an historical population expansion beginning in the Pleistocene was found for Cx. tarsalis. Possible explanations for the large differences in genetic diversity between Cx. quinquefasciatus and the other species of Culex are presented. PMID:24302868

  19. Application of scientific core drilling to geothermal exploration: Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.J.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Duffield, W.A. [Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Janik, C.J. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Our efforts in Honduras and Guatemala were part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (AID). Exploration core drilling operations at the Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala sites were part of a geothermal assessment for the national utility companies of these countries to locate and evaluate their geothermal resources for electrical power generation. In Honduras, country-wide assessment of all thermal areas determined that Platanares was the site with the greatest geothermal potential. In late 1986 to middle 1987, three slim core holes were drilled at Platanares to a maximum depth of 680 m and a maximum temperature of 165{degree}C. The objectives were to obtain information on the geothermal gradient, hydrothermal alterations, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids. Two holes produced copious amounts of water under artesian conditions and a total of 8 MW(t) of energy. Geothermal investigations in Guatemala focused on the Tecuamburro Volcano geothermal site. The results of surface geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical studies at Tecuamburro Volcano indicated a substantial shallow heat source. In early 1990 we drilled one core hole, TCB-1, to 808 m depth. The measured bottom hole temperature was 238{degree}C. Although the borehole did not flow, in-situ samples indicate the hole is completed in a vapor-zone above a probable 300{degree}C geothermal reservoir.

  20. Asymmetric forest transition driven by the interaction of socioeconomic development and environmental heterogeneity in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redo, Daniel J; Grau, H Ricardo; Aide, T Mitchell; Clark, Matthew L

    2012-06-01

    Forest transitions (FT) have been observed in many developed countries and more recently in the developing world. However, our knowledge of FT from tropical regions is mostly derived from case studies from within a particular country, making it difficult to generalize findings across larger regions. Here we overcome these difficulties by conducting a recent (2001-2010) satellite-based analysis of trends in forest cover across Central America, stratified by biomes, which we related to socioeconomic variables associated with human development. Results show a net decrease of woody vegetation resulting from 12,201 km(2) of deforestation of moist forests and 6,825 km(2) of regrowth of conifer and dry forests. The Human Development Index was the socioeconomic variable best associated with forest cover change. The least-developed countries, Nicaragua and Guatemala, experienced both rapid deforestation of moist forests and significant recovery of conifer and dry forests. In contrast, the most developed countries, Panama and Costa Rica, had net woody vegetation gain and a more stable forest cover configuration. These results imply a good agreement with FT predictions of forest change in relation to socioeconomic development, but strong asymmetry in rates and directions of change largely dependent upon the biome where change is occurring. The FT model should be refined by incorporating ecological and socioeconomic heterogeneity, particularly in multicountry and regional studies. These asymmetric patterns of forest change should be evaluated when developing strategies for conserving biodiversity and environmental services. PMID:22615408

  1. Comparison of GNSS integrated water vapor and NWM reanalysis data over Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Laura Isabel; Natali, Maria Paula; Meza, Amalia; Mendoza, Luciano; Bianchi, Clara

    2016-07-01

    Integrated water vapor (IWV) derived from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and Numerical Weather Models (NWM) reanalysis data were compared in order to assess the consistency between the different datasets over the extended geographical region of Central and South America. The analysis was performed for the seven years period between 2007 and 2013. We analyzed two different NWM: the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis data (ERA Interim) and the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The statistical analysis of the differences was performed in 110 GNSS sites (GPS + GLONASS), although the most interesting results came from the 73 sites which have more than 5 years of data. The selected area involves different climate types, from polar to tropical, and it is characterized by large temporal variability of the integrated total humidity content. Moreover, the scarce coverage of operational radio sounding stations is noticeable in large areas of the selected region; hence the contribution of IWV-GNSS is essential to improve the weather understanding. Considering that the atmospheric water vapor has a highly variable and complex distribution which knowledge is essential for weather prediction and local meteorological studies. This study aims to provide IWV-GNSS observations able to be assimilated by operational weather centers, for both prediction and simulation, as well for improving regional modeling.

  2. Ash Layers: The Controlling Factor On Translational Sliding Offshore Central America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harders, R.; Brueckmann, W.; Feeser, V.; Hensen, C.; Kutterolf, S.

    2006-12-01

    The erosive convergent margin of Central America is dominated by the fast subduction of the rough Pacific plate. Off Costa Rica the morphology of the subducted oceanic plate is characterized by numerous seamounts and the Cocos Ridge. Off Nicaragua fewer seamounts and bend ing-related faults dominate the morphology. In both areas seamount subduction with resulting slope uplift or subduction erosion at the base of the upper plate causes oversteepening and frequent slope failure. Our investigation focuses on translational slides off Nicaragua (Skempton ratio pelagic sediments. Firstly they have higher contents of silt and sand causing higher intrinsic permeabilities. Secondly they consist of disc shaped glass shards which causes higher consolidation rates. This is proved by our first laboratory shear box tests, where ash matter compacted with much higher values than spherical grain shaped reference material of the same grain size. Both factors together could cause a peak pore pressure if ashes compacted rapidly, for instance in a seismic event like the earthquake 1992 off Nicaragua. This would effectively reduce the shear strength between the ash particles and facilitate translational failure. To test this hypothesis and to analyse the relation between pore water pressures and shear strengths under drained conditions, we have modified a shear box, to simultaneously measure pore water pressure and shear strength. We will present field observations from cruise M66 as well as first results from laboratory deformation experiments, supporting our model.

  3. Sub-Saharan centralized biorepository for genetic and genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmelseed, Nagla; Elsir, Afrah Awad; Deblasio, Pasquale; Biunno, Ida

    2012-04-15

    Quality-assessed biomedical samples are essential for academia- and industry driven research on human diseases. The etiologies and the molecular genetic factors relevant in African diseases, including both infections and complex degenerative diseases as well as cancer, need to be studied using well annotated and well-preserved biosamples acquired from native African ethnic groups and compare the results with non-African populations and/or with Afro-Americans. However, a number of difficulties negatively impact on the possibility to obtain clinically annotated biological samples in most Sub-Saharan African countries. This is mainly due to major organizational problems, lack of clinical centres that can dedicate resources to research, as well as lack of facilities in which biomaterials can be properly processed and safely stored. Harmonization of biosample acquisition, storage phenotyping schemes and biocomputer infrastructures are the principal objectives of biological resource centers (BRCs). BRCs comprise biobanks of different formats (collection of blood, DNA, tissues, etc., annotated with medical, environmental, life-style and follow up data) a fundamental tool for molecular epidemiological studies aiming to increase excellence and efficacy of biomedical results, drug development and public health. BRCs provide large and highly controlled biomolecular resources necessary to meet the "omics" scientific platforms. Sudan may be a candidate nation to host such infrastructure, in view of its strategic geographical position and the already existing simple biobanking experiences connected with research groups in Central Sudan. Here, we describe the potential role of biobanks in African genetic studies aiming to dissect the eziopathogenesis of complex diseases in relation to environmental and life-style factors. PMID:21303714

  4. The Banded Elm Bark Beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae in North America: a taxonomic review and modifications to the Wood (1982 key to the species of Scolytus Geoffroy in North and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James LaBonte

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2003, an Asian bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, the banded elm bark beetle, was detected for the first time in North America. This paper modifies the Wood (1982 key to the species of Scolytus Geoffroy to enable identification of S. schevyrewi in North and Central America. Variation of diagnostic characters in S. schevyrewi is discussed.

  5. The Banded Elm Bark Beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in North America: a taxonomic review and modifications to the Wood (1982) key to the species of Scolytus Geoffroy in North and Central America

    OpenAIRE

    James LaBonte

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In 2003, an Asian bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), the banded elm bark beetle, was detected for the first time in North America. This paper modifies the Wood (1982) key to the species of Scolytus Geoffroy to enable identification of Scolytus schevyrewi in North and Central America. Variation of diagnostic characters in Scolytus schevyrewi is discussed.

  6. Geomorphological impact on agroforestry systems in the interior highlands of Nicaragua, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentler, Axel; Wriessnig, Karin; Ottner, Franz; Schomakers, Jasmin; Benavides González, Álvaro; Cisne Contreras, José Dolores; Querol Lipcovich, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Cerro el Castillo is located in the NW of Nicaragua, Central America, close to the border of Honduras (Provincia Central de las Cordilleras) at 1000-1200m above sea level. In this region, small and medium-sized farms are agroforestry systems with mangos, avocados, coffee, papayas, bananas, strawberries, maize, pumpkins, beans and other vegetables. The production systems are strongly linked to facilities for raising small domestic animals and cows. Main regional agricultural production problems are steep slopes, soil erosion, varying precipitation and distribution, water management and the unstable family income. An investigation of topsoil properties with comparable management systems showed on small scales significant differences in key values of soil chemistry and mineralogy. The outline of the analytical parameters included determination of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) in soil solution, and plant available nutrients (P and K). The soil's mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The area is a highly weathered karst landscape within a tropical limestone region displaying different amounts of volcanic pyroclastic parent material. The dominant Nitisoils and Andosols show degraded argic and andic horizons along the upper half of the mountainside. The pH values in the topsoil are moderate from pH 5.0 to 5.6. The upland topsoil is decalcified and the amount of plant available phosphorous is very low with significant low Ca concentration at the sorption complex. The mineralogical composition points to the high weathering intensity of this area (high content of kaolinite and a lower concentration of potassium and plagioclase feldspars and andesite). Along the upper half of the mountain, the soil profiles show wider C:N ratios and lower amounts of organic matter. Topsoil at lower altitude and with a lower

  7. The genetic legacy of multiple beaver reintroductions in Central Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Frosch

    Full Text Available The comeback of the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber throughout western and central Europe is considered a major conservation success. Traditionally, several subspecies are recognised by morphology and mitochondrial haplotype, each linked to a relict population. During various reintroduction programs in the 20th century, beavers from multiple source localities were released and now form viable populations. These programs differed in their reintroduction strategies, i.e., using pure subspecies vs. mixed source populations. This inhomogeneity in management actions generated ongoing debates regarding the origin of present beaver populations and appropriate management plans for the future. By sequencing of the mitochondrial control region and microsatellite genotyping of 235 beaver individuals from five selected regions in Germany, Switzerland, Luxembourg, and Belgium we show that beavers from at least four source origins currently form admixed, genetically diverse populations that spread across the study region. While regional occurrences of invasive North American beavers (n = 20 were found, all but one C. fiber bore the mitochondrial haplotype of the autochthonous western Evolutionary Significant Unit (ESU. Considering this, as well as the viability of admixed populations and the fact that the fusion of different lineages is already progressing in all studied regions, we argue that admixture between different beaver source populations should be generally accepted.

  8. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Larreynaga, J.; González, M.; Castro, M.; Gavidia, F.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; González-Riancho, P.; Carreño, E.

    2013-11-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and deterministic methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold: on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high-resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps, and from the elevation in the near shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific Basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences-finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the linear and non-linear shallow water equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake-generated tsunami scenarios. Our results show that at the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results

  9. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Álvarez-Gómez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has approximately a length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there have been 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and hundreds of victims. The hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached from both Probabilistic and Deterministic Methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold, on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps and from the elevation in the near-shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences – finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the Linear and Non-linear Shallow Water Equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake generated tsunami scenarios. In the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results obtained

  10. Enterocytozoon bieneusi (ORDEN MICROSPORIDIA, FAMILIA Entrerocytozoonidae) IN COSTA RICA: REPORT OF THE FIRST HUMAN CASE IN CENTRAL AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    MISAEL CHINCHILLA; LILLIANA REYES; OLGA M GUERRERO; MAURICIO FRAJAN; MARCO T MORALES

    1997-01-01

    The first case of microsporidiosis in Central America is described in an AIDS patient from Costa Rica. Electronic microscopy studies indicate that the spores were not included in a parasitophorous vacuola, but they are in direct contact with the cell cytoplasm. Sporogonic proliferative plasmodial forms presence ana localization of the polar tubes in the anterior region of the spore, confirmed the specie Enterocytozoon bieneusi as the cause of this microsporidian infection

  11. A new evaluation of Seismic Hazard for the Central America Region in the frame of the RESIS II Project.

    OpenAIRE

    Benito Oterino, Belen; Lindholm, Conrad; Camacho, Eduardo; Climent, Alvaro; Marroquín, Griselda; Molina, Enrique; Rojas, Wilfredo; Segura, José Jorge; Talavera, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    A new evaluation of seismic hazard in the Central America region has been carried out, in the frame of the cooperation project RESIS II, financed by the Norway Cooperation Agency (NORAD). Different experts in seismic hazard from Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua , El Salvador, Norway and Spain participated in the study, which was aimed at obtaining results suitable for seismic design purposes. The analysis started with an exhaustive revision of the seismic catalogues of each country from which...

  12. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio; Aniel-Quiroga Zorrilla, Íñigo; Gutiérrez Gutiérrez, Omar Quetzalcóatl; Larreynaga Murcia, Jeniffer; González Rodríguez, Ernesto Mauricio; M. Castro; Gavidia Medina, Francisco; Aguirre Ayerbe, Ignacio; González-Riancho Calzada, Pino; Carreño Herrero, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT. El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate lenght of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700.000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and deterministic m...

  13. Micro and Macroscale Drivers of Nutrient Concentrations in Urban Streams in South, Central and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiselle, Steven A.; Gasparini Fernandes Cunha, Davi; Shupe, Scott; Valiente, Elsa; Rocha, Luciana; Heasley, Eleanore; Belmont, Patricia Pérez; Baruch, Avinoam

    2016-01-01

    Global metrics of land cover and land use provide a fundamental basis to examine the spatial variability of human-induced impacts on freshwater ecosystems. However, microscale processes and site specific conditions related to bank vegetation, pollution sources, adjacent land use and water uses can have important influences on ecosystem conditions, in particular in smaller tributary rivers. Compared to larger order rivers, these low-order streams and rivers are more numerous, yet often under-monitored. The present study explored the relationship of nutrient concentrations in 150 streams in 57 hydrological basins in South, Central and North America (Buenos Aires, Curitiba, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Mexico City and Vancouver) with macroscale information available from global datasets and microscale data acquired by trained citizen scientists. Average sub-basin phosphate (P-PO4) concentrations were found to be well correlated with sub-basin attributes on both macro and microscales, while the relationships between sub-basin attributes and nitrate (N-NO3) concentrations were limited. A phosphate threshold for eutrophic conditions (>0.1 mg L-1 P-PO4) was exceeded in basins where microscale point source discharge points (eg. residential, industrial, urban/road) were identified in more than 86% of stream reaches monitored by citizen scientists. The presence of bankside vegetation covaried (rho = –0.53) with lower phosphate concentrations in the ecosystems studied. Macroscale information on nutrient loading allowed for a strong separation between basins with and without eutrophic conditions. Most importantly, the combination of macroscale and microscale information acquired increased our ability to explain sub-basin variability of P-PO4 concentrations. The identification of microscale point sources and bank vegetation conditions by citizen scientists provided important information that local authorities could use to improve their management of lower order river

  14. Emerging deforestation trends in tropical dry forests ecoregions of Mexico and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, C. A.; Cao, G.; Smith, V.

    2015-12-01

    Neotropical dry forests (TDF) have experienced an unprecedented deforestation that is leading to the loss of tropical biodiversity at a rapid pace, but information on deforestation dynamics in TDF is scarce. In this study, we present a sub-continental and national level assessment of TDF loss patterns in Mexico and Central America at high spatial and temporal resolution using remote sensing and GIS technologies. We used the Global Forest Change (GFC) dataset published by Hansen et al. (2013) which shows results from time-series analysis of Landsat images in characterizing global forest extent and change from 2000 through 2013. We analyzed forest loss within and around mapped TDF cover mapped by Portillo-Quintero et al. 2010. In order to minimize errors in source data, we overlaid a 25 x 25 km grid on top of the regional dataset and conducted a cell by cell and country by country inspection at multiple scales using high resolution ancillary data. We identified trends in the clustering of space-time TDF deforestation data using ArcGIS, categorizing trends in: new, consecutive, intensifying, persistent, diminishing, sporadic, oscillating and historical hotspots (high frequency of deforestation events) and cold spots (low frequency of deforestation). In general, the region is experiencing less frequent deforestation events with a higher number of intensifying and new cold spots across TDF landscapes. However, an important number of intensifying and persistent hotspots exist so no general trend in forest loss was detected for the period 2001-2013, except for El Salvador which shows a significant decreasing trend in forest loss. Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Guatemala are the major sources of intensifying, persistent and new deforestation hot spots. These were identified in the southern pacific coast and the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, northwestern Guatemala, both western and eastern Honduras and around Lake Nicaragua in Nicaragua.

  15. Applications of a GIS on Georisks for Nicaragua and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, W.; Chavez, G.; Gutierrez, V.; Feldhaus, L.; Schillinger, S.; Schmidt, R.

    2007-05-01

    A GIS on Georisks in Nicaragua was developed in the last years at the Instituto Nicaraguense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER) in cooperation with Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR, Germany). This GIS includes extensive topographical coverage and a large part of the data obtained in Nicaragua in many recent projects on natural hazard, vulnerability and risk. It contains numerous data on elements under risk, for instance cadastre data of Nicaraguan cities. Activities include the integration of the GIS with the monitoring and early warning systems of INETER to update certain parts of the data base continuously and in real time. The GIS is used on a routine basis at INETER and the GIS data base provides an efficient starting point for multiple new projects on georisks in Nicaragua which after their termination deliver their products to the GIS to assure the continuous growth of the system. Local universities, governmental institutions, local administrations, NGO´s make use of the GIS data base. Examples of important datasets are the seismicity data of Nicaragua with around 30,000 events, landslide coverage with 17,000 events, seismic vulnerability of 212,000 buildings in Managua city, seismic microzonation data of several towns, and multidisciplinary hazard and vulnerability data for 30 municipalities in Western Nicaragua. An interdisciplinary group of Nicaraguan geoscientists, informatics engineers and GIS specialists at INETER was trained to develop and use the GIS in their daily work. Web mapping services were put onto INETER´s website to provide the general public in Nicaragua with direct access to the data. Based on the experience in Nicaragua a regional GIS on Georisks for Central America is under development in cooperation with other institutions in El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras.

  16. Atmospheric circulation associated with extreme generalized frosts persistence in central-southern South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Gabriela V. [Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Transferencia de Tecnologia a la Produccion, Diamante (CICYTTTP-CONICET), Diamante, Entre Rios (Argentina); Berri, Guillermo J. [Servicio Meteorologico Nacional - CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-03-15

    Generalized frosts (GF) in central-southern South America have a strong impact due to their spatial extension, and they are especially important when they become persistent. This paper aims at identifying the atmospheric circulation features that determine the extreme GF persistence, i.e. very persistent and without persistence, and the differences between them, during the 1961-1990 winters. Since the GF without persistence group outnumbers the other one, two subgroups are composed with events selected from winters with maximum and minimum frequency of GF occurrence, respectively. Additionally, the individual event of July 1988 within the very persistent GF group is analyzed due to its exceptional persistence. GF persistence is mainly conditioned by two large-scale dynamic factors. One is the Rossby wave train propagation across the Pacific Ocean, and the other one is the location with respect to the continent and the magnitude of the confluence in the jet entrance region in subtropical latitudes. A predominantly meridional Rossby wave train propagation with a confluence region to the west of the continent prior to the event favors GF with intermediate (null) persistence depending on the greater (lesser) jet acceleration. This is conditioned by the magnitude of the confluence, which, in turn, depends on the disposition of the wave train propagation pattern. Instead, an essentially zonal propagation with a confluence region to the east of the continent favors the GF persistence for several days, yet if there is no confluence the event does not persist. The greatest persistence of an event combines the confluence/diffluence of the jet entrance/exit region, which depends on the disposition with respect to the continent of the zonally propagating Rossby wave trains. (orig.)

  17. Constraining the Fore-Arc Flux Along the Central America Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, D. R.; Barry, P. H.; Ramirez, C. J.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Patel, B. S.; Blackmon, K.

    2014-12-01

    The transport of carbon to the deep mantle via subduction zones is interrupted by outputs via the fore-arc, volcanic front, and back-arc regions. Whereas output fluxes for the front and back-arc locales are well constrained for Central America (CA) [1], the fore-arc flux via cold seeps and groundwaters is virtually unknown. We present new He and CO2 data for the inner fore-arc of Costa Rica and western Panama to complement our study [2] of offshore CO2fluxes on the outer-forearc. On the Nicoya Peninsula, the Costa Rica Pacific coastline (including the Oso Peninsula) and the Talamanca Mountain Range, as well as coastal seeps in Panama, coupled CO2-He studies allow recognition of mantle (3He/4He up to 6RA) and crustal inputs to the volatile inventory. We associate the crustal component with CO2 derived from limestone (L) and organic sediments (S) on the subducting slab, and see a decrease in the L/S ratio trench-ward with the lowest values akin to those of diatomaceous ooze in the uppermost sequence of the subducting sediment package. This observation is consistent with the removal of the uppermost organic-rich sediment from deep subduction by under-plating. As the input carbon fluxes of the individual sedimentary layers are well constrained [3], we can limit the potential steady-state flux of carbon loss at the subaerial fore-arc to ~ 6 × 107 gCkm-1yr-1, equivalent to ~88% of the input flux of C associated with the ooze, or mass balance studies at subduction zones. [1] De Leeuw et al., EPSL, 2007; [2] Furi et al., G-cubed, 2010; [3] Li and Bebout, JGR, 2005.

  18. Offspring production in three freshwater crab species (Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae from the Amazon region and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo S. Wehrtmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are an important component of the fauna of limnic environments, and out of the two true freshwater crab families present in the Neotropics, Pseudothelphusidae is the most diverse. Considering the lack of information regarding reproductive features of neotropical freshwater crabs, we studied, for the first time, the fecundity and the presence of juveniles carried by females of two pseudothelphusids from the Amazon region - Kingsleya latifrons (Randall, 1840 and Kingsleya ytupora Magalhães, 1986 - and one from Central America - Potamocarcinus magnus (Rathbun, 1896. The two Kingsleya species produced relatively few (56-114 and large eggs (1.9-3.7 mm, typical for species with an abbreviated or direct development. Recently produced eggs were substantially larger in K. latifrons (mean 2.83 mm when compared to those of K. ytupora (mean 1.87 mm; however, at the end of the embryogenesis, mean egg diameter was similar in both species. Therefore, it is assumed that hatchlings in both species should have a similar size. A brief description of attached juveniles of K. ytupora is provided. The number of juveniles varied between 30 (K. ytupora and 179 (P. magnus; two size groups of juveniles were found, which indicates that the offspring cling to their mother for a prolonged period of time. There was no significant loss of eggs and juveniles; it is assumed that parental care diminishes the loss of their offspring. We compiled the available information of reproductive aspects from freshwater crabs: egg diameter was in the range of 2-3 mm, independent of female size and fecundity, and reported egg number varied between 9 and 417 eggs.

  19. Genetic relationships among five zebu breeds naturalized in America accessed with molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Villalobos-Cortés

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the within-breed genetic diversity and determine the genetic relationships among the most important zebu populations introduced in the American continent from Asia. Gyr (GYR, Red Sindhi (SIN, Nellore (NEL, Guzerat (GUZ and the synthetic Brahman (BRH breeds have been established especially in American tropical regions. Estimates of genetic structure and diversity were carried out within and among the five populations studied. The results of withinbreed genetic diversity showed medium to high medium values of diversity in all genetic parameters [observed heterozygosity (Ho=0.622±0.022; expected heterozygosity (He=0.662±0.023; number of alleles (Na=5.71±1.63; and allelic richness (Ar=4.097±0.958]. The lowest value of Ho was observed in NEL (0.569±0.019 and the highest in BRH (0.688±0.015. Lowest value of He was also observed in NEL (0.612±0.024 and the highest in BRH (0.700±0.020. Gyr, GUZ and NEL showed high estimations of inbreeding, 9.98, 7.92 and 6.83% respectively. Values of Na varied between 4.93±1.52 in GUZ and 7.04±1.99 in BRH and the Ar values ranged between 3.687±0.895 in NEL and 4.42±1.91 in SIN. On the other hand, although phenotypically, the five breeds are clearly distinguishable, the genetic analysis of structure and kinship demonstrates a total independence among GYR, GUZ and NEL, while BRH and Red Sindhi show a closed relationship. These facts support that GYR, GUZ and NEL have had a diverse origin but also different models of introgression in America. Brahman and SIN could be explained by the intervention of the Sindhi ancestors in the formation of the American synthetic Brahma.

  20. [Agrarian movements, development alternatives and food security in Central America: scenarios of transition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Rojas, R

    1991-01-01

    This article, based on personal experiences with a network of organizations of small and medium agricultural producers in Central America, aims to present the views of peasant organizations concerning agrarian problems in the region. The 3 major sections of work define the place of peasant agriculture in the traditional agrarian structure and the new problems resulting from the structural adjustment programs of the 1980s; separately describe the new peasant movements emerging in Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, identifying common themes an efforts at international collaboration; and explore the positions of the peasant organizations on the optimal strategies for agricultural development and agrarian change. Agriculture remains the backbone of the Central American economies. But because the economic model in the region is 1 of accumulation characterized by dependency, concentration of capital, and social marginalization, the agrarian structure is at the basis of social tensions. Efforts to develop peasant agriculture and to give small producers access to marketing and credit services have been weak and sporadic. The new peasant movements are less inclined than those of the past to employ tactics of confrontation in their efforts to secure access to land and better working conditions. The new movement is the expression of small market producers sometimes grouped into associations who are oriented to production of basic foodstuffs for the internal market. A new concern with adaptation and negotiation is evident. The new organizations have in common a belief in their ability to propose new solutions to regional problems. Their views are founded on a positive assessment of the ability of peasant agriculture to produce food and add dynamism to the regional economy after barriers to credit, technological progress, and modernization in general are removed. Signs of increased cooperation are evident between peasant organizations and other groups

  1. Neglected tropical diseases in Central America and Panama: review of their prevalence, populations at risk and impact on regional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2014-08-01

    A review of the literature since 2009 reveals a staggering health and economic burden resulting from neglected tropical diseases in Panama and the six countries of Central America (referred to collectively here as 'Central America'). Particularly at risk are the 10.2million people in the region who live on less than $2 per day, mostly in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador. Indigenous populations are especially vulnerable to neglected tropical diseases. Currently, more than 8million Central American children require mass drug treatments annually (or more frequently) for their intestinal helminth infections, while vector-borne diseases are widespread. Among the vector-borne parasitic infections, almost 40% of the population is at risk for malaria (mostly Plasmodium vivax infection), more than 800,000 people live with Chagas disease, and up to 39,000 people have cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, an important recent success story is the elimination of onchocerciasis from Central America. Dengue is the leading arbovirus infection with 4-5million people affected annually and hantavirus is an important rodent-borne viral neglected tropical disease. The leading bacterial neglected tropical diseases include leptospirosis and trachoma, for which there are no disease burden estimates. Overall there is an extreme dearth of epidemiological data on neglected tropical diseases based on active surveillance as well as estimates of their economic impact. Limited information to date, however, suggests that neglected tropical diseases are a major hindrance to the region's economic development, in both the most impoverished Central American countries listed above, as well as for Panama and Costa Rica where a substantial (but largely hidden) minority of people live in extreme poverty.

  2. Is violence associated with increased risk behavior among MSM? Evidence from a population-based survey conducted across nine cities in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Jennifer; Anfinson, Katherine; Valvert, Dennis; Lungo, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objective: There is a dearth of research examining the linkages between violence and HIV risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM), including those who identify as transgender women (TW), particularly in Central America where violence is widespread. In this paper, we use population-based survey results to independently examine the correlations between physical, emotional and sexual violence and HIV risk behavior among MSM populations in five countries in Central America.D...

  3. Chronological refinement of an ice core record at Upper Fremont Glacier in south central North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential to use ice cores from alpine glaciers in the midlatitudes to reconstruct paleoclimatic records has not been widely recognized. Although excellent paleoclimatic records exist for the polar regions, paleoclimatic ice core records are not common from midlatitude locations. An ice core removed from the Upper Fremont Glacier in Wyoming provides evidence for abrupt climate change during the mid-1800s. Volcanic events (Krakatau and Tambora) identified from electrical conductivity measurements (ECM) and isotopic and chemical data from the Upper Fremont Glacier were reexamined to confirm and refine previous chronological estimates of the ice core. At a depth of 152 m the refined age-depth profile shows good agreement (1736±10 A.D.) with the 14C age date (1729±95 A.D.). The δ18O profile of the Upper Fremont Glacier (UFG) ice core indicates a change in climate known as the Little Ice Age (LIA). However, the sampling interval for δ18O is sufficiently large (20 cm) such that it is difficult to pinpoint the LIA termination on the basis of δ18O data alone. Other research has shown that changes in the δ18O variance are generally coincident with changes in ECM variance. The ECM data set contains over 125,000 data points at a resolution of 1 data point per millimeter of ice core. A 999-point running average of the ECM data set and results from f tests indicates that the variance of the ECM data decreases significantly at about 108 m. At this depth, the age-depth profile predicts an age of 1845 A.D. Results indicate the termination of the LIA was abrupt with a major climatic shift to warmer temperatures around 1845 A.D. and continuing to present day. Prediction limits (error bars) calculated for the profile ages are ±10 years (90% confidence level). Thus a conservative estimate for the time taken to complete the LIA climatic shift to present-day climate is about 10 years, suggesting the LIA termination in alpine regions of central North America may have occurred

  4. Central Bank independence in Latin America La independencia de la Banca Central en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junguito Bonnet Roberto

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the origin and evolution of the central banks of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela, and analyzes their respective institutional structures. It also studies the contribution of the central bank to stabilization and the problems for maintaining this independence into the future.Este artículo describe el origen y la evolución de los Bancos Centrales de Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, México y Venezuela, y analiza sus respectivas estructruras institucionales. También estudia la contribución de la banca central a la estabilización y los problemas para que esta independencia se mantenga en el futuro.

  5. Mid-term evaluation of the NRECA (National Rural Electric Cooperative Association) Central America Rural Electrification Support Program (CARES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Jones, H.G. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); Garcia, A. III (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering); Flores, E. (Flores (Edgar), Guatemala City (Guatemala))

    1990-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory was requested by the Regional Office for Central America and Panama to conduct a mid-term evaluation of the Cares Project, which is being implemented by the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. This evaluation was conducted over a three week period by a four person team. Overall, the project has had numerous successes and is highly valued by local counterpart utilities and USAID Missions. Notwithstanding the significant results of the project, changes can be made in certain operating procedures and in the direction of some programmatic activities that can lead to an even more effective project.

  6. Effects of Genetic Loci Associated with Central Obesity on Adipocyte Lipolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Strawbridge, Rona J; Laumen, Helmut; Hamsten, Anders; Breier, Michaela; Grallert, Harald; Hauner, Hans; Arner, Peter; Dahlman, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Numerous genetic loci have been associated with measures of central fat accumulation, such as waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI). However the mechanisms by which genetic variations influence obesity remain largely elusive. Lipolysis is a key process for regulation of lipid storage in adipocytes, thus is implicated in obesity and its metabolic complications. Here, genetic variants at 36 WHRadjBMI-associated loci were examined for their influence on abdominal...

  7. Genetic Differentiation within the Puccinia triticina Population in South America and Comparison with the North American Population Suggests Common Ancestry and Intercontinental Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina is the most prevalent and widespread disease of wheat in South America. The objective of this study was to determine the number of genetically differentiated groups of P. triticina that are currently present in South America, and to compare the South American ...

  8. Genetic characterisation of Toxoplasma gondii in wildlife from North America revealed widespread and high prevalence of the fourth clonal type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J.P.; Velmurugan, G.V.; Ragendran, C.; Yabsley, M.J.; Thomas, N.J.; Beckmen, K.B.; Sinnett, D.; Ruid, D.; Hart, J.; Fair, P.A.; McFee, W.E.; Shearn-Bochsler, V.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Ferreira, L.R.; Choudhary, S.; Faria, E.B.; Zhou, H.; Felix, T.A.; Su, C.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study wild animals, from the USA were examined for T. gondii infection. Tissues of naturally exposed animals were bioassayed in mice for isolation of viable parasites. Viable T. gondii was isolated from 31 animals including, to our knowledge for the first time, from a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), five gray wolves (Canis lupus), a woodrat (Neotoma micropus), and five Arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus). Additionally, 66 T. gondii isolates obtained previously, but not genetically characterised, were revived in mice. Toxoplasma gondii DNA isolated from these 97 samples (31+66) was characterised using 11 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico). A total of 95 isolates were successfully genotyped. In addition to clonal Types II, and III, 12 different genotypes were found. These genotype data were combined with 74 T. gondii isolates previously characterised from wildlife from North America and a composite data set of 169 isolates comprised 22 genotypes, including clonal Types II, III and 20 atypical genotypes. Phylogenetic network analysis showed limited diversity with dominance of a recently designated fourth clonal type (Type 12) in North America, followed by the Type II and III lineages. These three major lineages together accounted for 85% of strains in North America. The Type 12 lineage includes previously identified Type A and X strains from sea otters. This study revealed that the Type 12 lineage accounts for 46.7% (79/169) of isolates and is dominant in wildlife of North America. No clonal Type I strain was identified among these wildlife isolates. These results suggest that T. gondii strains in wildlife from North America have limited diversity, with the occurrence of only a few major clonal types.

  9. Age and geochemistry of basaltic complexes in western Costa Rica: Contributions to the geotectonic evolution of Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauff, Folkmar; Hoernle, Kaj; van den Bogaard, Paul; Alvarado, Guillermo; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2000-05-01

    The age and origin of magmatic complexes along the Pacific Coast of Central America have important implications for the origin and tectonic evolution of this convergent plate margin. Here we present new 40Ar/39Ar laser age dates, major and trace element data, and initial Sr-Nd-Pb isotope ratios. The 124-109 Ma tholeiitic portions of the Santa Elena complex formed in a primitive island arc setting, believed to be part of the Chortis subduction zone. The geochemical similarities between the Santa Elena and Tortugal alkaline volcanic rocks suggest that Chortis block may extend south of the Hess Escarpment. The Nicoya, Herradura, Golfito, and Burica complexes and the tholeiitic Tortugal unit formed between 95 and 75 Ma and appear to be part of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province, thought to mark the initiation of the Galápagos hotspot. The Quepos and Osa complexes (65-59 Ma) represent accreted sections of an ocean island and an aseismic ridge, respectively, interpreted to reflect part of the Galápagos paleo-hotspot track. An Oligocene unconformity throughout Central America may be related to the mid-Eocene accretion of the Quepos and Osa complexes.

  10. Non-invasive genetic monitoring of wild central chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Arandjelovic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An assessment of population size and structure is an important first step in devising conservation and management plans for endangered species. Many threatened animals are elusive, rare and live in habitats that prohibit directly counting individuals. For example, a well-founded estimate of the number of great apes currently living in the wild is lacking. Developing methods to obtain accurate population estimates for these species is a priority for their conservation management. Genotyping non-invasively collected faecal samples is an effective way of evaluating a species' population size without disruption, and can also reveal details concerning population structure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We opportunistically collected wild chimpanzee faecal samples for genetic capture-recapture analyses over a four-year period in a 132 km(2 area of Loango National Park, Gabon. Of the 444 samples, 46% yielded sufficient quantities of DNA for genotyping analysis and the consequent identification of 121 individuals. Using genetic capture-recapture, we estimate that 283 chimpanzees (range: 208-316 inhabited the research area between February 2005 and July 2008. Since chimpanzee males are patrilocal and territorial, we genotyped samples from males using variable Y-chromosome microsatellite markers and could infer that seven chimpanzee groups are present in the area. Genetic information, in combination with field data, also suggested the occurrence of repeated cases of intergroup violence and a probable group extinction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The poor amplification success rate resulted in a limited number of recaptures and hence only moderate precision (38%, measured as the entire width of the 95% confidence interval, but this was still similar to the best results obtained using intensive nest count surveys of apes (40% to 63%. Genetic capture-recapture methods applied to apes can provide a considerable amount of novel information on

  11. Firm dollar debt and central bank dollar reserves: Empirical evidence from Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeswari Sengupta

    2014-01-01

    I explore an empirically robust but previously undocumented association between the foreign exchange reserves accumulated by central banks of emerging market economies and dollar-denominated debt held in the balance sheets of non financial sector firms. Borrowing in dollars can have damaging effects on corporate balance sheets in the event of exchange rate depreciation. However, firms may discount such risk because of the implicit insurance provided by the central banks ex-ante reserve accumu...

  12. Carbon cycle dynamics and solar activity embedded in a high-resolution 14C speleothem record from Belize, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechleitner, Franziska A.; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; McIntyre, Cameron; Asmerom, Yemane; Prufer, Keith M.; Polyak, Victor; Culleton, Brendan J.; Kennett, Douglas J.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Baldini, James U. L.

    2015-04-01

    Speleothem 14C has recently emerged as a potentially powerful proxy for climate reconstruction. Several studies have highlighted the link between karst hydrology and speleothem 14C content, and a number of possible causes for this relationship have been proposed, such as dripwater flow dynamics in the karst and changes in soil organic matter (SOM) turnover time (e.g. Griffiths et al., 2012). Here we present a high resolution 14C record for a stalagmite (YOK-I) from Yok Balum cave in southern Belize, Central America. YOK-I grew continuously over the last 2000 years, and has been dated very precisely with the U-Th method (40 dates, mean uncertainty ventilation and hydrologic resilience to seismic activity, Journal of Cave and Karst Studies

  13. Noninvasive individual and species identification of jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor) and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in Belize, Central America using cross-species microsatellites and faecal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wultsch, Claudia; Waits, Lisette P; Kelly, Marcella J

    2014-11-01

    There is a great need to develop efficient, noninvasive genetic sampling methods to study wild populations of multiple, co-occurring, threatened felids. This is especially important for molecular scatology studies occurring in challenging tropical environments where DNA degrades quickly and the quality of faecal samples varies greatly. We optimized 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci for jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor) and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and assessed their utility for cross-species amplification. Additionally, we tested their reliability for species and individual identification using DNA from faeces of wild felids detected by a scat detector dog across Belize in Central America. All microsatellite loci were successfully amplified in the three target species, were polymorphic with average expected heterozygosities of HE = 0.60 ± 0.18 (SD) for jaguars, HE = 0.65 ± 0.21 (SD) for pumas and HE = 0.70 ± 0.13 (SD) for ocelots and had an overall PCR amplification success of 61%. We used this nuclear DNA primer set to successfully identify species and individuals from 49% of 1053 field-collected scat samples. This set of optimized microsatellite multiplexes represents a powerful tool for future efforts to conduct noninvasive studies on multiple, wild Neotropical felids. PMID:24751217

  14. Genetic diversity of Chlamydia among captive birds from central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, María C; Monetti, Marina S; Vaulet, Lucia Gallo; Cadario, María E; Fermepin, Marcelo Rodríguez; Ré, Viviana E; Cuffini, Cecilia G

    2015-01-01

    To study the occurrence of Chlamydia spp. and their genetic diversity, we analysed 793 cloacal swabs from 12 avian orders, including 76 genera, obtained from 80 species of asymptomatic wild and captive birds that were examined with conventional nested polymerase chain reaction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Chlamydia spp. were not detected in wild birds; however, four species (Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia gallinacea) were identified among captive birds (Passeriformes, n = 20; Psittaciformes, n = 15; Rheiformes, n = 8; Falconiformes n = 2; Piciformes n = 2; Anseriformes n = 1; Galliformes n = 1; Strigiformes n = 1). Two pathogens (C. pneumoniae and C. pecorum) were identified simultaneously in samples obtained from captive birds. Based on nucleotide-sequence variations of the ompA gene, three C. psittaci-positive samples detected were grouped into a cluster with the genotype WC derived from mammalian hosts. A single positive sample was phylogenetically related to a new strain of C. gallinacea. This report contributes to our increasing understanding of the abundance of Chlamydia in the animal kingdom. PMID:25469538

  15. Structural Vulnerability among Migrating Women and Children Fleeing Central America and Mexico:The Public Health Impact of Humanitarian Parole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Salerno Valdez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since October 2013, US Customs and Border Patrol (USCBP has apprehended 15,979 families on the Southwest Border of the United States. Daily, migrating women and children from Mexico and Central America that qualify for humanitarian parole are released from immigration detention to a humanitarian aid organization in Southern Arizona. After several days in detention facilities, these families arrive tired, hungry, dehydrated, and with minimal direction regarding their final destination, and adherence to the parameters of their parole. Project Helping Hands (PHH utilizes a network of volunteers to provide the women and children with food, water, clothing, hygiene products, hospitality, and legal orientation. The aim of this assessment was to document the experiences of families granted humanitarian parole through the lens of structural vulnerability. Here we apply qualitative methods to elicit PHH lead volunteer perspectives regarding the migration experience of migrating families. Using inductive analysis, we found six major themes emerged from the qualitative data: reasons for leaving, experience on the journey, dehumanization in detention, family separation, vulnerability, and resiliency.These findings elucidate the different physical and psychological distresses that migrating families from Mexico and Central America experience before, during and after their arrival at the US-Mexico border. We posit that these distresses are a result of, or exacerbated by, structural vulnerability. Structural vulnerability has life-long health implications for a sub-population of young mothers and their children. The number of migrating families who have experienced traumatic events before, and during their migration experience continues to expand and thus warrants consideration of mental health surveillance and intervention efforts for these families. More public health research is needed to better understand and combat the health challenges of this growing

  16. Higher Education in Central America: Historical Foundations for Its Future Projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Ricardo Sol

    1996-01-01

    Three trends in Central American higher education are examined in historical context: (1) inertia from lack of mobility, bureaucracy, and corporate influence; (2) elitism as a response to budgetary constraints; and (3) attempts to increase responsiveness to educational needs and demands. Issues examined include earlier attempts at change, slow…

  17. Rainforest understory beetles of the Neotropics: Mizotrechus Bates 1872, a generic synopsis with descriptions of new species from Central America and northern South America (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Perigonini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Erwin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Information on the single previously described species, Mizotrechus novemstriatus Bates 1872 (type locality: Brazil – Amazonas, Tefé, is updated and 17 new species for the genus from Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panamá, Colombia, Venezuela, and Guyane are described. The species records in the literature and on determined specimens in some collections of M. novemstriatus Bates from Central America are not that species; currently, M. novemstriatus is known only from its type locality in Amazonian Brazil. For the new species described, their known general distributions are as follows: Mizotrechus batesi sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus bellorum sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus brulei sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus belevedere sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus costaricensis sp. n. (Costa Rica, Mizotrechus dalensi sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus edithpiafae sp. n. (provenance unknown, Mizotrechus fortunensis sp. n. (Panamá, Mizotrechus gorgona. sp. n. (Colombia, Mizotrechus grossus sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus jefe sp. n. (Panamá, Mizotrechus marielaforetae sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus minutus sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus neblinensis sp. n. (Guyane, Venezuela, Mizotrechus poirieri sp. n. (Guyane, and Mizotrechus woldai sp. n. (Panamá. Long-term use of flight intercept traps in Guyane provided so many new species that apparently the use of FITs is the way to collect adults of this taxon, previously known from very few specimens. Many more species of this genus can be expected to be discovered throughout the Neotropics; the present contribution is a preliminary synopsis with identification key and adult images of all known species. Likely numerous species are yet to be discovered throughout tropical climes.

  18. Active tectonics and Quaternary landscape evolution across the western Panama block, Costa Rica, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffrey Scott

    Three aspects of active tectonism are examined across central Costa Rica: (1) fault kinematics; (2) volcanic arc retreat; and (3) spatially variable coastal uplift. Diffuse faulting along the Central Costa Rica Deformed Belt (CCRDB) defines the western margin of the Panama block and aligns with the rough-smooth boundary (RSB) on the subducting Cocos plate. Sub-horizontal subduction of rough, hotspot thickened crust (Cocos Ridge and seamounts) shifts active shortening into the volcanic arc along the CCRDB. Mesoscale faults express variable kinematics across three domains: transtension in the forearc, transcurrent motion across the volcanic arc, and transpression in the back arc. Fault kinematics agree with seismicity and GPS data, and isotopic ages confirm that faulting postdates the late Neogene onset of shallow subduction. Stratigraphic correlation augmented by 40Ar/39Ar dating constrain the timing of Quaternary arc migration from the Neogene Aguacate range to the modern Cordillera Central. The Valle Central basin, between the cordilleras, filled with thick sequences of lavas, pyroclastic flows, and lahars. Middle Pleistocene drainage capture across the Aguacate arc linked the Valle Central with the Pacific slope and ash flows descended onto the coastal Orotina debris fan. Arc retreat reflects slab shallowing and enhanced tectonic erosion as rough crust entered the subduction zone. Differing subduction parameters across the RSB (crustal age, slab dip, roughness) produce marked contrasts in coastal tectonism. Varying uplift rates across coastal faults reflect sub-horizontal subduction of seamount roughness. Three groups (I--III) of fluvial terraces are correlated along the coast by isotopic ages and geomorphic characteristics. Base level fluctuations and terrace genesis reflect interaction between eustatic sea level and spatially variable rock uplift. Low uplift rates (north of RSB), yield one surface per terrace group, whereas moderate rates (south of RSB

  19. Statistical sulcal shape comparisons: application to the detection of genetic encoding of the central sulcus shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Goualher, G; Argenti, A.M.; Duyme, M;

    2000-01-01

    encoding. When applied to real data, this study highlighted genetic constraints on the shape of the central sulcus. We found from 10 pairs of monozygotic twins that the intrapair modal distance of the central sulcus was significantly smaller than the interpair modal distance, for both the left central...... sulcus (Z = -2.66; P sulcus (Z = -2.26; P sulcus shape were confirmed by applying the same experiment to 10 pairs of normal young individuals (Z = -1.39; Z = -0.63, i.e., values not significant at the P

  20. Vulnerability, poverty and socio-natural disasters in Central America and The Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, J

    2007-01-01

    [EN] This paper analyses and quantifi es the relative level of risk in a geographical area that is vulnerable to natural phenomena and with a high proportion of its population in a situation of residential poverty. We deduce that the hazard in the area, composed of nine Central American and Caribbean countries, is signifi cantly higher than the world average. The fi rst aspect is covered in the sections Population at risk and Natural phenomena, which analyse the ‘st...

  1. A Regional GIS of the Central Andes, South America - Integration of Satellite and Geophysical Data Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, K; F. K. List;  

    1996-01-01

    The Central Andes of northern Chile, southwestern Bolivia and northwestern Argentina are studied by a research project supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB 267). The main topics of these geological and geophysical investigations are the orogeny of the Andean mountains and the crustal development at an active continental margin. The "Andean GIS" is designed as a tool for data collection, management, overview, analysis and mapping. The integration of different data supports the...

  2. The use of genetics for the management of a recovering population: temporal assessment of migratory peregrine falcons in North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff A Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our ability to monitor populations or species that were once threatened or endangered and in the process of recovery is enhanced by using genetic methods to assess overall population stability and size over time. This can be accomplished most directly by obtaining genetic measures from temporally-spaced samples that reflect the overall stability of the population as given by changes in genetic diversity levels (allelic richness and heterozygosity, degree of population differentiation (F(ST and D(EST, and effective population size (N(e. The primary goal of any recovery effort is to produce a long-term self-sustaining population, and these genetic measures provide a metric by which we can gauge our progress and help make important management decisions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The peregrine falcon in North America (Falco peregrinus tundrius and anatum was delisted in 1994 and 1999, respectively, and its abundance will be monitored by the species Recovery Team every three years until 2015. Although the United States Fish and Wildlife Service makes a distinction between tundrius and anatum subspecies, our genetic results based on eleven microsatellite loci suggest limited differentiation that can be attributed to an isolation by distance relationship and warrant no delineation of these two subspecies in its northern latitudinal distribution from Alaska through Canada into Greenland. Using temporal samples collected at Padre Island, Texas during migration (seven temporal time periods between 1985-2007, no significant differences in genetic diversity or significant population differentiation in allele frequencies between time periods were observed and were indistinguishable from those obtained from tundrius/anatum breeding locations throughout their northern distribution. Estimates of harmonic mean N(e were variable and imprecise, but always greater than 500 when employing multiple temporal genetic methods. CONCLUSIONS

  3. One Rural Hospital's Experience Implementing the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America Guidelines to Decrease Central Line Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curlej, Maria H; Katrancha, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to take advantage of the Highmark Quality Blue Initiative () requiring information from hospitals detailing their central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSIs) surveillance system, quality improvement program, and statistics regarding the CLABSI events, this institution investigated the latest evidence-based recommendations to reduce CLABSIs. Recognizing the baseline rate of 2.4 CLABSIs per 1,000 central line days and its effect on patient outcomes and medical costs, this hospital made a commitment to improve their CLABSI outcomes. As a result, the facility adopted the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) guidelines. The purpose of this article is to review the CLABSI rates and examine the prevention strategies following implementation of the SHEA guidelines. A quantitative, descriptive retrospective program evaluation examined the hospital's pre- and post-SHEA implementation methods of decreasing CLABSIs and the subsequent CLABSI rates over 3 time periods. Any patient with a CLABSI infection admitted to this hospital July 2007 to June 2010 (N = 78). CLABSI rates decreased from 1.9 to 1.3 over the study period. Compliance with specific SHEA guidelines was evaluated and measures were put into place to increase compliance where necessary. CLABSI rates at this facility remain below the baseline of 2.4 for calendar year 2013 (0.79), 2014 (0.07), and 2015 (0.33). PMID:27618377

  4. Anxiety and depression during pregnancy in Central America : a cross-sectional study among pregnant women in the developing country Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, T.; Arjadi, R.; Vendrik, J. J.; Burger, H.; Berger, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Around the world, maternal psychopathology during pregnancy is associated with a range of negative consequences for mother and child. Nevertheless, in Central America the magnitude of this public health problem is still unknown. The objective of this first explorative study was to invest

  5. Discovery of new Ohbayashinema spp. (nematoda: heligomosomoidea) in Ochotona princeps and O. cansus (lagomorpha: ochotonidae) from western North America and central Asia, with considerations of historical biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three new species of Ohbayashinema (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea) are described from localities in western North America and central Asia. Two of these species, Ohbayashinema nearctica n. sp and O. aspeira n. sp. are parasitic in American pika, Ochotona princeps. Ohbayashinema nearctica is differentiat...

  6. Trichospermum lessertianum comb. nov., the correct name for the Cuban species of Trichospermum (Malvaceae: Grewioideae also found in Mexico and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J. Dorr

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The correct name for the Cuban species of Trichospermum Bl. (Malvaceae: Grewioideae also found in Mexico and Central America is T. lessertianum (Hochr. Dorr, comb. n. The name T. mexicanum (DC. Baill., incorrectly applied to this Cuban species, should be restricted to a species endemic to western and southern Mexico.

  7. Trichospermum lessertianum comb. n., the correct name for the Cuban species of Trichospermum (Malvaceae, Grewioideae) also found in Mexico and Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Dorr, Laurence J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The correct name for the Cuban species of Trichospermum Bl. (Malvaceae: Grewioideae) also found in Mexico and Central America is Trichospermum lessertianum (Hochr.) Dorr, comb. n. The name Trichospermum mexicanum (DC.) Baill., incorrectly applied to this Cuban species, should be restricted to a species endemic to western and southern Mexico.

  8. Health care providers and human trafficking: what do they know, what do they need to know? Findings from the middle East, the Caribbean, and central america

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viergever, R.F.; West, H.; Borland, R.; Zimmerman, C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human trafficking is a crime that commonly results in acute and chronic physical and psychological harm. To foster more informed health sector responses to human trafficking, training sessions for health care providers were developed and pilot-tested in the Middle East, Central America,

  9. Understanding key drivers controlling daily stable isotope variations in precipitation of Costa Rica, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Welsh, Kristin; Birkel, Christian; Esquivel-Hernández, Germain; Corrales-Salazar, Jose; Boll, Jan; Brooks, Erin; Roupsard, Olivier; Katchan, Irina; Arce-Mesén, Rafael; Soulsby, Chris; Araguás-Araguás, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Costa Rica is located on the Central American Isthmus, which receives direct moisture inputs from the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The relatively narrow, but high relief Central American land bridge is characterized by unique mountainous and lowland microclimates. However, only limited knowledge exists about the impact of relief and regional atmospheric circulation patterns on precipitation origin, transport, and isotopic composition in this tropical region. Therefore, the main scope of this study is to identify the key drivers controlling variations in meteoric waters of Costa Rica using stable isotopes based on daily sample collection for the year 2013. The monitoring sites comprise three strategic locations across Costa Rica: Heredia (Central Valley), Turrialba (Caribbean slope), and Caño Seco (South Pacific slope). Sporadic dry season rain is mostly related to isolated enriched events ranging from -5.8‰ d18O up to -0.9‰ d18O. By mid-May, the Intertropical Convergence Zone reaches Costa Rica resulting in a notable depletion in isotope ratios (up to -18.5‰ d18O). HYSPLIT back air mass trajectories indicate the strong influence on the origin and transport of precipitation of two main moisture transport mechanisms, the Caribbean Low Level Jet and the Colombian Low Level Jet as well as localized convection events. Multiple linear regression models constructed based on Random Forests of surface meteorological information and atmospheric sounding profiles suggest that Lifted Condensation Level and surface relative humidity are the main factors controlling isotopic variations. These findings diverge from the recognized 'amount effect' in monthly composite samples across the tropics. Understanding of stable isotope dynamics in tropical precipitation can be used to enhance catchment and groundwater modeling efforts in ungauged basins where scarcity of long-term monitoring data drastically limit current and future water resources management.

  10. A GPS and modelling study of deformation in northern Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M.; DeMets, C.; Rogers, R.; Tenorio, C.; Hernandez, D.

    2009-09-01

    We use GPS measurements at 37 stations in Honduras and El Salvador to describe active deformation of the western end of the Caribbean Plate between the Motagua fault and Central American volcanic arc. All GPS sites located in eastern Honduras move with the Caribbean Plate, in accord with geologic evidence for an absence of neotectonic deformation in this region. Relative to the Caribbean Plate, the other stations in the study area move west to west-northwest at rates that increase gradually from 3.3 +/- 0.6 mm yr-1 in central Honduras to 4.1 +/- 0.6 mm yr-1 in western Honduras to as high as 11-12 mm yr-1 in southern Guatemala. The site motions are consistent with slow westward extension that has been inferred by previous authors from the north-striking grabens and earthquake focal mechanisms in this region. We examine the factors that influence the regional deformation by comparing the new GPS velocity field to velocity fields predicted by finite element models (FEMs) that incorporate the regional plate boundary faults and known plate motions. Our modelling suggests that the obliquely convergent (~20°) direction of Caribbean-North American Plate motion relative to the Motagua fault west of 90°W impedes the ENE-directed motion of the Caribbean Plate in southern Guatemala, giving rise to extension in southern Guatemala and western Honduras. The FEM predictions agree even better with the measured velocities if the plate motion west of the Central American volcanic arc is forced to occur over a broad zone rather than along a single throughgoing plate boundary fault. Our analysis confirms key predictions of a previous numerical model for deformation in this region, and also indicates that the curvature of the Motagua fault causes significant along-strike changes in the orientations of the principal strain-rate axes in the fault borderlands, in accord with earthquake focal mechanisms and conclusions reached in a recent synthesis of the structural and morphologic data

  11. CO{sub 2} emissions, energy usage, and output in Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apergis, Nicholas [Department of Banking and Financial Management, University of Piraeus, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80, Piraeus, ATTIKI 18534 (Greece); Payne, James E. [College of Arts and Sciences, Illinois State University, Campus Box 4100, Normal, IL 61790-4100 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    This study extends the recent work of Ang (2007) [Ang, J.B., 2007. CO{sub 2} emissions, energy consumption, and output in France. Energy Policy 35, 4772-4778] in examining the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and output within a panel vector error correction model for six Central American countries over the period 1971-2004. In long-run equilibrium energy consumption has a positive and statistically significant impact on emissions while real output exhibits the inverted U-shape pattern associated with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. The short-run dynamics indicate unidirectional causality from energy consumption and real output, respectively, to emissions along with bidirectional causality between energy consumption and real output. In the long-run there appears to be bidirectional causality between energy consumption and emissions. (author)

  12. Mitochondrial DNA-based genetic diversity of genus Lygus (Hemiptera: Miridae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Lygus is widely distributed in North American and Eurasian continents. It is the most-studied genus in the family Miridae. However, very less information on the genetic diversity of this genus is available. Studying genetic variation among Lygus pest species and thereby constructing a ...

  13. In the heartland of Eurasia: the multilocus genetic landscape of Central Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Vitalis, Renaud; Ségurel, Laure; Austerlitz, Frédéric; Georges, Myriam; Théry, Sylvain; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Hegay, Tatyana; Aldashev, Almaz; Nasyrova, Firuza; Heyer, Evelyne

    2011-02-01

    Located in the Eurasian heartland, Central Asia has played a major role in both the early spread of modern humans out of Africa and the more recent settlements of differentiated populations across Eurasia. A detailed knowledge of the peopling in this vast region would therefore greatly improve our understanding of range expansions, colonizations and recurrent migrations, including the impact of the historical expansion of eastern nomadic groups that occurred in Central Asia. However, despite its presumable importance, little is known about the level and the distribution of genetic variation in this region. We genotyped 26 Indo-Iranian- and Turkic-speaking populations, belonging to six different ethnic groups, at 27 autosomal microsatellite loci. The analysis of genetic variation reveals that Central Asian diversity is mainly shaped by linguistic affiliation, with Turkic-speaking populations forming a cluster more closely related to East-Asian populations and Indo-Iranian speakers forming a cluster closer to Western Eurasians. The scattered position of Uzbeks across Turkic- and Indo-Iranian-speaking populations may reflect their origins from the union of different tribes. We propose that the complex genetic landscape of Central Asian populations results from the movements of eastern, Turkic-speaking groups during historical times, into a long-lasting group of settled populations, which may be represented nowadays by Tajiks and Turkmen. Contrary to what is generally thought, our results suggest that the recurrent expansions of eastern nomadic groups did not result in the complete replacement of local populations, but rather into partial admixture.

  14. Towards a Political Economy of Weak Institutions and Strong Elites in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicte Bull

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A common conclusion of studies on Central America’s democracies and political economy is that the weakness of institutions and the strength of elites are a main reason for the region’s problems. Recently, a set of studies have attempted to scrutinize these elites in detail, focussing on their strategies and resources. The purpose of this article is to reflect upon what these studies can tell us about the question: what is strong when institutions are weak? I argue that in the Northern Triangle particularly the answer is elite networks and their command over and competition for the control over four sets of resources: money, means of force, information, and ideas and ideologies, including religion. A systematic study of such networks and how they interact with formal institutions may give us a more realistic view of the current state of Central American political economies. Resumen: Hacia una economía política de instituciones débiles y élites fuertes en Centroamérica Una conclusión común a la que llegan los estudios sobre la economía política y las democracias centroamericanas es que la debilidad de las instituciones y la fuerza de las élites son una razón fundamental para los problemas de la región. Últimamente, una serie de estudios han intentado estudiar a fondo dichas élites, enfocándose en sus estrategias y recursos. El objetivo del presente artículo es reflexionar sobre lo que dichos estudios pueden aportarnos a la respuesta de la pregunta: ¿qué es fuerte cuando las instituciones son débiles? Yo sostengo que en el Triángulo Norte, en particular, la respuesta son las redes de las élites y su control, así como su competencia por dicho control, de cuatro categorías de recursos: el dinero, los medios de coacción, la información y las ideas e ideologías, incluida la religión. Un estudio sistemático de dichas redes y sobre cómo interactúan con las instituciones formales podría facilitarnos una visión m

  15. Geology of the Pavana geothermal area, Departamento de Choluteca, Honduras, Central America: Field report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppler, D.B.; Heiken, G.; Wohletz, K.; Flores, W.; Paredes, J.R.; Duffield, W.A.

    1987-09-01

    The Pavana geothermal area is located in southern Honduras near the Gulf of Fonseca. This region is underlain by late Tertiary volcanic rocks. Within ranges near the geothermal manifestations, the rock sequences is characterized by intermediate to mafic laharic breccias and lavas overlain by silicic tuffs and lavas, which are in turn overlain by intermediate to mafic breccias, lavas, and tuffs. The nearest Quaternary volcanoes are about 40 km to the southwest, where the chain of active Central American volcanoes crosses the mouth of the Gulf of Fonseca. Structure of the Pavana area is dominated by generally northwest-trending, southwest-dipping normal faults. This structure is topographically expressed as northwest-trending escarpments that bound blocks of bedrock separated by asymmetric valleys that contain thin alluvial deposits. Thermal waters apparently issue from normal faults and are interpreted as having been heated during deep circulation along fault zones within a regional environment of elevated heat flow. Natural outflow from the main thermal area is about 3000 l/min of 60/sup 0/C water. Geothermometry of the thermal waters suggests a reservoir base temperature of about 150/sup 0/C.

  16. Genetic diversity and host specificity varies across three genera of blood parasites in ducks of the Pacific Americas Flyway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B Reeves

    Full Text Available Birds of the order Anseriformes, commonly referred to as waterfowl, are frequently infected by Haemosporidia of the genera Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and Leucocytozoon via dipteran vectors. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of the Cytochrome b (Cytb gene from parasites of these genera detected in six species of ducks from Alaska and California, USA to characterize the genetic diversity of Haemosporidia infecting waterfowl at two ends of the Pacific Americas Flyway. In addition, parasite Cytb sequences were compared to those available on a public database to investigate specificity of genetic lineages to hosts of the order Anseriformes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of Haemoproteus Cytb sequences was lower than was detected for Plasmodium and Leucocytozoon parasites. Although waterfowl are presumed to be infected by only a single species of Leucocytozoon, L. simondi, diversity indices were highest for haplotypes from this genus and sequences formed five distinct clades separated by genetic distances of 4.9%-7.6%, suggesting potential cryptic speciation. All Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon haplotypes derived from waterfowl samples formed monophyletic clades in phylogenetic analyses and were unique to the order Anseriformes with few exceptions. In contrast, waterfowl-origin Plasmodium haplotypes were identical or closely related to lineages found in other avian orders. Our results suggest a more generalist strategy for Plasmodium parasites infecting North American waterfowl as compared to those of the genera Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon.

  17. Genetic diversity, endemism and phylogeny of lampreys within the genus Lampetra sensu stricto (Petromyzontiformes: Petromyzontidae) in western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguski, D A; Reid, S B; Goodman, D H; Docker, M F

    2012-11-01

    Phylogenetic structure of four Lampetra species from the Pacific drainage of North America (western brook lamprey Lampetra richardsoni, Pacific brook lamprey Lampetra pacifica, river lamprey Lampetra ayresii and Kern brook lamprey Lampetra hubbsi) and unidentified Lampetra specimens (referred to as Lampetra sp.) from 36 locations was estimated using the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inferences did not correspond with any taxonomic scheme proposed to date. Rather, although L. richardsoni (from Alaska to California) and L. ayresii (from British Columbia to California) together constituted a well-supported clade distinct from several genetically divergent Lampetra populations in Oregon and California, these two species were not reciprocally monophyletic. The genetically divergent populations included L. pacifica (from the Columbia River basin) and L. hubbsi (from the Kern River basin) and four Lampetra sp. populations in Oregon (Siuslaw River and Fourmile Creek) and California (Kelsey and Mark West Creeks). These four Lampetra sp. populations showed genetic divergence between 2.3 and 5.7% from any known species (and up to 8.0% from each other), and may represent morphologically cryptic and thus previously undescribed species. A fifth population (from Paynes Creek, California) may represent a range extension of L. hubbsi into the Upper Sacramento River. PMID:23130690

  18. Genetic structure of the tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in Cameroon (Central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Kamgang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1884 (Diptera: Culicidae, a mosquito native to Asia, has recently invaded all five continents. In Central Africa it was first reported in the early 2000s, and has since been implicated in the emergence of arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya in this region. Recent genetic studies of invasive species have shown that multiple introductions are a key factor for successful expansion in new areas. As a result, phenotypic characters such as vector competence and insecticide susceptibility may vary within invasive pest species, potentially affecting vector efficiency and pest management. Here we assessed the genetic variability and population genetics of Ae. albopictus isolates in Cameroon (Central Africa, thereby deducing their likely geographic origin. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mosquitoes were sampled in 2007 in 12 localities in southern Cameroon and analyzed for polymorphism at six microsatellite loci and in two mitochondrial DNA regions (ND5 and COI. All the microsatellite markers were successfully amplified and were polymorphic, showing moderate genetic structureamong geographic populations (F(ST  = 0.068, P < 0.0001. Analysis of mtDNA sequences revealed four haplotypes each for the COI and ND5 genes, with a dominant haplotype shared by all Cameroonian samples. The weak genetic variation estimated from the mtDNA genes is consistent with the recent arrival of Ae. albopictus in Cameroon. Phylogeographic analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that Ae. albopictus populations from Cameroon are related to tropical rather than temperate or subtropical outgroups. CONCLUSION: The moderate genetic diversity observed among Cameroonian Ae. albopictus isolates is in keeping with recent introduction and spread in this country. The genetic structure of natural populations points to multiple introductions from tropical regions.

  19. Genetic Structure of the Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in Cameroon (Central Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang, Basile; Brengues, Cécile; Fontenille, Didier; Njiokou, Flobert; Simard, Frédéric; Paupy, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Background Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1884) (Diptera: Culicidae), a mosquito native to Asia, has recently invaded all five continents. In Central Africa it was first reported in the early 2000s, and has since been implicated in the emergence of arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya in this region. Recent genetic studies of invasive species have shown that multiple introductions are a key factor for successful expansion in new areas. As a result, phenotypic characters such as vector competence and insecticide susceptibility may vary within invasive pest species, potentially affecting vector efficiency and pest management. Here we assessed the genetic variability and population genetics of Ae. albopictus isolates in Cameroon (Central Africa), thereby deducing their likely geographic origin. Methods and Results Mosquitoes were sampled in 2007 in 12 localities in southern Cameroon and analyzed for polymorphism at six microsatellite loci and in two mitochondrial DNA regions (ND5 and COI). All the microsatellite markers were successfully amplified and were polymorphic, showing moderate genetic structureamong geographic populations (FST = 0.068, P<0.0001). Analysis of mtDNA sequences revealed four haplotypes each for the COI and ND5 genes, with a dominant haplotype shared by all Cameroonian samples. The weak genetic variation estimated from the mtDNA genes is consistent with the recent arrival of Ae. albopictus in Cameroon. Phylogeographic analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that Ae. albopictus populations from Cameroon are related to tropical rather than temperate or subtropical outgroups. Conclusion The moderate genetic diversity observed among Cameroonian Ae. albopictus isolates is in keeping with recent introduction and spread in this country. The genetic structure of natural populations points to multiple introductions from tropical regions. PMID:21629655

  20. Nazca-South America interactions and the late Eocene-late Oligocene flat-slab episode in the central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Leland J.; Richards, Mark A.; Humphreys, Eugene D.

    2012-04-01

    The most prominent features of the Andean range are the Altiplano and Puna plateaus, which were constructed by crustal shortening and uplift over the past ˜45 Myr. The early construction of these plateaus may have controlled subsequent growth of the orogen. Proposed models have suggested that an abrupt acceleration in relative motion between the Nazca plate and the South American plate at ˜30 Ma may have led to compression of the continent. However, the major plate motion change occurred at 25-23 Ma, and paleomagnetic rotations and crustal shortening of the Andean forearc require that the Arica Bend formed prior to about 25 Ma. Inferred history of flat-slab subduction along the Altiplano section of the Andean margin and the structure of the adjacent South American cratonic shield combine to suggest an alternate scenario, based partly upon geodynamic models of oceanic-continental plate interactions in subduction zones. We propose that central Andean tectonism may have been controlled by two distinct regimes of subduction: (1) oblique subduction along the central Andean margin during the late Eocene and Oligocene accompanied by downdip alignment with the center of the Amazonian Shield (flat-slab activity in this phase of orogenesis may have been caused by a combination of cratonic root enhanced tectonics and oceanic plateau subduction) and (2) an abrupt transition to trench-normal subduction after ˜25 Ma toward the more distal São Francisco Craton was accompanied by a return to normal angle subduction. Similar interactions are hypothesized to have occurred during the Laramide Orogeny in western North America.

  1. Zonda downslope winds in the central Andes of South America in a 20-year climate simulation with the Eta model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antico, Pablo L.; Chou, Sin Chan; Mourão, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    The Zonda wind is a local version of the alpine foehn in the central Andes Mountains in South America. It blows on the eastern slopes and produces an extremely warm and dry condition in Argentina. In this study, the occurrence of Zonda wind events during a 20-year simulation from the regional Eta model is analyzed and results are compared to previous studies of Zonda wind events based on weather observations. We define a set of parameters to account for the zonal pressure gradient across the mountain, vertical movement, and air humidity typical of Zonda wind events. These parameters are applied to characterize Zonda wind events in model run and to classify them as surface-level or high-level episodes. The resulting annual distribution of Zonda occurrences based on composite analyses shows a preference for winter and spring with rare occurrences during summer. For the surface-level Zonda wind events, the highest frequency occurs during spring. Whereas surface-level Zonda wind episodes more commonly initiate in the afternoon, high-level Zonda wind events show no preference for a given initiation time. Our results are mostly in agreement with previous observational results.

  2. Porphyry copper assessment of Central America and the Caribbean Basin: Chapter I in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Floyd; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Ludington, Stephen; Zürcher, Lukas; Nelson, Carl E.; Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Miller, Robert J.; Moring, Barry C.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. The U.S. Geological Survey prepared a probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Central America and the Caribbean Basin in collaboration with geoscientists from academia and the minerals industry. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within the permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver that could be contained in undiscovered deposits. The assessment was done using a three-part mineral resource assessment based on established mineral deposit models. Permissive tracts were delineated based primarily on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with convergent plate margins. Five permissive tracts were delineated: the Early Cretaceous through Eocene Santiago tract, the Late Cretaceous through Oligocene Chortis tract, the Paleocene through Oligocene Darién tract, the Miocene and Pliocene Cocos tract, and the Eocene to Holocene Lesser Antilles tract. These tracts range in size from about 3,000 to about 204,000 square kilometers.

  3. Herbarium specimens reveal the footprint of climate change on flowering trends across north-central North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calinger, Kellen M; Queenborough, Simon; Curtis, Peter S

    2013-08-01

    Shifting flowering phenology with rising temperatures is occurring worldwide, but the rarity of co-occurring long-term observational and temperature records has hindered the evaluation of phenological responsiveness in many species and across large spatial scales. We used herbarium specimens combined with historic temperature data to examine the impact of climate change on flowering trends in 141 species collected across 116,000 km(2) in north-central North America. On average, date of maximum flowering advanced 2.4 days °C(-1), although species-specific responses varied from - 13.5 to + 7.3 days °C(-1). Plant functional types exhibited distinct patterns of phenological responsiveness with significant differences between native and introduced species, among flowering seasons, and between wind- and biotically pollinated species. This study is the first to assess large-scale patterns of phenological responsiveness with broad species representation and is an important step towards understanding current and future impacts of climate change on species performance and biodiversity. PMID:23786499

  4. A snow hydroclimatology of the central and southern Appalachian Mountains, United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybeal, Daniel Y.

    Background. A significant vulnerability to snowmelt-related flooding in the Appalachians was demonstrated by massive events in March, 1936; January, 1996; and January, 1998. Yet, no quantitative estimate of this vulnerability has been published for these mountains. High elevations extending far southward confound the extrapolation of snow hydroclimatology from adjacent regions. Objectives. The principal objective was to develop a complete snow hydroclimatology of the central and southern Appalachians, considering the deposition, detention, and depletion phases of snow cover. A snowfall climatology addressed whether and how often sufficient snow falls to create a flood hazard, while a snow cover climatology addressed whether and how often snow is allowed to build to floodrisk proportions. A snowmelt hydroclimatology addressed whether and how often snowmelt contributes directly to large peakflows in a representative watershed. Approach. Monthly and daily temperature, precipitation, and snow data were obtained from approximately 1000 cooperative-network stations with >=10 seasons (Oct-May) of snow data. Mean, maximum, percentiles, and interseasonal and monthly variability were mapped. Time series were analyzed, and proportions of seasonal snowfall from significant events determined, at select stations. A spatially distributed, index snow cover model facilitated classification of Cheat River, WV, peakflows by generating process. Confidence intervals about fitted peakflow frequency curves were used to evaluate differences among processes. Results. Climates in which snow significantly affects floods have been discriminated in the literature by 150 cm mean seasonal snowfall, 30 days mean snow cover duration, or 50 cm mean seasonal maximum snow depth. In the Appalachian Mountains south to North Carolina, these criteria lie within 95% confidence intervals about the median or mean values of these parameters. At return periods of 10 and 20 years, these thresholds are usually

  5. Phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity among Streptococcus iniae isolates recovered from cultured and wild fish in North America, Central America and the Caribbean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae, the etiological agent of streptococcosis in fish, is an important pathogen of cultured and wild fish worldwide. During the last decade outbreaks of streptococcosis have occurred in a wide range of cultured and wild fish in the Americas and Caribbean islands. To gain a better und...

  6. Candidate gene study to investigate the genetic determinants of normal variation in central corneal thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Dimasi, David P.; Kathryn P Burdon; Hewitt, Alex W; Savarirayan, Ravi; Healey, Paul R.; Mitchell, Paul; Mackey, David A.; Craig, Jamie E

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The genetic component underlying variation in central corneal thickness (CCT) in the normal population remains largely unknown. As CCT is an identified risk factor for open-angle glaucoma, understanding the genes involved in CCT determination could improve our understanding of the mechanisms involved in this association. Methods To identify novel CCT genes, we selected eight different candidates based on a range of criteria. These included; aquaporin 1 (AQ1), aquaporin 5 (AQ5), decori...

  7. Cold episodes in the Peruvian Central Andes: Composites, Types, and their Impacts over South America (1958-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulca, J. C.; Vuille, M. F.; Roundy, P. E.; Trasmonte, G.; Silva, Y.; Takahashi, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Mantaro basin (MB) is located in the central Peruvian Andes. Occasionally, cold episodes are observed during austral summer (January-March), that strongly damage crops. However, little is known about the causes and impacts of such cold episodes. The main goal of this study is thus to characterize cold episodes in the MB and assess their large-scale circulation and teleconnections over South America (SA) during austral summer. To identify cold events in the MB daily minimum temperature (Tmin) for the period 1958-2014 from Huayao station, located within the MB was used. A cold episode is defined when daily minimum temperature drops below its 10-percentile for at least one day. Additionally, to study the sensitivity between physical mechanisms associated with cold episodes and temperature, cold episodes are classified in three groups: Weak cold episodes (7.5 ≤ Tmin ≤ 10 percentile), strong cold episodes (Tmin ≤ 2.5 percentile), but excluding the 9 coldest events (Tmin ≤ 0 ͦ C), henceforth referred to as extraordinary cold episodes. Several gridded reanalysis were used to characterize the large-scale circulation, cloud cover and rainfall over SA associated with these events. Weak and strong cold episodes in the MB are mainly associated with a weakening of the Bolivian High-Nordeste Low system by tropical-extratropical interactions. Both types of cold episodes are associated with westerly wind anomalies at mid- and upper-tropospheric levels aloft the Peruvian Central Andes, which inhibit the influx of humid air masses from the lowlands to the east and hence limit the development of cloud cover (e.g., positive OLR anomalies over MB). The resulting clear sky conditions cause nighttime temperatures to drop, leading to cold extremes below 10-percentile. Simultaneously, northeastern Brazil (NEB) registers negative OLR anomalies, strong convection and enhanced cloud cover because displacement of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) toward the northeast of

  8. Non invasive methods for genetic analysis applied to ecological and behavioral studies in Latino-America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana González

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Documenting the presence and abundance of the neotropical mammals is the first step for understanding their population ecology, behavior and genetic dynamics in designing conservation plans. The combination of field research with molecular genetics techniques are new tools that provide valuable biological information avoiding the disturbance in the ecosystems, trying to minimize the human impact in the process to gather biological information. The objective of this paper is to review the available non invasive sampling techniques that have been used in Neotropical mammal studies to apply to determine the presence and abundance, population structure, sex ratio, taxonomic diagnostic using mitochondrial markers, and assessing genetic variability using nuclear markers. There are a wide range of non invasive sampling techniques used to determine the species identification that inhabit an area such as searching for tracks, feces, and carcasses. Other useful equipment is the camera traps that can generate an image bank that can be valuable to assess species presence and abundance by morphology. With recent advances in molecular biology, it is now possible to use the trace amounts of DNA in feces and amplify it to analyze the species diversity in an area, and the genetic variability at intraspecific level. This is particularly helpful in cases of sympatric and cryptic species in which morphology failed to diagnose the taxonomic status of several species of brocket deer of the genus Mazama.

  9. Genetic diversity populations of the blue orchard bee (Osmia lignaria) in eastern and western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue orchard bee (Osmia lignaria) is a native pollinator that is an excellent candidate to supplement the honeybee in agricultural settings. Genetic diversity of wild-caught bees from several locations in eastern and western USA is being measured with mitochondrial and nuclear DNA segments. Ther...

  10. Acceptance of a food of animal origin obtained through genetic modification and cloning in South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Velásquez, Carlos; Miranda, Horacio;

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of comparing the acceptance of milk obtained from cloned, genetically modified (GM) and conventionally bred cows among working adults and university students, and identifying and characterizing typologies among both subsamples in terms of their preferences, a survey was applied to 40...

  11. Parameters inversion of high central core rockfill dams based on a novel genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Wei; LI ShaoLin; MA Gang; CHANG XiaoLin; MA Xing; ZHANG Chao

    2016-01-01

    Parameters identification of rockfill materials is a crucial issue for high rockfill dams.Because of the scale effect,random sampling and sample disturbance,it is difficult to obtain the actual mechanical properties of rockfill from laboratory tests.Parameters inversion based on in situ monitoring data has been proven to be an efficient method for identifying the exact parameters of the rockfill.In this paper,we propose a modified genetic algorithm to solve the high-dimension multimodal and nonlinear optimal parameters inversion problem.A novel crossover operator based on the sum of differences in gene fragments (SoDX) is proposed,inspired by the cloning of superior genes in genetic engineering.The crossover points are selected according to the difference in the gene fragments,defining the adaptive length.The crossover operator increases the speed and accuracy of algorithm convergence by reducing the inbreeding and enhancing the global search capability of the genetic algorithm.This algorithm is compared with two existing crossover operators.The modified genetic algorithm is then used in combination with radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN) to perform the parameters back analysis of a high central earth core rockfill dam.The settlements simulated using the identified parameters show good agreement with the monitoring data,illustrating that the back analysis is reasonable and accurate.The proposed genetic algorithm has considerable superiority for nonlinear multimodal parameter identification problems.

  12. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American–Caribbean–Cocos plate boundary

    OpenAIRE

    L. Andreani; R. Gloaguen

    2016-01-01

    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. We intend to characterize and understand the complex tectonic setting that produced an intricate pattern of landscapes using tectonic geomorphology, as well as available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landsc...

  13. Genetic polymorphisms of 17 short tandem repeat loci on Y chromosome in central Croatian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gršković, Branka; Mršić, Gordan; Polašek, Ozren; Vrdoljak, Andro; Merkaš, Siniša; Anđelinović, Simun

    2011-06-01

    In forensic casework, Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) haplotyping is used in human identification, paternity testing and sexual assault cases where Y-STRs provide a male-specific DNA profile. The aim of this study was to describe the genetic structure of Y chromosome in a central Croatian population. We carried out a statistical analysis of the data from previously performed genetic analyses collected during routine forensic work by the Forensic Science Centre "Ivan Vučetić". A total of 220 unrelated healthy men from central Croatia were selected for the purpose of this study. Genomic DNA was extracted using a Chelex procedure from FTA(®) cards. Y-chromosomal STRs were determined using the AmpFISTR Yfiler PCR amplification kit. The haplotype frequencies were determined by direct counting and analyzed using Arlequin 3.1 and analysis of molecular variance calculated with the Y chromosome haplotype reference database online analysis tool. A total of 212 haplotypes were identified, 204 of which were unique. Total haplotype diversity was 0.993. Locus diversity varied from 0.325 for DYS392 to 0.786 for DYS385. Discrimination capacity was 92.7%. Allele frequencies diversity was 0.615. Intermediate alleles 17.2, 18.2 and 19.2 were found at DYS458 locus. A comparison with published data for the European minimal haplotype set showed the closest relationship to the Croatian capital of Zagreb and Bosnia and Herzegovina with significant genetic distance from Slovenia and Austria. The central Croatian population is now well characterized in terms of Y-chromosome STRs, thus providing a solid basis for further forensic and genetic epidemiology studies. PMID:21279707

  14. Data on medicinal plants used in Central America to manage diabetes and its sequelae (skin conditions, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, urinary problems and vision loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Giovannini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article is related to the review article “Medicinal plants used in the traditional management of diabetes and its sequelae in Central America: a review” (Giovannini et al., 2016 [1]. We searched publications on the useful plants of Central America in databases and journals by using selected relevant keywords. We then extracted reported uses of medicinal plants within the disease categories: diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, urinary problems, skin diseases and infections, cardiovascular disease, sexual dysfunction, vision loss, and nerve damage. The following countries were included in our definition of Central America: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Data were compiled in a bespoke Access database. Plant names from the published sources were validated against The Plant List (TPL, (The Plant List, 2013 [2] and accepted names and synonyms were extracted. In total, the database includes 607 plant names obtained from the published sources which correspond to 537 plant taxa, 9271 synonyms and 1055 use reports.

  15. Genetic diversity of Taenia solium cysticerci from naturally infected pigs of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Reyes-Montes, María del Rocio; Duarte-Escalante, Esperanza; Vega, Rodrigo; de Aluja, Aline S; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Morales, Julio; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2010-02-26

    This study was designed to explore if each individual case of naturally acquired porcine cysticercosis, living in different geographic rural areas of central Mexico, is caused by one or more different specimens of Taenia solium tapeworm. The genetic variability among cysticerci from the same pig and that from different pigs was assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPDs), through the percentage of polymorphic loci, the number of effective alleles, the expected heterozygosity and the Shannon index. The parasite population's reproductive structure was estimated through the association index (I(A)), and the degree of genetic differentiation and variation was determined using AMOVA. Using six different random primers, and a total of 181 cysticerci from 14 pigs, 88 different loci were amplified: 85% were polymorphic between pigs and 24% within pigs. The phenogram grouped the cysticerci into eight major clusters, with differences in the genetic distances among all cysticerci from 14 pigs ranging from 0.78 to 1. Most of the cysticerci grouped in accord with their different geographical origin and with their pig of origin. The similarity matrix produced from the phenogram (obtained by UPGMA) and the original similarity matrix yielded a good cophenetic correlation (r=0.82317, P=0.0004), which suggests that the phenogram accurately represents the original genetic similarities between isolates. The combination of I(A) (0.0-0.089) with the genetic diversity index (0.009-0.073) supports the idea that DNA diversity in T. solium cysticerci of naturally infected pigs is within the range expected from a recombination process occurring during sexual reproduction. The small genetic diversity found within the cysticerci of each pig (33.81%), when compared with that between pigs (66.19%), indicates that pigs are rarely infected by different tapeworms. It would then appear that porcine cysticercosis courses with effective concomitant immunity, as occurs in ovine

  16. The genetic diversity of cen-tral and peripheral popula-tions of ratlike hamster(Cricetulus triton)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The impact of habitat fragmentation and isolation on the genetic diversity of populations has attracted much attention in studies of meta-population and conservation biology. In this work, using the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, we studied the genetic diversity of central, peripheral and peninsular populations of ratlike hamster, which were collected in five locations of the North China Plain and its surrounding areas, in 1999. The study revealed that, ⅰ) the genetic diversity of central population of Raoyang County>the sub-central populations of Gu'an County and Taikang County>the peripheral population of Shunyi District>the peninsular population of Mentougou District; ⅱ) the genetic diversities of the five populations were positively correlated to the nearest distances to the peripheral line of population distribution; ⅲ) there were significant differences of gene frequencies of some RAPD fragments among the five populations. More RAPD fragments disappeared in peripheral populations than in central or sub-central populations. The frequencies of two RAPD fragments were correlated to the latitude. This study clearly indicated that the variation of the genetic diversities of the five populations was caused by edge effect and frag- mentation through the enhanced inbreeding and genetic drift, and thus supported the view that habitat fragmentation and related edge effect reduce the population genetic diversity.

  17. Genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates from Henan province in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Meng; Liu, Hui Li

    2015-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that infects the human urogenital tract, causing the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In this study, genetic variants of T. vaginalis were identified in Henan Province, China. Fragments of the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) were amplified from 32 T. vaginalis isolates obtained from seven regions of Henan Province. Overall, 18 haplotypes were determined from the 18S rRNA sequences. Each sampled population and the total population displayed high haplotype diversity (Hd), accompanied by very low nucleotide diversity (Pi). In these molecular genetic variants, 91.58% genetic variation was derived from intra-regions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. Demographic analysis supported population expansion of T. vaginalis isolates from central China. Our findings showing moderate-to-high genetic variations in the 32 isolates of T. vaginalis provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for the development of future control strategies.

  18. Genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates from Henan province in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Meng; Liu, Hui Li

    2015-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that infects the human urogenital tract, causing the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In this study, genetic variants of T. vaginalis were identified in Henan Province, China. Fragments of the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) were amplified from 32 T. vaginalis isolates obtained from seven regions of Henan Province. Overall, 18 haplotypes were determined from the 18S rRNA sequences. Each sampled population and the total population displayed high haplotype diversity (Hd), accompanied by very low nucleotide diversity (Pi). In these molecular genetic variants, 91.58% genetic variation was derived from intra-regions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. Demographic analysis supported population expansion of T. vaginalis isolates from central China. Our findings showing moderate-to-high genetic variations in the 32 isolates of T. vaginalis provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for the development of future control strategies. PMID:26103990

  19. Linking National Parks with its Gateway Communities for Tourism Development in Central America: Nindiri, Nicaragua, Bagazit, Costa Rica and Portobelo, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre G., J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas and national parks are becoming one of the most important forms of land use in Central America. All the projections made by the World Tourism Organization seems to agree that by 2010 Central America, maybe receiving between eight and ten millions tourists, a figure that is almost twice what the region is receiving today. A study was conducted base on 369 direct field surveys conducted in three Central American communities: Bagazit gateway community to Palo Verde National Park, Costa Rica, Nindiri, gateway community to Volcan Masaya National Park, Nicaragua and Portobelo, gateway community to Por-tobelo National Park, Panama. The study found that relative to the socio-demographic variables, that there were no significance differences at the 95% probability level in all four variables, age, sex, education and monthly income of the family. Educational level seems to be the socio-demographic variables affecting more the state of relations. The perception variable being has taken into account in the decision that affects the communities and responsibility to help with community problems are present in two of the three models. The perception variables related to tourism, feel trained to take care of the tourist and existence of businesses that can caters to tourist seem to be key elements in the community perception about the state of relation. Tourism related economic activities and community participation in park decisions are today and will be in the future essential elements in the shaping of community/park relations in Central America as tourism becomes a major economic sector in the region economy.

  20. Environmental effects on allergen levels in commercially grown non-genetically modified soybeans: assessing variation across North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severin E. Stevenson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max is a hugely valuable soft commodity that generates tens of billions of dollars annually. This value is due in part to the balanced composition of the seed which is roughly 1:2:2 oil, starch and protein by weight. In turn, the seeds have many uses with various derivatives appearing broadly in processed food products. As is true with many edible seeds, soybeans contain proteins that are anti-nutritional factors and allergens. Soybean, along with milk, eggs, fish, crustacean shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts and wheat, elicit a majority of food allergy reactions in the United States. Soybean seed composition can be affected by breeding, environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, moisture, insect/pathogen load, and/or soil nutrient levels. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of genotype and environment on allergen and anti-nutritional proteins in soybean. To address genetic and environmental effects, four varieties of non-GM soybeans were grown in six geographically distinct regions of North America (Georgia, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, Ontario, and Pennsylvania. Absolute quantification of proteins by mass spectrometry can be achieved with a technique called multiple reaction monitoring (MRM, during which signals from an endogenous protein are compared to those from a synthetic heavy-labeled internal standard. Using MRM, eight allergens were absolutely quantified for each variety in each environment. Statistical analyses show that for most allergens, the effects of environment far outweigh the differences between varieties brought about by breeding.

  1. Invasion of the Indo-Pacific blenny Omobranchus punctatus (Perciformes: Blenniidae on the Atlantic Coast of Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Lasso-Alcalá

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 308 specimens of the Indo-Pacific blenniid Omobranchus punctatus deposited in four museum collections, and analyzed data on their collection locations to assess its invasion on the Atlantic coast of Central and South America. This species occurs in shoreline estuarine and marine habitats in the Indo-West Pacific. Previous sampling and recent records in the Tropical West Atlantic from 1930 to 2004 produced 20 records for: Panamá, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Brazil. In this work, we provide data on 17 new records for the Gulfs of Venezuela and Paria in Venezuela, as well as four records for Maranhão and Pará states in NE Brazil. The temporal pattern of collections (1930 - 2009 and the proximity of most localities to ports and zones of ship traffic indicate that O. punctatus was initially introduced to the Atlantic by ships travelling from India to Trinidad. Within Brazil the introduction is linked to shipping connected to petroleum platforms. In Maranhão and Pará the introduction may have occurred as a result of fish sheltering in fouling on hulls of ships moving between ports around the mouth of the Amazon River. Alternatively, the spread of this species along of the American coast may reflect the expansion of the range of O. puntactus through larval dispersal in northward flowing currents. We recommend monitoring of this introduced species, and studies of its ecology in West Atlantic areas.Nós examinamos 308 espécimes do blenídeo Omobranchus punctatus, de origem Indo-Pacífica, depositados em coleções de quatro museus. Os dados de distribuição foram analisados com o objetivo de avaliar a invasão das águas costeiras do Oceano Atlântico nas Américas do Sul e Central. Em sua área de distribuição original, O. punctatus ocorre em ambientes marinhos e estuarinos. Amostragens datadas de 1930 e de 2004 produziram 20 registros da espécie no Atlântico Oeste tropical, incluindo amostras do Panamá, Col

  2. On the Development of Multi-Hazard Early Warning Networks: Practical experiences from North and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencin, David; Hodgkinson, Kathleen; Braun, John; Meertens, Charles; Mattioli, Glen; Phillips, David; Blume, Fredrick; Berglund, Henry; Fox, Otina; Feaux, Karl

    2015-04-01

    The GAGE facility, managed by UNAVCO, maintains and operates about 1300 GNSS stations distributed across North and Central America as part of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and the Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network (COCONet). UNAVCO has upgraded about 450 stations in these networks to real-time and high-rate (RT-GNSS) and included surface meteorological instruments. The majority of these streaming stations are part of the PBO but also include approximately 50 RT-GNSS stations in the Caribbean and Central American region as part of the COCONet and TLALOCNet projects. Based on community input UNAVCO has been exploring ways to increase the capability and utility of these resources to improve our understanding in diverse areas of geophysics including seismic, volcanic, magmatic and tsunami deformation sources, extreme weather events such as hurricanes and storms, and space weather. The RT-GNSS networks also have the potential to profoundly transform our ability to rapidly characterize geophysical events, provide early warning, as well as improve hazard mitigation and response. Specific applications currently under development with university, commercial, non-profit and government collaboration on national and international scales include earthquake and tsunami early warning systems and near real-time tropospheric modeling of hurricanes and precipitable water vapor estimate assimilation. Using tsunami early warning as an example, an RT-GNSS network can provide multiple inputs in an operational system starting with rapid assessment of earthquake sources and associated deformation which informs the initial modeled tsunami. The networks can then can also provide direct measurements of the tsunami wave heights and propagation by tracking the associated ionospheric disturbance from several 100's of km away as the waves approaches the shoreline. These GNSS based constraints can refine the tsunami and inundation models and potentially

  3. Energy transactions in Mexico, Central and South America. 1. ed.; Transacciones energeticas en Mexico, Centro y Sudamerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [ed.] [Programa Universitario de Energia (PUE), Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    This document contains the technical proceedings of the Second National Congress of the Mexican Association for the Economy of Energy that took place the days 23, 24 and 25 of September of 1996. In this seminar it was spoken on the global overview of the energy markets; the exploration and oil production in Latin America: present and future; oil-producing and petrochemistry in Latin America; regional and global markets; the deregulation of the electrical sector; experiences and perspective in Latin America; environmental externalisation in the energy systems; amelioration of the impact on the costs and the prices of the energy by means of technology and energy efficiency. [Spanish] Este documento contiene la memoria tecnica del segundo congreso nacional de la Asociacion Mexicana para la Economia Energetica A. C. llevado a efecto los dias 23, 24 y 25 de septiembre de 1996. En este seminario se hablo sobre la panoramica global de los mercados energeticos; la exploracion y produccion petrolera en America Latina: presente y futuro; petroliferos y petroquimica en America Latina: mercados regionales y globales; la desregulacion del sector electrico: experiencias y perspectivas en Latinoamerica; externalidades ambientales en los sistemas energeticos: mitigacion por medio de tecnologia y eficiencia energetica e impacto sobre los costos y los precios de la energia.

  4. Scale-dependent effects of a heterogeneous landscape on genetic differentiation in the Central American squirrel monkey (Saimiri oerstedii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Mary E; Melnick, Don J

    2012-01-01

    Landscape genetic studies offer a fine-scale understanding of how habitat heterogeneity influences population genetic structure. We examined population genetic structure and conducted a landscape genetic analysis for the endangered Central American Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri oerstedii) that lives in the fragmented, human-modified habitats of the Central Pacific region of Costa Rica. We analyzed non-invasively collected fecal samples from 244 individuals from 14 groups for 16 microsatellite markers. We found two geographically separate genetic clusters in the Central Pacific region with evidence of recent gene flow among them. We also found significant differentiation among groups of S. o. citrinellus using pairwise F(ST) comparisons. These groups are in fragments of secondary forest separated by unsuitable "matrix" habitats such as cattle pasture, commercial African oil palm plantations, and human residential areas. We used an individual-based landscape genetic approach to measure spatial patterns of genetic variance while taking into account landscape heterogeneity. We found that large, commercial oil palm plantations represent moderate barriers to gene flow between populations, but cattle pastures, rivers, and residential areas do not. However, the influence of oil palm plantations on genetic variance was diminished when we restricted analyses to within population pairs, suggesting that their effect is scale-dependent and manifests during longer dispersal events among populations. We show that when landscape genetic methods are applied rigorously and at the right scale, they are sensitive enough to track population processes even in species with long, overlapping generations such as primates. Thus landscape genetic approaches are extremely valuable for the conservation management of a diverse array of endangered species in heterogeneous, human-modified habitats. Our results also stress the importance of explicitly considering the heterogeneity of matrix habitats in

  5. Scale-dependent effects of a heterogeneous landscape on genetic differentiation in the Central American squirrel monkey (Saimiri oerstedii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Blair

    Full Text Available Landscape genetic studies offer a fine-scale understanding of how habitat heterogeneity influences population genetic structure. We examined population genetic structure and conducted a landscape genetic analysis for the endangered Central American Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri oerstedii that lives in the fragmented, human-modified habitats of the Central Pacific region of Costa Rica. We analyzed non-invasively collected fecal samples from 244 individuals from 14 groups for 16 microsatellite markers. We found two geographically separate genetic clusters in the Central Pacific region with evidence of recent gene flow among them. We also found significant differentiation among groups of S. o. citrinellus using pairwise F(ST comparisons. These groups are in fragments of secondary forest separated by unsuitable "matrix" habitats such as cattle pasture, commercial African oil palm plantations, and human residential areas. We used an individual-based landscape genetic approach to measure spatial patterns of genetic variance while taking into account landscape heterogeneity. We found that large, commercial oil palm plantations represent moderate barriers to gene flow between populations, but cattle pastures, rivers, and residential areas do not. However, the influence of oil palm plantations on genetic variance was diminished when we restricted analyses to within population pairs, suggesting that their effect is scale-dependent and manifests during longer dispersal events among populations. We show that when landscape genetic methods are applied rigorously and at the right scale, they are sensitive enough to track population processes even in species with long, overlapping generations such as primates. Thus landscape genetic approaches are extremely valuable for the conservation management of a diverse array of endangered species in heterogeneous, human-modified habitats. Our results also stress the importance of explicitly considering the heterogeneity of

  6. Genetic structure of Octopus vulgaris (Cephalopoda, Octopodidae) in the central Mediterranean Sea inferred from the mitochondrial COIII gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadhlaoui-Zid, Karima; Knittweis, Leyla; Aurelle, Didier; Nafkha, Chaala; Ezzeddine, Soufia; Fiorentino, Fabio; Ghmati, Hisham; Ceriola, Luca; Jarboui, Othman; Maltagliati, Ferruccio

    2012-01-01

    The polymorphism of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase III was studied in the Mediterranean octopus, Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797. A total of 202 specimens from seven sampling sites were analysed with the aim of elucidating patterns of genetic structure in the central Mediterranean Sea and to give an insight into the phylogeny of the Octopus genus. Phylogenetic analyses showed that individuals from the central Mediterranean belong to the O. vulgaris species whose limits should nevertheless be clarified. Concerning genetic structure, two high-frequency haplotypes were present in all locations. The overall genetic divergence (Φ(ST)=0.05, P<0.05) indicated a significant genetic structuring in the study area and an AMOVA highlighted a significant break between western and eastern Mediterranean basins (Φ(CT)=0.094, P<0.05). Possible explanations for the observed patterns of genetic structuring are discussed with reference to their relevance for fisheries management.

  7. Genetic structure along an altitudinal gradient in Lippia origanoides, a promising aromatic plant species restricted to semiarid areas in northern South America

    OpenAIRE

    Vega-Vela, Nelson Enrique; Sánchez, María Isabel Chacón

    2012-01-01

    The genetic diversity and population structure of Lippia origanoides, a species of the Verbenaceae family that shows promise as a crop plant, was investigated along an altitudinal gradient in the basin of the Chicamocha River in northeastern Colombia. The economic importance of the species, quality of its essential oils, and the fact that it is restricted to some few semiarid areas in northern South America may put the species at risk in a scenario of uncontrolled harvest of natural populatio...

  8. New understandings of the genetic basis of isolated idiopathic central hypogonadism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marco Bonomi; Domenico Vladimiro Libri; Fabiana Guizzardi; Elena Guarducci; Elisabetta Maiolo; Elisa Pignatti; Roberta Asci; Luca Persani

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is a rare disease that is characterized by delayed/absent puberty and/or infertility due to an insufficient stimulation of an otherwise normal pituitary-gonadal axis by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) action.Because reduced or normal luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels may be observed in the affected patients,the term idiopathic central hypogonadism (ICH) appears to be more appropriate.This disease should be distinguished from central hypogonadism that is combined with other pituitary deficiencies.Isolated ICH has a complex pathogenesis and is fivefold more prevalent in males.ICH frequently appears in a sporadic form,but several familial cases have also been reported.This finding,in conjunction with the description of numerous pathogenetic gene variants and the generation of several knockout models,supports the existence of a strong genetic component.ICH may be associated with several morphogenetic abnormalities,which include osmic defects that,with ICH,constitute the cardinal manifestations of Kallmann syndrome (KS).KS accounts for approximately 40% of the total ICH cases and has been generally considered to be a distinct subgroup.However,the description of several pedigrees,which include relatives who are affected either with isolated osmic defects,KS,or normo-osmic ICH (nlCH),justifies the emerging idea that ICH is a complex genetic disease that is characterized by variable expressivity and penetrance.In this context,either multiple gene variants or environmental factors and epigenetic modifications may contribute to the variable disease manifestations.We review the genetic mechanisms that are presently known to be involved in ICH pathogenesis and provide a clinical overview of the 227 cases that have been collected by the collaborating centres of the Italian ICH Network.

  9. Nuevo registro de Gomphotherium hondurensis (Frick, 1933 (Proboscidea, Gomphoteriidae para el Mioceno Superior de El Salvador, América Central A new record of Gomphotherium hondurensis (Frick, 1933 (Proboscidea, Gomphoteriidae on the Upper Miocene of El Salvador, Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. Aguilar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un molar inferior, aislado, del proboscídeo endémico de América Central Gomphotherium hondurensis (Frick, 1933, recuperado en el valle del río Torola en la localidad fosilífera de Corinto, la cual fue estudiada y caracterizada en los años 70 por los paleontólogos estadounidenses David S. Webb y Stephen Perrigo; la fauna local de Corinto es considerada una de las más importantes localidades fosilíferas del Mioceno Superior de América Central.An isolated lower molar of the endemic Central America Proboscidea Gomphotherium hondurensis (Frick, 1933, recovered at the Valley of Torola River is described here. This locality corresponds with the outcrops of the Corinto local fauna, previously studied and defined by the American paleontologists David S. Webb and Stephen Perrigo during the 70’s years; which is considered as one of the most important fossiliferous localities of the Upper Miocene of Central America

  10. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American-Caribbean-Cocos plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.

    2015-09-01

    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. The complex tectonic setting produced an intricate pattern of landscapes that we try to systemize using remote sensing tectonic geomorphology and available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes while lower segments characterized by multiple knickpoints, that adjust to new base-level conditions. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos fore-arc sliver, and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central America Volcanic Arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos fore-arc sliver and the North American plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén basin.

  11. A review of the genus Agapetus Curtis (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae) in eastern and central North America, with description of 12 new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etnier, David A.; Parker, Charles R.; Baxter, John T.; Long, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-nine species of caddisflies in the genus Agapetus Curtis in eastern and central North America are reviewed. Twelve are described as new species: Agapetus aphallus (known only from females); Agapetus baueri, Agapetus flinti, Agapetus harrisi, Agapetus hesperus, Agapetus ibis, Agapetus kirchneri, Agapetus meridionalis, Agapetus pegram, Agapetus ruiteri, Agapetus stylifer, and Agapetus tricornutus. Agapetus rossi Denning 1941 is recognized as a junior subjective synonym of Agapetus walkeri (Betten and Mosely 1940), new synonym. A key to males is provided, and species’ distributions are mapped.

  12. Airborne LIDAR Measurements of Water Vapor, Ozone, Clouds, and Aerosols in the Tropics Near Central America During the TC4 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, Susan; Fenn, Marta; Ismail, Syed; Ferrare, Richard; Hair, John; Browell, Edward; Notari, Anthony; Butler, Carolyn; Burton, Sharon; Simpson, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Large scale distributions of ozone, water vapor, aerosols, and clouds were measured throughout the troposphere by two NASA Langley lidar systems on board the NASA DC-8 aircraft as part of the Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling Experiment (TC4) over Central and South America and adjacent oceans in the summer of 2007. Special emphasis was placed on the sampling of convective outflow and transport, sub-visible cirrus clouds, boundary layer aerosols, Saharan dust, volcanic emissions, and urban and biomass burning plumes. This paper presents preliminary results from this campaign, and demonstrates the value of coordinated measurements by the two lidar systems.

  13. Educacion y Pueblos Indigenas en Centroamerica: Un Balance Critico (Education and Indigenous People in Central America: A Critical Balance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, Massimo, Comp.; And Others

    Global society is polarized between the modern capitalist sector and the marginal sector, which is composed of indigenous, poor, and ethnic, tribal people. The problems of education for groups in Latin America, key issues in planning to meet their needs, and strategies to resolve them, are the focus of this publication. Nine papers provide a…

  14. 25 YEARS EXPERIENCES OF CHINA MADE SMALL HYDROELECTRIC UNITS WITH USA MADE DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY INSTALLED IN USA AND CENTRAL AMERICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DR.ALEXANDERA

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago America's small hydroelectric power generations were reactivated by private, municipal, and local governments to utilize the renewable energy from the small hydro sties available 10,000 existing dams, small rivers and/or streams, and energy recovery facilities at many water transmission and delivery systems.

  15. Central Bank autonomy in Europe and Latin America: analysis of differences and applications Autonomía de la banca central en Europa y América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rollinat Robert

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This article makes a comparative analysis of the experiences of the independent central bank in Latin America and Europe. After reviewing the problems and theories of central bank autonomy, it studies the recent evolution of the Latin American central bank in comparison with the European central bank, high lights the perverse effects of the reforms, and shows that their objective is more the stability of the financial system than the stability of prices. Finally, it describes the tests to which the new Latin American central banks have been subjected and the effects on their credibility. It concludes that these entities have had to correct and pay for the incoherences and errors of the market, and that their independence or autonomy depends on their continuing to ful fill this role, not only for economíc or monetary reasons but for the needs of political and social democracy.Este artículo hace un análisis comparativo de las experiencias de la banca central independiente en América Latina y Europa. Después de revisar los problemas y las teorías de la autonompia de los bancos centrales, estudia la reciente evolución de la banca central latinoamericana en comparación con la europea, destaca los efectos perversos de estas reformas u muestra que sus objetivo es más la estabilidad del sistema financiero que la de los precios. Finalmente, describe las pruebas a que han sido sometidos los nuevos bancos centrales latinomaericanos y los efectos de sus credibilidad. Concluye que estas entidades han tenido que corregir y pagar las incoherencias y los errrores del mercado, y que su 'independencia' o autonomía depende de que sigan cumpliendo con ese papel no sólo por razones económicas o monetarias sino por las necesidades de la democracia política y social.

  16. Genetic structure in village dogs reveals a Central Asian domestication origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Laura M; Boyko, Ryan H; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Elizabeth; Hayward, Jessica J; McLean, Corin; White, Michelle E; Abi Said, Mounir; Anita, Baddley A; Bondjengo, Nono Ikombe; Calero, Jorge; Galov, Ana; Hedimbi, Marius; Imam, Bulu; Khalap, Rajashree; Lally, Douglas; Masta, Andrew; Oliveira, Kyle C; Pérez, Lucía; Randall, Julia; Tam, Nguyen Minh; Trujillo-Cornejo, Francisco J; Valeriano, Carlos; Sutter, Nathan B; Todhunter, Rory J; Bustamante, Carlos D; Boyko, Adam R

    2015-11-01

    Dogs were the first domesticated species, originating at least 15,000 y ago from Eurasian gray wolves. Dogs today consist primarily of two specialized groups--a diverse set of nearly 400 pure breeds and a far more populous group of free-ranging animals adapted to a human commensal lifestyle (village dogs). Village dogs are more genetically diverse and geographically widespread than purebred dogs making them vital for unraveling dog population history. Using a semicustom 185,805-marker genotyping array, we conducted a large-scale survey of autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y chromosome diversity in 4,676 purebred dogs from 161 breeds and 549 village dogs from 38 countries. Geographic structure shows both isolation and gene flow have shaped genetic diversity in village dog populations. Some populations (notably those in the Neotropics and the South Pacific) are almost completely derived from European stock, whereas others are clearly admixed between indigenous and European dogs. Importantly, many populations--including those of Vietnam, India, and Egypt-show minimal evidence of European admixture. These populations exhibit a clear gradient of short--range linkage disequilibrium consistent with a Central Asian domestication origin. PMID:26483491

  17. Genetic structure in village dogs reveals a Central Asian domestication origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Laura M; Boyko, Ryan H; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Elizabeth; Hayward, Jessica J; McLean, Corin; White, Michelle E; Abi Said, Mounir; Anita, Baddley A; Bondjengo, Nono Ikombe; Calero, Jorge; Galov, Ana; Hedimbi, Marius; Imam, Bulu; Khalap, Rajashree; Lally, Douglas; Masta, Andrew; Oliveira, Kyle C; Pérez, Lucía; Randall, Julia; Tam, Nguyen Minh; Trujillo-Cornejo, Francisco J; Valeriano, Carlos; Sutter, Nathan B; Todhunter, Rory J; Bustamante, Carlos D; Boyko, Adam R

    2015-11-01

    Dogs were the first domesticated species, originating at least 15,000 y ago from Eurasian gray wolves. Dogs today consist primarily of two specialized groups--a diverse set of nearly 400 pure breeds and a far more populous group of free-ranging animals adapted to a human commensal lifestyle (village dogs). Village dogs are more genetically diverse and geographically widespread than purebred dogs making them vital for unraveling dog population history. Using a semicustom 185,805-marker genotyping array, we conducted a large-scale survey of autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y chromosome diversity in 4,676 purebred dogs from 161 breeds and 549 village dogs from 38 countries. Geographic structure shows both isolation and gene flow have shaped genetic diversity in village dog populations. Some populations (notably those in the Neotropics and the South Pacific) are almost completely derived from European stock, whereas others are clearly admixed between indigenous and European dogs. Importantly, many populations--including those of Vietnam, India, and Egypt-show minimal evidence of European admixture. These populations exhibit a clear gradient of short--range linkage disequilibrium consistent with a Central Asian domestication origin.

  18. Population genetics of Glossina palpalis palpalis from central African sleeping sickness foci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solano Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glossina palpalis palpalis (Diptera: Glossinidae is widespread in west Africa, and is the main vector of sleeping sickness in Cameroon as well as in the Bas Congo Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, little is known on the structure of its populations. We investigated G. p. palpalis population genetic structure in five sleeping sickness foci (four in Cameroon, one in Democratic Republic of Congo using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Results A strong isolation by distance explains most of the population structure observed in our sampling sites of Cameroon and DRC. The populations here are composed of panmictic subpopulations occupying fairly wide zones with a very strong isolation by distance. Effective population sizes are probably between 20 and 300 individuals and if we assume densities between 120 and 2000 individuals per km2, dispersal distance between reproducing adults and their parents extends between 60 and 300 meters. Conclusions This first investigation of population genetic structure of G. p. palpalis in Central Africa has evidenced random mating subpopulations over fairly large areas and is thus at variance with that found in West African populations of G. p. palpalis. This study brings new information on the isolation by distance at a macrogeographic scale which in turn brings useful information on how to organise regional tsetse control. Future investigations should be directed at temporal sampling to have more accurate measures of demographic parameters in order to help vector control decision.

  19. Comparative genetics of the central nervous system in epigean and hypogean Astyanax mexicanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Allen G; Soares, Daphne

    2011-03-01

    The extreme environment of subterranean caves presents an adaptive challenge to troglobitic organisms. The mechanisms by which natural selection modify an ancestral surface neural circuit to produce a novel subterranean behavior remain a mystery. To address this question, we performed cross species microarray experiments to compare differences in gene expression levels in the adult brain of the teleost Astyanax mexicanus. This species provides a unique opportunity for comparative genetic studies as it consists of extant epigean (surface) and hypogean (cave) conspecifics. Microarray experiments herein revealed significant changes in transcription levels of seventeen genes, several of which are important for behaviors involved in metabolic management. We focused on genes central to three neurotransmission and neuromodulation networks: the endocannabinoid system (Cannabinoid receptor CB1), the dopaminergic system (Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein) and the glutamatergic system (glutamate receptor AMPA 2a). All three genes were upregulated in the hypogean form of A. mexicanus compared to the epigean form, indicating that behavioral differences in the hypogean form of the species could be due to alterations in expression levels of several key genes. This information provides insights into the complex relationships among environmental factors, genetics, nervous systems and adaptive behavior, and can subsequently help us understand how these interactions affect behavior in other biological systems.

  20. A genetic landscape reshaped by recent events: Y-chromosomal insights into central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerjal, Tatiana; Wells, R Spencer; Yuldasheva, Nadira; Ruzibakiev, Ruslan; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2002-09-01

    Sixteen Y-chromosomal microsatellites and 16 binary markers have been used to analyze DNA variation in 408 male subjects from 15 populations in Central Asia. Large genetic differences were found between populations, but these did not display an obvious geographical or linguistic pattern like that usually seen for Y-chromosomal variation. Nevertheless, an underlying east-west clinal pattern could be detected by the Autocorrelation Index for DNA Analysis and admixture analysis, and this pattern was interpreted as being derived from the ancient peopling of the area, reinforced by subsequent migrations. Two particularly striking features were seen: an extremely high level of Y-chromosomal differentiation between geographically close populations, accompanied by low diversity within some populations. These were due to the presence of high-frequency population-specific lineages and suggested the occurrence of several recent bottlenecks or founder events. Such events could account for the lack of a clear overall pattern and emphasize the importance of multiple recent events in reshaping this genetic landscape.

  1. South America Geologic Map (geo6ag)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. The geologic map of South America was digitized so that we could use...

  2. Genetic structure analysis of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei isolates from central and southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zhang

    Full Text Available Sparganosis caused by invasion of the plerocercoid larvae (spargana of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei have increased in recent years in China. However, the population genetic structure regarding this parasite is still unclear. In this study, we used the sequences of two mitochondrial genes cytochrome b (cytb and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1 to analyze genetic variation and phylogeographic structure of the S. erinaceieuropaei populations.A total of 88 S. erinaceieuropaei isolates were collected from naturally infected frogs in 14 geographical locations of China. The complete cytb and cox1 genes of each sample was amplified and sequenced. Total 61 haplotypes were found in these 88 concatenated sequences. Each sampled population and the total population have high haplotype diversity (Hd, accompanied by very low nucleotide diversity (Pi. Phylogenetic analyses of haplotypes revealed two distinct clades (HeN+HuN+GZ-AS clade and GX+HN+GZ-GY clade corresponding two sub-networks yielded by the median-joining network. Pairwise FST values supported great genetic differentiation between S. erinaceieuropaei populations. Both negative Fu's FS value of neutrality tests and unimodal curve of mismatch distribution analyses supported demographic population expansion in the HeN+HuN+GZ-AS clade. The BEAST analysis showed that the divergence time between the two clades took place in the early Pleistocene (1.16 Myr, and by Bayesian skyline plot (BSP an expansion occurred after about 0.3 Myr ago.S. erinaceieuropaei from central and southern China has significant phylogeographic structure, and climatic oscillations during glacial periods in the Quaternary may affect the demography and diversification of this species.

  3. Migration and wintering areas of American Bitterns (Botaurus lentiginosus) that summer in central North America as determined by satellite and radio telemetry, 1998-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huschle, Guy; Toepfer, John E.; Douglas, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty adult male American Bitterns (Botaurus lentiginosus) were marked on summer range in central North America with satellite tracking Platform Transmitter Terminals (PTTs) to document migration routes and wintering range. Nineteen complete fall migration routes were documented for 17 individuals. Of the successful migrations, 63% (n = 12) went to southern Florida, 32% (n = 6) to southern Louisiana, and 5% (n = 1) to the Gulf coast of Texas. Spring migrations for nine birds were documented, and 78% (n = 7) showed fidelity to breeding range. Two complete migrations for two individuals were documented, and they demonstrated fidelity to winter range. The longest, fastest movement documented was 2,300 km in less than 74 hr. Extensive, post-breeding dispersal was not observed in the adult male American Bitterns in this study. Six male American Bitterns were marked with PTTs on winter range in Florida and Texas. Spring migration for these birds was documented to Nebraska, North Dakota, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario. Sixty-seven American Bitterns were marked with Very High Frequency radio transmitters on summer ranges, and 16% (n = 11) were located on wintering grounds used by the satellite-tracked birds, further documenting the importance of the Everglades and the Louisiana coast as winter habitat for American Bitterns that breed in Central North America.

  4. The Triticeae genetic resources of central Italy: collection, evaluation and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfiri, O; Torricelli, R; Silveri, D D; Papa, R; Barcaccia, G; Negri, V

    2001-01-01

    One hundred and six landraces belonging to 7 species of the Triticeae tribe were collected in central Italy by DBVBA (Perugia University), DIBIAGA (Ancona University) and ARSSA (Abruzzo Region Agricultural Development Agency) in different individual and joint missions. A few accessions were supplied by private and other public organisations. Triticum dicoccum Schubler is the most widespread species, followed by T. aestivum L., T. monococcum L., T. spelta L., T. turgidum var. durum Desf., Secale cereale L. and Hordeum vulgare L. Besides the presence of landraces reproduced by farmers over generations, information related to on-farm management and to qualitative/organoleptic traits as well as information related to their local names, uses, traditions and social context was gathered during the missions. The majority of the accessions was characterised by morphological and phenological traits and molecular markers. This work shows the presence of morpho-phenologic and genetic differences among landraces and the importance of some species in the agricultural systems and food customs of the investigated area. Particularly for emmer three well distinct landraces are present, "Farro Italia Centrale", "Farro della Garfagnana" and "Farro Italia Meridionale". Other interesting and traditional landraces are the "Solina" common wheat in Abruzzo and the "Orzo mondo" naked barley in Marche. Most of the populations are still cultivated in marginal lands and under low input or organic agronomic conditions; nevertheless, in many cases, they are found near modern varieties in conventional agriculture systems. Moreover, the in situ (on-farm) conservation of Triticeae landraces in central Italy is strictly linked to elderly farmers. PMID:12152333

  5. Genetic Diversity of Porang Populations (Amorphophallus Muelleri Blume) In Central Java and West Java Based on LEAFY Second Intron Marker

    OpenAIRE

    Isna Arofatun Nikmah; Rodiyati Azrianingsih; Didik Wahyudi

    2016-01-01

    Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) is dispersed and grew well in Java island. This research aimed to determine the genetic diversity of porang populations in Central Java and West Java based on LEAFY second intron (nuclear genome encoding flower development). DNA samples of porang were from previous study, which were obtained from Central Java (Pamedaran, Grobogan, Wonogiri, Karangtengah) and West Java (Cisompet) as in-group. Amorphophallus variabilis from Pamedaran Brebes, Amorphophallus...

  6. Genetic diversification without obvious genitalic morphological divergence in harvestmen (Opiliones, Laniatores, Sclerobunus robustus) from montane sky islands of western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkarabetian, Shahan; Ledford, Joel; Hedin, Marshal

    2011-12-01

    The southern Rocky Mountains and adjacent Intermontane Plateau Highlands region of western North America is a geographically diverse area with an active geologic history. Given the topological complexity and extensive geologic activity, organisms inhabiting this region are expected to show some degree of morphological and genetic divergence, especially populations found on the southern montane 'sky islands' of this region. Here we examine the phylogeographic history and diversification of a montane forest inhabiting harvestmen, Sclerobunus robustus, using a combination of genetic and morphological data. Divergence time estimates indicate that much of the diversification within and between major groups S. robustus predate the Pleistocene glacial cycles. The most widespread subspecies, Sclerobunus robustus robustus, is recovered as six genetically distinct, geographically cohesive mitochondrial phylogroups. Gene tree data for a single nuclear gene reveals congruent, albeit slightly more conservative, patterns of genetic divergence. Despite high levels of genetic divergence throughout their distribution, phylogroups show extreme conservation in somatic and reproductive morphology. This uncoupling of morphological and genetic differentiation may be due to morphological conservatism associated with a conserved microhabitat preference. Based on these data, it is obvious that S. robustus has undergone some level of cryptic diversification. PMID:21864691

  7. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American-Caribbean-Cocos plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.

    2016-01-01

    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. We intend to characterize and understand the complex tectonic setting that produced an intricate pattern of landscapes using tectonic geomorphology, as well as available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in a transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low-amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes. Lower reaches adjust to new base-level conditions and are characterized by multiple knickpoints. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos forearc sliver and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central American volcanic arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos forearc sliver and the North American Plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén Basin.

  8. The geometry of the Wadati-Benioff zone under southern Central America and its tectonic significance: results from a high-resolution local seismographic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, Marino; Gu¨ndel, Federico; McNally, Karen

    1994-07-01

    We present here a detailed geometry of the Wadati-Benioff zone under Costa Rica, obtained from seismicity recorded by a dense local seismographic network jointly operated by the Costa Rica Volcanological and Seismological Observatory, National University, and the Charles F. Richter Seismological Laboratory, University of California, Santa Cruz. Underneath the Nicaragua-Costa Rica border the Wadati-Benioff zone smoothly contorts (from steep to shallow dip angles, NW to SE), but does not show evidence of a brittle tear, as postulated by others. However, further to the SE, NE of Puerto Caldera, Costa Rica, the Wadati-Benioff zone does show a segmentation (the Quesada Sharp Contortion) at intermediate depths ( h > 70km). NW of this sharp contortion the deepest portion of the seismically active slab dips at about 80° and reaches maximum depths ranging from 200 km, near the Nicaragua-Costa Rica border, to 135 km under Ciudad Quesada. To the SE the deeper portion of the Wadati-Benioff zone dips at about 60° and the seismicity does not extend below depths ranging from 125 km, behind the volcanic arc, to 50 km, east of Quepos. In southern Costa Rica, east of 83°55'W, we find no evidence of the Wadati-Benioff zone deeper than 50 km. The obtained geometry and other known tectonic features related to the subduction of the Cocos plate under the Caribbean plate along the southern terminus of the Middle America Trench (Nicaragua and Costa Rica) correlate well with along-trench variations in age of the subducted Cocos plate. Some of these tectonic features are: (1) the shallowing of Middle America Trench bathymetry from NW to SE; (2) variations in the energy release within the subducted slab; (3) differences in coupling between Cocos and Caribbean plates; (4) the termination of the Central America Volcanic Chain in central Costa Rica; (5) distinct stress field variations on the overriding Caribbean plate. The subduction of the Cocos Ridge under southern Costa Rica is partially

  9. Intraplate mountain building in response to continent continent collision—the Ancestral Rocky Mountains (North America) and inferences drawn from the Tien Shan (Central Asia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Patricia Wood

    2003-04-01

    The intraplate Ancestral Rocky Mountains of western North America extend from British Columbia, Canada, to Chihuahua, Mexico, and formed during Early Carboniferous through Early Permian time in response to continent-continent collision of Laurentia with Gondwana—the conjoined masses of Africa and South America, including Yucatán and Florida. Uplifts and flanking basins also formed within the Laurentian Midcontinent. On the Gondwanan continent, well inboard from the marginal fold belts, a counterpart structural array developed during the same period. Intraplate deformation began when full collisional plate coupling had been achieved along the continental margin; the intervening ocean had been closed and subduction had ceased—that is, the distinction between upper versus lower plates became moot. Ancestral Rockies deformation was not accompanied by volcanism. Basement shear zones that formed during Mesoproterozoic rifting of Laurentia were reactivated and exerted significant control on the locations, orientations, and modes of displacement on late Paleozoic faults. Ancestral Rocky Mountain uplifts extend as far south as Chihuahua and west Texas (28° to 33°N, 102° to 109°W) and include the Florida-Moyotes, Placer de Guadalupe-Carrizalillo, Ojinaga-Tascotal and Hueco Mountain blocks, as well as the Diablo and Central Basin Platforms. All are cored with Laurentian Proterozoic crystalline basement rocks and host correlative Paleozoic stratigraphic successions. Pre-late Paleozoic deformational, thermal, and metamorphic histories are similar as well. Southern Ancestral Rocky Mountain structures terminate along a line that trends approximately N 40°E (present coordinates), a common orientation for Mesoproterozoic extensional structures throughout southern to central North America. Continuing Tien Shan intraplate deformation (Central Asia) has created an analogous array of uplifts and basins in response to the collision of India with Eurasia, beginning in late

  10. Comparison of bean biochemical composition and beverage quality of Arabica hybrids involving Sudanese-Ethiopian origins with traditional varieties at various elevations in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Benoit; Vaast, Philippe; Alpizar, Edgardo; Etienne, Hervé; Davrieux, Fabrice; Charmetant, Pierre

    2006-09-01

    For buyers of Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.) in Central America, elevation and variety are important indicators of quality. We compared coffee produced by three types of varieties established in various trials at elevations ranging from 700-1600 m in three countries (El Salvador, Costa Rica and Honduras). Arabica hybrids resulting from crosses of Sudanese-Ethiopian origins with either traditional varieties or with introgressed lines derived from the hybrid of Timor (C. arabica x Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehn) were compared with traditional cultivars (TC). Effects of elevation and variety on bean biochemical composition (caffeine, chlorogenic acid, trigonelline, fat and sucrose) were evaluated by predictive models based on calibration of near-infrared (NIR) spectra and by chemometric analysis of the global NIR spectrum. Beverage quality tests were performed by a panel of ten professional cup-tasters. Experiment 1 was carried out on the slopes of the Poas volcano (Costa Rica) with the traditional cultivar 'Caturra'. Experiment 2 compared the three varieties in a network of trials established in three countries of Central America. Significant linear regressions with elevation were observed in Experiment 1 with Caturra and in Experiment 2 for the traditional cultivars, and trends were established relating variation in biochemical compounds and cup quality to elevation. Convergence or divergence of the new hybrids in relation to these trends was observed. For the traditional cultivars, elevation had a significant effect on bean biochemical composition, with chlorogenic acid and fat concentrations increasing with increasing elevation. For the Arabica hybrids, elevation explained little of the variation in chlorogenic acid concentration and none of the variation in fat concentration. Nevertheless, Arabica hybrids had 10-20% higher fat concentrations than the traditional varieties at low elevations and similar fat concentrations at high elevations. The samples

  11. Genetic characterization of Neotropical Jabiru Storks: Insights for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, I.F.; Haig, S.M.; Lama, S.N.D.

    2010-01-01

    Jabiru Stork (Jabiru mycteria is listed under Appendix I of CITES and considered threatened in Central America. The first population genetic analysis of Jabiru Storks was carried out using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences (520 bp) and five heterologous microsatellite loci. Samples were collected from the field (N = 49) and museum skins (N = 22) in Central (mainly Belize, Nicaragua and Costa Rica) and South America (Colombia, Venezuela, Peru and Brazil). A decline of mtDNA diversity was observed in comparisons between past (N = 20) and present (N = 40) samples collected in Central America and northern South America. Similar levels of microsatellite loci diversity were observed among contemporary samples. Lower levels of mtDNA variability were observed in samples from Central America and northern South America when compared to the Brazilian Pantanal region. Significant levels of genetic differentiation were found between contemporary locations sampled, whereas non-significant results were observed for historic samples. The non-geographic association of haplotypes observed at the cladograms and the recent divergence times estimated between locations are indicative of an evolutionary history of a large population size with limited population structure. Reconnection of populations via increased gene flow, particularly in Central America, is recommended if genetic structure and status are to be restored.

  12. Paleobiogeografía del arribo de mamíferos suramericanos al sur de América Central de previo al gran intercambio biótico americano: un vistazo al GABI en América Central Paleobiogeography of the arrival of south american mammals to southern Central America prior to the great american biotic interchange: a look at the GABI in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A Laurito

    2012-06-01

    of South American mammals to the Southern Central America region, not known until now. The arrival of South American mammals to the Panama Region was due to a series of factors such as the development of the Costa Rica-Panamá Island Arc by subduction processes, the collision and the deformation of the Island Arc with the North-Western Colombia territories and the prevailing climate factors which stimulated the predominance of warm, humid and basal forests, both in Colombia and in southern Central America. This permitted the xenarthrans, which are considered strong swimmers and islands hoppers to migrate to the North. These conditions on the other hand, limited the migration to the South of the North American mammals, whose arrival in South America was postponed until the Blancan age with drier climatic conditions and the new land corridor that was established in the region. Additionally, the current state of the Great American Biotic Interchange in Central America (GABI is analyzed

  13. Interannual Variability of the Bimodal Distribution of Summertime Rainfall Over Central America and Tropical Storm Activity in the Far-Eastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Scott; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The summer climate of southern Mexico and Central America is characterized by a mid summer drought (MSD), where rainfall is reduced by 40% in July as compared to June and September. A mid-summer reduction in the climatological number of eastern Pacific tropical cyclones has also been noted. Little is understood about the climatology and interannual variability of these minima. The present study uses a novel approach to quantify the bimodal distribution of summertime rainfall for the globe and finds that this feature of the annual cycle is most extreme over Pan America and adjacent oceans. One dominant interannual signal in this region occurs the summer before a strong winter El Nino/Southern Oscillation ENSO. Before El Nino events the region is dry, the MSD is strong and centered over the ocean, and the mid-summer minimum in tropical cyclone frequency is most pronounced. This is significantly different from Neutral cases (non-El Nino and non-La Nina) when the MSD is weak and positioned over the land bridge. The MSD is highly variable for La Nina years, and there is not an obvious mid-summer minimum in the number of tropical cyclones.

  14. Genetically variant populations of Paragonimus proliferus Hsia & Chen, 1964 from central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doanh, P N; Hien, H V; Nonaka, N; Horii, Y; Nawa, Y

    2013-06-01

    Among about 50 nominal Paragonimus species, Paragonimus proliferus is rather a rare species, found only in Yunnan province, China, until our recent discovery of this species in Lai Chau province, northern Vietnam close to Yunnan, China. Here we add Quang Binh province, central Vietnam as a new endemic area of P. proliferus. Large excysted metacercariae found in mountainous crabs, Potamiscus tannanti, were morphologically identified as P. proliferus, which was confirmed further by molecular analyses. Second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) sequences of the P. proliferus population in Quang Binh province were completely (100%) identical with those of P. proliferus populations in Lai Chau province, northern Vietnam and Yunnan province, China. However, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene sequences of Quang Binh population were significantly different (5.6%) from that of previously reported northern Vietnam and Yunnan, China populations. A phylogenetic tree revealed that all CO1 sequences of P. proliferus Quang Binh population formed a distinct group, which was clustered with northern Vietnam and Yunnan, China populations with the bootstrap value of 75%. This is the first record of the genetically variant population of P. proliferus, distribution of which is geographically remote from the previously reported endemic areas in the border between northern Vietnam and Yunnan, China, suggesting that P. proliferus may be much more widely distributed in the Indochina peninsula (or South-East Asia) than expected.

  15. Genetic analysis reveals candidate species in the Scinax catharinae clade (Amphibia: Anura) from Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lídia; Solé, Mirco; Siqueira, Sérgio; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Strüssmann, Christine; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2016-03-01

    Scinax (Anura: Hylidae) is a species-rich genus of amphibians (113 spp.), divided into five species groups by morphological features. Cladistic analyses however revealed only two monophyletic clades in these groups: Scinax catharinae and Scinax ruber. Most species from the S. catharinae clade are found in Atlantic rainforest, except for Scinax canastrensis,S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi,S. pombali and S. skaios. In the present work, specimens of Scinax collected in Chapada dos Guimarães, central Brazil, were morphologically compatible with species from theS. catharinae group. On the other hand, genetic analysis based on mitochondrial (16S and 12S) and nuclear (rhodopsin) sequences revealed a nucleotide divergence of 6 to 20% between Scinax sp. and other congeners from the Brazilian savannah (Cerrado). Accordingly, Bayesian inference placed Scinax sp. in the S. catharinae clade with high support values. Hence, these findings strongly indicate the presence of a new species in the S. catharinae clade from the southwestern portion of the Brazilian savannah. To be properly validated as a novel species, detailed comparative morphological and bioacustic studies with other taxa from Brazil such asS. canastrensis, S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi, S. pombali and S. skaios are required. PMID:27007898

  16. Hypericum species in the Páramos of Central and South America: a special focus upon H. irazuense Kuntze ex N. Robson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Sara; Eberhardt, Marianne; Kunert, Olaf; Schühly, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge about members of the flowering plant family Clusiaceae occurring in the tropical mountain regions of the world is limited, in part due to endemism and restricted distributions. High altitude vegetation habitats (Páramos) in Central and South America are home to numerous native Hypericum species. Information related to the phytochemistry of páramo Hypericum, as well as ecological factors with the potential to influence chemical defenses in these plants, is briefly reviewed. Results of the phytochemical analysis of Hypericum irazuense, a species collected in the páramo of the Cordillera de Talamanca in Costa Rica, are presented. Lastly, guidelines for the viable and sustainable collections of plant material, to facilitate future investigations of these interesting plants, are given. PMID:21151765

  17. Is violence associated with increased risk behavior among MSM? Evidence from a population-based survey conducted across nine cities in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Wheeler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: There is a dearth of research examining the linkages between violence and HIV risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM, including those who identify as transgender women (TW, particularly in Central America where violence is widespread. In this paper, we use population-based survey results to independently examine the correlations between physical, emotional and sexual violence and HIV risk behavior among MSM populations in five countries in Central America. Design: As part of USAID's Combination Prevention for HIV program in Central America, PASMO conducted population based surveys using respondent-driven sampling (RDS in nine cities in Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Initial seeds were recruited using the following criteria: individuals who represented subgroups of MSM by self-identification (homosexual vs. heterosexual or bisexual vs. transgender, social economic strata, and by sex work practices. This study examines the association between violence and 1 HIV risk behaviors relevant to the study populations; 2 protective behaviors; and 3 reported STIs. Individualized RDS estimator weights for each outcome variable were calculated using RDSAT software, and logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations between different forms of violence and the outcome variables. Results: MSM who experienced physical violence were more likely to be engaged in transactional sex (OR: 1.76 [1.42–2.18], have multiple partners in the past 30 days (OR: 1.37 [1.09–1.71], and have engaged in sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs (OR: 1.51 [1.24–1.83]. Both physical violence and psychological/verbal violence were also associated with reporting STI symptoms or diagnosis within the past 12 months (OR: 1.72 [1.34–2.21] and 1.80 [1.45–2.23]. The effects of violence on the outcomes were observed after controlling for other risk factors. Transgender women were 3.9 times more likely

  18. Magmas with slab fluid and decompression melting signatures coexisting in the Gulf of Fonseca: Evidence from Isla El Tigre volcano (Honduras, Central America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Michele; Renzulli, Alberto; Agostini, Samuele; Lucidi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Isla El Tigre volcano is located in the Gulf of Fonseca (Honduras) along the Central America volcanic front, where a significant change in the strike of the volcanic chain is observed. The studied samples of this poorly investigated volcano are mainly subalkaline basic to intermediate lavas (basalts and basaltic andesites) and subordinate subalkaline/alkaline transitional basalts, both having the typical mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of arc volcanic rocks. On the basis of petrographic and geochemical features, two groups of rocks have been distinguished. Lavas from the main volcanic edifice are highly porphyritic and hy-qz normative, and have lower MgO contents ( 5 wt.%), are ol-hy normative and show lower HFSE depletions relative to LILE and LREE, with lower Ba/La, Ba/Nb and Zr/Nb ratios. This suggests that mantle-derived magmas were not produced by the same process throughout the activity of the volcano. The bulk rock geochemistry and 87Sr/86Sr (0.70373-0.70382), 143Nd/144Nd (0.51298-0.51301), 206Pb/204Pb (18.55-18.58), 207Pb/204Pb (15.54-15.56) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.23-38.26) isotopic data of Isla El Tigre compared with the other volcanoes of the Gulf of Fonseca and all available literature data for Central America suggests that this stratovolcano was mainly built by mantle-derived melts driven by slab-derived fluid-flux melting, while magmas erupted through its parasitic cones have a clear signature of decompression melting with minor slab contribution. The coexistence of these two different mantle melting generation processes is likely related to the complex geodynamic setting of the Gulf of Fonseca, where the volcanic front changes direction by ca. 30° and two fundamental tectonic structures of the Chortis continental block, mainly the N-S Honduras Depression and the NE-SW Guayape Fault Zone, cross each other.

  19. Working Together to Make a Difference in Rural America: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2010 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four regional centers in the United States that have worked to improve the quality of life in rural communities for nearly 40 years. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in our 12-state region, the NCRCRD…

  20. The University as Agent of Social Transformation: The Case of the University of Central America in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Orfilio Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    In 1965, the Jesuit-run Central American University (UCA) was launched in El Salvador as the wealthy family's educational alternative to the increasingly leftist National University. But within a decade, the UCA would shift its focus to the inequalities and injustice experienced by the country's popular majorities and to its own role as society's…

  1. Education for Management in Central America. The Role of the Library of the Instituto Centroamericano de Administracion de Empresas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Thomas

    1973-01-01

    The institute, established in 1968, is a multinational organization for education in management at the post-graduate level. Its library, with five staff members, now has 4,000 volumes and receives 300 periodical publications: it should eventually become a Central American business and economic management information and research center. (Author/SJ)

  2. Genetic variation and population structure of American mink Neovison vison from PCB-contaminated and non-contaminated locales in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirgin, Isaac; Maceda, Lorraine; Waldman, John; Mayack, David T

    2015-11-01

    American mink Neovison vison may be particularly vulnerable to toxicities of persistent contaminants such as PCBs because of their aquatic-based diet, position near the top of the food web, and small deme sizes. Furthermore, ranched mink are sensitive to reproductive toxicities of fish diets from PCB-polluted sites. The upper Hudson River is highly contaminated with PCBs and previous studies have shown elevated hepatic burdens of total and coplanar PCBs in mink collected near the river compared with those from more distant locales in New York and elsewhere. We hypothesized that bioaccumulation of PCBs in Hudson River mink has reduced their levels of genetic diversity or altered their genetic population structure. To address this, we conducted microsatellite DNA analysis on collections made in proximity to and from more distant locales in the Hudson River watershed, elsewhere in New York State, and at other sites in eastern North America including New Brunswick, four locales in Ontario, multiple drainages in Maine, and two ecoregions in Rhode Island. We did not find reduced genetic diversity at the individual or population levels in mink collected near (State and elsewhere. Depending on the analytical approach used, genetically distinct populations numbered between 16 when using STRUCTURE to 19-20 when using Exact G tests, F ST, or AMOVA analyses. Genetically distinct population units were found among major ecoregions and minor ecoregions in New York State, among different hydrologic subunits within the Hudson River watershed, among spatially separate locales in Ontario, and among most watersheds in Maine. However, despite this localization and potential heightened impact of stressors, genetic diversity and genetic population structure in mink does not seem to be affected by their bioaccumulation of high levels of PCBs of Hudson River origin. PMID:26374638

  3. Genetic Structuration, Demography and Evolutionary History of Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM9 Sublineage in the Americas as Two Distinct Subpopulations Revealed by Bayesian Analyses.

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    Yann Reynaud

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains broadly present in the Americas despite intense global efforts for its control and elimination. Starting from a large dataset comprising spoligotyping (n = 21183 isolates and 12-loci MIRU-VNTRs data (n = 4022 isolates from a total of 31 countries of the Americas (data extracted from the SITVIT2 database, this study aimed to get an overview of lineages circulating in the Americas. A total of 17119 (80.8% strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage 4, among which the most predominant genotypic family belonged to the Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM lineage (n = 6386, 30.1% of strains. By combining classical phylogenetic analyses and Bayesian approaches, this study revealed for the first time a clear genetic structuration of LAM9 sublineage into two subpopulations named LAM9C1 and LAM9C2, with distinct genetic characteristics. LAM9C1 was predominant in Chile, Colombia and USA, while LAM9C2 was predominant in Brazil, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe and French Guiana. Globally, LAM9C2 was characterized by higher allelic richness as compared to LAM9C1 isolates. Moreover, LAM9C2 sublineage appeared to expand close to twenty times more than LAM9C1 and showed older traces of expansion. Interestingly, a significant proportion of LAM9C2 isolates presented typical signature of ancestral LAM-RDRio MIRU-VNTR type (224226153321. Further studies based on Whole Genome Sequencing of LAM strains will provide the needed resolution to decipher the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this successful family.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, suggests genetic isolation of some Caribbean island populations following colonization from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonagh, L; García, R; Stevens, J R

    2009-06-01

    Larval infestations of the New World screwworm (NWS) fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, cause considerable economic losses through the direct mortality and reduced production of livestock. Since the 1950s, NWS populations in North and Central America have been the target of virtually continuous eradication attempts by sterile insect technique (SIT). Nevertheless, in some areas, such as Jamaica, SIT-based control programmes have failed. Reasons for the failure of SIT-based programmes in some locations are unknown, but it is hypothesized that failure may be related to the mating incompatibility between sterile and wild flies or to the existence of sexually incompatible cryptic species. Accordingly, the current research investigates intraspecific phylogenetic relationships and associated biogeographic patterns between NWS populations from the Caribbean and South America, which represent those populations involved in, or earmarked for, forthcoming SIT programmes. Uniquely, this study also includes analyses of two North American samples, collected in Texas in 1933 and 1953 prior to initiation of the SIT-based eradication programme. The study utilizes three nucleotide datasets: elongation factor-1alpha (nuclear); cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (mitochondrial), and 12S rRNA (mitochondrial). Phylogenetic analysis of these data, representing populations from across the Caribbean, South America and Texas, indicates sub-structuring of fly populations on several of the larger Caribbean islands, suggesting a period of isolation and/or founder effects following colonization from South America; significantly, our findings do not support a North American origin for Cuban flies. The importance of these findings in the light of proposed SIT programmes in the region is discussed. PMID:19335826

  5. The Use of Genetics for the Management of a Recovering Population: Temporal Assessment of Migratory Peregrine Falcons in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jeff A; Sandra L Talbot; Sage, George K.; Kurt K Burnham; Brown, Joseph W.; Maechtle, Tom L.; William S Seegar; Yates, Michael A.; Bud Anderson; David P Mindell

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our ability to monitor populations or species that were once threatened or endangered and in the process of recovery is enhanced by using genetic methods to assess overall population stability and size over time. This can be accomplished most directly by obtaining genetic measures from temporally-spaced samples that reflect the overall stability of the population as given by changes in genetic diversity levels (allelic richness and heterozygosity), degree of population differentia...

  6. Population genetics features for persistent, but transient, Botryllus schlosseri (Urochordata) congregations in a central Californian marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Arzu; Douek, Jacob; Paz, Guy; Rinkevich, Baruch

    2016-08-01

    The colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri is a globally distributed, invasive ascidian that has colonized the Californian coasts of the USA during the mid-late 1940s and has, since the late 1980s, spread north to Washington. This study analyzes the population genetic characteristics of transient populations residing at the Elkhorn Yacht-Club (EYC), in central California (seven sessions, 1996-2008), which suffered periodic catastrophes caused by episodic fresh-water floods and a single sampling session (in the year 2001) of five West-Coast populations using the mtDNA COI gene and five microsatellite markers. EYC microsatellite results were further compared with the closely situated but persistent population of the Santa Cruz Harbor (SCH) to understand the impact on EYC population regeneration processes after the 2005-flood catastrophe. All microsatellites were highly polymorphic, revealing a large number of unique alleles at different sampling dates. Whereas pairwise θ did not reveal significant differences between the EYC time-series samplings, the overall θ was significant, as it was between all the 2001 West Coast populations. The most likely cluster number was 3 for the EYC samples whereas two K values were obtained (2 and 5) for the 2001 samples. Tajima's D and Fu's/Fs tests did not reject the null hypothesis for COI neutral evolution, except for in the EYC-2000, 2007 and two 2001 samplings. The wide geographical range of the analyses has indicated that following the EYC 2005-flood catastrophe, newcomers could have originated from neighboring populations, from deep-water colonies that may have escaped the 2005 low salinity event, or less expectedly, from far away West-Coast populations, while revealing that the SCH population is the most probable source for the EYC population. PMID:27154209

  7. Population genetics features for persistent, but transient, Botryllus schlosseri (Urochordata) congregations in a central Californian marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Arzu; Douek, Jacob; Paz, Guy; Rinkevich, Baruch

    2016-08-01

    The colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri is a globally distributed, invasive ascidian that has colonized the Californian coasts of the USA during the mid-late 1940s and has, since the late 1980s, spread north to Washington. This study analyzes the population genetic characteristics of transient populations residing at the Elkhorn Yacht-Club (EYC), in central California (seven sessions, 1996-2008), which suffered periodic catastrophes caused by episodic fresh-water floods and a single sampling session (in the year 2001) of five West-Coast populations using the mtDNA COI gene and five microsatellite markers. EYC microsatellite results were further compared with the closely situated but persistent population of the Santa Cruz Harbor (SCH) to understand the impact on EYC population regeneration processes after the 2005-flood catastrophe. All microsatellites were highly polymorphic, revealing a large number of unique alleles at different sampling dates. Whereas pairwise θ did not reveal significant differences between the EYC time-series samplings, the overall θ was significant, as it was between all the 2001 West Coast populations. The most likely cluster number was 3 for the EYC samples whereas two K values were obtained (2 and 5) for the 2001 samples. Tajima's D and Fu's/Fs tests did not reject the null hypothesis for COI neutral evolution, except for in the EYC-2000, 2007 and two 2001 samplings. The wide geographical range of the analyses has indicated that following the EYC 2005-flood catastrophe, newcomers could have originated from neighboring populations, from deep-water colonies that may have escaped the 2005 low salinity event, or less expectedly, from far away West-Coast populations, while revealing that the SCH population is the most probable source for the EYC population.

  8. Inorganic particles in the skin of inhabitants of volcanic areas of Central America: their possible immunomodulatory influence in leishmaniasis and leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convit, J; Ulrich, M; Castillo, J; De Lima, H; Pérez, M; Caballero, N; Hung, J; Arana, B; Pérez, P

    2006-08-01

    We have evaluated biopsies from patients with atypical nodular and typical ulcerated lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis, from leishmanin reactions and skin from normal individuals from Nicaragua, Honduras and Guatemala for the presence of inorganic particles using confocal microscopy with a polarised light source and conventional histopathological techniques. Analysis by semiquantitative confocal microscopy permitted the demonstration of significantly larger numbers of particles in atypical lesions. Silica and aluminium, important components of these particles, were less abundant in particles from normal skin. The histology of these atypical lesions, characterised by 'naked' sarcoidal granulomas with epithelioid differentiation but very few lymphocytes, was very similar to the histological reaction observed after 14 days in persisting inflammation at leishmanin skin test sites. The presence of these unusual lesions in areas of Central American countries characterised by the presence of large amounts of volcanic ash, as well the unexpectedly low prevalence of leprosy in Central America, suggest that environmental factors may contribute significantly to the frequency and clinical manifestations of these infections. Among possible environmental features, the presence of inorganic particles with immunomodulatory properties in the skin may be a significant factor.

  9. Transmitted drug-resistance in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adult population in El Salvador, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguín, Á; Yebra, G; Martín, L; de Pineda, A T; Ruiz, L E; Quezada, A Y; Nieto, A I; Escobar, G

    2013-12-01

    El Salvador harbours one of the largest Central American human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics, but few studies have analysed it in depth. Here, we describe the presence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and HIV variants in the HIV-infected adult population in El Salvador. Dried blood spots from 119 HIV-infected antiretroviral-naive adults attended in El Salvador were collected in 2011. The TDR was assessed according to the list recommended by the WHO. HIV-1 variants were described using phylogeny. Pol sequences could be amplified in 88 patients (50.6% men), with a mean age of 35 years. Almost all (96.7%) were infected with HIV through sexual practice and 58.7% were recently diagnosed. The mean CD4(+) count was 474 cells/mm(3) and 43.1% and 15.5% of patients showed moderate (100 000 copies/mL in 24.7% of patients and Salvador, lower than in other Central American studies. Periodical studies are essential to monitor and prevent TDR emergence in low-income and middle-income regions. Also, more efforts are needed to promote early diagnosis and prevention of infection in El Salvador.

  10. Radical, reformist and aborted liberalism: origins of national regimes in Central America Liberalismo radical, reformista y frustrado: orígenes de los regímenes nacionales en América central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James MAHONEY

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available During the twentieth century, the countries of Central America were characterized by remarkably different political regimes: military-authoritarianism in Guatemala and El Salvador, progressive democracy in Costa Rica and traditional-authoritarianism in Honduras and Nicaragua. This article explains these contrasting regime outcomes by exploring the agrarian and state-building reforms pursued by political leaders during the nineteenth– and early twentieth century liberal reform period. Based on differences in the transformation of state and class structures, three types of liberalism are identified: radical liberalism in Guatemala and El Salvador, reformist liberalism in Costa Rica and aborted liberalism in Honduras and Nicaragua. It is argued that these types of liberalism set the Central American countries on contrasting paths of political development, culminating in diverse regime outcomes.Durante el siglo XX, los países de América Central se caracterizaron por tener regímenes políticos muy diferentes: el autoritarismo militar en Guatemala y El Salvador; la democracia progresista en Costa Rica y el autoritarismo tradicional en Honduras y Nicaragua. Este artículo explica los resultados de estos distintos regímenes mediante la exploración de las reformas agrarias y de la construcción del Estado llevadas a cabo por los líderes políticos durante el siglo XIX y principios del periodo de reformas liberales del siglo XX. Basándose en las diferencias de la transformación del Estado y de las estructuras de clases, se pueden identificar tres tipos de liberalismo: liberalismo radical en Guatemala y El Salvador; liberalismo reformista en Costa Rica y liberalismo frustrado en Honduras y Nicaragua. Se argumenta que estos tipos de liberalismo condujeron a los países de América Central a caminos contrarios al desarrollo político, culminando así en regímenes con resultados diversos.

  11. Genetic diversity in peripheral and central populations of the Cantabrian endemism Genista legionensis (Pau M. Laínz (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cires, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of habitat fragmentation and isolation on the genetic diversity of populations has attracted much attention in studies of plant conservation. The central-peripheral population hypothesis predicts that peripheral populations have reduced genetic variability, so it is often assumed that they deserve higher conservation priority over central populations. In this work, using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, we studied the genetic diversity of central and peripheral populations of the Cantabrian endemism Genista legionensis (Fabaceae. At the species level, percentage of polymorphic bands, Nei heterozygosity and Shannon information index were PPB = 89.21%, Hε = 0.246 and I = 0.377, respectively. The study revealed that peripheral populations were smaller in number, with lower levels of genetic diversity compared to the central populations. Furthermore, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA indicated that most of the variability was partitioned among populations, also supported by principal coordinates analysis. This study indicates that the decrease in diversity from central to peripheral populations could be explained as a result of edge effect and fragmentation through the enhanced inbreeding and genetic drift, and thus supported the view that habitat fragmentation and related edge effect reduce the population genetic diversity. However, the presence of discriminating fragments in the peripheral populations suggests their conservation in order to preserve the genetic diversity in the Cantabrian endemism G. legionensis.El impacto de la fragmentación del hábitat y el aislamiento sobre la diversidad genética de las poblaciones, han despertado mucha atención en estudios de conservación de plantas. La hipótesis de la población centro-periferia predice que las poblaciones periféricas reducen la variabilidad genética, por lo que a menudo se asume que merecen una mayor prioridad de conservación respecto a las poblaciones

  12. GPS-derived coupling estimates for the Central America subduction zone and volcanic arc faults: El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Mora, F.; DeMets, C.; Alvarado, D.; Turner, H. L.; Mattioli, G.; Hernandez, D.; Pullinger, C.; Rodriguez, M.; Tenorio, C.

    2009-12-01

    We invert GPS velocities from 32 sites in El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua to estimate the rate of long-term forearc motion and distributions of interseismic coupling across the Middle America subduction zone offshore from these countries and faults in the Salvadoran and Nicaraguan volcanic arcs. A 3-D finite element model is used to approximate the geometries of the subduction interface and strike-slip faults in the volcanic arc and determine the elastic response to coupling across these faults. The GPS velocities are best fit by a model in which the forearc moves 14-16 mmyr-1 and has coupling of 85-100 per cent across faults in the volcanic arc, in agreement with the high level of historic and recent earthquake activity in the volcanic arc. Our velocity inversion indicates that coupling across the potentially seismogenic areas of the subduction interface is remarkably weak, averaging no more than 3 per cent of the plate convergence rate and with only two poorly resolved patches where coupling might be higher along the 550-km-long segment we modelled. Our geodetic evidence for weak subduction coupling disagrees with a seismically derived coupling estimate of 60 +/- 10 per cent from a published analysis of earthquake damage back to 1690, but agrees with three other seismologic studies that infer weak subduction coupling from 20th century earthquakes. Most large historical earthquakes offshore from El Salvador and western Nicaragua may therefore have been intraslab normal faulting events similar to the Mw 7.3 1982 and Mw 7.7 2001 earthquakes offshore from El Salvador. Alternatively, the degree of coupling might vary with time. The evidence for weak coupling indirectly supports a recently published hypothesis that much of the Middle American forearc is escaping to the west or northwest away from the Cocos Ridge collision zone in Costa Rica. Such a hypothesis is particularly attractive for El Salvador, where there is little or no convergence obliquity to drive the

  13. Is the genetic structure of human personality universal? A cross-cultural twin study from North America, Europe, and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Shinji; Suzuki, Atsunobu; Ando, Juko; Ono, Yutaka; Kijima, Nobuhiko; Yoshimura, Kimio; Ostendorf, Fritz; Angleitner, Alois; Riemann, Rainer; Spinath, Frank M; Livesley, W John; Jang, Kerry L

    2006-06-01

    This study examined whether universality of the 5-factor model (FFM) of personality operationalized by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory is due to genetic influences that are invariant across diverse nations. Factor analyses were conducted on matrices of phenotypic, genetic, and environmental correlations estimated in a sample of 1,209 monozygotic and 701 dizygotic twin pairs from Canada, Germany, and Japan. Five genetic and environmental factors were extracted for each sample. High congruence coefficients were observed when phenotypic, genetic, and environmental factors were compared in each sample as well as when each factor was compared across samples. These results suggest that the FFM has a solid biological basis and may represent a common heritage of the human species.

  14. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis of the montane Craugastor podiciferus species complex (Anura: Craugastoridae) in Isthmian Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher, Jeffrey W; Crawford, Andrew J; Edwards, Cody W

    2009-12-01

    The Craugastor podiciferus complex is a group of phenotypically polymorphic direct-developing frogs that inhabit the Talamancan highlands of Costa Rica and Panama. The montane distribution of this group creates natural allopatry among members and offers an excellent opportunity to explore geographic models of speciation. Using a multilocus approach, we obtained data from one nuclear (c-myc) and three mitochondrial (12S, 16S, and COI) gene regions from 40 individuals within the C. podiciferus complex. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a basal split that placed samples from western Panama as sister to Costa Rican (CR) samples, corroborating a previous suggestion that the former lineage may represent an undescribed species. Within the CR clades we found six distinct haplogroups whose distributions largely corresponded to geographic features and included instances of sympatry. Divergence estimates were used to develop a preliminary evolutionary timeframe for the diversification of the C. podiciferus complex. Based on collective evidence, we hypothesize that movement of the CR haplogroups has occurred between currently isolated areas of suitable habitat via second order climatic fluctuations during the Pleistocene. The levels of genetic differentiation within the C. podiciferus complex are remarkable given the relatively small geographic area (ca. 8000 km(2)) of occurrence. This diversity emphasizes the need for further study and taxonomic revision to aid in conservation planning for this complex which, like many amphibians, has experienced recent population declines. PMID:19602442

  15. A 400-ka tephrochronological framework for Central America from Lake Petén Itzá (Guatemala) sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutterolf, S.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Ariztegui, D.; Brenner, M.; Curtis, J.; Schmid, D.; Hodell, D. A.; Mueller, A.; Pérez, L.; Pérez, W.; Schwalb, A.; Frische, M.; Wang, K.-L.

    2016-10-01

    Lake Petén Itzá, northern Guatemala, lies within a hydrologically closed basin in the south-central area of the Yucatán Peninsula, and was drilled under the auspices of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) in 2006. At 16°55‧N latitude, the lake is ideally located for study of past climate and environmental conditions in the Neotropical lowlands. Because of its great depth (>160 m), Lake Petén Itzá has a record of continuous sediment accumulation that extends well into the late Pleistocene. A key obstacle to obtaining long climate records from the region is the difficulty of establishing a robust chronology beyond ∼40 ka, the limit of 14C dating. Tephra layers within the Lake Petén Itzá sediments, however, enable development of age/depth relations beyond 40 ka. Ash beds from large-magnitude, Pleistocene-to-Holocene silicic eruptions of caldera volcanoes along the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA) were found throughout drill cores collected from Lake Petén Itzá. These ash beds were used to establish a robust chronology extending back 400 ka. We used major- and trace-element glass composition to establish 12 well-constrained correlations between the lacustrine tephra layers in Lake Petén Itzá sediments and dated deposits at the CAVA source volcanoes, and with their marine equivalents in eastern Pacific Ocean sediments. The data also enabled revision of eight previous determinations of erupted volumes and masses, and initial estimates for another four eruptions, as well as the designation of source areas for 14 previously unknown eruptions. The new and revised sedimentation rates for the older sediment successions identify the interglacial of MIS5a between 84 and 72 ka, followed by a stadial between 72 and 59 ka that corresponds to MIS4. We modified the age models for the Lake Petén Itzá sediment sequences, extended the paleoclimate and paleoecological record for this Neotropical region to ∼400 ka, and determined the

  16. Evidence and future scenarios of a low-carbon energy transition in Central America: a case study in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barido, Diego Ponce de Leon; Johnston, Josiah; Moncada, Maria V.; Callaway, Duncan; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-10-01

    The global carbon emissions budget over the next decades depends critically on the choices made by fast-growing emerging economies. Few studies exist, however, that develop country-specific energy system integration insights that can inform emerging economies in this decision-making process. High spatial- and temporal-resolution power system planning is central to evaluating decarbonization scenarios, but obtaining the required data and models can be cost prohibitive, especially for researchers in low, lower-middle income economies. Here, we use Nicaragua as a case study to highlight the importance of high-resolution open access data and modeling platforms to evaluate fuel-switching strategies and their resulting cost of power under realistic technology, policy, and cost scenarios (2014-2030). Our results suggest that Nicaragua could cost-effectively achieve a low-carbon grid (≥80%, based on non-large hydro renewable energy generation) by 2030 while also pursuing multiple development objectives. Regional cooperation (balancing) enables the highest wind and solar generation (18% and 3% by 2030, respectively), at the least cost (US127 MWh-1). Potentially risky resources (geothermal and hydropower) raise system costs but do not significantly hinder decarbonization. Oil price sensitivity scenarios suggest renewable energy to be a more cost-effective long-term investment than fuel oil, even under the assumption of prevailing cheap oil prices. Nicaragua’s options illustrate the opportunities and challenges of power system decarbonization for emerging economies, and the key role that open access data and modeling platforms can play in helping develop low-carbon transition pathways.

  17. The influence of the arid Andean high plateau on the phylogeography and population genetics of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Juan C; González, Benito A; Poulin, Elie; Casey, Ciara S; Johnson, Warren E

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the phylogeography and population genetics of the largest wild artiodactyl in the arid and cold-temperate South American environments, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) was conducted. Patterns of molecular genetic structure were described using 514 bp of mtDNA sequence and 14 biparentally inherited microsatellite markers from 314 samples. These individuals originated from 17 localities throughout the current distribution across Peru, Bolivia, Argentina and Chile. This confirmed well-defined genetic differentiation and subspecies designation of populations geographically separated to the northwest (L. g. cacsilensis) and southeast (L. g. guanicoe) of the central Andes plateau. However, these populations are not completely isolated, as shown by admixture prevalent throughout a limited contact zone, and a strong signal of expansion from north to south in the beginning of the Holocene. Microsatellite analyses differentiated three northwestern and 4-5 southeastern populations, suggesting patterns of genetic contact among these populations. Possible genetic refuges were identified, as were source-sink patterns of gene flow at historical and recent time scales. Conservation and management of guanaco should be implemented with an understanding of these local population dynamics while also considering the preservation of broader adaptive variation and evolutionary processes.

  18. Between the Baltic and Danubian Worlds: the genetic affinities of a Middle Neolithic population from central Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Lorkiewicz

    Full Text Available For a long time, anthropological and genetic research on the Neolithic revolution in Europe was mainly concentrated on the mechanism of agricultural dispersal over different parts of the continent. Recently, attention has shifted towards population processes that occurred after the arrival of the first farmers, transforming the genetically very distinctive early Neolithic Linear Pottery Culture (LBK and Mesolithic forager populations into present-day Central Europeans. The latest studies indicate that significant changes in this respect took place within the post-Linear Pottery cultures of the Early and Middle Neolithic which were a bridge between the allochthonous LBK and the first indigenous Neolithic culture of north-central Europe--the Funnel Beaker culture (TRB. The paper presents data on mtDNA haplotypes of a Middle Neolithic population dated to 4700/4600-4100/4000 BC belonging to the Brześć Kujawski Group of the Lengyel culture (BKG from the Kuyavia region in north-central Poland. BKG communities constituted the border of the "Danubian World" in this part of Europe for approx. seven centuries, neighboring foragers of the North European Plain and the southern Baltic basin. MtDNA haplogroups were determined in 11 individuals, and four mtDNA macrohaplogroups were found (H, U5, T, and HV0. The overall haplogroup pattern did not deviate from other post-Linear Pottery populations from central Europe, although a complete lack of N1a and the presence of U5a are noteworthy. Of greatest importance is the observed link between the BKG and the TRB horizon, confirmed by an independent analysis of the craniometric variation of Mesolithic and Neolithic populations inhabiting central Europe. Estimated phylogenetic pattern suggests significant contribution of the post-Linear BKG communities to the origin of the subsequent Middle Neolithic cultures, such as the TRB.

  19. Between the Baltic and Danubian Worlds: the genetic affinities of a Middle Neolithic population from central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorkiewicz, Wiesław; Płoszaj, Tomasz; Jędrychowska-Dańska, Krystyna; Żądzińska, Elżbieta; Strapagiel, Dominik; Haduch, Elżbieta; Szczepanek, Anita; Grygiel, Ryszard; Witas, Henryk W

    2015-01-01

    For a long time, anthropological and genetic research on the Neolithic revolution in Europe was mainly concentrated on the mechanism of agricultural dispersal over different parts of the continent. Recently, attention has shifted towards population processes that occurred after the arrival of the first farmers, transforming the genetically very distinctive early Neolithic Linear Pottery Culture (LBK) and Mesolithic forager populations into present-day Central Europeans. The latest studies indicate that significant changes in this respect took place within the post-Linear Pottery cultures of the Early and Middle Neolithic which were a bridge between the allochthonous LBK and the first indigenous Neolithic culture of north-central Europe--the Funnel Beaker culture (TRB). The paper presents data on mtDNA haplotypes of a Middle Neolithic population dated to 4700/4600-4100/4000 BC belonging to the Brześć Kujawski Group of the Lengyel culture (BKG) from the Kuyavia region in north-central Poland. BKG communities constituted the border of the "Danubian World" in this part of Europe for approx. seven centuries, neighboring foragers of the North European Plain and the southern Baltic basin. MtDNA haplogroups were determined in 11 individuals, and four mtDNA macrohaplogroups were found (H, U5, T, and HV0). The overall haplogroup pattern did not deviate from other post-Linear Pottery populations from central Europe, although a complete lack of N1a and the presence of U5a are noteworthy. Of greatest importance is the observed link between the BKG and the TRB horizon, confirmed by an independent analysis of the craniometric variation of Mesolithic and Neolithic populations inhabiting central Europe. Estimated phylogenetic pattern suggests significant contribution of the post-Linear BKG communities to the origin of the subsequent Middle Neolithic cultures, such as the TRB.

  20. Technologies to better serve the millions of diabetic patients: a holistic, interactive and persuasive ICT model to facilitate self care, in extremely poor rural zones of Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Lombardo, Miguel; Jipsion, Armando; Vejarano, Rafael; Camargo, Ismael; Alvarez, Humberto; Mora, Elena Villalba; Ruíz, Ernestina Menasalva

    2012-04-01

    Health indicators express remarkable gaps between health systems at a world-wide level. Countries of the entire world are overflowed by the need of new strategies, methodologies and technologies to better serve the millions of patients, who demand better medical attention. The present archaic and ephemerally systematized systems widen the gap even more than the quality of medical services that should be provided for the millions of diabetic patients. It is therefore necessary to develop highly familiar environments with diabetic patients and their care needs. A Holistic, Interactive and Persuasive ICT model to facilitate self care of patients with diabetes (hIPAPD), is proposed as an innovative technological development in Panama to health optimized treatment for diabetic patients. Three health centers located in the District of Aguadulce, Province of Cocle, located on Panama's Pacific Coast, were selected to validate the model; the area presents extremely poor population, mostly with one daily meal, without any health insurance and with a high illiteracy rate. A series of experiences in the application and validation process are presented and analyzed in order to confirm the application, value and contribution of ICTs in health care in poor regions of Central America. PMID:20703674

  1. Two new species of Urocleidoides Mizelle et Price, 1964 (Monogenoidea) from the gill lamellae of profundulids and poeciliids from Central America and southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    During investigations of gill ectoparasites (Platyhelminthes) parasitising freshwater fish from Central America (Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Panama) and southeastern Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca and Chiapas), the following dactylogyrid monogenoidean were found: Urocleidoides simonae sp. n. from Profundulus punctatus (Günther) (type host), Profundulus balsanus Ahl, Profundulus guatemalensis (Günther), Profundulus kreiseri Matamoros, Shaefer, Hernández et Chakrabarty, Profundulus labialis (Günther), Profundulus oaxacae (Meek), Profundulus sp. 1 and Profundulus sp. 2 (all Profundulidae); Urocleidoides vaginoclaustroides sp. n. from Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculata (Heckel) (type host) and Poeciliopsis retropinna (Regan) (both Poeciliidae); and Urocleidoides vaginoclaustrum Jogunoori, Kritsky et Venkatanarasaiah, 2004 from P. labialis, Profundulus portillorum Matamoros et Shaefer and Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel (Poeciliidae). Urocleidoides simonae sp. n. differs from all other congeneric species in having anchors with well-differentiated roots, curved elongate shaft and short point. Urocleidoides vaginoclaustroides sp. n. most closely resembles U. vaginoclaustrum, but differs from this species mainly in the shape of its anchors (i.e. evenly curved shaft and short point vs curved shaft and elongate point extending just past the tip of the superficial anchor root). The complexity of potential hosts for species of Urocleidoides and their effect on its distribution on profundulid and poeciliid fishes are briefly discussed. PMID:26580223

  2. Transboundary aquifers: the response of international law and legal voids in Central America; Acuiferos transfronterizos: respuestas desde el derecho internacional y vacios en Centroamerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeglin, N.

    2012-11-01

    Central America is one of the regions of the world that will suffer the impact of climate change much more than others. The adoption of clear rules on the use of transboundary aquifers and on the need to preserve these groundwater reservoirs from serious pollution by the various states in the region is absolutely essential. Despite the lack of any bilateral or regional frameworks to rule on this issue, many general regulations have been adopted within the international framework of the United Nations that are applicable to shared surface and groundwater resources as well as to transboundary aquifers. The case of the Las Crucitas project in Costa Rica, halted by domestic tribunals thanks to the decisive action of its civilian society, reflects a clear lack of technical information concerning aquifers in Costa Rica, and probably in many other states in the region, despite the very valuable efforts being undertaken by the OAS and UNESCO under the aegis of the ISARM project for the Latin American region.

  3. Maternal Genetic Composition of a Medieval Population from a Hungarian-Slavic Contact Zone in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csákyová, Veronika; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Csősz, Aranka; Nagy, Melinda; Fusek, Gabriel; Langó, Péter; Bauer, Miroslav; Mende, Balázs Gusztáv; Makovický, Pavol; Bauerová, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The genetic composition of the medieval populations of Central Europe has been poorly investigated to date. In particular, the region of modern-day Slovakia is a blank spot in archaeogenetic research. This paper reports the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in ancient samples from the 9th-12th centuries originating from the cemeteries discovered in Nitra-Šindolka and Čakajovce, located in western Slovakia (Central Europe). This geographical region is interesting to study because its medieval multi-ethnic population lived in the so-called contact zone of the territory of the Great Moravian and later Hungarian state formations. We described 16 different mtDNA haplotypes in 19 individuals, which belong to the most widespread European mtDNA haplogroups: H, J, T, U and R0. Using comparative statistical and population genetic analyses, we showed the differentiation of the European gene pool in the medieval period. We also demonstrated the heterogeneous genetic characteristics of the investigated population and its affinity to the populations of modern Europe. PMID:26963389

  4. Maternal Genetic Composition of a Medieval Population from a Hungarian-Slavic Contact Zone in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csákyová, Veronika; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Csősz, Aranka; Nagy, Melinda; Fusek, Gabriel; Langó, Péter; Bauer, Miroslav; Mende, Balázs Gusztáv; Makovický, Pavol; Bauerová, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The genetic composition of the medieval populations of Central Europe has been poorly investigated to date. In particular, the region of modern-day Slovakia is a blank spot in archaeogenetic research. This paper reports the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in ancient samples from the 9th–12th centuries originating from the cemeteries discovered in Nitra-Šindolka and Čakajovce, located in western Slovakia (Central Europe). This geographical region is interesting to study because its medieval multi-ethnic population lived in the so-called contact zone of the territory of the Great Moravian and later Hungarian state formations. We described 16 different mtDNA haplotypes in 19 individuals, which belong to the most widespread European mtDNA haplogroups: H, J, T, U and R0. Using comparative statistical and population genetic analyses, we showed the differentiation of the European gene pool in the medieval period. We also demonstrated the heterogeneous genetic characteristics of the investigated population and its affinity to the populations of modern Europe. PMID:26963389

  5. Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inheritance; Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Each chromosome contains sections of ...

  6. A new endemic focus of Chagas disease in the northern region of Veraguas Province, Western Half Panama, Central America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azael Saldaña

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease was originally reported in Panama in 1931. Currently, the best knowledge of this zoonosis is restricted to studies done in historically endemic regions. However, little is known about the distribution and epidemiology of Chagas disease in other rural areas of the country. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between May 2005 - July 2008 in four rural communities of the Santa Fe District, Veraguas Province. The study included an entomologic search to collect triatomines, bloodmeal type identification and infection rate with trypanosomes in collected vectors using a dot- blot and PCR analysis, genotyping of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi (mini-exon gene PCR analysis and the detection of chagasic antibodies among inhabitants. The vector Rhodnius pallescens was more frequently found in La Culaca and El Pantano communities (788 specimens, where it was a sporadic household visitor. These triatomines presented darker coloration and larger sizescompared with typical specimens collected in Central Panama. Triatoma dimidiata was more common in Sabaneta de El Macho (162 specimens. In one small sub-region (El Macho, 60% of the houses were colonized by this vector. Of the examined R. pallescens, 54.7.0% (88/161 had fed on Didelphis marsupialis, and 24.6% (34/138 of T. dimidiata specimens collected inside houses were positive for human blood. R. pallescens presented an infection index with T. cruzi of 17.7% (24/136, with T. rangeli of 12.5% (17/136 and 50.7% (69/136 were mixed infections. In 117 T. dimidiata domestic specimens the infection index with T. cruzi was 21.4%. Lineage I of T. cruzi was confirmed circulating in these vectors. A T. cruzi infection seroprevalence of 2.3% (24/1,056 was found in this population. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of Chagas disease endemicity in Santa Fe District, and it should be considered a neglected public health problem in this area of Panama.

  7. Soil bioengineering measures for disaster mitigation and environmental restoration in Central America: authochtonal cuttings suitability and economic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-04-01

    The use of Soil Bio-Engineering techniques in Developing countries is a relevant issue for Disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of this Discipline. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of Soil Bio-engineering works in the Humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, Soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for Soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Thus, a conclusion can be reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions

  8. Population genetic structure in natural and reintroduced beaver (Castor fiber populations in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kautenburger, R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758 is the only indigenous species of the genus Castor in Europe and Asia. Due to extensive hunting until the beginning of the 20th century, the distribution of the formerly widespread Eurasian beaver was dramatically reduced. Only a few populations remained and these were in isolated locations, such as the region of the German Elbe River. The loss of genetic diversity in small or captive populations throughgenetic drift and inbreeding is a severe conservation problem. However, the reintroduction of beaver populations from several regions in Europe has shown high viability and populations today are growing fast. In the present study we analysed the population genetic structure of a natural and two reintroduced beaver populations in Germany and Austria. Furthermore, we studied the genetic differentiation between two beaver species, C. fiber and the American beaver (C. canadensis, using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA as a genetic marker. The reintroduced beaver populations of different origins and the autochthonous population of the Elbe River showed a similar low genetic heterogeneity. There was an overall high genetic similarity in the species C. fiber, and no evidence was found for a clear subspecific structure in the populations studied.

  9. Genetic and phenotypic variation in central and northern European populations of Aedes (Aedimorphus) vexans (Meigen, 1830) (Diptera, Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francuski, Ljubinka; Milankov, Vesna; Ludoški, Jasmina; Krtinić, Bosiljka; Lundström, Jan O; Kemenesi, Gábor; Ferenc, Jakab

    2016-06-01

    The floodwater mosquito Aedes vexans can be a massive nuisance in the flood plain areas of mainland Europe, and is the vector of Tahyna virus and a potential vector of Dirofilaria immitis. This epidemiologically important species forms three subspecies worldwide, of which Aedes vexans arabiensis has a wide distribution in Europe and Africa. We quantified the genetic and phenotypic variation in Ae. vexans arabiensis in populations from Sweden (northern Europe), Hungary, and Serbia (central Europe). A landscape genetics approach (FST , STRUCTURE, BAPS, GENELAND) revealed significant differentiation between northern and southern populations. Similar to genetic data, wing geometric morphometrics revealed two different clusters, one made by Swedish populations, while another included Hungarian and Serbian populations. Moreover, integrated genetic and morphometric data from the spatial analysis suggested groupings of populations into three clusters, one of which was from Swedish and Hungarian populations. Data on spatial analysis regarding an intermediate status of the Hungarian population was supported by observed Isolation-by-Distance patterns. Furthermore, a low proportion of interpopulation vs intrapopulation variance revealed by AMOVA and low-to-moderate FST values on a broader geographical scale indicate a continuous between-population exchange of individuals, including considerable gene flow on the regional scale, are likely to be responsible for the maintenance of the observed population similarity in Aе. vexans. We discussed data considering population structure in the light of vector control strategies of the mosquito from public health importance. PMID:27232139

  10. Genetic Isolation among the Northwestern, Southwestern and Central-Eastern Indian Ocean Populations of the Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Fadry Abdullah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus is a highly valuable species which is widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific and Eastern Pacific regions. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences (566–571 bp were determined to investigate the population genetic structure of this species in the Indian Ocean. In total, 236 adult individuals of Panulirus penicillatus were collected from five locations in the Indian Ocean region. Almost all individuals had a unique haplotype. Intrapopulation haplotype (h and nucleotide (π diversities were high for each locality, ranging from h = 0.9986–1.0000 and π = 0.031593–0.043441. We observed distinct genetic isolation of population located at the northwestern and southwestern edge of the species range. Gene flow was found within localities in the central and eastern region of the Indian Ocean, probably resulting from an extended planktonic larval stage and prevailing ocean currents.

  11. Genetic model of hanging wall syncline and central dome in extensional fault

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Delai(刘德来); DING; Guiming(丁贵明); LU; Bing(鲁兵)

    2002-01-01

    Hanging wall syncline and central dome are special extension structures, developing over the hanging wall in an extensional ramp-flat fault. Under the condition that the flat is sub-horizontal, the hanging wall syncline is separated from the half graben by the central dome. And on the dome forms an erosional surface. Both sediments in the half graben and erosional surface on the top of the central dome extended over the dome and entered into the hanging wall syncline with extension going on. Meanwhile, those having entered were overlapped by new sedimentary layers in the hanging wall syncline, so that there is a together-threaded, diachronic unconformity to form in the same epoch stratum. The layers in the hanging wall syncline also have an attribute of migrating laterally and getting tilted with extension. There is no sedimentation on the central dome. But sediments, which came from the half graben, got thicker over the dome in extension.

  12. Tomographic images of subducted oceans matched to the accretionary records of orogens - Case study of North America and relevance to Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigloch, Karin; Mihalynuk, Mitchell G.; Hosseini, Kasra

    2016-04-01

    Accretionary orogens are the surface record of subduction on the 100-million-year timescale; they aggregate buoyant crustal welts that resisted subduction. The other record of subduction is found in the deep subsurface: oceanic lithosphere preserved in the mantle that records ocean basin closure between successive generations of arcs. Seismic tomography maps out these crumpled paleo-oceans down to the core-mantle boundary, where slab accumulates. One such accumulation of enormous scale is under Eastern Asia, recording the assembly of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Deep CAOB slab has hardly been explored because tomographic image resolution in the lowermost mantle is limited, but this is rapidly improving. We present new images of the CAOB slabs from our P-wave tomography that includes core-diffracted waves as a technical novelty. The previous slab blur sharpens into the type of elongated geometries expected to trace paleo-trench lines. Since the North American Cordillera is younger than the CAOB (mostly 10,000 km long. North America converged on the two microcontinents by westward subduction of two intervening basins (which we name Mezcalera and Angayucham oceans), culminating in diachronous suturing between ~150 Ma and ~50 Ma. Hence geophysical subsurface evidence negates the widely accepted "Andean-style" model of Farallon-beneath-continent subduction since at least 180 Ma, and supports a Jura-Cretaceous paleogeography closer to today's Southwestern Pacific, or to the Paleozoic CAOB. Though advocated since the 1970's by a minority of geologists, this scenario had not gained wide acceptance due to a record obscured by overprinting, margin-parallel translation, and oroclinal bending. The new subsurface evidence provides specific indications where to seek the decisive Mezcalera-Angayucham suture. The suture is evident in a trail of collapsed Jura-Cretaceous basin relics that run the length of the Cordillera. Reference: Sigloch, K., & Mihalynuk, M. G. (2013

  13. Historical Glacier Variations in Southern South America since the Little Ice Age: Examples from Lago Viedma (Southern Patagonia) and Mendoza (Central Andes), Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumer, S. U.; Masiokas, M.; Pitte, P.; Berthier, E.; Guerrido, C.; Luckman, B. H.; Villalba, R.

    2013-12-01

    The evaluation of historical information can give valuable insight into past glacier dynamics, especially before the onset of modern measurements. Early photographs and maps depict changes for selected glaciers in southern South America. Within this study, written documents and pictorial historical records (drawings, sketches, engravings, photographs, chronicles, topographic maps) are analysed critically, with a particular focus on two regions: Lago Viedma (El Chaltén, southern Patagonia, 49.5°S, 73.0°W) and the Río Mendoza basin (Mendoza, central Andes, 33.1°S, 69.9°W). For the Lago Viedma area, early historical data for the end of the 19th century stem from the expedition of the Chilean-Argentinean border commission. In addition, the expedition by the German Scientific Society, conducted between 1910 and 1916, and the later photographs by Alberto M. de Agostini give an excellent depiction of the glaciers. Glaciar Viedma is a calving glacier which shows distinct retreat from 1896 until the present (though with a stationary or possibly advancing glacier front between 1930/31 and 1951/52), similar to the neighbouring glaciers. On the contrary, nearby Glaciar Perito Moreno shows an exceptional behaviour: the glacier front has been advancing during the first half of the 20th century, staying in an advanced position until the present. At the beginning of the 20th century, Robert Helbling explored the Argentinean-Chilean Andes together with his friend Friedrich Reichert. In the summer of 1909/10, they started a detailed survey of the highly glacierized Juncal-Tupungato mountains (Río Mendoza basin), leading to the first accurate topographic map of the area published in 1914. Its outstanding quality allows a comparison with contemporary satellite imagery. The area received attention in 1934, when the sudden drainage of a glacier-dammed lake in the upper Río del Plomo valley caused fatalities and considerable damage to constructions and the Transandine Railway. A

  14. South America Province Boundaries, 1999 (prv6ag)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. South America was divided into 107 geologic provinces as background...

  15. Unraveling the environmental and genetic interactions in atherosclerosis: Central role of the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Org, Elin; Mehrabian, Margarete; Lusis, Aldons J

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have convincingly linked gut microbiota to traits relevant to atherosclerosis, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and inflammation, and have revealed novel disease pathways involving microbe-derived metabolites. These results have important implications for understanding how environmental and genetic factors act together to influence cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Thus, dietary constituents are not only absorbed and metabolized by the host but they also perturb the gut microbiota, which in turn influence host metabolism and inflammation. It also appears that host genetics helps to shape the gut microbiota community. Here, we discuss challenges in understanding these interactions and the role they play in CVD.

  16. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy. [and] Teacher's Resource Book. Revised. Choices for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. Inst. for International Studies.

    This unit examines the economic and military concerns that have linked the Caribbean and Central America to the United States. The first section of the first booklet reviews the history of U.S. involvement in the region from the mid-1800s to the early 1960s. Part 2 focuses on the Cuban missile crisis of 1962 and presents a day-by-day account of…

  17. Climate Impacts of Deforestation/Land-Use Changes in Central South America in the PRECIS Regional Climate Model: Mean Precipitation and Temperature Response to Present and Future Deforestation Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Canziani, Pablo O.; Gerardo Carbajal Benitez

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation/land-use changes are major drivers of regional climate change in central South America, impacting upon Amazonia and Gran Chaco ecoregions. Most experimental and modeling studies have focused on the resulting perturbations within Amazonia. Using the Regional Climate Model PRECIS, driven by ERA-40 reanalysis and ECHAM4 Baseline model for the period 1961–2000 (40-year runs), potential effects of deforestation/land-use changes in these and other neighboring ecoregions are evaluated....

  18. Isotopic and geochemical evolution of ground and surface waters in a karst dominated geological setting: a case study from Belize, Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of stable isotopes and major ions in groundwater and surface waters in Belize, Central America was carried out to identify processes that may affect drinking water quality. Belize has a subtropical rainforest/savannah climate with a varied landscape composed predominantly of carbonate rocks and clastic sediments. Stable oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δD) isotope ratios for surface and groundwater have a similar range and show high d-excess (10-40.8%o). The high d-excess in water samples suggest secondary continental vapor flux mixing with incoming vapor from the Caribbean Sea. Model calculations indicate that moisture derived from continental evaporation contributes 13% to overhead vapor load. In surface and groundwater, concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) ranged from 5.4 to 112.9 mg C/l and δ13CDIC ranged from -7.4 to -17.4%o. SO42, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the water samples ranged from 2-163, 2-6593 and 2-90 mg/l, respectively. The DIC and δ13CDIC indicate both open and closed system carbonate evolution. Combined δ13CDIC and Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO42- suggest additional groundwater evolution by gypsum dissolution and calcite precipitation. The high SO42-content of some water samples indicates regional geologic control on water quality. Similarity in the range of δ18O, δD and δ13CDIC for surface waters and groundwater used for drinking water supply is probably due to high hydraulic conductivities of the karstic aquifers. The results of this study indicate rapid recharge of groundwater aquifers, groundwater influence on surface water chemistry and the potential of surface water to impact groundwater quality and vise versa

  19. Fault kinematics in northern Central America and coupling along the subduction interface of the Cocos Plate, from GPS data in Chiapas (Mexico), Guatemala and El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A.; Lasserre, C.; Lyon-Caen, H.; Kostoglodov, V.; Molina, E.; Guzman-Speziale, M.; Monterosso, D.; Robles, V.; Figueroa, C.; Amaya, W.; Barrier, E.; Chiquin, L.; Moran, S.; Flores, O.; Romero, J.; Santiago, J. A.; Manea, M.; Manea, V. C.

    2012-06-01

    New GPS measurements in Chiapas (Mexico), Guatemala and El Salvador are used to constrain the fault kinematics in the North America (NA), Caribbean (CA) and Cocos (CO) plates triple junction area. The regional GPS velocity field is first analysed in terms of strain partitioning across the major volcano-tectonic structures, using elastic half-space modelling, then inverted through a block model. We show the dominant role of the Motagua Fault with respect to the Polochic Fault in the accommodation of the present-day deformation associated with the NA and CA relative motion. The NA/CA motion decreases from 18-22 mm yr-1 in eastern Guatemala to 14-20 mm yr-1 in central Guatemala (assuming a uniform locking depth of 14-28 km), down to a few millimetres per year in western Guatemala. As a consequence, the western tip of the CA Plate deforms internally, with ≃9 mm yr-1 of east-west extension (≃5 mm yr-1 across the Guatemala city graben alone). Up to 15 mm yr-1 of dextral motion can be accommodated across the volcanic arc in El Salvador and southeastern Guatemala. The arc seems to mark the northern boundary of an independent forearc sliver (AR), pinned to the NA plate. The inversion of the velocity field shows that a four-block (NA, CA, CO and AR) model, that combines relative block rotations with elastic deformation at the block boundaries, can account for most of the GPS observations and constrain the overall kinematics of the active structures. This regional modelling also evidences lateral variations of coupling at the CO subduction interface, with a fairly high-coupling (≃0.6) offshore Chiapas and low-coupling (≃0.25) offshore Guatemala and El Salvador.

  20. Health care providers and human trafficking: what do they know, what do they need to know? Findings from the Middle East, the Caribbean and Central America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderik F Viergever

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHuman trafficking is a crime that commonly results in acute and chronic physical and psychological harm. To foster more informed health sector responses to human trafficking, training sessions for health care providers were developed and pilot-tested in the Middle East, Central America and the Caribbean. This study presents the results of an investigation into what health care providers knew and needed to know about human trafficking as part of that training program.MethodsParticipants attended one of seven two-day training courses in Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Costa Rica, Egypt, El Salvador, Guyana and Jordan. We assessed participants’ knowledge about human trafficking and opinions about appropriate responses in trafficking cases via questionnaires pre-training, and considered participant feedback about the training post-training. Results178 participants attended the trainings. Pre-training questionnaires were completed by 165 participants (93% and post-training questionnaires by 156 participants (88%. Pre-training knowledge about health and human trafficking appeared generally high for topics such as the international nature of trafficking and the likelihood of poor mental health outcomes among survivors. However, many participants had misconceptions about the characteristics of trafficked persons and a provider’s role in responding to cases of trafficking. The most valued training components included the Role of the Health Provider, Basic Definitions and Concepts and Health Consequences of Trafficking. DiscussionTraining health care providers on caring for trafficked persons has the potential to improve practitioners’ knowledge about human trafficking and its health consequences, and to increase safe practices when responding in cases of trafficking. This study provides lessons for the design of training programs on human trafficking that aim to help health care providers identify and refer victims, and provide care for

  1. Description of the Oocysts of Three New Species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae from Iguanid Lizards (Sauria: Iguanidae of Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daszak P

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Eimeria are described from iguanid lizards of Central and South America. The oocysts of each species have no micropyles or residua and the sporocysts lack Stieda bodies, but all have a sporocyst residuum. Eimeria sanctaluciae n.sp. was found in the St. Lucia tree lizard, Anolis luciae, collected from the Maria Islands, Lesser Antilles. The oocysts are spherical to subspherical, averaging 17.3 x 16.5 µm, with a single layered colourless wall; about 60% contain polar granules. The sporocysts are ellipsoidal and average 7.7 x 5.5 µm. Eimeria liolaemi n.sp. was recovered from the blue-gold swift, Liolaemus taenius, from Chile. The oocysts are spherical to subspherical, measuring 21 x 20.1 µm with a single-layered colourless wall. The sporocysts are subspherical and average 7.4 x 6.8 µm. Eimeria caesicia n.sp. is described from the Brazilian collared iguanid, Tropidurus torquatus. The oocysts measure 27.4 x 23.7 µm, are spherical to subspherical, with a bilayered wall, the outer surface of which appears pale blue in colour, the thin, inner wall appearing brown, when viewed by direct light under the optical microscope. The sporocysts are subspherical and average 9.4 x 7.2 µm. Unnamed polysporocystid oocysts with dizoic sporocysts are reported from the faeces of the lesser St. Vincent tree lizard, Anolis trinitatis and the possibility of spurious parasitism briefly discussed. In addition, oocysts of an unnamed Isospora sp. with a smooth oocyst wall which closely resembles I. reui were recovered from A. trinitatis.

  2. Children’s Migration to the United States from Mexico and Central America: Evidence from the Mexican and Latin American Migration Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine M. Donato

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of rising numbers of unaccompanied minors at the Mexico-US border in 2014, this article examines child migration from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua. Using data from the Mexican and Latin American Migration Projects that permit us to go beyond simple descriptive analysis about children apprehended at the border, we investigate the extent to which children from these countries: (1 enter without legal authorization to do so; (2 are more likely to cross the border now than in the past; and (3 are tied to their parents’ migration. In theory, if immigration and refugee protections worked well for children and offered them legal pathways to reunify with their families, then we would expect low levels of unauthorized entry and no dramatic shifts over time. However, our examination of child migration shows that it is strongly linked to unauthorized entry, period of entry, and parents’ US experience.The findings show that the migration of children is closely linked to their parents’ migration history. Although the overall likelihood of a Mexican child making a first US trip is quite low, it is practically non-existent for children whose parents have no US experience. Thus, the increase in child migration from Central America, and the continued high levels of child migration from Mexico result from widespread migration networks and the United States’ long-standing reliance on the children’s parents as immigrant workers. The findings suggest that these children need protection in the form of family reunification and permanent legal status.

  3. Market regulation in Central America and Bit-Energy.CEL as tool for improving the self regulating forces for a liberalised market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    establishment of regional spot and contracts market comprising 6 Central American countries; 3. the introduction of a retail market, allowing auto generation for industrial consumers; 4. the introduction of a renewable and rural electrification support scheme; 5. the introduction of the stochastic planning tool Bit-Energy.CEL for making offers for the spot market less predictable and more flexible. The proposed paper will show more details on the history of market liberalisation in Central America, summarise ongoing activities for improving market efficiency and explain in more detail which role Bit-Energy.CEL plays in this process. (author)

  4. Global and local genetic diversity at two microsatellite loci in Plasmodium vivax parasites from Asia, Africa and South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Mette L; Ranjitkar, Samir; Rajakaruna, Rupika S;

    2014-01-01

    diversity are vital to the evaluation of drug and vaccine efficacy, tracking of P. vivax outbreaks, and assessing geographical differentiation between parasite populations. METHODS: The genetic diversity of eight P. vivax populations (n = 543) was investigated by using two microsatellites (MS), m1501 and m......3502, chosen because of their seven and eight base-pair (bp) repeat lengths, respectively. These were compared with published data of the same loci from six other P. vivax populations. RESULTS: In total, 1,440 P. vivax samples from 14 countries on three continents were compared. There was highest...

  5. Chloroplast DNA variation of oaks in western Central Europe and genetic consequences of human influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    König, A.O.; Ziegenhagen, B.; Dam, van B.C.; Csaikl, U.M.; Coart, E.; Degen, B.; Burg, K.; Vries, de S.M.G.; Petit, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Oak chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation was studied in a grid-based inventory in western Central Europe, including Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg, Germany, the Czech Republic, and the northern parts of Upper and Lower Austria. A total of 2155 trees representing 426 populations of Quercus robur L

  6. POPULATION GENETICS OF THE WHEAT LEAF RUST FUNGUS, PUCCINIA TRITICINA IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is a major disease of wheat in Central Asia. Single uredinial isolates from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan, 131 in total, were tested for virulence to 20 isolines of Thatcher wheat with single leaf rust resistan...

  7. the Caribbean, and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Massey

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se comparan datos de las encuestas Latin American Migration Project (LAMP y Mexican Migration Project (MMP para analizar patrones migratorios a los Estados Unidos desde México, Puerto Rico, República Dominicana, Nicaragua y Costa Rica. Usando muestras de 31 comunidades, se documenta la frecuencia y tiempos de migración, la fecha, duración, destino y documentación del primer y más reciente viaje a los Estados Unidos, las características laborales de los migrantes en estos viajes, y las características socieconómicas y la selectividad de los migrantes. Los resultados muestran que una proporción significativa de la migración es indocumentada. Las características distintivas de la migración mexicana con respecto a otros flujos son su concentración en el trabajo agrícola, la falta de selectividad educativa, la mayor frecuencia de los viajes y tiempos de estancia más cortos. Todos los grupos muestran una pronunciada tendencia a establecerse lejos de las áreas de destino tradicionales. El análisis sugiere patrones y procesos de migración comunes, estructurados y expresados en maneras distintas de acuerdo al contexto. Este análisis muestra que los datos del LAMP y del MMP pueden conjugarse con efectividad para llevar a cabo estudios cuantitativos comparativos

  8. Uniparental Genetic Heritage of Belarusians: Encounter of Rare Middle Eastern Matrilineages with a Central European Mitochondrial DNA Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushniarevich, Alena; Sivitskaya, Larysa; Danilenko, Nina; Novogrodskii, Tadeush; Tsybovsky, Iosif; Kiseleva, Anna; Kotova, Svetlana; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Metspalu, Ene; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Reidla, Maere; Rootsi, Siiri; Parik, Jüri; Reisberg, Tuuli; Achilli, Alessandro; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Gandini, Francesca; Olivieri, Anna; Behar, Doron M.; Torroni, Antonio; Davydenko, Oleg; Villems, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic Belarusians make up more than 80% of the nine and half million people inhabiting the Republic of Belarus. Belarusians together with Ukrainians and Russians represent the East Slavic linguistic group, largest both in numbers and territory, inhabiting East Europe alongside Baltic-, Finno-Permic- and Turkic-speaking people. Till date, only a limited number of low resolution genetic studies have been performed on this population. Therefore, with the phylogeographic analysis of 565 Y-chromosomes and 267 mitochondrial DNAs from six well covered geographic sub-regions of Belarus we strove to complement the existing genetic profile of eastern Europeans. Our results reveal that around 80% of the paternal Belarusian gene pool is composed of R1a, I2a and N1c Y-chromosome haplogroups – a profile which is very similar to the two other eastern European populations – Ukrainians and Russians. The maternal Belarusian gene pool encompasses a full range of West Eurasian haplogroups and agrees well with the genetic structure of central-east European populations. Our data attest that latitudinal gradients characterize the variation of the uniparentally transmitted gene pools of modern Belarusians. In particular, the Y-chromosome reflects movements of people in central-east Europe, starting probably as early as the beginning of the Holocene. Furthermore, the matrilineal legacy of Belarusians retains two rare mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, N1a3 and N3, whose phylogeographies were explored in detail after de novo sequencing of 20 and 13 complete mitogenomes, respectively, from all over Eurasia. Our phylogeographic analyses reveal that two mitochondrial DNA lineages, N3 and N1a3, both of Middle Eastern origin, might mark distinct events of matrilineal gene flow to Europe: during the mid-Holocene period and around the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, respectively. PMID:23785503

  9. Genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates from Henan province in central China

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Meng; Liu, Hui Li

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that infects the human urogenital tract, causing the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In this study, genetic variants of T. vaginalis were identified in Henan Province, China. Fragments of the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) were amplified from 32 T. vaginalis isolates obtained from seven regions of Henan Province. Overall, 18 haplotypes were determined from the 18S rRNA sequences. Each s...

  10. Lactose intolerance genetic testing: is it useful as routine screening? Results on 1426 south-central Italy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santonocito, Concetta; Scapaticci, Margherita; Guarino, Donatella; Annicchiarico, Eleonora Brigida; Lisci, Rosalia; Penitente, Romina; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Zuppi, Cecilia; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2015-01-15

    Adult-type hypolactasia is a widespread condition throughout the world, causing lactose malabsorption. Several studies suggested that the identification of C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 mutations, located upstream the gene encoding the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH), is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis of hypolactasia. We evaluated the frequencies of C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 variants in a central-south Italian population and the usefulness of lactase deficiency genetic testing in the clinic practice. The genomic DNA of 1426 patients and 1000 healthy controls from central-south Italy was isolated from peripheral whole blood and genotyped for the C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 polymorphisms by high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) and sequencing. The frequencies of genotypes in the 1426 patients analysed were as follows: 1077 CC/GG (75.5%), 287 CT/GA (20.1%), 24 TT/AA (1.7%), 38 CC/GA (2.7%). Only 64 out of 1426 (4.5%) performed also L-BHT test, 29 of which were negative for L-BHT also in presence of different genotypes. Among the 35 individuals with L-BHT positive, 34 were CC/GG and only one CT/GA. Although lactose genetic test is a good predictor of persistence/non-persistence lactase in specific population, its use in the central-south Italy population should be limited given the high prevalence of the CCGG diplotype in normal individuals. PMID:25281930

  11. Genetic polymorphism study at 15 autosomal locus in central Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Pankaj; Jain, Toshi; Trivedi, Veena Ben

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of 15 autosomal STR locus (TH01, D3S1358, vWA, D21S11, TPOX, D7S820, D19S433, D5S818, D2S1338, D16S539, CSF1PO, D13S317, FGA, D18S51, D8S1179) was done in 582 healthy unrelated individuals (Male-366, Female-216) originating from the various geographical regions of Madhya Pradesh, India. All locus fall under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except TPOX. These STR loci were highly informative and discriminating with combined power of discrimination (CPD) >0.99999. Locus wise allele frequencies of the studied population were compared with the other published populations. Also the Clustering pattern and genetic distance of studied populations is compared and presented with various populations. The studied population showed the genetic proximity with geographically close populations of India and significant genetic variation with distant populations which is also evident by clustering pattern of the NJ tree and the PCA plot.

  12. Invariability of Central Metabolic Flux Distribution in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Under Environmental or Genetic Perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yinjie; Martin, Hector Garcia; Deutschbauer, Adam; Feng, Xueyang; Huang, Rick; Llora, Xavier; Arkin, Adam; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-04-21

    An environmentally important bacterium with versatile respiration, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, displayed significantly different growth rates under three culture conditions: minimal medium (doubling time {approx} 3 hrs), salt stressed minimal medium (doubling time {approx} 6 hrs), and minimal medium with amino acid supplementation (doubling time {approx}1.5 hrs). {sup 13}C-based metabolic flux analysis indicated that fluxes of central metabolic reactions remained relatively constant under the three growth conditions, which is in stark contrast to the reported significant changes in the transcript and metabolite profiles under various growth conditions. Furthermore, ten transposon mutants of S. oneidensis MR-1 were randomly chosen from a transposon library and their flux distributions through central metabolic pathways were revealed to be identical, even though such mutational processes altered the secondary metabolism, for example, glycine and C1 (5,10-Me-THF) metabolism.

  13. Genetic diversity for drought tolerance in lentils from Central Asia and the Caucasus: CACLentil

    OpenAIRE

    SEVDA BABAYEVA; ZEYNAL AKPAROV; ADI DAMANIA

    2014-01-01

    The drought tolerance of 96 lentil accessions collected from Central Asia and Caucasus (CAC) region was analysed through two sets of field experiment conditions: irrigated and rain-fed. Several yield components of these accessions were evaluated and compared by means of statistical analyses. Analysis of variance revealed significant variation among the genotypes between and within the two experimental conditions. Based on regression analysis, seed and pod number per plant had significant asso...

  14. The integripennis species group of Geocharidius Jeannel, 1963 (Carabidae, Bembidiini, Anillina from Nuclear Central America: a taxonomic review with notes about biogeography and speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Sokolov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Our review recognizes 15 species of the integripennis species group of Geocharidius from Nuclear Central America, include three species previously described (G. gimlii Erwin, G. integripennis (Bates and G. zullinii Vigna Taglianti and 12 described here as new. They are: G. andersoni sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Chiapas Highlands, Cerro Huitepec and G. vignatagliantii sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Benito Juárez from Mexico; G. antigua sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez, 5 km SE of Antigua, G. balini sp. n. (type locality: Suchitepéquez, 4 km S of Volcan Atitlán, G. erwini sp. n. (type locality: Quiché Department, 7 km NE of Los Encuentros, G. jalapensis sp. n. (type locality: Jalapa Department, 4 km E of Mataquescuintla, G. longinoi, sp. n. (type locality: El Progreso Department, Cerro Pinalón, and G. minimus sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez Department, 5 km SE of Antigua from Guatemala; and G. celaquensis sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park, G. comayaguanus sp. n. (type locality: Comayagua Department, 18 km ENE of Comayagua, G. disjunctus sp. n. (type locality: Francisco Morazán, La Tigra National Park, and G. lencanus sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park from Honduras. For all members of the group, adult structural characters, including male and female genitalia, are described, and a taxonomic key for all members of the integripennis species group is presented based on these characters. Behavioral and biogeographical aspects of speciation in the group are discussed, based on the morphological analysis. In all cases of sympatry, pairs of closely related species show greater differences in sizes than pairs of more remotely related species. Integripennis group species occupy six different montane areas at elevations above 1300m, with no species shared among them. Major faunal barriers in the region limiting present species distributions

  15. The integripennis species group of Geocharidius Jeannel, 1963 (Carabidae, Bembidiini, Anillina) from Nuclear Central America: a taxonomic review with notes about biogeography and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Igor M; Kavanaugh, David H

    2014-01-01

    Our review recognizes 15 species of the integripennis species group of Geocharidius from Nuclear Central America, include three species previously described (Geocharidiusgimlii Erwin, Geocharidiusintegripennis (Bates) and Geocharidiuszullinii Vigna Taglianti) and 12 described here as new. They are: Geocharidiusandersoni sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Chiapas Highlands, Cerro Huitepec) and Geocharidiusvignatagliantii sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Benito Juárez) from Mexico; Geocharidiusantigua sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez, 5 km SE of Antigua), Geocharidiusbalini sp. n. (type locality: Suchitepéquez, 4 km S of Volcan Atitlán), Geocharidiuserwini sp. n. (type locality: Quiché Department, 7 km NE of Los Encuentros), Geocharidiusjalapensis sp. n. (type locality: Jalapa Department, 4 km E of Mataquescuintla), Geocharidiuslonginoi, sp. n. (type locality: El Progreso Department, Cerro Pinalón), and Geocharidiusminimus sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez Department, 5 km SE of Antigua) from Guatemala; and Geocharidiuscelaquensis sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park), Geocharidiuscomayaguanus sp. n. (type locality: Comayagua Department, 18 km ENE of Comayagua), Geocharidiusdisjunctus sp. n. (type locality: Francisco Morazán, La Tigra National Park), and Geocharidiuslencanus sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park) from Honduras. For all members of the group, adult structural characters, including male and female genitalia, are described, and a taxonomic key for all members of the integripennis species group is presented based on these characters. Behavioral and biogeographical aspects of speciation in the group are discussed, based on the morphological analysis. In all cases of sympatry, pairs of closely related species show greater differences in sizes than pairs of more remotely related species. Integripennis group species occupy six different montane areas at

  16. A novel educational strategy targeting health care workers in underserved communities in Central America to integrate HIV into primary medical care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Flys

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current educational strategies to integrate HIV care into primary medical care in Central America have traditionally targeted managers or higher-level officials, rather than local health care workers (HCWs. We developed a complementary online and on-site interactive training program to reach local HCWs at the primary care level in underserved communities. METHODS: The training program targeted physicians, nurses, and community HCWs with limited access to traditional onsite training in Panama, Nicaragua, Dominican Republic, and Guatemala. The curriculum focused on principles of HIV care and health systems using a tutor-supported blended educational approach of an 8-week online component, a weeklong on-site problem-solving workshop, and individualized project-based interventions. RESULTS: Of 258 initially active participants, 225 (225/258=87.2% successfully completed the online component and the top 200 were invited to the on-site workshop. Of those, 170 (170/200=85% attended the on-site workshop. In total, 142 completed all three components, including the project phase. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation instruments included knowledge assessments, reflexive essays, and acceptability surveys. The mean pre and post-essay scores demonstrating understanding of social determinants, health system organization, and integration of HIV services were 70% and 87.5%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 17.2% (p<0.001. The mean pre- and post-test scores evaluating clinical knowledge were 70.9% and 90.3%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 19.4% (p<0.001. A survey of Likert scale and open-ended questions demonstrated overwhelming participant satisfaction with course content, structure, and effectiveness in improving their HIV-related knowledge and skills. CONCLUSION: This innovative curriculum utilized technology to target HCWs with limited access to educational resources. Participants benefited from technical skills

  17. Prevalence and Genetic Characterization of Cryptosporidium Species in Dairy Calves in Central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegayehu, Teklu; Karim, Robiul; Anberber, Manyazewal; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Erko, Berhanu; Zhang, Longxian; Tilahun, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    The burden of cryptosporidiosis due to Cryptosporidium parvum is well documented in HIV-positive patients in Ethiopia. However, the role of animals in zoonotic transmission of the disease is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium species in dairy calves; to assess the role of cattle in zoonotic transmission in central Ethiopia. A total of 449 fecal samples were collected and screened using modified Ziehl-Neelson staining method and PCR targeting the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 9.4% (42/449) and 15.8% (71/449) as detected by microscopy and nested PCR, respectively. The prevalence of infection varied significantly across the study areas with the higher prevalence being observed in Chancho 25.4% (30/118). Crossbred calves had significantly higher prevalence of Cryptosporidium than indigenous zebu. Genotyping results revealed the presence of C. andersoni (76.1%), C. bovis (19.7%) and C. ryanae (4.2%). The occurrence of these Cryptosporidium species appeared to be age-related. C. andersoni constituted 92.1% of the Cryptosporidium infection in calves older than 3 months. Sequence analysis also showed the existence of intra-species variation at SSU rRNA gene. Findings of the current study indicate that cattle may not be an important source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis in central Ethiopia. Further molecular studies are needed to support this observation from other part of the country. PMID:27135243

  18. Clinical and genetic analysis of hereditary and sporadic ataxia in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, E; Forleo, P; Nacmias, B; Tedde, A; Latorraca, S; Piacentini, S; Parnetti, L; Gallai, V; Sorbi, S

    We have clinically and genetically evaluated 24 affected patients belonging to 22 Italian Friedreich ataxia (FA) families, 52 patients from 32 kindreds with proven autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (ADCA), 9 patients belonging to 5 families with autosomal recessive hereditary ataxia (ARCA) and 103 sporadic cases, 89 of which affected by idiopathic late onset cerebellar ataxia (ILOCA). Genotype-phenotype correlation analyses in FA patients have evidenced an inverse relationship between GAA repeat expansion length and age of onset, disease duration, and presence of cardiomyopathy. Among autosomal dominant types, spinocerebellar ataxia 2 (SCA2) genotype has been found in 31% of our ADCA families, resulting the most frequent form of ataxia. Phenotypic analysis of the various SCA subtypes evidenced a marked heterogeneity of symptoms with a substantial overlap between different syndromes. PMID:11719273

  19. Viral-genetic tracing of the input-output organization of a central noradrenaline circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Lindsay A; Miyamichi, Kazunari; Gao, Xiaojing J; Beier, Kevin T; Weissbourd, Brandon; DeLoach, Katherine E; Ren, Jing; Ibanes, Sandy; Malenka, Robert C; Kremer, Eric J; Luo, Liqun

    2015-08-01

    Deciphering how neural circuits are anatomically organized with regard to input and output is instrumental in understanding how the brain processes information. For example, locus coeruleus noradrenaline (also known as norepinephrine) (LC-NE) neurons receive input from and send output to broad regions of the brain and spinal cord, and regulate diverse functions including arousal, attention, mood and sensory gating. However, it is unclear how LC-NE neurons divide up their brain-wide projection patterns and whether different LC-NE neurons receive differential input. Here we developed a set of viral-genetic tools to quantitatively analyse the input-output relationship of neural circuits, and applied these tools to dissect the LC-NE circuit in mice. Rabies-virus-based input mapping indicated that LC-NE neurons receive convergent synaptic input from many regions previously identified as sending axons to the locus coeruleus, as well as from newly identified presynaptic partners, including cerebellar Purkinje cells. The 'tracing the relationship between input and output' method (or TRIO method) enables trans-synaptic input tracing from specific subsets of neurons based on their projection and cell type. We found that LC-NE neurons projecting to diverse output regions receive mostly similar input. Projection-based viral labelling revealed that LC-NE neurons projecting to one output region also project to all brain regions we examined. Thus, the LC-NE circuit overall integrates information from, and broadcasts to, many brain regions, consistent with its primary role in regulating brain states. At the same time, we uncovered several levels of specificity in certain LC-NE sub-circuits. These tools for mapping output architecture and input-output relationship are applicable to other neuronal circuits and organisms. More broadly, our viral-genetic approaches provide an efficient intersectional means to target neuronal populations based on cell type and projection pattern.

  20. Population genetic studies of the Aka pygmies (Central Africa): a survey of red cell and serum enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnes, H; Sevin, A; Sevin, J; Jaeger, G

    1979-05-10

    Blood samples collected in a single Pygmy tribe, the Aka, living in Bokoka district (Central African Empire) were investigated with respect to the phenotype and gene frequencies of the following 12 enzyme systems: acid phosphatase, adenosine deaminase, adenylate kinase, carbonic anhydrase, esterase D, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucomutase 1, phosphoglucomutase 2, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase and serum cholinesterase variants (locus E1 and E2). The data obtained in the study of genetic polymorphisms of this isolated and inbred population show a specific pattern with the following characteristics: the very low frequency of PGDB and pa alleles; the existence of two rare PGM variants at the PGM2 locus, typical PGM26Pyg (4.2%) and PGM29 (0.2%); the high frequency of the pr allele (10.8%) and CAII2 (8.22%) and ESD2 genes (18.4%). Furthermore, at the G6PD locus four distinct alleles have been found: the negroid GdA- (4%) and GdA+ (16%), the common GdB+ (79.2%)--, and the rare Gd+Ibadan Austin (0.7%). Cholinesterase typings disclosed the presence of the uncommon E1f and E1s genes distributed within a single breeding unit. The results are compared with other data previously reported on South African Khoisan and some Negroid populations; the particular genetic background of Pygmies is discussed.

  1. Genetic variation at the ApoB 3' HVR minisatellite locus in the Mbenzele Pygmies from the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Belledi, Michele; Capelli, Cristian; Maviglia, Riccardo; Spedini, Gabriella

    2000-09-01

    This study analyzes the polymorphic minisatellite ApoB 3' HVR in the Mbenzele Pygmies from the Central African Republic. A total of 14 alleles was observed, with frequencies ranging from 0.020 (19, 21, 27, and 45 repeat unit alleles) to 0.210 (37 repeat unit allele). Departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not statistically significant. The estimated heterozygosity was 0.874 +/- 0.016. Taking data from the literature into consideration, the results support the hypothesis that the Africans are different from non-Africans due to greater ApoB 3' HVR genetic diversity and a unimodal profile of ApoB 3' HVR allele frequency distribution. Interpopulational relationships were also analyzed using an F(ST) based genetic distance. The results highlight the similarity between the Mbenzele Pygmies and Bantu-speaking groups (Ewondo and Zulu), and the divergence between the Mbenzele and San, the two groups which are often considered to be the most direct descendants of proto-Africans. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:588-592, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Range overlap and individual movements during breeding season influence genetic relationships of caribou herds in south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffler, Gretchen H.; Adams, Layne G.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K.; Dale, Bruce W.

    2012-01-01

    North American caribou (Rangifer tarandus) herds commonly exhibit little nuclear genetic differentiation among adjacent herds, although available evidence supports strong demographic separation, even for herds with seasonal range overlap. During 1997–2003, we studied the Mentasta and Nelchina caribou herds in south-central Alaska using radiotelemetry to determine individual movements and range overlap during the breeding season, and nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers to assess levels of genetic differentiation. Although the herds were considered discrete because females calved in separate regions, individual movements and breeding-range overlap in some years provided opportunity for male-mediated gene flow, even without demographic interchange. Telemetry results revealed strong female philopatry, and little evidence of female emigration despite overlapping seasonal distributions. Analyses of 13 microsatellites indicated the Mentasta and Nelchina herds were not significantly differentiated using both traditional population-based analyses and individual-based Bayesian clustering analyses. However, we observed mtDNA differentiation between the 2 herds (FSTM = 0.041, P

  3. Allozyme variation of the endemic and vulnerable Dyera lowii Hook.f. in Central Kalimantan: Implications for genetic resources conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Suwarni Wahyudiningsih

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dyera lowii is an endemic and vulnerable tree species of commercial value as chewing gum found inpeat swamp forests, scatteredly distributed in Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Peninsular Malaysia. Their existenceis now under severe threat due to habitat conversion. This study is aimed to assess genetic diversity withinfour natural populations (Hampangen, Parahangan, Sebangau, Selat Nusa and one plantation in CentralKalimantan based on allozyme variation. Electrophoresis procedures were conducted with an isoelectricfocusing polyacrylamide slab gel system. The result showed high genetic diversity (HE=0.52 and gene fl ow(3.402 seemed to be effective. A total of 14 alleles were found among all the analysed population. Meannumber of alleles per locus (Aa was 3.206, and the effective number of alleles per locus (Ae was 2.21. Geneticdifferentiation between populations (FST was signifi cant at the moderately level (0.0685. Most allozymevariation was found within population (93.2%. Special attention is essential to conserve a private allele ofGot-1-e (9% at Selat Nusa population. Sebangau population missed the alleles of Est-2-b and Got-1-a, as foundin other populations. Selat Nusa population is expected to enhance the effective management for geneticresources conservation of this vulnerable species in the future.

  4. Genetic analysis of central carbon metabolism unveils an amino acid substitution that alters maize NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengyi Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Central carbon metabolism (CCM is a fundamental component of life. The participating genes and enzymes are thought to be structurally and functionally conserved across and within species. Association mapping utilizes a rich history of mutation and recombination to achieve high resolution mapping. Therefore, applying association mapping in maize (Zea mays ssp. mays, the most diverse model crop species, to study the genetics of CCM is a particularly attractive system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a maize diversity panel to test the CCM functional conservation. We found heritable variation in enzyme activity for every enzyme tested. One of these enzymes was the NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, E.C. 1.1.1.41, in which we identified a novel amino-acid substitution in a phylogenetically conserved site. Using candidate gene association mapping, we identified that this non-synonymous polymorphism was associated with IDH activity variation. The proposed mechanism for the IDH activity variation includes additional components regulating protein level. With the comparison of sequences from maize and teosinte (Zea mays ssp. Parviglumis, the maize wild ancestor, we found that some CCM genes had also been targeted for selection during maize domestication. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate the efficacy of association mapping for dissecting natural variation in primary metabolic pathways. The considerable genetic diversity observed in maize CCM genes underlies heritable phenotypic variation in enzyme activities and can be useful to identify putative functional sites.

  5. Genetic diversity for drought tolerance in lentils from Central Asia and the Caucasus: CACLentil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVDA BABAYEVA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The drought tolerance of 96 lentil accessions collected from Central Asia and Caucasus (CAC region was analysed through two sets of field experiment conditions: irrigated and rain-fed. Several yield components of these accessions were evaluated and compared by means of statistical analyses. Analysis of variance revealed significant variation among the genotypes between and within the two experimental conditions. Based on regression analysis, seed and pod number per plant had significant associations with seed yield per plant. Cluster analyses based on drought tolerance index (DTI grouped accessions into five subgroups with different numbers of accessions in each group. Three groups out of five were characterized by high DTI values and high yields were observed in both, under irrigated and rainfed conditions. This collective group of genotypes demonstrated valuable germplasm traits under stress and may therefore serve as source of useful genes in breeding lentils for drought tolerance.

  6. Emergence of quinolone resistance among extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the Central African Republic: genetic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Thierry

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross-resistance to quinolones and beta-lactams is frequent in Enterobacteriaceae, due to the wide use of these antibiotics clinically and in the food industry. Prescription of one of these categories of antibiotic may consequently select for bacteria resistant to both categories. Genetic mechanisms of resistance may be secondary to a chromosomal mutation located in quinolone resistance determining region of DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV or to a plasmid acquisition. The insertion sequence ISCR1 is often associated with qnr and may favour its dissemination in Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic mechanism of quinolone resistance among extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains in the Central African Republic. Findings Among seventeen ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from urine, pus or stool between January 2003 and October 2005 in the Central African Republic, nine were resistant to ciprofloxacin (seven from community patients and two from hospitalized patients. The ESBL were previously characterized as CTX-M-15 and SHV-12. Susceptibility to nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations of these drugs were determined by disc diffusion and agar dilution methods, respectively. The presence of plasmid-borne ISCR1-qnrA region was determined by PCR and amplicons, if any, were sent for sequencing. Quinolone resistance determining region of DNA gyrase gyrA gene was amplified by PCR and then sequenced for mutation characterization. We found that all CTX-M-producing strains were resistant to the tested quinolones. All the isolates had the same nucleotide mutation at codon 83 of gyrA. Two Escherichia coli strains with the highest MICs were shown to harbour an ISCR1-qnrA1 sequence. This genetic association might favour dissemination of resistance to quinolone and perhaps other antibiotics among Enterobacteriaceae

  7. Detection and Genetic Analysis of Porcine Bocavirus in Different Swine Herds in North Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine Bocavirus (PBoV has been reported to be associated with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome and pneumonia in pigs. In this study, a survey was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of PBoV in slaughter pigs, sick pigs, asymptomatic pigs and classical swine fever virus (CSFV eradication plan herds in five provinces of China (Henan, Liaoning, Shandong, Hebei and Tianjin by means of PCR targeting NS1 gene of PBoV. Among the total of 403 tissue samples, 11.41% were positive for PBoV. The positive rates of spleen (20.75% and inguinal lymph node (27.18% are higher than those of other organs. PCR products of twenty PBoV positive samples from slaughter pigs were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The result revealed that PBoV could be divided into 6 groups (PBoV-a~PBoV-f. All PBoV sequenced in this study belong to PBoV-a–PBoV-d with 90.1% to 99% nucleotide identities. Our results exhibited significant genetic diversity of PBoV and suggested a complex prevalence of PBoV in Chinese swine herds. Whether this diversity of PBoV has a significance to pig production or even public health remains to be further studied.

  8. Palevye (pale) soils of Central Yakutia: Genetic specificity, properties, and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desyatkin, R. V.; Lesovaya, S. N.; Okoneshnikova, M. V.; Zaitseva, T. S.

    2011-12-01

    Permafrost-affected palevye (pale) soils of Central Yakutia are developed from mantle calcareous deposits of different textures and are characterized by the common mica-chloritic association of clay minerals with a higher content of chlorite in comparison with the soils developed from mantle loams and loess-like loams in the European part of Russia. In the pale soils, the distribution of clay minerals in the profile has an even pattern in the loamy variants and a differentiated pattern typical of podzols in the loamy sandy variants. Data on the chemical extracts and Mössbauer spectroscopy indicate that the iron in the pale soils is mainly fixed in silicate minerals. The content of nonsilicate iron represented by the amorphous and weakly crystallized compounds in the pale soils is relatively low. The humus-accumulative horizon in these soils is close to the gray-humus (soddy) AY horizon according to its acid-base characteristics (the soil pH and the degree of base saturation) despite the presence of exchangeable sodium and the shallow occurrence of the calcareous horizon.

  9. Phylogeography, risk factors and genetic history of hepatitis C virus in Gabon, central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Njouom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiological and molecular characteristics of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in the general population have been poorly investigated in Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and epidemic history of HCV in the Gabonese general population. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 4042 sera collected from adults in 220 villages in all nine administrative areas of the country were screened for antibodies to HCV. HCV NS5B region sequencing was performed for molecular characterization and population genetic analyses. Of 4042 tested sera, 455 (11.2% were positive. The seroprevalence of HCV varied significantly by administrative area, with the highest rate in Ogooué-Lolo province (20.4% and the lowest in Ogooué-Maritine province (3.7%. History of parenteral injections, past hospital admission and age over 55 years were independent risk factors for HCV infection (p<0.0001. Phylogenetic analyses showed that 91.9% of the strains were genotype 4 (HCV-4, 5.7% genotype 1 and 2.2% genotype 2. HCV-4 strains were highly heterogeneous, with more than eight subtypes; subtype 4e predominated (57.3%. Coalescence analyses indicated that subtype 4e was the oldest, with an estimated most recent common ancestor of 1702 [95% CI, 1418-1884]. The epidemic profile indicated that it spread exponentially during the first part of the 20th century, probably by iatrogenic transmission. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results confirm the endemicity of HCV subtype 4e in Gabon and show that its spread is due to a cohort effect, with previous, possibly iatrogenic events. More extensive epidemiological studies are needed to better characterize the route of transmission and the dissemination of HCV in Gabon.

  10. TRANSLATING ECOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND POPULATION GENETICS RESEARCH TO MEET THE CHALLENGE OF TICK AND TICK-BORNE DISEASES IN NORTH AMERICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria D; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P; Patino, Ramiro; Li, Andrew Y; Medina, Raul F; de León, Adalberto A Pérez; Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger Iván

    2016-05-01

    Emerging and re-emerging tick-borne diseases threaten public health and the wellbeing of domestic animals and wildlife globally. The adoption of an evolutionary ecology framework aimed to diminish the impact of tick-borne diseases needs to be part of strategies to protect human and animal populations. We present a review of current knowledge on the adaptation of ticks to their environment, and the impact that global change could have on their geographic distribution in North America. Environmental pressures will affect tick population genetics by selecting genotypes able to withstand new and changing environments and by altering the connectivity and isolation of several tick populations. Research in these areas is particularly lacking in the southern United States and most of Mexico with knowledge gaps on the ecology of these diseases, including a void in the identity of reservoir hosts for several tick-borne pathogens. Additionally, the way in which anthropogenic changes to landscapes may influence tick-borne disease ecology remains to be fully understood. Enhanced knowledge in these areas is needed in order to implement effective and sustainable integrated tick management strategies. We propose to refocus ecology studies with emphasis on metacommunity-based approaches to enable a holistic perspective addressing whole pathogen and host assemblages. Network analyses could be used to develop mechanistic models involving multihost-pathogen communities. An increase in our understanding of the ecology of tick-borne diseases across their geographic distribution will aid in the design of effective area-wide tick control strategies aimed to diminish the burden of pathogens transmitted by ticks. PMID:27062414

  11. Oceanic terranes of S-Central America - 200 Million years of accretion history recorded on the W-edge of the Caribbean Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, P. O.; Flores, K.; Bandini, A.; Buchs, D.; Andjic, G.; Baumgartner-Mora, C.

    2012-04-01

    The W-edge of the Caribbean Plate is characterized by two major basement domains, separated today by a SW-NE trending diffuse fault zone located SE of the Nicoya Peninsula (Costa Rica) and possibly connecting with the Hess Escarpment. To the NW, in the area originally called "Chortis Block", oceanic island/arc basements range in age from Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous and form a complicated puzzle of geodynamic units. To the SE of this fault line, no age older than Turonian-Santonian (90-85 Ma) is known. This area only represents the trailing edge of the Caribbean Large Igensous Procince (CLIP). The Mesquito Composite Oceanic Terrane (MCOT) comprises the southern half of the "Chortis Block", classically considered as a continental fragment of N-America. The MCOT is defined by isolated outcrops of ultramafic, mafic oceanic/arc rocks, and radiolarites of Late Triassic, Jurassic and Early Cretaceous age: Rhaetian (latest Triassic) radiolarites found in the El Castillo Mélange (S-MCOT: S-Nicaragua/N- Costa Rica). They are associated with blocks of OIB-metabasalts. These rocks document the presence of a Late Triassic oceanic basement that must have been the substrate of the 174 -177 Ma old (Early/Middle Jurassic) Petit-Spot-like alkaline volcanics that intruded Early Jurassic radiolarites. These rocks form tectonic slivers in the middle Cretaceous Santa Rosa Accretionary Complex (relative autochthonous of the Santa Elena ultramafic unit, N-Costa Rica). The oldest rocks of the Nicoya Complex s. str. (NW-Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica) are Bajocian (Middle Jurassic) radiolarites, that occur as blocks magmatically engulfed in plateau-type basalts and intrusives that range in age thoughout the pre-Campanian Cretaceous (130-83 Ma). Middle and Late Jurassic metaradiolarites occur as blocks in the Siuna Serpentinite Médange (NE-Nicaragua), along with High-p, arc-related mafics. We envision an oceanic arc that collided in the latest Jurassic with the Agua Fria arc system

  12. Late Cretaceous-recent tectonic assembly of diverse crustal blocks in Central America, the Nicaraguan Rise, the Colombian Basin and northern South America as seen on a 1600-km-long, geologic and structural transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    We have constructed a 1600-km-long transect from northern Honduras to northern Colombia that crosses northeastward-striking crustal blocks using a combination of offshore seismic data, gravity and magnetic data, well subsidence information, nearby outcrop information, and results from previous thermochronological, geochronological, geochemical and paleostress studies. The transect defines three major crustal and structural provinces: 1) Precambrian-Paleozoic, Chortis continental block whose northern edge is defined by the North America-Caribbean plate boundary. Events in this ~20-25-km-thick province include two major unconformities at the top of the Cretaceous and Eocene, associated southeast-dipping thrust faults related to collision of the Great Arc of the Caribbean (GAC) and Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) with the Chortis continental block. A third event is Eocene to recent subsidence and transtensional basins formed during the opening of the Cayman trough; 2) Late Cretaceous GAC and CLIP of oceanic arc and plateau origin, whose northern, deformed edge corresponds to the mapped Siuna belt of northern Nicaragua. This crustal province has a ~15-20-km-thick crust and is largely undeformed and extends across the Lower Nicaraguan Rise, Hess fault, to the southern limit of the Colombian basin where about 300 km of this province has been subducted beneath the accretionary wedge of the South Caribbean deformed belt of northwestern South America; and 3) Eocene to recent accretionary prism and intramontane basins on continental crust of northern South America, where Miocene accelerated exhumation and erosion of Paleogene and Cretaceous rocks reflect either shallow subduction of the CLIP or the Panama collisional event to the southwest.

  13. Mitochondrial diversity in human head louse populations across the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascunce, Marina S; Fane, Jackie; Kassu, Gebreyes; Toloza, Ariel C; Picollo, Maria I; González-Oliver, Angélica; Reed, David L

    2013-09-01

    Anthropological studies suggest that the genetic makeup of human populations in the Americas is the result of diverse processes including the initial colonization of the continent by the first people plus post-1492 European migrations. Because of the recent nature of some of these events, understanding the geographical origin of American human diversity is challenging. However, human parasites have faster evolutionary rates and larger population sizes allowing them to maintain greater levels of genetic diversity than their hosts. Thus, we can use human parasites to provide insights into some aspects of human evolution that may be unclear from direct evidence. In this study, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from 450 head lice in the Americas. Haplotypes clustered into two well-supported haplogroups, known as A and B. Haplogroup frequencies differ significantly among North, Central and South America. Within each haplogroup, we found evidence of demographic expansions around 16,000 and 20,000 years ago, which correspond broadly with those estimated for Native Americans. The parallel timing of demographic expansions of human lice and Native Americans plus the contrasting pattern between the distribution of haplogroups A and B through the Americas suggests that human lice can provide additional evidence about the human colonization of the New World. PMID:23900879

  14. A questão do banimento internacional das minas terrestres: novos atores na segurança internacional e os casos das Américas Central e do Sul The international ban on landmines: new actors in international security and the cases of Central America and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Augusto Pires Tibúrcio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O principal instrumento jurídico internacional destinado a banir o uso, a produção e as transferências internacionais de minas terrestres antipessoais é o Tratado de Ottawa, aprovado em 1997 e que, em junho de 2011, possuía 156 Estados signatários. No processo que conduziu à sua aprovação, diversas organizações da sociedade civil, em vários países, desempenharam papel de destaque por meio de uma forte pressão exercida sobre alguns governos nacionais, promovendo uma campanha de amplo impacto midiático e que obteve apoio de algumas celebridades, especialmente de Diana, princesa de Gales. O presente artigo tem como objetivo discutir a questão do banimento das minas terrestres antipessoais a partir dessa perspectiva, demonstrando que, em alguns temas com consequências humanitárias negativas muito evidentes, é possível que os governos reajam positivamente às pressões da sociedade civil. Ademais, também se analisa como o problema das minas terrestres antipessoais foi enfrentado na América Central e na América do Sul, destacando-se, ainda, o papel do Brasil no apoio às ações de desminagem nestas regiões.The main international legal instrument for banning the use, production and international transfers of antipersonnel landmines is the Ottawa Treaty, approved in 1997, which in June 2011 had 156 signatory states. In the process leading to its approval, several civil society organizations, in many countries, played a prominent role through heavy pressure on some governments, promoting a campaign of huge media impact with support from some celebrities, notably Diana, Princess of Wales. This paper shows that in some areas with very obvious negative humanitarian consequences, it is possible that governments react positively to civil society pressures. Furthermore, this paper also examines how the problem of antipersonnel landmines has been tackled in Central and South America, also touching on Brazil's role in supporting the

  15. British and Israeli Assistance to U.S. Strategies of Torture and Counter- insurgency in Central and Latin America, 1967-96: An Argument Against Complexification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Almond

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the role of the U.S. in supporting the anti-democratic, counter-revolutionary movements, governments, and dictatorships that flourished in Latin America from the 1960s to the 1990s is well known, this article examines the support provided to the U.S. by other countries. Principally this support was provided by Israel and the United Kingdom, but other countries were also involved, such as South Africa, Taiwan, France, and even Saudi Arabia. The article argues that a clear material framework underlies the assistance given by these countries. It also identifies a number of cultural and historical reasons why anti-democratic governments in Latin America found particular political empathy in Israel.

  16. Use of nuclear and related techniques in studies of agroecological effects resulting from the use of persistent pesticides in Central America. Report of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of pesticides for the control of pests of agriculture and vectors of human and animal diseases in the countries of Central America is the highest per capita and one of the most intense in the world. There are reports of acute toxicity and chronic effects among farm workers. There are also reports that pesticide residues in food frequently exceed the Codex Alimentarius Commission's maximum residue levels (MRLs) and shipments of foodstuffs have been rejected by importing countries due to the presence of excessive residues of pesticides. Pesticides are also implicated in the contamination of continental and coastal waters. The indiscriminate use of pesticides would be expected to also aggravate pest problems by adversely affecting populations of beneficial arthropods and causing the development of resistance in pest populations. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a co-ordinated research project in 1992 to generate information on residues of pesticides in the environment, their persistence under local conditions and effect on local species of beneficial arthropods in agricultural and adjacent areas in the countries of Central America. Such information could be used in the implementation of legislation to control the distribution and use of pesticides and the development and application of integrated pest management programmes. Scientists from Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama and the United States of America participated in this project. This TECDOC reports on the accomplishments of the project and includes the papers presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Panama City, Panama, 20-24 April 1998

  17. Genetic variation and population structure in native Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijia Wang

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined genetic diversity and population structure in the American landmass using 678 autosomal microsatellite markers genotyped in 422 individuals representing 24 Native American populations sampled from North, Central, and South America. These data were analyzed jointly with similar data available in 54 other indigenous populations worldwide, including an additional five Native American groups. The Native American populations have lower genetic diversity and greater differentiation than populations from other continental regions. We observe gradients both of decreasing genetic diversity as a function of geographic distance from the Bering Strait and of decreasing genetic similarity to Siberians--signals of the southward dispersal of human populations from the northwestern tip of the Americas. We also observe evidence of: (1 a higher level of diversity and lower level of population structure in western South America compared to eastern South America, (2 a relative lack of differentiation between Mesoamerican and Andean populations, (3 a scenario in which coastal routes were easier for migrating peoples to traverse in comparison with inland routes, and (4 a partial agreement on a local scale between genetic similarity and the linguistic classification of populations. These findings offer new insights into the process of population dispersal and differentiation during the peopling of the Americas.

  18. Genetics of Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Latin America Information For... Media Policy Makers Genetics of Hearing Loss Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... of hearing loss in babies is due to genetic causes. There are also a number of things ...

  19. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  20. Geomorphic and Fish Genetics Constraints on Late Cenozoic Long Wavelength Topographic Evolution of the Hangay Mountains, Central Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, K. W.; Tamra, M.; Sabaj Pérez, M.; Lopresti, M.; Cole, M. B.; Gosse, J. C.; Smith, S. G.; Bayasgalan, G.; Ancuta, L. D.; McDannell, K. T.; Gallen, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Hangay Mountains stand 1.5 - 2 km above adjacent lowlands and the timing and cause of their high elevation is debated. As part of a broad collaborative project, we synthesize several data sets that collectively suggest the Hangay increased in elevation during the mid-to-late Miocene, while topographic relief, one metric commonly associated with active mountain ranges, remained largely unchanged. The topographic crest of the Hangay forms the drainage divide between the Selenga River and internal drainage of the Mongolian Depression of Lakes (MDL) and northern Gobi. Synthetic drainage divides for the Hangay were created by filtering digital topography in the spectral domain (50 - 200 km wavelengths) using a 2D-FFT function. The co-location of the synthetic and modern divides suggests that the Hangay divide is in a stable, equilibrium configuration. This assumption is corroborated by chi-maps of steady-state river channel elevations that exhibit nearly equal values across water divides. An exception to both of these metrics occurs in the northwest Hangay where the Bulnay fault crosses a low divide between the western Selenga basin and the MDL. Recent basalt vesicle paleoaltimetry results allow for ~1 km of surface uplift of the central Hangay in the past ~ 10 Ma. These same basalt flows in-filled late Miocene valleys cut into basement with a minimum of 800 m of local relief; similar to the amount of modern, post-glacial relief along the drainage divide. mtDNA analyses from > 250 combined Stone Loaches (Barbatula), Grayling (Thymallus), and Eurasian Dace (Leuciscus) samples from both sides of the continental drainage divide are supportive of Miocene surface uplift. Molecular genetic differences between the loach populations across the divide suggest that they separated from a common ancestor between 20 and 11 Ma. This date is consistent with the timing of surface uplift and valley incision preserved in the Miocene basalt flows. The dace and grayling populations on

  1. Electricity in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeze, P.

    1998-12-01

    The report provides an overview of the Latin American power market; analyses the power generation, transmission and distribution capabilities of 20 countries in central and south America; includes detailed comparative data on current capacity, shortfall and growth; investigates the existing network infrastructures and projected demand; examines the opportunities for independent power producers resulting from deregulation; assesses indigenous and imported fuel resources; and discusses the broad financial opportunities and restraints.

  2. Coping with the “coffee crisis” in Central America: The Role of the Nicaraguan Red de Protección Social

    OpenAIRE

    Maluccio, John A.

    2005-01-01

    "The international and local Nicaraguan media have widely reported on the “coffee crisis” in Latin America and there is substantial evidence that there has been a downturn and that this has been more severe in the coffee-growing regions. Using household panel data from a randomized community-based intervention carried out in both coffee- and noncoffee-growing areas, I examine the role of a conditional cash transfer program, the Red de Protección Social (RPS), during this downturn. While not d...

  3. Development of food crops by modern biotechnology techniques in Central America Desarrollo de cultivos y alimentos por técnicas de biotecnología moderna en Centroamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Garro Monge

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the adoption of Genetically Modified Crops (GMC has increased in stages worldwide. The worldwide total area planted with biotech crops reached 148 million hectares by 2010, also increasing the number of farmers around the world who decided to produce crops with this technology. At the regional level there are different responses of government agencies by generating rules and regu- lations according to the reality of these countries. In Central America, countries with greater partici- pation in the development and cultivation of food biotechnology techniques are Guatemala (papa- ya, Honduras (beans and maize and Costa Rica (cotton, soybean and pineapple, placing the latter two in the 29 countries with more GMO planting crops worldwide in 2010. Some of the countries of the region have implemented governance structures for the regulation through technical committees on Biosafety. The most important characteristics in terms of trade continue to be those that confer herbicide tolerance or pest resistance. But notice the incur- sion of new products that contain changes in their content, which are emerging as an alternative with great perspectives in the region. These experiences of culture and Biosafety regula- tion at the regional level could be a successful and progressive development of agricultural and food biotechnology in the near future.En la última década, la adopción de Cultivos Genéticamente Modificados (CGM se ha incre- mentado de forma escalonada a nivel mundial. El área sembrada con cultivos biotecnológicos llegó a un total de 148 millones de hectáreas en 2010, aumentando también el número de agricultores que decidieron producir este tipo de cultivos. A nivel regional, se producen respuestas diversas de los órganos gubernamentales mediante reglamen- tos y normativas acordes con la realidad local. En Centroamérica, los países con mayor participación en el desarrollo y cultivo de alimentos utilizando t

  4. Genetic diversity and conservation of Mammillaria huitzilopochtli and M. supertexta, two threatened species endemic of the semiarid region of central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Sofía Solórzano; Patricia Diana Cuevas-Alducin; Verónica García-Gómez; Patricia Dávila

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 168 species of Mammillaria are endangered at the global level; most of these cactus species exhibit a narrow distribution range and/or small population size. Recently, the first population genetics studies showed low to moderate levels of heterozygosity in this genus. This study examines Mammillaria huitzilopochtli and M. supertexta, 2 threatened species endemic to the central semiarid region of Mexico, to propose conservation actions, as well as to identify the underlying processes th...

  5. Nuclear rDNA pseudogenes in Chagas disease vectors: evolutionary implications of a new 5.8S+ITS-2 paralogous sequence marker in triatomines of North, Central and northern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargues, M Dolores; Zuriaga, M Angeles; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    A pseudogene, paralogous to rDNA 5.8S and ITS-2, is described in Meccus dimidiata dimidiata, M. d. capitata, M. d. maculippenis, M. d. hegneri, M. sp. aff. dimidiata, M. p. phyllosoma, M. p. longipennis, M. p. pallidipennis, M. p. picturata, M. p. mazzottii, Triatoma mexicana, Triatoma nitida and Triatoma sanguisuga, covering North America, Central America and northern South America. Such a nuclear rDNA pseudogene is very rare. In the 5.8S gene, criteria for pseudogene identification included length variability, lower GC content, mutations regarding the functional uniform sequence, and relatively high base substitutions in evolutionary conserved sites. At ITS-2 level, criteria were the shorter sequence and large proportion of insertions and deletions (indels). Pseudogenic 5.8S and ITS-2 secondary structures were different from the functional foldings, different one another, showing less negative values for minimum free energy (mfe) and centroid predictions, and lower fit between mfe, partition function, and centroid structures. A complete characterization indicated a processed pseudogenic unit of the ghost type, escaping from rDNA concerted evolution and with functionality subject to constraints instead of evolving free by neutral drift. Despite a high indel number, low mutation number and an evolutionary rate similar to the functional ITS-2, that pseudogene distinguishes different taxa and furnishes coherent phylogenetic topologies with resolution similar to the functional ITS-2. The discovery of a pseudogene in many phylogenetically related species is unique in animals and allowed for an estimation of its palaeobiogeographical origin based on molecular clock data, inheritance pathways, evolutionary rate and pattern, and geographical spread. Additional to the technical risk to be considered henceforth, this relict pseudogene, designated as "ps(5.8S+ITS-2)", proves to be a valuable marker for specimen classification, phylogenetic analyses, and systematic

  6. Polarity and temporality of high-resolution y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of Central Asian pastoralists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; King, Roy; Mehdi, S Q; Edmonds, Christopher A; Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane T; Lin, Alice A; Mitra, Mitashree; Sil, Samir K; Ramesh, A; Usha Rani, M V; Thakur, Chitra M; Cavalli-Sforza, L Luca; Majumder, Partha P; Underhill, Peter A

    2006-02-01

    Although considerable cultural impact on social hierarchy and language in South Asia is attributable to the arrival of nomadic Central Asian pastoralists, genetic data (mitochondrial and Y chromosomal) have yielded dramatically conflicting inferences on the genetic origins of tribes and castes of South Asia. We sought to resolve this conflict, using high-resolution data on 69 informative Y-chromosome binary markers and 10 microsatellite markers from a large set of geographically, socially, and linguistically representative ethnic groups of South Asia. We found that the influence of Central Asia on the pre-existing gene pool was minor. The ages of accumulated microsatellite variation in the majority of Indian haplogroups exceed 10,000-15,000 years, which attests to the antiquity of regional differentiation. Therefore, our data do not support models that invoke a pronounced recent genetic input from Central Asia to explain the observed genetic variation in South Asia. R1a1 and R2 haplogroups indicate demographic complexity that is inconsistent with a recent single history. Associated microsatellite analyses of the high-frequency R1a1 haplogroup chromosomes indicate independent recent histories of the Indus Valley and the peninsular Indian region. Our data are also more consistent with a peninsular origin of Dravidian speakers than a source with proximity to the Indus and with significant genetic input resulting from demic diffusion associated with agriculture. Our results underscore the importance of marker ascertainment for distinguishing phylogenetic terminal branches from basal nodes when attributing ancestral composition and temporality to either indigenous or exogenous sources. Our reappraisal indicates that pre-Holocene and Holocene-era--not Indo-European--expansions have shaped the distinctive South Asian Y-chromosome landscape.

  7. Genetic characterization of Kenai brown bears (Ursus arctos): Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA control region variation in brown bears of the Kenai Peninsula, south central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J.V.; Talbot, S.L.; Farley, S.

    2008-01-01

    We collected data from 20 biparentally inherited microsatellite loci, and nucleotide sequence from the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, to determine levels of genetic variation of the brown bears (Ursus arctos L., 1758) of the Kenai Peninsula, south central Alaska. Nuclear genetic variation was similar to that observed in other Alaskan peninsular populations. We detected no significant inbreeding and found no evidence of population substructuring on the Kenai Peninsula. We observed a genetic signature of a bottleneck under the infinite alleles model (IAM), but not under the stepwise mutation model (SMM) or the two-phase model (TPM) of microsatellite mutation. Kenai brown bears have lower levels of mtDNA haplotypic diversity relative to most other brown bear populations in Alaska. ?? 2008 NRC.

  8. L’invention de la façade caraïbe centraméricaine : indios, negros, y piratas The Invention of the Carribean Coast of Central America: Indios, Negros, y Piratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Le Masne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La façade caraïbe de l'Amérique centrale naît au 16è siècle avec la conquête espagnole et la mise en pratique des théories sanitaires héritées d’Hippocrate dans le processus de colonisation. Auparavant, aucune spécificité ne semble distinguer cet espace des autres grands ensembles centraméricains : terres tempérées de la cordillère centrale, voire minces plaines littorales bordant le Pacifique. Le procès d’implantation des Espagnols rend bien compte d’une pensée prégnante, hippocratique, qui justifie les difficultés rencontrées pour contrôler les littoraux, notamment caraïbes, des emblématiques tierras calientes centraméricaines. Le littoral, au-delà de la lluvia qui continue à le caractériser de nos jours, est alors l’infierno par excellence, celui des indios, des negros, et des piratas. L’analyse historique montre ainsi que l’invention de cet espace tient autant aux données bioclimatiques et à leurs implications écologiques qu’aux tensions géopolitiques engendrées par la crise que traverse un Empire espagnol précocement confronté au harcèlement de groupes plus ou moins liés aux autres puissances européennes… La concordance entre espace de marges et plaines caraïbes pourrait suggérer un déterminisme géographique fondé sur des prédispositions qui font de l'homme un objet du milieu environnant. Ce serait cependant négliger l’impact des représentations, des clichés, et de leurs implications territoriales.The Caribbean coast of Central America was born in the 16th century with the Spanish conquest and implementation of health theories of Hippocrates in the process of colonization. Previously, no specificity seems to distinguish this space from other large ones of Central America: temperate lands of the central cordillera verily thin coastal plains bordering the Pacific. The process of colonization of the Spaniards clearly shows a dominant thought, Hippocratic, who justifies the

  9. Postglacial colonisation of western Central Europe by Polyommatus coridon (Poda 1761) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): evidence from population genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, T; Giessl, A; Seitz, A

    2002-01-01

    The genetic population structure of Polyommatus coridon (Poda 1761) over large regions of France, Italy and Germany was studied by allozyme electrophoresis. The genetic diversity within populations was high for all parameters analysed (number of alleles 2.72; observed and expected heterozygosity 19.6% and 20.3%, respectively; percentage of polymorphic loci: total: 76.4% and, with polymorphism if the frequency of the commonest allele is below 95%: 53.1%), whereas genetic differentiation between populations was comparatively low (FST = 0.021 +/- 0.002). The mean number of alleles declined significantly from southern to northern populations (r = -0.53, P = 0.0005). Similar effects were found also for other parameters of genetic diversity. This is interpreted as a loss of genetic diversity during postglacial expansion. However, samples from France and Italy had similar patterns of genetic diversity indicating no significant loss in this region. Populations from southern Germany were genetically uniform, well differentiated from French populations and showed a significant loss of genetic diversity. Probably, this is due to a bottleneck during passing through the Burgundian Gap, which is a migration corridor from north-eastern France to southern Germany. In contrast to southern German populations, western German populations were not well differentiated from French populations. Nevertheless, they were genetically impoverished, probably as a result from local bottlenecks and post-expansion phenomena.

  10. Latin America & the Caribbean - Urban Services Delivery and the Poor : The Case of Three Central American Cities (Vol. 1 of 2) : Service Delivery and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    The present study describes, and quantifies the provision of basic urban services to the poor, in three Central American cities in El Salvador, Honduras, and, Panama. It also identifies priority areas for government intervention, using specialized household surveys to quantify current deficits, and to rank households from poor to rich, using aggregate consumption as the measure of welfare....

  11. Illiterate America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Jonathan

    Intended for those involved in American social service and educational communities, this book addresses the widespread problem of illiteracy in the United States and the social consequences of this problem. Following an introduction, the chapters in the first section of the book discuss the growing crisis of illiterate America, specifically, the…

  12. Genetic structure of the rattan Calamus thwaitesii in core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in centralWestern Ghats, India: do protected areas serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B. T. Ramesha; G. Ravikanth; M. Nageswara Rao; K. N. Ganeshaiah; R. Uma Shaanker

    2007-01-01

    Given the increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, the various protected areas—national parks, sanctuaries, and biosphere reserves—serve as the last footholds for conserving biological diversity. However, because protected areas are often targeted for the conservation of selected species, particularly charismatic animals, concerns have been raised about their effectiveness in conserving nontarget taxa and their genetic resources. In this paper, we evaluate whether protected areas can serve as refugia for genetic resources of economically important plants that are threatened due to extraction pressures. We examine the population structure and genetic diversity of an economically important rattan, Calamus thwaitesii, in the core, buffer and peripheral regions of three protected areas in the central Western Ghats, southern India. Our results indicate that in all the three protected areas, the core and buffer regions maintain a better population structure, as well as higher genetic diversity, than the peripheral regions of the protected area. Thus, despite the escalating pressures of extraction, the protected areas are effective in conserving the genetic resources of rattan. These results underscore the importance of protected areas in conservation of nontarget species and emphasize the need to further strengthen the protected-area network to offer refugia for economically important plant species.

  13. Evolutionary Migration of the Disjunct Salt Cress Eutrema salsugineum (= Thellungiella salsuginea, Brassicaceae between Asia and North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Juan Wang

    Full Text Available Eutrema salsugineum (= Thellungiella salsuginea Brassicaceae, a species growing in highly saline habitats, is a good model for use in salt-stress research. However, its evolutionary migrations and genetic variations within and between disjunct regions from central Asia to northern China and North America remain largely unknown. We examined genetic variations and phylogeographic patterns of this species by sequencing ITS, 9 chloroplast (cp DNA fragments (4379 bp and 10 unlinked nuclear loci (6510 bp of 24 populations across its distributional range. All markers suggested the high genetic poverty of this species and the limited number of genetic variations recovered was congruently partitioned between central Asia, northern China and North America. Further modelling of nuclear population-genetic data based on approximate bayesian computation (ABC analyses indicated that the long-distance dispersals after the recent origin of E. salsugineum may have occurred from central Asia to the other two regions respectively within 20000 years. The fast demographic expansions should have occurred in northern China in a more recent past. Our study highlights the importance of using ABC analyses and nuclear population genetic data to trace evolutionary migrations of the disjunct distributions of the plants in the recent past.

  14. Middle Miocene near trench volcanism in northern Colombia: A record of slab tearing due to the simultaneous subduction of the Caribbean Plate under South and Central America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, M.; Cardona, A.; Monsalve, G.; Yarce, J.; Montes, C.; Valencia, V.; Weber, M.; De La Parra, F.; Espitia, D.; López-Martínez, M.

    2013-08-01

    Field, geochemical, geochronological, biostratigraphical and sedimentary provenance results of basaltic and associated sediments northern Colombia reveal the existence of Middle Miocene (13-14 Ma) mafic volcanism within a continental margin setting usually considered as amagmatic. This basaltic volcanism is characterized by relatively high Al2O3 and Na2O values (>15%), a High-K calc-alkaline affinity, large ion lithophile enrichment and associated Nb, Ta and Ti negative anomalies which resemble High Al basalts formed by low degree of asthenospheric melting at shallow depths mixed with some additional slab input. The presence of pre-Cretaceous detrital zircons, tourmaline and rutile as well as biostratigraphic results suggest that the host sedimentary rocks were deposited in a platform setting within the South American margin. New results of P-wave residuals from northern Colombia reinforce the view of a Caribbean slab subducting under the South American margin. The absence of a mantle wedge, the upper plate setting, and proximity of this magmatism to the trench, together with geodynamic constraints suggest that the subducted Caribbean oceanic plate was fractured and a slab tear was formed within the oceanic plate. Oceanic plate fracturing is related to the splitting of the subducting Caribbean Plate due to simultaneous subduction under the Panama-Choco block and northwestern South America, and the fast overthrusting of the later onto the Caribbean oceanic plate.

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Structure in Jaguars (Panthera onca), Pumas (Puma concolor), and Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in Fragmented Landscapes of a Critical Mesoamerican Linkage Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Wultsch, Claudia; Waits, Lisette P; Kelly, Marcella J.

    2016-01-01

    With increasing anthropogenic impact and landscape change, terrestrial carnivore populations are becoming more fragmented. Thus, it is crucial to genetically monitor wild carnivores and quantify changes in genetic diversity and gene flow in response to these threats. This study combined the use of scat detector dogs and molecular scatology to conduct the first genetic study on wild populations of multiple Neotropical felids coexisting across a fragmented landscape in Belize, Central America. ...

  16. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from naturally infected children in north-central Nigeria using the merozoite surface protein-2 as molecular marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Segun Isaac Oyedeji; Henrietta Oluwatoyin Awobode; Chiaka Anumudu; Jrgen Kun

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To characterize the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) field isolates in children from Lafia, North-central Nigeria, using the highly polymorphic P. falciparum merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP-2) gene as molecular marker. Methods: Three hundred and twenty children were enrolled into the study between 2005 and 2006. These included 140 children who presented with uncomplicated malaria at the Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia and another 180 children from the study area with asymptomatic infection. DNA was extracted from blood spot on filter paper and MSP-2 genes were genotyped using allele-specific nested PCR in order to analyze the genetic diversity of parasite isolates. Results:A total of 31 and 34 distinct MSP-2 alleles were identified in the asymptomatic and uncomplicated malaria groups respectively. No difference was found between the multiplicity of infection in the asymptomatic group and that of the uncomplicated malaria group (P>0.05). However, isolates of the FC27 allele type were dominant in the asymptomatic group whereas isolates of the 3D7 allele type were dominant in the uncomplicated malaria group. Conclusions: This study showed a high genetic diversity of P. falciparum isolates in North-central Nigeria and is comparable to reports from similar areas with high malaria transmission intensity.

  17. Electricity and gas regulation in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, Peter N.

    1998-08-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Background Information; The Electricity Chain; The Gas Chain; The Regulatory Structure; International Activity; Argentina; Bolivia; Brazil; Chile; Colombia; Mexico; Peru; Venezuela; Central America; Other Latin American Markets; Non-Latin America Markets; The Caribbean. (Author)

  18. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy

    Full Text Available Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking.Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design.Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%, Moldova (51.1%, Ukraine (52%, Azerbaijan (49.8 %, Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 % and Albania (42.52% but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81% and Jordan (17.96%. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %. Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single.Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  19. Raman and micro-thermometric investigation of the fluid inclusions in quartz in a gold-rich formation from Lepaguare mining district (Honduras, Central America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, D.; Salvioli-Mariani, E.; Mattioli, M.; Menichetti, M.; Lottici, P. P.

    2009-08-01

    Fluid inclusions in the quartz crystals present in gold-rich veins from central Honduras have been studied by means of micro-thermometry and micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to provide information on the physico-chemical conditions and chemical composition of the mineralizing fluids. The use of a confocal micro-Raman apparatus allowed to obtain information on the fluid composition, in particular on the gas phase, minimizing the contributions of the host matrix to the Raman signal. The samples studied were collected from an area (Lepaguare mining district, Northern-Central Honduras) rich in ore deposits due to the Cenozoic magmatic activity, where the gold and sulphide mineralization is connected with a system of quartz veins (few decimetres thick) occurring in low-grade metamorphic rocks and produced by hydrothermal fluids. The quartz crystals present in the gold-rich veins often contain fluid inclusions. Four types of fluid inclusions have been observed, but their assemblage in the same clusters and fracture systems, as well as their comparable salinity and homogenization data, suggest that they have the same origin. Micro-thermometry and Raman spectroscopy provide a composition of the mineralizing fluids attributable to the system H 2O-NaCl-KCl-CO 2-CH 4, with temperature and pressure intervals of 210-413 °C and 1050-3850 bar, respectively. These data agree with an epigenetic origin of the gold deposit (depth < 6 km) related to granitoid or granodiorite intrusions associated to orogenic environments.

  20. Genetic structure of a natural oak community in central Italy: Evidence of gene flow between three sympatric white oak species (Quercus, Fagaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby Antonecchia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete reproductive barriers between species, especially in sympatric areas where several species coexist, may result in hybridization and an increase in genetic diversity. Here we assessed the amount of genetic diversity in a community of three interfertile and sympatric European oaks (Quercus frainetto Ten., Q. petraea Liebl. Matt. and Q. pubescens Willd. situated in central Italy. We used 11 microsatellite markers derived from Expressed Sequence Tag (EST-SSRs and we implemented a Bayesian clustering analysis to assign individuals to species or hybrids. All genotyped loci were polymorphic for all the species and three genetic clusters corresponding to each species were detected. Significant differences and a higher level of gene flow were observed between the three oak species. Occurrence of hybrids varied markedly within the studied area: hybrids between Q. petraea and Q, pubescens were the most frequent, while hybrids between Q. petraea and Q. frainetto were particularly rare. Q. pubescens and Q. petraea showed the highest number of alleles compared to Q. frainetto,which was characterized by a low number of private, but highly frequent, alleles. However, Q. frainetto showed a lower genetic diversity and a stronger reproductive isolation from the other two oak species.

  1. Spina Bifida Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The Statement of the Spina Bifida Association of America (SBAA) explains SB as a malformation of the central nervous system, reports the formation of SBAA in 1974, explains SBAA's emphasis on local chapter organization, and describes SBAA services, including a bimonthly publication, public education efforts, and research validation projects. (GW)

  2. Calosota Curtis (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eupelmidae – review of the New World and European fauna including revision of species from the West Indies and Central and North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Gibson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two of three species previously classified in Calosota Curtis (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae from the Neotropical region are transferred to Eupelminae. Calosota eneubulus (Walker from Galapagos Islands is transferred to Eupelmus Dalman as Eupelmus (Eupelmus eneubulus (Walker, comb. n., and Calosota silvai (Brèthes from Chile is transferred to Brasema Cameron as Brasema silvai comb. n. Calosota cecidobius (Kieffer from Argentina is retained in Calosota, with reservation, as an unrecognized species. The species of Calosota from the New World excluding South America are revised. Eleven species are recognized, including the seven newly described species Calosota albipalpus sp. n. (Costa Rica, Mexico, USA, Venezuela, Calosota bicolorata sp. n. (USA, Calosota elongata sp. n. (USA, Calosota longivena sp. n. (USA, Calosota panamaensis sp. n. (Panama, Calosota setosa sp. n. (Bahamas, Dominican Republic, USA, and Calosota speculifrons sp. n. (Costa Rica, USA. The 11 regional species and the Palaearctic species Calosota vernalis Curtis are keyed and illustrated. Calosota vernalis is not known to occur in the New World but is included in the key and diagnosed because it has been intercepted in quarantine in Canada. Calosota pseudotsugae Burks is placed in synonymy under Calosota acron (Walker, syn. n., and Calosota kentra Burks, Calosota montana Burks and Calosota septentrionalis Hedqvist are placed in synonymy under Calosota aestivalis Curtis syn. n. Calosota modesta Bolívar y Pieltain is removed from synonymy under Calosota viridis Masi, stat. rev., and Calosota viridis, Calosota matritensis Bolívar y Pieltain, and Calosota coerulea Nikol’skaya are placed in synonymy under Calosota metallica (Gahan, syn. n. Calosota grylli Erdös is confirmed as a separate species from Calosota metallica based on features of both sexes. It is suggested that Calosota ariasi Bolívar y Pieltain may be a synonym of Calosota aestivalis, Calosota bolivari Askew may be a synonym

  3. Revision of Thisiomorphus Pic (Coleoptera: Mycteridae: Eurypinae) with descriptions of eleven new species from Central and South America and a key to genera of Neotropical Eurypinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Darren A

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical eurypine genus Thisiomorphus is revised, based on external structural features of adults. Twelve species are recognized, including the following eleven new species (type areas in parentheses): T. festivus (Panama, Colón Prov.), T. osaensis (Costa Rica, Puntarenas Prov.), T. davidsoni (Brazil, Chapada), T. inaequalis (Ecuador, Napo Prov.), T. caeruleus (Panama, Panamá Prov.), T. brasiliensis (Brazil, Amazonas), T. solisi (Costa Rica, Guanacaste Prov.), T. andrewsi (Panama, Chiriquí Prov.), T. bolivianus (Bolivia, Santa Cruz Dept.), T. curticornis (Ecuador, Sucumbíos Prov.), and T. convergens (Brazil, Pará). A key to the 13 described eurypine genera of Central and South American is provided, along with a key to species of Thisiomorphus. The keys are supplemented with images of habitus and selected structural features, and maps of known distributions are provided. PMID:27394498

  4. Ancient and modern colonization of North America by hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), an invasive insect from East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havill, Nathan P; Shiyake, Shigehiko; Lamb Galloway, Ashley; Foottit, Robert G; Yu, Guoyue; Paradis, Annie; Elkinton, Joseph; Montgomery, Michael E; Sano, Masakazu; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2016-05-01

    Hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae, is an invasive pest of hemlock trees (Tsuga) in eastern North America. We used 14 microsatellites and mitochondrial COI sequences to assess its worldwide genetic structure and reconstruct its colonization history. The resulting information about its life cycle, biogeography and host specialization could help predict invasion by insect herbivores. We identified eight endemic lineages of hemlock adelgids in central China, western China, Ulleung Island (South Korea), western North America, and two each in Taiwan and Japan, with the Japanese lineages specializing on different Tsuga species. Adelgid life cycles varied at local and continental scales with different sexual, obligately asexual and facultatively asexual lineages. Adelgids in western North America exhibited very high microsatellite heterozygosity, which suggests ancient asexuality. The earliest lineages diverged in Asia during Pleistocene glacial periods, as estimated using approximate Bayesian computation. Colonization of western North America was estimated to have occurred prior to the last glacial period by adelgids directly ancestral to those in southern Japan, perhaps carried by birds. The modern invasion from southern Japan to eastern North America caused an extreme genetic bottleneck with just two closely related clones detected throughout the introduced range. Both colonization events to North America involved host shifts to unrelated hemlock species. These results suggest that genetic diversity, host specialization and host phylogeny are not predictive of adelgid invasion. Monitoring non-native sentinel host trees and focusing on invasion pathways might be more effective methods of preventing invasion than making predictions using species traits or evolutionary history. PMID:26880353

  5. Neotectonic development of the El Salvador Fault Zone and implications for deformation in the Central America Volcanic Arc: Insights from 4-D analog modeling experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Schreurs, Guido; Martinez-Díaz, José Jesús; Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio; Villamor, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ) is an active, approximately 150 km long and 20 km wide, segmented, dextral strike-slip fault zone within the Central American Volcanic Arc striking N100°E. Although several studies have investigated the surface expression of the ESFZ, little is known about its structure at depth and its kinematic evolution. Structural field data and mapping suggest a phase of extension, at some stage during the evolution of the ESFZ. This phase would explain dip-slip movements on structures that are currently associated with the active, dominantly strike slip and that do not fit with the current tectonic regime. Field observations suggest trenchward migration of the arc. Such an extension and trenchward migration of the volcanic arc could be related to slab rollback of the Cocos plate beneath the Chortis Block during the Miocene/Pliocene. We carried out 4-D analog model experiments to test whether an early phase of extension is required to form the present-day fault pattern in the ESFZ. Our experiments suggest that a two-phase tectonic evolution best explains the ESFZ: an early pure extensional phase linked to a segmented volcanic arc is necessary to form the main structures. This extensional phase is followed by a strike-slip dominated regime, which results in intersegment areas with local transtension and segments with almost pure strike-slip motion. The results of our experiments combined with field data along the Central American Volcanic Arc indicate that the slab rollback intensity beneath the Chortis Block is greater in Nicaragua and decreases westward to Guatemala.

  6. Population genetics and evaluation of genetic evidence for subspecies in the Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Gratto-Trevor, Cheri; Haig, Susan M.; Mizrahi, David S.; Mitchell, Melanie M.; Mullins, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) are among the most common North American shorebirds. Breeding in Arctic North America, this species displays regional differences in migratory pathways and possesses longitudinal bill length variation. Previous investigations suggested that genetic structure may occur within Semipalmated Sandpipers and that three subspecies corresponding to western, central, and eastern breeding groups exist. In this study, mitochondrial control region sequences and nuclear microsatellite loci were used to analyze DNA of birds (microsatellites: n = 120; mtDNA: n = 114) sampled from seven North American locations. Analyses designed to quantify genetic structure and diversity patterns, evaluate genetic evidence for population size changes, and determine if genetic data support the existence of Semipalmated Sandpiper subspecies were performed. Genetic structure based only on the mtDNA data was observed, whereas the microsatellite loci provided no evidence of genetic differentiation. Differentiation among locations and regions reflected allele frequency differences rather than separate phylogenetic groups, and similar levels of genetic diversity were noted. Combined, the two data sets provided no evidence to support the existence of subspecies and were not useful for determining migratory connectivity between breeding sites and wintering grounds. Birds from western and central groups displayed signatures of population expansions, whereas the eastern group was more consistent with a stable overall population. Results of this analysis suggest that the eastern group was the source of individuals that colonized the central and western regions currently utilized by Semipalmated Sandpipers.

  7. Bull Trout Life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon. Annual Report 1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellerud, Blane L.; Gunckel, Stephanie; Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Buchanan, David V.; Howell, Philip J.

    1997-10-01

    This study is part of a multi-year research project studying aspects of bull trout life history, ecology and genetics. This report covers the activities of the project in 1996. Results and analysis are presented in the following five areas: (1) analysis of the genetic structure of Oregon bull trout populations; (2) distribution and habitat use of bull trout and brook trout in streams containing both species; (3) bull trout spawning surveys; (4) summary and analysis of historical juvenile bull trout downstream migrant trap catches in the Grande Ronde basin; and (5) food habits and feeding behavior of bull trout alone and in sympatry with brook trout.

  8. Does the phenotypic selection affect the genetic structure and diversity? A study case on Walnut in eastern central Italy (the region of Marche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Ducci

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Persian walnut (Juglans regia L. is widely planted in western Europe, either for fruit either for high quality timber production. This tree is generally considered non authoctonous, probably introduced from East some 7000 years ago and spread by several ancient civilisations. The possible artificial origin seems confirmed by the low intra-specific variation and the higher individual variability recorded by several Authors as well as by the lack of natural populations. Indeed, only wider fruit cultivation areas or small groups, lines or isolated walnut trees can be recorded in Italy. The occurrence of walnuts in forest, escaped from cultivation areas, is very rare. Due to the increased interest of planters, walnut plantations have been extended several ten thousands hectares throughout all western Europe. As a consequence of that it was evident the necessity of selected suitable basic populations in order to supply high quality reproductive materials. The conventional method based on the organisation of a wide and exhaustive seed procurement from the native range to establish provenance tests is at the present impossible. Thus it is necessary to study methods of selection which consider basic materials growing within the western European range. This study is aimed to test the efficiency of the multi-trait Selection Index method, in preserving levels of genetic diversity and structures compatible with the standards observed within a reference system of extended Italian populations. As a consequence of the relatively recent introduction, the genetic structure of the species shows individual variation higher than inter-population diversity. Those genetic structure characteristics were revealed also during a survey of walnut resources in the region of Marche, central Italy. The survey was the starting point for selecting and preserving basic materials for high quality woody production, possibly interesting for forest nurseries in the region. The

  9. RECHERCHE SUR LES MAQUILADORAS DU SUD DU MEXIQUE ET EN AMÉRIQUE CENTRALE : TRAVAIL, GENRE ET IDENTITÉ RESEARCH ON THE MAQUILADORAS OF SOUTHERN MEXICO AND CENTRAL AMERICA: WORK, GENDER AND IDENTITY

    OpenAIRE

    Labrecque, Marie-France; Beatriz Castilla RAMOS

    2010-01-01

    Les maquiladoras de la frontière nord du Mexique ont fait couler beaucoup d’encre particulièrement en ce qui a trait à la présence des femmes dans ce type d’usine. Celles du sud et de l’Amérique centrale sont pourtant de plus en plus importantes du point de vue numérique. Leur configuration est particulière dans la mesure où, du moins dans le sud du Mexique et au Guatemala en particulier, le facteur ethnique est davantage présent dans la composition de la force de travail. Dans cet article, l...

  10. AFLP analysis reveals infraspecific phylogenetic relationships and population genetic structure of two species of Aconitum in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Mitka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of two Aconitum species endemic to the Carpathian Mountains and Sudetes was studied. A reticulate evolution between them was earlier postulated as an effect of secondary contact. The genetic diversity at the individual and taxonomic levels was examined across the entire geographical ranges of the taxa in 11 populations based on 247 AFLP markers found in 112 individuals in the Sudetes and Western Carpathians. The overall genetic differentiation was greater within the Sudetic A. plicatum (FST = 0.139, P < 0.001 than within the Carpathian A. firmum (FST = 0.062, P < 0.001, presumably due to the long-lasting geographic isolation between the Giant Mts and Praděd (Sudetes populations of the species. Interestingly, relatively distant and presently isolated populations of A. plicatum and A. f. subsp. maninense share a part of their genomes. It could be an effect of their common evolutionary history, including past and present reticulations. The introgression among infraspecific taxa of Aconitum is common, probably as a result of seed dispersal within a distance of ca. 20 km (Mantel’s r = 0.36, P = 0.01. Aconitum f. subsp. maninense had the highest genetic diversity indices: Nei’s h and rarefied FAr, and divergence index DW (P ≤ 0.05, pointing to its presumably ancient age and long-term isolation.

  11. Genetic structure based on nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite loci of Solanum lycocarpum A. St. Hil. (Solanaceae) in Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, K; Chaves, L J; Vencovsky, R; Kageyama, P Y

    2011-01-01

    Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae) is a woody species found in the Brazilian Cerrado. The flowers are pollinated by Xylocopa spp bees, and seeds are dispersed by mammals with distinct home range sizes. As a consequence, relative contributions of pollen and seeds to overall gene flow can vary according to different spatial scales. We studied the genetic structure of four natural populations of S. lycocarpum separated by 19 to 128 km, including individuals located along dirt roads that interlink three of the populations. A total of 294 individuals were genotyped with five nuclear and six chloroplast microsatellite markers. Significant spatial genetic structure was found in the total set of individuals; the Sp statistic was 0.0086. Population differentiation based on the six chloroplast microsatellite markers (θ(pC) = 0.042) was small and similar to that based on the five nuclear microsatellite markers (θ(p) = 0.054). For this set of populations, pollen and seed flow did not differ significantly from one another (pollen-to-seed flow ratio = 1.22). Capability for long distance seed dispersion and colonization of anthropogenic sites contributes to the ability of S. lycocarpum to maintain genetic diversity. Seed dispersion along dirt roads may be critical in preserving S. lycocarpum genetic diversity in fragmented landscapes. PMID:21523656

  12. Informing a Learning Progression in Genetics: Which Should Be Taught First, Mendelian Inheritance or the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Ravit Golan; Castro-Faix, Moraima; Choi, Jinnie

    2016-01-01

    The Framework for Science Education and the Next Generation Science Standards in the USA emphasize learning progressions (LPs) that support conceptual coherence and the gradual building of knowledge over time. In the domain of genetics there are two independently developed alternative LPs. In essence, the difference between the two progressions…

  13. Fermilab and Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Leon M.

    2006-09-01

    As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet.

  14. Responses of streams in central Appalachian Mountain region to reduced acidic deposition--comparisons with other regions in North America and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yushun; Lin, Lian-Shin

    2009-03-15

    Data from 5 wet deposition stations and 21 streams during 1980-2006 were analyzed to investigate chemical responses of streams to reduced acidic deposition in the central Appalachian Mountain region of West Virginia, USA. Wet deposition of acidic anions (i.e., sulfate, nitrate, and chloride) and hydrogen ions decreased significantly during the studied time period. Stream sulfate showed a delayed response to the reduced acidic deposition, and showed a decrease in the 2000s (-5.54 microeq L(-1) yr(-1)) and the whole period (-0.49 microeq L(-1) yr(-1)). No significant trend of stream nitrate+nitrite and chloride was observed. Stream alkalinity increased in the 1990s (+23.33 microeq L(-1) yr(-1)) and the whole period (+7.26 microeq L(-1) yr(-1)). Stream hydrogen ions decreased in the 1990s (-0.002 microeq L(-1) yr(-1)), 2000s (-0.001 microeq L(-1) yr(-1)), and the whole period (-0.001 microeq L(-1) yr(-1)). Compared with most acidic streams and lakes in the United States and Europe, a lower decreasing rate of hydrogen ions and higher increasing rate of alkalinity were observed in the alkaline West Virginian streams in the 1990s. However, due to their initial negative or zero alkalinity values, those acidic streams showed a higher percent increase in alkalinity than that in the alkaline West Virginian streams (from 800 microeq L(-1) yr(-1) to 1200 microeq L(-1) yr(-1)). Total aluminum in the West Virginian streams decreased in the 1990s (-0.67 micromol L(-1) yr(-1)) and the whole period (-0.22 micromol L(-1) yr(-1)). The current study advanced our understanding of streams' responses to the reduced acidic deposition in the Mid-Appalachians since the passage of the 1970 and 1990 Amendments to the United States Clean Air Act (US CAAA).

  15. Pleurodese nos derrames pleurais malignos: um inquérito entre médicos em países da América do Sul e Central Pleurodesis for malignant pleural effusions: a survey of physicians in South and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Marchi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A pleurodese é uma alternativa eficaz no controle dos derrames pleurais malignos, mas existem controvérsias a respeito de sua indicação e técnica. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar como é realizada a pleurodese em países da América do Sul e Central. MÉTODOS: Profissionais que realizam pleurodese responderam um questionário sobre critérios de indicação para pleurodese, técnicas utilizadas e desfechos. RESULTADOS: Nossa amostra envolveu 147 profissionais no Brasil, 49 em outros países da América do Sul e 36 em países da América Central. Mais de 50% dos participantes realizavam pleurodese somente se confirmada a malignidade no derrame pleural. Entretanto, escalas de dispneia e de status de performance eram raramente utilizadas para indicar o procedimento. Aproximadamente 75% dos participantes no Brasil e na América Central preferiam realizar a pleurodese somente no caso de recidiva do derrame, e a expansão pulmonar deveria variar de 90% a 100%. O talco slurry foi o agente mais utilizado, instilado via drenos de calibre intermediário. A toracoscopia foi realizada em menos de 25% dos casos. Febre e dor torácica foram os efeitos adversos mais comuns, e empiema ocorreu em OBJECTIVE: Pleurodesis is an effective alternative for the control of malignant pleural effusions. However, there is as yet no consensus regarding the indications for the procedure and the techniques employed therein. The objective of this study was to evaluate how pleurodesis is performed in South and Central America. METHODS: Professionals who perform pleurodesis completed a questionnaire regarding the indications for the procedure, the techniques used therein, and the outcomes obtained. RESULTS: Our sample comprised 147 respondents in Brazil, 49 in other South American countries, and 36 in Central America. More than 50% of the respondents reported performing pleurodesis only if pleural malignancy had been confirmed. However, scores on dyspnea and

  16. NIDDK Central Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIDDK Central Repository stores biosamples, genetic and other data collected in designated NIDDK-funded clinical studies. The purpose of the NIDDK Central...

  17. Early Scholars' Visits to Central America: Reports by Karl Sapper, Walter Lehmann, and Franz Termer, edited by Marilyn Beaudry-Corbett and Ellen T Hardy, Theodore E Gutman, 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Kolb

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The Cotsen Institute's Director of Publications is archaeologist Marilyn Beaudry-Corbett, herself a specialist on the production and distribution of archaeological ceramics in Mesoamerica and Central America and a scholar of complex society economic organization. Her colleague and the co-editor of this volume, Ellen Hardy, is a Research Associate at The Cotsen Institute and an expert on mortuary customs of the Nicoya region. Theodore (Ted Gutman (1909-1997 was a longtime supporter of the Institute at UCLA worked on a number of translation projects, several of which are presented here. He was the translator of Karl Sapper's Verapaz im 16. und 17. jahrhundert, which appeared as The Verapaz in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries: A Contribution to the Historical Geography and Ethnography of Northeastern Guatemala (Los Angeles, University of California, Institute of Archae­ology, Occasional Paper 13, 1985. The contributors to the volume's narrative include, in addtion to Beaudry-Corbett and Hardy, nine other anthropologists who are recognized experts on the region and subject matter.

  18. Climate impacts of deforestation/land-use changes in Central South America in the PRECIS regional climate model: mean precipitation and temperature response to present and future deforestation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canziani, Pablo O; Carbajal Benitez, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation/land-use changes are major drivers of regional climate change in central South America, impacting upon Amazonia and Gran Chaco ecoregions. Most experimental and modeling studies have focused on the resulting perturbations within Amazonia. Using the Regional Climate Model PRECIS, driven by ERA-40 reanalysis and ECHAM4 Baseline model for the period 1961-2000 (40-year runs), potential effects of deforestation/land-use changes in these and other neighboring ecoregions are evaluated. Current 2002 and estimated 2030 land-use scenarios are used to assess PRECIS's response during 1960-2000. ERA-40 and ECHAM4 Baseline driven runs yield similar results. Precipitation changes for 2002 and 2030 land-use scenarios, while significant within deforested areas, do not result in significant regional changes. For temperature significant changes are found within deforested areas and beyond, with major temperature enhancements during winter and spring. Given the current climate, primary effects of deforestation/land-use changes remain mostly confined to the tropical latitudes of Gran Chaco, and Amazonia.

  19. Climate Impacts of Deforestation/Land-Use Changes in Central South America in the PRECIS Regional Climate Model: Mean Precipitation and Temperature Response to Present and Future Deforestation Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo O. Canziani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation/land-use changes are major drivers of regional climate change in central South America, impacting upon Amazonia and Gran Chaco ecoregions. Most experimental and modeling studies have focused on the resulting perturbations within Amazonia. Using the Regional Climate Model PRECIS, driven by ERA-40 reanalysis and ECHAM4 Baseline model for the period 1961–2000 (40-year runs, potential effects of deforestation/land-use changes in these and other neighboring ecoregions are evaluated. Current 2002 and estimated 2030 land-use scenarios are used to assess PRECIS's response during 1960–2000. ERA-40 and ECHAM4 Baseline driven runs yield similar results. Precipitation changes for 2002 and 2030 land-use scenarios, while significant within deforested areas, do not result in significant regional changes. For temperature significant changes are found within deforested areas and beyond, with major temperature enhancements during winter and spring. Given the current climate, primary effects of deforestation/land-use changes remain mostly confined to the tropical latitudes of Gran Chaco, and Amazonia.

  20. Climate impacts of deforestation/land-use changes in Central South America in the PRECIS regional climate model: mean precipitation and temperature response to present and future deforestation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canziani, Pablo O; Carbajal Benitez, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation/land-use changes are major drivers of regional climate change in central South America, impacting upon Amazonia and Gran Chaco ecoregions. Most experimental and modeling studies have focused on the resulting perturbations within Amazonia. Using the Regional Climate Model PRECIS, driven by ERA-40 reanalysis and ECHAM4 Baseline model for the period 1961-2000 (40-year runs), potential effects of deforestation/land-use changes in these and other neighboring ecoregions are evaluated. Current 2002 and estimated 2030 land-use scenarios are used to assess PRECIS's response during 1960-2000. ERA-40 and ECHAM4 Baseline driven runs yield similar results. Precipitation changes for 2002 and 2030 land-use scenarios, while significant within deforested areas, do not result in significant regional changes. For temperature significant changes are found within deforested areas and beyond, with major temperature enhancements during winter and spring. Given the current climate, primary effects of deforestation/land-use changes remain mostly confined to the tropical latitudes of Gran Chaco, and Amazonia. PMID:22645487

  1. Acceptance of a food of animal origin obtained through genetic modification and cloning in South America: a comparative study among university students and working adults

    OpenAIRE

    Schnettler, Berta; Velásquez, Carlos; Horacio MIRANDA; Lobos, Germán; Orellana, Ligia; José SEPÚLVEDA; Edgardo MIRANDA; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Klaus GRUNERT

    2015-01-01

    AbstractWith the aim of comparing the acceptance of milk obtained from cloned, genetically modified (GM) and conventionally bred cows among working adults and university students, and identifying and characterizing typologies among both subsamples in terms of their preferences, a survey was applied to 400 people in southern Chile, distributed using a simple allocation among the subsamples. Using a conjoint analysis, it was found that consumers preferred milk from a conventional cow. Using a c...

  2. Patterns of admixture and population structure in native populations of Northwest North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Verdu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The initial contact of European populations with indigenous populations of the Americas produced diverse admixture processes across North, Central, and South America. Recent studies have examined the genetic structure of indigenous populations of Latin America and the Caribbean and their admixed descendants, reporting on the genomic impact of the history of admixture with colonizing populations of European and African ancestry. However, relatively little genomic research has been conducted on admixture in indigenous North American populations. In this study, we analyze genomic data at 475,109 single-nucleotide polymorphisms sampled in indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest in British Columbia and Southeast Alaska, populations with a well-documented history of contact with European and Asian traders, fishermen, and contract laborers. We find that the indigenous populations of the Pacific Northwest have higher gene diversity than Latin American indigenous populations. Among the Pacific Northwest populations, interior groups provide more evidence for East Asian admixture, whereas coastal groups have higher levels of European admixture. In contrast with many Latin American indigenous populations, the variance of admixture is high in each of the Pacific Northwest indigenous populations, as expected for recent and ongoing admixture processes. The results reveal some similarities but notable differences between admixture patterns in the Pacific Northwest and those in Latin America, contributing to a more detailed understanding of the genomic consequences of European colonization events throughout the Americas.

  3. La geopolítica de México en Centro América: ¿una hegemonía regional? Mexico's geopolitics in Central America: regional hegemony?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rocha

    2006-12-01

    analizar el Mecanismo de Diálogo y Concertación de Tuxtla-Gutiérrez y sus tres ámbitos de operación: 1. El ámbito político. 2. El ámbito del desarrollo. 3. El ámbito de la cooperación técnica regional. 4. El ámbito económico, comercial y financiero.Mexico as well as Brazil (first decade of 2000 started to release geo-economic and geo-political projections about their unmediated surroundings (their region of belonging and their mediated surroundings (their neighboring region, besides playing major political roles in their far surroundings (the Latin American and Caribbean region and their remote surroundings (the American continent. As a result, we have proposed and developed the idea that such situations and realities are those of processes of constitution of States with "sub-hegemonic" roles, with their respective functions of "sub-hegemony". We therefore ask the following question: Why are both Mexico and Brazil defining "sub-hegemonic" roles? Are such roles and functions possible within a continental space where a "superpower" exerts unquestionable "supremacy" besides seeking to redefine its "hegemony" (the one now undergoing a crisis? In order to work on the theme of Mexico's geopolitical relations with Central America, we have carried out four approximations: Mexico's current stance; historical background of the relations; process of institutionalization of cooperation; and field of action of the relations. Besides, the work is concluded with some ideas about Mexico's geopolitical view. The approximation to Mexico's structural stance in the world and in the American Continent seeks to highlight realities in its condition of semiperipheral and "sub-hegemonic" country. The historical approximation leads to the 1980s and the 1990s, when the background for Mexico's cooperation with Central America is established and that cooperation is started and strengthened. The institutional approximation, focused on the 1990s and the early 2000s, approaches the field of

  4. 美欧转基因食品安全政策比较研究%The Comparation Research about the Genetically Modified Food in Europe and America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡日查; 马晨颉

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of genetically modified food security of United States and Europe,the United States and Europe comparative analysis of the characteristics of genetically modified food safety policy and the causes,examine the problems and deficiencies of GM food safety policy exists. So our GM food safety policy development,should be based on the protection of national physical and mental health,through technical support,policy guidance and capacity building,promoting turn commercial application of gene technology research and genetically modified food,to protect our food security and food safety to provide support.%首先阐述了美欧转基因食品安全的发展现状,比较分析美欧转基因食品安全政策特点及形成原因,考察了我国转基因食品安全政策存在的问题和不足。为此,我国转基因食品安全政策制定,应在保障国民身心健康的基础上,通过相关技术支持、政策引导和能力建设,推进转基因技术的研发及转基因食品的商业化应用,为保障我国粮食安全和食品安全提供支撑。

  5. The Comparation Research about the Genetically Modified Food in Europe and America%美欧转基因食品安全政策比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡日查; 马晨颉

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of genetically modified food security of United States and Europe,the United States and Europe comparative analysis of the characteristics of genetically modified food safety policy and the causes,examine the problems and deficiencies of GM food safety policy exists. So our GM food safety policy development,should be based on the protection of national physical and mental health,through technical support,policy guidance and capacity building,promoting turn commercial application of gene technology research and genetically modified food,to protect our food security and food safety to provide support.%首先阐述了美欧转基因食品安全的发展现状,比较分析美欧转基因食品安全政策特点及形成原因,考察了我国转基因食品安全政策存在的问题和不足。为此,我国转基因食品安全政策制定,应在保障国民身心健康的基础上,通过相关技术支持、政策引导和能力建设,推进转基因技术的研发及转基因食品的商业化应用,为保障我国粮食安全和食品安全提供支撑。

  6. Central composite design and genetic algorithm applied for the optimization of ultrasonic-assisted removal of malachite green by ZnO Nanorod-loaded activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, M; Azad, F Nasiri; Dashtian, K; Hajati, S; Goudarzi, A; Soylak, M

    2016-10-01

    Maximum malachite green (MG) adsorption onto ZnO Nanorod-loaded activated carbon (ZnO-NR-AC) was achieved following the optimization of conditions, while the mass transfer was accelerated by ultrasonic. The central composite design (CCD) and genetic algorithm (GA) were used to estimate the effect of individual variables and their mutual interactions on the MG adsorption as response and to optimize the adsorption process. The ZnO-NR-AC surface morphology and its properties were identified via FESEM, XRD and FTIR. The adsorption equilibrium isotherm and kinetic models investigation revealed the well fit of the experimental data to Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, respectively. It was shown that a small amount of ZnO-NR-AC (with adsorption capacity of 20mgg(-1)) is sufficient for the rapid removal of high amount of MG dye in short time (3.99min). PMID:27318150

  7. Central composite design and genetic algorithm applied for the optimization of ultrasonic-assisted removal of malachite green by ZnO Nanorod-loaded activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, M.; Azad, F. Nasiri; Dashtian, K.; Hajati, S.; Goudarzi, A.; Soylak, M.

    2016-10-01

    Maximum malachite green (MG) adsorption onto ZnO Nanorod-loaded activated carbon (ZnO-NR-AC) was achieved following the optimization of conditions, while the mass transfer was accelerated by ultrasonic. The central composite design (CCD) and genetic algorithm (GA) were used to estimate the effect of individual variables and their mutual interactions on the MG adsorption as response and to optimize the adsorption process. The ZnO-NR-AC surface morphology and its properties were identified via FESEM, XRD and FTIR. The adsorption equilibrium isotherm and kinetic models investigation revealed the well fit of the experimental data to Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, respectively. It was shown that a small amount of ZnO-NR-AC (with adsorption capacity of 20 mg g- 1) is sufficient for the rapid removal of high amount of MG dye in short time (3.99 min).

  8. El género Hydrophilus (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Hydrophilina en México y Centroamérica The genus Hydrophilus (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Hydrophilina in Mexico and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Arce-Pérez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la revisión morfológica de 499 ejemplares adultos y datos bibliográficos se actualizó la identidad y la distribución precisa de las especies del género Hydrophilus Geoffroy, 1762 que habitan en México y Centroamérica. Se presenta a H. (Dibolocelus purpuracens Régimbart, 1901 como nuevo registro para México. Las especies más ampliamente distribuidas son H. (H. ensifer Brullé, 1837 en 5 países y las Antillas e H. (H. insularis Castelnau, 1840 en 4 países y las Antillas. Los países con mayor riqueza fueron México con 5 especies, y Nicaragua y Costa Rica con 3 especies. En México el estado con mayor riqueza es Veracruz, y en Nicaragua los departamentos de León y Río San Juan. Se presenta una clave ilustrada para el reconocimiento de las especies.The taxonomy and precise distribution of the species of the genus Hydrophilus Geoffroy, 1762 from Mexico and Central America are reviewed, based on the morphological study of499 adult specimens, descriptions and literature records. Hydrophilus (Dibolocelus purpuracens Régimbart, 1901 is recorded for the first time for Mexico. Species with widest distribution are H. (H. ensifer Brullé, 1837 cited from 5 countries and in the Antilles, and H. (H. insularis Castelnau, 1840 cited from 4 countries and the Antilles. The richest countries are Mexico with 5 species, and Costa Rica and Nicaragua with 3 species. The highest species richness is recorded for the state of Veracruz, Mexico, and from the departments of León and Río San Juan, Nicaragua. An illustrated key to the species is included.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA Variation Reveals a Sharp Genetic Break within the Distribution of the Blue Land Crab Cardisoma guanhumi in the Western Central Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosimere Xavier Amaral

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The blue land crab Cardisoma guanhumi is widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical estuarine regions in the Western Central Atlantic (WCA. Patterns of population genetic structure and historical demographics of the species were assessed by mtDNA control region sequence analysis to examine the connectivity among five populations (n = 97 within the region for future conservation strategies and decision-making of fishery management. A total of 234 polymorphic nucleotides were revealed within the sequence region, which have defined 93 distinct haplotypes. No dominant mtDNA haplotypes were found but instead a distribution of a few low-frequency recurrent haplotypes with a large number of singletons. A NJ-tree and a median-joining haplotype network revealed two distinct clusters, corresponding to individuals from estuaries located along the Caribbean Sea and Brazilian waters, respectively. AMOVA and FST statistics supported the hypothesis that two main geographic regions exists. Phylogeographical discontinuity was further demonstrated by the Bayesian assignment analysis and a significant pattern of isolation-by-distance. Additionally, tests of neutral evolution and analysis of mismatch distribution indicate a complex demographic history in the WCA, which corresponds to bottleneck and subsequent population growth. Overall, a sharp genetic break between Caribbean and Brazilian populations raised concerns over the conservation status of the blue land crab.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA Variation Reveals a Sharp Genetic Break within the Distribution of the Blue Land Crab Cardisoma guanhumi in the Western Central Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Maria Rosimere Xavier; Albrecht, Marc; McKinley, Alan Shane; de Carvalho, Adriana Márcia Ferreira; de Sousa Junior, Severino Cavalcante; Diniz, Fabio Mendonça

    2015-08-19

    The blue land crab Cardisoma guanhumi is widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical estuarine regions in the Western Central Atlantic (WCA). Patterns of population genetic structure and historical demographics of the species were assessed by mtDNA control region sequence analysis to examine the connectivity among five populations (n = 97) within the region for future conservation strategies and decision-making of fishery management. A total of 234 polymorphic nucleotides were revealed within the sequence region, which have defined 93 distinct haplotypes. No dominant mtDNA haplotypes were found but instead a distribution of a few low-frequency recurrent haplotypes with a large number of singletons. A NJ-tree and a median-joining haplotype network revealed two distinct clusters, corresponding to individuals from estuaries located along the Caribbean Sea and Brazilian waters, respectively. AMOVA and FST statistics supported the hypothesis that two main geographic regions exists. Phylogeographical discontinuity was further demonstrated by the Bayesian assignment analysis and a significant pattern of isolation-by-distance. Additionally, tests of neutral evolution and analysis of mismatch distribution indicate a complex demographic history in the WCA, which corresponds to bottleneck and subsequent population growth. Overall, a sharp genetic break between Caribbean and Brazilian populations raised concerns over the conservation status of the blue land crab.

  11. Genetic evidence of enzootic leishmaniasis in a stray canine and Texas mouse from sites in west and central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Evan J; Mariscal, Jacqueline; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Weigel, Margaret; Waldrup, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    We detected Leishmania mexicana in skin biopsies taken from a stray canine (Canis familiaris) and Texas mouse (Peromyscus attwateri) at two ecologically disparate sites in west and central Texas using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A single PCR-positive dog was identified from a sample of 96 stray canines and was collected in a peri-urban area in El Paso County, Texas. The PCR-positive P. attwateri was trapped at a wildlife reserve in Mason County, Texas, from a convenience sample of 20 sylvatic mammals of different species. To our knowledge, this represents the first description of L. mexicana in west Texas and extends the known geographic range of the parasite to an area that includes the arid Chihuahuan Desert. Our finding of L. mexicana in P. attwateri represents a new host record and is the first description of the parasite in a wild peromyscid rodent in the United States. PMID:27759765

  12. Genetic and Chemical Profiling of Gymnema sylvestre Accessions from Central India: Its Implication for Quality Control and Therapeutic Potential of Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ashutosh Kumar; Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Singh, Seema; Bharati, Kumar Avinash; Jyotsana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gymnema sylvestre, a vulnerable plant species, is mentioned in Indian Pharmacopeia as an antidiabetic drug Objective: Study of genetic and chemical diversity and its implications in accessions of G. sylvestre Materials and Methods: Fourteen accessions of G. sylvestre collected from Central India and assessment of their genetic and chemical diversity were carried out using ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) fingerprinting methods Results: Among the screened 40 ISSR primers, 15 were found polymorphic and collectively produced nine unique accession-specific bands. The maximum and minimum numbers of amplicones were noted for ISSR-15 and ISSR-11, respectively. The ISSR -11 and ISSR-13 revealed 100% polymorphism. HPLC chromatograms showed that accessions possess the secondary metabolites of mid-polarity with considerable variability. Unknown peaks with retention time 2.63, 3.41, 23.83, 24.50, and 44.67 were found universal type. Comparative hierarchical clustering analysis based on foresaid fingerprints indicates that both techniques have equal potential to discriminate accessions according to percentage gymnemic acid in their leaf tissue. Second approach was noted more efficiently for separation of accessions according to their agro-climatic/collection site Conclusion: Highly polymorphic ISSRs could be utilized as molecular probes for further selection of high gymnemic acid yielding accessions. Observed accession specific bands may be used as a descriptor for plant accessions protection and converted into sequence tagged sites markers. Identified five universal type peaks could be helpful in identification of G. sylvestre-based various herbal preparations. SUMMARY Nine accession specific unique bandsFive marker peaks for G. sylvestre.Suitability of genetic and chemical fingerprinting Abbreviations used: HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, ISSR: Inter Simple Sequence Repeats, CTAB: Cetyl

  13. Petroleum geology of northern central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, W.F.

    1980-07-01

    Major reserves of oil exist in the Reforma area of Tabasco and Chiapas states and the Campeche Shelf of SE Mexico in high-energy, bank-edge, reef-derived or reef-associated carbonate rocks, ranging in age from Late Jurassic to earliest Late Cretaceous. It is the conclusion of this study that the Reforma reservoir facies does not extend into West Guatemala. However, there the potential for major reserves in bank and lagoonal carbonates of similar age is considered excellent. A variety of structures, mostly resulting from salt tectonics, is present. Known reservoir rocks include fractured carbonates with secondary porosity resulting from solution and dolomitization, and limestones with primary intergranular porosity. An indigenous source is likely for the large quantities of oil which have been tested at Rubelsanto. Seals in the form of thick intervals of Cretaceous anhydrite and, in places, of Tertiary fine-grained clastics, are abundant. The area E of Rubelsanto may have considered merit, particularly if detailed structural analysis indicates that similar salt-tectonic features are present. The less deeply-buried areas of Cretaceous carbonates are not highly regarded because: (1) salt is absent; (2) temperatures sufficient for maturation of hydrocarbons may be lacking; and (3) a considerable number of dry holes with no significant shows have been drilled. North Guatemala is somewhat attractive, because the proper combination of unmetamorphosed Paleozoic organic shale on basement highs, well-developed Todos Santos sandstone reservoirs, and the overlying thick evaporite seal could trap sizable hydrocarbon accumulations. However, as degree of metamorphism decreases, presumably basinward, distance from source terrain for detritus increases and reservoirs may be inadequate. 13 figures, 1 table.

  14. Acceptance of a food of animal origin obtained through genetic modification and cloning in South America: a comparative study among university students and working adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta SCHNETTLER

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWith the aim of comparing the acceptance of milk obtained from cloned, genetically modified (GM and conventionally bred cows among working adults and university students, and identifying and characterizing typologies among both subsamples in terms of their preferences, a survey was applied to 400 people in southern Chile, distributed using a simple allocation among the subsamples. Using a conjoint analysis, it was found that consumers preferred milk from a conventional cow. Using a cluster analysis, in both subsamples two segments sensitive to production technology were identified. Rejection of cloning was greatest among university students, whereas a higher proportion of working adults rejected GM. The segments differed in terms of area of residence, knowledge about GM, and milk consumption habits. Contrary to what was expected, no differences were found according to education, gender or degree of satisfaction with food-related life.

  15. Trichoderma species occurring on wood with decay symptoms in mountain forests in Central Europe: genetic and enzymatic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Lidia; Strakowska, Judyta; Chełkowski, Jerzy; Gąbka-Buszek, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the species diversity of Trichoderma obtained from samples of wood collected in the forests of the Gorce Mountains (location A), Karkonosze Mountains (location B) and Tatra Mountains (location C) in Central Europe and to examine the cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity of these species as an expression of their probable role in wood decay processes. The present study has led to the identification of the following species and species complex: Trichoderma atroviride P. Karst., Trichoderma citrinoviride Bissett, Trichoderma cremeum P. Chaverri & Samuels, Trichoderma gamsii Samuels & Druzhin., Trichoderma harzianum complex, Trichoderma koningii Oudem., Trichoderma koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suárez & H.C. Evans, Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai, Trichoderma longipile Bissett, Trichoderma sp. (Hypocrea parapilulifera B.S. Lu, Druzhin. & Samuels), Trichoderma viride Schumach. and Trichoderma viridescens complex. Among them, T. viride was observed as the most abundant species (53 % of all isolates) in all the investigated locations. The Shannon's biodiversity index (H), evenness (E), and the Simpson's biodiversity index (D) calculations for each location showed that the highest species diversity and evenness were recorded for location A-Gorce Mountains (H' = 1.71, E = 0.82, D = 0.79). The preliminary screening of 119 Trichoderma strains for cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity showed the real potential of all Trichoderma species originating from wood with decay symptoms to produce cellulases and xylanases-the key enzymes in plant cell wall degradation. PMID:26586561

  16. Bull Trout life History, Genetics, Habitat Needs, and Limiting Factors in Central and Northeast Oregon, Annual Report 1995.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmingsen, Alan R.; Buchanan, David V.; Howell, Philip J.

    1996-03-01

    To fulfill one objective of the present study, genetic characteristics of Oregon bull trout will be determined by analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. During 1995, the authors collected and sampled a total of 1,217 bull trout from 46 streams in the Columbia River Basin. DNA analysis of those samples will be conducted at University of Montana. They primarily sampled juvenile fish near natal areas to increase the likelihood of identifying discrete populations while minimizing risk of injury to large spawners. Fork lengths of all fish sampled ranged from 2.6 to 60.5 cm with a median of 12 cm. Eighty-four percent of all bull trout sampled were less than 19 cm while two percent were larger than 27 cm. Bull trout were collected by several methods, mostly by electrofishing. Eighty-six percent of all bull trout sampled were collected by electrofishing with a programmable waveform electrofisher. They observed injuries caused by electrofishing to 8% of that proportion. Based on preliminary analysis, no waveform combination used appeared less injurious than others. Highest voltages appeared less injurious than some that were lower. Frequency of electrofishing injury was significantly correlated to fork length over the range-from 4 to 26 cm. There were indications for substantial risk for such injury to bull trout larger than 26 cm. Other species found in association with bull trout included chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, sculpins Cottus spp., cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki, non-native brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and tailed frogs Ascaphus truei. Rainbow trout was the species most frequently associated with bull trout. No injury or mortality was observed for any of the associated species captured.

  17. Genetic analysis in Factor XI deficient patients from central China: identification of one novel and seven recurrent mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Hua-Fang; Tang, Liang; Yang, Yan; Wang, Qing-Yun; Zeng, Wei; Wu, Ying-Ying; Cheng, Zhi-Peng; Hu, Bei; Guo, Tao; Hu, Yu

    2015-04-25

    Factor XI (FXI) deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder with a range of manifestations from asymptomatic to trauma related bleeding. To identify mutations in FXI-deficient patients and characterize the phenotype-genotype relationship, we studied six patients and their 18 family members in central China. Five patients were identified by presurgical or routine laboratory screening but had no bleeding symptoms. Only one patient exhibited excessive injury- and surgical-related bleeding. Eight mutations were detected, including five nonsense mutations (p.Tyr369*, p.Arg72*, p.Gln281*, p.Trp519*, and p.Trp246*), two missense mutations (p.Thr40Ile and p.Ala430Thr), and a 4-bp deletion in a splice site (c.1136-4delGTTG); one mutation was novel (p.Thr40Ile). In vitro, the p.Thr40Ile mutant protein exhibited impaired secretion and function. Five of the patients were homozygous or compound heterozygous, but only one nonsense mutation was found in Patient 2. In these patients, bleeding tendency was not correlated with FXI levels or with a single heterozygous mutation. Thrombin generation tests could not distinguish the bleeder from non-bleeders. In conclusion, we reported 8 mutations in the FXI gene (F11) leading to FXI deficiency. Moreover, the functional consequences of a novel mutation leading to FXI deficiency have been elucidated. More cases are needed to find any signature of founder effect in the Chinese population and its potential relationship with other Asian population. PMID:25681615

  18. Globalization’s unexpected impact on soybean production in South America: linkages between preferences for non-genetically modified crops, eco-certifications, and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Rachael D.; Rueda, Ximena; Lambin, Eric F.

    2013-12-01

    The land use impacts of globalization and of increasing global food and fuel demand depend on the trade relationships that emerge between consuming and producing countries. In the case of soybean production, increasing trade between South American farmers and consumers in Asia and Europe has facilitated soybean expansion in the Amazon, Chaco, and Cerrado biomes. While these telecouplings have been well documented, there is little understanding of how quality preferences influence trade patterns and supply chains, incentivizing or discouraging particular land use practices. In this study we provide empirical evidence that Brazil’s continued production of non-genetically modified (GM) soybeans has increased its competitive advantage in European countries with preferences against GM foods. Brazil’s strong trade relationship with European consumers has facilitated an upgrading of the soybean supply chain. Upgraded soybean supply chains create new conservation opportunities by allowing farmers to differentiate their products based on environmental quality in order to access premiums in niche markets in Europe. These interactions between GM preferences, trade flows, and supply chain structure help to explain why Brazilian soybean farmers have adopted environmental certification programs on a larger scale than Argentinian, Bolivian, Paraguayan, and Uruguayan soybean producers.

  19. Novel Tetra-nucleotide Microsatellite DNA Markers for Assessing the Evolutionary Genetics and Demographics of Northern Snakehead (Channa argus) Invading North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Timothy L.; Johnson, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    We document the isolation and characterization of 19 tetra-nucleotide microsatellite DNA markers in northern snakehead (Channa argus) fish that recently colonized Meadow Lake, New York City, New York. These markers displayed moderate levels of allelic diversity (averaging 6.8 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (averaging 74.2%). Demographic analyses suggested that the Meadow Lake collection has not achieved mutation-drift equilibrium. These results were consistent with instances of deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the presence of some linkage disequilibrium. A comparison of individual pair-wise distances suggested the presence of multiple differentiated groups of related individuals. Results of all analyses are consistent with a pattern of multiple, recent introductions. The microsatellite markers developed for C. argus yielded sufficient genetic diversity to potentially: (1) delineate kinship; (2) elucidate fine-scale population structure; (3) define management (eradication) units; (4) estimate dispersal rates; (5) estimate population sizes; and (6) provide unique demographic perspectives of control or eradication effectiveness

  20. Globalization’s unexpected impact on soybean production in South America: linkages between preferences for non-genetically modified crops, eco-certifications, and land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The land use impacts of globalization and of increasing global food and fuel demand depend on the trade relationships that emerge between consuming and producing countries. In the case of soybean production, increasing trade between South American farmers and consumers in Asia and Europe has facilitated soybean expansion in the Amazon, Chaco, and Cerrado biomes. While these telecouplings have been well documented, there is little understanding of how quality preferences influence trade patterns and supply chains, incentivizing or discouraging particular land use practices. In this study we provide empirical evidence that Brazil’s continued production of non-genetically modified (GM) soybeans has increased its competitive advantage in European countries with preferences against GM foods. Brazil’s strong trade relationship with European consumers has facilitated an upgrading of the soybean supply chain. Upgraded soybean supply chains create new conservation opportunities by allowing farmers to differentiate their products based on environmental quality in order to access premiums in niche markets in Europe. These interactions between GM preferences, trade flows, and supply chain structure help to explain why Brazilian soybean farmers have adopted environmental certification programs on a larger scale than Argentinian, Bolivian, Paraguayan, and Uruguayan soybean producers. (letter)

  1. Within-population genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate antigens reveals geographic distance from a Central sub-Saharan African origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Kazuyuki; Mita, Toshihiro; Palacpac, Nirianne M Q; Arisue, Nobuko; Tougan, Takahiro; Kawai, Satoru; Jombart, Thibaut; Kobayashi, Fumie; Horii, Toshihiro

    2013-02-18

    Populations of Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent human malaria parasite, are diverse owing to wide levels of transmission and endemicity of infection. Genetic diversity of P. falciparum antigens, within and between parasite populations, remains a confounding factor in malaria pathogenesis as well as clinical trials of vaccine candidates. Variation of target antigens in parasite populations may arise from immune pressure depending on the levels of acquired immunity. Alternatively, similar to our study in housekeeping genes [Tanabe et al. Curr Biol 2010;70:1-7], within-population genetic diversity of vaccine candidate antigens may also be determined by geographical distance from a postulated origin in Central sub-Saharan Africa. To address this question, we obtained full-length sequences of P. falciparum genes, apical membrane antigen 1 (ama1) (n=459), circumsporozoite protein (csp) (n=472) and merozoite surface protein 1 (msp1) (n=389) from seven geographically diverse parasite populations in Africa, Southeast Asia and Oceania; and, together with previously determined sequences (n=13 and 15 for csp and msp1, respectively) analyzed within-population single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity. The three antigen genes showed SNP diversity that supports a model of isolation-by-distance. The standardized number of polymorphic sites per site, expressed as θ(S), indicates that 77-83% can be attributed by geographic distance from the African origin, suggesting that geographic distance plays a significant role in variation in target vaccine candidate antigens. Furthermore, we observed that a large proportion of SNPs in the antigen genes were shared between African and non-African parasite populations, demonstrating long term persistence of those SNPs. Our results provide important implications for developing effective malaria vaccines and better understanding of acquired immunity against falciparum malaria. PMID:23295064

  2. Análisis de la variación genética en clones de caucho (Hevea brasiliensis de Asia, Suramérica y Centroamérica usando marcadores RAPD Analysis of genetic variation in clones of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis from Asían, South and Central American origin using RAPDs markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo Arias Mario

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El caucho natural (Hevea brasiliensis representa a especies potenciales para reforestación y programas de explo­tación comercial en ciudades tropicales como Colombia. La variabilidad genética de una colección de caucho que se encuentra en la Estación experimental de Paraguaycito en Buenavista, departamento del Quindio en Colom­bia fue estudiada para aumentar el conocimiento en cuanto a las especies y realizar un mejor uso de los árboles disponibles. Un total de 25 clones, seis de Sur América, 17 de Asia y 2 de América Central fueron seleccionados y analizados usando RAPDs. Las muestras aisladas de ADN de los árboles fueron con 102 primers, 23 de los cuales mostraron polimorfismos. Aunque se encontró un alto grado de similaridad, los análisis grupales de datos llevaron a diferenciar los árboles de de caucho en términos de su origen geográfico. Por lo tanto, las relaciones genéticas que se encontraron entre los clones podrían ayudar a seleccionar parentales para uso en programas de reproducción y diseño de estrategias para la conservación de los clones que tengan características agronómicas deseables. Palabras clave: identificación de cultivos, distancia genética, diversidad genética, Hevea brasiliensis, marcadores RAPD.Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis represents a potential species for reforestation and commercial exploitation programmes in tropical countries such as Colombia. The genetic variability of a rubber collection kept at the Paraguaicito Experimental Station in Buenavista in the Quindio department of Colombia was studied to improve knowledge regarding this species and make better use of the trees available. A total of 25 clones, six from South-America, 17 from Asia and two from Central-América were selected and analysed using RAPDs. DNA samples isolated from the trees were screened with 102 primers, 23 of which revealed polymorphism. Although a high degree of similarity was found, clustering analysis of the data led

  3. A hybrid model of support vector regression with genetic algorithm for forecasting adsorption of malachite green onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes: central composite design optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, M; Dashtian, K; Ghaedi, A M; Dehghanian, N

    2016-05-11

    The aim of this work is the study of the predictive ability of a hybrid model of support vector regression with genetic algorithm optimization (GA-SVR) for the adsorption of malachite green (MG) onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Various factors were investigated by central composite design and optimum conditions was set as: pH 8, 0.018 g MWCNTs, 8 mg L(-1) dye mixed with 50 mL solution thoroughly for 10 min. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and D-R isothermal models are applied to fitting the experimental data, and the data was well explained by the Langmuir model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 62.11-80.64 mg g(-1) in a short time at 25 °C. Kinetic studies at various adsorbent dosages and the initial MG concentration show that maximum MG removal was achieved within 10 min of the start of every experiment under most conditions. The adsorption obeys the pseudo-second-order rate equation in addition to the intraparticle diffusion model. The optimal parameters (C of 0.2509, σ(2) of 0.1288 and ε of 0.2018) for the SVR model were obtained based on the GA. For the testing data set, MSE values of 0.0034 and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) values of 0.9195 were achieved. PMID:27119755

  4. Hepatitis B virus infection in Latin America: a genomic medicine approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Sonia; Jose-Abrego, Alexis; Fierro, Nora Alma; Escobedo-Melendez, Griselda; Ojeda-Granados, Claudia; Martinez-Lopez, Erika; Panduro, Arturo

    2014-06-21

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the leading cause of severe chronic liver disease. This article provides a critical view of the importance of genomic medicine for the study of HBV infection and its clinical outcomes in Latin America. Three levels of evolutionary adaptation may correlate with the clinical outcomes of HBV infection. Infections in Latin America are predominantly of genotype H in Mexico and genotype F in Central and South America; these strains have historically circulated among the indigenous population. Both genotypes appear to be linked to a benign course of disease among the native and mestizo Mexicans and native South Americans. In contrast, genotypes F, A and D are common in acute and chronic infections among mestizos with Caucasian ancestry. Hepatocellular carcinoma is rare in Mexicans, but it has been associated with genotype F1b among Argentineans. This observation illustrates the significance of ascertaining the genetic and environmental factors involved in the development of HBV-related liver disease in Latin America, which contrast with those reported in other regions of the world.

  5. Genetic structure of different cat populations in Europe and South America at a microgeographic level: importance of the choice of an adequate sampling level in the accuracy of population genetics interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ruiz-Garcia

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenotypic markers, coat color, pattern and hair length, of natural domestic cat populations observed in four cities (Barcelona, Catalonia; Palma Majorca, Balearic Islands; Rimini, Italy and Buenos Aires, Argentina were studied at a microgeographical level. Various population genetics techniques revealed that the degree of genetic differentiation between populations of Felis catus within these cities is relatively low, when compared with that found between populations of other mammals. Two different levels of sampling were used. One was that of "natural" colonies of cat families living together in specific points within the cities, and the other referred to "artificial" subpopulations, or groups of colonies, inhabiting the same district within a city. For the two sampling levels, some of the results were identical: 1 little genic heterogeneity, 2 existence of panmixia, 3 similar levels of expected heterozygosity in all populations analyzed, 4 no spatial autocorrelation, with certain differentiation in the Buenos Aires population compared to the others, and 5 very high correlations between colonies and subpopulations with the first factors from a Q factor analysis. Nevertheless, other population genetic statistics were greatly affected by the differential choice of sampling level. This was the case for: 1 the amount of heterogeneity of the FST and GST statistics between the cities, which was greater at the subpopulation level than at colony level, 2 the existence of correlations between genic differentiation statistics and size variables at subpopulation level, but not at the colony level, and 3 the relationships between the genetic variables and the principal factors of the R factorial analysis. This suggests that care should be taken in the choice of the sampling unit, for inferences on population genetics to be valid at the microgeographical level.Os marcadores fenotípicos cor da pelagem, padrão e comprimento dos pelos de popula

  6. Adolescent Literacies in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Lesley; Lopez, Dina; Mein, Erika; Valdiviezo, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2000, approximately 36 million youth and adults living in Latin America and the Caribbean were reported to be unable to read or write basic texts. Of these, 20 million were women. According to official statistics, some countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Honduras) have a youth and adult literacy rate of 80% or…

  7. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Outside Air Ventilation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    venThis Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research showing how automated night ventilation can reduce cooling energy costs up to 40% and peak demand up to 50% in California’s hot-dry central valley climates and can eliminate the need for air conditioning altogether in the coastal marine climate.

  8. [Inequities in cardiovascular diseases in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2013-01-01

    In high-income countries, social inequalities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are well-documented. Although Latin America has a rich history of theory and conceptual discussion regarding social inequalities in health, empirical research has been more limited. In this commentary we summarize recent empirical work on social inequalities in CVD risk in Latin America, and highlight key research needs as well as implications for prevention. Although much remains unknown about the social patterning of CVD in Latin America, the limited studies to date indicate that inequalities in CVD risk vary across populations and markers of socioeconomic position, as well as disease risk marker. The strongest social inequalities are seen among women, and in urban areas, with regards to obesity, diabetes, and diet. Few studies, though, have been conducted in some parts of Latin America, including the countries of Central America and northern South America. Vital registration systems and nationally-representative risk factor surveys can be important sources of data, as long as information on socioeconomic indicators is collected. Longitudinal studies will also be important for investigating factors driving social inequalities. As policies and prevention strategies are put into place to reduce CVD in Latin America, they must also address factors generating social inequalities in CVD risk.

  9. Admixture and genetic relationships of Mexican Mestizos regarding Latin American and Caribbean populations based on 13 CODIS-STRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Flores, J; Zuñiga-Chiquette, F; Rubi-Castellanos, R; Álvarez-Miranda, J L; Zetina-Hérnandez, A; Martínez-Sevilla, V M; González-Andrade, F; Corach, D; Vullo, C; Álvarez, J C; Lorente, J A; Sánchez-Diz, P; Herrera, R J; Cerda-Flores, R M; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2015-02-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) of the combined DNA index system (CODIS) are probably the most employed markers for human identification purposes. STR databases generated to interpret DNA profiles are also helpful for anthropological purposes. In this work, we report admixture, population structure, and genetic relationships of Mexican Mestizos with respect to Latin American and Caribbean populations based on 13 CODIS-STRs. In addition, new STR population data were included from Tijuana, Baja California (Northwest, Mexico), which represents an interesting case of elevated genetic flow as a bordering city with the USA. Inter-population analyses included CODIS-STR data from 11 Mexican Mestizo, 12 Latin American and four Caribbean populations, in addition to European, Amerindian, and African genetic pools as ancestral references. We report allele frequencies and statistical parameters of forensic interest (PD, PE, Het, PIC, typical PI), for 15 STRs in Tijuana, Baja California. This Mexican border city was peculiar by the increase of African ancestry, and by presenting three STRs in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, probably explained by recurrent gene flow. The Amerindian ancestry in Central and Southeast of Mexico was the greatest in Latin America (50.9-68.6%), only comparable with the North of Central America and Ecuador (48.8-56.4%), whereas the European ancestry was prevalent in South America (66.7-75%). The African ancestry in Mexico was the smallest (2.2-6.3%) in Latin America (≥ 2.6%), particularly regarding Brazil (21%), Honduras (62%), and the Caribbean (43.2-65.2%). CODIS-STRs allowed detecting significant population structure in Latin America based on greater presence of European, Amerindian, and African ancestries in Central/South America, Mexican Mestizos, and the Caribbean, respectively.

  10. Echinococcus multilocularis in North America: the great unknown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massolo Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, studies have begun to shed light on the distribution and genetic characterization of Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis (AE, in North America. Recent findings indicate that the parasite is likely expanding its range in the central region of the United States and Canada and that invasions of European strains might have occurred. In our review, we present the available data on E. multilocularis infections in wild and domestic animals and humans in North America and emphasize the lack of knowledge on the distribution of the parasite in wild and domestic hosts. Furthermore, we stress the need to better understand the complexity of host communities and their roles in shaping the transmission and distribution of the parasite. We hypothesize that a lack of knowledge about AE by North American physicians might result in the misdiagnosis of cases and an underestimation of disease incidence. The endemic presence of the parasite in urban areas and a recent human case in Alberta, Canada, suggest that the scientific community may need to reconsider the local public health risks, re-assess past cases that might have been overlooked and increase surveillance efforts to identify new cases of human AE.

  11. The Merida Initiative: Security-Surveillance Harmonization in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Arteaga Botello

    2009-01-01

    This work analyses the Merida Initiative, whose objective is to coordinate the information systems used against terrorism, organized crime, and drug and arms trafficking between the United States, Mexico and Central America. This implies the introduction of communication equipment, data bases and surveillance technology, which not only reinforces the security policies of the ‘western hemisphere’, but also consolidates and broadens the spaces of exception in Mexico and Central America, thus er...

  12. Characterization of rhizobia from legumes of agronomic interest grown in semi-arid areas of Central Spain relates genetic differences to soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Díez, Beatriz; Fajardo, Susana; Felipe, María del Rosario de; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2012-02-01

    A study of symbiotic bacteria from traditional agricultural legumes from Central Spain was performed to create a collection of rhizobia from soils differing in physicochemical, analytical and/or agroecological properties which could be well-adapted to the environmental conditions of this region, and be used for sustainable agricultural practices. Thirty-six isolates were obtained from root-nodules of fifteen legume species (including Cicer arietinum, Lathyrus sativus, Lens culinaris, Lupinus spp., Medicago sativa, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativum, and Vicia spp.) from three agriculture areas with soils of different pHs and from a forest area with undisturbed soils. Phenotypical characterization revealed uniformity across the thirty-six isolates, with important exceptions in terms of environmental tolerance (three isolates survived at high temperatures, three at high salinity and three at acid pH). The molecular analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed a close relationship of twenty-nine isolates to Rhizobium leguminosarum, one to Rhizobium gallicum, one to Mesorhizobium ciceri, two to Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) meliloti and three to Bradyrhizobium canariense. The sequence analysis of a symbiosis-specific gene, nod C, showed a correlation with the plant host and grouped twenty-six isolates with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, establishing the diversity in relation to legume-host. The 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer (IGS) region allowed for intraspecific differentiation, so that strains with equal 16S rRNA were grouped by means of their soil origin. These results indicated that phenotypical and genetically related strains may be widely distributed in this region and that soil abiotic characteristics could have a substantial bearing on the selection of the strains living in each environment. PMID:21953333

  13. Genetic diversity and relationship in American and African oil palm as revealed by RFLP and AFLP molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcelos Edson

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic diversity, its organization and the genetic relationships within oil palm (Elaeis oleifera (Kunth Cortés, from America, and E. guineensis (Jacq., from Africa germplasm using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP. In complement to a previous RFLP study on 241 E. oleifera accessions, 38 E. guineensis accessions were analyzed using the same 37 cDNA probes. These accessions covered a large part of the geographical distribution areas of these species in America and Africa. In addition, AFLP analysis was performed on a sub-set of 40 accessions of E. oleifera and 22 of E. guineensis using three pairs of enzyme/primer combinations. Data were subjected to Factorial Analysis of Correspondence (FAC and cluster analysis, with parameters of genetic diversity being also studied. Results appeared congruent between RFLP and AFLP. In the E. oleifera, AFLP confirmed the strong structure of genetic diversity revealed by RFLP, according to geographical origin of the studied material, with the identification of the same four distinct genetic groups: Brazil, French Guyana/Surinam, Peru, north of Colombia/Central America. Both markers revealed that genetic divergence between the two species is of the same magnitude as that among provenances of E. oleifera. This finding is in discrepancy with the supposed early tertiary separation of the two species.

  14. Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernethy, Bob; Chandra, Subrato; Baden, Steven; Cummings, Jim; Cummings, Jamie; Beal, David; Chasar, David; Colon, Carlos; Dutton, Wanda; Fairey, Philip; Fonorow, Ken; Gil, Camilo; Gordon, Andrew; Hoak, David; Kerr, Ryan; Peeks, Brady; Kosar, Douglas; Hewes, Tom; Kalaghchy, Safvat; Lubliner, Mike; Martin, Eric; McIlvaine, Janet; Moyer, Neil; Liguori, Sabrina; Parker, Danny; Sherwin, John; Stroer, Dennis; Thomas-Rees, Stephanie; Daniel, Danielle; McIlvaine, Janet

    2010-11-30

    This report summarizes the work conducted by the Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP - www.baihp.org) during the final budget period (BP5) of our contract, January 1, 2010 to November 30, 2010. Highlights from the four previous budget periods are included for context. BAIHP is led by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) of the University of Central Florida. With over 50 Industry Partners including factory and site builders, work in BP5 was performed in six tasks areas: Building America System Research Management, Documentation and Technical Support; System Performance Evaluations; Prototype House Evaluations; Initial Community Scale Evaluations; Project Closeout, Final Review of BA Communities; and Other Research Activities.

  15. Microhabitat types promote the genetic structure of a micro-endemic and critically endangered mole salamander (Ambystoma leorae) of Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Armando; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Reyna-Valencia, Carlos; Zarco-González, Martha M

    2014-01-01

    The reduced immigration and emigration rates resulting from the lack of landscape connectivity of patches and the hospitality of the intervening matrix could favor the loss of alleles through genetic drift and an increased chance of inbreeding. In order for isolated populations to maintain sufficient levels of genetic diversity and adapt to environmental changes, one important conservation goal must be to preserve or reestablish connectivity among patches in a fragmented landscape. We studied the last known population of Ambystoma leorae, an endemic and critically threatened species. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess the demographic parameters of A. leorae and to distinguish and characterize the microhabitats in the river, (2) to determine the number of existing genetic groups or demes of A. leorae and to describe possible relationships between microhabitats types and demes, (3) to determine gene flow between demes, and (4) to search for geographic locations of genetic discontinuities that limit gene flow between demes. We found three types of microhabitats and three genetically differentiated subpopulations with a significant level of genetic structure. In addition, we found slight genetic barriers. Our results suggest that mole salamander's species are very sensitive to microhabitat features and relatively narrow obstacles in their path. The estimates of bidirectional gene flow are consistent with the pattern of a stepping stone model between demes, where migration occurs between adjacent demes, but there is low gene flow between distant demes. We can also conclude that there is a positive correlation between microhabitats and genetic structure in this population. PMID:25076052

  16. Conservation Genetics of Crested Newt Species Triturus cristatus and T. carnifex within a Contact Zone in Central Europe: Impact of Interspecific Introgression and Gene Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mikulíček

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the population genetic structure of slightly admixed populations of crested newts (Triturus cristatus and T. carnifex in a continuously fragmented landscape, located in northern Salzburg (Austria and neighbouring Bavaria (Germany. Crested newts are listed as Critically Endangered in the provincial Red List of Salzburg and strictly protected by the EU Habitats Directive. We used seven polymorphic microsatellite loci to evaluate genetic diversity and processes that may determine the genetic architecture of populations. Genetic diversity was moderate, pairwise FST-values were comparatively high showing significant genetic differentiation and limited gene flow. Isolation by distance was significant for the whole data set, but not significant when calculated for T. cristatus- and T. carnifex-like populations separately. Bayesian analyses of population structure, using three different programs showed similar results. Spatial statistics reveal that the geographical isolation of populations is very high.

  17. Evidence for the exchange of blood parasites between North America and the Neotropics in blue-winged teal (Anas discors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reed, John; Walther, Patrick; Link, Paul; Schmutz, Joel A.; Douglas, David; Stallknecht, David E.; Soos, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) are abundant, small-bodied dabbling ducks that breed throughout the prairies of the northcentral USA and central Canada and that winter in the southern USA and northern Neotropics. Given the migratory tendencies of this species, it is plausible that blue-winged teal may disperse avian pathogens, such as parasites causing avian malaria, between spatially distant areas. To test the hypothesis that blue-winged teal play a role in the exchange of blood parasites between North America and areas further south, we collected information on migratory tendencies of this species and sampled birds at spatially distant areas during breeding and non-breeding periods to diagnose and genetically characterize parasitic infections. Using a combination of band recovery data, satellite telemetry, molecular diagnostics, and genetic analyses, we found evidence for (1) migratory connectivity of blue-winged teal between our sampling locations in the Canadian prairies and along the US Gulf Coast with areas throughout the northern Neotropics, (2) parasite acquisition at both breeding and non-breeding areas, (3) infection of blue-winged teal sampled in Canada and the USA withPlasmodium parasite lineages associated with the Neotropics, and (4) infection of blue-winged teal with parasites that were genetically related to those previously reported in waterfowl in both North America and South America. Collectively, our results suggest that blue-winged teal likely play a role in the dispersal of blood parasites between the Neotropics and North America, and therefore, the targeting of this species in surveillance programs for the early detection of Neotropical-origin avian pathogens in the USA may be informative.

  18. Genetic diversity of neotropical Myotis (chiroptera: vespertilionidae with an emphasis on South American species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne J Larsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptic morphological variation in the Chiropteran genus Myotis limits the understanding of species boundaries and species richness within the genus. Several authors have suggested that it is likely there are unrecognized species-level lineages of Myotis in the Neotropics. This study provides an assessment of the diversity in New World Myotis by analyzing cytochrome-b gene variation from an expansive sample ranging throughout North, Central, and South America. We provide baseline genetic data for researchers investigating phylogeographic and phylogenetic patterns of Myotis in these regions, with an emphasis on South America. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cytochrome-b sequences were generated and phylogenetically analyzed from 215 specimens, providing DNA sequence data for the most species of New World Myotis to date. Based on genetic data in our sample, and on comparisons with available DNA sequence data from GenBank, we estimate the number of species-level genetic lineages in South America alone to be at least 18, rather than the 15 species currently recognized. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that the perception of lower species richness in South American Myotis is largely due to a combination of cryptic morphological variation and insufficient sampling coverage in genetic-based systematic studies. A more accurate assessment of the level of diversity and species richness in New World Myotis is not only helpful for delimiting species boundaries, but also for understanding evolutionary processes within this globally distributed bat genus.

  19. Microhabitat Types Promote the Genetic Structure of a Micro-Endemic and Critically Endangered Mole Salamander (Ambystoma leorae) of Central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Sunny; Octavio Monroy-Vilchis; Carlos Reyna-Valencia; Martha M. Zarco-González

    2014-01-01

    The reduced immigration and emigration rates resulting from the lack of landscape connectivity of patches and the hospitality of the intervening matrix could favor the loss of alleles through genetic drift and an increased chance of inbreeding. In order for isolated populations to maintain sufficient levels of genetic diversity and adapt to environmental changes, one important conservation goal must be to preserve or reestablish connectivity among patches in a fragmented landscape. We studied...

  20. Microhabitat types promote the genetic structure of a micro-endemic and critically endangered mole salamander (Ambystoma leorae of Central Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Sunny

    Full Text Available The reduced immigration and emigration rates resulting from the lack of landscape connectivity of patches and the hospitality of the intervening matrix could favor the loss of alleles through genetic drift and an increased chance of inbreeding. In order for isolated populations to maintain sufficient levels of genetic diversity and adapt to environmental changes, one important conservation goal must be to preserve or reestablish connectivity among patches in a fragmented landscape. We studied the last known population of Ambystoma leorae, an endemic and critically threatened species. The aims of this study were: (1 to assess the demographic parameters of A. leorae and to distinguish and characterize the microhabitats in the river, (2 to determine the number of existing genetic groups or demes of A. leorae and to describe possible relationships between microhabitats types and demes, (3 to determine gene flow between demes, and (4 to search for geographic locations of genetic discontinuities that limit gene flow between demes. We found three types of microhabitats and three genetically differentiated subpopulations with a significant level of genetic structure. In addition, we found slight genetic barriers. Our results suggest that mole salamander's species are very sensitive to microhabitat features and relatively narrow obstacles in their path. The estimates of bidirectional gene flow are consistent with the pattern of a stepping stone model between demes, where migration occurs between adjacent demes, but there is low gene flow between distant demes. We can also conclude that there is a positive correlation between microhabitats and genetic structure in this population.

  1. Use of Population Genetics to Assess the Ecology, Evolution, and Population Structure of Coccidioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Marcus M; Barker, Bridget M

    2016-06-01

    During the past 20 years, a general picture of the genetic diversity and population structure of Coccidioides, the causal agent of coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever), has emerged. The genus consists of 2 genetically diverse species, C. immitis and C. posadasii, each of which contains 1 or more distinct populations with limited gene flow. Genotypic data indicate that C. immitis is divided into 2 subpopulations (central and southern California populations) and C. posadasii is divided into 3 subpopulations (Arizona, Mexico, and Texas/South America populations). However, admixture within and among these populations and the current paucity of environmental isolates limit our understanding of the population genetics of Coccidioides. We assessed population structure of Coccidioides in Arizona by analyzing 495 clinical and environmental isolates. Our findings confirm the population structure as previously described and indicate a finer scale population structure in Arizona. Environmental isolates appear to have higher genetic diversity than isolates from human patients. PMID:27191589

  2. Simulation of Flux Distribution in Central Metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Hybridized Genetic Algorithm%杂合基因算法在酵母中间代谢途径代谢通量分析中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧敏; 姚善泾

    2007-01-01

    A scheme of investigating the intracellular metabolic fluxes in central metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on isotope model and tracer experiment was developed. The metabolic model applied in this study includes the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, the pentose phosphate pathway, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, CO2 anaplerotic reactions, ethanol and acetate formation, and pathways involved in amino acid synthesis. The approach of hybridized genetic algorithm combined with the sequential simplex technique was used to optimize a quadratic error function without the requirement of the information on the partial derivatives. The impact of some key parameters on the algorithm was studied. This approach was proved to be rapid and numerically stable in the analysis of the central metabolism of S.cerevisiae.

  3. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  4. America in the Eyes of America Watchers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huiyun; He, Kai

    2015-01-01

    almost half of the survey participants thought that America would remain the global hegemon in the next ten years. Meanwhile, a large majority was also optimistic that China is a rising great power, especially in the economic sense, in the world. More than half of the respondents saw Asian military...... issues, such as the South China Sea issue, as the most difficult problem between China and the US....

  5. Cohabitation in Latin America: a comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sussai Soares, Maira Covre

    2014-01-01

    The coexistence of marriage and cohabitation is an intriguing feature of Latin American nuptiality. Historically common among lower social classes in Central America and the Caribbean, the incidence of cohabitation is also increasing among higher educated groups and southern Latin American countries. This study uses census and survey data to investigate the characteristics of Latin American cohabitation.First, the countries’ socioeconomic characteristics, related to the incidence of cohabitat...

  6. Immigrant America: A Portrait

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbaut, RG; Portes, A.

    2014-01-01

    This revised, updated, and expanded fourth edition of Immigrant America: A Portrait provides readers with a comprehensive and current overview of immigration to the United States in a single volume. Updated with the latest available data, Immigrant America explores the economic, political, spatial, and linguistic aspects of immigration; the role of religion in the acculturation and social integration of foreign minorities; and the adaptation process for the second generation. This revised ed...

  7. Nutritional situation in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    PAHO member countries maintain food and nutrition surveillance systems. The prevalence of malnutrition among children aged 0-4 in Latin American and Caribbean countries ranges from 0.8% in Chile to 38.5% in Guatemala. It is 2.9% in the US. Low height-for-age is most common among children aged 0-4 in Guatemala (57.9%), Bolivia (38.3%), Peru (35.2%), and Ecuador (34%). The interval between observations of malnutrition prevalence ranged from 22 years in Honduras to 3-4 years in Nicaragua and Panama. Overall, there was a downward trend in malnutrition rates in the Americas. Yet, malnutrition is increasing in Guatemala and Panama. Breast feeding, good weaning practices, appropriate feeding during disease episodes, nutrition education, and programs for immunization and control of diarrhea and respiratory diseases account for the downward trend. Anemia rates among pregnant women (=or 11 g Hb/dl) vary from 13% in Asuncion, Paraguay, to 61% in Misiones, Argentina. Those for preschoolers range from 22% to 45% in Brazil and 27% to 53% in Peru. The prevalence of goiter is more than 50% in Merida, Venezuela, and Chameza, Colombia. It differs greatly in different areas within the same country. Most countries have laws requiring iodination of all salt for human consumption, yet violations are common. Certain areas of the countries in the Americas have vitamin A deficiency rates ranging from 5% to 48.8%. Some countries have enacted laws for sugar enrichment with retinol palmitate to reduce vitamin A deficiency. During the 1970s, deaths from chronic diseases related to nutrition increased 105% in South America, 56% in Central America, Mexico, and Panama, and 21% in the Caribbean. Prevalence of obesity among children aged 0-6 varies from 2.2% in Nicaragua and Brazil to 10.7% in Chile. Adult obesity is most common in Uruguay (about 50%). It is more common among females than males. The highest rates among 20-29 year olds are in Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, and Peru. The US adult obesity

  8. The ribbon continent of northwestern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamira-Areyan, Armando

    The tectonic structure of the Plate Boundary Zone (PBZ) between the Caribbean Plate (CARIB) and the South American Plate (SOAM) is interpreted using models that require CARIB motion from the Pacific into the Atlantic. Those models can be subdivided into: (1) those in which the island arc rocks that are now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ have collided with the northern South America margin, either obliquely or directly during the Cretaceous or during the Cenozoic, and (2) those in which the island arc rocks now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ collided with the west coast of South America during the Cretaceous and were transferred to the northern margin by transform motion during the Cenozoic. Magnetic anomalies were first rotated in the Central and South Atlantic, holding Africa fixed to establish how much NOAM had converged on SOAM during the Cenozoic. WSW convergence was discovered to have been accommodated in the northern boundary of the CARIB. There is no evidence of convergence in the form of Cenozoic island arc igneous rocks on the north coast of South America. Those results are consistent only with models of Class (2) that call for transform movement of material that had collided with the west coast of South America along the CARIB-SOAM PBZ on the northern margin of South America. 40Ar/39Ar ages of island arc rocks from northern Venezuela were found to be older than ca 70 Ma, which is consistent with a requirement of models of Class (2) that those rocks are from an island arc which collided with the west coast of South America during Cretaceous times. Testing that conclusion using data from Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, the Netherlands Antilles, Trinidad and Tobago has led to the construction of a new ribbon continent model of the northwestern Cordillera of South America. Because the part of the ribbon continent on the north coast of South America has been experiencing substantial deformation in the Maracaibo block during the past 10 m.y., structures in that body have had to be

  9. Spatial and temporal genetic analyses reveal high gene flow among European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations across the central U.S. cornbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), adults were sampled at 13 sites along two perpendicular 720-km transects intersecting in central Iowa, and for the following two generations at four of the same sites separated by 240-km in the cardinal directions. More than 50 mo...

  10. 美国CWU课堂教学评价理念对我国高校现行课堂教学评价创新的启示%Enlightenment of Classroom Teaching Evaluation Idea of Central Washington University in America on the Innovation of Current Evaluation of Classroom Teaching in Chinese Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贵安; 刘婵玉; 赵志鹏

    2012-01-01

    基于我国高校现行课堂教学评价的现状,通过分析美国中央华盛顿大学(CentralWashington University:CWU)课堂教学评价之学生评价的理念,提出创新我国高校课堂教学评价的四大理念,即新评价应能体现"以人为本"、"简约而不简单"、"整体性基本评价制度化"以及"公开、公平和坦诚"的理念,以为我国高校课堂教学质量稳步提升奠定扎实基础。%Based on the current situation of classroom teaching evaluation in Chinese universities,four ideas for the innovation of classroom teaching evaluation in Chinese universities are put forward by analyzing the ideas of student evaluation of classroom teaching of Central Washington University(CWU) in America.The new ideas of classroom teaching evaluation are "people first","simple,but not brief,"institutionalized overall basic evaluation" and "Open,fair and frank".We expect that it will lay solid foundation for the improvement of the qualities of classroom teaching in Chinese universities.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association Histio UK Histiocytosis Association of America National Organization for Rare Disorders Genetic Testing Registry (1 link) Langerhans cell histiocytosis, multifocal Scientific articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) ...

  12. Genetic Sample Inventory - NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database archives genetic tissue samples from marine mammals collected in the North-Central Gulf of Mexico from 2010-2015. The collection includes samples from...

  13. Multiple sclerosis care in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Victor M; Medina, Marco Tulio; Duron, Reyna M; Macias, Miguel Angel

    2014-05-01

    Before the advent of diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS), it was reported that the prevalence of MS in Mexico was "one of the lowest in the world" (1.6/100,000).(1) The notion that MS was a rare neurologic disease among those living in the tropics of the Americas and Southern latitudes was widely accepted. The geopolitical boundaries of the region identified as Latin America (LA) extend from the southern border of United States with Mexico (32° North latitude) to the Argentinian and Chilean Patagonia in South America (56° South latitude). The largest Spanish-speaking island countries in the Caribbean-Cuba, Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico-are also traditionally considered part of LA. The continental mass includes 17 countries with a population of more than 550 million. Due to centuries of racial intermixing, it is a heterogeneous and genetically complex population. The blended cultures of native Amerindians with white Caucasian Europeans and black Africans has resulted in the predominant ethnic Latin American Mestizo. The influence of African genetics is notable in many areas of the subcontinent and the Caribbean. A common observation across LA is the absence of identification of MS in non-mixed Amerindians(2); the reason for this phenomenon is unclear.

  14. The genetics of two colour forms of Chrysolina aurichalcea (Mannerheim) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and these gene frequencies around the Utsukushigahara Heights, central Honshu, Japan.

    OpenAIRE

    FUJIYAMA, SHIZUO; ARIMOTO, KINJI; TANABE, MINORU

    1987-01-01

    The inheritance pattern of the two colour forms (cyaneus-form and cupreous-form) of adult Chrysolina aurichalcea (Mannerheim) was examined by the crossing. The inheritance of these colour forms followed Mendel's law, showing the dominance of cyaneus-form over cupreous-form. The sampling of field populations around the Utsukushigahara Heights, central Honshu, Japan, was carried out at 74 sites. The estimation based on these results showed that the gene frequencies of cupreous-form were high (8...

  15. Integración regional centroamericana de la Educación Superior Pública: escenarios y desafíos / Central america regional integration of the public higher education: challenges and scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Varela, Luis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Se aborda aquí un breve análisis acerca de la globalización y de la sociedad del conocimiento, en su relación con las iniciativas de articulación académica interinstitucional y de integración regional impulsadas por las instituciones de educación superior pública de Centroamérica, a partir de 1995 y en el escenario asociativo del Consejo Superior Universitario Centroamericano (CSUCA. El propósito consiste en identificar elementos que permitan discernir el carácter y los niveles de reconfiguración académica e institucional que, de manera general, las nuevas realidades estructurales en curso acarrean para la educación superior pública de Centroamérica.Abstract:This article develops a brief analysis about globalization and the society of knowledge in terms of the attempts of inter-institutional and regional academic articulation proposed –since 1995- by the Central American institutions of higher education through Consejo Superior Universitario Centroamericano (CSUCA. The principal aim is to identify those elements that could clarify the character and the levels of the academic and institutional reconfiguration that, in a general way, the new ongoing structural realities demand from Central American public higher education.

  16. Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationship analysis of Jatropha curcas L. inferred from nrDNA ITS sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guo-Ye; Chen, Fang; Shi, Xiao-Dong; Tian, Yin-Shuai; Yu, Mao-Qun; Han, Xue-Qin; Yuan, Li-Chun; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships among 102 Jatropha curcas accessions from Asia, Africa, and the Americas were assessed using the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA ITS). The average G+C content (65.04%) was considerably higher than the A+T (34.96%) content. The estimated genetic diversity revealed moderate genetic variation. The pairwise genetic divergences (GD) between haplotypes were evaluated and ranged from 0.000 to 0.017, suggesting a higher level of genetic differentiation in Mexican accessions than those of other regions. Phylogenetic relationships and intraspecific divergence were inferred by Bayesian inference (BI), maximum parsimony (MP), and median joining (MJ) network analysis and were generally resolved. The J. curcas accessions were consistently divided into three lineages, groups A, B, and C, which demonstrated distant geographical isolation and genetic divergence between American accessions and those from other regions. The MJ network analysis confirmed that Central America was the possible center of origin. The putative migration route suggested that J. curcas was distributed from Mexico or Brazil, via Cape Verde and then split into two routes. One route was dispersed to Spain, then migrated to China, eventually spreading to southeastern Asia, while the other route was dispersed to Africa, via Madagascar and migrated to China, later spreading to southeastern Asia. PMID:27461559

  17. Central areolar choroidal dystrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, C.J.F.; Klevering, B.J.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Zonneveld-Vrieling, M.N.; Theelen, T.; Hollander, A.I. den; Hoyng, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics, follow-up data and molecular genetic background in a large group of patients with central areolar choroidal dystrophy (CACD). DESIGN: Retrospective case series study. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred three patients with CACD from the Netherlands. METHODS

  18. Eelgrass (Zostera marina) Microsatellite DNA Data; Pacific Coast of North America, 2000-2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains genetic information collected from eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations along the Pacific coast of North America from Alaska to Baha...

  19. Boys & Girls Clubs of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National BGC Week Join Our Cause Donate Now Boys & Girls Clubs of America and the UPS Foundation ... the Dangers Faced When Behind-the-Wheel MORE» Boys & Girls Clubs of America Names Jocelyn Woods National ...

  20. America's Children and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search America's Children and the Environment Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us America's Children and the Environment is an EPA report that presents key information ...

  1. Economic integration in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    This pioneering study shows that economic integration in the Americas is not simply a matter of removing trade barriers. Economic Integration in the Americas addresses the pervasive effects of economic integration on the economy as a whole.

  2. Diversidad genética de Lilaea scilloides (Juncaginaceae en el centro de México Genetic diversity of Lilaea scilloides (Juncaginaceae in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Magallán

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lilaea scilloides (Juncaginaceae es una especie acuática de humedales temporales. Es una herbácea anual emergente que va desde Canadá hasta Argentina. Tiene reproducción sexual y asexual y es polinizada por viento. Su heteromorfismo floral es notorio con 5 diferentes tipos de flores. Se planteó la hipótesis de que, debido a su polinización, amplio intervalo de distribución y abundancia local, tendría alta diversidad genética, baja endogamia, baja diferenciación genética y alto flujo génico. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron determinar la diversidad y estructura genética de L. scilloides y compararlas con especies con características ecológicas y de historia de vida similares. Se analizaron 40 individuos en cada una de las 12 poblaciones con la técnica de electroforesis de isoenzimas en geles de almidón. Los resultados muestran baja diversidad genética dentro de las poblaciones (A= 1.77, Ae= 1.15, P= 56.6, Ho= 0.064 y He= 0.103, altos índices de endogamia (F IS= 0.288, baja diferenciación genética entre las poblaciones (F ST= 0.077 y alto flujo génico (Nm= 4.42. Se encontró evidencia de altos niveles de propagación clonal. Los resultados indican que la reproducción asexual es extremadamente importante, así como la posibilidad de que L. scilloides presente hidrofilia, un tipo de polinización no registrado para la especie.Lilaea scilloides (Juncaginaceae is an aquatic species inhabiting temporary wetlands. It is an annual herbaceous emergent plant distributed from Canada to Argentina. This species reproduces both sexually and asexually, and is wind-pollinated. Flowers are highly heteromorphic with 5 different types of flowers. We hypothesized that, because of its pollination syndrome, wide distribution and local abundance, the species would have high genetic diversity, low endogamy, low genetic differentiation, and high gene flow. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic diversity and structure of L

  3. Americas at Odds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Despite lingering disputes,the United States keeps a firm grip on Latin America During his presidential campaign,Evo Morales said his election would be a "nightmare" for the United States.The Bolivian president honored his words. On September 10, Morales declared U.S.

  4. Literacy in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    1991-01-01

    Literacy in South America must be understood in terms of the linguistic diversity there, where only 2 of 14 nations and territories are monolingual. Oral traditions, standardization of indigenous languages, nonstandard varieties of colonial languages, bilingual education and mother tongue literacy, literacy teaching, and politics are discussed.…

  5. Still Teaching for America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronholz, June

    2013-01-01

    In this article, June Kronholz talks to co-chief executives of Teach For America (TFA), Elisa Villanueva Beard and Matt Kramer about how TFA has managed to keep its forward momentum for almost 24 years. Four primary reasons are discussed: (1) Common Vision, Regional Innovation; (2) Data-Driven Improvement; (3) Global Reach; and (4) Stoking the…

  6. Two Visions of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldi, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Since the seventeenth century, there have been two narratives about modernity in general and America in particular. The author uses the term "narrative" to include (a) facts, (b) arguments, and most important, (c) a larger vision of how one sees the world and chooses to engage the world. The first and originalist narrative is the Lockean Liberty…

  7. Only "In America"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Maria Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    As the daughter of an interracial couple growing up in a middle-class town on Long Island in the 1970s, Soledad O'Brien learned not to let inappropriate or racist comments throw her. Now as the anchorwoman of CNN's "In America" documentary unit, she says she asks those uncomfortable questions about race all the time. She shines spotlight on…

  8. An Idea Called America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartoonian, Michael; Van Scotter, Richard; White, William E.

    2007-01-01

    America evolved out of the principles of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment, suggesting that individuals could govern themselves and that people were "endowed" with "unalienable rights" such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. To secure these principles, Americans would continue to work on forming a more perfect Union, by…

  9. Anaglyph, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of North America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south and 736 meters east-west in central North America), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the North American continent is readily apparent.Active tectonics (structural deformation of the Earth's crust) along and near the Pacific North American plate boundary creates the great topographic relief seen along the Pacific coast. Earth's crustal plates converge in southern Mexico and in the northwest United States, melting the crust and producing volcanic cones. Along the California coast, the plates are sliding laterally past each other, producing a pattern of slices within the San Andreas fault system. And, where the plates are diverging, the crust appears torn apart as one huge tear along the Gulf of California (northwest Mexico), and as the several fractures comprising the Basin and Range province (in and around Nevada).Across the Great Plains, erosional patterns dominate, with stream channels surrounding and penetrating the remnants of older smooth slopes east of the Rocky Mountains. This same erosion process is exposing the bedrock structural patterns of the Black Hills in South Dakota and the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas. Lateral erosion and sediment deposition by the Mississippi River has produced the flatlands of the lower Mississippi Valley and the Mississippi Delta.To the north, evidence of the glaciers of the last ice age is widely found, particularly east of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and around the

  10. Lateinamerika oder -amerikas? Latin America or Americas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén García Timón

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Anhand interdisziplinärer und empirischer Studien wird Lateinamerika als Bühne für die Entwicklung transkultureller Phänomene präsentiert. Geschlechterverhältnisse in unterschiedlichen Kontexten stehen im Mittelpunkt der Untersuchung. Begriffe wie Macht, Rasse oder Raum werden mit dem Ziel, weg von der bisherigen Vorstellung von homogenen kulturellen Einheiten zu kommen, revidiert.Latin America is presented as a stage for the development of transcultural phenomena through the use of interdisciplinary and empirical studies. Gender relations in different contexts lie at the heart of this study. Terms such as power, race, or space are revised with the goal of moving away from current perceptions of homogenous cultural unities.

  11. Stimulation of food intake after central administration of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone is similar in genetically selected low and high body weight lines of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConn, Betty R; Yi, Jiaqing; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Siegel, Paul B; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Cline, Mark A

    2016-06-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), first isolated from the brain of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), when centrally administered exerts orexigenic effects in birds. However, the precise mechanisms mediating this effect are poorly understood and limited information is available on this effect in models of body weight dysfunction. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate appetite-associated effects of GnIH in chicks from lines that have been selected for either low or high body weight, and are anorexic or become obese, respectively. Central GnIH injection increased food intake in both lines with a similar magnitude of response. There was no effect on water intake. Hypothalamic GnIH mRNA was greater in the low than high weight lines and was greater in the fasted than fed chicks. GnIH receptor mRNA was similarly expressed in both lines, and was greater in fed than fasted chicks. Thus, although selection for body weight did not alter the effect of GnIH on feeding, fasting increased GnIH mRNA in both lines implying that it is an innate hunger factor. PMID:26764213

  12. Genetic analysis of the Yavapai Native Americans from West-Central Arizona using the Illumina MiSeq FGx™ forensic genomics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Frank R; Churchill, Jennifer D; Novroski, Nicole M M; King, Jonathan L; Ng, Jillian; Oldt, Robert F; McCulloh, Kelly L; Weise, Jessica A; Smith, David Glenn; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-09-01

    Forensically-relevant genetic markers were typed for sixty-two Yavapai Native Americans using the ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit.These data are invaluable to the human identity community due to the greater genetic differentiation among Native American tribes than among other subdivisions within major populations of the United States. Autosomal, X-chromosomal, and Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) and identity-informative (iSNPs), ancestry-informative (aSNPs), and phenotype-informative (pSNPs) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele frequencies are reported. Sequence-based allelic variants were observed in 13 autosomal, 3 X, and 3 Y STRs. These observations increased observed and expected heterozygosities for autosomal STRs by 0.081±0.068 and 0.073±0.063, respectively, and decreased single-locus random match probabilities by 0.051±0.043 for 13 autosomal STRs. The autosomal random match probabilities (RMPs) were 2.37×10-26 and 2.81×10-29 for length-based and sequence-based alleles, respectively. There were 22 and 25 unique Y-STR haplotypes among 26 males, generating haplotype diversities of 0.95 and 0.96, for length-based and sequencebased alleles, respectively. Of the 26 haplotypes generated, 17 were assigned to haplogroup Q, three to haplogroup R1b, two each to haplogroups E1b1b and L, and one each to haplogroups R1a and I1. Male and female sequence-based X-STR random match probabilities were 3.28×10-7 and 1.22×10-6, respectively. The average observed and expected heterozygosities for 94 iSNPs were 0.39±0.12 and 0.39±0.13, respectively, and the combined iSNP RMP was 1.08×10-32. The combined STR and iSNP RMPs were 2.55×10-58 and 3.02×10-61 for length-based and sequence-based STR alleles, respectively. Ancestry and phenotypic SNP information, performed using the ForenSeq™ Universal Analysis Software, predicted black hair, brown eyes, and some probability of East Asian ancestry for all but one sample that clustered between European and

  13. No apparent reduction in schistosome burden or genetic diversity following four years of school-based mass drug administration in mwea, central kenya, a heavy transmission area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agola E Lelo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a debilitating neglected tropical disease that infects over 200 million people worldwide. To combat this disease, in 2012, the World Health Organization announced a goal of reducing and eliminating transmission of schistosomes. Current control focuses primarily on mass drug administration (MDA. Therefore, we monitored transmission of Schistosoma mansoni via fecal egg counts and genetic markers in a typical school based MDA setting to ascertain the actual impacts of MDA on the targeted schistosome population.For 4 years, we followed 67 children enrolled in a MDA program in Kenya. Infection status and egg counts were measured each year prior to treatment. For 15 of these children, for which there was no evidence of acquired resistance, meaning they became re-infected following each treatment, we collected microsatellite genotype data from schistosomes passed in fecal samples as a representation of the force of transmission between drug treatments. We genotyped a total of 4938 parasites from these children, with an average of 329.2 parasites per child for the entire study, and an average of 82.3 parasites per child per annual examination. We compared prevalence, egg counts, and genetic measures including allelic richness, gene diversity (expected heterozygosity, adult worm burdens and effective number of breeders among time points to search for evidence for a change in transmission or schistosome populations during the MDA program.We found no evidence of reduced transmission or schistosome population decline over the course of the program. Although prevalence declined in the 67 children as it did in the overall program, reinfection rates were high, and for the 15 children studied in detail, schistosome egg counts and estimated adult worm burdens did not decline between years 1 and 4, and genetic diversity increased over the course of drug treatment.School based control programs undoubtedly improve the health of individuals

  14. Little People of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past National Conferences Medical Support Medical Advisory Board Medical Resource Center ELL Position Statement Genetic Biotechnology Research Position Statement Bereavement Medical Articles Regional Skeletal ...

  15. 2. The Central American gang phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Does, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    2.1. Differentiating between pandillas and maras Youth gangs have existed since the 1960s and 1970s in Central America. However, there are different types of Central American gangs and thus one has to distinguish between pandillas and maras. The former are localized, homegrown gangs, which are “direct inheritors” (Jütersonke, Rodgers & Muggah 2009: 379) of the gangs that have historically characterized Central American societies, while the latter are a more recent phenomenon with transnationa...

  16. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L. Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC, Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Mendes Loiola

    Full Text Available The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall-Praia do Forte (BRTPF, Brazilian Tall-Merepe (BRTMe and West African Tall (WAT; the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT; the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT; and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT, Tonga Tall (TONT and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics.

  17. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L.) Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC), Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiola, Carina Mendes; Azevedo, Alinne Oliveira Nunes; Diniz, Leandro E. C.; Aragão, Wilson Menezes; Azevedo, Carlos Diego de O.; Santos, Pedro Henrique A. D.; Ramos, Helaine Christine C.; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Ramos, Semíramis R. Ramalho

    2016-01-01

    The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT) accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT) accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall—Praia do Forte (BRTPF), Brazilian Tall—Merepe (BRTMe) and West African Tall (WAT); the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT); the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT); and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT), Tonga Tall (TONT) and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics. PMID:26974540

  18. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L.) Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC), Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiola, Carina Mendes; Azevedo, Alinne Oliveira Nunes; Diniz, Leandro E C; Aragão, Wilson Menezes; Azevedo, Carlos Diego de O; Santos, Pedro Henrique A D; Ramos, Helaine Christine C; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Ramos, Semíramis R Ramalho

    2016-01-01

    The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT) accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT) accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall-Praia do Forte (BRTPF), Brazilian Tall-Merepe (BRTMe) and West African Tall (WAT); the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT); the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT); and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT), Tonga Tall (TONT) and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics. PMID:26974540

  19. 1.6 Million Child-Bearing Women in Latin America Could Get Zika

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_160059.html 1.6 Million Child-Bearing Women in Latin America Could Get Zika: Study ... HealthDay News) -- Up to 1.6 million child-bearing women in Central and South America may be ...

  20. Chum and pink salmon genetics - Genetic and life history variation of southern chum and pink salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The distribution of genetic and life history variation in chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink (O. gorbuscha) salmon in their southern range in North America is key to...

  1. Phylogeography and genetic identification of the newly-discovered populations of torrent salamanders (Rhyacotriton cascade and R. variegatus) in the central Cascades (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Newly discovered populations of Rhyacotritonidae were investigated for taxonomic identity, hybridization, and sympatry. Species in the genus Rhyacotriton have been historically difficult to identify using morphological characters. Mitochondrial (mtDNA) 16S ribosomal RNA sequences (491 bp) and allozymes (6 loci) were used to identify the distribution of populations occurring intermediate between the previously described ranges of R. variegatus and R. cascadae in the central Cascade Mountain region of Oregon. Allozyme and mitochondrial sequence data both indicated the presence of two distinct evolutionary lineages, with each lineage corresponding to the allopatric distribution of R. cascadae and R. variegatus. Results suggest the Willamette River acts as a phylogeographic barrier limiting the distribution of both species, although we cannot exclude the possibility that reproductive isolation also exists that reinforces species' distributions. This study extends the previously described geographical ranges of both R. cascadae and R. variegatus and defines an eastern range limit for R. variegatus conservation efforts.

  2. Genetic analysis of the Yavapai Native Americans from West-Central Arizona using the Illumina MiSeq FGx™ forensic genomics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Frank R; Churchill, Jennifer D; Novroski, Nicole M M; King, Jonathan L; Ng, Jillian; Oldt, Robert F; McCulloh, Kelly L; Weise, Jessica A; Smith, David Glenn; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-09-01

    Forensically-relevant genetic markers were typed for sixty-two Yavapai Native Americans using the ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit.These data are invaluable to the human identity community due to the greater genetic differentiation among Native American tribes than among other subdivisions within major populations of the United States. Autosomal, X-chromosomal, and Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) and identity-informative (iSNPs), ancestry-informative (aSNPs), and phenotype-informative (pSNPs) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele frequencies are reported. Sequence-based allelic variants were observed in 13 autosomal, 3 X, and 3 Y STRs. These observations increased observed and expected heterozygosities for autosomal STRs by 0.081±0.068 and 0.073±0.063, respectively, and decreased single-locus random match probabilities by 0.051±0.043 for 13 autosomal STRs. The autosomal random match probabilities (RMPs) were 2.37×10-26 and 2.81×10-29 for length-based and sequence-based alleles, respectively. There were 22 and 25 unique Y-STR haplotypes among 26 males, generating haplotype diversities of 0.95 and 0.96, for length-based and sequencebased alleles, respectively. Of the 26 haplotypes generated, 17 were assigned to haplogroup Q, three to haplogroup R1b, two each to haplogroups E1b1b and L, and one each to haplogroups R1a and I1. Male and female sequence-based X-STR random match probabilities were 3.28×10-7 and 1.22×10-6, respectively. The average observed and expected heterozygosities for 94 iSNPs were 0.39±0.12 and 0.39±0.13, respectively, and the combined iSNP RMP was 1.08×10-32. The combined STR and iSNP RMPs were 2.55×10-58 and 3.02×10-61 for length-based and sequence-based STR alleles, respectively. Ancestry and phenotypic SNP information, performed using the ForenSeq™ Universal Analysis Software, predicted black hair, brown eyes, and some probability of East Asian ancestry for all but one sample that clustered between European and

  3. Red brome (Bromus rubens subsp. madritensis) in North America: Possible modes for early introductions, subsequent spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, L.F.

    2005-01-01

    Although invasions by exotic plants have increased dramatically as human travel and commerce have increased, few have been comprehensively described. Understanding the patterns of invasive species spread over space and time will help guide management activities and policy. Tracing the earliest appearances of an exotic plant reveals likely sites of introduction, paving the way for genetic studies to quantify founder events and identify potential source populations. Red brome (Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens) is a Mediterranean winter annual grass that has invaded even relatively undisturbed areas of western North America, where it threatens native plant communities. This study used herbarium records and contemporary published accounts to trace the early introductions and subsequent spread of red brome in western North America. The results challenge the most frequently cited sources describing the early history of this grass and suggest three possible modes for early introductions: the California Gold Rush and Central Valley wheat, southern California shipping, and northern California sheep. Subsequent periods of most rapid spread into new areas, from 1930 to 1942, and of greatest spread into new regions, during the past 50 years, coincide with warm Pacific Decadal Oscillation regimes, which are linked to increased winter precipitation in the southwestern USA and northern Mexico. Global environmental change, including increased atmospheric CO2 levels and N deposition, may be contributing to the success of red brome, relative to native species.

  4. Driving in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世一

    2005-01-01

    Mitsuaki recently arrived in the United States to enter university. He wants to do well in his studies and adjust to the new culture. But Mitsuaki has a problem. It's not his roommates. It's not his school fees. It's not even his English ability. Mitsuaki's problem is that he doesn't have a car. And in America, that really makes him a foreigner. Mitsuaki has already discovered a basic fact of American culture : Driving is a way of life.

  5. Making America Great Again?

    OpenAIRE

    Leth, Aksel N.; Lykke, Lærke G.; Dyrbye, Zachary R.; Jordahn, Sally E.; Egholm, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at uncovering the discourses in Donald Trump’s announcement speech and their relation to his campaign slogan Make America Great Again. Through a thorough analysis of his speech, we have identified thematic categories and used critical discourse studies (CDS), to denaturalise the discourses he produces and reproduces in a socio-cultural and socio-political context. Our method of Critical Discourse Analysis is based on Fairclough, complemented by Wodak, Richardson and van Dijk, ...

  6. Central role of the gut epithelial barrier in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation: lessons learned from animal models and human genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorelli, Luca; De Salvo, Carlo; Mercado, Joseph R; Vecchi, Maurizio; Pizarro, Theresa T

    2013-01-01

    The gut mucosa is constantly challenged by a bombardment of foreign antigens and environmental microorganisms. As such, the precise regulation of the intestinal barrier allows the maintenance of mucosal immune homeostasis and prevents the onset of uncontrolled inflammation. In support of this concept, emerging evidence points to defects in components of the epithelial barrier as etiologic factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). In fact, the integrity of the intestinal barrier relies on different elements, including robust innate immune responses, epithelial paracellular permeability, epithelial cell integrity, as well as the production of mucus. The purpose of this review is to systematically evaluate how alterations in the aforementioned epithelial components can lead to the disruption of intestinal immune homeostasis, and subsequent inflammation. In this regard, the wealth of data from mouse models of intestinal inflammation and human genetics are pivotal in understanding pathogenic pathways, for example, that are initiated from the specific loss of function of a single protein leading to the onset of intestinal disease. On the other hand, several recently proposed therapeutic approaches to treat human IBD are targeted at enhancing different elements of gut barrier function, further supporting a primary role of the epithelium in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation and emphasizing the importance of maintaining a healthy and effective intestinal barrier. PMID:24062746

  7. Central role of the gut epithelial barrier in pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation: Lessons learned from animal models and human genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca ePastorelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The gut mucosa is constantly challenged by a bombardment of foreign antigens and environmental microorganisms. As such, the precise regulation of the intestinal barrier allows the maintenance of mucosal immune homeostasis and prevents the onset of uncontrolled inflammation. In support of this concept, emerging evidence points to defects in components of the epithelial barrier as etiologic factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs. In fact, the integrity of the intestinal barrier relies on different elements, including robust innate immune responses, epithelial paracellular permeability, epithelial cell integrity, as well as the production of mucus. The purpose of this review is to systematically evaluate how alterations in the aforementioned epithelial components can lead to the disruption of intestinal immune homeostasis, and subsequent inflammation. In this regard, the wealth of data from mouse models of intestinal inflammation and human genetics are pivotal in understanding pathogenic pathways, for example, that are initiated from the specific loss of function of a single protein leading to the onset of intestinal disease. On the other hand, several recently proposed therapeutic approaches to treat human IBD are targeted at enhancing different elements of gut barrier function, further supporting a primary role of the epithelium in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation and emphasizing the importance of maintaining a healthy and effective intestinal barrier.

  8. Public Education--America's Civil Religion: A Social History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankston, Carl L., III; Caldas, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    In this provocative volume, the authors argue that public education is a central part of American civil religion and, thus, gives us an unquestioning faith in the capacity of education to solve all of our social, economic, and political problems. The book traces the development of America's faith in public education from before the Civil War up to…

  9. [Travellers to South America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloveras, Susana Cristina

    2011-12-01

    The geography, tourist attractions and the multiple sites of historical and cultural interest make South America as an important destination chosen by travelers. The continent has a wide climatic variation from north to south, making exposure to risk different between the tropics and the temperate or cold regions. In the countries of tropical South America, the greatest risk is associated with the possibility of acquiring vector-borne diseases, like yellow fever, dengue, malaria and leishmaniasis. The risk of acquiring traveler's diarrhea and food-borne illness is similar across the continent, with some variations according to country and to visit urban or rural areas. Rabies, pertussis and diphtheria have appeared as epidemics in several countries and other diseases such as rickettsiosis, hantavirosis and viral encephalitis have expanded their distribution. The geographic and epidemiological diversity of South America, promotes a challenge for travel medicine specialists because during the pre-travel advice they have to take in account the kind of trip, traveller's medical history, exposure to risk and the dynamics of endemic emerging and reemerging diseases in the region.

  10. Consultants Group Meeting on Genetic Sexing and Population Genetics of Screwworms. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Thematic Plan on SIT for Screwworms developed in 1999 by IPC and TC identified certain R and D bottlenecks to the expansion of this technology into new agricultural areas. This consultant's meeting was held to review these conclusions and to advise the Agency on the need, or otherwise, of initiating a CRP to address the bottlenecks identified in the Thematic Plan. In 2001 it is expected that the New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, will have been eradicated from all of Central America, including Panama where a sterile release barrier will be established to prevent re-invasion from South America. This barrier will need to be maintained indefinitely with its associated costs. The use of an all-male strain in the production facility would have very positive impact on the cost/benefit analysis of the programme. The Director of the Screwworm Programme in Central America made this point very strongly during the Thematic Plan discussions and at a subsequent technical meeting in Tuxtla Gutierrez. Interest to expand the programme into South America is now being shown by certain countries in the region where the economic feasibility of implementing an SIT programme might depend on producing sterile flies more economically and here again the use of a genetic sexing strain could play an important role. For the Old World Screwworm, Chrysomya bezziana the Australian authorities have just completed a successful small field trial of the SIT in Malaysia and it is proposed that more extensive field tests be carried out in the region. For both the New World Screwworm in South America and the Old World Screwworm, in Asia there is virtually no information regarding the population structure in relation to the implementation of an SIT programme. Is the Old World Screwworm a single species over its very wide distribution and are the populations of New World Screwworm in South America the same as in Central America and related to each other? Are the populations isolated? These

  11. Genetic variability in four Alouatta species measured by means of nine DNA microsatellite markers: genetic structure and recent bottlenecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Garcia, M; Escobar-Armel, P; Alvarez, D; Mudry, M; Ascunce, M; Gutierrez-Espeleta, G; Shostell, J M

    2007-01-01

    We used microsatellite DNA to study the population genetics of 4 Alouatta species from Central and South America. Our main findings include the following: (1) A. seniculus had the highest level of microsatellite variability while A. caraya and A. palliata had the lowest mean number of alleles per locus and the lowest expected heterozygosity, respectively; (2) the samples of A. seniculus and A. palliata came from different regions and were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) which may indicate a Wahlund effect and differentiated gene pools -- in contrast, A. macconnelli and A. caraya were in HWE; (3) the microsatellite genetic heterogeneity of the 4 Alouatta species was similar to the karyotype divergence found among these Alouatta species; the species pair with the lowest level of heterogeneity (genetic differentiation) was A. seniculus/A. caraya, while the Central American species, A. palliata, was highly differentiated from the other 3 South American species; (4) we recommend the establishment of a conservation plan to help protect A. caraya because the Cornuet and Luikart procedure demonstrated a recent bottleneck for this species. PMID:17303937

  12. Genetics, Morphology, Advertisement Calls, and Historical Records Distinguish Six New Polyploid Species of African Clawed Frog (Xenopus, Pipidae from West and Central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J Evans

    Full Text Available African clawed frogs, genus Xenopus, are extraordinary among vertebrates in the diversity of their polyploid species and the high number of independent polyploidization events that occurred during their diversification. Here we update current understanding of the evolutionary history of this group and describe six new species from west and central sub-Saharan Africa, including four tetraploids and two dodecaploids. We provide information on molecular variation, morphology, karyotypes, vocalizations, and estimated geographic ranges, which support the distinctiveness of these new species. We resurrect Xenopus calcaratus from synonymy of Xenopus tropicalis and refer populations from Bioko Island and coastal Cameroon (near Mt. Cameroon to this species. To facilitate comparisons to the new species, we also provide comments on the type specimens, morphology, and distributions of X. epitropicalis, X. tropicalis, and X. fraseri. This includes significantly restricted application of the names X. fraseri and X. epitropicalis, the first of which we argue is known definitively only from type specimens and possibly one other specimen. Inferring the evolutionary histories of these new species allows refinement of species groups within Xenopus and leads to our recognition of two subgenera (Xenopus and Silurana and three species groups within the subgenus Xenopus (amieti, laevis, and muelleri species groups.

  13. The Failure of Macroeconomics in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Stiglitz

    2011-01-01

    Editor's Words On 18 March 2011, the China Association for World Economics hosted "The Presentation of the 2010 Pushan Award for Excellent Papers on International Economics " at the China Central University of Finance and Economics. Over 700 scholars and students from home and abroad attended the ceremony. Professor Joseph Stiglitz, the winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics, presented the awards and gave a speech on "The Failure of Economics in America." The following speech transcript has been approved and edited kindly by Professor Stiglitz.

  14. Tourmaline occurrences within the Penamacor-Monsanto granitic pluton and host-rocks (Central Portugal): genetic implications of crystal-chemical and isotopic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, I. Ribeiro; Mourão, C.; Récio, C.; Guimarães, F.; Antunes, I. M.; Ramos, J. Farinha; Barriga, F. J. A. S.; Palmer, M. R.; Milton, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    Tourmalinization associated with peraluminous granitic intrusions in metapelitic host-rocks has been widely recorded in the Iberian Peninsula, given the importance of tourmaline as a tracer of granite magma evolution and potential indicator of Sn-W mineralizations. In the Penamacor-Monsanto granite pluton (Central Eastern Portugal, Central Iberian Zone), tourmaline occurs: (1) as accessory phase in two-mica granitic rocks, muscovite-granites and aplites, (2) in quartz (±mica)-tourmaline rocks (tourmalinites) in several exocontact locations, and (3) as a rare detrital phase in contact zone hornfels and metapelitic host-rocks. Electron microprobe and stable isotope (δ18O, δD, δ11B) data provide clear distinctions between tourmaline populations from these different settings: (a) schorl-oxyschorl tourmalines from granitic rocks have variable foititic component (X□ = 17-57 %) and Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratios (0.19-0.50 in two-mica granitic rocks, and 0.05-0.19 in the more differentiated muscovite-granite and aplites); granitic tourmalines have constant δ18O values (12.1 ± 0.1 ‰), with wider-ranging δD (-78.2 ± 4.7 ‰) and δ11B (-10.7 to -9.0 ‰) values; (b) vein/breccia oxyschorl [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.31-0.44] results from late, B- and Fe-enriched magma-derived fluids and is characterized by δ18O = 12.4 ‰, δD = -29.5 ‰, and δ11B = -9.3 ‰, while replacement tourmalines have more dravitic compositions [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.26-0.64], close to that of detrital tourmaline in the surrounding metapelitic rocks, and yield relatively constant δ18O values (13.1-13.3 ‰), though wider-ranging δD (-58.5 to -36.5 ‰) and δ11B (-10.2 to -8.8 ‰) values; and (c) detrital tourmaline in contact rocks and regional host metasediments is mainly dravite [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.35-0.78] and oxydravite [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.51-0.58], respectively. Boron contents of the granitic rocks are low (Monsanto pluton, either as direct tourmaline precipitation in cavities and fractures crossing the

  15. Large-scale phenotyping of an accurate genetic mouse model of JNCL identifies novel early pathology outside the central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Staropoli

    Full Text Available Cln3(Δex7/8 mice harbor the most common genetic defect causing juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL, an autosomal recessive disease involving seizures, visual, motor and cognitive decline, and premature death. Here, to more thoroughly investigate the manifestations of the common JNCL mutation, we performed a broad phenotyping study of Cln3(Δex7/8 mice. Homozygous Cln3(Δex7/8 mice, congenic on a C57BL/6N background, displayed subtle deficits in sensory and motor tasks at 10-14 weeks of age. Homozygous Cln3(Δex7/8 mice also displayed electroretinographic changes reflecting cone function deficits past 5 months of age and a progressive decline of retinal post-receptoral function. Metabolic analysis revealed increases in rectal body temperature and minimum oxygen consumption in 12-13 week old homozygous Cln3(Δex7/8 mice, which were also seen to a lesser extent in heterozygous Cln3(Δex7/8 mice. Heart weight was slightly increased at 20 weeks of age, but no significant differences were observed in cardiac function in young adults. In a comprehensive blood analysis at 15-16 weeks of age, serum ferritin concentrations, mean corpuscular volume of red blood cells (MCV, and reticulocyte counts were reproducibly increased in homozygous Cln3(Δ (ex7/8 mice, and male homozygotes had a relative T-cell deficiency, suggesting alterations in hematopoiesis. Finally, consistent with findings in JNCL patients, vacuolated peripheral blood lymphocytes were observed in homozygous Cln3(Δ (ex7/8 neonates, and to a greater extent in older animals. Early onset, severe vacuolation in clear cells of the epididymis of male homozygous Cln3(Δ (ex7/8 mice was also observed. These data highlight additional organ systems in which to study CLN3 function, and early phenotypes have been established in homozygous Cln3(Δ (ex7/8 mice that merit further study for JNCL biomarker development.

  16. Jaguar taxonomy and genetic diversity for southern Arizona, United States, and Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Melanie; Hein, Alexander Ochoa

    2016-06-28

    Executive SummaryThe jaguar is the largest Neotropical felid and the only extant representative of the genus Panthera in the Americas. In recorded history, the jaguars range has extended from the Southern United States, throughout Mexico, to Central and South America, and they occupy a wide variety of habitats. A previous jaguar genetic study found high historical levels of gene flow among jaguar populations over broad areas but did not include any samples of jaguar from the States of Arizona, United States, or Sonora, Mexico. Arizona and Sonora have been part of the historical distribution of jaguars; however, poaching and habitat fragmentation have limited their distribution until they were declared extinct in the United States and endangered in Sonora. Therefore, a need was apparent to have this northernmost (Arizona/Sonora) jaguar population included in an overall jaguar molecular taxonomy and genetic diversity analyses. In this study, we used molecular genetic markers to examine diversity and taxonomy for jaguars in the Northwestern Jaguar Recovery Unit (NJRU; Sonora, Sinaloa, and Jalisco, Mexico; and southern Arizona and New Mexico, United States) relative to jaguars in other parts of the jaguar range (Central and South America). The objectives of this study were to:Collect opportunistic jaguar samples (hide, blood, hair, saliva, and scat), from historical and current individuals, that originated in NJRU areas of Arizona, New Mexico, and Sonora;Use these samples to assess molecular taxonomy of NJRU jaguars compared to data from a previous study of jaguars rangewide; andDevelop suggestions for conservation of NJRU jaguars based on the results.

  17. Jaguar taxonomy and genetic diversity for southern Arizona, United States, and Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Melanie; Hein, Alexander Ochoa

    2016-01-01

    Executive SummaryThe jaguar is the largest Neotropical felid and the only extant representative of the genus Panthera in the Americas. In recorded history, the jaguars range has extended from the Southern United States, throughout Mexico, to Central and South America, and they occupy a wide variety of habitats. A previous jaguar genetic study found high historical levels of gene flow among jaguar populations over broad areas but did not include any samples of jaguar from the States of Arizona, United States, or Sonora, Mexico. Arizona and Sonora have been part of the historical distribution of jaguars; however, poaching and habitat fragmentation have limited their distribution until they were declared extinct in the United States and endangered in Sonora. Therefore, a need was apparent to have this northernmost (Arizona/Sonora) jaguar population included in an overall jaguar molecular taxonomy and genetic diversity analyses. In this study, we used molecular genetic markers to examine diversity and taxonomy for jaguars in the Northwestern Jaguar Recovery Unit (NJRU; Sonora, Sinaloa, and Jalisco, Mexico; and southern Arizona and New Mexico, United States) relative to jaguars in other parts of the jaguar range (Central and South America). The objectives of this study were to:Collect opportunistic jaguar samples (hide, blood, hair, saliva, and scat), from historical and current individuals, that originated in NJRU areas of Arizona, New Mexico, and Sonora;Use these samples to assess molecular taxonomy of NJRU jaguars compared to data from a previous study of jaguars rangewide; andDevelop suggestions for conservation of NJRU jaguars based on the results.

  18. [Genetics and genetic counseling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzi, Claudia; Liut, Francesca; Dallera, Nadia; Mazza, Cinzia; Magistroni, Riccardo; Savoldi, Gianfranco; Scolari, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is the most frequent genetic disease, characterized by progressive development of bilateral renal cysts. Two causative genes have been identified: PKD1 and PKD2. ADPKD phenotype is highly variable. Typically, ADPKD is an adult onset disease. However, occasionally, ADPKD manifests as very early onset disease. The phenotypic variability of ADPKD can be explained at three genetic levels: genic, allelic and gene modifier effects. Recent advances in molecular screening for PKD gene mutations and the introduction of the new next generation sequencing (NGS)- based genotyping approach have generated considerable improvement regarding the knowledge of genetic basis of ADPKD. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the genetics of ADPKD, focusing on new insights in genotype-phenotype correlation and exploring novel clinical approach to genetic testing. Evaluation of these new genetic information requires a multidisciplinary approach involving a nephrologist and a clinical geneticist. PMID:27067213

  19. Performance Testing of PCR Assay in Blood Samples for the Diagnosis of Toxoplasmic Encephalitis in AIDS Patients from the French Departments of America and Genetic Diversity of Toxoplasma gondii: A Prospective and Multicentric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajzenberg, Daniel; Lamaury, Isabelle; Demar, Magalie; Vautrin, Cyrille; Cabié, André; Simon, Stéphane; Nicolas, Muriel; Desbois-Nogard, Nicole; Boukhari, Rachida; Riahi, Homayoun; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Massip, Patrice; Dupon, Michel; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Labrunie, Anaïs; Boncoeur, Marie-Paule

    2016-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with AIDS is a life-threatening disease mostly due to reactivation of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in the brain. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of real-time PCR assay in peripheral blood samples for the diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS patients in the French West Indies and Guiana. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult patients with HIV and suspicion of toxoplasmic encephalitis with start of specific antitoxoplasmic therapy were included in this study during 40 months. The real-time PCR assay targeting the 529 bp repeat region of T. gondii was performed in two different centers for all blood samples. A Neighbor-Joining tree was reconstructed from microsatellite data to examine the relationships between strains from human cases of toxoplasmosis in South America and the Caribbean. A total of 44 cases were validated by a committee of experts, including 36 cases with toxoplasmic encephalitis. The specificity of the PCR assay in blood samples was 100% but the sensitivity was only 25% with moderate agreement between the two centers. Altered level of consciousness and being born in the French West Indies and Guiana were the only two variables that were associated with significantly decreased risk of false negative results with the PCR assay. Conclusion/Significance Our results showed that PCR sensitivity in blood samples increased with severity of toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS patients. Geographic origin of patients was likely to influence PCR sensitivity but there was little evidence that it was caused by differences in T. gondii strains. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00803621 PMID:27355620

  20. Performance Testing of PCR Assay in Blood Samples for the Diagnosis of Toxoplasmic Encephalitis in AIDS Patients from the French Departments of America and Genetic Diversity of Toxoplasma gondii: A Prospective and Multicentric Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ajzenberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with AIDS is a life-threatening disease mostly due to reactivation of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in the brain. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of real-time PCR assay in peripheral blood samples for the diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS patients in the French West Indies and Guiana.Adult patients with HIV and suspicion of toxoplasmic encephalitis with start of specific antitoxoplasmic therapy were included in this study during 40 months. The real-time PCR assay targeting the 529 bp repeat region of T. gondii was performed in two different centers for all blood samples. A Neighbor-Joining tree was reconstructed from microsatellite data to examine the relationships between strains from human cases of toxoplasmosis in South America and the Caribbean. A total of 44 cases were validated by a committee of experts, including 36 cases with toxoplasmic encephalitis. The specificity of the PCR assay in blood samples was 100% but the sensitivity was only 25% with moderate agreement between the two centers. Altered level of consciousness and being born in the French West Indies and Guiana were the only two variables that were associated with significantly decreased risk of false negative results with the PCR assay.Our results showed that PCR sensitivity in blood samples increased with severity of toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS patients. Geographic origin of patients was likely to influence PCR sensitivity but there was little evidence that it was caused by differences in T. gondii strains.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00803621.