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Sample records for central america field

  1. Geology of the Pavana geothermal area, Departamento de Choluteca, Honduras, Central America: Field report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppler, D.B.; Heiken, G.; Wohletz, K.; Flores, W.; Paredes, J.R.; Duffield, W.A.

    1987-09-01

    The Pavana geothermal area is located in southern Honduras near the Gulf of Fonseca. This region is underlain by late Tertiary volcanic rocks. Within ranges near the geothermal manifestations, the rock sequences is characterized by intermediate to mafic laharic breccias and lavas overlain by silicic tuffs and lavas, which are in turn overlain by intermediate to mafic breccias, lavas, and tuffs. The nearest Quaternary volcanoes are about 40 km to the southwest, where the chain of active Central American volcanoes crosses the mouth of the Gulf of Fonseca. Structure of the Pavana area is dominated by generally northwest-trending, southwest-dipping normal faults. This structure is topographically expressed as northwest-trending escarpments that bound blocks of bedrock separated by asymmetric valleys that contain thin alluvial deposits. Thermal waters apparently issue from normal faults and are interpreted as having been heated during deep circulation along fault zones within a regional environment of elevated heat flow. Natural outflow from the main thermal area is about 3000 l/min of 60/sup 0/C water. Geothermometry of the thermal waters suggests a reservoir base temperature of about 150/sup 0/C.

  2. The Mediterranean fruit fly in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various methods of controlling the medfly are available and include the use of insecticides, bait sprays and the sterile insect technique (SIT). Each of these control strategies may be used alone or in sequence. With regard to the application of the SIT, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture through its Insect and Pest Control Section and Entomology Laboratory is in an excellent position to assist in containing the medfly in Central America. For the past 12 years, the laboratory has participated in all phases of medfly control by sterile insect releases in various climates. This involvement has included planning of medfly campaigns, development of pre-release techniques (bait spraying, trapping, etc.) and shipment and release of sterilized medflies. Small-scale field tests utilizing the SIT have been carried out by nine countries: Italy (Procida, Capri), Spain, Cyprus, Israel, Tunisia, Peru, Panama, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Other field projects presently being counselled and serviced are located in Argentina, Venezuela and the Canary Islands. The research and development that are still needed to effectively stabilize and gain control of the medfly situation in Central America include: The development and use of effective quarantine procedures in various countries; Development of effective conventional medfly control procedures under the conditions found in Central America; Development of methods to determine the geographic origin of medflies introduced into new areas; Medfly mass production (viz. all aspects of rearing Central American strains); Assessing the performance (competitiveness, etc.) of various strains; Logistics, including the development of systems for releasing pre-adult stages; Genetic rearing methods: developmental research in this area is particularly promising since the preferential production of males would allow considerable savings in the rearing costs of medflies for release; Development of adequate surveillance

  3. Hazardous pesticides in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, C; Aragón, A; Castillo, L; Corriols, M; Chaverri, F; de la Cruz, E; Keifer, M; Monge, P; Partanen, T J; Ruepert, C; van Wendel de Joode, B

    2001-01-01

    Pesticides are an extensively documented occupational and environmental hazard in Central America. Yet, severe problems persist. Toxic pesticide use in the Region increased during 1985-1999. High exposure levels and ineffectiveness of personal protective equipment evidence the difficulties for risk reduction. Acute poisonings remain a severe problem. Delayed and/or long-lasting health effects include dermatoses, cancer, and genotoxic, neurotoxic, and respiratory effects. The use of hazardous pesticides persists through deficiencies in government-driven assessment and risk management; excessive focus on regional harmonization; short-term economic interests; strong links between industry and governments; aggressive marketing; weak trade unions; and failure of universities to reach decision makers. Regulation based on local data is lacking. An agreement of the Ministries of Health for restricting the most toxic pesticides in Central America has potential for progress. The most effective way to reduce risk is to greatly reduce pesticide use. Actions needed include development of multidisciplinary strategies for local studies on health and environmental impact of pesticides; development of sustainable nonchemical agricultural technologies; evaluation of interventions; extending and sharing of expertise within the Region; strengthening of unions and communities; and redefining the role of industry toward development of safer products, with responsible marketing and reliable information. PMID:11783858

  4. Biomass energy in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  5. Collaborative studies target volcanic hazards in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, Gregg J. S.; Rose, William I.

    Central America is the second-most consistently active volcanic zone on Earth, after Indonesia. Centuries of volcanic activity have produced a spectacular landscape of collapsed calderas, debris flows, and thick blankets of pyroclastic materials. Volcanic activity dominates the history, culture, and daily life of Central American countries.January 2002 marked the third consecutive year in which a diverse group of volcanologists and geophysicists conducted focused field studies in Central America. This type of multi-institutional collaboration reflects the growing involvement of a number of U.S. and non-U.S. universities, and of other organizations, in Guatemala and El Salvador (Table 1).

  6. Assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources in Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    The USGS has assessed undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in 128 selected petroleum provinces of the world. Of these 128 provinces, 23 are in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean area. In the USGS 2000 Assessment, the provinces resulted in mean totals for undiscovered resource of 105 billion bbl of oil and 487 tcf of gas. The potential for giant oil and gas fields is greatest in the basins along the Atlantic margin of eastern South America, from the Santos Basin in the south to the Guyana-Suriname Basin in the north. The potential for giant fields is mainly offshore, in water depths up to 3600 m. The South and Central America region ranks third in the world for undiscovered conventional oil and gas behind the Middle East and the Former Soviet Union.

  7. A First for Central America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    FTA gives impetus to China’s trade with Costa Rica and other countries in the region The free trade agreement (FTA) between China and Costa Rica, signed in April 2010,came into effect on August 1.It was the first free trade pact between China and a Central

  8. Post-War Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Kruijt

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available – Terror in the Countryside. Campesino Responses to Political Violence in Guatemala, 1954-1985, by Rachel A. May. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies/Research in International Studies/Latin America Series #35, 2001. – La guerrilla fue mi camino. Epitafio para César Montes, by Julio César Macías. Guatemala: Piedra Santa/Colección Afluentes de Modernidad, 1999. – Testigo de conciencia (Periodismo de Opinión Documentado, by Marco A. Mérida. Guatemala: ARCASAVI, 2000. – Centroamérica 2002. Un nuevo modelo de desarrollo regional, edited by Klaus Bodemer and Eduardo Gamarra. Caracas: Nueva Sociedad, 2002. – Who Governs? Guatemala Five years After the Peace Accords, by Rachel Sieder, Megan Thomas, George Vickers and Jack Spence. Cambridge, Mass.: Hemispheric Initiatives/Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA, January 2002. – Pasos hacia una nueva convivencia: Democracia y participación en Centroamérica, edited by Ricardo Córdova Macías, Günther Maihold and Sabina Kurtenbach. San Salvador: FUNDAUNGO, Instituto de Estudios Iberoamericanos de Hamburgo and Instituto Iberoamericano de Berlin, 2001. – Los desafíos de la democracia en Centroamérica, by René Poitevin and Alexander Sequén-Mónchez. Guatemala: FLACSO, 2002. – Más allá de las elecciones: Diez años después de los acuerdos de paz, edited by Hector Dada Hirezi. San Salvador: FLACSO, 2002. – Guatemala, un proyecto inconcluso: La multiculturalidad, un paso hacia la democracia, by Hugo Cayzac. Guatemala: FLACSO, 2001. – La violencia en el contexto del posconflicto, según la percepción de comunidades urbanas pobres de Guatemala, by Caroline Moser and Cathy McIlwaine. Washington/Bogotá: Banco Mundial-Región de Latinoamérica y el Caribe/Tercer Mundo Editores, 2001. – El lado oscuro de la eterna primavera. Violencia, criminalidad y delincuencia en la postguerra, by Manolo Vela, Alexander Sequén-Mónchez and Hugo Antonio Solares

  9. Observations of TEC Depletions in South and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, C. E.; Sheehan, R. E.; Pradipta, R.

    2014-12-01

    TEC values gathered with several networks of GPS receivers, which operated in South and Central America and the Caribbean region between 2010 and 2013, have been used to investigate the characteristics and morphology of TEC depletions that develop at these locations. In South America the TEC depletions are associated with low-latitude plasma bubbles. In Central America and the Caribbean region, we found that TEC depletions that occur during magnetically active conditions (Kp > 5o), persist for very long periods and sometimes remain even during afternoon hours. During quiet magnetic conditions, TEC depletions occur around the June solstice in Central America and during the December solstice in the Southern part of South America. We have also studied possible links between mid-latitude depletions and the formation of plasma bubbles at low latitudes. In addition, TEC measurements from North America have been utilized to determine the poleward extension of the mid-latitude depletions. These depletions do not appear to be related to auroral plasma processes or to storm enhanced densities (SED). We are studying the possibility that their initiation process is associated with the disturbance dynamo or the prompt penetrating electric field that develop during storm conditions.

  10. Pandillas and Security in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas C. Bruneau

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the topic of pandillas (street gangs) and their implications for security in Central America. There is minimal scholarly literature on pandillas and security. In part this is due to serious challenges in analyzing pandillas. First, pandilla members consider truth to be situational; data derived directly from them is suspect. Second, those who know most about them are involved in NGOs that rely on foreign assistance for their work. The project reports the...

  11. Solar activity and climate in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Bonatti; Esteban Araya; Walter Fernández

    2000-01-01

    Possible effects of solar activity on the records of air surface temperature and rainfall in Central America are analysed. The correlation between the series of sunspot numbers, surface air temperature and precipitation, is poor. However an increasing tendency in the series is observed for the time period considered. Using Fourier analysis, frequency peaks were found close to 11 years and 5 years for both solar and climate data. This suggest that solar activity might be a factor which affects...

  12. Fragile isthmus under pressure. Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ypsilantis, J

    1992-01-01

    In Costa Rica the 1300 hectares of rainforest that comprise La Selva Biological Station support more than 1.5 times the number of plant and animal species found in California. In Central America over 2/3 of all deforestation has occurred since 1950, and closed canopy forest has shrunk dramatically during the past 40 years. The population in Central America, plus Mexico, grew by around 28% during the period 1977-87. At the same time the surface of forests and woodlands decreased by 13%, to 26% of the total land area. Croplands grew by 4% during these 10 years, to 13% of the total land area, and pastures by 2% to 37%; and unproductive lands grew by 14% to 24% of total land area. 50% of land is seriously eroded or degraded in El Salvador and over 30% in Guatemala. Central America's population was 22 million in 1980, 29 million in 1990, and it is anticipated to reach 63 million by 2025. Central America's urban population reached 46% in the 1990s: over 13 million with continuing increases in the next few decades. The growing population's need for fuelwood and the demand for agricultural land pose the main threat to forests in the coming decades. Close to 90% of the energy used by households comes from fuelwood. In the Telire reserve in Costa Rica 366 Cabecars are not yet an environmental threat for the forest. The Peten area in Guatemala is inhabited by around 300,000 people whose destructive slash and burn practices pose a serious threat to the environment which is exacerbated by a high population growth rate of 5.5% a year. PMID:12317701

  13. Sources of Economic Fluctuations in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Toledo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using panel data from Central America, this paper studies the determining factors of inflation and aggregate output fluctuations by estimating two Structural Vector Autoregressive (SVAR models. Price and output variables are included in one of the models, whereas M2 and the price of oil are additional variables in the other one. Findings of this study suggest that price is determined by the demand, while output seems to be influenced mainly by the supply shocks in that area. It was also evidenced that the price of oil does not have a significant impact on the general price level in that region.

  14. Human Conservation in Central America, Summary of a Conference (Guatemala, Central America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is a resume consisting chiefly of extracts from papers that were presented at a conference on Human Conservation in Central America, held in Guatemala in 1965, as well as from discussions that took place during the conferences. With cooperation of numerous organizations and guidance from the Conservation Foundation, a discussion of…

  15. Legislation on renewable energy sources in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the development of renewable energy in Central America and the cooperation given by the European Comission in the promotion of renewable energy sources. Also discuss the current situation in energy demand in Central America and possible solutions linked to legislation that promotes the inversion of the private sector. The legal framework in each country of Central America is presented and its impact in the increasing of generation of energy through tax reductions, trading and prices

  16. Commercial Agriculture and Modern Transport in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Oscar H.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an exercise for use in college-level geography courses dealing with the tandem development of transport networks and commercial agriculture in Central America. Using six maps, the author shows the parallels between highway and railroad construction and commercial crops, (coffee, bananas, and cotton) in Central America between 1855-1975.…

  17. The rock coast of South and Central America : chapter 10

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco-Chao, R.; Pedoja, K.; De Witt, C.; Martinod, J.; Husson, L.; Regard, V; Audin, Laurence; Nexer, M.; Delcaillau, B.; Saillard, M.; D. Melnick; Dumont, J.F.; Santana, E.; E Navarrete; Martillo, C.

    2014-01-01

    The great variety of climatic conditions, tidal ranges and wave regimes of South and Central America act on a complex geology and tectonic framework. Many of the rock and cliffed coasts of South America are strongly controlled by the occurrence of extensive Cenozoic and Pleistocene sediments that crop out at the coast. Geology and the different uplift rates are a major factor in the whole coastal geomorphology of South and Central America, and consequently are a very important control of the ...

  18. Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean were discussed. Central America is composed of six small countries whose total population is 32 million. The Caribbean population is 20.5 million. Central America is generally poor in hydrocarbon reserves but the geological prospects in several of the countries are encouraging. The oil and petroleum products supply and demand picture, the main characteristics of the hydrocarbon market, structure of the oil industry, hydrocarbon market reforms, pricing issues and recent trend towards reforms in the electric power industry in Central America were discussed. An overview of the Inter-American Development Bank's (IDB) effort to provide technical assistance and loans to strengthen the energy sector development in Central America and the Caribbean was also given. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 23 figs

  19. A medfly eradication proposal for Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey sponsored by US/AID revealed that in 1970 direct crop losses due to Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) infestations throughout 10 774 km2 (2.7 million acres) in Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Panama approximated US$2.4 million. Potential annual losses would reach US$6.8 million were the medfly to spread throughout presently uninfested Central America. The survey team members estimated that a 6-year eradication programme involving sterile flies, malathion mixed with protein bait, or malathion alone would cost US$30.8, US$25.7 or US$21.8 million, respectively. The subsequent revision of these estimates by agricultural officials of the OIRSA member countries resulted in a 5-year programme involving both malathion and sterile medflies at a cost of US$20.5 million. The financing would be provided by contributions from the governments of the USA, the five Central American countries, Panama, Mexico and the United Kingdom that would be deposited in CABEI to cover the operational costs. This sum would be repaid to CABEI within 10 years and would constitute the nucleus of an emergency fund to combat plant and animal diseases or pests within the OIRSA region. Additional monetary and/or technical support would be requested of UNDP, IAEA, the University of California and the Interamerican Institute of Agricultural Sciences. Intensive trapping for medflies within OIRSA countries that are ostensibly free of this pest and in Belice should be a prerequisite to an active eradication programme. Supplementary information concerning medfly ecology and methods of marking and aerial release is needed. (author)

  20. 9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Central America and the... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from Central America and...

  1. Intestinal Parasites in Immigrant Children From Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Sarfaty, Mona; Rosenberg, Zeil; Siegel, Jay; Levin, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    To begin to characterize the health needs of the growing number of refugees from Central America, we compiled the results of examinations for ova and parasites of a single stool specimen of each of 128 children of Central American and Mexican background who entered our health center during a four-month period. Among the 96 children who were born in Central America or Mexico, there was a 65% prevalence of parasitic infestation. Pathogens were found in 46% and multiple pathogens in 14%. Among t...

  2. [Mangrove characterization of Central America with remote sensors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizano, O G; Amador, J; Soto, R

    2001-12-01

    Satellite images were used to study the mangrove distribution patterns in two different climatic regions of Central America: Gulf of Fonseca in Honduras-El Salvador and Sierpe-Térraba in Costa Rica. The Gulf of Fonseca has higher temperature and solar radiation, and lower precipitation, which can explain the higher structural development and species mixing of the Sierpe-Térraba mangrove. In the latter the transition between species or between heights in the same species is clear. The automatic classification made by the Geographic Information System (IDRISI) fits well the field mangrove distribution, but it was necessary to regroup some subdivisions that represent the same land use as identified by transects and an aerial video. Mixed species and clouds produced less satisfactory results in Sierpe-Térraba indicating a need for better satellite image resolution. PMID:15264547

  3. Pathways to marriage and cohabitation in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Grace; Stuart Sweeney

    2014-01-01

    Background: The notion that increasing prevalence of cohabitation relative to marriage, and increasing age at first marriage are part of a broader shift in societal norms -- a second demographic transition -- is now well supported by studies focused on US and European populations. Recent research points to the similarly high prevalence of cohabitation in Latin America as perhaps signaling the diffusion of modern ideals and norms about union formation. In Central America this is unlikely to be...

  4. (Human Security in Central America: A Return to the Past?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Urgell García

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available After having become one of the principal scenarios of the Cold War, the pacification and democratisation of Central America in the 1990s were forged under the protection of the Esquipulas Process and the birth of the concept of human security. The resulting model of security was founded on the Framework Treaty on Democratic Security, which incorporated some of the basic postulates of human security and became one of its first institutional implementations. Nevertheless, the performance of this model has been eclipsed and questioned by the evolution of events in Central America (such as the impact of 9-11 on security agendas or the emergence of new forms of violence in the region, which open the door to a new security instrument (the Rapid Reaction Force, generate fears about an eventual regression of Central America in the area of security and raise doubts about the habitual assumptions of human security.

  5. High magnetic field facilities in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, R.; Grössinger, R.; Bertorello, H.; Broto, J. M.; Davies, H. A.; Estevez-Rams, E.; Gonzalez, J.; Matutes, J.; Sinnecker, J. P.; Sagredo, V.

    2006-11-01

    The EC supported a network (under the Framework 5 ALFA Programme) designated HIFIELD (Project number II0147FI) and entitled: "Measurement methods involving high magnetic fields for advanced and novel materials". As a result, high field facilities were initiated, constructed or extended at the following laboratories in Latin America: University Cordoba (Argentina), CES, Merida (Venezuela), CIMAV, Chihuahua (Mexico), University Federal de Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

  6. Regional Precipitation Study in Central America, Using the WRF Model

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado, Tito

    2012-01-01

    Using the regional climate model WRF, and the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis Project data asboundary and initial conditions, regional precipitation was estimated by means of thedynamical downscaling technique for two selected periods, January 2000 and September2007. These months show very particular climatic characteristics of the precipitationregimen in Central America, like dry (wet) conditions in the Pacific (Caribbean) coast of theCentral American isthmus, in January, and wet (dry) conditions, resp...

  7. Equity in Tertiary Education in Central America : An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir, Sajitha; Luque, Javier

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution in socio-economic and ethnic disparities in tertiary education attainment, participation, and completion and labor market outcomes in the six countries of Central America. There is evidence of differential progress, with Costa Rica, a middle-income country, and Nicaragua, a low-income country, having improved participation of low-income students in tertiar...

  8. National Geothermal Association Trade Mission to Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States (US) geothermal industry, the world's most technically proficient, has been unable to achieve penetration into the markets of the developing nations. This report details the findings of an industry Trade Mission to Central America, tasked with determining the reasons for this shortfall and with developing a US industry geothermal export strategy designed to achieve immediate and long-term export benefits

  9. Remittances in Central America: Whose Money is it Anyway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Rocha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In opposition to optimistic visions that present remittances as an opportunity for developing countries, this paper shows they are part and parcel of a process of economic imperialism, whereby their use and final destinations are strictly conditioned. In order to go beyond a conception of remittances as epiphenomenon, and in order to trace the role they play, this paper focuses on the transnational strategies of capital. It finds that remittances enable an increase in foreign investment and import production by facilitating the rise of a new class of consumers in Central America. Remittances create and feed a purchasing power that would not exist in their absence. Factories, fast food restaurants, communications companies, banks, travel agencies, and supermarkets are opening new branches throughout Central America in order to benefit from transnational savings that would otherwise be used differently. In this way, remittances are conditioned and co-opted by transnational capital’s strategies to sustain an ever growing market, with Central America more generally – and once again – potentially at risk of becoming characterized by enclave economies and chronic commercial deficits. The remittance-based economic model furthermore cannot be sustainable in the long run unless Central American countries keep exporting workers ad infinitum, something that is obviously not possible.

  10. Skylab photography applied to geologic mapping in northwestern Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W. I., Jr.; Johnson, D. J.; Hahn, G. A.; Johns, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Two photolineation maps of southwestern Guatemala and Chiapas were made from S190 photographs along a ground track from Acajutla, El Salvador to San Cristobal de las Casas, Mexico. The maps document a structural complexity spanning the presumed triple junction of the Cocos, Americas, and Caribbean plates. The Polochic fault zone, supposedly the Americas-Caribbean plate boundary, is a sharply delineated feature across western Guatemala. Westward of the Mexican border it splays into a large number of faults with NW to SW trends. The structural pattern is quite different to the north (Americas plate) and to the south (Caribbean plate) of the Polochic fault, though both areas are dominated by NW-trending lineations. Within the Central American volcanic chain, the lineation patterns support the segmented model of the Benioff Zone, by showing a concentration of transverse lineations in the predicted locations, most notably NE-trending elements near Quezaltenango, Guatemala. The structural pattern obtained from the maps are compared to patterns described on recently published maps of more southerly parts of Central America, to begin a synthesis of the structure of the convergent plate boundary.

  11. (Human) Security in Central America: A Return to the Past?

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Urgell García

    2007-01-01

    After having become one of the principal scenarios of the Cold War, the pacification and democratisation of Central America in the 1990s were forged under the protection of the Esquipulas Process and the birth of the concept of human security. The resulting model of security was founded on the Framework Treaty on Democratic Security, which incorporated some of the basic postulates of human security and became one of its first institutional implementations. Nevertheless, the performance of thi...

  12. Sustainability of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Sabogal, Raquel I.; Medlin, Elizabeth; Aquino, Gonzalo; Gelting, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The American Red Cross and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated on a sustainability evaluation of post-hurricane water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions in Central America. In 2006 and 2009, we revisited six study areas in rural El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua to assess sustainability of WASH interventions finalized in 2002, after 1998’s Hurricane Mitch. We used surveys to collect data, calculate indicators and identify factors that influence ...

  13. Interconnected power systems of the countries of America Central (SIEPAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation shows the project SIEPAC (Sistema de interconexion electrica de los paises de Centro America) describes the current transmission system, and planned SIEPAC transmission system, also describes the objectives: implementation of an central american electrical market named Mercado Electrico Regional that contributes to sustaintable development of the region. Also describes the power transmission lines, the structure of line transmission and its market to be covered. Financing of the project from lending institutions is explained

  14. National Geothermal Association Trade Mission to Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    The United States (US) geothermal industry, the world's most technically proficient, has been unable to achieve penetration into the markets of the developing nations. This report details the findings of an industry Trade Mission to Central America, tasked with determining the reasons for this shortfall and with developing a US industry geothermal export strategy designed to achieve immediate and long-term export benefits.

  15. Geoenvironmental problems and cross-border cooperation in Central America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Graniczny; Jonas Satkunas; Jurga Lazauskiene; Jiri Sebesta

    2006-01-01

    @@ The International Workshop on "Geoenvironmental problems and cross-border cooperation in Central America" was organized in Managua, Nicaragua, 5-8 December, 2005 by the Working Group International Borders-Geoenvironmental Concerns (IBC), under the IUGS Commission on Geosciences for Environmental Management (GEM) and in the framework of the IUGS funded project "Application of geosciences for sustainable development of cross-border areas(GEOCrossBorder)".

  16. Are the Maras Overwhelming Governments in Central America?

    OpenAIRE

    Boraz, Steven C.; Thomas C. Bruneau

    2006-01-01

    Military Review, November - December 2006 Violence in Central America has grown so much in the last half decade that Colombia is no longer the homicide capital of the region. In fact, it now ranks fourth in that ignominious distinction behind El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala.1 The violence is mostly due to the phenomenon of street gangs, also called pandillas or gangas, but most often maras. They have grown in number, sophistication, and stature and have largely...

  17. Narco-scapes: Cocaine Trafficking and Deforestation in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrathall, D.; McSweeney, K.; Nielsen, E.; Pearson, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Narcotics trafficking and drug interdiction efforts have resulted in a well-documented social crisis in Central America, but more recently, has been tightly linked to environmental catastrophe and accelerated deforestation in transit zones. This talk will outline synthesis findings from multi-country, interdisciplinary research on cocaine trafficking as an engine of forest loss in Central America. During the "narco-boom" of the mid-2000s, we observed a geographical evolution of cocaine flows into Central America, and the transit of cocaine through new spaces, accompanied by specific patterns of social and environmental change in new nodes of transit. We coarsely estimated that the total amount of cocaine flowing through Central America increased from 70 metric tons in 2000 to 350 mt in 2012, implying that total cocaine trafficking revenue in the region increased from roughly 600 million dollars to 3.5 billion in that time. We describe the mechanism by which these locally captured cocaine rents resulted in a rapid conversion of forest into cattle pasture. Narco-traffickers are drawn to invest in the cattle economy, as a direct means of laundering and formalizing proceeds. Ranching is a land intensive activity, and new narco-enriched cattle pastures can be isolated from other forms forest loss solely by their spatial and temporal change characteristics. A preliminary forest change study in Honduras, for example, indicated that areas of accelerated deforestation were in close proximity to known narcotics trafficking routes and were thirteen times more extensive on average than other forest clearings. Deforested areas commonly appeared in isolated and biodiverse lowland tropical rainforest regions that often intersected with protected areas and indigenous reserves. We find that narco-deforestation is a readily identifiable signal of the extent and health of the cocaine economy. This talk will feature summaries of both ethnographic and land cover change we have observed

  18. National Geothermal Association Trade Mission to Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    The United States (US) geothermal industry, the world`s most technically proficient, has been unable to achieve penetration into the markets of the developing nations. This report details the findings of an industry Trade Mission to Central America, tasked with determining the reasons for this shortfall and with developing a US industry geothermal export strategy designed to achieve immediate and long-term export benefits.

  19. Are there trends towards drier hydrological conditions in Central America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, H. G.

    2013-12-01

    A summary of hydrological projections at the end of the century from 30 General Circulation Models (GCMs) is presented; and several hydrometeorological parameters are analyzed to validate if there are hydroclimatological trends during the observational period (1982-2005) consistent with the GCMs results. At the end of the century the median of 30 GCM simulations projects a drier future for Tegucigalpa and San Jose, with a marked increment in evapotranspiration in the first half of the rainy season along with reductions of soil moisture. With respect to the observations (1982-2005): 1) the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index showed negative trends in the North Pacific coast of Costa Rica, the border of Honduras and Nicaragua, and especially in southern Mexico (except the Yucatan Peninsula). Positive trends were found in the several parts of Central America, 2) the Palmer Drought Severity Index showed strong and consistent trends from Nicaragua to the North of Central America and southern Mexico (not including Yucatan), consistent with the direction of GCM projections; 3) negative precipitation trends in satellite data were found in Nicaragua, with strong trends in its Caribbean coast; 4) NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis precipitation showed strong negative trends in northern Central America, the Central Valley, the Dry Pacific of Costa Rica and the South-Pacific coast of Nicaragua, all consistent with the direction of GCM projections; and 5) station data showed no significant trends however, and 6) Reanalysis' temperature showed positive trends in southern Mexico (not including Yucatan) and negative trends in El Salvador. It can be concluded that several trends in drought indexes and precipitation are consistent with the future projected by the GCMs; that is, with some exceptions some of the trends were validated towards a drier future for the region, especially in the northern part.

  20. Central and South America GPS geodesy - CASA Uno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, James N.; Dixon, Timothy H.

    1990-01-01

    In January 1988, scientists from over 25 organizations in 13 countries and territories cooperated in the largest GPS campaign in the world to date. A total of 43 GPS receivers collected approximately 590 station-days of data in American Samoa, Australia, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Sweden, United States, West Germany, and Venezuela. The experiment was entitled CASA Uno. Scientific goals of the project include measurements of strain in the northern Andes, subduction rates for the Cocos and Nazca plates beneath Central and South America, and relative motion between the Caribbean plate and South America. A second set of measurements are planned in 1991 and should provide preliminary estimates of crustal deformation and plate motion rates in the region.

  1. Monitoring pesticide use and associated health hazards in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Viria; Rodríguez, Teresa; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Canto, Nonato; Calderón, Gloria Ruth; Turcios, Miguel; Menéndez, Luis Armando; Mejía, Winston; Tatis, Anabel; Abrego, Federico Z; de la Cruz, Elba; Wesseling, Catharina

    2011-01-01

    We established methods for monitoring pesticide use and associated health hazards in Central America. With import data from Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama for 2000-2004, we constructed quantitative indicators (kg active ingredient) for general pesticide use, associated health hazards, and compliance with international regulations. Central America imported 33 million kg active ingredient per year. Imports increased 33% during 2000-2004. Of 403 pesticides, 13 comprised 77% of the total pesticides imported. High volumes of hazardous pesticides are used; 22% highly/extremely acutely toxic, 33% moderately/severely irritant or sensitizing, and 30% had multiple chronic toxicities. Of the 41 pesticides included in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent (PIC), the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the Pesticide Action Network (PAN) Dirty Dozen, and the Central American Dirty Dozen, 16 (17% total volume) were imported, four being among the 13 most imported pesticides. Costa Rica is by far the biggest consumer. Pesticide import data are good indicators of use trends and an informative source to monitor hazards and, potentially, the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:21905395

  2. Pathways to marriage and cohabitation in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Grace

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The notion that increasing prevalence of cohabitation relative to marriage, and increasing age at first marriage are part of a broader shift in societal norms -- a second demographic transition -- is now well supported by studies focused on US and European populations. Recent research points to the similarly high prevalence of cohabitation in Latin America as perhaps signaling the diffusion of modern ideals and norms about union formation. In Central America this is unlikely to be the case given the long history and enduring acceptance of cohabitation that is unrelated to modern ideals. While there are studies that have documented this history and current prevalence, there is no research examining the intersecting life course pathways from adolescence through early adulthood that lead to marriage or cohabitation. This is not surprising given that available data for Central American countries are not ideally suited to studying the process. Methods: We use retrospective questions from large, nationally representative Central American surveys (Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua to establish the timing of marriage or cohabitation and events that are closely tied to union formation. We utilize additive causespecific hazard models, and predicted transition probabilities based on selected covariate pathways, to study the competing risks of exiting from the status of never in union. Results: Our results identify sexual activity and pregnancy as the primary drivers of union formation and indicate that education serves as a protective factor against union formation. We also find distinct differences among countries and a strong indication that cohabitations are less stable unions.

  3. Geothermal corehole drilling and operations, Platanares, Honduras, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.; Rufenacht, H.D.; Laughlin, A.W.; Adams, A.; Planner, H.; Ramos, N.

    1987-01-01

    Two slim exploration coreholes to depths of 650 m and 428 m, respectively, have been completed at the Platanares geothermal site, Honduras, Central America. A third corehole is now being drilled. These boreholes have provided information on the stratigraphy, temperature variation with depth, nature and compositions of fluids, fracturing, permeability, and hydrothermal alterations associated with the geothermal reservoir. Eruptions of hot water occurred during the drilling of both the first and third boreholes. Recovery of >98% core has been obtained even under difficult superheated conditions.

  4. Are civil wars to blame for crime in Central America?

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Sofia Cardenal Izquierdo

    2008-01-01

    The countries of Central America are high up on the list of nations with the highest crime rates in the world. According to the literature, the most common argument is that these high crimerates are a legacy of the armed conflicts of the 1980s. This article subjects this theory to an empirical examination. Even though the analysis is preliminary and limited, the results serve to question theexistence of such a link between war and crime. The data show that the areas most affected by war in E...

  5. Violence, Rule of Law, and Punitive Policies in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica De la Torre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that high levels of violence and crime in the so called North Triangle of Central America (Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras, together with the incapacity of the state of enforcing the rule of law, are causing growing anxiety among the population and are attracting the support of the community to implement authoritarian measures to fight crime. The response of the governments of the region in the face of the rise of crime and public demand for security has been the policies of "iron fist", and the use of "populist punitiveness" as a strategy to gain the backing of an electorate deeply concerned by insecurity.

  6. New challenges to electrical interconnection systems in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical interconnection between Central America countries is a project of regional integration, whose purpose is to optimize the advantage of interconnecting of six electrical systems of their respective countries. This require the establishment of legal procedures to operate the high voltage transmission grid from Guatemala to Panama. The mid and long term planning of the interconnected electrical grid, is a new challenge for the electrical companies, considering that as up to now, they have been satisfying small markets. The possibility to use nuclear energy to satisfy a bigger market is now feasible and deserves to be considered since the beginning of the interconnection project. (author)

  7. Environmental impacts during geothermal development: Some examples from Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of geothermal development projects are usually positive. However, without appropriate monitoring plans and mitigation actions firmly incorporated into the project planning process, there exists the potential for significant negative environmental impacts. The authors present five examples from Central America of environmental impacts associated with geothermal development activities. These brief case studies describe landslide hazards, waste brine disposal, hydrothermal explosions, and air quality issues. Improved Environmental Impact Assessments are needed to assist the developing nations of the region to judiciously address the environmental consequences associated with geothermal development

  8. Exploration geothermal gradient drilling, Platanares, Honduras, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.J.; Laughlin, A.W.; Ruefenacht, H.D.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.; Ramos, N.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is a review and summary of the core drilling operations component of the Honduras Geothermal Resource Development Project at the Platanares geothermal prospect in Honduras, Central America. Three intermediate depth (428 to 679 m) coreholes are the first continuously cored geothermal exploration boreholes in Honduras. These coring operations are part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) effort funded by the Agency for International Development (AID) and implemented by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) in cooperation with the Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica (ENEE) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). This report emphasizes coring operations with reference to the stratigraphy, thermal gradient, and flow test data of the boreholes. The primary objectives of this coring effort were (1) to obtain quantitative information on the temperature distribution as a function of depth, (2) to recover fluids associated with the geothermal reservoir, (3) to recover 75% or better core from the subsurface rock units, and (4) to drill into the subsurface rock as deeply as possible in order to get information on potential reservoir rocks, fracture density, permeabilities, and alteration histories of the rock units beneath the site. The three exploration coreholes drilled to depths of 650, 428 and 679 m, respectively, encountered several hot water entries. Coring operations and associated testing began in mid-October 1986 and were completed at the end of June 1987.

  9. Performance of Early Warning Systems on Landslides in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, W.; Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    We performed a reconnaissance about Early Warning Systems (EWS) on Landslides (EWSL) in the countries of Central America. The advance of the EWSL began in the 1990-ies and accelerated dramatically after the regional disaster provoked by Hurricane Mitch in 1998. In the last decade, Early Warning Systems were intensely promoted by national and international development programs aimed on disaster prevention. Early Warning on landslides is more complicated than for other geological phenomena. But, we found information on more than 30 EWSL in the region. In practice, for example in planning, implementation and evaluation of development projects, it is often not clearly defined what exactly is an Early Warning System. Only few of the systems can be classified as true EWSL that means 1) being directly and solely aimed at persons living in the well-defined areas of greatest risk and 2) focusing their work on saving lives before the phenomenon impacts. There is little written information about the work of the EWSL after the initial phase. Even, there are no statistics whether they issued warnings, if the warnings were successful, how many people were evacuated, if there were few false alerts, etc.. Actually, we did not find a single report on a successful landslide warning issued by an EWSL. The lack of information is often due to the fact that communitarian EWSL are considered local structures and do not have a clearly defined position in the governmental hierarchy; there is little oversight and no qualified support and long-term support. The EWSL suffer from severe problems as lack of funding on the long term, low technical level, and insufficient support from central institutions. Often the EWSL are implemented by NGÓs with funding from international agencies, but leave the project alone after the initial phase. In many cases, the hope of the local people to get some protection against the landslide hazard is not really fulfilled. There is one case, where an EWSL with a

  10. Evolution of the Earthquake Catalog in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, W.; Camacho, E. I.; Marroquín, G.; Molina, E.; Talavera, E.; Benito, M. B.; Lindholm, C.

    2013-05-01

    Central America (CA) is known as a seismically active region in which several historic destructive earthquakes have occurred. This fact has promoved the development of seismic hazard studies that provide necessary estimates for decision making and risk assessment efforts, requiring a complete and standardized seismic catalog. With this aim, several authors have contributed to the study of the historical seismicity of Central America (e.g. Grases, Feldaman; White y Harlow, 1993; White et al. 2004; Ambraseys y Adams, 2001; Peraldo y Montero, 1999), who complied historical data. A first catalogue was developed by Rojas (1993) that comprises the 1522 to 1993 period. This information was integrated in 2007, together with data from the International Seismological Centre (CASC) and the national catalogs of CA countries in a new regional catalogue. Since 2007 a continuous effort has been done in order to complete and update this CA earthquake catalog. In particular, two workshops were held in 2008 and 2011 in the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain), joining experts from the different CA countries who worked each one in its own catalogue covering the entire region and the border with northwestern Colombia and southern Mexico. These national catalogues were later integrated in a common regional catalogue in SEISAN format. At this aim it was necessary to solve some problems, like to avoid duplicity of events, specially close to the boundaries, to consider the different scales of magnitude adopted by different countries, to take into account the completeness by the different national networks, etc. Some solutions were adopted for obtaining a homogenized catalogue to Mw, containing historical and instrumental events with Mw > 3.5 from 1522 up to 2011. The catalogue updated to December 2007 was the basis for the first regional hazard study carried out by Benito et al., (2011) as part of the collaborative RESIS II project under coordination of NORSAR. The ones updated to

  11. Smart power and foreign policy of the People's Republic of China: the case of Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Villegas Mendoza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the most relevant aspects of the academic debate on smart power, in order to apply this concept to analyze the foreign policy of the Republic of China on Latin America and the Caribbean, but especially to Central America; where the dispute between China and Taiwan for international recognition is evident. It is argued that the smart power of China to Central America is expressed in the attractiveness of having privileged access to the Chinese market and its funding programs and official development assistance. While this country has a large presence in Latin America and the Caribbean, in Central America such influence is counteracted in the light of the close relationship that all Central American countries except Costa Rica, maintain with Taiwan. Based on the development of China as a world power, it is expected that this condition changed, so that this country would increase its influence in Central America.

  12. Are civil wars to blame for crime in Central America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Cardenal Izquierdo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The countries of Central America are high up on the list of nations with the highest crime rates in the world. According to the literature, the most common argument is that these high crimerates are a legacy of the armed conflicts of the 1980s. This article subjects this theory to an empirical examination. Even though the analysis is preliminary and limited, the results serve to question theexistence of such a link between war and crime. The data show that the areas most affected by war in El Salvador and Guatemala are not the ones that show the highest rates of crime. Furthermore, no direct relation exists between the presence of armed conflict and crime rates at a national level. The presence of armed conflict is neither a necessary factor nor a sufficient one for criminal violence. Onthe contrary, this work points to a close link between inequality and crime rates at a national level.

  13. Renewable energies. A challenge and an opportunity for Central America; Energias renovables. Un reto y una oportunidad para America Central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, Leo; Castro S, Rene [Instituto Centroamericano de Administracion de Empresas (INCAE) (Costa Rica)

    2007-07-15

    There are analyzed in this working paper the following aspects: the Central America countries and their relations with the regional energy potencies -Mexico and Venezuela- and the impact they have in the energy supply. There are also explore the following aspects: the San Jose Agreement linked to the fossil fuels supply, the emerging scope boosted by Brazil and Colombia regarding to the alternative fuels. [Spanish] Este trabajo analiza los paises centroamericanos y sus relaciones con las potencias energeticas regionales como Mexico y Venezuela, y como estas impactan el suministro de energia en la region. Tambien se exploran mecanismos como el Pacto de San Jose, ligado al suministro de combustibles fosiles y las oportunidades emergentes impulsadas por Brasil y Colombia con combustibles alternativos.

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25... § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be imported into the... shipment to the United States in one of the following locations: (1) Brazil: State of Espirito Santo;...

  15. Comparative phylogeography of Oryzomys couesi and Ototylomys phyllotis; historic and geographic implications for the Central America conformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Anaid Gutiérrez-García

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Central America is an ideal region for comparative phylogeographic studies because of its intricate geologic and biogeographic history, diversity of habitats and dynamic climatic and tectonic history. The aim of this work was to assess the phylogeography of two rodents codistributed throughout Central America, in order to identify if they show concordant genetic and phylogeographic patterns. The synopsis includes four parts: (1 an overview of the field of comparative phylogeography; (2 a detailed review that describes how genetic and geologic studies can be combined to elucidate general patterns of the biogeographic and evolutionary history of Central America; and a phylogeographic analysis of two species at both the (3 intraspecific and (4 comparative phylogeographic levels. The last incorporates specific ecological features and evaluates their influence on the species’ genetic patterns. Results showed a concordant genetic structure influenced by geographic distance for both rodents, but dissimilar dispersal patterns due to ecological features and life history. 

  16. High level of molecular and phenotypic biodiversity in Jatropha curcas from Central America compared to Africa, Asia and South America

    OpenAIRE

    Montes Osorio, Luis; Torres Salvador, Andres; Jongschaap, Raymond Elmar; Azurdia Perez, Cesar; Berduo Sandoval, Julio; Trindade, Luisa; Visser, Richard Gerardus; van Loo, Eibertus

    2014-01-01

    Background The main bottleneck to elevate jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) from a wild species to a profitable biodiesel crop is the low genetic and phenotypic variation found in different regions of the world, hampering efficient plant breeding for productivity traits. In this study, 182 accessions from Asia (91), Africa (35), South America (9) and Central America (47) were evaluated at genetic and phenotypic level to find genetic variation and important traits for oilseed production. Results G...

  17. Landscape evolution within a retreating volcanic arc, Costa Rica, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffrey S.; Idleman, Bruce D.; Gardner, Thomas W.; Fisher, Donald M.

    2003-05-01

    Subduction of hotspot-thickened seafloor profoundly affects convergent margin tectonics, strongly affecting upper plate structure, volcanism, and landscape evolution. In southern Central America, low-angle subduction of the Cocos Ridge and seamount domain largely controls landscape evolution in the volcanic arc. Field mapping, stratigraphic correlation, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology for late Cenozoic volcanic rocks of central Costa Rica provide new insights into the geomorphic response of volcanic arc landscapes to changes in subduction parameters (slab thickness, roughness, dip). Late Neogene volcanism was focused primarily along the now-extinct Cordillera de Aguacate. Quaternary migration of the magmatic front shifted volcanism northeastward to the Caribbean slope, creating a new topographic divide and forming the Valle Central basin. Stream capture across the paleo Aguacate divide led to drainage reversal toward the Pacific slope and deep incision of reorganized fluvial networks. Pleistocene caldera activity generated silicic ash flows that buried the Valle Central and descended the Tárcoles gorge to the Orotina debris fan at the coast. Growth of the modern Cordillera Central accentuated relief along the new divide, establishing the Valle Central as a Pacific slope drainage basin. Arc migration, relocation of the Pacific-Caribbean drainage divide, and formation of the Valle Central basin resulted from slab shallowing as irregular, hotspot-thickened crust entered the subduction zone. The geomorphic evolution of volcanic arc landscapes is thus highly sensitive to changes in subducting plate character.

  18. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiman, W.D.

    1988-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987 showed significant increases in seismic acquisition in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru, and a decrease in Chile and Venezuela. Exploratory drilling increased in most major producing countries but was accompanied by a decline in development drilling. Most of the increase could be attributed to private companies fulfilling obligations under risk contracts; however, state oil companies in Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia showed significant increased activity, with only Mexico showing a decrease. Colombia again had a dramatic increase in production (29% from 1986). Noteworthy discoveries were made in Bolivia (Villamontes-1); Brazil, in the Solimoes basin (1-RUC-1-AM); Chile (Rio Honda-1); Colombia, in the Llanos basin (Austral-1, La Reforma-1, Libertad Norte-1, Cravo Este-1, and Cano Yarumal-1), in the Upper Magdalena basin (Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1); Ecuador (Frontera-1, a joint-exploration venture with Colombia); Mexico, in the Chiapas-Tabasco region (Guacho-1 and Iridi-1), in the Frontera Norte area (Huatempo-1); Peru, in the Madre de Dios basin (Armihuari-4X); Trinidad (West East Queen's Beach-1); and Venezuela (Musipan-1X). Brazil's upper Amazon (Solimoes basin) discovery, Colombia's Upper Magdalena basin discoveries Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1, Mexico's Chiapas-Tabasco discoveries, Peru's confirmation of the giant Cashiriari discovery of 1986, and Venezuela's success in Monagas state were the highlights of 1987. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Managing weather and climate risks to agriculture in North America, Central America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlan D. Shannon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, numerous weather- and climate-related natural disasters have impacted North America, Central America, and the Caribbean, repeatedly demonstrating how vulnerable local agriculture is to extreme episodic events. Given this recent history, and expectations that the frequency and intensity of some episodic events will increase with climate change, it is becoming increasingly important for farmers to proactively manage weather and climate risks to agriculture to protect their livelihoods. Some farmers in this region already apply various strategies to help reduce weather and climate risks and uncertainties, including farming in multiple locations, diversifying crops and varieties, seeking alternative sources of income, and purchasing crop insurance. Such efforts often help farmers maintain a more stable income while also protecting and preserving the productivity of the land. Other farmers, however, have failed to implement basic risk management strategies despite the clear benefits. Reasons for these failures can be attributed to inadequate farmer education and training, a lack of tools to help facilitate the practical application of risk management concepts, and poor communications between the agrometeorological and farming communities. The agrometeorological community can help overcome these obstacles by building upon existing efforts that have successfully educated farmers about weather and climate risks to agriculture and have equipped farmers with the data, tools, and applications necessary to manage these risks. Farmer input is critical to preparing effective educational and training materials and developing user-friendly risk management tools. The agrometeorological community should solicit input from farmers regularly to ensure that farmers are obtaining the information necessary to effectively manage weather and climate risks to agriculture.

  20. Biofuels in Central America, a real potential for commercial production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, O.L. (Regional Coordinator Energy and Environmental Partnership with Central America EEP (El Salvador))

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the current capabilities of the Central American countries regarding the production of biofuels, and the real potential in increasing the volumes produced and the impacts that can be generated if a non sustainable policy is followed for achieving the targets of biofuel production. Due to the world oil price crisis, and the fact that Central American counties are fully dependant on oil imports (just Guatemala and Belize produce little amounts of oil), just to mention, in some countries the imports of oil is equivalent to the 40% of the total exports, the region started to look for massive production of biofuels, something that it is not new for us. The countries have started with programs for producing ethanol from sugar cane, because it is one of the most strongest industries in Central America and they have all the infrastructure and financial sources to develop this project. The ethanol is a biofuel that can be mixed with gasoline or a complete substitute. Another biofuel that is currently under develop, is the production of biodiesel, and the main source for it nowadays is the Palm oil, where Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala have already commercial productions of crude palm oil, but the principal use of it is for the food industry, but now it is under assessment for using part of it for biodiesel. EEP is now developing pilot programs for production of biodiesel from a native plant named Jatropha curcas, and up to now we have a commercial plantation in Guatemala, and we started as well in Honduras for start spreading this plantations. In El Salvador we installed a pilot processing plant for biodiesel that can be operated with multiple feed stock, such as Jatropha, palm oil, castor oil, vegetable used oil and others. Currently we have interesting and good results regarding the production of Jatropha, we have developed a methodology for its cropping, harvesting and processing. All the vehicles and equipment involved in the

  1. An 85-ka Paleoclimate Record From Lowland Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, J.; Hodell, D. A.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Ariztegui, D.; Brenner, M.; Curtis, J. H.; Gilli, A.; Grzesik, D. A.; Guilderson, T. J.; Müller, A. D.; Bush, M. B.; Correa-Metrio, A.; Kutterolf, S.

    2008-05-01

    Lake sediment cores recovered at seven sites in Lake Peten Itza, northern Guatemala, contain a record of climate change from lowland Central America extending back to ~200 ka. Drill cores at site PI-6 contain a high- resolution record (1 m/ka) for the last ~85 ka. Peten climate generally varied between wetter conditions during interstadials and a drier state during stadials of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3. The most arid periods coincided with Heinrich Events in the North Atlantic and reductions in the strength of meridional overturning circulation. The pattern of clay-gypsum (wet-dry) oscillations during MIS 3 closely resembles the temperature record from Greenland ice cores and North Atlantic marine sediment cores and precipitation proxies from the Cariaco Basin. Previous studies suggested that cool, dry conditions prevailed in the region during the last glacial maximum (LGM) chronozone, ~23 to 18 ka BP. Sedimentologic and palynologic data support a moist climate in the Peten lowlands during this period whenvegetation consisted of a temperate pine-oak forest. This finding contradicts the previous inferences. At the end of the LGM, Peten climate switched abruptly from moist to arid conditions during the so-called "Mystery Period" from 18 to 14.9 ka. Moister conditions prevailed during the warmer Bolling-Allerod (14.7 to 12.8 ka), with the exception of a drier climate, with greater δ18O values between ca. 14.5 and 13.5 ka BP. This drier period in Central America coincided with Meltwater Pulse 1A (14.1- 13.5 ka) (Fairbanks et al., 2005) when a substantial volume of glacial meltwater was introduced to the Gulf of Mexico (e.g. Flower et al., 2004). The greatest δ18O values in Peten Itza occurred at 13.7 ka coinciding with the greatest rate of sea level rise (4.3 cm yr-1) at 13.9 ka. In contrast, sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions (Lea et al., 2003), color reflectance, and elemental (Fe, Ti) data (Peterson et al., 2000) from Cariaco Basin cores, north of

  2. Geostrophic circulation between the Costa Rica Dome and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, C. L.; Lavín, M. F.; Mascarenhas, Affonso S.

    2008-05-01

    The geostrophic circulation between the Costa Rica Dome and Central America is described from CTD observations collected in two surveys: (a) The Wet Cruise in September-October 1993, and the Jet Cruise in February-March 1994. Poleward coastal flow was present on both occasions, but the transition from flow around the dome to the poleward Costa Rica Coastal Current flow was quite tortuous because of the presence of mesoscale eddies. In particular, a warm anticyclonic eddy was found off the Gulf of Fonseca during both cruises, at an almost identical position and with similar dimensions (150 m deep, 250 km in diameter) and surface speed (0.5 m s -1). In the Gulf of Panama, poleward flow was also observed, weaker in February-March 1994 than in September-October 1993, when it penetrated to 600 m depth and transported 8.5 Sv. In September-October 1993, the current between the dome and the coast was mostly ˜100 m deep and weak (˜0.15 m s -1), although in its southern side it was deeper (˜450 m) and faster at 0.3 m s -1. The poleward transport between the dome and the coast was ˜7 Sv. In February-March 1994 the Costa Rica Dome was a closed ring adjacent to the continental shelf, ˜500 km in diameter, at least 400 m deep, had geostrophic surface speeds ˜0.25 m s -1, and subsurface maximum speed (0.15-0.20 m s -1) at ˜180 m depth; the associated uplift of the isotherms was ˜150 m. The flow in the south part of the dome splits into two branches, the weakest one going around the dome and the strongest one continuing east and turning south before reaching the Gulf of Panama.

  3. Scorpionism in Central America, with special reference to the case of Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, A.; RJ Miranda; JM Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Scorpionism in the Americas occurs mainly in Mexico, northern South America and southeast Brazil. This article reviews the local scorpion fauna, available health statistics, and the literature to assess scorpionism in Central America. Notwithstanding its high toxicity in Mexico, most scorpion sting cases in Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica are produced by species in the genus Centruroides that are only mildly toxic to humans despite the existence of ion channel-active...

  4. A dynamic landslide hazard assessment system for Central America and Hispaniola

    OpenAIRE

    Kirschbaum, D. B.; T. Stanley(STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, UK); Simmons, J.

    2015-01-01

    Landslides pose a serious threat to life and property in Central America and the Caribbean Islands. In order to allow regionally coordinated situational awareness and disaster response, an online decision support system was created. At its core is a new flexible framework for evaluating potential landslide activity in near real time: Landslide Hazard Assessment for Situational Awareness. This framework was implemented in Central America and the Caribbean by integrating a reg...

  5. A dynamic landslide hazard assessment system for Central America and Hispaniola

    OpenAIRE

    D. B. Kirschbaum; Stanley, T.; Simmons, J

    2015-01-01

    Landslides pose a serious threat to life and property in Central America and the Caribbean Islands. In order to allow regionally coordinated situational awareness and disaster response, an online decision support system was created. At its core is a new flexible framework for evaluating potential landslide activity in near real-time: Landslide Hazard Assessment for Situational Awareness. This framework was implemented in Central America and the Caribbean by ...

  6. Dealing with the coffee crisis in Central America - impacts and strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Varangis, Panos; Siegel, Paul; Giovannucci, Daniele; Lewin, Bryan

    2003-01-01

    Current coffee prices are at record lows and below the cost of production for many producers in Central America. Moreover, the coffee crisis is structural, and changes in supply and demand do not indicate a quick recovery of prices. So, coffee producers in Central America are facing new challenges-as are coffee laborers, coffee exporters, and others linked to the coffee sector. Coffee plays a major economic role in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. The coffee crisis...

  7. Dealing with the Coffee Crisis in Central America : Impacts and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Varangis, Panos; Siegel, Paul; Giovannucci, Daniele; Lewin, Bryan

    2003-01-01

    Current coffee prices are at record lows and below the cost of production for many producers in Central America. Moreover, the coffee crisis is structural, and changes in supply and demand do not indicate a quick recovery of prices. So, coffee producers in Central America are facing new challenges-as are coffee laborers, coffee exporters, and others linked to the coffee sector. Coffee play...

  8. Patterns of illness in travelers visiting Mexico and Central America: the GeoSentinel experience

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Figueroa, J; Okhuysen, P C; von Sonnenburg, F.; DuPont, H L; Libman, M D; Keystone, J S; Hale, D C; Burchard, G; Han, P V; Wilder-Smith, A.; Freedman, D O

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mexico and Central America are important travel destinations for North American and European travelers. There is limited information on regional differences in travel related morbidity. METHODS: We describe the morbidity among 4779 ill travelers returned from Mexico and Central America who were evaluated at GeoSentinel network clinics during December 1996 to February 2010. RESULTS: The most frequent presenting syndromes included acute and chronic diarrhea, dermat...

  9. 78 FR 15349 - Trade Mission to Central America in Conjunction With the Trade Americas-Opportunities in Central...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... region. Its deep-water port, Puerto Cort s, is the first port in Latin America to qualify under both the.../tradeamericas/tradeevents/trademissions/centralamericajuly2013/index.asp ), and other Internet Web sites,...

  10. Remittances as a Development Tool in Central America: Empowering Microfinance

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2003-01-01

    Presents the interest of the Multilateral Investment Fund (MIF) of the Inter-American Development Bank, to increase the impact of remittances on developing countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, through the promotion of innovative projects and dissemination more comprehensive information on this market in the region.

  11. IP Provisions of the EU-Central America Association Agreement and Development Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Bonadio, E.

    2011-01-01

    The recent Association Agreement signed between the European Union and Central American countries contains important intellectual property provisions. Some of these provisions have been inserted in the treaty to meet Central America states’ needs, especially with reference to technology transfer issues, the protection of public health and the protection of genetic resources and traditional knowledge.

  12. Geothermal power plants of Mexico and Central America: a technical survey of existing and planned installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo. R.

    1978-07-01

    In this report, the fifth in a series describing the geothermal power plants of the world, the countries of Mexico and of Central America are studied. The geothermal plants are located in areas of recent and active volcanism; the resources are of the liquid-dominated type. Details are given about the plants located at Cerro Prieto in Mexico and at Ahuachapan in El Salvador. In both cases, attention is paid to the geologic nature of the fields, the well programs, geofluid characteristics, energy conversion systems, materials of construction, effluent handling systems, economic factors and plant operating experience. Exploration and development activities are described for other promising geothermal areas in Mexico and El Salvador, along with those in the countries of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama.

  13. The Spanish decentralised international cooperation in Central America in the area of municipalism and decentralisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Haedo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to link the international dimension with the local one, this article lays out an approach to the situation of Spanish decentralised international cooperation in the area of municipalism and decentralisation in the countries of Central America. In the firstplace, it offers a characterisation of the current state of Spanish decentralised cooperation in order to thus frame the cooperation actions carried out by the Barcelona Provincial Council; the UIM (Unión Iberoamericana de Municipios together with CEMCI (Centro de Estudios Municipales y de Cooperación Internacional; and the Confederación de Fondos de Cooperación y Solidaridad. Finally, it describes bankruptcies and it recovers some of the achievements ofthis kind of cooperation specifically in reference to the field of municipalism.

  14. Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2011-03-01

    The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

  15. Neurocysticercosos in South-Central America and the Indian Subcontinent: a comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Singh

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is an important public health problem in South-Central America and South Asia. A review of the differences in epidemiological and clinical attributes of cysticercosis and taeniasis in South Central America and India, respectively, is undertaken in the present communication. Intestinal taeniasis is hyperendemic in several American countries. In comparison, the prevalence of Taenia solium infestation is lower in India. The clinical manifestations in several American neurocysticercosis series comprise epilepsy, intracranial hypertension and meningeal - racemose cysticercosis, in roughly equal proportions. An overwhelming majority of the Indian subjects present with seizures. The commonest pathological substrate of the disorder in Indian patients is the solitary parenchymal degenerating cyst. The reasons for the predominance of solitary forms in India, and of multilesional forms in South Central America are discussed. The magnitude of Taenia solium infestation and the frequency of pork consumption in a given population appear to influence the quantum of cyst load in affected individuals.

  16. Climate change, workplace heat exposure, and occupational health and productivity in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Crowe, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is increasing heat exposure in places such as Central America, a tropical region with generally hot/humid conditions. Working people are at particular risk of heat stress because of the intrabody heat production caused by physical labor. This article aims to describe the risks of occupational heat exposure on health and productivity in Central America, and to make tentative estimates of the impact of ongoing climate change on these risks. A review of relevant literature and estimation of the heat exposure variable wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) in different locations within the region were used to estimate the effects. We found that heat stress at work is a real threat. Literature from Central America and heat exposure estimates show that some workers are already at risk under current conditions. These conditions will likely worsen with climate change, demonstrating the need to create solutions that will protect worker health and productivity. PMID:21905396

  17. Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Cesar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods: HIV-positive adults initiating ART at Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV (CCASAnet sites were compared to Latino patients (based on country of origin or ethnic identity starting treatment at North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD sites in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models compared mortality, treatment interruption, antiretroviral regimen change, virologic failure and loss to follow-up between cohorts. Results: The study included 8400 CCASAnet and 2786 NA-ACCORD patients initiating ART. CCASAnet patients were younger (median 35 vs. 37 years, more likely to be female (27% vs. 20% and had lower nadir CD4 count (median 148 vs. 195 cells/µL, p<0.001 for all. In multivariable analyses, CCASAnet patients had a higher risk of mortality after ART initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.32 to 1.96, particularly during the first year, but a lower hazard of treatment interruption (AHR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.50, change to second-line ART (AHR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.62 and virologic failure (AHR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.57. Conclusions: HIV-positive Latinos initiating ART in Latin America have greater continuity of treatment but are at higher risk of death than Latinos in North America. Factors underlying these differences, such as HIV testing, linkage and access to care, warrant further investigation.

  18. Hydrogeochemical investigation of six geothermal sites in Honduras, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.E.; Truesdell, A.H.; Grigsby, C.O.; Janik, C.J.; Shevenell, L.A.; Paredes, J.R.; Gutierrez, J.W.; Trujillo, Jr.; Counce, D.A.

    1987-06-01

    We conducted detailed hydrogeochemical investigations at six geothermal sites in western Honduras: Azacualpa, El Olivar, Pavana, Platanares, Sambo Creek, and San Ignacio. None of the sites is associated with Quaternary silicic volcanism, although El Olivar lies adjacent to a small Quaternary basalt field and Pavana is part of a belt of hot spring activity parallel to and 35 km east of the Central American volcanic arc. None of the sites contains acid-sulfate waters indicative of vapor-dominated conditions. Thermal fluids are characterized by pH between 7 and 10, Cl<125 mg/l, HCO/sub 3/>Cl, SO/sub 4/greater than or equal toCl, Bless than or equal to17 mg/l, Liless than or equal to4 mg/l, and Asless than or equal to1.25 mg/l. Stable isotope analyses of the water show that recharge to the geothermal systems generally occurs from areas of higher elevation adjacent to the sites. Tritium contents of apparently undiluted thermal fluids range from 0 to 0.4 T.U., indicating residence times of fluids in the systems of more than 500 y. Various geochemical indicators show that mixing of hot and cold end-member fluids occurs in the system at Platanares and, to a lesser degree, in the systems at San Ignacio and Azacualpa. No mixing is apparent in the fluids discharging at Pavana, Sambo Creek, or El Olivar. Boiling is the dominant process responsible for subtle geochemical variations at Azacualpa and, possibly, San Ignacio. Our best estimates of subsurface reservoir temperatures are 225/sup 0/C at Platanares, 190/sup 0/C at San Ignacio, 185/sup 0/C at Azacualpa, 155/sup 0/C at Sambo Creek, 150/sup 0/C at Pavana, and 120/sup 0/C at El Olivar. The estimated power output of the three hottest sites is 45 thermal megawatts at Platanares, 14 thermal megawatts at San Ignacio, and 13 thermal megawatts at Azacualpa.

  19. Development of Renewable Energies in the liberation of the energy market in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the diagnostic of the current situation on renewable energy in Central America, including socio-economical situation, with economical index, supply and demand of energy and planning of wind resources. The experience of Europe in the promotion for the market of renewable energy, discussing the policies and cooperation between private sector and the government is included. A list of potential projects of renewable energy in each country of Central America based on biomass, hydro power, wind and other energy sources for power generation is presented

  20. Central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Andrei S; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2016-02-01

    High-level neurons processing complex, behaviorally relevant signals are sensitive to conjunctions of features. Characterizing the receptive fields of such neurons is difficult with standard statistical tools, however, and the principles governing their organization remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate multiple distinct receptive-field features in individual high-level auditory neurons in a songbird, European starling, in response to natural vocal signals (songs). We then show that receptive fields with similar characteristics can be reproduced by an unsupervised neural network trained to represent starling songs with a single learning rule that enforces sparseness and divisive normalization. We conclude that central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields that can arise through a combination of sparseness and normalization in neural circuits. Our results, along with descriptions of random, discontinuous receptive fields in the central olfactory neurons in mammals and insects, suggest general principles of neural computation across sensory systems and animal classes. PMID:26787894

  1. Scholastic Achievement of Adolescent Refugees from Cambodia and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Cecile; Drapeau, Aline

    2000-01-01

    Central American and Cambodian students in six Canadian high schools and their parents were interviewed to assess the students' emotional problems and pre- and postmigration family environment. Findings indicate that the relationship between the emotional problems and scholastic achievement of teenaged refugees was tenuous. (Author/MKA)

  2. Hydropower Development and Ecosystem Services in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Elizabeth P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of Central American rivers and related freshwater ecosystem services, discusses trends in hydropower development and known environmental and social consequences, and offers suggestions for finding a balance between hydropower and the protection of other freshwater ecosystem services, based on experiences from the region.

  3. Central America : Big Data in Action for Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    This report stemmed from a World Bank pilot activity to explore the potential of big data to address development challenges in Central American countries. As part of this activity we collected and analyzed a number of examples of leveraging big data for development. Because of the growing interest in this topic this report makes available to a broader audience those examples as well as the...

  4. Improving the Monetary Policy Frameworks in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Medina Cas; Alejandro Carrion-Menendez; Florencia Frantischek

    2011-01-01

    Several Central American (CADR) countries with independent monetary policies are strengthening their monetary frameworks and some have implemented or are moving towards inflation targeting (IT) regimes. Strengthening the monetary policy frameworks of CADR is key to improving the effectiveness of monetary policy. The paper reviews the literature on the reforms needed for strengthening the monetary policy frameworks, and examines the experiences of IT countries, Chile, Peru, and Uruguay to help...

  5. Cyanobacterial diversity in alkaline marshes of northern Belize (Central America)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komárek, Jiří; Ventura, S.; Turicchia, S.; Komárková, Jaroslava; Mascalchi, C.; Soldati, E.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 158, č. 117 (2005), s. 265-278. ISSN 0342-1120. [Symposium of the International Association for Cyanophyte Research /16./. Luxembourg, 30.08.2004-03.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6005309; GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA MŠk(CZ) ME 653 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Cyanobacteria * alkaline marshes * Central Amerika Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  6. The implications of trade liberalization for diet and health: a case study from Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkes Corinna; Thow Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Central America has undergone extensive trade liberalization over the past two decades, and has recently signed a Free Trade Agreement with the United States. The region is also experiencing a dual burden of malnutrition with the growth of dietary patterns associated with the global 'nutrition transition'. This study describes the relationship between trade liberalization policies and food imports and availability, and draws implications for diet and health, using Central ...

  7. Bioenergy production in Central America: integration of sweet sorghum into sugar mills

    OpenAIRE

    Cutz Ijchajchal, Luis Leonardo; Sánchez-Delgado, Sergio; Ruiz-Rivas, Ulpiano; Santana Santana, Domingo José

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the potential for electricity and ethanol production in Central America using sweet sorghum as an energy crop. Three scenarios were built to analyse sweet sorghum production in terms of the land where it can be cultivated: cropland, sugarcane land in fallow and land in continuous production (intercropping system). The land under permanent crops was not considered for this evaluation. We propose the integration of sweet sorghum into Central American sugar mills, by ...

  8. Book review: Vetter, H. 2005. Terralog. Turtles of the World. Vol. 3. Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Book review: Vetter, H. 2005. Terralog. Turtles of the World. Vol. 3. Central and South America/Schildkröten der Welt Band 3. Mittel- und Südamerika: 1-128, color pictures 606 + 9. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, Germany.ISBN 3-930612-82-8; 29.7 x 20.8 cm

  9. Planting the Seeds of a New Agriculture: Living with the Land in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriance, Jim

    1995-01-01

    Central America's macroeconomics, land tenure patterns, and population growth are forcing small-scale farmers to alternatives based on farmer-to-farmer teaching and farming in concert with the environment. Discusses major schools of thought that have fueled this phenomenon, and how extension services and isolated groups are joining to form a…

  10. Comparison of phenotype and molecular diversity of cyanobacteria from alkaline marshes in Belize, Central America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komárek, Jiří; Komárková, Jaroslava; Ventura, S.; Turicchia, S.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4 (2005), s. 55-56. ISSN 0031-8884. [International Phycological Congress /8./. Durban, 17.08.2005-19.08.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : cyanobacteria * diversity * Central America Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.271, year: 2005

  11. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nichole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 “Quebec” storm and the 2003 “Halloween” storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  12. 77 FR 15397 - Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... of the Secretary Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of... Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR). Father Christopher Hartley.... Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Office of Trade and Labor Affairs (OTLA) gives notice...

  13. 77 FR 51828 - Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Extension of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... of the Secretary Dominican Republic--Central America--United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of... Republic--Central America--United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR). On December 22, 2011, OTLA... International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. The Office of Trade and Labor...

  14. Central America Regional Climate Change Program: Tools for Your Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Dan; Irving, Bill; Yeager, Carey

    2006-01-01

    USAID/E-CAM and EGAT's Global Climate Change Team, in partnership with EPA, NASA, Oak Ridge National Lab, and the Central American Commission for Environment and Development (CCAD), have had a significant impact on the region's ability to monitor, mitigate, and adapt to environmental threats. Environmental decision-making tools and data are posted on a website (SERVIR: http://servir.nsstc.nasa.pov/home.html)that provides satellite and geographic data and maps to anybody with an Internet connection. The SERVIR program has been identified as the model for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) - a major international effort to develop a 21st century system for environmental management and disaster response. In coordination with the USAID/EPA program, NASA has developed a GIs tool that enables countries to examine their forest cover and document changes on an annual basis. This information is used in calculating carbon emissions as part of greenhouse gas inventories, but also serves a valuable monitoring function. In addition, USAID/E-CAM and EGAT's Global Climate Change Team in collaboration with EPA are helping countries meet their obligations as signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). EPA is assisting Central American governments to improve the quality of their greenhouse gas emission inventories reported to the UNFCCC through the development of tools and improvements in data quality. New EPA tools developed include software to automatically calculate greenhouse gas emissions for the agricultural and forestry sector inventories, determine key sources of greenhouse gas emissions, and document institutional arrangements. Several of these tools are state of the art and are comparable to tools currently used in the U.S.

  15. Enel Green Power Restructuring Project for Mexico and Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Duda, Yurij

    2013-01-01

    Enel Green Power, established in December of 2008, is the Enel Group Company dedicated to developing and managing energy generation from renewable sources at an international level, with a presence in Europe and the American continents. Enel Green Power is a major global operator in the field of energy generation from renewable sources (solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass). (Enel 2012) Our initial project assignment was the organizational, system and process restructuring for the Administ...

  16. Mantle Response to a Slab Gap and Three-dimensional Slab Interaction in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadamec, M. A.; Fischer, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    Seismically constrained global slab geometries suggest the Middle America-South American subduction system contains a gap on the order of 500 km separating the east-dipping Cocos and Nazca slabs at depth (Gudmundsson and Sambridge, 1998; Syracuse and Abers, 2006; Hayes et al., 2012). The location of the gap correlates with tectonic features impinging on the Pacific side of the Middle America trench, in particular the incoming young buoyant oceanic lithosphere and oceanic ridges associated with the Galapagos hotspot and Cocos-Nazca spreading center (Protti et al., 1994; Mann et al., 2007; Muller et al., 2008). Moreover, geochemical studies focusing on the arc chemistry in the Central American volcanic front argue for a slab window of some kind in this region (Johnston and Thorkelson, 1997; Abratis and Worner, 2001; Hoernle et al., 2008). We use high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) geodynamic modeling of the Middle America-South American subduction system to investigate the role of the incoming young oceanic lithosphere and a gap between the Cocos and Nazca slabs in controlling mantle flow velocity and geochemical signatures beneath Central America. The geodynamic models are geographically referenced with the geometry and thermal structure for the overriding and subducting plates based on geological and geophysical observables and constructed with the multi-plate subduction generator code, SlabGenerator (Jadamec and Billen, 2010; Jadamec et al., 2012; Jadamec and Billen, 2012). The viscous flow simulations are solved using the mantle convection finite-element code, CitcomCU (Zhong, 2006), modified by Jadamec and Billen (2010) to take into account the experimentally derived flow law for olivine and allow for variable 3D plate interface geometries and magnitudes of inter-plate coupling. The 3D numerical models indicate the gap between the Cocos and Nazca slabs serves as a conduit for Pacific-Cocos mantle to pass into the Caribbean, with toroidal flow around the

  17. Smoothed dynamics in the central field problem

    OpenAIRE

    Santoprete, Manuele; Stoica, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Consider the motion of a material point of unit mass in a central field determined by a homogeneous potential of the form $(-1/r^{\\alpha})$, $\\alpha>0,$ where $r$ being the distance to the centre of the field. Due to the singularity at $r=0,$ in computer-based simulations, usually, the potential is replaced by a similar potential that is smooth, or at least continuous. In this paper, we compare the global flows given by the smoothed and non-smoothed potentials. It is shown that the two flows ...

  18. Jets, magnetic fields and the central engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviewing recent observations of jets unconfined by external pressure, the author suggests that self-confinement may be common. This requires current-carrying jets with helical magnetic fields. Such beams occur in the laboratory, in lightning, and in the Crab Nebula, where currents are apparently carried over distances greater than a light year. Self-confined jets require a significant torodial magnetic field emerging from the nozzle. The author suggests that the parallel/azimuthal magnetic field ratio may be the crucial nozzle parameter, causing asymmetries. Helical field configurations have remarkable stability properties and can evolve naturally as synchrotron losses in the jet lead to minimizing Lorentz forces. Current-carrying jets may provide a valuable clue to the physics of the central source. (Auth.)

  19. Ash Layers: The Controlling Factor On Translational Sliding Offshore Central America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harders, R.; Brueckmann, W.; Feeser, V.; Hensen, C.; Kutterolf, S.

    2006-12-01

    The erosive convergent margin of Central America is dominated by the fast subduction of the rough Pacific plate. Off Costa Rica the morphology of the subducted oceanic plate is characterized by numerous seamounts and the Cocos Ridge. Off Nicaragua fewer seamounts and bend ing-related faults dominate the morphology. In both areas seamount subduction with resulting slope uplift or subduction erosion at the base of the upper plate causes oversteepening and frequent slope failure. Our investigation focuses on translational slides off Nicaragua (Skempton ratio pelagic sediments. Firstly they have higher contents of silt and sand causing higher intrinsic permeabilities. Secondly they consist of disc shaped glass shards which causes higher consolidation rates. This is proved by our first laboratory shear box tests, where ash matter compacted with much higher values than spherical grain shaped reference material of the same grain size. Both factors together could cause a peak pore pressure if ashes compacted rapidly, for instance in a seismic event like the earthquake 1992 off Nicaragua. This would effectively reduce the shear strength between the ash particles and facilitate translational failure. To test this hypothesis and to analyse the relation between pore water pressures and shear strengths under drained conditions, we have modified a shear box, to simultaneously measure pore water pressure and shear strength. We will present field observations from cruise M66 as well as first results from laboratory deformation experiments, supporting our model.

  20. A five-century sedimentary geochronology of biomass burning in Nicaragua and Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the extensive use of fire as an agricultural agent in Central America today, little is known of its history of biomass burning or agriculture. As an indicator of the burning practices on the adjacent land, a sedimentary record of carbonized particles sheds light on the trends in frequency and areal extent of biomass burning. This research focuses on a sediment core recovered from an anoxic site in the Pacific Ocean adjacent to the Central American Isthmus and reports a five-century record of charcoal deposition. The research illustrates that biomass burning has been an important ecological factor in the Pacific watershed of Central America at least during the past five centuries. Fluxes of charcoal have generally decreased toward the present suggesting a reduction in the charcoal source function. Perhaps, five centuries ago, the frequency of biomass burning was greater than it is today, larger areas were burned, or biomass per unit area of burned grassland was greater. The major type of biomass burned throughout this five-century period has been grass, as opposed to woods, indicating that any major deforestation of the Pacific watershed of Central America occurred prior to the Conquest

  1. The implications of trade liberalization for diet and health: a case study from Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Corinna

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central America has undergone extensive trade liberalization over the past two decades, and has recently signed a Free Trade Agreement with the United States. The region is also experiencing a dual burden of malnutrition with the growth of dietary patterns associated with the global 'nutrition transition'. This study describes the relationship between trade liberalization policies and food imports and availability, and draws implications for diet and health, using Central America as a case study region. Methods Changes in tariff and non-tariff barriers for each country were documented, and compared with time-series graphs of import, production and availability data to show the outcome of changes in trade policy in relation to food imports and food availability. Results Changes in trade policy in Central America have directly affected food imports and availability via three avenues. First, the lowering of trade barriers has promoted availability by facilitating higher imports of a wide range of foods. Second, trade liberalization has affected food availability through promoting domestic meat production. Third, reductions in barriers to investment appear to be critical in expansion of processed food markets. This suggests that changes in trade policies have facilitated rising availability and consumption of meat, dairy products, processed foods and temperate (imported fruits in Central America. Conclusion This study indicates that the policies of trade liberalization in Central American countries over the past two decades, particularly in relation to the United States, have implications for health in the region. Specifically, they have been a factor in facilitating the "nutrition transition", which is associated with rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Given the significant cost of chronic disease for the health care system, individuals and the wider community, it is critical

  2. Mapping agricultural landscapes and characterizing adaptive capacity in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, M. B.; Imbach, P. A.; Bouroncle, C.; Donatti, C.; Leguia, E.; Martinez, M.; Medellin, C.; Saborio-Rodriguez, M.; Shamer, S.; Zamora, J.

    2013-12-01

    One of the key challenges in developing adaptation strategies for smallholder farmers in developing countries is that of a data-poor environment, where spatially-explicit information about where the most vulnerable smallholder communities are located is lacking. Developing countries tend to lack consistent and reliable maps on agricultural land use, and have limited information available on smallholder adaptive capacity. We developed a novel participatory and expert mapping process to overcome these barriers and develop detailed national-scale maps that allow for a characterization of unique agricultural landscapes based on profiles of adaptive capacity for smallholder agriculture in each area. This research focuses specifically on the Central American nations of Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Honduras, where our focus is on coffee and basic grains as the two main cropping systems. Here we present the methodology and results of a series of in-depth interviews and participatory mapping sessions with experts working within the broader agricultural sector in each country. We held individual interviews and mapping sessions with approximately thirty experts from each country, and used a detailed survey instrument for each mapping session to both spatially identify distinct agricultural landscapes, and to further characterize each area based on specific farm practices and social context. The survey also included a series of questions to help us assess the relative adaptive capacity of smallholder agriculture within each landscape. After all expert mapping sessions were completed in each country we convened an expert group to assist in both validating and refining the set of landscapes already defined. We developed a characterization of adaptive capacity by aggregating indicators into main assets-based criteria (e.g. land tenure, access to credit, access to technical assistance, sustainable farm practices) derived from further expert weighting of indicators through an online

  3. Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South America

    OpenAIRE

    Carina Cesar; Koethe, John R; Mark J Giganti; Peter Rebeiro; Althoff, Keri N; Sonia Napravnik; Angel Mayor; Beatriz Grinsztejn; Marcelo Wolff; Denis Padgett; Juan Sierra-Madero; Eduardo Gotuzzo; Sterling, Timothy R; James Willig; Julie Levison

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART) services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods: HIV-positive adult...

  4. Neoliberal Forms of Capital and The Rise of Social Movement Partyism in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Almeida

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Historical shifts in global economic formations shape the strategies of resistance movements in the global South. Neoliberal forms of economic development over the past thirty years in Central America have weakened traditional actors sponsoring popular mobilization such as labor unions and rural cooperatives. At the same time, the free market reforms produced new threats to economic livelihood and well-being throughout the region. The neoliberal measures that have generated the greatest levels of mass discontent include rising prices, privatization, labor flexibility laws, mining projects, and free trade. This article analyzes the role of emerging anti-neoliberal political parties in alliance with popular movements in Central America. Countries with already existing strong anti-systemic parties in the initial phases of the global turn to neoliberalism in the late twentieth century resulted in more efficacious manifestations of social movement partyism in the twenty-first century resisting free market globalization.

  5. Central America's Macroeconomic Environment and the Role of the Investment Climate under Free Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, David; Loening, Josef L.

    2008-01-01

    Central America's economic performance in recent years has benefited from improved macroeconomic management, a favorable external environment, as well as rising investor confidence since the region has pursued greater access to global markets, particularly with the signing of DR-CAFTA in 2004. Nonetheless, while important reforms have been made, at the sectoral level, much remains to be done. The context of a less favorable global environment underlines the need to improve competiveness and e...

  6. Characterization of Trypanosoma rangeli Strains Isolated in Central and South America: an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Trypanosoma rangeli is a hemoflagelate parasite that infects domestic and sylvatic animals, as well as man, in Central and South America. T. rangeli has an overlapping distribution with T. cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, sharing several animal reservoirs and triatomine vectors. We have isolated T. rangeli strains in the State of Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil, which dramatically increased the distribution area of this parasite. This brief review summarizes several studies ...

  7. COELIAC DISEASE IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA: time for a concerted approach to its epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Farrukh, Affifa; John Francis MAYBERRY

    2015-01-01

    Central and South America offer an opportunity to resolve some of the current controversies that surround the epidemiology of celiac disease. Through a concerted action which brings together clinicians, researchers and patients there is an opportunity to establish robust data sets which will allow detailed analysis of environmental and genetic factors. In this review available data from the continent together with data from Spain and Italy are drawn together to give a current picture in the h...

  8. Cetaceans and gillnet fisheries in Mexico, Central America and the Wider Caribbean: a preliminary review

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, O.; Van Waerebeek, K.; Findley, L.T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews published and unpublished information on the mortality of cetaceans in gillnets in Mexico, Central America and the wider Caribbean. Data on this incidental mortality are provided from only nine of the 36 nations in the area (Colombia, the Dominican Republic. French Guiana, Honduras, Mexico. Panama, Surinam, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela); the lack of mortality records from the other countries reflects poor or non-existent documentation. We surveyed those types of passi...

  9. A dynamic landslide hazard assessment system for Central America and Hispaniola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Kirschbaum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Landslides pose a serious threat to life and property in Central America and the Caribbean Islands. In order to allow regionally coordinated situational awareness and disaster response, an online decision support system was created. At its core is a new flexible framework for evaluating potential landslide activity in near real-time: Landslide Hazard Assessment for Situational Awareness. This framework was implemented in Central America and the Caribbean by integrating a regional susceptibility map and satellite-based rainfall estimates into a binary decision tree, considering both daily and antecedent rainfall. Using a regionally distributed, percentile-based threshold approach, the model outputs a pixel-by-pixel nowcast in near real-time at a resolution of 30 arcsec to identify areas of moderate and high landslide hazard. The daily and antecedent rainfall thresholds in the model are calibrated using a subset of the Global Landslide Catalog in Central America available for 2007–2013. The model was then evaluated with data for 2014. Results suggest reasonable model skill over Central America and poorer performance over Hispaniola, due primarily to the limited availability of calibration and validation data. The landslide model framework presented here demonstrates the capability to utilize globally available satellite products for regional landslide hazard assessment. It also provides a flexible framework to interchange the indiviual model components and adjust or calibrate thresholds based on access to new data and calibration sources. The availability of free, satellite-based near real-time rainfall data allows the creation of similar models for any study area with a spatiotemporal record of landslide events. This method may also incorporate other hydrological or atmospheric variables such as numerical weather forecasts or satellite-based soil moisture estimates within this decision tree approach for improved hazard analysis.

  10. Street Gangs in Central America: Combating them with Intelligence Fusion Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Bruneau, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Street gangs – pandillas in Spanish – are a major security challenge in the three Northern Triangle countries of Central America – El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras.[1] They are also considered a threat in many US cities, with particular focus on the Mara Salvatrucha, MS-13. Domestic party politics in the three countries have resulted in the reliance of heavy hand (mano dura) responses to the gangs, which have mainly served to exacerbate the problem. The anomalous situation of ...

  11. Asymmetric forest transition driven by the interaction of socioeconomic development and environmental heterogeneity in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Redo, Daniel J.; Grau, H. Ricardo; Aide, T. Mitchell; Matthew L. Clark

    2012-01-01

    Forest transitions (FT) have been observed in many developed countries and more recently in the developing world. However, our knowledge of FT from tropical regions is mostly derived from case studies from within a particular country, making it difficult to generalize findings across larger regions. Here we overcome these difficulties by conducting a recent (2001–2010) satellite-based analysis of trends in forest cover across Central America, stratified by biomes, which we related to socioeco...

  12. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Í. Aniel-Quiroga; O. Q. Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez; J. Larreynaga; González, M.; M. Castro; F. Gavidia; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; P. González-Riancho; Carreño, E

    2013-01-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has approximately a length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there have been 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and hundreds of victims. The hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached from both Probabilistic and D...

  13. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models.

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; O. Q. Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez; J. Larreynaga; González, M.; M. Castro; F. Gavidia; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; P. González-Riancho; Carreño, E

    2013-01-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and determinis...

  14. AGROFORESTRY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: POLICY LESSONS FROM CENTRAL AMERICA AND PANAMA

    OpenAIRE

    Current, Dean

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes results of the evaluation of 11 forestry activities in Central America using a framework of factors related to long term sustainability of the benefits flowing from forestry development activities. Identified problems included: the lack of continuity of support to project sponsored activities once formal projects end, the short term focus of many projects, the lack of interest or capacity of host governments and institutions to provide continued support to these activiti...

  15. A dynamic landslide hazard assessment system for Central America and Hispaniola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, D. B.; Stanley, T.; Simmons, J.

    2015-10-01

    Landslides pose a serious threat to life and property in Central America and the Caribbean Islands. In order to allow regionally coordinated situational awareness and disaster response, an online decision support system was created. At its core is a new flexible framework for evaluating potential landslide activity in near real time: Landslide Hazard Assessment for Situational Awareness. This framework was implemented in Central America and the Caribbean by integrating a regional susceptibility map and satellite-based rainfall estimates into a binary decision tree, considering both daily and antecedent rainfall. Using a regionally distributed, percentile-based threshold approach, the model outputs a pixel-by-pixel nowcast in near real time at a resolution of 30 arcsec to identify areas of moderate and high landslide hazard. The daily and antecedent rainfall thresholds in the model are calibrated using a subset of the Global Landslide Catalog in Central America available for 2007-2013. The model was then evaluated with data for 2014. Results suggest reasonable model skill over Central America and poorer performance over Hispaniola due primarily to the limited availability of calibration and validation data. The landslide model framework presented here demonstrates the capability to utilize globally available satellite products for regional landslide hazard assessment. It also provides a flexible framework to interchange the individual model components and adjust or calibrate thresholds based on access to new data and calibration sources. The availability of free satellite-based near real-time rainfall data allows the creation of similar models for any study area with a spatiotemporal record of landslide events. This method may also incorporate other hydrological or atmospheric variables such as numerical weather forecasts or satellite-based soil moisture estimates within this decision tree approach for improved hazard analysis.

  16. Competing Ecosystem Services: an Assessment of Carbon and Timber in the Tropical Forests of Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Khatun, Kaysara

    2010-01-01

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA 2005) has classified a number of ecosystems good and services (EGS) provided by tropical forests, namely cultural, provisioning, regulatory and support services. The primary focus of this paper is to carry out an economic assessment by comparing the financial costs and returns of selected EGS, namely carbon and timber in the tropical forests of Central America. Timber is unlike the other EGS provided by forests in that it competes with the other servic...

  17. Neoliberal Forms of Capital and The Rise of Social Movement Partyism in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Historical shifts in global economic formations shape the strategies of resistance movements in the global South. Neoliberal forms of economic development over the past thirty years in Central America have weakened traditional actors sponsoring popular mobilization such as labor unions and rural cooperatives. At the same time, the free market reforms produced new threats to economic livelihood and well-being throughout the region. The neoliberal measures that have generated the greatest level...

  18. Active mountain building and the distribution of core Maxillariinae species in tropical Mexico and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Stephen H.

    2011-01-01

    The observation that southeastern Central America is a hotspot for orchid diversity has long been known and confirmed by recent systematic studies and checklists. An analysis of the geographic and elevation distribution demonstrates that the most widespread species of “core” Maxillariinae are all adapted to life near sea level, whereas the most narrowly endemic species are largely distributed in wet highland environments. Drier, hotter lowland gaps exist between these cordilleras and evidently restrict the dispersal of the species adapted to wetter, cooler conditions. Among the recent generic realignments of “core” Maxillariinae based on molecular phylogenetics, the Camaridium clade is easily the most prominent genus in Central America and is largely restricted to the highlands of Costa Rica and Panama, indicating that this region is the ancestral home of this genus and that its dispersal limits are drier, lowland cordilleran gaps. The mountains of Costa Rica and Panama are among the geologically youngest topographic features in the Neotropics, reflecting the complex and dynamic interactions of numerous tectonic plates. From consideration of the available geological evidence, I conclude that the rapid growth of the mountain ranges in Costa Rica and Panama during the late Cenozoic times created, in turn, very rapid ranges in ecological life zones and geographic isolation in that part of the isthmus. Thus, I suggest that these recent geologic events were the primary drivers for accelerated orchid evolution in southeastern Central America.

  19. Modeling the Agroecological Land Suitability for Coffea arabica L. in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Leonel; Rasche, Livia; Schneider, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Coffee production is an important income source for small farms in Central America, but climate change threatens the production. In order to develop efficient adaptation strategies, an assessment of local conditions and opportunities is essential. Lack or uncertainty of information are common challenges for such assessments. A tool to resolve these challenges is Bayesian network analysis. In this study, we developed ALECA, the first Bayesian network model to evaluate the agroecological land suitability for Coffea arabica L. A new set of suitability functions was created and subsequently used to populate the conditional probability tables of the variables. The variables include temperature, precipitation and dry season length for the climate, slope and aspect for the landform, and soil pH, cation exchange capacity and texture for the soil component. We validated ALECA by comparing a map of current coffee areas, and specific coffee areas with known suitability for coffee production in Central America to the suitability evaluations of the model; and proceeded to explore 1) the capabilities of the model to manage data uncertainty, and 2) the changes to suitability scores under climate change. The results showed that the area suitable for coffee production will decline in Central America under climate change, underlining the need for models like ALECA, which can be used to produce reliable land evaluations at local, national and regional scales under uncertainty.

  20. Making central-local relations work:Comparing America and China environmental governance systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan GUTTMAN; SONG Yaqin

    2007-01-01

    The challenge of making central requirements work at local levels is a common problem for environmental governance throughout the world.Countries can learn from one another's approaches,but must understand the local con text in which they are set.This paper compares the features of the China and US environmental governance systems that need be understood by those working between the systems.Key features include:(1) common values which shape the environmental governance choices in both countries,but which may have different practical meanings in each country;(2) America's common law-based environmental governance system,and China's civil law system,which involves plan(s)as well as law;(3) America's Federal central-local system,and China's unitary central local system.This paper concludes by suggesting areas in which further comparative understanding may be of value,including:(1) better under standing of the role of plan and law in China's governance system;(2) comparing the American Federal-state agreement system for implementation of environmental law with the China central-local system of target responsibility agreements for plan implementation;(3) improving understanding of nongovernmental resources needed to assure compliance with environmental laws and plans;(4) identifying institutions that can coordinate central-local and cross-border environmental governance.

  1. Quantitative estimates of tropical temperature change in lowland Central America during the last 42 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauel, Anna-Lena; Hodell, David A.; Bernasconi, Stefano M.

    2016-03-01

    Determining the magnitude of tropical temperature change during the last glacial period is a fundamental problem in paleoclimate research. Large discrepancies exist in estimates of tropical cooling inferred from marine and terrestrial archives. Here we present a reconstruction of temperature for the last 42 ka from a lake sediment core from Lake Petén Itzá, Guatemala, located at 17°N in lowland Central America. We compared three independent methods of glacial temperature reconstruction: pollen-based temperature estimates, tandem measurements of δ18O in biogenic carbonate and gypsum hydration water, and clumped isotope thermometry. Pollen provides a near-continuous record of temperature change for most of the glacial period but the occurrence of a no-analog pollen assemblage during cold, dry stadials renders temperature estimates unreliable for these intervals. In contrast, the gypsum hydration and clumped isotope methods are limited mainly to the stadial periods when gypsum and biogenic carbonate co-occur. The combination of palynological and geochemical methods leads to a continuous record of tropical temperature change in lowland Central America over the last 42 ka. Furthermore, the gypsum hydration water method and clumped isotope thermometry provide independent estimates of not only temperature, but also the δ18O of lake water that is dependent on the hydrologic balance between evaporation and precipitation over the lake surface and its catchment. The results show that average glacial temperature was cooler in lowland Central America by 5-10 °C relative to the Holocene. The coldest and driest times occurred during North Atlantic stadial events, particularly Heinrich stadials (HSs), when temperature decreased by up to 6 to 10 °C relative to today. This magnitude of cooling is much greater than estimates derived from Caribbean marine records and model simulations. The extreme dry and cold conditions during HSs in the lowland Central America were associated

  2. Scorpionism in Central America, with special reference to the case of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Borges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpionism in the Americas occurs mainly in Mexico, northern South America and southeast Brazil. This article reviews the local scorpion fauna, available health statistics, and the literature to assess scorpionism in Central America. Notwithstanding its high toxicity in Mexico, most scorpion sting cases in Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica are produced by species in the genus Centruroides that are only mildly toxic to humans despite the existence of ion channel-active toxins in their venoms. Regional morbidity is low with the exception of Panama, where an incidence of 52 cases per 100,000 inhabitants was recorded for 2007, with 28 deaths from 1998 to 2006. Taxa belonging to the genus Tityus (also present in the Atlantic coast of Costa Rica are responsible for fatalities in Panama, with Tityus pachyurus being the most important species medically. Most Tityus species inhabiting Panama are also found in northern South America from which they probably migrated upon closure of the Panamanian isthmus in the Miocene era. Incorporation of Panama as part of the northern South American endemic area of scorpionism is thereby suggested based on the incidence of these accidents and the geographical distribution of Panamanian Tityus species.

  3. Spanish Cooperation with Central America: Political will or Transfer of Resources?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Àngels Miralpeix i Güell

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available The economies of the six states of Central America do not form a homogeneous block although they share the common denominators of underdevelopment and dependence. The great dependence of Central American economies on only a few export products whose value has been drastically reduced in international markets was one of the fundamental causes of the economic crisis. The reactivation of the subregional economy largely depends on the opening up of foreign markets, the availability of modern technology, debt renegotiation and the fostering of direct investments.Spanish foreign policy towards Central America has been characterized by a clear political committment to the peace process which set it on the long road towards the end of the so-called Central American crisis. But we can show that the Spanish Policy for Development and Cooperation towards the isthmus has not always been translated into the transfer of resources. The present study which has, as its objective, the analysis of this policy, is based on the study of the PACI-Report (1990-1992 and on the PACIPrevisions (1987-1989 and 1993-1994 given the non-availability of its documented achievements in these years. In order that the political committments taken on by Spain are translated into the assuming of economic responsibilites, it is inevitable that the cooperation be largely technical, based on projects designed in connection with the governments of the isthmus as well as with regional institutions.Political peace will be impossible to reach if the grave economic and social problems are not solved and if the process of democratization and modernization of the State is not consolidated. All these challenges cannot be confronted without intense external support such as that given during the political crisis; regional integration both political (strengthening the Central American Parlament and economic (reactivation of the Central American Common Market offers a clear opportunity for

  4. A crustal section of northern Central America as inferred from wide angle reflections from shallow earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. J.

    A three-layered crustal structure for a portion of northern Central America is derived using both travel time and amplitude data from seismograms recorded at Tegucigalpa, Honduras. The sources are shallow earthquakes that occurred along the Motagua fault in Guatemala 200 to 450 km (25-50 seconds in terms of S-P time) from the station. Since ray paths are almost parallel to the axis of the Middle America trench, approximately 250 km away, a homogeneous, horizontally layered crust may be reasonably assumed. At this distance range, which is far beyond critical distance for reflections from within the crust, shallow sources always generate a small first arrival followed by several large later arrivals. The first arrival is interpreted as Pn (the head wave from the Mohorovicic discontinuity) and the later arrivals are interpreted as wide angle (over-critical) reflections from layer boundaries. Three wide angle reflections (PmP, PiP, and PgP) are identified.

  5. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmalkar, Ambarish V. [University of Oxford, School of Geography and the Environment, Oxford (United Kingdom); Bradley, Raymond S. [University of Massachusetts, Department of Geosciences, Amherst, MA (United States); Diaz, Henry F. [NOAA/ESRL/CIRES, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation and also in capturing regional climate features such as the bimodal annual cycle of precipitation and the Caribbean low-level jet. A variety of climate regimes within the model domain are also better identified in the regional model simulation due to improved resolution of topographic features. Although, the model suffers from large precipitation biases, it shows improvements over the coarse-resolution driving model in simulating precipitation amounts. The model shows a dry bias in the wet season and a wet bias in the dry season suggesting that it's unable to capture the full range of precipitation variability. Projected warming under the A2 scenario is higher in the wet season than that in the dry season with the Yucatan Peninsula experiencing highest warming. A large reduction in precipitation in the wet season is projected for the region, whereas parts of Central America that receive a considerable amount of moisture in the form of orographic precipitation show significant decreases in precipitation in the dry season. Projected climatic changes can have detrimental impacts on biodiversity as they are spatially similar, but far greater in magnitude, than those observed during the El Nino events in recent decades that adversely affected species in the region. (orig.)

  6. Characterising droughts in Central America with uncertain hydro-meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada Montano, B.; Westerberg, I.; Wetterhall, F.; Hidalgo, H. G.; Halldin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Droughts studies are scarce in Central America, a region frequently affected by droughts that cause significant socio-economic and environmental problems. Drought characterisation is important for water management and planning and can be done with the help of drought indices. Many indices have been developed in the last decades but their ability to suitably characterise droughts depends on the region of application. In Central America, comprehensive and high-quality observational networks of meteorological and hydrological data are not available. This limits the choice of drought indices and denotes the need to evaluate the quality of the data used in their calculation. This paper aimed to find which combination(s) of drought index and meteorological database are most suitable for characterising droughts in Central America. The drought indices evaluated were the standardised precipitation index (SPI), deciles (DI), the standardised precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and the effective drought index (EDI). These were calculated using precipitation data from the Climate Hazards Group Infra-Red Precipitation with station (CHIRPS), CRN073, the Climate Research Unit (CRU), ERA-Interim and station databases, and temperature data from the CRU database. All the indices were calculated at 1-, 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-month accumulation times. As a first step, the large-scale meteorological precipitation datasets were compared to have an overview of the level of agreement between them and find possible quality problems. Then, the performance of all the combinations of drought indices and meteorological datasets were evaluated against independent river discharge data, in form of the standardised streamflow index (SSI). Results revealed the large disagreement between the precipitation datasets; we found the selection of database to be more important than the selection of drought index. We found that the best combinations of meteorological drought index and database were

  7. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.

    2005-02-12

    Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region

  8. Seismic hazard maps of Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, James G.; Shedlock, Kaye M.

    2004-10-01

    The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard and/or economic constraints. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. We have produced a suite of seismic hazard estimates for Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. One of the preliminary maps in this suite served as the basis for the Caribbean and Central and South America portion of the Global Seismic Hazard Map (GSHM) published in 1999, which depicted peak ground acceleration (pga) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for rock sites. Herein we present maps depicting pga and 0.2 and 1.0 s spectral accelerations (SA) with 50%, 10%, and 2% chances of exceedance in 50 years for rock sites. The seismicity catalog used in the generation of these maps adds 3 more years of data to those used to calculate the GSH Map. Different attenuation functions (consistent with those used to calculate the U.S. and Canadian maps) were used as well. These nine maps are designed to assist in global risk mitigation by providing a general seismic hazard framework and serving as a resource for any national or regional agency to help focus further detailed studies required for regional/local needs. The largest seismic hazard values in Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America generally occur in areas that have been, or are likely to be, the sites of the largest plate boundary earthquakes. High hazard values occur in areas where shallow-to-intermediate seismicity occurs frequently.

  9. Seismic hazard maps of Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J.G.; Shedlock, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard and/or economic constraints. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. We have produced a suite of seismic hazard estimates for Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. One of the preliminary maps in this suite served as the basis for the Caribbean and Central and South America portion of the Global Seismic Hazard Map (GSHM) published in 1999, which depicted peak ground acceleration (pga) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for rock sites. Herein we present maps depicting pga and 0.2 and 1.0 s spectral accelerations (SA) with 50%, 10%, and 2% chances of exceedance in 50 years for rock sites. The seismicity catalog used in the generation of these maps adds 3 more years of data to those used to calculate the GSH Map. Different attenuation functions (consistent with those used to calculate the U.S. and Canadian maps) were used as well. These nine maps are designed to assist in global risk mitigation by providing a general seismic hazard framework and serving as a resource for any national or regional agency to help focus further detailed studies required for regional/local needs. The largest seismic hazard values in Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America generally occur in areas that have been, or are likely to be, the sites of the largest plate boundary earthquakes. High hazard values occur in areas where shallow-to-intermediate seismicity occurs frequently. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Interannual variability of the midsummer drought in Central America and the connection with sea surface temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Tito; Rutgersson, Anna; Alfaro, Eric; Amador, Jorge; Claremar, Björn

    2016-04-01

    The midsummer drought (MSD) in Central America is characterised in order to create annual indexes representing the timing of its phases (start, minimum and end), and other features relevant for MSD forecasting such as the intensity and the magnitude. The MSD intensity is defined as the minimum rainfall detected during the MSD, meanwhile the magnitude is the total precipitation divided by the total days between the start and end of the MSD. It is shown that the MSD extends along the Pacific coast, however, a similar MSD structure was detected also in two stations in the Caribbean side of Central America, located in Nicaragua. The MSD intensity and magnitude show a negative relationship with Niño 3.4 and a positive relationship with the Caribbean low-level jet (CLLJ) index, however for the Caribbean stations the results were not statistically significant, which is indicating that other processes might be modulating the precipitation during the MSD over the Caribbean coast. On the other hand, the temporal variables (start, minimum and end) show low and no significant correlations with the same indexes.The results from canonical correlation analysis (CCA) show good performance to study the MSD intensity and magnitude, however, for the temporal indexes the performance is not satisfactory due to the low skill to predict the MSD phases. Moreover, we find that CCA shows potential predictability of the MSD intensity and magnitude using sea surface temperatures (SST) with leading times of up to 3 months. Using CCA as diagnostic tool it is found that during June, an SST dipole pattern upon the neighbouring waters to Central America is the main variability mode controlling the inter-annual variability of the MSD features. However, there is also evidence that the regional waters are playing an important role in the annual modulation of the MSD features. The waters in the PDO vicinity might be also controlling the rainfall during the MSD, however, exerting an opposite effect at

  11. Diarrhea and respiratory symptoms among travelers to Asia, Africa, and South and Central America from Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Christopher Allan; Maclennan, Alice; Wilson, Eleanor; Walker, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Surveillance using admissions to hospital, while being useful, is a poor indicator of the real incidence of disease encountered by travelers. An alternative is self-reported illness among those who attended at a pretravel clinic prior to their travels. Estimates of incidence and risk factors were determined for attendees at a travel clinic in Scotland using a questionnaire. Analysis for risk factors was carried out for those travelers visiting countries in Africa, Asia, or South and Central America, who had traveled for 1 week or more and had returned between 1997 and 2001 (N= 4,856). Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the hypotheses that time abroad and age-group would be significant for both respiratory and diarrheal symptoms regardless of which of the three geographical areas are visited. From 2006 returned questionnaires (response rate = 41.3%), diarrhea and respiratory symptoms were reported by 44.2 and 16.8% of respondents, respectively; the incidence was significantly greater among travelers to Asia for both diarrheal (55.5%) and respiratory (23.7%) symptoms than among travelers to Africa (36.6 and 12.2%, respectively) or South and Central America (39.5 and 16.2%, respectively). For diarrhea, age was a highly significant risk factor for travelers to Asia, South and Central America, and Africa. Being a self-organized tourist/backpacker, traveling to Asia was associated with increased risk, while for Africa and South and Central America visiting family or friends was associated with a lower risk. For travelers to Asia, traveling to the Indian subcontinent was significantly associated with increased risk. The majority of travelers had an adverse event while traveling abroad, with diarrhea and respiratory conditions being especially common despite attending a travel clinic for advice prior to departure. However, the limitations of this surveillance-based strategy have highlighted the requirement for more research to understand more fully the

  12. The social perspective of desertification: Analysis of the public administration perception in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desertification is a complex problem and not only represents terrestrial ecosystems degradation. Today, it is well known that this process is linked to environmental deterioration as well as to economic and social factors, producing relevant impact in food security, poverty, migration and imbalance in many countries. Desertification perception analysis is essential in the design of the policies to fight this problem. Perception analysis in Central America is a very controversial issue and should be part of administration instruments and application strategies such as international agreements that will be included in public policies of the different States.

  13. Tectonics and sedimentary evolution of the Sandino forearc basin off Nicaragua, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Pisani, P.; Silver, E.; McIntosh, K.; Ahmed, I.; Ranero, C. R.; Taylor, B.

    2003-04-01

    The Sandino basin is the Nicaragua sector of the Central American forearc, where the Cocos plate subducts beneath the Middle America trench. Recently, Ranero et al. have interpreted a seismic section across the margin and proposed a history of formation of the forearc which is constrained by industry drilling in the basin. They suggested a late Cretaceous to Paleocene accretion event, followed by later subduction erosion processes. The margin wedge consists of the ophiolitic Nicoya complex. The seismic units, unconformities and tectonic features record a rich history of both local and regional vertical movements occurring since the Middle Eocene, which are linked to the evolution of the Pacific convergent margin. During June, 2000, 2800 kms of multichannel seismic reflection data were collected on the R/V Ewing off Nicaragua. Analysis of the 240 channels dataset indicates rapid changes along strike in the Sandino basin. The basin is relatively thin in the southern part, thinning quite rapidly southward against the Nicoya complex of the Santa Elena peninsula of Costa Rica. The forearc sediments thickness approaches and locally exceeds 10 kms in the central and northern parts of the Sandino basin. The oldest units (Upper Cretaceous-Middle Eocene) are very thick off northern Nicaragua, with relatively thin middle to late Cenozoic deposits. However, off central Nicaragua the latter units (Middle-Upper Miocene) attain great thicknesses and the older units appear to thin. This pattern suggests a history of successive deepening of the basin from north to south, after the convergent system evolved from accretion to subduction erosion processes. Present efforts are devoted to quantifying this change in development and using it to understand the dynamics of forearc basin evolution offshore of Central America.

  14. The 10 April 2014 Earthquake in Central Nicaragua: Evidence of Complex Crustal Deformation in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, G.; Muñoz, A.; Talavera, E.; Tenorio, V.; Farraz, I.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Sánchez, A.

    2014-12-01

    On 10 April 2014 a magnitude Mw 6.1 struck central Nicaragua. The main event and the aftershocks were clearly recorded by the Nicaraguan seismic network. These crustal earthquakes were strongly felt but caused relatively little damage to the city of Managua and to the surrounding cities and towns. This is in sharp contrast to the destructive effects of the 1972 earthquake in the capital city of Managua. The differences in damage stem from the fact that in 1972, the earthquake occurred on a fault beneath the city; in contrast, the 2014 event lies offshore, under Lake Managua. The distribution of aftershocks shows two clusters of seismic activity. In the northwestern part of Lake Managua, an alignment of aftershocks suggests a southeast trending fault. The reported source mechanism suggests right-lateral strike slip motion on a plane with the same azimuth as the aftershock sequence. A second cluster of seismic activity occurred simultaneously, but spatially separated, beneath Apoyeque volcano. There is no clear alignment of the epicenters in this cluster. Seismic scaling relations between magnitude and the fault length predict a length of approximately 10 km for an earthquake of this magnitude. This is in agreement with the extent of the fault defined by the aftershock sequence. The northeast - southwest trending Tiscapa and Ciudad Jardín faults that broke during the 1972 and 1931 Managua earthquakes are orthogonal to the fault where the 10 April earthquake occurred. This set of conjugate faults confirms that Central Nicaragua is being deformed in a complex tectonic style of deformation. The forearc sliver between the trench and the volcanic arc moves to the northwest relative to the Caribbean plate. This deformation, however, does not take place on a single set of faults. The motion is apparently accommodated by a system of conjugate faults: right lateral, strike-slip faults oriented parallel to the volcanic arc and another set of faults trending northeast

  15. SALTRA: a regional program for workers' health and sustainable development in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling C; Aragón A; Elgstrand K; Flores R; Hogstedt C; Partanen T

    2011-07-01

    In 2003, the university-based Program on Work and Health in Central America, SALTRA, was launched to build national and regional capacities in occupational safety and health with the goal of preventing and reducing poverty in Central America. SALTRA has implemented 20 projects including action projects in priority sectors (e.g., construction, sugarcane, hospitals, migrant coffee workers); strengthening of surveillance (occupational health profiles, carcinogenic exposures, fatal injuries and pesticides); a participatory model for training and risk monitoring by workers; building occupational health capacity for professionals, employers, and workers, with collaborating networks between the countries; strengthening of universities in work, environment, and health; studies of serious occupational and environmental situations; communication channels; and continued efforts to raise political awareness. SALTRA has placed issues of workers' health on political, business, and academic agendas throughout the region and has laid the foundations for achieving substantial future improvements in health conditions of all workers in the region. External evaluators envisioned SALTRA as an innovative development model.

  16. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields, and Geologic Provinces of South America

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digitally compiled map includes geology, oil and gas fields, and geologic provinces of South America. The oil and gas map is part of a worldwide series...

  17. Neogene north American-Caribbean plate boundary across Northern Central America: Offset along the polochic fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Burke

    1983-12-01

    The Polochic fault was a segment of the North American-Caribbean plate boundary across Central America in the Neogene. Its 130 km of left slip was previously determined by matching structures and stratigraphie outcrop patterns of northwest and central Guatemala across the fault. Additional support for the model and the youthfulness of the recorded offset comes from an essentially perfect match of major geomorphic features across the fault. A reconstruction process which eliminates 123 km of left slip brings together rivers and drainage divides that existed before the Polochic became active. With the reconstruction carried across the isthmus on an east-west fault the regional structural geology assumes the coherent pattern of a continuous orogenic belt whose geometry is compatible with the model of collisional tectonics centered on the Motagua "suture zone". Confined within this belt, narrowed to some 60 km by the reconstruction, lie the major Laramide thrusts, folds and tectonically emplaced serpentinites of Guatemala. Crystalline rocks of Guatemala re-join the Chiapas Massif and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, exposed in the core of an almost-continuous anticlinorium, extend from southern Chiapas to Lake Izabal. The Polochic does not bend in eastern Guatemala but continues eastward to the Motagua fault where it dies. Westward drift of the northern block resulted in rifting which extended from eastern Guatemala into the Caribbean along the Cayman trough. The Honduras depression may represent an element of a triple junction along with the Polochic and Izabal-Cayman rift. The Polochic continues westward into the Pacific Ocean and offsets the Middle America trench. The Polochic has offset the Miocene volcanic belt of northern Central America, confirming the previous estimate of a Neogene time of movement. About 300 km of relative east-west Neogene displacement has been recorded on the Mid-Cayman rise, only 130 km of which can be accounted for across the Polochic. It is

  18. Drought assessment for cropland of Central America using course-resolution remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. F.; Nguyen, S. T.; Chen, C. R.; Chiang, S. H.; Chang, L. Y.; Khin, L. V.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is one of the most frequent and costliest natural disasters, which imposes enormous effects to human societies and ecosystems. Agricultural drought is referred to an interval of time, such as weeks or months, when the soil moisture supply of a region consistently falls below the appropriate moisture supply leading to negative impacts on agricultural production. Millions of households in Central America were dependent upon major food crops, including maize, beans, and sorghum, for their daily subsistence. In recent years, impacts of climate change through global warming in forms of higher temperature and widespread rainfall deficits have however triggered severe drought during the primera cropping season (April-August) in the study region, causing profound impacts on agriculture, crop production losses, increased market food prices, as well as food security issues. This study focuses on investigating agricultural droughts for cropland of Central America using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. We processed the data for a normal year 2013 and an abnormal year 2014 using a simple vegetation health index (VHI) that is developed based on the temperature condition index (TCI) and vegetation condition index (VCI). The VHI results were validated using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) precipitation data and temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI) that is developed based on the empirical analysis of TCI and VCI data. The correlation coefficients (r) obtained by comparisons between the VHI data and the AMSR2 precipitation and TVDI data were higher than 0.62 and -0.61, respectively. The severe drought was intensive during the dry season (January-April) and likely backed to normal conditions in May with the onset of rainy season. The larger area of serve drought was observed for the 2014 primera season, especially during April-July. When investigating the cultivated areas affected by severe drought in the primera

  19. Simulating Climate Change in Central America Using PRECIS Regional Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmalkar, A. V.; Bradley, R. S.; Diaz, H. F.

    2006-12-01

    Highland tropical forests are rich in endemic species and crucial in maintaining freshwater resources in many regions. Much of their remarkable biodiversity is due to the steep climate gradients found on tropical mountains. These gradients are significantly altered due to warming, affecting many species living on the mountain slopes. Costa Rica's Monteverde Cloud Forest shows biological changes associated with changes in climatic patterns. Our goal is to understand climate change at areas of high relief in the tropics and its potential impacts on ecosystem dynamics. We address this question by focusing on Central America, which is considered to be a biodiversity hotspot. The model used is the UK Hadley Center PRECIS(Providing REgional Climates for Impact Studies) model. The model is based on HadAM3H, an improved version of the atmospheric component of the latest Hadley Center coupled AOGCM, HadCM3 and is forced at the lateral boundaries by HadAM3P GCM. The surface boundary conditions include observed SSTs and sea-ice. We carried out a baseline run (1961-1990) and a doubled CO2 run (SRES A2 2071-2100) at a resolution of 25 km (0.22°) over the region of Central America that includes several biodiversity hotspots. Model verification is performed by comparing control run results with observations and reanalysis data. Preliminary analysis shows that PRECIS has successfully captured present-day spatial and temporal climate variability that has been observed in Central America. Elevation dependency of temperature is one of the important results of this study and will be investigated in great detail. The SRES A2 run shows average warming of about 3K, with more warming at higher altitudes in general. Precipitation and relative humidity analysis shows drier conditions in the region in 2 × CO2 world. Additional techniques are being developed to better quantify model performance in areas of high relief. We plan to expand this project to other models, and to additional

  20. Characterization of Trypanosoma rangeli Strains Isolated in Central and South America: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grisard Edmundo C

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma rangeli is a hemoflagelate parasite that infects domestic and sylvatic animals, as well as man, in Central and South America. T. rangeli has an overlapping distribution with T. cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, sharing several animal reservoirs and triatomine vectors. We have isolated T. rangeli strains in the State of Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil, which dramatically increased the distribution area of this parasite. This brief review summarizes several studies comparing T. rangeli strains isolated in Santa Catarina with others isolated in Colombia, Honduras and Venezuela. The different methods used include indirect immunofluorescence and western blot assays, lectin agglutination, isoenzyme electrophoresis and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, triatomine susceptibility, in vitro cell infection assays, and mini-exon gene analysis.

  1. Satellite-based detection of volcanic sulphur dioxide from recent eruptions in Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Loyola

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions can emit large amounts of rock fragments and fine particles (ash into the atmosphere, as well as several gases, including sulphur dioxide (SO2. These ejecta and emissions are a major natural hazard, not only to the local population, but also to the infrastructure in the vicinity of volcanoes and to aviation. Here, we describe a methodology to retrieve quantitative information about volcanic SO2 plumes from satellite-borne measurements in the UV/Visible spectral range. The combination of a satellite-based SO2 detection scheme and a state-of-the-art 3D trajectory model enables us to confirm the volcanic origin of trace gas signals and to estimate the plume height and the effective emission height. This is demonstrated by case-studies for four selected volcanic eruptions in South and Central America, using the GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 instruments.

  2. Suitability of soil bioengineering techniques in Central America: a case study in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petrone

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years "D. I. A. F." (Department of Agriculture and Forestry Engineering of Florence University, has been testing the effectiveness of Soil Bio-Engineering techniques in Central America. The focus of the present study was to find out which native plants were most suited for soil bio-engineering purposes, particularly in the realization of riverbank protection. Furthermore, we have also been aiming at economic efficiency. In the context of sustainable watershed management, these techniques seem to be appropriate, especially in underdeveloped countries. Concerning the plants to be used, we considered three native species, Gliricidia Sepium, Cordia dentata and Jatropha curcas, to be appropriate for this type of work. Economically speaking, the low cost of such interventions in underdeveloped countries, has been shown by the construction of riverbank protection using vegetated crib-walls in Nicaragua.

  3. Screening of anti-bacterial activity of medicinal plants from Belize (Central America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporese, A; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Morsellino, N; De Simone, F; Tubaro, A

    2003-07-01

    Twenty-one extracts from seven herbal drugs, Aristolochia trilobata (Aristolochiaceae) leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) bark, Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae) bark, Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae) leaves and Syngonium podophyllum (Araceae) leaves and bark, used in traditional medicine of Belize (Central America) as deep and superficial wound healers, were evaluated for their anti-bacterial properties. Activity was tested against standard strains of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Almost all the extracts were able to inhibit the growth of one or more of the bacterial strains, except that of Enterococcus faecalis. For the first time an anti-microbial activity is reported for Aristolochia trilobata as well as for Syngonium podophyllum. The hexane extracts of Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark were the most active extracts against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC=0.31 and 0.625mg/ml, respectively). PMID:12787962

  4. Notes on two species of Diplomitoporus (Basidiomycota, Polyporaceae of Central America Comentarios sobre dos especies de Diplomitoporus (Basidiomycota, Polyporaceae de América Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirí Kout

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Diplomitoporus were studied from Central America and notes about their distribution are presented. Noteworthy records include Diplomitoporus dilutabilis Log.-Leite et J.E. Wright, which is reported for the first time to Guatemala and Diplomitoporus hondurensis (Murrill Ryvarden, which is found in a new locality from Belize. A list of Diplomitoporus species cited from America is presented.Se estudiaron 2 especies de Diplomitoporus de America Central y se presentan notas sobre su distribución. Sobresale Diplomitoporus dilutabilis Log.-Leite et J.E. Wright, que se registra por primera vez para Guatemala y Diplomitoporus hondurensis (Murrill Ryvarden, se encontró en una nueva localidad en Belice. Se presenta una lista de las especies de Diplomitoporus citadas para el continente Americano.

  5. GIS Representation of Coal-Bearing Areas in North, Central, and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewalt, Susan J.; Kinney, Scott A.; Merrill, Matthew D.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide coal consumption and international coal trade are projected to increase in the next several decades (Energy Information Administration, 2007). A search of existing literature indicates that in the Western Hemisphere, coal resources are known to occur in about 30 countries. The need exists to be able to depict these areas in a digital format for use in Geographic Information System (GIS) applications at small scales (large areas) and in visual presentations. Existing surficial geology GIS layers of the appropriate geologic age have been used as an approximation to depict the extent of coal-bearing areas in North, Central, and South America, as well as Greenland (fig. 1). Global surficial geology GIS data were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for use in world petroleum assessments (Hearn and others, 2003). These USGS publications served as the major sources for the selection and creation of polygons to represent coal-bearing areas. Additional publications and maps by various countries and agencies were also used as sources of coal locations. GIS geologic polygons were truncated where literature or hardcopy maps did not indicate the presence of coal. The depicted areas are not adequate for use in coal resource calculations, as they were not adjusted for geologic structure and do not include coal at depth. Additionally, some coal areas in Central America could not be represented by the mapped surficial geology and are shown only as points based on descriptions or depictions from scientific publications or available maps. The provided GIS files are intended to serve as a backdrop for display of coal information. Three attributes of the coal that are represented by the polygons or points include geologic age (or range of ages), published rank (or range of ranks), and information source (published sources for age, rank, or physical location, or GIS geology base).

  6. Description of Lutzomyia (Coromyia disneyi, n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae-Phlebotominae from Belize, Central America Descrição de Lutzomyia (Coromyia disneyi n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae - Phlebotominae de Belize, America Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Williams

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available The commonest sand fly in limestone caves in Belize, Central America, previously, referred to as Lutzomyia beltrani (Belize form, is described as Lutzomyia (Coromyia disneyi n. sp.O flebótomo mais comum em grutas calcáreas em Belize, América Central, anteriormente descrito como Lutzomyia beltrani (forma Belize é descrito como Lutzomyia (Coromyia disneyi n. sp.

  7. Phylogeny and biogeography of Poecilia (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliinae) across Central and South America based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Adeljean L F C; Pruett, Christin L; Lin, Junda

    2016-08-01

    Poeciliids are a diverse group of small Neotropical fishes, and despite considerable research attention as models in ecology and evolutionary biology, our understanding of their biogeographic and phylogenetic relationships is still limited. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships of South and Central American Poecilia, by examining 2395 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA (ATPase 8/6, COI) and nuclear DNA (S7) for 18 species across six subgenera. Fifty-eight novel sequences were acquired from newly collected specimens and 20 sequences were obtained from previously published material. Analyses of concatenated and partitioned mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA sets resulted in a well-supported phylogeny that resolved several monophyletic groups corresponding to previously hypothesized subgenera and species complexes. A divergence-dating analysis supported the hypothesis of the genus Poecilia dispersing into Central America in the early Pliocene (ancestors of Psychropoecilia+Allopoecilia+Mollienesia: 7.3-2.0Mya) from predominantly South America. Subsequently, one lineage (subgenus Allopoecilia: 5.1-1.3Mya) expanded deeper into South America from Lower-Central America, and one lineage expanded from Nuclear-Central America into South America (subgenus Mollienesia: 0.71-0.14Mya). The subgenus Mollienesia diverged into three monophyletic groups that can be identified by nuptial male dorsal fin morphology and inner jaw dentition. A subclade of the unicuspid short-fins (subgenus Mollienesia) was the lineage that expanded into South America during the middle Pleistocene. Species in this subclade are now distributed across northern South America, where they are partially sympatric with Allopoecilia. However the P. (A.) caucana complex was not monophyletic, with P. (A.) wandae clustering in the Mollienesia subclade that expanded into South America. It is apparent that characters (body size, scale count, pigmentation, and gonopodium morphology) used to define the P. (A

  8. A Single Early Introduction of HIV-1 Subtype B into Central America Accounts for Most Current Cases

    OpenAIRE

    W. Murillo; Veras, N.; Prosperi, M; de Rivera, I L; Paz-Bailey, G.; Morales-Miranda, S.; Juarez, S. I.; Yang, C; Devos, J.; Marin, J. P.; Mild, M.; J. Albert; Salemi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants show considerable geographical separation across the world, but there is limited information from Central America. We provide the first detailed investigation of the genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in six Central American countries. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on 625 HIV-1 pol gene sequences collected between 2002 and 2010 in Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and Belize. Published sequences ...

  9. Attitudes to and visions of civil society/state relations in Central America: implications for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon, Barry; Hume, Mo

    2010-01-01

    This paper will present results of a research project on civil society held in three Central American states, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Honduras, in July and August, 2009, as part of the Irish Aid funded and DCU led Active Citizenship in Central America project. The paper is based on a wide range of events and interviews held in these three countries, with five distinct populations, many of them involved in the Active Citizenship Project: students of NGO Management and Municipal Leadership D...

  10. 78 FR 39259 - Amendment to the 2013 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMITTEE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Amendment to the 2013 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America-Dominican Republic-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) AGENCY: Committee for...

  11. 75 FR 38772 - Amendment to the 2010 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Amendment to the 2010 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America-Dominican Republic-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) AGENCY: Committee for the... Stetson, International Trade Specialist, Office of Textiles and Apparel, U.S. Department of Commerce,...

  12. 77 FR 40589 - Amendment to the 2012 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Amendment to the 2012 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America-Dominican Republic-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) AGENCY: Committee for the... Stetson, International Trade Specialist, Office of Textiles and Apparel, U.S. Department of Commerce,...

  13. Zebra Chip, a New Potato Disease in North and Central America, is Associated with the Potato Psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebra chip (ZC) is an important and emerging potato disease that is causing millions of dollars in losses to both potato producers and processors in the southwestern United States, Mexico, and Central America. This disease is characterized by symptoms that develop in fried chips from infected potato...

  14. A comparative study of Taiwan's short-term medical missions to the South Pacific and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Ya-Wen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taiwan has been dispatching an increasing number of short-term medical missions (STMMs to its allied nations to provide humanitarian health care; however, overall evaluations to help policy makers strengthen the impact of such missions are lacking. Our primary objective is to identify useful strategies by comparing STMMs to the South Pacific and Central America. Methods The data for the evaluation come from two main sources: the official reports of 46 missions to 11 countries in Central America and 25 missions to 8 countries in the South Pacific, and questionnaires completed by health professionals who had participated in the above missions. In Central America, STMMs were staffed by volunteer health professionals from multiple institutions. In the South Pacific, STMMs were staffed by volunteer health professionals from single institutions. Results In comparison to STMMs to Central America, STMMs to the South Pacific accomplished more educational training for local health providers, including providing heath-care knowledge and skills (p Conclusions Health-care services provided by personnel from multiple institutions are as efficient as those from single institutions. Proficiency in the native language and provision of education for local health-care workers are essential for conducting a successful STMM. Our data provide implications for integrating evidence into the deployment of STMMs.

  15. Promoting Healthy Living and Aging in Central America : Multi-sectoral Approaches to Prevent Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla-Chacin, Maria Eugenia; Vásquez, Luis T. Marcano

    2012-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the main cause of death and disability in Central America. However, communicable diseases and maternal and child conditions remain important causes of death and disability as well as injuries. With the aging of the population and improvements in the control of infectious diseases, the share of NCDs in the total burden of disease is likely to increase. H...

  16. Simulation of macroseismic field in Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Drakopoulos

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of seismic intensity is generally influenced by major geological and tectonic features and, on a smaller scale, by local geological conditions, such as the type of surface soil, the surface-to-bedrock soil structure in sedimentary basins and the depth of the saturated zone, The present paper attempted to determine the distribution of macroseismic intensities based on published attenuation laws in the area of Central Greece, using the epicentral intensity, magnitude, length and direction of fault and a considerable number of observation sites, for which the above mentioned information is available, The expected intensity values were then compared to those observed in the same sites, from four earthquakes in Volos, Central Greece, for which the fault plane solutions are also known. The deviations of the observed values from the theoretical model were then related to the local geological conditions and the corresponding correction factor determined for each site.

  17. International relations among Tom Thumbs: Taiwan as provider of aid Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Haro Navejas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Official Development Aid (AOD that has as its source Taiwan and as its destination Central America. It has three basic aims: Firstly, there is a huge bibliographic vacuum on the topic of these pages. Beginning filling it is an academic need. Even some intellectuals feel that they should lean against either Beijing or Taipei, that if they write on Taiwan they should defend or attack one of the contending parties. Here it is seen that a study close to objectivity is possible. Secondly, most of the research in International Relations has been focused on topics related with power itself or with just elements related with hard power. AOD is both hard and soft power, therefore this paper shades light to the dark side partially viewing international relations from a theoretical perspective were interactions help to construct identities and cooperation is an essential variable of world politics. Finally, it will be seen below that the Taiwanese cooperativeeconomic actions are helpful to the progress of poor parts of the Central American region and are helpful to create domestic markets with strong links with the world market deepening the economic integration both regional and global. Aid from Taiwan and some other countries, mainly through the transmission of know how, could be of assistance in surmounting huge troubles. Aid is vital because some of Central American’s problems are being exported mainly to México and the United States under the form, just to give an example, of Mara Salvatrucha gangs source of violence and drug trafficking. It is not meaningless to stress that Taiwanese ODA is by far not enough and is very small in the international context.

  18. Inner forearc response to subduction of the Panama Fracture Zone, southern Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Kristin D.; Fisher, Donald M.; Gardner, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Subduction of the right-lateral Panama Fracture Zone, along the convergent margin of Central America creates abrupt lateral variations in convergence rate, obliquity, and subducting crustal thickness at its intersection with the Middle America Trench. This intersection, known as the Panama (CO-NZ-CA) Triple Junction, is migrating to the southeast at a rate of 55 mm/yr, and currently coincides with the lateral termination of the Fila Costeña Thrust Belt in the inner forearc of the overriding plate. Mapping in the inner forearc in the area that straddles the subducting Panama Fracture Zone reveals that Cocos-Caribbean convergence west of the triple junction leads to the development of an inner forearc thrust belt inboard of the colliding Cocos Ridge, while little deformation is evident inboard of Nazca-Caribbean convergence, east of the triple junction. This results in the lateral termination of the Fila Costeña Thrust Belt in the region of the forearc that projects over the Panama Fracture Zone, where four out of five mapped thrust faults tip out and are buried by lahars. Three new balanced cross-sections indicate a steep gradient in shortening from the center of the thrust belt to its southeastern termination. The short-term history of the inner forearc recorded in the landscape and topography of the Fila Costeña is consistent with the southeastward migration of the thrust belt and the Panama Triple Junction throughout the past ˜ 3 Ma, with evidence for the growth of a new topographic divide and reorganization of stream channel networks.

  19. Naturalization of central European plants in North America: species traits, habitats, propagule pressure, residence time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyšek, Petr; Manceur, Ameur M; Alba, Christina; McGregor, Kirsty F; Pergl, Jan; Stajerová, Katerina; Chytrý, Milan; Danihelka, Jiří; Kartesz, John; Klimesova, Jitka; Lucanova, Magdalena; Moravcová, Lenka; Nishino, Misako; Sadlo, Jiri; Suda, Jan; Tichy, Lubomir; Kühn, Ingolf

    2015-03-01

    The factors that promote invasive behavior in introduced plant species occur across many scales of biological and ecological organization. Factors that act at relatively small scales, for example, the evolution of biological traits associated with invasiveness, scale up to shape species distributions among different climates and habitats, as well as other characteristics linked to invasion, such as attractiveness for cultivation (and by extension propagule pressure). To identify drivers of invasion it is therefore necessary to disentangle the contribution of multiple factors that are interdependent. To this end, we formulated a conceptual model describing the process of invasion of central European species into North America based on a sequence of "drivers." We then used confirmatory path analysis to test whether the conceptual model is supported by a statistical model inferred from a comprehensive database containing 466 species. The path analysis revealed that naturalization of central European plants in North America, in terms of the number of North American regions invaded, most strongly depends on residence time in the invaded range and the number of habitats occupied by species in their native range. In addition to the confirmatory path analysis, we identified the effects of various biological traits on several important drivers of the conceptualized invasion process. The data supported a model that included indirect effects of biological traits on invasion via their effect on the number of native range habitats occupied and cultivation in the native range. For example, persistent seed banks and longer flowering periods are positively correlated with number of native habitats, while a stress-tolerant life strategy is negatively correlated with native range cultivation. However, the importance of the biological traits is nearly an order of magnitude less than that of the larger scale drivers and highly dependent on the invasion stage (traits were associated

  20. Tectonic Stress Field in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHEIDEGGER A. E.

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available Sclieidegger's s t a t i s t i c a l method for the tectonic interp
    r e t a t i o n of e a r t h q u a k e f a u l t plane solutions is applied t o r e c e n t l y published
    solutions of e a r t h q u a k e s which occurred in two areas of Central Europe.
    The results of t h e calculations show t h a t in Southwestern Germany, east of
    t h e e a s t e r n border of t h e Rhino Trench, t h e tectonic stress s t a t e is a tensional
    one, while in Belgium it seems to bo compressional. The P and T
    directions, however, are very similar in b o t h regions.

  1. Pitfalls and Opportunities in Knowledge Sharing - Experiences from a research capacity building project in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Björn Johnson; Jens Müller; Jeffrey Orozco

    2007-01-01

    A number of attempts have been made in the North to assist in the formation of independent research capacities in the South by establishing knowledge sharing through North-South research collaboration. One such attempt was initiated by Danida through its programme for Enhancement of Research Capacity (ENRECA). Aalborg University was approached by the National University of Costa Rica to make a joint research venture within the field of sustainable development. The project got a Central Americ...

  2. Changes in the general circulation and its influence on precipitation trends in Central America: Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenes Vargas, A. (Inst. Meteorologico Nacional, San Jose (Costa Rica). Dept. de Informacion); Saborio Trejos, V.F. (Univ. Nacional, Heredia (Costa Rica). Escuela de Ciencias Geograficas)

    1994-02-01

    A trend analysis of 81 series of precipitation data from the last 30 years (1960-1990) is presented. These series are from meteorological stations distributed throughout Costa Rica on the leeward and windward sides, both of which are affected by the trade-wind regime. Analysis of these data shows that over 75% of Costa Rica has experienced a precipitation decrease during this period. Most of the areas affected by this trend are located along the leeward side of the mountain range which divides the country from north-west to south-east. However, on the windward side there has been a positive trend in precipitation, suggesting a strengthened trade-wind regime. An analysis of data on Atlantic hurricane trajectories since 1900 shows that the total number of hurricanes has increased, but there has been a reduction in the number crossing the Caribbean Basin. The passage of tropical cyclones in the Caribbean Basin accounts for around 70% of total precipitation in the Pacific region of Central America. These countries economies are highly dependent on agriculture, and on water resources for energy generation; thus changes in hurricane patterns and associated rainfall could have important economic consequences. 7 refs, 7 figs

  3. Application of scientific core drilling to geothermal exploration: Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, S.J.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Duffield, W.A. [Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Janik, C.J. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Our efforts in Honduras and Guatemala were part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (AID). Exploration core drilling operations at the Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala sites were part of a geothermal assessment for the national utility companies of these countries to locate and evaluate their geothermal resources for electrical power generation. In Honduras, country-wide assessment of all thermal areas determined that Platanares was the site with the greatest geothermal potential. In late 1986 to middle 1987, three slim core holes were drilled at Platanares to a maximum depth of 680 m and a maximum temperature of 165{degree}C. The objectives were to obtain information on the geothermal gradient, hydrothermal alterations, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids. Two holes produced copious amounts of water under artesian conditions and a total of 8 MW(t) of energy. Geothermal investigations in Guatemala focused on the Tecuamburro Volcano geothermal site. The results of surface geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical studies at Tecuamburro Volcano indicated a substantial shallow heat source. In early 1990 we drilled one core hole, TCB-1, to 808 m depth. The measured bottom hole temperature was 238{degree}C. Although the borehole did not flow, in-situ samples indicate the hole is completed in a vapor-zone above a probable 300{degree}C geothermal reservoir.

  4. Medicinal Plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Used as Immunostimulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Vázquez, María del Carmen; Campos-Xolalpa, Nimsi

    2016-01-01

    A literature review was undertaken by analyzing distinguished books, undergraduate and postgraduate theses, and peer-reviewed scientific articles and by consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases, such as SCOPUS, Web of Science, SCIELO, Medline, and Google Scholar. Medicinal plants used as immunostimulants were classified into two categories: (1) plants with pharmacological studies and (2) plants without pharmacological research. Medicinal plants with pharmacological studies of their immunostimulatory properties were subclassified into four groups as follows: (a) plant extracts evaluated for in vitro effects, (b) plant extracts with documented in vivo effects, (c) active compounds tested on in vitro studies, and (d) active compounds assayed in animal models. Pharmacological studies have been conducted on 29 of the plants, including extracts and compounds, whereas 75 plants lack pharmacological studies regarding their immunostimulatory activity. Medicinal plants were experimentally studied in vitro (19 plants) and in vivo (8 plants). A total of 12 compounds isolated from medicinal plants used as immunostimulants have been tested using in vitro (11 compounds) and in vivo (2 compounds) assays. This review clearly indicates the need to perform scientific studies with medicinal flora from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, to obtain new immunostimulatory agents. PMID:27042188

  5. Asymmetric forest transition driven by the interaction of socioeconomic development and environmental heterogeneity in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redo, Daniel J; Grau, H Ricardo; Aide, T Mitchell; Clark, Matthew L

    2012-06-01

    Forest transitions (FT) have been observed in many developed countries and more recently in the developing world. However, our knowledge of FT from tropical regions is mostly derived from case studies from within a particular country, making it difficult to generalize findings across larger regions. Here we overcome these difficulties by conducting a recent (2001-2010) satellite-based analysis of trends in forest cover across Central America, stratified by biomes, which we related to socioeconomic variables associated with human development. Results show a net decrease of woody vegetation resulting from 12,201 km(2) of deforestation of moist forests and 6,825 km(2) of regrowth of conifer and dry forests. The Human Development Index was the socioeconomic variable best associated with forest cover change. The least-developed countries, Nicaragua and Guatemala, experienced both rapid deforestation of moist forests and significant recovery of conifer and dry forests. In contrast, the most developed countries, Panama and Costa Rica, had net woody vegetation gain and a more stable forest cover configuration. These results imply a good agreement with FT predictions of forest change in relation to socioeconomic development, but strong asymmetry in rates and directions of change largely dependent upon the biome where change is occurring. The FT model should be refined by incorporating ecological and socioeconomic heterogeneity, particularly in multicountry and regional studies. These asymmetric patterns of forest change should be evaluated when developing strategies for conserving biodiversity and environmental services. PMID:22615408

  6. Comparison of GNSS integrated water vapor and NWM reanalysis data over Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Laura Isabel; Natali, Maria Paula; Meza, Amalia; Mendoza, Luciano; Bianchi, Clara

    2016-07-01

    Integrated water vapor (IWV) derived from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and Numerical Weather Models (NWM) reanalysis data were compared in order to assess the consistency between the different datasets over the extended geographical region of Central and South America. The analysis was performed for the seven years period between 2007 and 2013. We analyzed two different NWM: the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis data (ERA Interim) and the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The statistical analysis of the differences was performed in 110 GNSS sites (GPS + GLONASS), although the most interesting results came from the 73 sites which have more than 5 years of data. The selected area involves different climate types, from polar to tropical, and it is characterized by large temporal variability of the integrated total humidity content. Moreover, the scarce coverage of operational radio sounding stations is noticeable in large areas of the selected region; hence the contribution of IWV-GNSS is essential to improve the weather understanding. Considering that the atmospheric water vapor has a highly variable and complex distribution which knowledge is essential for weather prediction and local meteorological studies. This study aims to provide IWV-GNSS observations able to be assimilated by operational weather centers, for both prediction and simulation, as well for improving regional modeling.

  7. Medicinal Plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Used as Immunostimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Juárez-Vázquez, María Del Carmen; Campos-Xolalpa, Nimsi

    2016-01-01

    A literature review was undertaken by analyzing distinguished books, undergraduate and postgraduate theses, and peer-reviewed scientific articles and by consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases, such as SCOPUS, Web of Science, SCIELO, Medline, and Google Scholar. Medicinal plants used as immunostimulants were classified into two categories: (1) plants with pharmacological studies and (2) plants without pharmacological research. Medicinal plants with pharmacological studies of their immunostimulatory properties were subclassified into four groups as follows: (a) plant extracts evaluated for in vitro effects, (b) plant extracts with documented in vivo effects, (c) active compounds tested on in vitro studies, and (d) active compounds assayed in animal models. Pharmacological studies have been conducted on 29 of the plants, including extracts and compounds, whereas 75 plants lack pharmacological studies regarding their immunostimulatory activity. Medicinal plants were experimentally studied in vitro (19 plants) and in vivo (8 plants). A total of 12 compounds isolated from medicinal plants used as immunostimulants have been tested using in vitro (11 compounds) and in vivo (2 compounds) assays. This review clearly indicates the need to perform scientific studies with medicinal flora from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, to obtain new immunostimulatory agents. PMID:27042188

  8. Linking National Parks with its Gateway Communities for Tourism Development in Central America: Nindiri, Nicaragua, Bagazit, Costa Rica and Portobelo, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre G., J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas and national parks are becoming one of the most important forms of land use in Central America. All the projections made by the World Tourism Organization seems to agree that by 2010 Central America, maybe receiving between eight and ten millions tourists, a figure that is almost twice what the region is receiving today. A study was conducted base on 369 direct field surveys conducted in three Central American communities: Bagazit gateway community to Palo Verde National Park, Costa Rica, Nindiri, gateway community to Volcan Masaya National Park, Nicaragua and Portobelo, gateway community to Por-tobelo National Park, Panama. The study found that relative to the socio-demographic variables, that there were no significance differences at the 95% probability level in all four variables, age, sex, education and monthly income of the family. Educational level seems to be the socio-demographic variables affecting more the state of relations. The perception variable being has taken into account in the decision that affects the communities and responsibility to help with community problems are present in two of the three models. The perception variables related to tourism, feel trained to take care of the tourist and existence of businesses that can caters to tourist seem to be key elements in the community perception about the state of relation. Tourism related economic activities and community participation in park decisions are today and will be in the future essential elements in the shaping of community/park relations in Central America as tourism becomes a major economic sector in the region economy.

  9. Microsatellite data suggest significant population structure and differentiation within the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achee Nicole L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles darlingi is the most important malaria vector in the Neotropics. An understanding of A. darlingi's population structure and contemporary gene flow patterns is necessary if vector populations are to be successfully controlled. We assessed population genetic structure and levels of differentiation based on 1,376 samples from 31 localities throughout the Peruvian and Brazilian Amazon and Central America using 5–8 microsatellite loci. Results We found high levels of polymorphism for all of the Amazonian populations (mean RS = 7.62, mean HO = 0.742, and low levels for the Belize and Guatemalan populations (mean RS = 4.3, mean HO = 0.457. The Bayesian clustering analysis revealed five population clusters: northeastern Amazonian Brazil, southeastern and central Amazonian Brazil, western and central Amazonian Brazil, Peruvian Amazon, and the Central American populations. Within Central America there was low non-significant differentiation, except for between the populations separated by the Maya Mountains. Within Amazonia there was a moderate level of significant differentiation attributed to isolation by distance. Within Peru there was no significant population structure and low differentiation, and some evidence of a population expansion. The pairwise estimates of genetic differentiation between Central America and Amazonian populations were all very high and highly significant (FST = 0.1859 – 0.3901, P DA and FST distance-based trees illustrated the main division to be between Central America and Amazonia. Conclusion We detected a large amount of population structure in Amazonia, with three population clusters within Brazil and one including the Peru populations. The considerable differences in Ne among the populations may have contributed to the observed genetic differentiation. All of the data suggest that the primary division within A. darlingi corresponds to two white gene genotypes between Amazonia (genotype 1

  10. Paleomagnetism of the Santa Fé Group, central Brazil: Implications for the late Paleozoic apparent polar wander path for South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Daniele; Ernesto, Marcia; Rocha-Campos, Antonio Carlos; Dos Santos, Paulo Roberto

    2009-02-01

    Paleomagnetic and rockmagnetic data are reported for the Floresta Formation (Santa Fé Group) of the Sanfranciscana Basin, central Brazil. This formation represents the Permo-Carboniferous glacial record of the basin and comprises the Brocotó (diamictites and flow diamictites), Brejo do Arroz (red sandstones and shales with dropstones and invertebrate trails), and Lavado (red sandstones) members, which crop out near the cities of Santa Fé de Minas and Canabrava, Minas Gerais State. Both Brejo do Arroz and Lavado members were sampled in the vicinities of the two localities. Alternating field and thermal demagnetizations of 268 samples from 76 sites revealed reversed components of magnetization in all samples in accordance with the Permo-Carboniferous Reversed Superchron. The magnetic carriers are magnetite and hematite with both minerals exhibiting the same magnetization component, suggesting a primary origin for the remanence. We use the high-quality paleomagnetic pole for the Santa Fé Group (330.9°E 65.7°S; N = 60; α95 = 4.1°; k = 21) in a revised late Carboniferous to early Triassic apparent polar wander path for South America. On the basis of this result it is shown that an early Permian Pangea A-type fit is possible if better determined paleomagnetic poles become available.

  11. Geomorphological impact on agroforestry systems in the interior highlands of Nicaragua, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentler, Axel; Wriessnig, Karin; Ottner, Franz; Schomakers, Jasmin; Benavides González, Álvaro; Cisne Contreras, José Dolores; Querol Lipcovich, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Cerro el Castillo is located in the NW of Nicaragua, Central America, close to the border of Honduras (Provincia Central de las Cordilleras) at 1000-1200m above sea level. In this region, small and medium-sized farms are agroforestry systems with mangos, avocados, coffee, papayas, bananas, strawberries, maize, pumpkins, beans and other vegetables. The production systems are strongly linked to facilities for raising small domestic animals and cows. Main regional agricultural production problems are steep slopes, soil erosion, varying precipitation and distribution, water management and the unstable family income. An investigation of topsoil properties with comparable management systems showed on small scales significant differences in key values of soil chemistry and mineralogy. The outline of the analytical parameters included determination of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) in soil solution, and plant available nutrients (P and K). The soil's mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The area is a highly weathered karst landscape within a tropical limestone region displaying different amounts of volcanic pyroclastic parent material. The dominant Nitisoils and Andosols show degraded argic and andic horizons along the upper half of the mountainside. The pH values in the topsoil are moderate from pH 5.0 to 5.6. The upland topsoil is decalcified and the amount of plant available phosphorous is very low with significant low Ca concentration at the sorption complex. The mineralogical composition points to the high weathering intensity of this area (high content of kaolinite and a lower concentration of potassium and plagioclase feldspars and andesite). Along the upper half of the mountain, the soil profiles show wider C:N ratios and lower amounts of organic matter. Topsoil at lower altitude and with a lower

  12. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Larreynaga, J.; González, M.; Castro, M.; Gavidia, F.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; González-Riancho, P.; Carreño, E.

    2013-11-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and deterministic methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold: on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high-resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps, and from the elevation in the near shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific Basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences-finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the linear and non-linear shallow water equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake-generated tsunami scenarios. Our results show that at the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results

  13. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Álvarez-Gómez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has approximately a length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there have been 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and hundreds of victims. The hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached from both Probabilistic and Deterministic Methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold, on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps and from the elevation in the near-shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences – finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the Linear and Non-linear Shallow Water Equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake generated tsunami scenarios. In the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results obtained

  14. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio; Aniel-Quiroga Zorrilla, Íñigo; Gutiérrez Gutiérrez, Omar Quetzalcóatl; Larreynaga Murcia, Jeniffer; González Rodríguez, Ernesto Mauricio; M. Castro; Gavidia Medina, Francisco; Aguirre Ayerbe, Ignacio; González-Riancho Calzada, Pino; Carreño Herrero, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT. El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate lenght of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700.000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and deterministic m...

  15. Enterocytozoon bieneusi (ORDEN MICROSPORIDIA, FAMILIA Entrerocytozoonidae) IN COSTA RICA: REPORT OF THE FIRST HUMAN CASE IN CENTRAL AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    MISAEL CHINCHILLA; LILLIANA REYES; OLGA M GUERRERO; MAURICIO FRAJAN; MARCO T MORALES

    1997-01-01

    The first case of microsporidiosis in Central America is described in an AIDS patient from Costa Rica. Electronic microscopy studies indicate that the spores were not included in a parasitophorous vacuola, but they are in direct contact with the cell cytoplasm. Sporogonic proliferative plasmodial forms presence ana localization of the polar tubes in the anterior region of the spore, confirmed the specie Enterocytozoon bieneusi as the cause of this microsporidian infection

  16. A new evaluation of Seismic Hazard for the Central America Region in the frame of the RESIS II Project.

    OpenAIRE

    Benito Oterino, Belen; Lindholm, Conrad; Camacho, Eduardo; Climent, Alvaro; Marroquín, Griselda; Molina, Enrique; Rojas, Wilfredo; Segura, José Jorge; Talavera, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    A new evaluation of seismic hazard in the Central America region has been carried out, in the frame of the cooperation project RESIS II, financed by the Norway Cooperation Agency (NORAD). Different experts in seismic hazard from Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua , El Salvador, Norway and Spain participated in the study, which was aimed at obtaining results suitable for seismic design purposes. The analysis started with an exhaustive revision of the seismic catalogues of each country from which...

  17. Active mountain building and the distribution of “core” Maxillariinae species in tropical Mexico and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Stephen H.

    2011-01-01

    The observation that southeastern Central America is a hotspot for orchid diversity has long been known and confirmed by recent systematic studies and checklists. An analysis of the geographic and elevation distribution demonstrates that the most widespread species of “core” Maxillariinae are all adapted to life near sea level, whereas the most narrowly endemic species are largely distributed in wet highland environments. Drier, hotter lowland gaps exist between these cordilleras and evidently restrict the dispersal of the species adapted to wetter, cooler conditions. Among the recent generic realignments of “core” Maxillariinae based on molecular phylogenetics, the Camaridium clade is easily the most prominent genus in Central America and is largely restricted to the highlands of Costa Rica and Panama, indicating that this region is the ancestral home of this genus and that its dispersal limits are drier, lowland cordilleran gaps. The mountains of Costa Rica and Panama are among the geologically youngest topographic features in the Neotropics, reflecting the complex and dynamic interactions of numerous tectonic plates. From consideration of the available geological evidence, I conclude that the rapid growth of the mountain ranges in Costa Rica and Panama during the late Cenozoic times created, in turn, very rapid ranges in ecological life zones and geographic isolation in that part of the isthmus. Thus, I suggest that these recent geologic events were the primary drivers for accelerated orchid evolution in southeastern Central America.

  18. Central America arc volcanic geochemistry: What do we know and what more do we need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, E. K.; Stern, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    This study uses geochemical data for the Central America volcanic arc (CAVA) from the most comprehensive online data portal, Earthchem.org, to assess the quality of data available to the scientific community, geographic sampling bias versus volcano volume, and statistical analyses of CAVA geochemistry. These statistical studies use new or underutilized visualization techniques to present and interpret volcanic heterogeneities and trends associated with tectonic features along the arc. CAVA volcanoes range widely in type, volume, and composition within individual volcanoes and between volcanic complexes. Mean volcanic complex SiO2 concentrations range from 50-70% wt% and Mg# from 44-66. El Salvadoran and Nicaraguan samples, some of which erupted through continental crust of the Chortis terrane, are dominated by high- to medium-Fe tholeiitic to calcalkalic lavas. These lavas have lower incompatible trace element concentrations than do Guatemalan and Costa Rican lavas, erupted through accreted oceanic island arc and Chorotega oceanic plateau crust, which define medium- to low-Fe calcalkalic suites. In addition to providing a valuable representation of CAVA geochemistry, this comprehensive study is useful in identifying where data is lacking. Comprehensive volcanic arc studies are difficult to implement due to the complexity of the tectonic system. Sampling sites are limited due to rugged terrain, limited road access, extreme foliage, or political boundaries. For example, the data obtained for this study show that nearly 21% of samples are from Arenal volcano, which represents less than 0.5% of the volume of the volcanic arc complexes in the data set. Meanwhile, Irazú-Turrialba makes up 11% of the arc volume and less than 4% of the sample set. Since most of the volcano volume is buried by younger lavas, only the outer volcanic layers are typically sampled.

  19. Atmospheric circulation associated with extreme generalized frosts persistence in central-southern South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Gabriela V. [Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Transferencia de Tecnologia a la Produccion, Diamante (CICYTTTP-CONICET), Diamante, Entre Rios (Argentina); Berri, Guillermo J. [Servicio Meteorologico Nacional - CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-03-15

    Generalized frosts (GF) in central-southern South America have a strong impact due to their spatial extension, and they are especially important when they become persistent. This paper aims at identifying the atmospheric circulation features that determine the extreme GF persistence, i.e. very persistent and without persistence, and the differences between them, during the 1961-1990 winters. Since the GF without persistence group outnumbers the other one, two subgroups are composed with events selected from winters with maximum and minimum frequency of GF occurrence, respectively. Additionally, the individual event of July 1988 within the very persistent GF group is analyzed due to its exceptional persistence. GF persistence is mainly conditioned by two large-scale dynamic factors. One is the Rossby wave train propagation across the Pacific Ocean, and the other one is the location with respect to the continent and the magnitude of the confluence in the jet entrance region in subtropical latitudes. A predominantly meridional Rossby wave train propagation with a confluence region to the west of the continent prior to the event favors GF with intermediate (null) persistence depending on the greater (lesser) jet acceleration. This is conditioned by the magnitude of the confluence, which, in turn, depends on the disposition of the wave train propagation pattern. Instead, an essentially zonal propagation with a confluence region to the east of the continent favors the GF persistence for several days, yet if there is no confluence the event does not persist. The greatest persistence of an event combines the confluence/diffluence of the jet entrance/exit region, which depends on the disposition with respect to the continent of the zonally propagating Rossby wave trains. (orig.)

  20. Offspring production in three freshwater crab species (Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae from the Amazon region and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo S. Wehrtmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are an important component of the fauna of limnic environments, and out of the two true freshwater crab families present in the Neotropics, Pseudothelphusidae is the most diverse. Considering the lack of information regarding reproductive features of neotropical freshwater crabs, we studied, for the first time, the fecundity and the presence of juveniles carried by females of two pseudothelphusids from the Amazon region - Kingsleya latifrons (Randall, 1840 and Kingsleya ytupora Magalhães, 1986 - and one from Central America - Potamocarcinus magnus (Rathbun, 1896. The two Kingsleya species produced relatively few (56-114 and large eggs (1.9-3.7 mm, typical for species with an abbreviated or direct development. Recently produced eggs were substantially larger in K. latifrons (mean 2.83 mm when compared to those of K. ytupora (mean 1.87 mm; however, at the end of the embryogenesis, mean egg diameter was similar in both species. Therefore, it is assumed that hatchlings in both species should have a similar size. A brief description of attached juveniles of K. ytupora is provided. The number of juveniles varied between 30 (K. ytupora and 179 (P. magnus; two size groups of juveniles were found, which indicates that the offspring cling to their mother for a prolonged period of time. There was no significant loss of eggs and juveniles; it is assumed that parental care diminishes the loss of their offspring. We compiled the available information of reproductive aspects from freshwater crabs: egg diameter was in the range of 2-3 mm, independent of female size and fecundity, and reported egg number varied between 9 and 417 eggs.

  1. Emerging deforestation trends in tropical dry forests ecoregions of Mexico and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, C. A.; Cao, G.; Smith, V.

    2015-12-01

    Neotropical dry forests (TDF) have experienced an unprecedented deforestation that is leading to the loss of tropical biodiversity at a rapid pace, but information on deforestation dynamics in TDF is scarce. In this study, we present a sub-continental and national level assessment of TDF loss patterns in Mexico and Central America at high spatial and temporal resolution using remote sensing and GIS technologies. We used the Global Forest Change (GFC) dataset published by Hansen et al. (2013) which shows results from time-series analysis of Landsat images in characterizing global forest extent and change from 2000 through 2013. We analyzed forest loss within and around mapped TDF cover mapped by Portillo-Quintero et al. 2010. In order to minimize errors in source data, we overlaid a 25 x 25 km grid on top of the regional dataset and conducted a cell by cell and country by country inspection at multiple scales using high resolution ancillary data. We identified trends in the clustering of space-time TDF deforestation data using ArcGIS, categorizing trends in: new, consecutive, intensifying, persistent, diminishing, sporadic, oscillating and historical hotspots (high frequency of deforestation events) and cold spots (low frequency of deforestation). In general, the region is experiencing less frequent deforestation events with a higher number of intensifying and new cold spots across TDF landscapes. However, an important number of intensifying and persistent hotspots exist so no general trend in forest loss was detected for the period 2001-2013, except for El Salvador which shows a significant decreasing trend in forest loss. Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Guatemala are the major sources of intensifying, persistent and new deforestation hot spots. These were identified in the southern pacific coast and the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, northwestern Guatemala, both western and eastern Honduras and around Lake Nicaragua in Nicaragua.

  2. Weak magnetic fields in central stars of planetary nebulae?

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, M; Todt, H; Schöller, M; Hamann, W -R; Sandin, C; Schönberner, D

    2014-01-01

    It is not yet clear whether magnetic fields play an essential role in shaping planetary nebulae (PNe), or whether stellar rotation alone and/or a close binary companion can account for the variety of the observed nebular morphologies. In a quest for empirical evidence verifying or disproving the role of magnetic fields in shaping PNe, we follow up on previous attempts to measure the magnetic field in a representative sample of PN central stars. We obtained low-resolution polarimetric spectra with FORS 2 at VLT for a sample of twelve bright central stars of PNe with different morphology, including two round nebulae, seven elliptical nebulae, and three bipolar nebulae. Two targets are Wolf-Rayet type central stars. For the majority of the observed central stars, we do not find any significant evidence for the existence of surface magnetic fields. However, our measurements may indicate the presence of weak mean longitudinal magnetic fields of the order of 100 Gauss in the central star of the young elliptical pla...

  3. Discussion on telluric field and seismic activity in Central Greece

    OpenAIRE

    J. Zlotnicki; G. N. Tsokas; G. Vargemezis

    2000-01-01

    Two stations were installed in the Southeastern Thessaly basin (Central Greece), recording the geomagnetic and telluric fields from 1993 to 1996. The aim was to detect long-term abnormal changes of the telluric field, which were possibly related to imbedding earthquakes. Between January 1993 and October 1996, 213 and185 (Neraida and Mavrolofos stations respectively) abnormal changes of the telluric field were observed in association with the seismic activity. The duration of these changes var...

  4. Energy integration experiences at the Europe, at the Nordic countries and at the Central America: considerations relevant to the South America integration process; Experiencias de integracao energetica na Europa, nos paises nordicos e na America Central: consideracoes relevantes ao processo de integracao Sul-Americana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Adriana Fiorotti; Andreza, Fernanda Marques Pereira; Soares, Jeferson Borghetti; Pinheiro, Maria Fernanda Bacile; Oliveira, Ricardo Gorini de [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: adriana.campos@epe.gov.br, fernanda.andreza@epe.gov.br; jeferson.soares@epe.gov.br, maria.pinheiro, ricardo.gorini@epe.gov.br

    2010-07-01

    In view of institutional/contractual regulatory problems at the South America, some experiences of energy integration at the electrical sectors and natural gas (Nordic countries. European Union and Central America), identifying related vantages and advantageous. Besides, there is an attempt of characterization of the process step of energy integration, and the fitting of regions in these steps, observing that the process of energy integration in the South America it is found in a initial step yet if it is considered the used methodology by the Colombian enterprise Interconexion Electrica S.A.E.S.P. - ISA (2007)

  5. Is violence associated with increased risk behavior among MSM? Evidence from a population-based survey conducted across nine cities in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Jennifer; Anfinson, Katherine; Valvert, Dennis; Lungo, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objective: There is a dearth of research examining the linkages between violence and HIV risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM), including those who identify as transgender women (TW), particularly in Central America where violence is widespread. In this paper, we use population-based survey results to independently examine the correlations between physical, emotional and sexual violence and HIV risk behavior among MSM populations in five countries in Central America.D...

  6. IODP CRISP Program A: the first step toward drilling the Seismogenic Zone in Central America (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, P.; Ujiie, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) will start its CRISP (Costa RIca Seismogenesis Project) drilling operations in March 2011. CRISP aims to eventually reach the seismogenic zone of the Central America erosional convergent margin. The shallow dip of the subduction zone offshore southern Costa Rica and the relatively high temperature of the subducting ocean crust bring materials and processes involved in seismogenesis to depths reachable by drilling with the riser ship Chikyu (about 5 km). CRISP is structured into non-riser (Program A) and riser (Program B) stages that systematically proceed from shallow non-riser to deep riser drilling. Program A drilling will use standard ODP drilling technology allowing us to sample upper plate basement rock. This information is necessary background for Program B which will penetrate 5 km into this still unknown material. Moreover upper plate geology can directly influence seismogenesis since the subduction channel of an erosional margin receives material eroded from the upper plate. Therefore the lithology, alteration, and fracturing that controls erosion presumably will directly affect plate boundary friction. Program A contains several stand-alone objectives. CRISP Program A is the first scientific drilling program designed to characterize an erosional margin. The two priority drill sites on the middle and upper slope are designed to quantify subduction erosion and its effects on seismogenesis. The subduction of a bathymetric high, Cocos Ridge in this case, is responsible for accelerating the process of subduction erosion, but details on forearc deformation, e.g. the evolution of uplift/subsidence/tilting, are still matters of active debate. Defining the evolution of forearc deformation will help us to better understand the margin’s dynamics and transient stress accumulation processes. The deformation of the forearc has also produced preferential fluid pathways across the upper plate; pathways that have been

  7. Chronological refinement of an ice core record at Upper Fremont Glacier in south central North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential to use ice cores from alpine glaciers in the midlatitudes to reconstruct paleoclimatic records has not been widely recognized. Although excellent paleoclimatic records exist for the polar regions, paleoclimatic ice core records are not common from midlatitude locations. An ice core removed from the Upper Fremont Glacier in Wyoming provides evidence for abrupt climate change during the mid-1800s. Volcanic events (Krakatau and Tambora) identified from electrical conductivity measurements (ECM) and isotopic and chemical data from the Upper Fremont Glacier were reexamined to confirm and refine previous chronological estimates of the ice core. At a depth of 152 m the refined age-depth profile shows good agreement (1736±10 A.D.) with the 14C age date (1729±95 A.D.). The δ18O profile of the Upper Fremont Glacier (UFG) ice core indicates a change in climate known as the Little Ice Age (LIA). However, the sampling interval for δ18O is sufficiently large (20 cm) such that it is difficult to pinpoint the LIA termination on the basis of δ18O data alone. Other research has shown that changes in the δ18O variance are generally coincident with changes in ECM variance. The ECM data set contains over 125,000 data points at a resolution of 1 data point per millimeter of ice core. A 999-point running average of the ECM data set and results from f tests indicates that the variance of the ECM data decreases significantly at about 108 m. At this depth, the age-depth profile predicts an age of 1845 A.D. Results indicate the termination of the LIA was abrupt with a major climatic shift to warmer temperatures around 1845 A.D. and continuing to present day. Prediction limits (error bars) calculated for the profile ages are ±10 years (90% confidence level). Thus a conservative estimate for the time taken to complete the LIA climatic shift to present-day climate is about 10 years, suggesting the LIA termination in alpine regions of central North America may have occurred

  8. A GPS and modelling study of deformation in northern Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M.; DeMets, C.; Rogers, R.; Tenorio, C.; Hernandez, D.

    2009-09-01

    We use GPS measurements at 37 stations in Honduras and El Salvador to describe active deformation of the western end of the Caribbean Plate between the Motagua fault and Central American volcanic arc. All GPS sites located in eastern Honduras move with the Caribbean Plate, in accord with geologic evidence for an absence of neotectonic deformation in this region. Relative to the Caribbean Plate, the other stations in the study area move west to west-northwest at rates that increase gradually from 3.3 +/- 0.6 mm yr-1 in central Honduras to 4.1 +/- 0.6 mm yr-1 in western Honduras to as high as 11-12 mm yr-1 in southern Guatemala. The site motions are consistent with slow westward extension that has been inferred by previous authors from the north-striking grabens and earthquake focal mechanisms in this region. We examine the factors that influence the regional deformation by comparing the new GPS velocity field to velocity fields predicted by finite element models (FEMs) that incorporate the regional plate boundary faults and known plate motions. Our modelling suggests that the obliquely convergent (~20°) direction of Caribbean-North American Plate motion relative to the Motagua fault west of 90°W impedes the ENE-directed motion of the Caribbean Plate in southern Guatemala, giving rise to extension in southern Guatemala and western Honduras. The FEM predictions agree even better with the measured velocities if the plate motion west of the Central American volcanic arc is forced to occur over a broad zone rather than along a single throughgoing plate boundary fault. Our analysis confirms key predictions of a previous numerical model for deformation in this region, and also indicates that the curvature of the Motagua fault causes significant along-strike changes in the orientations of the principal strain-rate axes in the fault borderlands, in accord with earthquake focal mechanisms and conclusions reached in a recent synthesis of the structural and morphologic data

  9. Fabric Characterization of Mantle beneath South Central North America: Constraints from Peridotite Xenoliths from Knippa and Kilbourne Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsukawa, T.; Michibayashi, K.; Raye, U.; Stern, R. J.; Anthony, E. Y.

    2009-12-01

    Knippa quarry and Kilbourne Hole are sites where we can study samples of the upper mantle beneath Texas and New Mexico. Knippa peridotite xenoliths are hosted by ~86 Ma nepehlinites of the Balcones Igneous Province in central Texas. Kilbourne Hole maar, Potrillo volcanic field (PVF) near El Paso, erupted basanite approximately 10 Ka ago and thus the xenoliths represent present-day thermal and compositional character of this segment of the continental mantle. Both provide rare snapshots of upper mantle processes and compositions beneath south-central Laurentia. The xenolith suites are dominated by lherzolite, harzburgite and dunite, although pyroxenites are also common at Kilbourne Hole. Temperatures determined using the Ca in opx thermometer (Brey and Kohler, 1990) range between 900 and 1000C. Kilbourne Hole peridotites are several types. Fine-grained lherzolite has the lowest temperatures, porphyroclastic lherzolite intermediate temperature, and harzburgite and dunite the highest temperature. Large olivine grains commonly contain subgrain boundaries. The dominant slip system in olivine was determined from the orientations of the axes of subgrain rotation and CPO data. Olivine CPO data show strong concentration in [100] and [100]{0kl} patterns in Knippa peridotites, and [100](010) and [010]-fiber patterns in Kilbourne peridotites. We interpret the development of [010]-fiber patterns to: (i) axial shortening or 3D transpressive deformation, (ii) activation of multiple glide directions, (iii) deformation in the presence of melt. Presence of melt is also indicated by xenolith elemental compositions, which indicate melt infiltration and reaction. CPO strength is characterized by the dimensionless texture index “J”. J-index of Knippa peridotites varies from 4.6 to 11.4. Kilbourne Hole peridotite J-indices positively correlate with temperature, varying from 5 to 10 for the low temperature lherzolite to an unusually high value of 20 for the harzburgite and dunite

  10. Field review of fish habitat improvement projects in central Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this field review was to provide information to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) regarding previous and ongoing fish habitat improvement projects in central Idaho. On July 14, 1992, the review team met at the Sawtooth National Recreation Area office near Ketchum, Idaho, for a slide presentation illustrating several habitat projects during their construction phases. Following the slide presentation, the review team inspected fish habitat projects that have been implemented in the last several years in the Stanley Basin and adjacent valleys. At each site the habitat project was described to the field team and a brief period for project inspection followed. The review team visited approximately a dozen sites on the Challis, Sawtooth, and Boise National Forests over a period of approximately two and a half days. There are two objectives of this review namely to summarize observations for specific field sites and to provide overview commentary regarding the BPA habitat improvement program in central Idaho

  11. Field Review of Fish Habitat Improvement Projects in Central Idaho.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beschta, Robert L.; Griffith, Jack; Wesche, Thomas A.

    1993-05-01

    The goal of this field review was to provide information to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) regarding previous and ongoing fish habitat improvement projects in central Idaho. On July 14, 1992, the review team met at the Sawtooth National Recreation Area office near Ketchum, Idaho, for a slide presentation illustrating several habitat projects during their construction phases. Following the slide presentation, the review team inspected fish habitat projects that have been implemented in the last several years in the Stanley Basin and adjacent valleys. At each site the habitat project was described to the field team and a brief period for project inspection followed. The review team visited approximately a dozen sites on the Challis, Sawtooth, and Boise National Forests over a period of approximately two and a half days. There are two objectives of this review namely to summarize observations for specific field sites and to provide overview commentary regarding the BPA habitat improvement program in central Idaho.

  12. Central Bank independence in Latin America La independencia de la Banca Central en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junguito Bonnet Roberto

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the origin and evolution of the central banks of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela, and analyzes their respective institutional structures. It also studies the contribution of the central bank to stabilization and the problems for maintaining this independence into the future.Este artículo describe el origen y la evolución de los Bancos Centrales de Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, México y Venezuela, y analiza sus respectivas estructruras institucionales. También estudia la contribución de la banca central a la estabilización y los problemas para que esta independencia se mantenga en el futuro.

  13. Mid-term evaluation of the NRECA (National Rural Electric Cooperative Association) Central America Rural Electrification Support Program (CARES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Jones, H.G. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); Garcia, A. III (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering); Flores, E. (Flores (Edgar), Guatemala City (Guatemala))

    1990-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory was requested by the Regional Office for Central America and Panama to conduct a mid-term evaluation of the Cares Project, which is being implemented by the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. This evaluation was conducted over a three week period by a four person team. Overall, the project has had numerous successes and is highly valued by local counterpart utilities and USAID Missions. Notwithstanding the significant results of the project, changes can be made in certain operating procedures and in the direction of some programmatic activities that can lead to an even more effective project.

  14. Tree-ring records of near-Younger Dryas time in central North America - Preliminary results from the Lincoln quarry site, central Illinois, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyushkina, Irina P.; Leavitt, Steven W.; Wiedenhoeft, A.; Noggle, S.; Curry, B.; Grimm, E.

    2004-01-01

    The abrupt millennial-scale changes associated with the Younger Dryas (YD) event ("chronozone") near the dawn of the Holocene are at least hemispheric, if not global, in extent. Evidence for the YD cold excursion is abundant in Europe but fairly meager in central North America. We are engaged in an investigation of high-resolution environmental changes in mid-North America over several millennia (about 10,000 to 14,000 BP) during the Late Glacial-Early Holocene transition, including the YD interval. Several sites containing logs or stumps have been identified and we are in the process of initial sampling or re-sampling them for this project. Here, we report on a site in central Illinois containing a deposit of logs initially thought to be of YD age preserved in alluvial sands. The assemblage of wood represents hardwood (angiosperm) trees, and the ring-width characteristics are favorable to developing formal tree-ring chronologies. However, 4 new radiocarbon dates indicate deposition of wood may have taken place over at least 8000 14C yr (6000-14,000 BP). This complicates the effort to develop a single floating chronology of several hundred years at this site, but it may provide wood from a restricted region over a long period of time from which to develop a sequence of floating chronologies, the timing of deposition and preservation of which could be related to paleoclimatic events and conditions.

  15. From East Gondwana to Central America: Historical biogeography of the Alstroemeriaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern South America and Australia/New Zealand share some 15 plant families more or less restricted to them. Understanding these Austral floristic links requires extensive sampling in both regions. For the Alstroemeriaceae, with 189 species in three South American genera, two in an Australian/Tasm...

  16. Increased number of cases of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection imported from the Caribbean and Central America to northern Italy, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, G; Gaibani, P; Vocale, C; Finarelli, A C; Landini, M P

    2016-07-01

    This report describes an increased number of cases of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection imported in northern Italy (Emilia-Romagna region) during the period May-September 2014, indicating that the recent spread of CHIKV and its establishment in the Caribbean and in central America, resulted in a high number of imported cases in Europe, thus representing a threat to public health. From May to September 2014, 14 imported cases of CHIKV infection were diagnosed; the patients were returning to Italy from Dominican Republic (n = 6), Haiti (n = 3), Guadeloupe (n = 2), Martinique (n = 1), Puerto Rico (n = 1) and Venezuela (n = 1). Phylogenetic analysis performed on the envelope protein (E1) gene sequences, obtained from plasma samples from two patients, indicated that the virus strain belongs to the Caribbean clade of the Asian genotype currently circulating in the Caribbean and Americas. The rise in the number of imported cases of CHIKV infection should increase healthcare professionals' awareness of the epidemiological situation and clinical presentation of CHIKV infection in order to enhance surveillance and early diagnosis in the forthcoming season of vector activity in Europe and North America. PMID:26751121

  17. The complex biogeography of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa: genetic evidence of introductions and Subspecific introgression in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunney, Leonard; Ortiz, Beatriz; Russell, Stephanie A; Ruiz Sánchez, Rebeca; Stouthamer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen with a history of economically damaging introductions of subspecies to regions where its other subspecies are native. Genetic evidence is presented demonstrating the introduction of two new taxa into Central America and their introgression into the native subspecies, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa. The data are from 10 genetic outliers detected by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of isolates from Costa Rica. Six (five from oleander, one from coffee) defined a new sequence type (ST53) that carried alleles at six of the eight loci sequenced (five of the seven MLST loci) diagnostic of the South American subspecies Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca which causes two economically damaging plant diseases, citrus variegated chlorosis and coffee leaf scorch. The two remaining loci of ST53 carried alleles from what appears to be a new South American form of X. fastidiosa. Four isolates, classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa, showed a low level of introgression of non-native DNA. One grapevine isolate showed introgression of an allele from X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca while the other three (from citrus and coffee) showed introgression of an allele with similar ancestry to the alleles of unknown origin in ST53. The presence of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca in Central America is troubling given its disease potential, and establishes another route for the introduction of this economically damaging subspecies into the US or elsewhere, a threat potentially compounded by the presence of a previously unknown form of X. fastidiosa. PMID:25379725

  18. The geometry of the Wadati-Benioff zone under southern Central America and its tectonic significance: results from a high-resolution local seismographic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, Marino; Gu¨ndel, Federico; McNally, Karen

    1994-07-01

    We present here a detailed geometry of the Wadati-Benioff zone under Costa Rica, obtained from seismicity recorded by a dense local seismographic network jointly operated by the Costa Rica Volcanological and Seismological Observatory, National University, and the Charles F. Richter Seismological Laboratory, University of California, Santa Cruz. Underneath the Nicaragua-Costa Rica border the Wadati-Benioff zone smoothly contorts (from steep to shallow dip angles, NW to SE), but does not show evidence of a brittle tear, as postulated by others. However, further to the SE, NE of Puerto Caldera, Costa Rica, the Wadati-Benioff zone does show a segmentation (the Quesada Sharp Contortion) at intermediate depths ( h > 70km). NW of this sharp contortion the deepest portion of the seismically active slab dips at about 80° and reaches maximum depths ranging from 200 km, near the Nicaragua-Costa Rica border, to 135 km under Ciudad Quesada. To the SE the deeper portion of the Wadati-Benioff zone dips at about 60° and the seismicity does not extend below depths ranging from 125 km, behind the volcanic arc, to 50 km, east of Quepos. In southern Costa Rica, east of 83°55'W, we find no evidence of the Wadati-Benioff zone deeper than 50 km. The obtained geometry and other known tectonic features related to the subduction of the Cocos plate under the Caribbean plate along the southern terminus of the Middle America Trench (Nicaragua and Costa Rica) correlate well with along-trench variations in age of the subducted Cocos plate. Some of these tectonic features are: (1) the shallowing of Middle America Trench bathymetry from NW to SE; (2) variations in the energy release within the subducted slab; (3) differences in coupling between Cocos and Caribbean plates; (4) the termination of the Central America Volcanic Chain in central Costa Rica; (5) distinct stress field variations on the overriding Caribbean plate. The subduction of the Cocos Ridge under southern Costa Rica is partially

  19. Storm-time total electron content and its response to penetration electric fields over South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. de Siqueira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the response of the ionosphere due to the severe magnetic storm of 7–10 November 2004 is investigated by analyzing GPS Total Electron Content (TEC maps constructed for the South America sector. In order to verify the disturbed zonal electric fields in South America during the superstorm, ionospheric vertical drift data obtained from modeling results are used in the analysis. The vertical drifts were inferred from ΔH magnetometer data (Jicamarca-Piura following the methodology presented by Anderson et al. (2004. Also used were vertical drifts measured by the Jicamarca ISR. Data from a digisonde located at São Luís, Brazil (2.33° S, 44.2° W, dip latitude 0.25° are presented to complement the Jicamarca equatorial data. Penetration electric fields were observed by the comparison between the equatorial vertical drifts and the Interplanetary Electric Field (IEF. The TEC maps obtained from GPS data reflect the ionospheric response over the South America low-latitude and equatorial region. They reveal unexpected plasma distributions and TEC levels during the main phase of the superstorm on 7 November, which is coincident with the local post-sunset hours. At this time an increase in the pre-reversal enhancement was expected to develop the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA but we observed the absence of EIA. The results also reveal well known characteristics of the plasma distributions on 8, 9, and 10 November. The emphasized features are the expansion and intensification of EIA due to prompt penetration electric fields on 9 November and the inhibition of EIA during post-sunset hours on 7, 8, and 10 November. One important result is that the TEC maps provided a bi-dimensional view of the ionospheric changes offering a spatial description of the electrodynamics involved, which is an advantage over TEC measured by isolated GPS receivers.

  20. Assessing the suitability of Holocene environments along the central Belize coast, Central America, for the reconstruction of hurricane records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomat, Friederike; Gischler, Eberhard

    2016-03-01

    Since the Belize coast was repeatedly affected by hurricanes and the paleohurricane record for this region is poor, sediment cores from coastal lagoon environments along the central Belize coast have been examined in order to identify storm deposits. The paleohurricane record presented in this study spans the past 8000 years and exhibits three periods with increased evidences of hurricane strikes occurring at 6000-4900, 4200-3600 and 2200-1500 cal yr BP. Two earlier events around 7100 and 7900 cal yr BP and more recent events around 180 cal yr BP and during modern times have been detected. Sand layers, redeposited corals and lagoon shell concentrations have been used as proxies for storm deposition. Additionally, hiatuses and reversed ages may indicate storm influence. While sand layers and corals represent overwash deposits, the lagoon shell concentrations, which mainly comprise the bivalve Anomalocardia cuneimeris and cerithid gastropods, have been deposited due to changes in lagoon salinity during and after storm landfalls. Comparison with other studies reveals similarities with one record from Belize, but hardly any matches with other published records. The potential for paleotempestology reconstructions of the barrier-lagoon complexes along the central Belize coast differs depending on geomorphology, and deposition of washovers in the lagoon basins is limited, probably due to the interplay of biological, geological and geomorphological processes.

  1. Firm dollar debt and central bank dollar reserves: Empirical evidence from Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeswari Sengupta

    2014-01-01

    I explore an empirically robust but previously undocumented association between the foreign exchange reserves accumulated by central banks of emerging market economies and dollar-denominated debt held in the balance sheets of non financial sector firms. Borrowing in dollars can have damaging effects on corporate balance sheets in the event of exchange rate depreciation. However, firms may discount such risk because of the implicit insurance provided by the central banks ex-ante reserve accumu...

  2. The Tonalá fault in southeastern Mexico: Evidence that the Central America forearc sliver is not being detached?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Speziale, M.; Molina-Garza, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Tonalá fault is a NW-SE oriented feature that flanks the Chiapas Massif on its southwestern side. Several authors coincide that the fault originally developed as a right-lateral structure in the Jurassic, but was reactivated as a left-lateral fault in the Miocene. Seismicity along the fault is low: Only one earthquake with magnitude 5.0 or larger is reported along the Tonalá fault in the years 1964 to present. Fault-plane solutions determined by the Mexican Seismological Survey for earthquakes along the fault show left-lateral, strike-slip faulting. The Tonalá fault lies on the northwestern continuation of the Central America volcanic arc. The volcanic arc is the site of medium-sized (magnitudes up to 6.5) shallow, right-lateral, strike-slip earthquakes. This has led several workers to propose that the forearc sliver is being detached from the Caribbean plate along the arc, moving northward. GPS studies have confirmed relative motion between the Chortis block and the forearc sliver. Recent and current motion along the Tonalá fault is in contradiction with motion and detachment of the forearc sliver along the Central America volcanic arc. Left-lateral motion along it cannot accomodate northwest displacement of the forearc sliver. Motion of the Central America forearc would require NW directed compression between the continental shelf of Chiapas and the forearc itself, which is not observed. Therefore, either another fault (or faults) accomodates right-lateral motion and detachment of the forearc sliver, or the sliver is not being detached and relative motion between the forearc sliver and the Chortis block corresponds to displacement of the latter. We suggest that, as proposed by previous authors, the Tonalá fault is instead part of a fault system that runs from the state of Oaxaca (the Valle Nacional fault), forming an arc concave to the northeast, and running perpendicular to the maximum slope of subduction in the area.

  3. Carbon cycle dynamics and solar activity embedded in a high-resolution 14C speleothem record from Belize, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechleitner, Franziska A.; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; McIntyre, Cameron; Asmerom, Yemane; Prufer, Keith M.; Polyak, Victor; Culleton, Brendan J.; Kennett, Douglas J.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Baldini, James U. L.

    2015-04-01

    Speleothem 14C has recently emerged as a potentially powerful proxy for climate reconstruction. Several studies have highlighted the link between karst hydrology and speleothem 14C content, and a number of possible causes for this relationship have been proposed, such as dripwater flow dynamics in the karst and changes in soil organic matter (SOM) turnover time (e.g. Griffiths et al., 2012). Here we present a high resolution 14C record for a stalagmite (YOK-I) from Yok Balum cave in southern Belize, Central America. YOK-I grew continuously over the last 2000 years, and has been dated very precisely with the U-Th method (40 dates, mean uncertainty ventilation and hydrologic resilience to seismic activity, Journal of Cave and Karst Studies

  4. STRECA project: A north-south collaboration initiative for strengthening radioactive waste management infrastructure in Central America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presented project (STRECA) intends to expand the knowledge and experience gained in previous projects of collaboration between Latin American and European countries. During a first workshop held in Cuba in July 2004, a number of countries from Central America and the Caribbean met with representatives from France, Spain and Sweden to discuss these topics and propose possible way forward to further develop their internal expertise and promote multilateral co-operation. This paper presents the findings from this workshop and proposes a work program to fulfil some insufficiencies in the countries of the Sub region such as: regulatory framework, education and training of human resources, application of technologies, safety assessment tools, environmental monitoring capabilities, etc. (author)

  5. Structural Vulnerability among Migrating Women and Children Fleeing Central America and Mexico:The Public Health Impact of Humanitarian Parole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Salerno Valdez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since October 2013, US Customs and Border Patrol (USCBP has apprehended 15,979 families on the Southwest Border of the United States. Daily, migrating women and children from Mexico and Central America that qualify for humanitarian parole are released from immigration detention to a humanitarian aid organization in Southern Arizona. After several days in detention facilities, these families arrive tired, hungry, dehydrated, and with minimal direction regarding their final destination, and adherence to the parameters of their parole. Project Helping Hands (PHH utilizes a network of volunteers to provide the women and children with food, water, clothing, hygiene products, hospitality, and legal orientation. The aim of this assessment was to document the experiences of families granted humanitarian parole through the lens of structural vulnerability. Here we apply qualitative methods to elicit PHH lead volunteer perspectives regarding the migration experience of migrating families. Using inductive analysis, we found six major themes emerged from the qualitative data: reasons for leaving, experience on the journey, dehumanization in detention, family separation, vulnerability, and resiliency.These findings elucidate the different physical and psychological distresses that migrating families from Mexico and Central America experience before, during and after their arrival at the US-Mexico border. We posit that these distresses are a result of, or exacerbated by, structural vulnerability. Structural vulnerability has life-long health implications for a sub-population of young mothers and their children. The number of migrating families who have experienced traumatic events before, and during their migration experience continues to expand and thus warrants consideration of mental health surveillance and intervention efforts for these families. More public health research is needed to better understand and combat the health challenges of this growing

  6. Rainforest understory beetles of the Neotropics: Mizotrechus Bates 1872, a generic synopsis with descriptions of new species from Central America and northern South America (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Perigonini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Erwin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Information on the single previously described species, Mizotrechus novemstriatus Bates 1872 (type locality: Brazil – Amazonas, Tefé, is updated and 17 new species for the genus from Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panamá, Colombia, Venezuela, and Guyane are described. The species records in the literature and on determined specimens in some collections of M. novemstriatus Bates from Central America are not that species; currently, M. novemstriatus is known only from its type locality in Amazonian Brazil. For the new species described, their known general distributions are as follows: Mizotrechus batesi sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus bellorum sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus brulei sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus belevedere sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus costaricensis sp. n. (Costa Rica, Mizotrechus dalensi sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus edithpiafae sp. n. (provenance unknown, Mizotrechus fortunensis sp. n. (Panamá, Mizotrechus gorgona. sp. n. (Colombia, Mizotrechus grossus sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus jefe sp. n. (Panamá, Mizotrechus marielaforetae sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus minutus sp. n. (Guyane, Mizotrechus neblinensis sp. n. (Guyane, Venezuela, Mizotrechus poirieri sp. n. (Guyane, and Mizotrechus woldai sp. n. (Panamá. Long-term use of flight intercept traps in Guyane provided so many new species that apparently the use of FITs is the way to collect adults of this taxon, previously known from very few specimens. Many more species of this genus can be expected to be discovered throughout the Neotropics; the present contribution is a preliminary synopsis with identification key and adult images of all known species. Likely numerous species are yet to be discovered throughout tropical climes.

  7. Higher Education in Central America: Historical Foundations for Its Future Projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Ricardo Sol

    1996-01-01

    Three trends in Central American higher education are examined in historical context: (1) inertia from lack of mobility, bureaucracy, and corporate influence; (2) elitism as a response to budgetary constraints; and (3) attempts to increase responsiveness to educational needs and demands. Issues examined include earlier attempts at change, slow…

  8. Discovery and development of the Petapahan oil field, central Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roezin, S.

    1974-01-01

    The Petapahan oil field is located about 60 km west of Pekanbaru, the capital of Riau Province and just north of Tapung Kiri River in central Sumatra. The field covers approx. 3,200 acres. At the end of 1973, 17 wells had been drilled in the field with 2 dry holes. Of the remaining 15 wells, 12 are on production and 3 are shut in, awaiting production testing. Production of 33' API gravity oil is obtained from 3 separate sandstone reservoirs at the rate of approx. 40,000 bpd. Cumulative production to Dec. 31, 1973 was 14.7 million bbl of oil. Oil was discovered in 3 separate sands in the lower Miocene Sihapas Group. The sands, designated as A, B, and C, are divided on their differences in reservoir characteristics with 12 ft (3.5 m), 30 ft (9 m), and 114 ft (35 m) of respective net pays. The Petapahan structure extends northwest-southeast along the S. flank of a deep Tertiary basin. The 2 lithologic units of interest in the Petapahan field are (1) the lower Miocene Sihapas Group which is composed predominantly of porous quartzose sandstone with silt and shale interbeds, and is the reservoir unit; and (2) the overlaying lower to middle Miocene Telisa Formation is predominantly shale with thin sandstone interbeds; it is the effective cap rock and is also considered the likely source bed for oil generation.

  9. Discussion on telluric field and seismic activity in Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zlotnicki

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Two stations were installed in the Southeastern Thessaly basin (Central Greece, recording the geomagnetic and telluric fields from 1993 to 1996. The aim was to detect long-term abnormal changes of the telluric field, which were possibly related to imbedding earthquakes. Between January 1993 and October 1996, 213 and185 (Neraida and Mavrolofos stations respectively abnormal changes of the telluric field were observed in association with the seismic activity. The duration of these changes varied from several minutes to 24 days and the maximum amplitude was 3.8 mV/m. Data recording detected 625 and 917 seismic events for Neraida and Mavrolofos station respectively. The percentage of the earthquakes associated with the telluric anomalies is 27% and 16% respectively for each station. Both percentages are considered to be very low. Telluric activity was followed by a burst of seismic activity in areas spreading to different directions from the stations. A correlation of the characteristics of the telluric field with the earthquake magnitude was attempted, but no reliable relationship was obtained.

  10. Active tectonics and Quaternary landscape evolution across the western Panama block, Costa Rica, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffrey Scott

    Three aspects of active tectonism are examined across central Costa Rica: (1) fault kinematics; (2) volcanic arc retreat; and (3) spatially variable coastal uplift. Diffuse faulting along the Central Costa Rica Deformed Belt (CCRDB) defines the western margin of the Panama block and aligns with the rough-smooth boundary (RSB) on the subducting Cocos plate. Sub-horizontal subduction of rough, hotspot thickened crust (Cocos Ridge and seamounts) shifts active shortening into the volcanic arc along the CCRDB. Mesoscale faults express variable kinematics across three domains: transtension in the forearc, transcurrent motion across the volcanic arc, and transpression in the back arc. Fault kinematics agree with seismicity and GPS data, and isotopic ages confirm that faulting postdates the late Neogene onset of shallow subduction. Stratigraphic correlation augmented by 40Ar/39Ar dating constrain the timing of Quaternary arc migration from the Neogene Aguacate range to the modern Cordillera Central. The Valle Central basin, between the cordilleras, filled with thick sequences of lavas, pyroclastic flows, and lahars. Middle Pleistocene drainage capture across the Aguacate arc linked the Valle Central with the Pacific slope and ash flows descended onto the coastal Orotina debris fan. Arc retreat reflects slab shallowing and enhanced tectonic erosion as rough crust entered the subduction zone. Differing subduction parameters across the RSB (crustal age, slab dip, roughness) produce marked contrasts in coastal tectonism. Varying uplift rates across coastal faults reflect sub-horizontal subduction of seamount roughness. Three groups (I--III) of fluvial terraces are correlated along the coast by isotopic ages and geomorphic characteristics. Base level fluctuations and terrace genesis reflect interaction between eustatic sea level and spatially variable rock uplift. Low uplift rates (north of RSB), yield one surface per terrace group, whereas moderate rates (south of RSB

  11. A Regional GIS of the Central Andes, South America - Integration of Satellite and Geophysical Data Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, K; F. K. List;  

    1996-01-01

    The Central Andes of northern Chile, southwestern Bolivia and northwestern Argentina are studied by a research project supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB 267). The main topics of these geological and geophysical investigations are the orogeny of the Andean mountains and the crustal development at an active continental margin. The "Andean GIS" is designed as a tool for data collection, management, overview, analysis and mapping. The integration of different data supports the...

  12. Vulnerability, poverty and socio-natural disasters in Central America and The Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, J

    2007-01-01

    [EN] This paper analyses and quantifi es the relative level of risk in a geographical area that is vulnerable to natural phenomena and with a high proportion of its population in a situation of residential poverty. We deduce that the hazard in the area, composed of nine Central American and Caribbean countries, is signifi cantly higher than the world average. The fi rst aspect is covered in the sections Population at risk and Natural phenomena, which analyse the ‘st...

  13. Anxiety and depression during pregnancy in Central America: a cross-sectional study among pregnant women in the developing country Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Verbeek, T.; Arjadi, R.; Vendrik, J. J.; Burger, H.; Berger, M.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Around the world, maternal psychopathology during pregnancy is associated with a range of negative consequences for mother and child. Nevertheless, in Central America the magnitude of this public health problem is still unknown. The objective of this first explorative study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of anxiety and depression during pregnancy in the Central American developing country Nicaragua, as well as the availability of mental health care and to compare w...

  14. One Rural Hospital's Experience Implementing the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America Guidelines to Decrease Central Line Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curlej, Maria H; Katrancha, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to take advantage of the Highmark Quality Blue Initiative () requiring information from hospitals detailing their central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSIs) surveillance system, quality improvement program, and statistics regarding the CLABSI events, this institution investigated the latest evidence-based recommendations to reduce CLABSIs. Recognizing the baseline rate of 2.4 CLABSIs per 1,000 central line days and its effect on patient outcomes and medical costs, this hospital made a commitment to improve their CLABSI outcomes. As a result, the facility adopted the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) guidelines. The purpose of this article is to review the CLABSI rates and examine the prevention strategies following implementation of the SHEA guidelines. A quantitative, descriptive retrospective program evaluation examined the hospital's pre- and post-SHEA implementation methods of decreasing CLABSIs and the subsequent CLABSI rates over 3 time periods. Any patient with a CLABSI infection admitted to this hospital July 2007 to June 2010 (N = 78). CLABSI rates decreased from 1.9 to 1.3 over the study period. Compliance with specific SHEA guidelines was evaluated and measures were put into place to increase compliance where necessary. CLABSI rates at this facility remain below the baseline of 2.4 for calendar year 2013 (0.79), 2014 (0.07), and 2015 (0.33). PMID:27618377

  15. Ecological consequences of hydropower development in Central America: Impacts of small dams and water diversion on neotropical stream fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth P.; Freeman, Mary C.; Pringle, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Small dams for hydropower have caused widespread alteration of Central American rivers, yet much of recent development has gone undocumented by scientists and conservationists. We examined the ecological effects of a small hydropower plant (Dona Julia Hydroelectric Center) on two low-order streams (the Puerto Viejo River and Quebradon stream) draining a mountainous area of Costa Rica. Operation of the Dona Julia plant has dewatered these streams, reducing discharge to ~ 10% of average annual flow. This study compared fish assemblage composition and aquatic habitat upstream and downstream of diversion dams on two streams and along a ~ 4 km dewatered reach of the Puerto Viejo River in an attempt to evaluate current instream flow recommendations for regulated Costa Rican streams. Our results indicated that fish assemblages directly upstream and downstream of the dam on the third order Puerto Viejo River were dissimilar, suggesting that the small dam (hydropower plants in Costa Rica and other parts of Central America mirror those of Doha Julia; the methods and results of this study may be applicable to some of those projects.

  16. Anxiety and depression during pregnancy in Central America : a cross-sectional study among pregnant women in the developing country Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, T.; Arjadi, R.; Vendrik, J. J.; Burger, H.; Berger, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Around the world, maternal psychopathology during pregnancy is associated with a range of negative consequences for mother and child. Nevertheless, in Central America the magnitude of this public health problem is still unknown. The objective of this first explorative study was to invest

  17. Trichospermum lessertianum comb. nov., the correct name for the Cuban species of Trichospermum (Malvaceae: Grewioideae also found in Mexico and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J. Dorr

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The correct name for the Cuban species of Trichospermum Bl. (Malvaceae: Grewioideae also found in Mexico and Central America is T. lessertianum (Hochr. Dorr, comb. n. The name T. mexicanum (DC. Baill., incorrectly applied to this Cuban species, should be restricted to a species endemic to western and southern Mexico.

  18. Trichospermum lessertianum comb. n., the correct name for the Cuban species of Trichospermum (Malvaceae, Grewioideae) also found in Mexico and Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Dorr, Laurence J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The correct name for the Cuban species of Trichospermum Bl. (Malvaceae: Grewioideae) also found in Mexico and Central America is Trichospermum lessertianum (Hochr.) Dorr, comb. n. The name Trichospermum mexicanum (DC.) Baill., incorrectly applied to this Cuban species, should be restricted to a species endemic to western and southern Mexico.

  19. Health care providers and human trafficking: what do they know, what do they need to know? Findings from the middle East, the Caribbean, and central america

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viergever, R.F.; West, H.; Borland, R.; Zimmerman, C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human trafficking is a crime that commonly results in acute and chronic physical and psychological harm. To foster more informed health sector responses to human trafficking, training sessions for health care providers were developed and pilot-tested in the Middle East, Central America,

  20. Understanding key drivers controlling daily stable isotope variations in precipitation of Costa Rica, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Welsh, Kristin; Birkel, Christian; Esquivel-Hernández, Germain; Corrales-Salazar, Jose; Boll, Jan; Brooks, Erin; Roupsard, Olivier; Katchan, Irina; Arce-Mesén, Rafael; Soulsby, Chris; Araguás-Araguás, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Costa Rica is located on the Central American Isthmus, which receives direct moisture inputs from the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The relatively narrow, but high relief Central American land bridge is characterized by unique mountainous and lowland microclimates. However, only limited knowledge exists about the impact of relief and regional atmospheric circulation patterns on precipitation origin, transport, and isotopic composition in this tropical region. Therefore, the main scope of this study is to identify the key drivers controlling variations in meteoric waters of Costa Rica using stable isotopes based on daily sample collection for the year 2013. The monitoring sites comprise three strategic locations across Costa Rica: Heredia (Central Valley), Turrialba (Caribbean slope), and Caño Seco (South Pacific slope). Sporadic dry season rain is mostly related to isolated enriched events ranging from -5.8‰ d18O up to -0.9‰ d18O. By mid-May, the Intertropical Convergence Zone reaches Costa Rica resulting in a notable depletion in isotope ratios (up to -18.5‰ d18O). HYSPLIT back air mass trajectories indicate the strong influence on the origin and transport of precipitation of two main moisture transport mechanisms, the Caribbean Low Level Jet and the Colombian Low Level Jet as well as localized convection events. Multiple linear regression models constructed based on Random Forests of surface meteorological information and atmospheric sounding profiles suggest that Lifted Condensation Level and surface relative humidity are the main factors controlling isotopic variations. These findings diverge from the recognized 'amount effect' in monthly composite samples across the tropics. Understanding of stable isotope dynamics in tropical precipitation can be used to enhance catchment and groundwater modeling efforts in ungauged basins where scarcity of long-term monitoring data drastically limit current and future water resources management.

  1. Current clinical advances and future perspectives in the psychiatry/mental health field of Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cía, Alfredo H; Rojas, Rodrigo Córdoba; Adad, Miguel Abib

    2010-01-01

    The history of Mental Health in Latin America is relatively young. It dates back to the mid nineteenth century and widely developed during the twentieth century, with formidable scientific, social, political, and ethical challenges. Latin American psychiatry has contributed in the fields of epidemiology, phenomenology, social psychiatry, psychiatric and epistemological research, and clinical genetics as well. More recent advances can also be seen in clinical psychotherapy and psychopharmacology. Now, there is a formal and informal recognition of various areas of expertise, such as children and adolescents, addictions, anxiety disorders, among others. However, we need to solve the health problems resulting from mental illnesses as well as the disorders related to the social, environmental, political, and economic factors of a continent marked by the precariousness of underdevelopment, which have a high impact on population health. Therefore, considering and trying to minimize the impact of those factors, contributing to the destigmatization of mental illnesses and their consequences, together with the growing number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), human rights defenders, public figures, etc., and collaborating in building a society that guarantees the right to mental health and adequate treatment and rehabilitation are part of our present challenges in Latin America. PMID:20874063

  2. Swedish Teachers' Ethical Reflections on a Study Visit to Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund, Louise; Öhman, Johan

    2014-01-01

    In this article we argue that culturally variable values and morals have a key role in educational initiatives that address a global dimension. The article suggests that looking at values and morals in relation to a teaching practice is a way of adding knowledge to this field. Our study inquires into how an intercultural experience can evoke…

  3. Towards a Political Economy of Weak Institutions and Strong Elites in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicte Bull

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A common conclusion of studies on Central America’s democracies and political economy is that the weakness of institutions and the strength of elites are a main reason for the region’s problems. Recently, a set of studies have attempted to scrutinize these elites in detail, focussing on their strategies and resources. The purpose of this article is to reflect upon what these studies can tell us about the question: what is strong when institutions are weak? I argue that in the Northern Triangle particularly the answer is elite networks and their command over and competition for the control over four sets of resources: money, means of force, information, and ideas and ideologies, including religion. A systematic study of such networks and how they interact with formal institutions may give us a more realistic view of the current state of Central American political economies. Resumen: Hacia una economía política de instituciones débiles y élites fuertes en Centroamérica Una conclusión común a la que llegan los estudios sobre la economía política y las democracias centroamericanas es que la debilidad de las instituciones y la fuerza de las élites son una razón fundamental para los problemas de la región. Últimamente, una serie de estudios han intentado estudiar a fondo dichas élites, enfocándose en sus estrategias y recursos. El objetivo del presente artículo es reflexionar sobre lo que dichos estudios pueden aportarnos a la respuesta de la pregunta: ¿qué es fuerte cuando las instituciones son débiles? Yo sostengo que en el Triángulo Norte, en particular, la respuesta son las redes de las élites y su control, así como su competencia por dicho control, de cuatro categorías de recursos: el dinero, los medios de coacción, la información y las ideas e ideologías, incluida la religión. Un estudio sistemático de dichas redes y sobre cómo interactúan con las instituciones formales podría facilitarnos una visión m

  4. Tree species of South America central savanna: endemism, marginal areas and the relationship with other biomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata D. Françoso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological knowledge is important for guidance of conservation polices. In the Cerrado, an extremely diverse biome, the last synthesis of floristic knowledge has more than ten years. To understand the progress on the information, our aim was quantify the tree species of the Cerrado, and assess their distribution. We compiled 167 inventories and rapid surveys of tree species, corresponding to 625 sites. We accessed the species distributions in the Brazilian biomes, and estimated the number of species in the savannas of Cerrado using four algorithms. We observed a greater local richness in more central regions of the biome, but due to high beta diversity, more peripheral regions presented a greater cumulative richness. The Atlantic Forest was the most important neighbouring biome, influencing the floristic composition of the Cerrado. The proportion of typical Cerrado species was 16%. The highest proportion of endemic species is possibly found in other life forms, and it is crucial that these species are included in inventories and floristic surveys. To guide new studies and help supplement the knowledge of the Cerrado's flora, we identified the main sampling gaps, located mainly in ecotonal regions, which are responsible for the largest number of species recorded in studies of the Cerrado.

  5. The magnetic field for the ZEUS central detector - analysis and correction of the field measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic field in the central tracking region of the ZEUS-detector - a facility to investigate highly energetic electron-proton-collisions at the HERA-collider at DESY Hamburg - is generated by a superconducting coil and reaches 18 kG (1.8 T). Some of the tracking devices particularly the drift chambers in the proton forward and rear direction (FTD1-3 and RTD) are not fully contained within the coil and therefore situated in a highly inhomogeneous magnetic field: The radial component Br is up to 6.6 kG, maximum gradients are found to be 300 G/cm for δBr/δr. Evaluating the space drifttime relation necessitates a detailed knowledge of the magnetic field. To reach this goal we analysed the field measurements and corrected them for systematic errors. The corrected data were compared with the field calculations (TOSCA-maps). Measurements and calculations are confirmed by studying consistency with Maxwell's equations. The accuracy reached is better than 100 G throughout the forward and central drift chambers (FTD1-3, CTD) and better than 150 G in the RTD. (orig.)

  6. Results of geothermal gradient core hole TCB-1, Tecuamburro volcano geothermal site, Guatemala, Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, A.I.; Chipera, S.; Counce, D.; Gardner, J.; Goff, S.; Goff, F.; Heiken, G.; Laughlin, A.W.; Musgrave, J.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Aycinena, S.; Martinelli, L. (Swissboring Overseas Corp. Ltd., Guatemala City (Guatemala)); Castaneda, O.; Revolorio, M.; Roldan, A. (Unidad de Desarrollo Geotermico, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion); D

    1992-02-01

    Results of geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical field studies conducted in 1988 and 1989 at the Tecuamburro volcano geothermal site in Guatemala indicated that there is a substantial shallow heat source beneath the area of youngest volcanism. To obtain information on subsurface temperatures and temperature gradients, stratigraphy, hydrothermal alteration, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids, a geothermal gradient core hole (TCB-1) was drilled to 808 m low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro volcano Complex, 300 km south of a 300-m-diameter phreatic crater, Laguna Ixpaco, dated at 2,910 years. Gases from acid-sulfate springs near Laguna Ixpaco consistently yield maximum estimated subsurface temperatures of 250--300{degrees}C. The temperature versus depth curve from TCB-1 does not show isothermal conditions and the calculated thermal gradients from 500--800 m is 230{degrees}C/km. Bottom hole temperature is 238{degrees}C. Calculated heat flow values are nearly 9 heat flow units (HFU). The integration of results from the TCB-1 gradient core hole with results from field studies provides strong evidence that the Tecuamburro area holds great promise for containing a commercial geothermal resource.

  7. Porphyry copper assessment of Central America and the Caribbean Basin: Chapter I in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Floyd; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Ludington, Stephen; Zürcher, Lukas; Nelson, Carl E.; Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Miller, Robert J.; Moring, Barry C.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. The U.S. Geological Survey prepared a probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Central America and the Caribbean Basin in collaboration with geoscientists from academia and the minerals industry. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within the permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver that could be contained in undiscovered deposits. The assessment was done using a three-part mineral resource assessment based on established mineral deposit models. Permissive tracts were delineated based primarily on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with convergent plate margins. Five permissive tracts were delineated: the Early Cretaceous through Eocene Santiago tract, the Late Cretaceous through Oligocene Chortis tract, the Paleocene through Oligocene Darién tract, the Miocene and Pliocene Cocos tract, and the Eocene to Holocene Lesser Antilles tract. These tracts range in size from about 3,000 to about 204,000 square kilometers.

  8. Effectiveness of Behavior Change Communications for Reducing Transmission Risks Among People Living with HIV in 6 Countries in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lung; Nieto-Andrade, Benjamin; DiVincenzo, Allison; Rivas, Jorge; Firestone, Rebecca; Wheeler, Jennifer; Lungo, Sussy

    2015-07-01

    This first region-wide study (N = 2,818) aims to estimate prevalence of HIV-related risks (sexual behavior, HIV disclosure, number of sex partners, violence) and factors associated with these risks as well as evaluate a behavior change communications program targeted to PLHIV in 6 countries in Central America. After 2 years, the program achieved moderate coverage, with 21 % of the sample reporting exposure to interpersonal communications (IPC) and 52 % to mass media program components. The odds of condom use, HIV disclosure, and participation in a self-help group increased by 1.4-1.8 times with exposure to mass media. Exposure to IPC increased odds of condom use by 2.7 and participation in self-help groups by 4.4 times. In addition, being in HIV care or taking ART was associated with condom use and HIV-status disclosure. About 30 % experienced physical or sexual violence, and those who did were 4 times less likely to use condoms. Findings suggest that behavioral interventions for PLHIV can reduce HIV-transmission risks and increase access to care. PMID:25284460

  9. Studies in Annonaceae. XXVIII. Macromorphological variation of recent invaders in northern Central America: the case of Malmea (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatrou, L

    1997-06-01

    Cluster analysis is used to reveal patterns of macromorphological variation in a species complex of Malmea (Annonaceae) distributed in eastern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, and Honduras. Of 53 characters, 24 are important for the clustering of 238 herbarium specimens into 12 clusters. No cluster is exclusively specified by any character or combination of characters. Neither can any geographical pattern be detected, except for the clustering of specimens from Los Tuxtlas Tropical Biological Station, Veracruz. A new subspecies from this area, M. depressa subsp. abscondita, is described. Malmea gaumeri and M. leiophylla are brought into synonymy with M. depressa. Distribution patterns of Mexican and Central American taxa of Malmea are largely concordant with those of South American taxa, which spread into Cental America after the Pliocene closure of the Isthmus of Panama. A phytogeographical novelty is presented, however, as the distribution of M. depressa subsp. abscondita within the Sierra de los Tuxtlas shows an hitherto unknown pattern: the new subspecies is distributed only on the northeastern slopes of this mountain range, and is geographically separated from M. depressa subsp. depressa, which occurs only on the southwestern slopes. PMID:21708638

  10. Sensitivity of a 30 year model climatology of Middle and Central America to resolution and atmosphere-ocean coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanar, A. I.; Sein, D.; Martinez Lopez, B.

    2013-05-01

    A 30 year climatology experiment has been completed with a regional coupled atmosphere-ocean model (REMO) over a vast region that covers latitude-wise the Middle and Central Americas up to Western Europe. The control simulation uses a horizontal resolution of 1 degree and REMO was forced at its lateral walls with ERA data for the period 1979-2010. The ocean model was initialized using previously integrated solutions from an atmospherically forced only ocean simulation. In order to gauge the impact that the atmosphere-ocean coupling had, an identical experiment was performed with prescribed SST for the same period. A couple of identical experiments but with a resolution of 1/2 degree were also performed to investigate the effect of horizontal spatial resolution. It is seen that model climatology is increasingly closer to observed precipitation climatology (compared to CRU data for that period) as the model goes from a SST-forced condition to one of full coupling and from coarser resolution to increasing resolution as well. Of note, is the significantly better representation of the ITZC annual latitudinal excursion over the Eastern Pacific Ocean corresponding to the onset of monsoon precipitation season over western Mexico.

  11. Herbarium specimens reveal the footprint of climate change on flowering trends across north-central North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calinger, Kellen M; Queenborough, Simon; Curtis, Peter S

    2013-08-01

    Shifting flowering phenology with rising temperatures is occurring worldwide, but the rarity of co-occurring long-term observational and temperature records has hindered the evaluation of phenological responsiveness in many species and across large spatial scales. We used herbarium specimens combined with historic temperature data to examine the impact of climate change on flowering trends in 141 species collected across 116,000 km(2) in north-central North America. On average, date of maximum flowering advanced 2.4 days °C(-1), although species-specific responses varied from - 13.5 to + 7.3 days °C(-1). Plant functional types exhibited distinct patterns of phenological responsiveness with significant differences between native and introduced species, among flowering seasons, and between wind- and biotically pollinated species. This study is the first to assess large-scale patterns of phenological responsiveness with broad species representation and is an important step towards understanding current and future impacts of climate change on species performance and biodiversity. PMID:23786499

  12. Impact of population expansion on genetic diversity and structure of river otters (Lontra canadensis) in Central North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jessica R; Brandt, Adam L; Ammer, Frank K; Roca, Alfred L; Serfass, Thomas L

    2014-01-01

    Populations of North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) declined throughout large portions of the continent during the early 1900s due to habitat degradation and unregulated trapping. River otters had been extirpated in North Dakota (ND), but the Red River Valley has since been recolonized, with potential source populations including the neighboring states of Minnesota or South Dakota, or the Canadian province of Manitoba (MB). We genotyped 9 microsatellite loci in 121 samples to determine the source population of river otters in the Red River Valley of ND, as well as to assess population structure and diversity of river otters in central North America. Overall, genetic diversity was high, with an average observed heterozygosity of 0.58. Genetic differentiation was low (F ST otters in ND and those of Minnesota, suggesting that eastern ND was recolonized by river otters from Minnesota. River otters from MB were genetically distinct from all other sampled populations. Low genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.044) between South Dakota and Louisiana (LA) suggested that reintroductions using LA stock were successful. The genetic distinctiveness of river otters from different geographic regions should be considered when deciding on source populations for future translocations. PMID:24154534

  13. Palaeomagnetic secular variation and relative field intensity in pleistocene lacustrine sediments in the U.S. great basin as chronologic tools for dating climate in western north America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Since the end of the 19th Century when first it was reported that large pluvial lakes formed during the Pleistocene in the U.S. Great Basin (Russell, 1885), the sediments deposited by some of those lakes have been used to study climate in western North America back about 3 m.y. (Smith et al., 1983, Morrison, 1991: many others). That research includes mineralogic, isotopic, geochemical, and sedimentologic data; radiometric dates; lacustrine fossils; volcanic ashes; and a record of long-term behaviour (secular variation) and excursions (Pringle Falls, Laschamp, and Mono Lake) of the palaeomagnetic field. In an attempt to establish an accurate chronology for the palaeoclimate in western North America during the past approximately 50,000 years, I will compare the records of palaeomagnetic directions for Pyramid Lake (the remnant of Lake Lahontan in northwestern Nevada)(Benson et al., 2008), Mono Lake (the remnant of Lake Russell in east-central California)(Lund et al., 1988; Zimmerman et al., 2006), and Searles Lake in the southeastern Great Basin (Liddicoat et al., 2008) with other records of palaeomagnetic field behaviour, especially the relative palaeomagnetic field intensity for the North and South Atlantic oceans (Laj et al., 2000; Stoner et al., 2004). This is possible because large- and small-scale fluctuations occur in the records that are distinctive and often are common to all.

  14. A snow hydroclimatology of the central and southern Appalachian Mountains, United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybeal, Daniel Y.

    Background. A significant vulnerability to snowmelt-related flooding in the Appalachians was demonstrated by massive events in March, 1936; January, 1996; and January, 1998. Yet, no quantitative estimate of this vulnerability has been published for these mountains. High elevations extending far southward confound the extrapolation of snow hydroclimatology from adjacent regions. Objectives. The principal objective was to develop a complete snow hydroclimatology of the central and southern Appalachians, considering the deposition, detention, and depletion phases of snow cover. A snowfall climatology addressed whether and how often sufficient snow falls to create a flood hazard, while a snow cover climatology addressed whether and how often snow is allowed to build to floodrisk proportions. A snowmelt hydroclimatology addressed whether and how often snowmelt contributes directly to large peakflows in a representative watershed. Approach. Monthly and daily temperature, precipitation, and snow data were obtained from approximately 1000 cooperative-network stations with >=10 seasons (Oct-May) of snow data. Mean, maximum, percentiles, and interseasonal and monthly variability were mapped. Time series were analyzed, and proportions of seasonal snowfall from significant events determined, at select stations. A spatially distributed, index snow cover model facilitated classification of Cheat River, WV, peakflows by generating process. Confidence intervals about fitted peakflow frequency curves were used to evaluate differences among processes. Results. Climates in which snow significantly affects floods have been discriminated in the literature by 150 cm mean seasonal snowfall, 30 days mean snow cover duration, or 50 cm mean seasonal maximum snow depth. In the Appalachian Mountains south to North Carolina, these criteria lie within 95% confidence intervals about the median or mean values of these parameters. At return periods of 10 and 20 years, these thresholds are usually

  15. Noninvasive individual and species identification of jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor) and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in Belize, Central America using cross-species microsatellites and faecal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wultsch, Claudia; Waits, Lisette P; Kelly, Marcella J

    2014-11-01

    There is a great need to develop efficient, noninvasive genetic sampling methods to study wild populations of multiple, co-occurring, threatened felids. This is especially important for molecular scatology studies occurring in challenging tropical environments where DNA degrades quickly and the quality of faecal samples varies greatly. We optimized 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci for jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor) and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and assessed their utility for cross-species amplification. Additionally, we tested their reliability for species and individual identification using DNA from faeces of wild felids detected by a scat detector dog across Belize in Central America. All microsatellite loci were successfully amplified in the three target species, were polymorphic with average expected heterozygosities of HE = 0.60 ± 0.18 (SD) for jaguars, HE = 0.65 ± 0.21 (SD) for pumas and HE = 0.70 ± 0.13 (SD) for ocelots and had an overall PCR amplification success of 61%. We used this nuclear DNA primer set to successfully identify species and individuals from 49% of 1053 field-collected scat samples. This set of optimized microsatellite multiplexes represents a powerful tool for future efforts to conduct noninvasive studies on multiple, wild Neotropical felids. PMID:24751217

  16. Phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity among Streptococcus iniae isolates recovered from cultured and wild fish in North America, Central America and the Caribbean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae, the etiological agent of streptococcosis in fish, is an important pathogen of cultured and wild fish worldwide. During the last decade outbreaks of streptococcosis have occurred in a wide range of cultured and wild fish in the Americas and Caribbean islands. To gain a better und...

  17. GPS kinematic field in Central and Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenni, Nicola; Baldi, Paolo; Mantovani, Enzo; Viti, Marcello; Babbucci, Daniele

    2013-04-01

    The GPS observation of more than 350 continuous GPS stations located in the Central and Northern Italian peninsula have been analyzed in order to reconstruct the present kinematic pattern in the area. Several sites (about 100) are managed by public companies and scientific research institutions aimed at performing accurate monitoring of earth surface movements, other sites are managed by public institutions and private agencies to support mapping activities, rescue and emergency services and real-time positioning (VRS and RTK).We have processed with GAMIT software all the available data for the period 2001-2012. The network is divided into 21 sub-networks, each including at least the six common stations. The IGS precise ephemerides have been included in the processing with tight constraints, such as the Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP). The daily loosely constrained solutions of the 21 clusters have been combined into a unique solution by the GLOBK software. Such solution has been then aligned into the ITRF2008 reference frame by a weighted six parameters transformation (three translation and three rotation), using the ITRF2008 coordinates and velocities of the five high quality common IGS stations (CAGL, GRAZ, MATE, WTZR and ZIMM). The sites with an observation time span less than two years have been excluded from the analysis of kinematic pattern, because it is hard to get a robust estimate of rate, seasonal signals and steps with less than two years of observation. The horizontal kinematic pattern has been analyzed in order to gain information about the present short term deformation pattern of this region. This analysis may have significant implications for the recognition of seismic zones most prone to next strong earthquakes. The vertical velocity field has been also considered in this study. It is largely recognized that vertical movements in the Central - Northern Italy may be considered as the overall result of three main causes: tectonic processes

  18. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American–Caribbean–Cocos plate boundary

    OpenAIRE

    L. Andreani; R. Gloaguen

    2016-01-01

    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. We intend to characterize and understand the complex tectonic setting that produced an intricate pattern of landscapes using tectonic geomorphology, as well as available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landsc...

  19. Assessing and mapping drought hazard in Africa and South-Central America with a Meteorological Drought Severity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrao, Hugo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    the intra-annual variability of precipitation in estimating the severity of events that can impact on seasonal activities. The MDSI is standardized in space and time, and considers the relative monthly precipitation deficits and the seasonal influence of precipitation regimes in the meteorological drought severity computation. In this study, the calculation of the MDSI is performed with monthly precipitation totals from the Full Data Reanalysis Monthly Product Version 6.0 of the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC). This dataset provides a global analysis at 0.5 dd latitude/longitude grid spacing of monthly precipitation over land from operational in situ rain gauges collected between January 1901 and December 2010. Using the MDSI, we estimated the severity of drought events that occurred in the past 100 years in Africa and South-Central America, and produced drought hazard maps based on the probability of exceedance the median historical severity. Overall, results indicate that drought hazard is high for semiarid areas, such as Northeastern and Southern South America, as well as Eastern and Southwestern Africa. Since available water resources in semiarid areas are already insufficient to permanently meet the demands of human activities, the outcomes highlight the aggravated risk for food security and confirm the need for the implementation of disaster mitigation measures in those regions.

  20. Data on medicinal plants used in Central America to manage diabetes and its sequelae (skin conditions, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, urinary problems and vision loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Giovannini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article is related to the review article “Medicinal plants used in the traditional management of diabetes and its sequelae in Central America: a review” (Giovannini et al., 2016 [1]. We searched publications on the useful plants of Central America in databases and journals by using selected relevant keywords. We then extracted reported uses of medicinal plants within the disease categories: diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, urinary problems, skin diseases and infections, cardiovascular disease, sexual dysfunction, vision loss, and nerve damage. The following countries were included in our definition of Central America: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Data were compiled in a bespoke Access database. Plant names from the published sources were validated against The Plant List (TPL, (The Plant List, 2013 [2] and accepted names and synonyms were extracted. In total, the database includes 607 plant names obtained from the published sources which correspond to 537 plant taxa, 9271 synonyms and 1055 use reports.

  1. Organophosphate pesticide method development and presence of chlorpyrifos in the feet of nearctic-neotropical migratory songbirds from Canada that over-winter in Central America agricultural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Hattan A; Letcher, Robert J; Mineau, Pierre; Chen, Da; Chu, Shaogang

    2016-02-01

    Recent modeling analysis suggests that numerous birds may be at risk of acute poisoning in insecticide-treated fields. Although the majority of avian field studies on pesticides have focused on treated seed, granule, insect or vegetation (oral exposure) ingestion, dermal exposure is an important exposure route when birds come into contact with deposited pesticides on foliage and other surfaces. Some nearctic-neotropical migratory songbirds are likely exposed to pesticides on their non-breeding habitats and include treated crops, plantations or farmlands. In the present study, we developed a method for four environmentally-relevant organophosphate (OP) pesticides (fenthion, fenamiphos, chlorpyrifos and diazinon) in the feet of migratory songbirds (i.e. Common yellowthroat, Gray catbird, Indigo bunting, America redstart, Northern waterthrush, Northern parula, and an additional 12 species of warblers). A total of 190 specimens of the 18 species of songbirds were sampled from available window-killed birds (spring of 2007 and 2011) in downtown Toronto, Canada. The species that were available most likely over-wintered in Mexican/Central American crops such as citrus, coffee and cacao. The feet of the dead birds were sampled and where OP foot exposure likely occurred during over-wintering foraging on pesticide-treated crops. Chlorpyrifos was the only measurable OP (pg mg feet weight(-1)) and in the 2011-collected feet of Black throated blue warbler (0.5), Tennessee warbler (1.0), Northern parula (1.2), Northern waterthrush (0.6), Common yellowthroat (1.0) and the Blue winged warbler (0.9). Dermal contact with OP pesticides during over-wintering in agricultural areas resulted in low levels of chlorpyrifos and long time retention on the feet of a subset of songbirds. PMID:26421621

  2. Fault kinematics in northern Central America and coupling along the subduction interface of the Cocos Plate, from GPS data in Chiapas (Mexico), Guatemala and El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A.; Lasserre, C.; Lyon-Caen, H.; Kostoglodov, V.; Molina, E.; Guzman-Speziale, M.; Monterosso, D.; Robles, V.; Figueroa, C.; Amaya, W.; Barrier, E.; Chiquin, L.; Moran, S.; Flores, O.; Romero, J.; Santiago, J. A.; Manea, M.; Manea, V. C.

    2012-06-01

    New GPS measurements in Chiapas (Mexico), Guatemala and El Salvador are used to constrain the fault kinematics in the North America (NA), Caribbean (CA) and Cocos (CO) plates triple junction area. The regional GPS velocity field is first analysed in terms of strain partitioning across the major volcano-tectonic structures, using elastic half-space modelling, then inverted through a block model. We show the dominant role of the Motagua Fault with respect to the Polochic Fault in the accommodation of the present-day deformation associated with the NA and CA relative motion. The NA/CA motion decreases from 18-22 mm yr-1 in eastern Guatemala to 14-20 mm yr-1 in central Guatemala (assuming a uniform locking depth of 14-28 km), down to a few millimetres per year in western Guatemala. As a consequence, the western tip of the CA Plate deforms internally, with ≃9 mm yr-1 of east-west extension (≃5 mm yr-1 across the Guatemala city graben alone). Up to 15 mm yr-1 of dextral motion can be accommodated across the volcanic arc in El Salvador and southeastern Guatemala. The arc seems to mark the northern boundary of an independent forearc sliver (AR), pinned to the NA plate. The inversion of the velocity field shows that a four-block (NA, CA, CO and AR) model, that combines relative block rotations with elastic deformation at the block boundaries, can account for most of the GPS observations and constrain the overall kinematics of the active structures. This regional modelling also evidences lateral variations of coupling at the CO subduction interface, with a fairly high-coupling (≃0.6) offshore Chiapas and low-coupling (≃0.25) offshore Guatemala and El Salvador.

  3. Present-Day 3D Velocity Field of Eastern North America Based on Continuous GPS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Mohammad Ali; Cocard, Marc; Santerre, Rock

    2016-03-01

    The Saint Lawrence River valley in eastern Canada was studied using observations of continuously operating GPS (CGPS) stations. The area is one of the most seismically active regions in eastern North America characterized by many earthquakes, which is also subject to an ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment. We present the current three-dimensional velocity field of eastern North America obtained from more than 14 years (9 years on average) of data at 112 CGPS stations. Bernese GNSS and GITSA software were used for CGPS data processing and position time series analysis, respectively. The results show the counterclockwise rotation of the North American plate in the No-Net-Rotation model with the average of 16.8 ± 0.7 mm/year constrained to ITRF 2008. We also present an ongoing uplift model for the study region based on the present-day CGPS observations. The model shows uplift all over eastern Canada with the maximum rate of 13.7 ± 1.2 mm/year and subsidence to the south mainly over northern USA with a typical rate of -1 to -2 mm/year and the minimum value of -2.7 ± 1.4 mm/year. We compared our model with the rate of radial displacements from the ICE-5G model. Both models agree within 0.02 mm/year at the best stations; however, our model shows a systematic spatial tilt compared to ICE-5G. The misfits between two models amount to the maximum relative subsidence of -6.1 ± 1.1 mm/year to the east and maximum relative uplift of 5.9 ± 2.7 mm/year to the west. The intraplate horizontal velocities are radially outward from the centers of maximum uplift and are inward to the centers of maximum subsidence with the typical velocity of 1-1.6 ± 0.4 mm/year that is in agreement with the ICE-5G model to the first order.

  4. Present-Day 3D Velocity Field of Eastern North America Based on Continuous GPS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Mohammad Ali; Cocard, Marc; Santerre, Rock

    2016-07-01

    The Saint Lawrence River valley in eastern Canada was studied using observations of continuously operating GPS (CGPS) stations. The area is one of the most seismically active regions in eastern North America characterized by many earthquakes, which is also subject to an ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment. We present the current three-dimensional velocity field of eastern North America obtained from more than 14 years (9 years on average) of data at 112 CGPS stations. Bernese GNSS and GITSA software were used for CGPS data processing and position time series analysis, respectively. The results show the counterclockwise rotation of the North American plate in the No-Net-Rotation model with the average of 16.8 ± 0.7 mm/year constrained to ITRF 2008. We also present an ongoing uplift model for the study region based on the present-day CGPS observations. The model shows uplift all over eastern Canada with the maximum rate of 13.7 ± 1.2 mm/year and subsidence to the south mainly over northern USA with a typical rate of -1 to -2 mm/year and the minimum value of -2.7 ± 1.4 mm/year. We compared our model with the rate of radial displacements from the ICE-5G model. Both models agree within 0.02 mm/year at the best stations; however, our model shows a systematic spatial tilt compared to ICE-5G. The misfits between two models amount to the maximum relative subsidence of -6.1 ± 1.1 mm/year to the east and maximum relative uplift of 5.9 ± 2.7 mm/year to the west. The intraplate horizontal velocities are radially outward from the centers of maximum uplift and are inward to the centers of maximum subsidence with the typical velocity of 1-1.6 ± 0.4 mm/year that is in agreement with the ICE-5G model to the first order.

  5. Radical, reformist and aborted liberalism: origins of national regimes in Central America Liberalismo radical, reformista y frustrado: orígenes de los regímenes nacionales en América central

    OpenAIRE

    Mahoney, James

    2011-01-01

    During the twentieth century, the countries of Central America were characterized by remarkably different political regimes: military-authoritarianism in Guatemala and El Salvador, progressive democracy in Costa Rica and traditional-authoritarianism in Honduras and Nicaragua. This article explains these contrasting regime outcomes by exploring the agrarian and state-building reforms pursued by political leaders during the nineteenth– and early twentieth century liberal reform period. Based on...

  6. A low-cost repellent for malaria vectors in the Americas: results of two field trials in Guatemala and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Sihuincha Moisés; Darling Samuel T; Moore Sarah J; Padilla Norma; Devine Gregor J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The cost of mosquito repellents in Latin America has discouraged their wider use among the poor. To address this problem, a low-cost repellent was developed that reduces the level of expensive repellent actives by combining them with inexpensive fixatives that appear to slow repellent evaporation. The chosen actives were a mixture of para-menthane-diol (PMD) and lemongrass oil (LG). Methods To test the efficacy of the repellent, field trials were staged in Guatemala and Pe...

  7. Field evaluations of topical arthropod repellents in North, Central, and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, vector-borne diseases have been resurging in endemic areas and expanding their geographic range into non-endemic areas. This creates a major public health concern as naïve populations are exposed to pathogens that cause these diseases. Personal topical repellents, recommended by the CDC an...

  8. San Ignacio (La Tembladera) geothermal site, Departamento de Francisco Morazan, Honduras, Central America: Geological field report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, M.J.; Eppler, D.; Heiken, G.; Flores, W.; Ramos, N.; Ritchie, A.

    1987-06-01

    The San Ignacio (La Tembladera) geothermal site is located on the north side of the Siria Valley, Departamento de Francisco Morazan, near the village of Barrosa. Hot springs are located along a northwest-trending fault scarp at the edge of the valley and along north-trending faults that cross the scarp. The rocks in the area are primarily Paleozoic metamorphic rocks, overlain by patches of Tertiary Padre Miguel Group tuffs and alluvial deposits. Movement probably occurred along several faults during latest Tertiary and possibly early Quaternary times. Four spring areas were mapped. Area 1, the largest, is associated with a sinter mound and consists of 40 spring groups. About half of the springs, aligned along a north-south trend, are boiling. Area 2 is a small sinter mound with several seeps. Area 3 consists of a group of hot and boiling springs aligned along a north-trending fault. The springs rise through fractured schists and a thin cover of alluvium. Area 4 is located at the intersection of several faults and includes one of the largest boiling springs in the area.

  9. Geology of the platanares geothermal site, Departamento de Copan, Honduras, Central America. Field report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Eppler, D.; Wohletz, K.; Flores, W.; Ramos, N.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-05-01

    Platanares is located 16 km west of Santa Rosa de Copan, Honduras, along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente. The thermal manifestations are along faults in tuffs, tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, and lavas of the Padre Miguel Group. These tuffs are silicified near the faults, are fractured, and may provide the fracture permeability necessary for the hydrothermal system. Tuffs are overlain by a wedge of terrace gravels up to 60 m thick. Quaternary conglomerates of the Quebrada del Agua Caliente are cemented by silica sinter. The Platanares area contains numerous faults, all of which appear to be extensional. There are four groups of faults (N80/sup 0/E to N70/sup 0/W, N30/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/W, N40/sup 0/ to 65/sup 0/E, and N00/sup 0/ to 05/sup 0/W). All hot springs at this site are located along faults that trend mostly northwest and north. Twenty-eight spring groups were described over an area of 0.2 km/sup 2/; half were boiling. Based on surface temperatures and flow rates, between 0.7 and 1.0 MW thermal energy is estimated for the area. The increased temperature of the stream flowing through the thermal area indicates that several megawatts of thermal energy are being added to the stream. We recommend that a dipole-dipole resistivity line be run along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente to identify zones of fracture permeability associated with buried faults and hot water reservoirs within those fault zones. A thermal gradient corehole should be drilled at Platanares to test temperatures, lithologies, and permeability of the hydrothermal system.

  10. On the Development of Multi-Hazard Early Warning Networks: Practical experiences from North and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencin, David; Hodgkinson, Kathleen; Braun, John; Meertens, Charles; Mattioli, Glen; Phillips, David; Blume, Fredrick; Berglund, Henry; Fox, Otina; Feaux, Karl

    2015-04-01

    The GAGE facility, managed by UNAVCO, maintains and operates about 1300 GNSS stations distributed across North and Central America as part of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and the Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network (COCONet). UNAVCO has upgraded about 450 stations in these networks to real-time and high-rate (RT-GNSS) and included surface meteorological instruments. The majority of these streaming stations are part of the PBO but also include approximately 50 RT-GNSS stations in the Caribbean and Central American region as part of the COCONet and TLALOCNet projects. Based on community input UNAVCO has been exploring ways to increase the capability and utility of these resources to improve our understanding in diverse areas of geophysics including seismic, volcanic, magmatic and tsunami deformation sources, extreme weather events such as hurricanes and storms, and space weather. The RT-GNSS networks also have the potential to profoundly transform our ability to rapidly characterize geophysical events, provide early warning, as well as improve hazard mitigation and response. Specific applications currently under development with university, commercial, non-profit and government collaboration on national and international scales include earthquake and tsunami early warning systems and near real-time tropospheric modeling of hurricanes and precipitable water vapor estimate assimilation. Using tsunami early warning as an example, an RT-GNSS network can provide multiple inputs in an operational system starting with rapid assessment of earthquake sources and associated deformation which informs the initial modeled tsunami. The networks can then can also provide direct measurements of the tsunami wave heights and propagation by tracking the associated ionospheric disturbance from several 100's of km away as the waves approaches the shoreline. These GNSS based constraints can refine the tsunami and inundation models and potentially

  11. Invasion of the Indo-Pacific blenny Omobranchus punctatus (Perciformes: Blenniidae on the Atlantic Coast of Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Lasso-Alcalá

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 308 specimens of the Indo-Pacific blenniid Omobranchus punctatus deposited in four museum collections, and analyzed data on their collection locations to assess its invasion on the Atlantic coast of Central and South America. This species occurs in shoreline estuarine and marine habitats in the Indo-West Pacific. Previous sampling and recent records in the Tropical West Atlantic from 1930 to 2004 produced 20 records for: Panamá, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Brazil. In this work, we provide data on 17 new records for the Gulfs of Venezuela and Paria in Venezuela, as well as four records for Maranhão and Pará states in NE Brazil. The temporal pattern of collections (1930 - 2009 and the proximity of most localities to ports and zones of ship traffic indicate that O. punctatus was initially introduced to the Atlantic by ships travelling from India to Trinidad. Within Brazil the introduction is linked to shipping connected to petroleum platforms. In Maranhão and Pará the introduction may have occurred as a result of fish sheltering in fouling on hulls of ships moving between ports around the mouth of the Amazon River. Alternatively, the spread of this species along of the American coast may reflect the expansion of the range of O. puntactus through larval dispersal in northward flowing currents. We recommend monitoring of this introduced species, and studies of its ecology in West Atlantic areas.Nós examinamos 308 espécimes do blenídeo Omobranchus punctatus, de origem Indo-Pacífica, depositados em coleções de quatro museus. Os dados de distribuição foram analisados com o objetivo de avaliar a invasão das águas costeiras do Oceano Atlântico nas Américas do Sul e Central. Em sua área de distribuição original, O. punctatus ocorre em ambientes marinhos e estuarinos. Amostragens datadas de 1930 e de 2004 produziram 20 registros da espécie no Atlântico Oeste tropical, incluindo amostras do Panamá, Col

  12. Energy transactions in Mexico, Central and South America. 1. ed.; Transacciones energeticas en Mexico, Centro y Sudamerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilla Martinez, Juan [ed.] [Programa Universitario de Energia (PUE), Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    This document contains the technical proceedings of the Second National Congress of the Mexican Association for the Economy of Energy that took place the days 23, 24 and 25 of September of 1996. In this seminar it was spoken on the global overview of the energy markets; the exploration and oil production in Latin America: present and future; oil-producing and petrochemistry in Latin America; regional and global markets; the deregulation of the electrical sector; experiences and perspective in Latin America; environmental externalisation in the energy systems; amelioration of the impact on the costs and the prices of the energy by means of technology and energy efficiency. [Spanish] Este documento contiene la memoria tecnica del segundo congreso nacional de la Asociacion Mexicana para la Economia Energetica A. C. llevado a efecto los dias 23, 24 y 25 de septiembre de 1996. En este seminario se hablo sobre la panoramica global de los mercados energeticos; la exploracion y produccion petrolera en America Latina: presente y futuro; petroliferos y petroquimica en America Latina: mercados regionales y globales; la desregulacion del sector electrico: experiencias y perspectivas en Latinoamerica; externalidades ambientales en los sistemas energeticos: mitigacion por medio de tecnologia y eficiencia energetica e impacto sobre los costos y los precios de la energia.

  13. A technique for automatically extracting useful field of view and central field of view images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Param Dev; Aheer, Deepak; Kumar, Jay Prakash; Sharma, Sanjay Kumar; Patel, Chetan; Kumar, Rakesh; Bal, Chandra Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: It is essential to ensure the uniform response of the single photon emission computed tomography gamma camera system before using it for the clinical studies by exposing it to uniform flood source. Vendor specific acquisition and processing protocol provide for studying flood source images along with the quantitative uniformity parameters such as integral and differential uniformity. However, a significant difficulty is that the time required to acquire a flood source image varies from 10 to 35 min depending both on the activity of Cobalt-57 flood source and the pre specified counts in the vendors protocol (usually 4000K-10,000K counts). In case the acquired total counts are less than the total prespecified counts, and then the vendor's uniformity processing protocol does not precede with the computation of the quantitative uniformity parameters. In this study, we have developed and verified a technique for reading the flood source image, remove unwanted information, and automatically extract and save the useful field of view and central field of view images for the calculation of the uniformity parameters. Materials and Methods: This was implemented using MATLAB R2013b running on Ubuntu Operating system and was verified by subjecting it to the simulated and real flood sources images. Results: The accuracy of the technique was found to be encouraging, especially in view of practical difficulties with vendor-specific protocols. Conclusion: It may be used as a preprocessing step while calculating uniformity parameters of the gamma camera in lesser time with fewer constraints. PMID:27095858

  14. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American-Caribbean-Cocos plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.

    2015-09-01

    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. The complex tectonic setting produced an intricate pattern of landscapes that we try to systemize using remote sensing tectonic geomorphology and available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes while lower segments characterized by multiple knickpoints, that adjust to new base-level conditions. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos fore-arc sliver, and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central America Volcanic Arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos fore-arc sliver and the North American plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén basin.

  15. A review of the genus Agapetus Curtis (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae) in eastern and central North America, with description of 12 new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etnier, David A.; Parker, Charles R.; Baxter, John T., Jr.; Long, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-nine species of caddisflies in the genus Agapetus Curtis in eastern and central North America are reviewed. Twelve are described as new species: Agapetus aphallus (known only from females); Agapetus baueri, Agapetus flinti, Agapetus harrisi, Agapetus hesperus, Agapetus ibis, Agapetus kirchneri, Agapetus meridionalis, Agapetus pegram, Agapetus ruiteri, Agapetus stylifer, and Agapetus tricornutus. Agapetus rossi Denning 1941 is recognized as a junior subjective synonym of Agapetus walkeri (Betten and Mosely 1940), new synonym. A key to males is provided, and species’ distributions are mapped.

  16. Airborne LIDAR Measurements of Water Vapor, Ozone, Clouds, and Aerosols in the Tropics Near Central America During the TC4 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, Susan; Fenn, Marta; Ismail, Syed; Ferrare, Richard; Hair, John; Browell, Edward; Notari, Anthony; Butler, Carolyn; Burton, Sharon; Simpson, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Large scale distributions of ozone, water vapor, aerosols, and clouds were measured throughout the troposphere by two NASA Langley lidar systems on board the NASA DC-8 aircraft as part of the Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling Experiment (TC4) over Central and South America and adjacent oceans in the summer of 2007. Special emphasis was placed on the sampling of convective outflow and transport, sub-visible cirrus clouds, boundary layer aerosols, Saharan dust, volcanic emissions, and urban and biomass burning plumes. This paper presents preliminary results from this campaign, and demonstrates the value of coordinated measurements by the two lidar systems.

  17. Central universal force field to explain solar orbital radial acceleration and other universal phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Barghout, Kamal

    2007-01-01

    I investigate a repulsive central universal force field on the behavior of celestial objects. I show its negative tidal effect on the solar orbits as experienced by Pioneer spacecrafts. I explain several cosmological effects in light of this force.

  18. A multi-institutional approach to implement fruit fly low prevalence and free areas in Central America: Outcomes and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For the purpose of boosting the fruit and vegetable exports of the Central American countries through fruit fly suppression/eradication actions, new approaches are used: - A multilateral alliance instead of isolated efforts. Thus, four international organisations, two donors Government institutions and the region's seven countries joined their efforts, coordinated by the IAEA; - A strategy of incremental enlargement of isolated low prevalence or free areas, instead of the old approach of attempting to eradicate the pest from the entire region; and - The use of pilot experimental areas, on which all elements that play a key role in a pest-free production-exports system are applied, instead of focusing only on some technologies in the field. Outcomes include the implementation of medfly-free areas in Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica, and Panama is also in the process of doing so. Guatemala is presently negotiating with the Mexican Government the export of peach from its fruit fly-free zone in the Department of Quetzaltenango. Major constraints encountered are: - Weak alliances among the international organisations, - Troublesome coordination between Governments and the producers-exporters, - Insufficient trained civil servants in the Government and, - Insufficient funding to transfer the actions to bigger areas. (author)

  19. South America Geologic Map (geo6ag)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. The geologic map of South America was digitized so that we could use...

  20. Central Bank autonomy in Europe and Latin America: analysis of differences and applications Autonomía de la banca central en Europa y América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rollinat Robert

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This article makes a comparative analysis of the experiences of the independent central bank in Latin America and Europe. After reviewing the problems and theories of central bank autonomy, it studies the recent evolution of the Latin American central bank in comparison with the European central bank, high lights the perverse effects of the reforms, and shows that their objective is more the stability of the financial system than the stability of prices. Finally, it describes the tests to which the new Latin American central banks have been subjected and the effects on their credibility. It concludes that these entities have had to correct and pay for the incoherences and errors of the market, and that their independence or autonomy depends on their continuing to ful fill this role, not only for economíc or monetary reasons but for the needs of political and social democracy.Este artículo hace un análisis comparativo de las experiencias de la banca central independiente en América Latina y Europa. Después de revisar los problemas y las teorías de la autonompia de los bancos centrales, estudia la reciente evolución de la banca central latinoamericana en comparación con la europea, destaca los efectos perversos de estas reformas u muestra que sus objetivo es más la estabilidad del sistema financiero que la de los precios. Finalmente, describe las pruebas a que han sido sometidos los nuevos bancos centrales latinomaericanos y los efectos de sus credibilidad. Concluye que estas entidades han tenido que corregir y pagar las incoherencias y los errrores del mercado, y que su 'independencia' o autonomía depende de que sigan cumpliendo con ese papel no sólo por razones económicas o monetarias sino por las necesidades de la democracia política y social.

  1. Migration and wintering areas of American Bitterns (Botaurus lentiginosus) that summer in central North America as determined by satellite and radio telemetry, 1998-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huschle, Guy; Toepfer, John E.; Douglas, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty adult male American Bitterns (Botaurus lentiginosus) were marked on summer range in central North America with satellite tracking Platform Transmitter Terminals (PTTs) to document migration routes and wintering range. Nineteen complete fall migration routes were documented for 17 individuals. Of the successful migrations, 63% (n = 12) went to southern Florida, 32% (n = 6) to southern Louisiana, and 5% (n = 1) to the Gulf coast of Texas. Spring migrations for nine birds were documented, and 78% (n = 7) showed fidelity to breeding range. Two complete migrations for two individuals were documented, and they demonstrated fidelity to winter range. The longest, fastest movement documented was 2,300 km in less than 74 hr. Extensive, post-breeding dispersal was not observed in the adult male American Bitterns in this study. Six male American Bitterns were marked with PTTs on winter range in Florida and Texas. Spring migration for these birds was documented to Nebraska, North Dakota, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario. Sixty-seven American Bitterns were marked with Very High Frequency radio transmitters on summer ranges, and 16% (n = 11) were located on wintering grounds used by the satellite-tracked birds, further documenting the importance of the Everglades and the Louisiana coast as winter habitat for American Bitterns that breed in Central North America.

  2. Psychobiography Training in Psychology in North America: Mapping the Field and Charting a Course

    OpenAIRE

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Reynolds, Jason D.; Samantha Morel; Linda Cheung

    2015-01-01

    Psychobiography holds an important position in the history of psychology, yet little is known about the status of psychobiographical training and dissertation research in psychology departments. This brief report identified psychobiography courses throughout North America and content analyzed a sample of 65 psychobiography dissertations to discern the theories and methods that have most commonly anchored this research. Results identified few psychology courses specifically in psychobiography,...

  3. Chloroplast DNA Microsatellites Reveal Contrasting Phylogeographic Structure in Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae) from Amazonia and Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Maristerra R. Lemes; Dick, Christopher W; Navarro, Carlos; Lowe, Andrew J.; Cavers, Stephen; Gribel, Rogerio

    2010-01-01

    Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) is one of the most valuable and overharvested timber trees of tropical America. A description of the organization of genetic variation across its broad range would be useful for management of genetic diversity and for understanding its demographic history. Here we report on a phylogeographic analysis of mahogany based on six polymorphic cpDNA simple sequence repeat loci (cpSSRs) genotyped in 16 populations distributed across the Brazilian Amazon and M...

  4. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American-Caribbean-Cocos plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.

    2016-01-01

    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. We intend to characterize and understand the complex tectonic setting that produced an intricate pattern of landscapes using tectonic geomorphology, as well as available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in a transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low-amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes. Lower reaches adjust to new base-level conditions and are characterized by multiple knickpoints. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos forearc sliver and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central American volcanic arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos forearc sliver and the North American Plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén Basin.

  5. First recognition of the genus Verneuilia Hall and Clarke (Brachiopoda, Spiriferida) from North America (west-central Alaska)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, R.B.; Johnson, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    The brachiopod genus Verneuilia Hall and Clarke, 1893, is recognized for the first time in North America, where it is represented by a new species described here. V. langenstrasseni. This occurrence extends not only the geographic range of the genus, but also the lower age and stratigraphic limit into the Eifelian (early Middle Devonian). Previously, the oldest known species was the type, V. cheiropteryx d'Archiac and de Verneuil, 1842, from the Givetian (late Middle Devonian) of Germany. Internal structures of V. langenstrasseni n.sp. are similar to those of genera in the ambocoeliid subfamily Rhynchospiriferinae, providing the first good evidence of a systematic relationship. -Authors

  6. Fermilab and Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet

  7. Central sensitization in spinal cord injured humans assessed by reflex receptive fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biurrun Manresa, José Alberto; Finnerup, Nanna Susanne Brix; Johannesen, Inger Lauge; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Andersen, Ole Kæseler

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of central sensitization, elicited by intramuscular injection of capsaicin, by comparing the reflex receptive fields (RRF) of spinally-intact volunteers and spinal cord injured volunteers that present presensitized spinal nociceptive mechanisms. METHODS...... after an intramuscular injection of capsaicin in the foot sole in order to induce central sensitization. RESULTS: Both groups presented RRF expansion and lowered NWR thresholds immediately after capsaicin injection, reflected by the enlargement of RRF sensitivity areas and RRF probability areas...

  8. Irregular field calculation on the central beam axis of photon beams using sector-integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is proposed for calculation of irregular field factors on the central beam axis and homogeneous medium for x-ray beams. The irregular field factor is introduced as the ratio of the output of a field with and without blocks on the central beam axis. The algorithm is based on the sector-integration method and the circular field quantities are calculated from in-phantom measurements. These circular field quantities are the output per beam monitor unit for circular fields defined by a hypothetical secondary collimator and reduced to a circular field by blocking. A derivation of the sector-integration equation is given from first principles. As it is shown, the circular field quantities are evaluated from data measured for rectangular, block shaped fields. Such quantities contain all beam components, including photons scattered from the blocks, the block tray, and photons scattered in the phantom. Consequently, the so called primary and secondary beam components are readily incorporated in this approach. Once the circular field quantities have been determined from rectangular field data, the irregular field factors for other geometry can be calculated. Irregular field factors for square, rectangular and circular block-shaped fields were calculated for 6 MV photon beams and compared with measured values. The results agree within 0.7%, even for heavy blocked field cases, i.e., a 40x40 cm2 collimator field blocked to a 5x5 cm2 field. The method was tested for a particular source to surface distance, depth, phantom composition, and source to block distance. Calculation of irregular field factors in another set up conditions requires the measurement of the appropriate input data

  9. Paleobiogeografía del arribo de mamíferos suramericanos al sur de América Central de previo al gran intercambio biótico americano: un vistazo al GABI en América Central Paleobiogeography of the arrival of south american mammals to southern Central America prior to the great american biotic interchange: a look at the GABI in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A Laurito

    2012-06-01

    of South American mammals to the Southern Central America region, not known until now. The arrival of South American mammals to the Panama Region was due to a series of factors such as the development of the Costa Rica-Panamá Island Arc by subduction processes, the collision and the deformation of the Island Arc with the North-Western Colombia territories and the prevailing climate factors which stimulated the predominance of warm, humid and basal forests, both in Colombia and in southern Central America. This permitted the xenarthrans, which are considered strong swimmers and islands hoppers to migrate to the North. These conditions on the other hand, limited the migration to the South of the North American mammals, whose arrival in South America was postponed until the Blancan age with drier climatic conditions and the new land corridor that was established in the region. Additionally, the current state of the Great American Biotic Interchange in Central America (GABI is analyzed

  10. Interannual Variability of the Bimodal Distribution of Summertime Rainfall Over Central America and Tropical Storm Activity in the Far-Eastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Scott; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The summer climate of southern Mexico and Central America is characterized by a mid summer drought (MSD), where rainfall is reduced by 40% in July as compared to June and September. A mid-summer reduction in the climatological number of eastern Pacific tropical cyclones has also been noted. Little is understood about the climatology and interannual variability of these minima. The present study uses a novel approach to quantify the bimodal distribution of summertime rainfall for the globe and finds that this feature of the annual cycle is most extreme over Pan America and adjacent oceans. One dominant interannual signal in this region occurs the summer before a strong winter El Nino/Southern Oscillation ENSO. Before El Nino events the region is dry, the MSD is strong and centered over the ocean, and the mid-summer minimum in tropical cyclone frequency is most pronounced. This is significantly different from Neutral cases (non-El Nino and non-La Nina) when the MSD is weak and positioned over the land bridge. The MSD is highly variable for La Nina years, and there is not an obvious mid-summer minimum in the number of tropical cyclones.

  11. At the foot of the shrew: manus morphology distinguishes closely-related Cryptotis goodwini and Cryptotis griseoventris (Mammalia: Soricidae) in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal; Stephens, Ryan B.

    2010-01-01

    Small-eared shrews (Mammalia, Soricidae) of the New World genus Cryptotis are distributed from eastern North America to the northern Andes of South America. One well-defined clade in this genus is the Central American Cryptotis mexicana group, whose members are set off from other species in the genus by their variably broader fore feet and more elongate and broadened fore claws. Two species in the C. mexicana group, Cryptotis goodwini Jackson and Cryptotis griseoventris Jackson, inhabit highlands in Guatemala and southern Mexico and are presumed to be sister species whose primary distinguishing feature is the larger body size of C. goodwini. To better characterize these species and confirm the identification of recently-collected specimens, we obtained digital X-ray images of the manus from large series of dried skins of both species. Measurements of the metacarpals and phalanges successfully separated most specimens of C. goodwini and C. griseoventris. These measurements also show that the fore feet of C. griseoventris from Chiapas, Mexico, are morphologically distinct from those of members of the species inhabiting Guatemala. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses indicate that fore foot characters are more conservative within species of the C. mexicana group than are cranio-mandibular characters. Patterns of evolution of fore foot characters that superficially appear to be linear gradations are actually more complex, illustrating individual evolutionary trajectories.

  12. Psychobiography Training in Psychology in North America: Mapping the Field and Charting a Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Reynolds, Jason D.; Morel, Samantha; Cheung, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Psychobiography holds an important position in the history of psychology, yet little is known about the status of psychobiographical training and dissertation research in psychology departments. This brief report identified psychobiography courses throughout North America and content analyzed a sample of 65 psychobiography dissertations to discern the theories and methods that have most commonly anchored this research. Results identified few psychology courses specifically in psychobiography, with a larger number of courses incorporating psychobiographical and/or narrative elements. With regard to psychobiography dissertations, the majority focused on artists, pioneering psychologists, and political leaders. Theories undergirding psychobiographical studies were most frequently psychoanalytic and psychodynamic. Methodologically, a majority of the dissertations were anchored in constructivist (discovery-oriented) qualitative procedures, with a minority incorporating mixed methods designs. The authors highlight the value of psychobiographical training to psychology students and present avenues and models for incorporating psychobiography into psychology curriculums.

  13. Psychobiography Training in Psychology in North America: Mapping the Field and Charting a Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponterotto, Joseph G; Reynolds, Jason D; Morel, Samantha; Cheung, Linda

    2015-08-01

    Psychobiography holds an important position in the history of psychology, yet little is known about the status of psychobiographical training and dissertation research in psychology departments. This brief report identified psychobiography courses throughout North America and content analyzed a sample of 65 psychobiography dissertations to discern the theories and methods that have most commonly anchored this research. Results identified few psychology courses specifically in psychobiography, with a larger number of courses incorporating psychobiographical and/or narrative elements. With regard to psychobiography dissertations, the majority focused on artists, pioneering psychologists, and political leaders. Theories undergirding psychobiographical studies were most frequently psychoanalytic and psychodynamic. Methodologically, a majority of the dissertations were anchored in constructivist (discovery-oriented) qualitative procedures, with a minority incorporating mixed methods designs. The authors highlight the value of psychobiographical training to psychology students and present avenues and models for incorporating psychobiography into psychology curriculums. PMID:27247670

  14. Is violence associated with increased risk behavior among MSM? Evidence from a population-based survey conducted across nine cities in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Wheeler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: There is a dearth of research examining the linkages between violence and HIV risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM, including those who identify as transgender women (TW, particularly in Central America where violence is widespread. In this paper, we use population-based survey results to independently examine the correlations between physical, emotional and sexual violence and HIV risk behavior among MSM populations in five countries in Central America. Design: As part of USAID's Combination Prevention for HIV program in Central America, PASMO conducted population based surveys using respondent-driven sampling (RDS in nine cities in Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Initial seeds were recruited using the following criteria: individuals who represented subgroups of MSM by self-identification (homosexual vs. heterosexual or bisexual vs. transgender, social economic strata, and by sex work practices. This study examines the association between violence and 1 HIV risk behaviors relevant to the study populations; 2 protective behaviors; and 3 reported STIs. Individualized RDS estimator weights for each outcome variable were calculated using RDSAT software, and logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations between different forms of violence and the outcome variables. Results: MSM who experienced physical violence were more likely to be engaged in transactional sex (OR: 1.76 [1.42–2.18], have multiple partners in the past 30 days (OR: 1.37 [1.09–1.71], and have engaged in sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs (OR: 1.51 [1.24–1.83]. Both physical violence and psychological/verbal violence were also associated with reporting STI symptoms or diagnosis within the past 12 months (OR: 1.72 [1.34–2.21] and 1.80 [1.45–2.23]. The effects of violence on the outcomes were observed after controlling for other risk factors. Transgender women were 3.9 times more likely

  15. Evolution of magnetotelluric, total magnetic field, and VLF field parameters in Central Italy: relations to local seismic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ernst

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetotelluric data were collected at Collemeluccio (41.72°N, 14.37°E in Central Italy from summer 1991 to spring 1998. Analyzed by means of tensor decomposition on the geoelectric potential and robust estimation on the geomagnetic field, this set of data allowed the investigation of the electric properties at different time-periods. The variation of some indicators, related to the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction, is presented here in its time evolution and compared to local and regional seismic activity. Tectonomagnetic field observations from absolute magnetic field level in Central Italy were also made on data simultaneously recorded at four magnetometer stations, using L'Aquila Geomagnetic Observatory as a reference for differentiation. Recent results gathered from a system of two VLF search coil wide-band antennas, installed in the L'Aquila Observatory, are also discussed in relation to local seismic activity.

  16. Magmas with slab fluid and decompression melting signatures coexisting in the Gulf of Fonseca: Evidence from Isla El Tigre volcano (Honduras, Central America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Michele; Renzulli, Alberto; Agostini, Samuele; Lucidi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Isla El Tigre volcano is located in the Gulf of Fonseca (Honduras) along the Central America volcanic front, where a significant change in the strike of the volcanic chain is observed. The studied samples of this poorly investigated volcano are mainly subalkaline basic to intermediate lavas (basalts and basaltic andesites) and subordinate subalkaline/alkaline transitional basalts, both having the typical mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of arc volcanic rocks. On the basis of petrographic and geochemical features, two groups of rocks have been distinguished. Lavas from the main volcanic edifice are highly porphyritic and hy-qz normative, and have lower MgO contents ( 5 wt.%), are ol-hy normative and show lower HFSE depletions relative to LILE and LREE, with lower Ba/La, Ba/Nb and Zr/Nb ratios. This suggests that mantle-derived magmas were not produced by the same process throughout the activity of the volcano. The bulk rock geochemistry and 87Sr/86Sr (0.70373-0.70382), 143Nd/144Nd (0.51298-0.51301), 206Pb/204Pb (18.55-18.58), 207Pb/204Pb (15.54-15.56) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.23-38.26) isotopic data of Isla El Tigre compared with the other volcanoes of the Gulf of Fonseca and all available literature data for Central America suggests that this stratovolcano was mainly built by mantle-derived melts driven by slab-derived fluid-flux melting, while magmas erupted through its parasitic cones have a clear signature of decompression melting with minor slab contribution. The coexistence of these two different mantle melting generation processes is likely related to the complex geodynamic setting of the Gulf of Fonseca, where the volcanic front changes direction by ca. 30° and two fundamental tectonic structures of the Chortis continental block, mainly the N-S Honduras Depression and the NE-SW Guayape Fault Zone, cross each other.

  17. Education for Management in Central America. The Role of the Library of the Instituto Centroamericano de Administracion de Empresas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Thomas

    1973-01-01

    The institute, established in 1968, is a multinational organization for education in management at the post-graduate level. Its library, with five staff members, now has 4,000 volumes and receives 300 periodical publications: it should eventually become a Central American business and economic management information and research center. (Author/SJ)

  18. Central limit theorems for the excursion sets volumes of weakly dependent random fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bulinski, Alexander; Timmermann, Florian

    2010-01-01

    The multivariate central limit theorems (CLT) for the volumes of excursion sets of stationary quasi-associated random fields on $\\mathbb{R}^d$ are proved. Special attention is paid to Gaussian and shot noise fields. Formulae for the covariance matrix of the limiting distribution are provided. Statistical versions of the CLT are considered as well. They employ three different estimators of the asymptotic covariance matrix. Some numerical results are also discussed.

  19. Fall of an elastic bar in central gravitational fields: 1. Newtonian gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within some reasonable approximations we calculate deformation of an elastic bar, falling on a source of a central gravitational field. We consider both elastic deformations and plastic flow together with destructions of the bar. Concrete calculations for a number of materials are presented.

  20. Radical, reformist and aborted liberalism: origins of national regimes in Central America Liberalismo radical, reformista y frustrado: orígenes de los regímenes nacionales en América central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James MAHONEY

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available During the twentieth century, the countries of Central America were characterized by remarkably different political regimes: military-authoritarianism in Guatemala and El Salvador, progressive democracy in Costa Rica and traditional-authoritarianism in Honduras and Nicaragua. This article explains these contrasting regime outcomes by exploring the agrarian and state-building reforms pursued by political leaders during the nineteenth– and early twentieth century liberal reform period. Based on differences in the transformation of state and class structures, three types of liberalism are identified: radical liberalism in Guatemala and El Salvador, reformist liberalism in Costa Rica and aborted liberalism in Honduras and Nicaragua. It is argued that these types of liberalism set the Central American countries on contrasting paths of political development, culminating in diverse regime outcomes.Durante el siglo XX, los países de América Central se caracterizaron por tener regímenes políticos muy diferentes: el autoritarismo militar en Guatemala y El Salvador; la democracia progresista en Costa Rica y el autoritarismo tradicional en Honduras y Nicaragua. Este artículo explica los resultados de estos distintos regímenes mediante la exploración de las reformas agrarias y de la construcción del Estado llevadas a cabo por los líderes políticos durante el siglo XIX y principios del periodo de reformas liberales del siglo XX. Basándose en las diferencias de la transformación del Estado y de las estructuras de clases, se pueden identificar tres tipos de liberalismo: liberalismo radical en Guatemala y El Salvador; liberalismo reformista en Costa Rica y liberalismo frustrado en Honduras y Nicaragua. Se argumenta que estos tipos de liberalismo condujeron a los países de América Central a caminos contrarios al desarrollo político, culminando así en regímenes con resultados diversos.

  1. Angular momenta (anti l, anti s, anti j) in fields of central symmetry and regular polyhedra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been found that the quantization of orbital, intrinsic, and total angular momenta in fields of central symmetry is related to the symmetries of the regular and quasi-regular polyhedra which inherently include this central symmetry. This may be used as the basis of a fundamental physical theory of the structure of matter. Such a research is further encouraged by the fact that the same polyhedra are related to spherical nuclei through the shell model and the isomorphic model of nuclear structure. (author)

  2. Joint Actions of the Republic of Tajikistan and the United States of America in the Field of Weapons of Mass Destruction Non-Proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the legislative basis in the field of radiation safety and security and regulatory authority establishment in Tajikistan. Joint actions undertaken after the civil war in Tajikistan by regulatory authorities of the Governments of the United States of America and Tajikistan are presented. Actions performed and planned in order to prevent proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in Tajikistan are presented. (author)

  3. Mature field development using 3-D seismic in Minas field, Central Sumatra, Basin, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitris, F.; Whitacre, T.P. (PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia, Sumatra (Indonesia))

    1996-01-01

    The Minas field 3-D seismic survey (450 km2) was conducted after nearly 4000 MMBO of production. Interpretation of the data has shown a significant number of remaining prospects within the field. Delineation of these locations was impossible using the 2D seismic grid. The new 3D data cube has revealed locations in simple anticlines, en-echelon folds, faulted monoclines, rollover folding, complex faulted zones, stratigraphic traps and within a fractured basement high. The new interpretation has identified more than 75 development and OSWC well locations. These wells will produce an estimated 75 MMBO. As the result of a $5MM seismic survey, the asset value will increase by nearly $1000MM.

  4. Mature field development using 3-D seismic in Minas field, Central Sumatra, Basin, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitris, F.; Whitacre, T.P. [PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia, Sumatra (Indonesia)

    1996-12-31

    The Minas field 3-D seismic survey (450 km2) was conducted after nearly 4000 MMBO of production. Interpretation of the data has shown a significant number of remaining prospects within the field. Delineation of these locations was impossible using the 2D seismic grid. The new 3D data cube has revealed locations in simple anticlines, en-echelon folds, faulted monoclines, rollover folding, complex faulted zones, stratigraphic traps and within a fractured basement high. The new interpretation has identified more than 75 development and OSWC well locations. These wells will produce an estimated 75 MMBO. As the result of a $5MM seismic survey, the asset value will increase by nearly $1000MM.

  5. Major subsidence of the south-central United States of America and future inundation of coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokka, R. K.

    2004-12-01

    The northern shore of the Gulf of Mexico is the site of America's greatest wetland, the gateway to vast energy resources, and home to over 10 million people. This critical area is being increasingly threatened by progressive inundation by the relative rise of the Gulf of Mexico. This slow inundation was detected several decades ago and has been generally attributed to eustatic sea level rise, sediment starvation of the delta due to construction of flood control levees along the Mississippi River, and subsidence of the land relative to sea level. Although the former two effects are reasonably well understood, the lack of precise quantitative spatial data on the later related to a well defined, common datum has prevented the development of a satisfactory theory to explain modern surface motions. Analysis of National Geodetic Survey (NGS) 1st order leveling data produced vertical velocities for over 2700 benchmarks in Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Texas, Arkansas, Florida, and Tennessee. All motions were related to NAVD88 and show that subsidence is not limited to coastal wetland areas, but rather includes the entire coastal zone as well as inland areas several hundred km from the shore. Subsidence can also be tracked to the north and follows the trend of the alluvial valley of the Mississippi River. Regionally, vertical velocities range from less than -30 mm/yr along the coast to over +5 mm/yr in peripheral areas of eastern Mississippi-Alabama. The mean rate is ~11 mm/yr in most coastal parishes of Louisiana. In the Mississippi River deltaic plain, subsidence was significantly higher than previous estimates based on long-term geologic measurements. The data also indicate that adjacent alluvial ridges where the population is concentrated have been similarly affected. In the Chenier plain of southwest Louisiana, a region previously thought to be subsiding at slowly, rates of sinking are similar to those of the deltaic plain. Demonstration that all areas of the

  6. GEOFLOW: simulation of convection in a spherical shell under central force field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Beltrame

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-dependent dynamical simulations related to convective motion in a spherical gap under a central force field due to the dielectrophoretic effect are discussed. This work is part of the preparation of the GEOFLOW-experiment which is planned to run in a microgravity environment. The goal of this experiment is the simulation of large-scale convective motion in a geophysical or astrophysical framework. This problem is new because of, on the one hand, the nature of the force field (dielectrophoretic effect and, on another hand, the high degree of symmetries of the system, e.g. the top-bottom reflection. Thus, the validation of this simulation with well-known results is not possible. The questions concerning the influence of the dielectrophoretic force and the possibility to reproduce the theoretically expected motions in the astrophysical framework, are open. In the first part, we study the system in terrestrial conditions: the unidirectional Earth's force is superimposed on the central dielectrophoretic force field to compare with the laboratory experiments during the development of the equipment. In the second part, the GEOFLOW-experiment simulations in weightless conditions are compared with theoretical studies in the astrophysical framework's, in the first instance a fluid under a self-gravitating force field. We present complex time-dependent dynamics, where the dielectrophoretic force field causes significant differences in the flow compared to the case that does not involve this force field.

  7. Studying Geology of Central Texas through Web-Based Virtual Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C.; Khan, S. D.; Wellner, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Each year over 2500 students, mainly non-science majors, take introductory geology classes at the University of Houston. Optional field trips to Central Texas for these classes provide a unique learning opportunity for students to experience geologic concepts in a real world context. The field trips visit Enchanted Rock, Inks Lake, Bee Cave Road, Lion Mountain, and Slaughter Gap. Unfortunately, only around 10% of our students participate in these field trips. We are developing a web-based virtual field trip for Central Texas to provide an additional effective learning experience for students in these classes. The module for Enchanted Rock is complete and consists of linked geological maps, satellite imagery, digital elevation models, 3-D photography, digital video, and 3-D virtual reality visualizations. The ten virtual stops focus on different geologic process and are accompanied by questions and answers. To test the efficacy of the virtual field trip, we developed a quiz to measure student learning and a survey to evaluate the website. The quiz consists of 10 questions paralleling each stop and information on student attendance on the Central Texas field trip and/or the virtual field trip. From the survey, the average time spent on the website was 26 minutes, and overall the ratings of the virtual field trip were positive. Most noticeably students responded that the information on the website was relevant to their class and that the pictures, figures, and animations were essential to the website. Although high correlation coefficients between responses were expected for some questions (i.e., 0.89 for "The content or text of the website was clear" and "The information on the website was easy to read"), some correlations were less expected: 0.77 for "The number of test questions was appropriate" and "The information on the website was easy to read," and 0.70 for "The test questions reinforced the material presented on the website" and "The information on the

  8. Relativistic equation of the orbit of a particle in a arbitrary central force field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equation of the orbit of a relativistic particle moving in an arbitrary central force field is derived. Straightforward generalizations of well-known first and second order differential equations are given. It is pointed out that the relativistic equation of the orbit has the same form as in the non-relativistic case, the only changes consisting in the appearance of additional terms proportional to 1/c2 in both potential and total energies. (author)

  9. Evidence and future scenarios of a low-carbon energy transition in Central America: a case study in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barido, Diego Ponce de Leon; Johnston, Josiah; Moncada, Maria V.; Callaway, Duncan; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-10-01

    The global carbon emissions budget over the next decades depends critically on the choices made by fast-growing emerging economies. Few studies exist, however, that develop country-specific energy system integration insights that can inform emerging economies in this decision-making process. High spatial- and temporal-resolution power system planning is central to evaluating decarbonization scenarios, but obtaining the required data and models can be cost prohibitive, especially for researchers in low, lower-middle income economies. Here, we use Nicaragua as a case study to highlight the importance of high-resolution open access data and modeling platforms to evaluate fuel-switching strategies and their resulting cost of power under realistic technology, policy, and cost scenarios (2014-2030). Our results suggest that Nicaragua could cost-effectively achieve a low-carbon grid (≥80%, based on non-large hydro renewable energy generation) by 2030 while also pursuing multiple development objectives. Regional cooperation (balancing) enables the highest wind and solar generation (18% and 3% by 2030, respectively), at the least cost (US127 MWh-1). Potentially risky resources (geothermal and hydropower) raise system costs but do not significantly hinder decarbonization. Oil price sensitivity scenarios suggest renewable energy to be a more cost-effective long-term investment than fuel oil, even under the assumption of prevailing cheap oil prices. Nicaragua’s options illustrate the opportunities and challenges of power system decarbonization for emerging economies, and the key role that open access data and modeling platforms can play in helping develop low-carbon transition pathways.

  10. Multiproxy summer and winter surface air temperature field reconstructions for southern South America covering the past centuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neukom, R.; Grosjean, M.; Wanner, H. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), Bern (Switzerland); University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); Luterbacher, J. [Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Department of Geography, Climatology, Climate Dynamics and Climate Change, Giessen (Germany); Villalba, R.; Morales, M.; Srur, A. [CONICET, Instituto Argentino de Nivologia, Glaciologia y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA), Mendoza (Argentina); Kuettel, M. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), Bern (Switzerland); University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); University of Washington, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Seattle (United States); Frank, D. [Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Jones, P.D. [University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich (United Kingdom); Aravena, J.-C. [Centro de Estudios Cuaternarios de Fuego Patagonia y Antartica (CEQUA), Punta Arenas (Chile); Black, D.E. [Stony Brook University, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook (United States); Christie, D.A.; Urrutia, R. [Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); D' Arrigo, R. [Earth Institute at Columbia University, Tree-Ring Laboratory, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States); Lara, A. [Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); Nucleo Cientifico Milenio FORECOS, Fundacion FORECOS, Valdivia (Chile); Soliz-Gamboa, C. [Utrecht Univ., Inst. of Environmental Biology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gunten, L. von [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland); Univ. of Massachusetts, Climate System Research Center, Amherst (United States)

    2011-07-15

    We statistically reconstruct austral summer (winter) surface air temperature fields back to ad 900 (1706) using 22 (20) annually resolved predictors from natural and human archives from southern South America (SSA). This represents the first regional-scale climate field reconstruction for parts of the Southern Hemisphere at this high temporal resolution. We apply three different reconstruction techniques: multivariate principal component regression, composite plus scaling, and regularized expectation maximization. There is generally good agreement between the results of the three methods on interannual and decadal timescales. The field reconstructions allow us to describe differences and similarities in the temperature evolution of different sub-regions of SSA. The reconstructed SSA mean summer temperatures between 900 and 1350 are mostly above the 1901-1995 climatology. After 1350, we reconstruct a sharp transition to colder conditions, which last until approximately 1700. The summers in the eighteenth century are relatively warm with a subsequent cold relapse peaking around 1850. In the twentieth century, summer temperatures reach conditions similar to earlier warm periods. The winter temperatures in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were mostly below the twentieth century average. The uncertainties of our reconstructions are generally largest in the eastern lowlands of SSA, where the coverage with proxy data is poorest. Verifications with independent summer temperature proxies and instrumental measurements suggest that the interannual and multi-decadal variations of SSA temperatures are well captured by our reconstructions. This new dataset can be used for data/model comparison and data assimilation as well as for detection and attribution studies at sub-continental scales. (orig.)

  11. The interseismic velocity field of the central Apennines from a dense GPS network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Galvani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 1999, we have repeatedly surveyed the central Apennines through a dense survey-style geodetic network, the Central Apennines Geodetic Network (CAGeoNet. CAGeoNet consists of 123 benchmarks distributed over an area of ca. 180 km × 130 km, from the Tyrrhenian coast to the Adriatic coast, with an average inter-site distance of 3 km to 5 km. The network is positioned across the main seismogenic structures of the region that are capable of generating destructive earthquakes. Here, we show the horizontal GPS velocity field of both CAGeoNet and continuous GPS stations in this region, as estimated from the position–time series in the time span from 1999 to 2007. We analyzed the data using both the Bernese and GAMIT software, rigorously combining the two solutions to obtain a validated result. Then, we analyzed the strain-rate field, which shows a region of extension along the axis of the Apennine chain, with values from 2 × 10–9 yr–1 to 66·× 10–9 yr–1, and a relative minimum of ca. 20 × 10–9 yr–1 located in the L'Aquila basin area. Our velocity field represents an improved estimation of the ongoing elastic interseismic deformation of the central Apennines, and in particular relating to the area of the L'Aquila earthquake of April 6, 2009.

  12. Technologies to better serve the millions of diabetic patients: a holistic, interactive and persuasive ICT model to facilitate self care, in extremely poor rural zones of Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Lombardo, Miguel; Jipsion, Armando; Vejarano, Rafael; Camargo, Ismael; Alvarez, Humberto; Mora, Elena Villalba; Ruíz, Ernestina Menasalva

    2012-04-01

    Health indicators express remarkable gaps between health systems at a world-wide level. Countries of the entire world are overflowed by the need of new strategies, methodologies and technologies to better serve the millions of patients, who demand better medical attention. The present archaic and ephemerally systematized systems widen the gap even more than the quality of medical services that should be provided for the millions of diabetic patients. It is therefore necessary to develop highly familiar environments with diabetic patients and their care needs. A Holistic, Interactive and Persuasive ICT model to facilitate self care of patients with diabetes (hIPAPD), is proposed as an innovative technological development in Panama to health optimized treatment for diabetic patients. Three health centers located in the District of Aguadulce, Province of Cocle, located on Panama's Pacific Coast, were selected to validate the model; the area presents extremely poor population, mostly with one daily meal, without any health insurance and with a high illiteracy rate. A series of experiences in the application and validation process are presented and analyzed in order to confirm the application, value and contribution of ICTs in health care in poor regions of Central America. PMID:20703674

  13. Transboundary aquifers: the response of international law and legal voids in Central America; Acuiferos transfronterizos: respuestas desde el derecho internacional y vacios en Centroamerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeglin, N.

    2012-11-01

    Central America is one of the regions of the world that will suffer the impact of climate change much more than others. The adoption of clear rules on the use of transboundary aquifers and on the need to preserve these groundwater reservoirs from serious pollution by the various states in the region is absolutely essential. Despite the lack of any bilateral or regional frameworks to rule on this issue, many general regulations have been adopted within the international framework of the United Nations that are applicable to shared surface and groundwater resources as well as to transboundary aquifers. The case of the Las Crucitas project in Costa Rica, halted by domestic tribunals thanks to the decisive action of its civilian society, reflects a clear lack of technical information concerning aquifers in Costa Rica, and probably in many other states in the region, despite the very valuable efforts being undertaken by the OAS and UNESCO under the aegis of the ISARM project for the Latin American region.

  14. How does land use link terrestrial and aquatic carbon in western North America?: Implications from an agricultural case study in central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, S. A.; Sigler, W. A.

    2014-12-01

    The fate of soil organic matter with expanding human land use is of increasing concern for planetary health and ecological sustainability. In North American grasslands, cultivation has commonly resulted in loss of stored soil organic carbon to dissolved phases in groundwater and surface water, as well as to atmospheric CO2 via decomposition. In addition, cultivation has released nutrients stored in organic matter and facilitated water movement through soils to benefit crops, increasing groundwater recharge rates. This has altered groundwater chemistry both by changing biogeochemistry of the terrestrial-aquatic interface and by increasing addition of nutrients, herbicides, and pesticides to these systems. In this presentation, we consider the effects of food production practices on terrestrial-aquatic carbon linkages in former grassland ecosystems of western North America. Our data from an agricultural area in central Montana begin to reveal how elevated nitrate and pesticide levels in groundwater on an isolated landform reflect transformation over the last century of a temperate grassland ecosystem for wheat and cattle production. Rates and pathways of carbon and nitrogen loss are inferred from the concentration and isotopic character of both water and carbon and nitrogen over three years in soils, shallow groundwater, emergent springs and surface waters. In this semi-arid, non-irrigated context, the fate of soil organic matter is linked with redistribution of pedogenic carbonate as well as other soil and rock derived solutes. We consider implications for future trends in dissolved carbon and nitrogen in surface waters in the region.

  15. Two new species of Urocleidoides Mizelle et Price, 1964 (Monogenoidea) from the gill lamellae of profundulids and poeciliids from Central America and southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    During investigations of gill ectoparasites (Platyhelminthes) parasitising freshwater fish from Central America (Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Panama) and southeastern Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca and Chiapas), the following dactylogyrid monogenoidean were found: Urocleidoides simonae sp. n. from Profundulus punctatus (Günther) (type host), Profundulus balsanus Ahl, Profundulus guatemalensis (Günther), Profundulus kreiseri Matamoros, Shaefer, Hernández et Chakrabarty, Profundulus labialis (Günther), Profundulus oaxacae (Meek), Profundulus sp. 1 and Profundulus sp. 2 (all Profundulidae); Urocleidoides vaginoclaustroides sp. n. from Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculata (Heckel) (type host) and Poeciliopsis retropinna (Regan) (both Poeciliidae); and Urocleidoides vaginoclaustrum Jogunoori, Kritsky et Venkatanarasaiah, 2004 from P. labialis, Profundulus portillorum Matamoros et Shaefer and Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel (Poeciliidae). Urocleidoides simonae sp. n. differs from all other congeneric species in having anchors with well-differentiated roots, curved elongate shaft and short point. Urocleidoides vaginoclaustroides sp. n. most closely resembles U. vaginoclaustrum, but differs from this species mainly in the shape of its anchors (i.e. evenly curved shaft and short point vs curved shaft and elongate point extending just past the tip of the superficial anchor root). The complexity of potential hosts for species of Urocleidoides and their effect on its distribution on profundulid and poeciliid fishes are briefly discussed. PMID:26580223

  16. Plasmodium falciparum Field Isolates from South America Use an Atypical Red Blood Cell Invasion Pathway Associated with Invasion Ligand Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Perez, Mary; Villasis, Elizabeth; Machado, Ricardo L. D.; Póvoa, Marinete M.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Blair, Silvia; Gamboa, Dionicia; Lustigman, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Studies of Plasmodium falciparum invasion pathways in field isolates have been limited. Red blood cell (RBC) invasion is a complex process involving two invasion protein families; Erythrocyte Binding-Like (EBL) and the Reticulocyte Binding-Like (PfRh) proteins, which are polymorphic and not fully characterized in field isolates. To determine the various P. falciparum invasion pathways used by parasite isolates from South America, we studied the invasion phenotypes in three regions: Colombia, Peru and Brazil. Additionally, polymorphisms in three members of the EBL (EBA-181, EBA-175 and EBL-1) and five members of the PfRh (PfRh1, PfRh2a, PfRh2b, PfRh4, PfRh5) families were determined. We found that most P. falciparum field isolates from Colombia and Peru invade RBCs through an atypical invasion pathway phenotypically characterized as resistant to all enzyme treatments (NrTrCr). Moreover, the invasion pathways and the ligand polymorphisms differed substantially among the Colombian and Brazilian isolates while the Peruvian isolates represent an amalgam of those present in the Colombian and Brazilian field isolates. The NrTrCr invasion profile was associated with the presence of the PfRh2a pepC variant, the PfRh5 variant 1 and EBA-181 RVNKN variant. The ebl and Pfrh expression levels in a field isolate displaying the NrTrCr profile also pointed to PfRh2a, PfRh5 and EBA-181 as being possibly the major players in this invasion pathway. Notably, our studies demonstrate the uniqueness of the Peruvian P. falciparum field isolates in terms of their invasion profiles and ligand polymorphisms, and present a unique opportunity for studying the ability of P. falciparum parasites to expand their invasion repertoire after being reintroduced to human populations. The present study is directly relevant to asexual blood stage vaccine design focused on invasion pathway proteins, suggesting that regional invasion variants and global geographical variation are likely to preclude a simple

  17. Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from South America use an atypical red blood cell invasion pathway associated with invasion ligand polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Lopez-Perez

    Full Text Available Studies of Plasmodium falciparum invasion pathways in field isolates have been limited. Red blood cell (RBC invasion is a complex process involving two invasion protein families; Erythrocyte Binding-Like (EBL and the Reticulocyte Binding-Like (PfRh proteins, which are polymorphic and not fully characterized in field isolates. To determine the various P. falciparum invasion pathways used by parasite isolates from South America, we studied the invasion phenotypes in three regions: Colombia, Peru and Brazil. Additionally, polymorphisms in three members of the EBL (EBA-181, EBA-175 and EBL-1 and five members of the PfRh (PfRh1, PfRh2a, PfRh2b, PfRh4, PfRh5 families were determined. We found that most P. falciparum field isolates from Colombia and Peru invade RBCs through an atypical invasion pathway phenotypically characterized as resistant to all enzyme treatments (NrTrCr. Moreover, the invasion pathways and the ligand polymorphisms differed substantially among the Colombian and Brazilian isolates while the Peruvian isolates represent an amalgam of those present in the Colombian and Brazilian field isolates. The NrTrCr invasion profile was associated with the presence of the PfRh2a pepC variant, the PfRh5 variant 1 and EBA-181 RVNKN variant. The ebl and Pfrh expression levels in a field isolate displaying the NrTrCr profile also pointed to PfRh2a, PfRh5 and EBA-181 as being possibly the major players in this invasion pathway. Notably, our studies demonstrate the uniqueness of the Peruvian P. falciparum field isolates in terms of their invasion profiles and ligand polymorphisms, and present a unique opportunity for studying the ability of P. falciparum parasites to expand their invasion repertoire after being reintroduced to human populations. The present study is directly relevant to asexual blood stage vaccine design focused on invasion pathway proteins, suggesting that regional invasion variants and global geographical variation are likely to

  18. Effects of a 60 Hz magnetic field on central cholinergic systems of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States))

    1993-03-15

    The authors studied the effects of an acute exposure to a 60 Hz magnetic field on sodium-dependent, high-affinity choline uptake in the brain of the rat. Decreases in uptake were observed in the frontal cortex and hippocampus after the animals were exposed to a magnetic field at flux densities [>=] 0.75 mT. These effects of the magnetic field were blocked by pretreating the animals with the narcotic antagonist naltrexone, but not by the peripheral opioid antagonist, naloxone methiodide. These data indicate that the magnetic-field-induced decreases in high-affinity choline uptake in the rat brain were mediated by endogenous opioids in the central nervous systems.

  19. A new endemic focus of Chagas disease in the northern region of Veraguas Province, Western Half Panama, Central America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azael Saldaña

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease was originally reported in Panama in 1931. Currently, the best knowledge of this zoonosis is restricted to studies done in historically endemic regions. However, little is known about the distribution and epidemiology of Chagas disease in other rural areas of the country. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between May 2005 - July 2008 in four rural communities of the Santa Fe District, Veraguas Province. The study included an entomologic search to collect triatomines, bloodmeal type identification and infection rate with trypanosomes in collected vectors using a dot- blot and PCR analysis, genotyping of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi (mini-exon gene PCR analysis and the detection of chagasic antibodies among inhabitants. The vector Rhodnius pallescens was more frequently found in La Culaca and El Pantano communities (788 specimens, where it was a sporadic household visitor. These triatomines presented darker coloration and larger sizescompared with typical specimens collected in Central Panama. Triatoma dimidiata was more common in Sabaneta de El Macho (162 specimens. In one small sub-region (El Macho, 60% of the houses were colonized by this vector. Of the examined R. pallescens, 54.7.0% (88/161 had fed on Didelphis marsupialis, and 24.6% (34/138 of T. dimidiata specimens collected inside houses were positive for human blood. R. pallescens presented an infection index with T. cruzi of 17.7% (24/136, with T. rangeli of 12.5% (17/136 and 50.7% (69/136 were mixed infections. In 117 T. dimidiata domestic specimens the infection index with T. cruzi was 21.4%. Lineage I of T. cruzi was confirmed circulating in these vectors. A T. cruzi infection seroprevalence of 2.3% (24/1,056 was found in this population. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of Chagas disease endemicity in Santa Fe District, and it should be considered a neglected public health problem in this area of Panama.

  20. Soil bioengineering measures for disaster mitigation and environmental restoration in Central America: authochtonal cuttings suitability and economic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, A.; Preti, F.

    2009-04-01

    The use of Soil Bio-Engineering techniques in Developing countries is a relevant issue for Disaster mitigation, environmental restoration and poverty reduction. Research on authochtonal plants suitable for this kind of works and on economic efficiency is essential for the divulgation of this Discipline. The present paper is focused on this two issues related to the realization of various typologies of Soil Bio-engineering works in the Humid tropic of Nicaragua. In the area of Río Blanco, located in the Department of Matagalpa, Soil bio-engineering installations were built in several sites. The particular structures built were: drainages with live fascine mattress, a live palisade, a vegetated live crib wall for riverbank protection, a vegetative covering made of a metallic net and biotextile coupled with a live palisade made of bamboo. In order to evaluate the suitability of the various plants used in the works, monitorings were performed, one in the live palisade alongside an unpaved road and the other on the live crib wall along a riverbank, collecting survival rate and morphological parameters data. Concerning the economic efficiency we proceed to a financial analysis of the works and once the unit price was obtained, we converted the amount in EPP Dollars (Equal Purchasing Power) in order to compare the Nicaraguan context with the Italian one. Among the used species we found that Madero negro (Gliricidia sepium) and Roble macuelizo (Tabebuia rosea) are adequate for Soil-bioengineering measure on slopes while Helequeme (Erythrina fusca) reported a successful behaviour only in the crib wall for riverbank protection. In the comparison of the costs in Nicaragua and in Italy, the unit price reduction for the central American country ranges between 1.5 times (for the vegetative covering) and almost 4 times (for the fascine mattress) if it's used the EPP dollar exchange rate. Thus, a conclusion can be reached with regard to hydrological-risk mitigating actions

  1. Origin of 1015–1016 G magnetic fields in the central engine of gamma ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various authors have suggested that the gamma-ray burst (GRB) central engine is a rapidly rotating, strongly magnetized, ( ∼ 1015–1016 G) compact object. The strong magnetic field can accelerate and collimate the relativistic flow and the rotation of the compact object can be the energy source of the GRB. The major problem in this scenario is the difficulty of finding an astrophysical mechanism for obtaining such intense fields. Whereas, in principle, a neutron star could maintain such strong fields, it is difficult to justify a scenario for their creation. If the compact object is a black hole, the problem is more difficult since, according to general relativity it has ''no hair'' (i.e., no magnetic field). Schuster, Blackett, Pauli, and others have suggested that a rotating neutral body can create a magnetic field by non-minimal gravitational-electromagnetic coupling (NMGEC). The Schuster-Blackett form of NMGEC was obtained from the Mikhail and Wanas's tetrad theory of gravitation (MW). We call the general theory NMGEC-MW. We investigate here the possible origin of the intense magnetic fields ∼ 1015–1016 G in GRBs by NMGEC-MW. Whereas these fields are difficult to explain astrophysically, we find that they are easily explained by NMGEC-MW. It not only explains the origin of the ∼ 1015–1016 G fields when the compact object is a neutron star, but also when it is a black hole

  2. Far-field radially polarized focal spot from plasmonic spiral structure combined with central aperture antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lei; Ren, Yuan; Lu, Yonghua; Lei, Xinrui; Jiang, Kang; Li, Kuanguo; Wang, Yong; Cui, Chenjing; Wen, Xiaolei; Wang, Pei

    2016-03-01

    Manipulation of a vector micro-beam with an optical antenna has significant potentials for nano-optical technology applications including bio-optics, optical fabrication, and quantum information processing. We have designed and demonstrated a central aperture antenna within an Archimedean spiral that extracts the bonding plasmonic field from a surface to produce a new vector focal spot in far-field. The properties of this vector focal field are revealed by confocal microscopy and theoretical simulations. The pattern, polarization and phase of the focal field are determined by the incident light and by the chirality of the Archimedean spiral. For incident light with right-handed circular polarization, the left-handed spiral (one-order chirality) outputs a micro-radially polarized focal field. Our results reveal the relationship between the near-field and far-field distributions of the plasmonic spiral structure, and the structure has the potential to lead to advances in diverse applications such as plasmonic lenses, near-field angular momentum detection, and optical tweezers.

  3. A low-cost repellent for malaria vectors in the Americas: results of two field trials in Guatemala and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihuincha Moisés

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cost of mosquito repellents in Latin America has discouraged their wider use among the poor. To address this problem, a low-cost repellent was developed that reduces the level of expensive repellent actives by combining them with inexpensive fixatives that appear to slow repellent evaporation. The chosen actives were a mixture of para-menthane-diol (PMD and lemongrass oil (LG. Methods To test the efficacy of the repellent, field trials were staged in Guatemala and Peru. Repellent efficacy was determined by human-landing catches on volunteers who wore the experimental repellents, control, or 15% DEET. The studies were conducted using a balanced Latin Square design with volunteers, treatments, and locations rotated each night. Results In Guatemala, collections were performed for two hours, commencing three hours after repellent application. The repellent provided >98% protection for five hours after application, with a biting pressure of >100 landings per person/hour. The 15% DEET control provided lower protection at 92% (p 46 landings per person/hour. The 20% DEET control provided significantly lower protection at 64% (p Conclusion In both locations, the PMD/LG repellent provided excellent protection up to six hours after application against a wide range of disease vectors including Anopheles darlingi. The addition of fixatives to the repellent extended its longevity while enhancing efficacy and significantly reducing its cost to malaria-endemic communities.

  4. Aspects of the relationship between the processing of stimuli in the peripheral perceptual field and in the perceptual central field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Anitei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As humans have limited information processing abilities and rely on three fallible mental functions: perception, attention and memory, the driving error is easy to appear. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the male/female differences in processing the perceptive information from the external stimuli in the peripheral visual field and to demonstrate that the mean of the estimate errors in evaluating the speed and distances in the central visual perceptual field is in inverse ratio to the reaction time value at the visual stimuli from the peripheral driving tasks simulation. Between the variables number of wrong reactions and number of omissions there has been obtained a relatively high negative correlation (r=-0.728, p<0.001. The result has a strong implication in visual stimuli processing during driving tasks.

  5. South America Province Boundaries, 1999 (prv6ag)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. South America was divided into 107 geologic provinces as background...

  6. Building America Case Study: Field Testing an Unvented Roof with Fibrous Insulation and Tiles, Orlando, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-11-01

    This research is a test implementation of an unvented tile roof assembly in a hot-humid climate (Orlando, FL; Zone 2A), insulated with air permeable insulation (netted and blown fiberglass). Given the localized moisture accumulation and failures seen in previous unvented roof field work, it was theorized that a 'diffusion vent' (water vapor open, but air barrier 'closed') at the highest points in the roof assembly might allow for the wintertime release of moisture, to safe levels. The 'diffusion vent' is an open slot at the ridge and hips, covered with a water-resistant but vapor open (500+ perm) air barrier membrane. As a control comparison, one portion of the roof was constructed as a typical unvented roof (self-adhered membrane at ridge). The data collected to date indicate that the diffusion vent roof shows greater moisture safety than the conventional, unvented roof design. The unvented roof had extended winter periods of 95-100% RH, and wafer (wood surrogate RH sensor) measurements indicating possible condensation; high moisture levels were concentrated at the roof ridge. In contrast, the diffusion vent roofs had drier conditions, with most peak MCs (sheathing) below 20%. In the spring, as outdoor temperatures warmed, all roofs dried well into the safe range (10% MC or less). Some roof-wall interfaces showed moderately high MCs; this might be due to moisture accumulation at the highest point in the lower attic, and/or shading of the roof by the adjacent second story. Monitoring will be continued at least through spring 2016 (another winter and spring).

  7. Tomographic images of subducted oceans matched to the accretionary records of orogens - Case study of North America and relevance to Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigloch, Karin; Mihalynuk, Mitchell G.; Hosseini, Kasra

    2016-04-01

    Accretionary orogens are the surface record of subduction on the 100-million-year timescale; they aggregate buoyant crustal welts that resisted subduction. The other record of subduction is found in the deep subsurface: oceanic lithosphere preserved in the mantle that records ocean basin closure between successive generations of arcs. Seismic tomography maps out these crumpled paleo-oceans down to the core-mantle boundary, where slab accumulates. One such accumulation of enormous scale is under Eastern Asia, recording the assembly of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Deep CAOB slab has hardly been explored because tomographic image resolution in the lowermost mantle is limited, but this is rapidly improving. We present new images of the CAOB slabs from our P-wave tomography that includes core-diffracted waves as a technical novelty. The previous slab blur sharpens into the type of elongated geometries expected to trace paleo-trench lines. Since the North American Cordillera is younger than the CAOB (mostly 10,000 km long. North America converged on the two microcontinents by westward subduction of two intervening basins (which we name Mezcalera and Angayucham oceans), culminating in diachronous suturing between ~150 Ma and ~50 Ma. Hence geophysical subsurface evidence negates the widely accepted "Andean-style" model of Farallon-beneath-continent subduction since at least 180 Ma, and supports a Jura-Cretaceous paleogeography closer to today's Southwestern Pacific, or to the Paleozoic CAOB. Though advocated since the 1970's by a minority of geologists, this scenario had not gained wide acceptance due to a record obscured by overprinting, margin-parallel translation, and oroclinal bending. The new subsurface evidence provides specific indications where to seek the decisive Mezcalera-Angayucham suture. The suture is evident in a trail of collapsed Jura-Cretaceous basin relics that run the length of the Cordillera. Reference: Sigloch, K., & Mihalynuk, M. G. (2013

  8. Current status of investigations in the field of solid state science in central Kazakstan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations in the field of solid state science were initiated together with foundation of University in Karaganda. Historically general investigations in this field were conducted for scientific directions related to optical, luminescent and radiation properties of wide gap insulator. This activity was carried out according to appropriate plans of coordination counsels en-gaged in the physics of insulators, luminescent and radiation physics at the Academy of Science USSR and in the Committee on sciences and engineering of the Counsel of Ministers of the USSR. A number of works were coordinated by the Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan Republic. Investigations in the field of solid state science, con-ducted in the Central Kazakstan and coordinated by the Institute of Physics and Engineering of Kazakhstan National Academy of Sciences, can be currently distinguished according to scientific directions. Currently, the following scientific directions in the field of solid state science exist in the Central Kazakstan: influence of polymorph phase transitions on electron excitation in wide-gap crystals, radiation malformation and recombination, dielectric spectroscopy of crystals with hydrogen link, spectral and luminescent properties and energy migration processes in disordered and partly ordered systems of organic molecules. It is necessary to note that all investigated objects, described in this report, were recovered by investigators. That is, the relevant hardware is available

  9. Some Aspects of Quantum Mechanics of Particle Motion in Static Centrally Symmetric Gravitational Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbatenko, M V; Popov, E Yu

    2015-01-01

    The domain of wave functions and effective potentials of the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations for quantum-mechanical particles in static centrally symmetric gravitational fields are analyzed by taking into account the Hilbert causality condition. For all the explored metrics, assuming existence of event horizons, the conditions of a "fall" of a particle to the appropriate event horizons are implemented. The exclusion is one of the solutions for the Reissner-Nordstroem extreme field with the single event horizon. In this case, while fulfilling the condition found by V.I.Dokuchaev, Yu.N.Yeroshenko, the normalization integral is convergent and the wave functions become zero on the event horizon. This corresponds to the Hilbert causality condition. In our paper, due to the analysis of the effective potential for the Reissner-Nordstroem extreme field with real radial wave functions of the Dirac equation, the impossibility is demonstrated for the bound stationary state existence of quantum-mechanical particles, wit...

  10. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy. [and] Teacher's Resource Book. Revised. Choices for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. Inst. for International Studies.

    This unit examines the economic and military concerns that have linked the Caribbean and Central America to the United States. The first section of the first booklet reviews the history of U.S. involvement in the region from the mid-1800s to the early 1960s. Part 2 focuses on the Cuban missile crisis of 1962 and presents a day-by-day account of…

  11. Development of food crops by modern biotechnology techniques in Central America Desarrollo de cultivos y alimentos por técnicas de biotecnología moderna en Centroamérica

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Garro Monge

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, the adoption of Genetically Modified Crops (GMC) has increased in stages worldwide. The worldwide total area planted with biotech crops reached 148 million hectares by 2010, also increasing the number of farmers around the world who decided to produce crops with this technology. At the regional level there are different responses of government agencies by generating rules and regu- lations according to the reality of these countries. In Central America, countries with grea...

  12. Climate Impacts of Deforestation/Land-Use Changes in Central South America in the PRECIS Regional Climate Model: Mean Precipitation and Temperature Response to Present and Future Deforestation Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Canziani, Pablo O.; Gerardo Carbajal Benitez

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation/land-use changes are major drivers of regional climate change in central South America, impacting upon Amazonia and Gran Chaco ecoregions. Most experimental and modeling studies have focused on the resulting perturbations within Amazonia. Using the Regional Climate Model PRECIS, driven by ERA-40 reanalysis and ECHAM4 Baseline model for the period 1961–2000 (40-year runs), potential effects of deforestation/land-use changes in these and other neighboring ecoregions are evaluated....

  13. Weather and climate socio-economic impacts in Central America for the management and protection of world heritage sites and the Diquis Delta culture in Costa Rica (a case study)

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Amador; Alfaro, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    The Central America region hosts a valuable amount of World Heritage Sites (WHS), many of them located in areas of floods, landslides, drought, high winds, intense precipitations, and earthquakes. The effective management of WHS requires the understanding of this type of environmental phenomena and their potential impacts on these sites. The objective of this work is twofold. To make an analysis of some of the atmospheric systems (easterly waves, cold fronts and tropical cyc...

  14. Susceptibility of field-collected mosquitoes in central New Jersey to organophosphates and a pyrethroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Debin; Indelicato, Nick; Petersen, Jack; Williges, Eric; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary

    2014-06-01

    Chemical insecticides are the primary means to control mosquitoes, and mosquito control programs must regularly monitor for resistance of mosquito vectors to commonly used insecticides to ensure the efficacy and sustainability of active ingredients. We performed insecticide resistance bioassays to test the susceptibility of field-collected mosquitoes in central New Jersey to 1 larvicide (temephos) and 2 adulticides (malathion and sumithrin). Larval susceptibility of Culex pipiens pipiens to temephos provided median concentration (LC50) and 95% lethal concentration (LC95) values of 1.108 microg/l and 2.02 microg/l, respectively. Bottle bioassays of adult Aedes albopictus showed that 100% mortality was achieved at 35-min exposure to sumithrin and at 40-min to malathion. Baseline values were obtained using both temephos and sumithrin. Our bioassays indicate satisfactory susceptibility to temephos and sumithrin in Ae. albopictus and Cx. p. pipiens field populations in central New Jersey. Despite constant field use, both products are still effective and can be used adequately for control of the test species. However, the susceptibility of target insects to various formulations should be closely monitored periodically to ensure continual efficacy. PMID:25102600

  15. Isotopic and geochemical evolution of ground and surface waters in a karst dominated geological setting: a case study from Belize, Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of stable isotopes and major ions in groundwater and surface waters in Belize, Central America was carried out to identify processes that may affect drinking water quality. Belize has a subtropical rainforest/savannah climate with a varied landscape composed predominantly of carbonate rocks and clastic sediments. Stable oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δD) isotope ratios for surface and groundwater have a similar range and show high d-excess (10-40.8%o). The high d-excess in water samples suggest secondary continental vapor flux mixing with incoming vapor from the Caribbean Sea. Model calculations indicate that moisture derived from continental evaporation contributes 13% to overhead vapor load. In surface and groundwater, concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) ranged from 5.4 to 112.9 mg C/l and δ13CDIC ranged from -7.4 to -17.4%o. SO42, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the water samples ranged from 2-163, 2-6593 and 2-90 mg/l, respectively. The DIC and δ13CDIC indicate both open and closed system carbonate evolution. Combined δ13CDIC and Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO42- suggest additional groundwater evolution by gypsum dissolution and calcite precipitation. The high SO42-content of some water samples indicates regional geologic control on water quality. Similarity in the range of δ18O, δD and δ13CDIC for surface waters and groundwater used for drinking water supply is probably due to high hydraulic conductivities of the karstic aquifers. The results of this study indicate rapid recharge of groundwater aquifers, groundwater influence on surface water chemistry and the potential of surface water to impact groundwater quality and vise versa

  16. Health care providers and human trafficking: what do they know, what do they need to know? Findings from the Middle East, the Caribbean and Central America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderik F Viergever

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHuman trafficking is a crime that commonly results in acute and chronic physical and psychological harm. To foster more informed health sector responses to human trafficking, training sessions for health care providers were developed and pilot-tested in the Middle East, Central America and the Caribbean. This study presents the results of an investigation into what health care providers knew and needed to know about human trafficking as part of that training program.MethodsParticipants attended one of seven two-day training courses in Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Costa Rica, Egypt, El Salvador, Guyana and Jordan. We assessed participants’ knowledge about human trafficking and opinions about appropriate responses in trafficking cases via questionnaires pre-training, and considered participant feedback about the training post-training. Results178 participants attended the trainings. Pre-training questionnaires were completed by 165 participants (93% and post-training questionnaires by 156 participants (88%. Pre-training knowledge about health and human trafficking appeared generally high for topics such as the international nature of trafficking and the likelihood of poor mental health outcomes among survivors. However, many participants had misconceptions about the characteristics of trafficked persons and a provider’s role in responding to cases of trafficking. The most valued training components included the Role of the Health Provider, Basic Definitions and Concepts and Health Consequences of Trafficking. DiscussionTraining health care providers on caring for trafficked persons has the potential to improve practitioners’ knowledge about human trafficking and its health consequences, and to increase safe practices when responding in cases of trafficking. This study provides lessons for the design of training programs on human trafficking that aim to help health care providers identify and refer victims, and provide care for

  17. Description of the Oocysts of Three New Species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae from Iguanid Lizards (Sauria: Iguanidae of Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daszak P

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Eimeria are described from iguanid lizards of Central and South America. The oocysts of each species have no micropyles or residua and the sporocysts lack Stieda bodies, but all have a sporocyst residuum. Eimeria sanctaluciae n.sp. was found in the St. Lucia tree lizard, Anolis luciae, collected from the Maria Islands, Lesser Antilles. The oocysts are spherical to subspherical, averaging 17.3 x 16.5 µm, with a single layered colourless wall; about 60% contain polar granules. The sporocysts are ellipsoidal and average 7.7 x 5.5 µm. Eimeria liolaemi n.sp. was recovered from the blue-gold swift, Liolaemus taenius, from Chile. The oocysts are spherical to subspherical, measuring 21 x 20.1 µm with a single-layered colourless wall. The sporocysts are subspherical and average 7.4 x 6.8 µm. Eimeria caesicia n.sp. is described from the Brazilian collared iguanid, Tropidurus torquatus. The oocysts measure 27.4 x 23.7 µm, are spherical to subspherical, with a bilayered wall, the outer surface of which appears pale blue in colour, the thin, inner wall appearing brown, when viewed by direct light under the optical microscope. The sporocysts are subspherical and average 9.4 x 7.2 µm. Unnamed polysporocystid oocysts with dizoic sporocysts are reported from the faeces of the lesser St. Vincent tree lizard, Anolis trinitatis and the possibility of spurious parasitism briefly discussed. In addition, oocysts of an unnamed Isospora sp. with a smooth oocyst wall which closely resembles I. reui were recovered from A. trinitatis.

  18. Children’s Migration to the United States from Mexico and Central America: Evidence from the Mexican and Latin American Migration Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine M. Donato

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of rising numbers of unaccompanied minors at the Mexico-US border in 2014, this article examines child migration from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua. Using data from the Mexican and Latin American Migration Projects that permit us to go beyond simple descriptive analysis about children apprehended at the border, we investigate the extent to which children from these countries: (1 enter without legal authorization to do so; (2 are more likely to cross the border now than in the past; and (3 are tied to their parents’ migration. In theory, if immigration and refugee protections worked well for children and offered them legal pathways to reunify with their families, then we would expect low levels of unauthorized entry and no dramatic shifts over time. However, our examination of child migration shows that it is strongly linked to unauthorized entry, period of entry, and parents’ US experience.The findings show that the migration of children is closely linked to their parents’ migration history. Although the overall likelihood of a Mexican child making a first US trip is quite low, it is practically non-existent for children whose parents have no US experience. Thus, the increase in child migration from Central America, and the continued high levels of child migration from Mexico result from widespread migration networks and the United States’ long-standing reliance on the children’s parents as immigrant workers. The findings suggest that these children need protection in the form of family reunification and permanent legal status.

  19. Population ecology of rodents of maize fields and grassland in central Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekel'e, Afework; Leirs, Herwig

    1997-01-01

    We report on the presence of rodents in grassland and maize fields in central Ethiopia, during the course of a 21-month study by means of removal and capture-recapture trapping. In both habitats, the small mammal fauna consisted of the same species but in different relative proportions: Arvicanthis...... A.dembeensis reached high values in the grassland. Breeding was seasonal and related to rainfall periods: extended rainy seasons resulting in longer periods with breeding females and higher litter sizes and, consequently, population size increases. These observations suggest that rodent population...

  20. Market regulation in Central America and Bit-Energy.CEL as tool for improving the self regulating forces for a liberalised market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    establishment of regional spot and contracts market comprising 6 Central American countries; 3. the introduction of a retail market, allowing auto generation for industrial consumers; 4. the introduction of a renewable and rural electrification support scheme; 5. the introduction of the stochastic planning tool Bit-Energy.CEL for making offers for the spot market less predictable and more flexible. The proposed paper will show more details on the history of market liberalisation in Central America, summarise ongoing activities for improving market efficiency and explain in more detail which role Bit-Energy.CEL plays in this process. (author)

  1. Evaluation of Recent Tectonomagmatic Discrimination Diagrams and their Application to the Origin of Basic Magmas in Southern Mexico and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Surendra P.; Verma, Sanjeet K.; Pandarinath, Kailasa; Rivera-Gómez, María Abdelaly

    2011-08-01

    Discrimination diagrams to decipher tectonic settings have been in use for nearly 40 years. Although old diagrams have been extensively used, the recent ones based on discriminant functions of ratio variables, with or without log-transformation, proposed during 2004-2010 for the discrimination of four tectonic settings of island arc, continental rift, ocean-island and mid-ocean ridge, were newly evaluated to show their high success rates of 57.3-100% and 58.5-100% for major-element and immobile-element based diagrams, respectively. For the continental arc of the Andes evaluated for its similarity to island arc, these four sets of diagrams showed success rates of 62.1-83.8%. These four sets of five diagrams per set were therefore used to infer tectonic setting of the Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB), Los Tuxtlas volcanic field (LTVF), and Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). Using this approach, the MVB, especially its western, central and eastern parts, and the LTVF of Southern Mexico show a dominantly continental rift setting and the CAVA shows an arc setting. The west-central part of the MVB is consistent with dual tectonics of arc and rift. These results confirm the application of an unusual mantle upwelling rift-model for the Mexican on-land volcanism, whereas the conventional plate tectonic subduction model seems to be applicable for the CAVA from Guatemala to north-western Costa Rica.

  2. Kinematics of the Central Kiloparsec in Cygnus A from AO Integral Field Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylor, Kevin; Rude, G.; Medling, A.; Canalizo, G.; Max, C. E.; Antonucci, R. R.

    2013-01-01

    We present Keck Integral Field Unit observations and long-slit spectroscopy of the central regions of Cygnus A using laser guide star adaptive optics. Our near-IR images show a bi-conic structure clearly seen in Pa-alpha emission and a more flattened structure perpendicular to the axis of the radio jets that is only visible in H_2 emission. Both of these structures are strongly suggestive of an obscuring torus around a heavily extinguished quasar nucleus. We use the integral field spectroscopy to develop velocity maps and model the kinematics of the entire region. We thus set constraints on the torus geometry and obtain an estimate for the mass of the supermassive black hole.

  3. Large-scale application of seismic steamflood monitoring in Duri Field, Central Sumatra - progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waite, M.; Setyiadi, B.; Primadi, H.; Gross, S. [PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia, Sumatra (Indonesia)

    1996-12-31

    After a successful single-pattern field trial, an endeavor to apply seismic steamflood monitoring technology on a scale designed to meet the requirements of heat management programs has commenced in Duri Field, Central Sumatra - one of the largest heavy oil enhanced recovery projects in the world. A baseline 3-D seismic survey was acquired in April, 1995, just prior to the start of steam injection in a 31 pattern area. The first of four monitor 3-D seismic surveys was acquired 8 months later. Differences between the two seismic surveys were used to monitor steamflood evolution and optimize EOR and heat management processes. This paper will address a wide range of topics including expected economic benefits, planning, seismic acquisition and processing, modeling and analysis, and impact on EOR and heat management processes. A special emphasis will be given to value resulting from interdisciplinary synergy.

  4. Large-scale application of seismic steamflood monitoring in Duri Field, Central Sumatra - progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waite, M.; Setyiadi, B.; Primadi, H.; Gross, S. (PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia, Sumatra (Indonesia))

    1996-01-01

    After a successful single-pattern field trial, an endeavor to apply seismic steamflood monitoring technology on a scale designed to meet the requirements of heat management programs has commenced in Duri Field, Central Sumatra - one of the largest heavy oil enhanced recovery projects in the world. A baseline 3-D seismic survey was acquired in April, 1995, just prior to the start of steam injection in a 31 pattern area. The first of four monitor 3-D seismic surveys was acquired 8 months later. Differences between the two seismic surveys were used to monitor steamflood evolution and optimize EOR and heat management processes. This paper will address a wide range of topics including expected economic benefits, planning, seismic acquisition and processing, modeling and analysis, and impact on EOR and heat management processes. A special emphasis will be given to value resulting from interdisciplinary synergy.

  5. Early exposure of rotating magnetic fields promotes central nervous regeneration in planarian Girardia sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Lin, Gui-Miao; Wu, Nan; Tang, Sheng-Wei; Zheng, Zhi-Jia; Lin, Marie Chia-Mi; Xu, Gai-Xia; Liu, Hao; Deng, Yue-Yue; Zhang, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Si-Ping; Wang, Xiao-Mei; Niu, Han-Ben

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic field exposure is an accepted safe and effective modality for nerve injury. However, it is clinically used only as a supplement or salvage therapy at the later stage of treatment. Here, we used a planarian Girardia sinensis decapitated model to investigate beneficial effects of early rotary non-uniform magnetic fields (RMFs) exposure on central nervous regeneration. Our results clearly indicated that magnetic stimulation induced from early RMFs exposure significantly promoted neural regeneration of planarians. This stimulating effect is frequency and intensity dependent. Optimum effects were obtained when decapitated planarians were cultured at 20 °C, starved for 3 days before head-cutting, and treated with 6 Hz 0.02 T RMFs. At early regeneration stage, RMFs exposure eliminated edema around the wound and facilitated subsequent formation of blastema. It also accelerated cell proliferation and recovery of neuron functionality. Early RMFs exposure up-regulated expression of neural regeneration related proteins, EGR4 and Netrin 2, and mature nerve cell marker proteins, NSE and NPY. These results suggest that RMFs therapy produced early and significant benefit in central nervous regeneration, and should be clinically used at the early stage of neural regeneration, with appropriate optimal frequency and intensity. Bioelectromagnetics. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:244-255, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27061713

  6. Evolution of the Moxizhuang Oil Field, Central Junggar Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Huayao; Zhang Yuanchun; Liu Jianzhang; Shi Jiannan

    2008-01-01

    Current oil saturation in the Moxizhuang (莫西庄) Oil Field in central Janggar (准噶尔) basin was evaluated by logging interpretation and measured on core samples, and the paleo-oil saturation in both the pay zones and water zones was investigated by graln-containing-oil inclusion (GOI) analysis.The pay zones in this field have low oil saturation and display low resistivity and small contrast between pay zones and water zones, and are classified as low-porosity, low oil saturation, and low resistivity reservoirs. Both the current low oil-saturation pay zones and the water zones above 4 365 m have high GOI values (up to 38%), suggesting high paleo-oil saturation. The significant difference between current oil saturation from both logging interpretation and core sample measurement and paleo-oil saturation indicated by GOI analysis suggests that this low oil-saturation field evolved from a high oil-saturation pool. Lateral re-migration and spill of formally trapped oil owing to changes in structural configuration since Neogene was the most plausible mechanism for oil loss in the Moxizhuang Oil Field.The combined effects of differential accumulation in the charge phase and the differential re-migration and spill of accumulated oil in Neogene are responsible for the complicated correlation between residual oil saturation and porosity/permeability of the reservoir sandstones and the distribution of low oil-saturation pay zones and paleo-oil zones (current water zones).

  7. Discovery and development of the Petapahan oil field, Central Sumatra. [Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roezin, S.

    1974-01-01

    The Petapahan oil field is located about 60 km west of Pekanbaru, the capital of Riau Province and just north of Tapung Kiri River in central Sumatra. The field covers approx. 3,200 acres. At the end of 1973, 17 wells had been drilled in the field with 2 dry holes. Of the remaining 15 wells, 12 are on production and 3 are shut in, awaiting production testing. Production of 33/sup 0/ API gravity oil is obtained from 3 separate sandstone reservoirs at the rate of approx. 40,000 bpd. Cumulative production to Dec. 31, 1973 was 14.7 million bbl of oil. Oil was discovered in 3 separate sands in the lower Miocene Sihapas Group. The sands, designated as A, B, and C, are divided on their differences in reservoir characteristics with 12 ft (3.5 m), 30 ft (9 m), and 114 ft (35 m) of respective net pays. The Petapanhan structure extends northwest-southeast along the S. flank of a deep Tertiary basin. The 2 lithologic units of interest in the Petapahan field are (1) the lower Miocene Sihapas Group which is composed predominantly of porous quartzose sandstone with silt and shale interbeds, and is the reservoir unit; and (2) the overlying lower to middle Miocene Telisa Formation is predominantly shale with thin sandstone interbeds; it is the effective cap rock and is also considered the likely source bed for oil generation.

  8. Field Scale Groundwater Nitrate Loading Model for the Central Valley, California, 1945-Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Dzurella, K.; Bell, A.; Kourakos, G.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic groundwater nitrate contamination in the Central Valley aquifer system, California, is widespread, with over 40% of domestic wells in some counties exceeding drinking water standards. Sources of groundwater nitrate include leaky municipal wastewater systems, municipal wastewater recharge, onsite wastewater treatment (septic) systems, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, animal farming, application of organic waste materials (sludge, biosolids, animal manure) to agricultural lands, and synthetic fertilizer. At the site or field scale, nitrogen inputs to the landscape are balanced by plant nitrogen uptake and harvest, atmospheric nitrogen losses, surface runoff of nitrogen, soil nitrogen storage changes, and leaching to groundwater. Irrigated agriculture is a dominant player in the Central Valley nitrogen cycle: The largest nitrogen fluxes are synthetic fertilizer and animal manure applications to cropland, crop nitrogen uptake, and groundwater nitrogen losses. We construct a historic field/parcel scale groundwater nitrogen loading model distinguishing urban and residential areas, individual animal farming areas, leaky wastewater lagoons, and approximately 50 different categories of agricultural crops. For non-agricultural landuses, groundwater nitrate loading is based on reported leaching values, animal population, and human population. For cropland, groundwater nitrate loading is computed from mass balance, taking into account diverse and historically changing management practices between different crops. Groundwater nitrate loading is estimated for 1945 to current. Significant increases in groundwater nitrate loading are associated with the expansion of synthetic fertilizer use in the 1950s to 1970s. Nitrate loading from synthetic fertilizer use has stagnated over the past 20 years due to improvements in nutrient use efficiency. However, an unbroken 60 year exponential increase in dairy production until the late 2000s has significantly impacted the

  9. La geopolítica de México en Centro América: ¿una hegemonía regional? Mexico's geopolitics in Central America: regional hegemony?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rocha

    2006-12-01

    analizar el Mecanismo de Diálogo y Concertación de Tuxtla-Gutiérrez y sus tres ámbitos de operación: 1. El ámbito político. 2. El ámbito del desarrollo. 3. El ámbito de la cooperación técnica regional. 4. El ámbito económico, comercial y financiero.Mexico as well as Brazil (first decade of 2000 started to release geo-economic and geo-political projections about their unmediated surroundings (their region of belonging and their mediated surroundings (their neighboring region, besides playing major political roles in their far surroundings (the Latin American and Caribbean region and their remote surroundings (the American continent. As a result, we have proposed and developed the idea that such situations and realities are those of processes of constitution of States with "sub-hegemonic" roles, with their respective functions of "sub-hegemony". We therefore ask the following question: Why are both Mexico and Brazil defining "sub-hegemonic" roles? Are such roles and functions possible within a continental space where a "superpower" exerts unquestionable "supremacy" besides seeking to redefine its "hegemony" (the one now undergoing a crisis? In order to work on the theme of Mexico's geopolitical relations with Central America, we have carried out four approximations: Mexico's current stance; historical background of the relations; process of institutionalization of cooperation; and field of action of the relations. Besides, the work is concluded with some ideas about Mexico's geopolitical view. The approximation to Mexico's structural stance in the world and in the American Continent seeks to highlight realities in its condition of semiperipheral and "sub-hegemonic" country. The historical approximation leads to the 1980s and the 1990s, when the background for Mexico's cooperation with Central America is established and that cooperation is started and strengthened. The institutional approximation, focused on the 1990s and the early 2000s, approaches the field of

  10. The field evaluation of a push-pull system to control malaria vectors in Northern Belize, Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph M Wagman; Grieco, John P; Bautista, Kim; polanco, jorge; Briceño, Ireneo; King, Russell; Nicole L Achee

    2015-01-01

    Background Campaigns for the continued reduction and eventual elimination of malaria may benefit from new and innovative vector control tools. One novel approach being considered uses a push-pull strategy, whereby spatial repellents are used in combination with outdoor baited traps. The desired effect is the behavioural manipulation of mosquito populations to elicit movement of vectors away from people and into traps. Methods Here, a prototype push-pull intervention was evaluated using an exp...

  11. The integripennis species group of Geocharidius Jeannel, 1963 (Carabidae, Bembidiini, Anillina from Nuclear Central America: a taxonomic review with notes about biogeography and speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Sokolov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Our review recognizes 15 species of the integripennis species group of Geocharidius from Nuclear Central America, include three species previously described (G. gimlii Erwin, G. integripennis (Bates and G. zullinii Vigna Taglianti and 12 described here as new. They are: G. andersoni sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Chiapas Highlands, Cerro Huitepec and G. vignatagliantii sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Benito Juárez from Mexico; G. antigua sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez, 5 km SE of Antigua, G. balini sp. n. (type locality: Suchitepéquez, 4 km S of Volcan Atitlán, G. erwini sp. n. (type locality: Quiché Department, 7 km NE of Los Encuentros, G. jalapensis sp. n. (type locality: Jalapa Department, 4 km E of Mataquescuintla, G. longinoi, sp. n. (type locality: El Progreso Department, Cerro Pinalón, and G. minimus sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez Department, 5 km SE of Antigua from Guatemala; and G. celaquensis sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park, G. comayaguanus sp. n. (type locality: Comayagua Department, 18 km ENE of Comayagua, G. disjunctus sp. n. (type locality: Francisco Morazán, La Tigra National Park, and G. lencanus sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park from Honduras. For all members of the group, adult structural characters, including male and female genitalia, are described, and a taxonomic key for all members of the integripennis species group is presented based on these characters. Behavioral and biogeographical aspects of speciation in the group are discussed, based on the morphological analysis. In all cases of sympatry, pairs of closely related species show greater differences in sizes than pairs of more remotely related species. Integripennis group species occupy six different montane areas at elevations above 1300m, with no species shared among them. Major faunal barriers in the region limiting present species distributions

  12. The integripennis species group of Geocharidius Jeannel, 1963 (Carabidae, Bembidiini, Anillina) from Nuclear Central America: a taxonomic review with notes about biogeography and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Igor M; Kavanaugh, David H

    2014-01-01

    Our review recognizes 15 species of the integripennis species group of Geocharidius from Nuclear Central America, include three species previously described (Geocharidiusgimlii Erwin, Geocharidiusintegripennis (Bates) and Geocharidiuszullinii Vigna Taglianti) and 12 described here as new. They are: Geocharidiusandersoni sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Chiapas Highlands, Cerro Huitepec) and Geocharidiusvignatagliantii sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Benito Juárez) from Mexico; Geocharidiusantigua sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez, 5 km SE of Antigua), Geocharidiusbalini sp. n. (type locality: Suchitepéquez, 4 km S of Volcan Atitlán), Geocharidiuserwini sp. n. (type locality: Quiché Department, 7 km NE of Los Encuentros), Geocharidiusjalapensis sp. n. (type locality: Jalapa Department, 4 km E of Mataquescuintla), Geocharidiuslonginoi, sp. n. (type locality: El Progreso Department, Cerro Pinalón), and Geocharidiusminimus sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez Department, 5 km SE of Antigua) from Guatemala; and Geocharidiuscelaquensis sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park), Geocharidiuscomayaguanus sp. n. (type locality: Comayagua Department, 18 km ENE of Comayagua), Geocharidiusdisjunctus sp. n. (type locality: Francisco Morazán, La Tigra National Park), and Geocharidiuslencanus sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park) from Honduras. For all members of the group, adult structural characters, including male and female genitalia, are described, and a taxonomic key for all members of the integripennis species group is presented based on these characters. Behavioral and biogeographical aspects of speciation in the group are discussed, based on the morphological analysis. In all cases of sympatry, pairs of closely related species show greater differences in sizes than pairs of more remotely related species. Integripennis group species occupy six different montane areas at

  13. A novel educational strategy targeting health care workers in underserved communities in Central America to integrate HIV into primary medical care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Flys

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current educational strategies to integrate HIV care into primary medical care in Central America have traditionally targeted managers or higher-level officials, rather than local health care workers (HCWs. We developed a complementary online and on-site interactive training program to reach local HCWs at the primary care level in underserved communities. METHODS: The training program targeted physicians, nurses, and community HCWs with limited access to traditional onsite training in Panama, Nicaragua, Dominican Republic, and Guatemala. The curriculum focused on principles of HIV care and health systems using a tutor-supported blended educational approach of an 8-week online component, a weeklong on-site problem-solving workshop, and individualized project-based interventions. RESULTS: Of 258 initially active participants, 225 (225/258=87.2% successfully completed the online component and the top 200 were invited to the on-site workshop. Of those, 170 (170/200=85% attended the on-site workshop. In total, 142 completed all three components, including the project phase. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation instruments included knowledge assessments, reflexive essays, and acceptability surveys. The mean pre and post-essay scores demonstrating understanding of social determinants, health system organization, and integration of HIV services were 70% and 87.5%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 17.2% (p<0.001. The mean pre- and post-test scores evaluating clinical knowledge were 70.9% and 90.3%, respectively, with an increase in knowledge of 19.4% (p<0.001. A survey of Likert scale and open-ended questions demonstrated overwhelming participant satisfaction with course content, structure, and effectiveness in improving their HIV-related knowledge and skills. CONCLUSION: This innovative curriculum utilized technology to target HCWs with limited access to educational resources. Participants benefited from technical skills

  14. Charged perfect fluid tori in strong central gravitational and dipolar magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovář, Jiří; Slaný, Petr; Cremaschini, Claudio; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Karas, Vladimír; Trova, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    We study electrically charged perfect fluid toroidal structures encircling a spherically symmetric gravitating object with Schwarzschild spacetime geometry and endowed with a dipole magnetic field. The work represents a direct continuation of our previous general-relativistic studies of electrically charged fluid in the approximation of zero conductivity, which formed tori around a Reissner-Nordström black hole or a Schwarzschild black hole equipped with a test electric charge and immersed in an asymptotically uniform magnetic field. After a general introduction of the zero-conductivity charged fluid model, we discuss a variety of possible topologies of the toroidal fluid configurations. Along with the charged equatorial tori forming interesting coupled configurations, we demonstrate the existence of the off-equatorial tori, for which the dipole type of magnetic field seems to be necessary. We focus on orbiting structures with constant specific angular momentum and on those in permanent rigid rotation. We stress that the general analytical treatment developed in our previous works is enriched here by the integrated form of the pressure equations. To put our work into an astrophysical context, we identify the central object with an idealization of a nonrotating magnetic neutron star. Constraining ranges of its parameters and also parameters of the circling fluid, we discuss a possible relevance of the studied toroidal structures, presenting along with their topology also pressure, density, temperature and charge profiles.

  15. Masking with faces in central visual field under a variety of temporal schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, Marwan; Wilson, Hugh R

    2015-11-01

    With a few exceptions, previous studies have explored masking using either a backward mask or a common onset trailing mask, but not both. In a series of experiments, we demonstrate the use of faces in central visual field as a viable method to study the relationship between these two types of mask schedule. We tested observers in a two alternative forced choice face identification task, where both target and mask comprised synthetic faces, and show that a simple model can successfully predict masking across a variety of masking schedules ranging from a backward mask to a common onset trailing mask and a number of intermediate variations. Our data are well accounted for by a window of sensitivity to mask interference that is centered at around 100 ms. PMID:26381296

  16. The genus zeta function of hereditary orders in central simple algebras over global fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denert, M.

    1990-01-01

    Louis Solomon introduced the notion of a zeta function {ζ_θ }(s) of an order θ in a finite-dimensional central simple K-algebra A, with K a number field or its completion {K_P} (P a non-Archimedean prime in K). In several papers, C. J. Bushnell and I. Reiner have developed the theory of zeta functions and they gave explicit formulae in some special cases. One important property of these zeta functions is the Euler product, which implies that in order to calculate {ζ_θ }(s) , it is sufficient to consider the zeta function of local orders {θ _P} . However, since these local orders {θ _P} are in general not principal ideal domains, their zeta function is a finite sum of so-called 'partial zeta functions'. The most complicated term is the 'genus zeta function', {Z_{{θ _P}}}(s) , which is related to the free {θ _P} -ideals. I. Reiner and C. J. Bushnell calculated the genus zeta function for hereditary orders in quaternion algebras (i.e., [A:K] = 4 ). The authors mention the general case but they remark that the calculations are cumbersome. In this paper we derive an explicit method to calculate the genus zeta function {Z_{{θ _P}}}(s) of any local hereditary order {θ _P} in a central simple algebra over a local field. We obtain {Z_{{θ _P}}}(s) as a finite sum of explicit terms which can be calculated with a computer. We make some remarks on the programming of the formula and give a short list of examples. The genus zeta function of the minimal hereditary orders (corresponding to the partition (1, 1, ... , 1) of n) seems to have a surprising property. In all examples, the nominator of this zeta function is a generating function for the q-Eulerian polynomials. We conclude with some remarks on a conjectured identity.

  17. "An open field and fair play". The relationship between Britain and the Southern Cone of America, c. 1808-1830.

    OpenAIRE

    Somarriva, M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This thesis explores the relationship between Great Britain and the Southern Cone of America between 1808 and 1830, from the perspective of the cultural representations which both regions developed about themselves and about each other. In order to do so, this work consulted newspapers, journals, pamphlets, prospectuses and books published in Great Britain and in the United Provinces, Chile and Perú between 1808 and the 1830’s. This work analyses the way in which cultural representat...

  18. Study on Applications of Supply and Demand Theory of Microeconomics and Physics Field Theory to Central Place Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nien, Benjamin Chih-Chien

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to analyze “central place theory” of spatial economics based on “supply and demand theory” in microeconomics and “field theory” in physics, and also discuss their relationship. Three most important research findings are described below. Firstly, the concept of market equilibrium could be expressed in the mathematical form of physics field theory under proper hypothesis. That is because the most important aspect of field theory model is that complex analysis is taken as a k...

  19. Visual processing of coherent rotation in the central visual field: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könönen, Mervi; Pääkkönen, Ari; Pihlajamäki, Maija; Partanen, Kaarina; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Soimakallio, Seppo; Aronen, Hannu J

    2003-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine the brain areas that process coherent motion. To reduce the activity related to eye-movement planning and self-motion perception, rotation was used as coherent motion and the stimulus was restricted to the central visual field. Coherent rotation relative to incoherent random-dot motion resulted in consistent activation in the superior parietal lobule (SPL), in the lateral occipital gyrus (presumptive kinetic occipital region, KO), and in the fusiform gyrus (FG). The main novel finding in present study is the bilateral SPL activation, which has not been found in any previous study contrasting coherent and incoherent motion. It is suggested that the SPL activation is related to form-from-motion processing. The stimulus modification that prevented abrupt appearances of dots at the borders of the stimulus field increased the strength of rolling disk-like percept of the coherent stimulus. This perception of form may also be at least partly responsible for the activation in KO and FG. With this explanation, our three consistent activation areas are in line with previous findings. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that even delicate changes in some stimulus aspects can lead to significant changes in the activation of the brain. PMID:14700259

  20. Per-Field Irrigated Crop Classification in Arid Central Asia Using SPOT and ASTER Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Conrad

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The overarching goal of this research was to explore accurate methods of mapping irrigated crops, where digital cadastre information is unavailable: (a Boundary separation by object-oriented image segmentation using very high spatial resolution (2.5–5 m data was followed by (b identification of crops and crop rotations by means of phenology, tasselled cap, and rule-based classification using high resolution (15–30 m bi-temporal data. The extensive irrigated cotton production system of the Khorezm province in Uzbekistan, Central Asia, was selected as a study region. Image segmentation was carried out on pan-sharpened SPOT data. Varying combinations of segmentation parameters (shape, compactness, and color were tested for optimized boundary separation. The resulting geometry was validated against polygons digitized from the data and cadastre maps, analysing similarity (size, shape and congruence. The parameters shape and compactness were decisive for segmentation accuracy. Differences between crop phenologies were analyzed at field level using bi-temporal ASTER data. A rule set based on the tasselled cap indices greenness and brightness allowed for classifying crop rotations of cotton, winter-wheat and rice, resulting in an overall accuracy of 80 %. The proposed field-based crop classification method can be an important tool for use in water demand estimations, crop yield simulations, or economic models in agricultural systems similar to Khorezm.

  1. Field Features And Mode Of Emplacement Of Pegmatites Of Keffi Area North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Keffi area of North Central Nigeria hosts numerous pegmatite bodies which are related to the surrounding granitic intrusions islocated about 45 km east of the Federal Capital Territory Abuja Nigeria. Petrological investigation of the pegmatites and surrounding host rocks aimed at characterising and understanding field relations and mode of emplacement of the rocks with a view to assess their mineralisation potentials were carried out. From the field observations the pegmatites were characterised into 1 Pelitic schist-amphibolite hosted pegmatites and 2 Granitoids orthogneisses hosted pegmatites and the granites into 1 the Bakin Ayini biotite granites 2 the Angwan Madugu biotite-muscovite granites and 3 the Sabongida biotite-muscovite granites. It is clear that those discordantly emplaced in pelitic schists varied in shape and size with length and width ranging from 400-2000m and 2-20m respectively some are huge isolated sill-like and flat-lying whilst those hosted in orthogneisses are narrow ranging in length 40-1000m and width 1-4m crosscutting and vertically oriented along shear zones which suggest passive emplacement

  2. Central polar cap convection response to short duration southward Interplanetary Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Jayachandran

    Full Text Available Central polar cap convection changes associated with southward turnings of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF are studied using a chain of Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosondes (CADI in the northern polar cap. A study of 32 short duration (~1 h southward IMF transition events found a three stage response: (1 initial response to a southward transition is near simultaneous for the entire polar cap; (2 the peak of the convection speed (attributed to the maximum merging electric field propagates poleward from the ionospheric footprint of the merging region; and (3 if the change in IMF is rapid enough, then a step in convection appears to start at the cusp and then propagates antisunward over the polar cap with the velocity of the maximum convection. On the nightside, a substorm onset is observed at about the time when the step increase in convection (associated with the rapid transition of IMF arrives at the polar cap boundary.

    Key words: Ionosphere (plasma convection; polar ionosphere - Magnetospheric physics (solar wind - magnetosphere interaction

  3. A questão do banimento internacional das minas terrestres: novos atores na segurança internacional e os casos das Américas Central e do Sul The international ban on landmines: new actors in international security and the cases of Central America and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Augusto Pires Tibúrcio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O principal instrumento jurídico internacional destinado a banir o uso, a produção e as transferências internacionais de minas terrestres antipessoais é o Tratado de Ottawa, aprovado em 1997 e que, em junho de 2011, possuía 156 Estados signatários. No processo que conduziu à sua aprovação, diversas organizações da sociedade civil, em vários países, desempenharam papel de destaque por meio de uma forte pressão exercida sobre alguns governos nacionais, promovendo uma campanha de amplo impacto midiático e que obteve apoio de algumas celebridades, especialmente de Diana, princesa de Gales. O presente artigo tem como objetivo discutir a questão do banimento das minas terrestres antipessoais a partir dessa perspectiva, demonstrando que, em alguns temas com consequências humanitárias negativas muito evidentes, é possível que os governos reajam positivamente às pressões da sociedade civil. Ademais, também se analisa como o problema das minas terrestres antipessoais foi enfrentado na América Central e na América do Sul, destacando-se, ainda, o papel do Brasil no apoio às ações de desminagem nestas regiões.The main international legal instrument for banning the use, production and international transfers of antipersonnel landmines is the Ottawa Treaty, approved in 1997, which in June 2011 had 156 signatory states. In the process leading to its approval, several civil society organizations, in many countries, played a prominent role through heavy pressure on some governments, promoting a campaign of huge media impact with support from some celebrities, notably Diana, Princess of Wales. This paper shows that in some areas with very obvious negative humanitarian consequences, it is possible that governments react positively to civil society pressures. Furthermore, this paper also examines how the problem of antipersonnel landmines has been tackled in Central and South America, also touching on Brazil's role in supporting the

  4. Conformal field theory at central charge c=0: A measure of the indecomposability (b) parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A good understanding of conformal field theory (CFT) at c=0 is vital to the physics of disordered systems, as well as geometrical problems such as polymers and percolation. Steady progress has shown that these CFTs should be logarithmic, with indecomposable operator product expansions, and indecomposable representations of the Virasoro algebra. In one of the earliest papers on the subject, V. Gurarie introduced a single parameter b to quantify this indecomposability in terms of the logarithmic partner t of the stress-energy tensor T. He and A. Ludwig conjectured further that b=-5/8 for polymers and b=5/6 for percolation. While a lot of physics may be hidden behind this parameter - which has also given rise to a lot of discussions - it had remained very elusive up to now, due to the lack of available methods to measure it experimentally or numerically, in contrast say with the central charge. We show in this paper how to overcome the many difficulties in trying to measure b. This requires control of a lattice scalar product, lattice Jordan cells, together with a precise construction of the state L-2|0>. The final result is that b=5/6 for polymers. For percolation, we find that b=-5/8 within an XXZ or supersymmetric representation. In the geometrical representation, we do not find a Jordan cell for L0 at level two (finite-size Hamiltonian and transfer matrices are fully diagonalizable), so there is no b in this case.

  5. Field and petrochemical studies of pegmatites in parts of Lokoja, Central Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omada, J. I.; Kolawole, M. S.; Odoma, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Field, petrological and geochemical studies of pegmatite bodies in parts of Lokoja, Central Nigeria, have been undertaken with a view to characterizing them and determining the rare earth mineralization potentials. Pegmatite bodies which are zoned or poorly zoned occur as dykes trending N-S, NE-SW and NW-SE consisting dominantly of feldspar-quartz, feldspar-quartz-mica, and feldspar-mica-quartz, respectively. Trace elements concentration in the Na-rich and K-rich feldspars is such that Rb > Ba > Sr > Pb > Ga and the pegmatites contain rare metals with moderately high contents of Nb, Sn, Rb, Li and Cs. The muscovite samples have enrichment pattern of Rb > Nb > Sn > Gn > Ta > Cs: each of the elements has concentration values that are higher than those in either the K-rich or Na-rich feldspars suggesting that muscovite and to a lesser extent feldspars, are the possible carriers of Ta, Sn and REE that are associated with the pegmatite bodies in the Lokoja area. The mineralogy and composition of the pegmatite bodies are indicative of post tectonic anorogenic acidic igneous protolith which underwent alkali metasomatism involving selective enrichment of trace elements and REE, fractionation and rock-fluid interactions.

  6. Assessment of clinical efficacy and safety in a randomized double-blind study of etanercept and sulfasalazine in patients with ankylosing spondylitis from Eastern/Central Europe, Latin America, and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanov, Nemanja; Shehhi, Waleed Al; Huang, Feng; Kotak, Sameer; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Shirazy, Khalid; Bananis, Eustratios; Szumski, Annette; Llamado, Lyndon J Q; Mahgoub, Ehab

    2016-05-01

    Despite the demonstrated efficacy of etanercept for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), sulfasalazine is often prescribed, especially in countries with limited access to biologic agents. The objective of this subset analysis of the ASCEND trial was to compare the efficacy of etanercept and sulfasalazine in treating patients with AS from Asia, Eastern/Central Europe, and Latin America. A total of 287 patients, 190 receiving etanercept 50 mg once weekly and 97 receiving sulfasalazine 3 g daily, from eight countries were included in this subset analysis. Differences in disease activity and patient-reported outcomes assessing health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) parameters in response to treatment were analyzed using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test for categorical efficacy endpoints and analysis of covariance model for continuous variables. At week 16, a significantly greater proportion of patients receiving etanercept achieved ASAS20 (79.0 %) compared with patients receiving sulfasalazine (61.9 %; p = 0.002). At week 16, treatment with etanercept also resulted in significantly better responses than sulfasalazine for ASAS40 (64.7 vs. 35.1 %; p Etanercept was significantly more effective than sulfasalazine in the treatment of patients with AS from Asia, Central/Eastern Europe, and Latin America. PMID:26968844

  7. Use of nuclear and related techniques in studies of agroecological effects resulting from the use of persistent pesticides in Central America. Report of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of pesticides for the control of pests of agriculture and vectors of human and animal diseases in the countries of Central America is the highest per capita and one of the most intense in the world. There are reports of acute toxicity and chronic effects among farm workers. There are also reports that pesticide residues in food frequently exceed the Codex Alimentarius Commission's maximum residue levels (MRLs) and shipments of foodstuffs have been rejected by importing countries due to the presence of excessive residues of pesticides. Pesticides are also implicated in the contamination of continental and coastal waters. The indiscriminate use of pesticides would be expected to also aggravate pest problems by adversely affecting populations of beneficial arthropods and causing the development of resistance in pest populations. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a co-ordinated research project in 1992 to generate information on residues of pesticides in the environment, their persistence under local conditions and effect on local species of beneficial arthropods in agricultural and adjacent areas in the countries of Central America. Such information could be used in the implementation of legislation to control the distribution and use of pesticides and the development and application of integrated pest management programmes. Scientists from Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama and the United States of America participated in this project. This TECDOC reports on the accomplishments of the project and includes the papers presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Panama City, Panama, 20-24 April 1998

  8. British and Israeli Assistance to U.S. Strategies of Torture and Counter- insurgency in Central and Latin America, 1967-96: An Argument Against Complexification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Almond

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the role of the U.S. in supporting the anti-democratic, counter-revolutionary movements, governments, and dictatorships that flourished in Latin America from the 1960s to the 1990s is well known, this article examines the support provided to the U.S. by other countries. Principally this support was provided by Israel and the United Kingdom, but other countries were also involved, such as South Africa, Taiwan, France, and even Saudi Arabia. The article argues that a clear material framework underlies the assistance given by these countries. It also identifies a number of cultural and historical reasons why anti-democratic governments in Latin America found particular political empathy in Israel.

  9. Strain gauge fields for rippled graphene membranes under central mechanical load: an approach beyond first-order continuum elasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Sloan, James V.; SanJuan, Alejandro A. Pacheco; Wang, Zhengfei; Horvath, Cedric; Barraza-Lopez, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    We study the electronic properties of rippled freestanding graphene membranes under central load from a sharp tip. To that end, we develop a gauge field theory on a honeycomb lattice valid beyond the continuum theory. Based on the proper phase conjugation of the tight-binding pseudospin Hamiltonian, we develop a method to determine conditions under which continuum elasticity can be used to extract gauge fields from strain. Along the way, we resolve a recent controversy on the theory of strain...

  10. Physics Laboratory Investigation of Vocational High School Field Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques in the Central Java Province (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwandari, Ristiana Dyah

    2015-01-01

    The investigation aims in this study were to uncover the observations of infrastructures and physics laboratory in vocational high school for Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques Expertise Field or Teknik Konstruksi Batu dan Beton (TKBB)'s in Purwokerto Central Java Province, mapping the Vocational High School or Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan…

  11. The superconformal algebra and central extension of meromorphic vector fields with multipoles on the super-Riemann sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superconformal algebras of meromorphic vector fields with multipoles, the central extension and the relevant abelian differential of the third kind on the super-Riemann sphere are constructed. The background of our theory concerns with the interaction of closed superstrings. (orig.)

  12. THE FIELD OF RECENT TECTONIC STRESSES IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. L. Rebetsky

    2015-09-01

    Global CMT Database, reconstructions based on the first catalog are mapped. In the maps showing consolidated patterns of the state of stresses, spacious areas of horizontal extension of the crust in Tibet are clearly identified. In the south, such areas are bordered by regions of horizontal compression of the crust in Himalaya; in the north and north-east, they are bordered by regions of horizontal shear of the crust in East Kunlun. According to results of calculations at stage 2 of the method of cataclastic analyses, the crust in the central part of Tibet is subject to intensive confining pressure and lateral compression that is reduced in the neighboring regions. The crust in the southern and northern parts of Pamir is also subject to horizontal extension and shear. Regions of horizontal compression are located to the north, west and south of Pamir. Regulations of the field of recent tectonic stresses of Tibet and Pamir, which are revealed in this study, can be explained by the concept of ‘tectonic spreading’ of these regions due to gravity, which causes intensive horizontal spreading of the crust in Himalaya when the southern boundary of Tibet bends outwards and spreads over the Indian ‘indenter’ moving in the north–north-eastern direction. It is suggested by the data on horizontal extension of the crust in Tibet and underthrusting shear stresses over the horizontal zones that the impact Indian ‘indenter’ does not go beyond the crust of Pamir and the crust of the central parts of Tibet which is located above the long-term active mantle plume.  

  13. A limited role for suppression in the central field of individuals with strabismic amblyopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan T Barrett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although their eyes are pointing in different directions, people with long-standing strabismic amblyopia typically do not experience double-vision or indeed any visual symptoms arising from their condition. It is generally believed that the phenomenon of suppression plays a major role in dealing with the consequences of amblyopia and strabismus, by preventing images from the weaker/deviating eye from reaching conscious awareness. Suppression is thus a highly sophisticated coping mechanism. Although suppression has been studied for over 100 years the literature is equivocal in relation to the extent of the retina that is suppressed, though the method used to investigate suppression is crucial to the outcome. There is growing evidence that some measurement methods lead to artefactual claims that suppression exists when it does not. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: Here we present the results of an experiment conducted with a new method to examine the prevalence, depth and extent of suppression in ten individuals with strabismic amblyopia. Seven subjects (70% showed no evidence whatsoever for suppression and in the three individuals who did (30%, the depth and extent of suppression was small. CONCLUSIONS: Suppression may play a much smaller role in dealing with the negative consequences of strabismic amblyopia than previously thought. Whereas recent claims of this nature have been made only in those with micro-strabismus our results show extremely limited evidence for suppression across the central visual field in strabismic amblyopes more generally. Instead of suppressing the image from the weaker/deviating eye, we suggest the visual system of individuals with strabismic amblyopia may act to maximise the possibilities for binocular co-operation. This is consistent with recent evidence from strabismic and amblyopic individuals that their binocular mechanisms are intact, and that, just as in visual normals, performance with two eyes is better than

  14. Size-distribution of scoria cones within the Eğrikuyu Monogenetic Field (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslular, G.; Gençalioğlu-Kuşcu, G.; Arcasoy, A.

    2015-08-01

    Eğrikuyu Monogenetic Field (EMF) is one of the five clusters of monogenetic volcanoes in Quaternary Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (CAVP). EMF consists mainly of scoria cones and a few maars (e.g. Kutören, Obruk). Previous studies on monogenetic volcanoes of CAVP mainly focused on petrologic evolution of scoria cones rather than the statistical analyses of their morphological parameters. Using the database compiled by Arcasoy (2001) for the morphometric parameters of the scoria cones in the EMF, we present the power-law behavior of their size distribution with respect to basal diameters (Wco) of 77-scoria cones from the whole database. Both empirical (maximum likelihood estimation, MLE) and graphical (log-log plot) methods are used for the estimation of scaling parameter "b-value" of power-law for the scoria cones which have basal diameter greater than or equal to 0.36 km. However, graphical method gives the precise result with the b-value of 2.78 ± 0.08 for 77-scoria cones over the width range 0.1-1.23 km. Herein, b-value indicates the relative number of the small scoria cones with respect to large ones for a given area. The power-law behavior of the size distribution of scoria cones in the EMF suggests that their occurrence is self-organized critical phenomena similar to earthquakes. Since the size-distribution of scoria cones provides information about their eruptive magnitude and occurrence mechanism, our results can be directly applied to future risk assessment of the CAVP.

  15. The hydrology of a drained topographical depression within an agricutlural field in north-central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jason L.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    North-central Iowa is an agriculturally intensive area comprising the southeastern portion of the Prairie Pothole Region, a landscape containing a high density of enclosed topographical depressions. Artificial drainage practices have been implemented throughout the area to facilitate agricultural production. Vertical surface drains are utilized to drain the topographical depressions that accumulate water. This study focuses on the hydrology of a drained topographical depression located in a 39.5 ha agricultural field. To assess the hydrology of the drained depression, a water balance was constructed for 11 ponding events during the 2008 growing season. Continuous pond and groundwater level data were obtained with pressure transducers. Flows into the vertical surface drain were calculated based on pond depth. Precipitation inflows and evaporative outflows of the ponds were calculated using climatic data. Groundwater levels were used to assess groundwater/pond interactions. Results of the water balances show distinct differences between the inflows to and outflows from the depression based on antecedent conditions. In wet conditions, groundwater inflow sustained the ponds. The ponds receded only after the groundwater level declined to below the land surface. In drier conditions, groundwater was not a source of water to the depression. During these drier conditions, infiltration comprised 30% of the outflows from the depression during declining pond stages. Over the entire study period, the surface drain, delivering water to the stream, was the largest outflow from the pond, accounting for 97% of the outflow, while evapotranspiration was just 2%. Precipitation onto the pond surface proved to be a minor component, accounting for 4% of the total inflows.

  16. Tracking the hydro-climatic signal from lake to sediment: A field study from central Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jonathan R.; Eastwood, Warren J.; Roberts, Neil; Jones, Matthew D.; Yiğitbaşıoğlu, Hakan; Allcock, Samantha L.; Woodbridge, Jessie; Metcalfe, Sarah E.; Leng, Melanie J.

    2015-10-01

    Palaeo-hydrological interpretations of lake sediment proxies can benefit from a robust understanding of the modern lake environment. In this study, we use Nar Gölü, a non-outlet, monomictic maar lake in central Turkey, as a field site for a natural experiment using observations and measurements over a 17-year monitoring period (1997-2014). We compare lake water and sediment trap data to isotopic, chemical and biotic proxies preserved in its varved sediments. Nar Gölü underwent a 3 m lake-level fall between 2000 and 2010. δ18Olakewater is correlated with this lake-level fall, responding to the change in water balance. Endogenic carbonate is shown to precipitate in isotopic equilibrium with lake water and there is a strong relationship between δ18Olakewater and δ18Ocarbonate, which suggests the water balance signal is accurately recorded in the sediment isotope record. Over the same period, sedimentary diatom assemblages also responded, and conductivity inferred from diatoms showed a rise. Shifts in carbonate mineralogy and elemental chemistry in the sediment record through this decade were also recorded. Intra-annual changes in δ18Olakewater and lake water chemistry are used to demonstrate the seasonal variability of the system and the influence this may have on the interpretation of δ18Ocarbonate. We use these relationships to help interpret the sedimentary record of changing lake hydrology over the last 1725 years. Nar Gölü has provided an opportunity to test critically the chain of connection from present to past, and its sedimentary record offers an archive of decadal- to centennial-scale hydro-climatic change.

  17. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  18. Coping with the “coffee crisis” in Central America: The Role of the Nicaraguan Red de Protección Social

    OpenAIRE

    Maluccio, John A.

    2005-01-01

    "The international and local Nicaraguan media have widely reported on the “coffee crisis” in Latin America and there is substantial evidence that there has been a downturn and that this has been more severe in the coffee-growing regions. Using household panel data from a randomized community-based intervention carried out in both coffee- and noncoffee-growing areas, I examine the role of a conditional cash transfer program, the Red de Protección Social (RPS), during this downturn. While not d...

  19. Weather and climate socio-economic impacts in Central America for the management and protection of world heritage sites and the Diquis Delta culture in Costa Rica (a case study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, J. A.; Alfaro, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    The Central America region hosts a valuable amount of World Heritage Sites (WHS), many of them located in areas of floods, landslides, drought, high winds, intense precipitations, and earthquakes. The effective management of WHS requires the understanding of this type of environmental phenomena and their potential impacts on these sites. The objective of this work is twofold. To make an analysis of some of the atmospheric systems (easterly waves, cold fronts and tropical cyclones [TCs]) hitting Central America, to estimate their effects on socio-economic activities and potential impacts on WHS during the period 2002-2012. The second objective is to identify, for a case study, the potential effects of hydro-meteorological events associated with a tropical storm on the Diquis Delta region in southern Costa Rica. This site, an important unique archeological site of stone spheres, has been proposed by this country as a WHS. To achieve both, public data bases like HURDAT (North Atlantic Hurricane Database), and information from regional newspapers and National Emergency Committees, among other sources, were used for the study of socio-economic impacts caused by these natural hazards. To accomplish the latter, course resolution NCEP/NCAR (National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research) Reanalysis atmospheric data served to initialize version 5 of a numerical atmospheric mesoscale model (MM5). This approach permitted to obtain higher resolution gridded data for a set of atmospheric variables for a case study associated with the formation of tropical storm Alma upon the Pacific basin. The MM5 resulted winds and precipitation, among other variables, were then used to evaluate potential impacts on the WHS region. Among the systems analyzed for Central America, TCs were the ones that most severely impacted regional social life and worsened the already weak regional economies. During the period analyzed, TCs affected regions where WHS are

  20. Hydrochemical and isotopic studies in Aksaray geothermal fields central Anatolia, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studied area is located at eastern part of Aksaray province in Central Anatolia. The basement rocks of studied area is Paleozoic aged Bozcaldag formation composed of marble, schist and gneiss and Cretaseous aged granitoid intrusion intrude within these basement rocks. These rock units are overlain uncomfortably by middle miocene to Quaternary aged volcanic rocks of Cappadocian volcanic belt interlayer sediments. The compositions of these units are mainly represented by tuff, ignimbrite, reworked tuff interlayer sediments, basalt lavas, ash fall deposits, pumice and dasite to rhyodasitic lava domes.The study area contains Ziga and Acigoel (Narkoey) thermal area, which they have similar geologic environments with in the Cappadocian volcanic belt of the Tertiary to Quaternary age. Existence of surface manifestation like that high regional heat flow, the presence of expanding acidic to weakly acidic hydrothermal alteration surrounding the geothermal area, hot springs which have a temperature of 44-65 degrees indicating the important of geothermal possibilities in the area. Water chemistry studies have been carried out on 34 water samples to estimate relation between hot and cold water, calculate reservoir temperature using geothermometre and mixing models, hydrological isotope studies were carried out to on 10 samples to clarify extending of recharging area and travel time from recharging area to discharging area. Water analyses results were assested using some diagram such as Fournier Cl-Entalphy, SiO2-Entalphy, Langelier- Ludwig, Piper, schoeller etc to classify them. Water-rock interaction have been tried to be define on the base of these result.On the base of water chemistry analyses, all of the cold waters are Ca-Mg-HCO3 and CaHCO3 type. the hot waters in Ziga field classified as Na-Cl-HCO3 type and As and B bearing mineralized hot water. Geothermal fluids in Acigoel field, classified as Ca-Na-HCO3-Cl type and B bearing mineralized hot water, and

  1. Seasonal dynamics of three insect pests in the cabbage field in central Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trdan, Stanislav; Vidrih, Matej; Bobnar, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    From the beginning of April until the beginning of November 2006, a seasonal dynamics of three harmful insect species--Swede midge (Contarinia nasturtii [Kieffer], Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), flea beetles (Phyllotreta spp., Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella [L.], Lepidoptera, Plutellidae)--was investigated at the Laboratory Field of the Biotechnical Faculty in Ljubljana (Slovenia). The males were monitored with pheromone traps; the males of Swede midge were trapped with the traps of Swiss producer (Agroscope FAW, Wädenswill), while the adult flea beetles (trap type KLP+) and diamondback moths (trap type RAG) were trapped with the Hungarian traps (Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences). The pheromone capsules were changed in 4-week intervals, while the males were counted on about every 7th day. The first massive occurrence of diamondback moth (1.6 males/trap/day) was established in the second 10 days period of April, and the pest remained active until the 2nd 10 days period of September. The adults were the most numerous in the period between the end of May until the middle of June, but even then their number did not exceed three males caught per day. In the first 10 days period of May, the first adult flea beetles were recorded in the pheromone traps, while their notable number (0.8 males/trap/day) was stated in the third 10 days period of May. Absolutely the highest number of the beetles was recorded in the second (19 adults/trap/day) and in the third (25 adults/trap/day) 10 days of July, and the pest occurred until the beginning of October. The first massive occurrence of Swede midge (0.4 males/trap/day) was established in the second 10 days period of May, while the highest number of males (8/trap/day) were caught in the second 10 days period of July. In the third 10 days period of October, the last adults were found in the traps. Based on the results of monitoring of three cabbage insect pests we ascertained

  2. Geology of the Azacualpa geothermal site, Departamento de Comayagua Honduras, Central America: Field report. Geologia del area geotermica de Azacualpa Departamento de Comayagua, Honduras, America Central: Informe de camps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppler, D.; Baldridge, S.; Perry, F.; Flores, W.; Paredes, J.R.; Finch, R.

    1987-03-01

    Thermal waters at the Azacualpa geothermal site are surfacing along fractures in the Atima Formation associated with the main north-south-trending Zacapa fault and the subordinate north-south-trending splays of the main fault. Permeability appears to be related to these fractures rather than to formation permeability in either the limestones of the Atima Formation or the Valle de Angeles Group red beds. Attitudes of lower Valle de Angeles Group red beds do not vary appreciably with distance away from the Zacapa fault, suggesting that the system is not behaving like a listric normal fault at depth. The ''Jaitique structure,'' as conjectured by R. Fakundiny (1985), does not appear to have any manifestation at the surface in terms of structures that can be seen or measured in the bedrock. Its existence is considered unlikely at the present time. Calorimetry calculations indicate that the thermal anomaly at the Azacualpa site is producing approx.4.4 thermal megawatts.

  3. L’invention de la façade caraïbe centraméricaine : indios, negros, y piratas The Invention of the Carribean Coast of Central America: Indios, Negros, y Piratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Le Masne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La façade caraïbe de l'Amérique centrale naît au 16è siècle avec la conquête espagnole et la mise en pratique des théories sanitaires héritées d’Hippocrate dans le processus de colonisation. Auparavant, aucune spécificité ne semble distinguer cet espace des autres grands ensembles centraméricains : terres tempérées de la cordillère centrale, voire minces plaines littorales bordant le Pacifique. Le procès d’implantation des Espagnols rend bien compte d’une pensée prégnante, hippocratique, qui justifie les difficultés rencontrées pour contrôler les littoraux, notamment caraïbes, des emblématiques tierras calientes centraméricaines. Le littoral, au-delà de la lluvia qui continue à le caractériser de nos jours, est alors l’infierno par excellence, celui des indios, des negros, et des piratas. L’analyse historique montre ainsi que l’invention de cet espace tient autant aux données bioclimatiques et à leurs implications écologiques qu’aux tensions géopolitiques engendrées par la crise que traverse un Empire espagnol précocement confronté au harcèlement de groupes plus ou moins liés aux autres puissances européennes… La concordance entre espace de marges et plaines caraïbes pourrait suggérer un déterminisme géographique fondé sur des prédispositions qui font de l'homme un objet du milieu environnant. Ce serait cependant négliger l’impact des représentations, des clichés, et de leurs implications territoriales.The Caribbean coast of Central America was born in the 16th century with the Spanish conquest and implementation of health theories of Hippocrates in the process of colonization. Previously, no specificity seems to distinguish this space from other large ones of Central America: temperate lands of the central cordillera verily thin coastal plains bordering the Pacific. The process of colonization of the Spaniards clearly shows a dominant thought, Hippocratic, who justifies the

  4. Central charges and boundary fields for two dimensional dilatonic black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Pinamonti, N

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we first show that within the Hamiltonian description of general relativity, the central charge of a near horizon asymptotic symmetry group is zero, and therefore that the entropy of the system cannot be estimated using Cardy's formula. This is done by mapping a static black hole to a two dimensional plane. We explain how such a charge can only appear to a static observer who chooses to stay permanently outside the black hole. Then an alternative argument is given for the presence of a universal central charge. Finally we suggest an effective quantum theory on the horizon that is compatible with the thermodynamics behaviour of the black hole.

  5. Latin America & the Caribbean - Urban Services Delivery and the Poor : The Case of Three Central American Cities (Vol. 1 of 2) : Service Delivery and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    The present study describes, and quantifies the provision of basic urban services to the poor, in three Central American cities in El Salvador, Honduras, and, Panama. It also identifies priority areas for government intervention, using specialized household surveys to quantify current deficits, and to rank households from poor to rich, using aggregate consumption as the measure of welfare....

  6. Drivers of Sustainable Rural Growth and Poverty Reduction in Central America : Guatemala Case Study, Volume 2. Background Papers and Technical Appendices

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This regional study encompasses three Central American countries: Nicaragua, Guatemala and Honduras. The focus of this report is Guatemala. The study is motivated by several factors: First is the recognition that sub-national regions are becoming increasingly heterogeneous, and economically differentiated as part of ongoing processes of development and diversification, with some areas adva...

  7. Drivers of Sustainable Rural Growth and Poverty Reduction in Central America : Guatemala Case Study, Volume 1. Executive Summary and Main Text

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This regional study encompasses three Central American countries: Nicaragua, Guatemala and Honduras. The focus of this report is Guatemala. The study is motivated by several factors: First is the recognition that sub-national regions are becoming increasingly heterogeneous, and economically differentiated as part of ongoing processes of development and diversification, with some areas adva...

  8. One half of the central detector for the Axial Field Spectrometer (AFS)experiment R807

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    This experiment was setup at the ISR intersection I-8 by the Brookhaven-CERN-Copenhagen-Lund-Rutherford Lab.-Tel Aviv Collaboration to study large transverse momentum phenomena (see Annual Report 1979 p. 69). The central detector (here shown for a part) was a cylindrical drift chamber with fine azimuthal segmentation.

  9. Literacy and Access to the Written Culture by Youth and Adults Excluded from the School System: A Cross-Country Field Study in Nine Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rosa-Maria

    2008-01-01

    The title of this article refers to a field study carried out in 2006-2007 in nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The article summarizes the basic concepts, aims, methodology and findings of the study. In conclusion, the author points out a number of important policy changes that are called for in this domain. While the study itself…

  10. Illiterate America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Jonathan

    Intended for those involved in American social service and educational communities, this book addresses the widespread problem of illiteracy in the United States and the social consequences of this problem. Following an introduction, the chapters in the first section of the book discuss the growing crisis of illiterate America, specifically, the…

  11. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy

    Full Text Available Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking.Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design.Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%, Moldova (51.1%, Ukraine (52%, Azerbaijan (49.8 %, Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 % and Albania (42.52% but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81% and Jordan (17.96%. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %. Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single.Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  12. Spina Bifida Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The Statement of the Spina Bifida Association of America (SBAA) explains SB as a malformation of the central nervous system, reports the formation of SBAA in 1974, explains SBAA's emphasis on local chapter organization, and describes SBAA services, including a bimonthly publication, public education efforts, and research validation projects. (GW)

  13. Central Limit Theorems for Cavity and Local Fields of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick Model

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wei-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    One of the remarkable applications of the cavity method is to prove the Thouless-Anderson-Palmer (TAP) system of equations in the high temperature analysis of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model. This naturally leads us to the important study of the limit laws for cavity and local fields. The first quantitative results for both fields based on Stein's method were studied by Chatterjee. Although Stein's method provides us an efficient search for the limiting distributions, the nature of this method in some way restricts the exploration for optimal and general results. In this paper, our study based on Gaussian interpolation obtains the CLT for cavity fields. With the help of this result, we conclude the CLT for local fields. In both cases, better quantitative results are given.

  14. Optimization of heliostat field layout in solar central receiver systems on annual basis using differential evolution algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Differential evolution optimization model was developed to optimize the heliostat field. • Five optical parameters were considered for the optimization of the optical efficiency. • Optimization using insolation weighted and un-weighted annual efficiency are developed. • The daily averaged annual optical efficiency was calculated to be 0.5023 while the monthly was 0.5025. • The insolation weighted daily averaged annual efficiency was 0.5634. - Abstract: Optimization of a heliostat field is an essential task to make a solar central receiver system effective because major optical losses are associated with the heliostat fields. In this study, a mathematical model was developed to effectively optimize the heliostat field on annual basis using differential evolution, which is an evolutionary algorithm. The heliostat field layout optimization is based on the calculation of five optical performance parameters: the mirror or the heliostat reflectivity, the cosine factor, the atmospheric attenuation factor, the shadowing and blocking factor, and the intercept factor. This model calculates all the aforementioned performance parameters at every stage of the optimization, until the best heliostat field layout based on annual performance is obtained. Two different approaches were undertaken to optimize the heliostat field layout: one with optimizing insolation weighted annual efficiency and the other with optimizing the un-weighted annual efficiency. Moreover, an alternate approach was also proposed to efficiently optimize the heliostat field in which the number of computational time steps was considerably reduced. It was observed that the daily averaged annual optical efficiency was calculated to be 0.5023 as compared to the monthly averaged annual optical efficiency, 0.5025. Moreover, the insolation weighted daily averaged annual efficiency of the heliostat field was 0.5634 for Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The code developed can be used for any other

  15. Calosota Curtis (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eupelmidae – review of the New World and European fauna including revision of species from the West Indies and Central and North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Gibson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two of three species previously classified in Calosota Curtis (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae from the Neotropical region are transferred to Eupelminae. Calosota eneubulus (Walker from Galapagos Islands is transferred to Eupelmus Dalman as Eupelmus (Eupelmus eneubulus (Walker, comb. n., and Calosota silvai (Brèthes from Chile is transferred to Brasema Cameron as Brasema silvai comb. n. Calosota cecidobius (Kieffer from Argentina is retained in Calosota, with reservation, as an unrecognized species. The species of Calosota from the New World excluding South America are revised. Eleven species are recognized, including the seven newly described species Calosota albipalpus sp. n. (Costa Rica, Mexico, USA, Venezuela, Calosota bicolorata sp. n. (USA, Calosota elongata sp. n. (USA, Calosota longivena sp. n. (USA, Calosota panamaensis sp. n. (Panama, Calosota setosa sp. n. (Bahamas, Dominican Republic, USA, and Calosota speculifrons sp. n. (Costa Rica, USA. The 11 regional species and the Palaearctic species Calosota vernalis Curtis are keyed and illustrated. Calosota vernalis is not known to occur in the New World but is included in the key and diagnosed because it has been intercepted in quarantine in Canada. Calosota pseudotsugae Burks is placed in synonymy under Calosota acron (Walker, syn. n., and Calosota kentra Burks, Calosota montana Burks and Calosota septentrionalis Hedqvist are placed in synonymy under Calosota aestivalis Curtis syn. n. Calosota modesta Bolívar y Pieltain is removed from synonymy under Calosota viridis Masi, stat. rev., and Calosota viridis, Calosota matritensis Bolívar y Pieltain, and Calosota coerulea Nikol’skaya are placed in synonymy under Calosota metallica (Gahan, syn. n. Calosota grylli Erdös is confirmed as a separate species from Calosota metallica based on features of both sexes. It is suggested that Calosota ariasi Bolívar y Pieltain may be a synonym of Calosota aestivalis, Calosota bolivari Askew may be a synonym

  16. Biology and Yield of Rocket (Eruca sativa Mill. under Field Conditions of the Czech Republic (Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana DOLEŽALOVÁ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Five rocket (Eruca sativa (L. Mill. varieties and accessions were cultivated under field conditions in the Czech Republic (Central Europe and subsequently studied for variation in morphology and yield. Two cultivation techniques (treatments were tested during the growing seasons in 2010 and 2011: directly sown seeds in the field and plantlets cultivated in a glasshouse and later transplanted to the field. There were analysed four morphological parameters of the leaf rosette (leaf shape in outline, leaf margin, leaf apex and leaf colour, marketable yield, nonmarketable parts, and rosette radius. Plants from plantlets transplanted to the field in spring terms (April yielded a substantially higher marketable yield and had a higher rosette radius in contrast to plants from directly sown seeds. Conversely, for the summer terms (late August, September the direct sowing technique produced higher marketable yield in comparison with plantlets treatment. Plants cultivated from directly sowed seeds reached a marketable yield on average from 15 to 60 g per plant while transplanted plants produced on average from 10 to 49 g per plant. It is evident that cultivation of rocket under field conditions of the Czech Republic is possible and provides, when using the appropriate sowing term, more or less stable yields of marketable parts. Details on variation in yield parameters of individual varieties and accessions are presented.

  17. Engaging with Economic Geography in the "Real" World: A Central Role for Field Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Debates concerning how to engage students with economic geography have ignored the important role of field teaching. This paper argues that fieldwork must remain a key component of economic geographical teaching and that it offers a variety of advantages to overcoming student disinterest in the sub-discipline. It goes on to argue that field…

  18. A Central Limit Theorem for the Volumes of High Excursions of Stationary Associated Random Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Demichev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We prove that under certain conditions the excursion sets volumes of stationary positively associated random fields converge after rescaling to the normal distribution as the excursion level and the size of the observation window grow. In addition, we provide a number of examples.

  19. RECHERCHE SUR LES MAQUILADORAS DU SUD DU MEXIQUE ET EN AMÉRIQUE CENTRALE : TRAVAIL, GENRE ET IDENTITÉ RESEARCH ON THE MAQUILADORAS OF SOUTHERN MEXICO AND CENTRAL AMERICA: WORK, GENDER AND IDENTITY

    OpenAIRE

    Labrecque, Marie-France; Beatriz Castilla RAMOS

    2010-01-01

    Les maquiladoras de la frontière nord du Mexique ont fait couler beaucoup d’encre particulièrement en ce qui a trait à la présence des femmes dans ce type d’usine. Celles du sud et de l’Amérique centrale sont pourtant de plus en plus importantes du point de vue numérique. Leur configuration est particulière dans la mesure où, du moins dans le sud du Mexique et au Guatemala en particulier, le facteur ethnique est davantage présent dans la composition de la force de travail. Dans cet article, l...

  20. Dose- and time-response effects of pantethine on open-field behavior, and on central neurotransmission in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vécsei, L; Widerlöv, E; Ekman, R; Alling, C

    1990-01-01

    In this study the dose- and time-related effects of pantethine on open-field behavior and central neurotransmissions were investigated in rats. Pantethine administered in low doses (0.48-0.96 mM/kg SC) only marginally influenced the activity of the animals, but induced a significant decrease of hypothalamic noradrenaline level without influencing the concentrations of dopamine and DOPAC. Injected in higher doses (1.95-3.90 mM/kg SC), the compound produced a marked depression of both open-field activity and noradrenaline levels, but increased the concentrations of dopamine and DOPAC in the hypothalamus. Twelve hr after the administration of the substance, its effect was attenuated, and 24 hr after the treatment neither the behavioral nor the monoamine parameters differed significantly from the control values. Concerning the somatostatin, pantethine administered in high doses (1.95-3.90 mM/kg SC) decreased the striatal concentration of somatostatin 4 hr after the injection, and this effect was attenuated 24 hr after the treatment. These data suggest that the pantethine-induced behavioral changes are correlated with its effect on central catecholaminergic and somatostatinergic transmission. PMID:1969162

  1. Occurrence of an unknown Atlantic eruption in the Chaîne des Puys volcanic field (Massif Central, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouannic, G.; Walter-Simonnet, A. V.; Bossuet, G.; Cubizolle, H.; Boivin, P.; Devidal, J. L.; Oberlin, C.

    2014-08-01

    A volcanic ash layer, called MF1, was recently identified in Holocene sediments from the Gourgon and Molhiac peat bogs (Monts du Forez, French Massif Central). This ash layer consists of colorless shards with a heterogeneous trachytic to rhyolitic composition. The trace elements analyzed by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) attest to a local origin. Radiocarbon dating of peat samples taken within and below the ash layer indicates the best age at 6339 ± 61 cal yr BP, i.e. an age contemporaneous with the volcanic activity of Montchal, Montcineyre and Pavin volcanoes from the Chaîne des Puys volcanic field. These volcanoes are characterized by basaltic and trachytic products, thus the rhyolitic composition of MF1 tephra suggests that it is likely originated from an unknown eruption. These results again confirm the interest of studying the distal volcanic ash fallouts in order to establish or specify records of past eruptions of volcanic fields. Identification of this new tephra layer also provides an additional tephrochronological marker for Eastern French Massif Central.

  2. Radon and helium in soil gases in the Phlegraean Fields, central Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution and migration of radon and helium soil-gas concentrations in the Phlegraean Fields, Italy, are controlled by the tectonic features of the area. Radon is supplied from surficial sources and helium has both surficial and deep origins. There is no direct correlation between the two noble gases on a point-to-point basis but the areal distribution of both gases is similar, suggesting that the distribution is controlled primarily by fractures and movement of geothermal fluids

  3. Gauge field theory of horizontal symmetry generated by a central extension of the pauli algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard model of particle physics is generalized so as to be furnished with a horizontal symmetry generated by an intermediate algebra between simple Lie algebras su(2) and su(3). Above a certain high-energy scale Λ, the horizontal gauge symmetry is postulated to hold so that the basic fermions, i.e., quarks and leptons, form its fundamental triplets, and a triplet and singlet of the horizontal gauge fields distinguish generational degrees of freedom. A horizontal scalar triplet is introduced to make the gauge fields supermassive by breaking the horizontal symmetry at Λ. From this scalar triplet, real scalar fields emerge that do not interact with fermions except for neutrino species and may have a substantial influence on the evolution of the universe. Another horizontal scalar triplet that breaks the electroweak symmetry at a low-energy scale Λ≅2 x 102 GeV reproduces all of the results of the Weinberg-Salam theory, produces hierarchical mass matrices with fewer unknown parameters in a unified way and predicts six massive scalar particles, some of which might be observed in future LHC experiments. (author)

  4. The southern edge of cratonic North America: Evidence from new magnetic satellite observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purucker, M.; Mandea, M.; Hulot, G.;

    2002-01-01

    A global model is developed for both induced and remanent magnetizations in the terrestrial lithosphere. The model is compared with, and well-described by, Ørsted satellite observations. Interpretation of the observations over North America suggests that the large total field anomalies, associated...... with spherical harmonic degrees 15-26 and centered over Kentucky and the south-central United States, are the manifestations of the magnetic edges of the southern boundaries of cratonic North America. The techniques and models developed here may be of use in defining other cratonic boundaries....

  5. The southern edge of cratonic North America: Evidence from new satellite magnetometer observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purucker, M.; Langlais, B.; Olsen, Nils;

    2002-01-01

    [1] A global model is developed for both induced and remanent magnetizations in the terrestrial lithosphere. The model is compared with, and well-described by, Orsted satellite observations. Interpretation of the observations over North America suggests that the large total field anomalies......, associated with spherical harmonic degrees 15-26 and centered over Kentucky and the south-central United States, are the manifestations of the magnetic edges of the southern boundaries of cratonic North America. The techniques and models developed here may be of use in defining other cratonic boundaries....

  6. Pleurodese nos derrames pleurais malignos: um inquérito entre médicos em países da América do Sul e Central Pleurodesis for malignant pleural effusions: a survey of physicians in South and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Marchi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A pleurodese é uma alternativa eficaz no controle dos derrames pleurais malignos, mas existem controvérsias a respeito de sua indicação e técnica. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar como é realizada a pleurodese em países da América do Sul e Central. MÉTODOS: Profissionais que realizam pleurodese responderam um questionário sobre critérios de indicação para pleurodese, técnicas utilizadas e desfechos. RESULTADOS: Nossa amostra envolveu 147 profissionais no Brasil, 49 em outros países da América do Sul e 36 em países da América Central. Mais de 50% dos participantes realizavam pleurodese somente se confirmada a malignidade no derrame pleural. Entretanto, escalas de dispneia e de status de performance eram raramente utilizadas para indicar o procedimento. Aproximadamente 75% dos participantes no Brasil e na América Central preferiam realizar a pleurodese somente no caso de recidiva do derrame, e a expansão pulmonar deveria variar de 90% a 100%. O talco slurry foi o agente mais utilizado, instilado via drenos de calibre intermediário. A toracoscopia foi realizada em menos de 25% dos casos. Febre e dor torácica foram os efeitos adversos mais comuns, e empiema ocorreu em OBJECTIVE: Pleurodesis is an effective alternative for the control of malignant pleural effusions. However, there is as yet no consensus regarding the indications for the procedure and the techniques employed therein. The objective of this study was to evaluate how pleurodesis is performed in South and Central America. METHODS: Professionals who perform pleurodesis completed a questionnaire regarding the indications for the procedure, the techniques used therein, and the outcomes obtained. RESULTS: Our sample comprised 147 respondents in Brazil, 49 in other South American countries, and 36 in Central America. More than 50% of the respondents reported performing pleurodesis only if pleural malignancy had been confirmed. However, scores on dyspnea and

  7. Climate impacts of deforestation/land-use changes in Central South America in the PRECIS regional climate model: mean precipitation and temperature response to present and future deforestation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canziani, Pablo O; Carbajal Benitez, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation/land-use changes are major drivers of regional climate change in central South America, impacting upon Amazonia and Gran Chaco ecoregions. Most experimental and modeling studies have focused on the resulting perturbations within Amazonia. Using the Regional Climate Model PRECIS, driven by ERA-40 reanalysis and ECHAM4 Baseline model for the period 1961-2000 (40-year runs), potential effects of deforestation/land-use changes in these and other neighboring ecoregions are evaluated. Current 2002 and estimated 2030 land-use scenarios are used to assess PRECIS's response during 1960-2000. ERA-40 and ECHAM4 Baseline driven runs yield similar results. Precipitation changes for 2002 and 2030 land-use scenarios, while significant within deforested areas, do not result in significant regional changes. For temperature significant changes are found within deforested areas and beyond, with major temperature enhancements during winter and spring. Given the current climate, primary effects of deforestation/land-use changes remain mostly confined to the tropical latitudes of Gran Chaco, and Amazonia. PMID:22645487

  8. Climate Impacts of Deforestation/Land-Use Changes in Central South America in the PRECIS Regional Climate Model: Mean Precipitation and Temperature Response to Present and Future Deforestation Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo O. Canziani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation/land-use changes are major drivers of regional climate change in central South America, impacting upon Amazonia and Gran Chaco ecoregions. Most experimental and modeling studies have focused on the resulting perturbations within Amazonia. Using the Regional Climate Model PRECIS, driven by ERA-40 reanalysis and ECHAM4 Baseline model for the period 1961–2000 (40-year runs, potential effects of deforestation/land-use changes in these and other neighboring ecoregions are evaluated. Current 2002 and estimated 2030 land-use scenarios are used to assess PRECIS's response during 1960–2000. ERA-40 and ECHAM4 Baseline driven runs yield similar results. Precipitation changes for 2002 and 2030 land-use scenarios, while significant within deforested areas, do not result in significant regional changes. For temperature significant changes are found within deforested areas and beyond, with major temperature enhancements during winter and spring. Given the current climate, primary effects of deforestation/land-use changes remain mostly confined to the tropical latitudes of Gran Chaco, and Amazonia.

  9. Early Scholars' Visits to Central America: Reports by Karl Sapper, Walter Lehmann, and Franz Termer, edited by Marilyn Beaudry-Corbett and Ellen T Hardy, Theodore E Gutman, 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Kolb

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The Cotsen Institute's Director of Publications is archaeologist Marilyn Beaudry-Corbett, herself a specialist on the production and distribution of archaeological ceramics in Mesoamerica and Central America and a scholar of complex society economic organization. Her colleague and the co-editor of this volume, Ellen Hardy, is a Research Associate at The Cotsen Institute and an expert on mortuary customs of the Nicoya region. Theodore (Ted Gutman (1909-1997 was a longtime supporter of the Institute at UCLA worked on a number of translation projects, several of which are presented here. He was the translator of Karl Sapper's Verapaz im 16. und 17. jahrhundert, which appeared as The Verapaz in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries: A Contribution to the Historical Geography and Ethnography of Northeastern Guatemala (Los Angeles, University of California, Institute of Archae­ology, Occasional Paper 13, 1985. The contributors to the volume's narrative include, in addtion to Beaudry-Corbett and Hardy, nine other anthropologists who are recognized experts on the region and subject matter.

  10. Geology, coal quality, and resources of the Antaramut-Kurtan-Dzoragukh coal field, north-central Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, B.S.; Martirosyan, A.; Malkhasian, G.; Harutunian, S.; Harutunian, G.

    2001-01-01

    The Antaramut-Kurta-Dzoragukh (AKD) coal deposit is a previously unrecognized coal field in north-central Armenia. Coal has been known to exist in the general vicinity since the turn of the century, but coal was thought to be restricted to a small (1 km2) area only near the village of Antaramut. However, through detailed field work and exploratory drilling, this coal deposit has been expanded to at least 20 km2, and thus renamed the Antaramut-Kurtan-Dzoragukh coal field, for the three villages that the coal field encompasses. The entire coal-bearing horizon, a series of tuffaceous sandstones, siltstones, and claystones, is approximately 50 m thick. The AKD coal field contains two coal beds, each greater than 1 m thick, and numerous small rider beds, with a total resource of approximately 31,000,000 metric tonnes. The coals are late Eocene in age, high volatile bituminous in rank, relatively high in ash yield (approximately 40%, as-determined basis) and moderate in sulfur content (approximately 3%, as-determined basis). The two coal beds (No. 1 and No. 2), on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis, have high calorific values of 32.6 MJ/kg (7796 cal/g) and 36.0 MJ/kg (8599 cal/g), respectively. Coal is one of the few indigenous fossil fuel resources occurring in Armenia and thus, the AKD coal field could potentially provide fuel for heating and possibly energy generation in the Armenian energy budget. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Geology, coal quality, and resources of the Antaramut-Kurtan-Dzoragukh coal field, north-central Armenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, B.S. [US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Geology, National Center, MS 956, 12201Sunrise Valley Drive, 20192 Reston, VA (United States); Martirosyan, A.; Malkhasian, G.; Harutunian, S. [US Geological Survey Armenian Staff, no.5 1st Byway of Aigedzor, Yerevan (Armenia); Harutunian, G. [RA Ministry of Environment GeoEconomic Scientific Center, 49 Komitas St., Yerevan (Armenia)

    2001-02-01

    The Antaramut-Kurtan-Dzoragukh (AKD) coal deposit is a previously unrecognized coal field in north-central Armenia. Coal has been known to exist in the general vicinity since the turn of the century, but coal was thought to be restricted to a small (1 km{sup 2}) area only near the village of Antaramut. However, through detailed field work and exploratory drilling, this coal deposit has been expanded to at least 20 km{sup 2}, and thus renamed the Antaramut-Kurtan-Dzoragukh coal field, for the three villages that the coal field encompasses. The entire coal-bearing horizon, a series of tuffaceous sandstones, siltstones, and claystones, is approximately 50 m thick. The AKD coal field contains two coal beds, each greater than 1 m thick, and numerous small rider beds, with a total resource of approximately 31,000,000 metric tonnes. The coals are late Eocene in age, high volatile bituminous in rank, relatively high in ash yield (approximately 40%, as-determined basis) and moderate in sulfur content (approximately 3%, as-determined basis). The two coal beds (No. 1 and No. 2), on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis, have high calorific values of 32.6 MJ/kg (7796 cal/g) and 36.0 MJ/kg (8599 cal/g), respectively. Coal is one of the few indigenous fossil fuel resources occurring in Armenia and thus, the AKD coal field could potentially provide fuel for heating and possibly energy generation in the Armenian energy budget.

  12. Feedback Optimal Control of Low-thrust Orbit Transfer in Central Gravity Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf H. Owis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-thrust trajectories with variable radial thrust is studied in this paper. The problem is tackled by solving the Hamilton- Jacobi-Bellman equation via State Dependent Riccati Equation( STDE technique devised for nonlinear systems. Instead of solving the two-point boundary value problem in which the classical optimal control is stated, this technique allows us to derive closed-loop solutions. The idea of the work consists in factorizing the original nonlinear dynamical system into a quasi-linear state dependent system of ordinary differential equations. The generating function technique is then applied to this new dynamical system, the feedback optimal control is solved. We circumvent in this way the problem of expanding the vector field and truncating higher-order terms because no remainders are lost in the undertaken approach. This technique can be applied to any planet-to-planet transfer; it has been applied here to the Earth-Mars low-thrust transfer

  13. Group II Xenoliths from Lunar Crater Volcanic Field, Central Nevada: Evidence for a Kinked Geotherm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, M.; Mosely, J.; Norris, J.

    2015-12-01

    Group II xenoliths associated with the 140 Ka Easy Chair Crater, Lunar Crater volcanic field, NV, consist of amphibole rich-inclusions including amphibolites, pyroxenites, and gabbros. Abundant minerals in these inclusions are kaersutite, aluminous (7.3-9.7 wt% Al2O3), calcic clinopyroxene, primarily diopside, and olivine (Mg# 69-73) with accessory spinel, sulfide and apatite. Although most apatites are fluor-hydroxyapatite solid solutions, one xenolith contains Cl- and OH-rich apatite suggesting that Cl may have been an important constituent in the parent magma(s) . The xenoliths show abundant evidence for equilibration at relatively low temperatures including amphibole and orthopyroxene exsolution in clinopyroxene, and granules of magnetite in hercynite hosts. If latter texture is due to exsolution, then this particular Group II xenolith equilibrated at temperatures near or below 500oC or at a depth of about 15 km along a conductive geotherm. It may be that all the Group II xenoliths equilibrated at low temperatures given the abundant exsolution textures although Fe-Mg exchange relations suggest equilibration at temperatures in excess of 800oC. Low equilibration temperatures are in conflict with the unusually high equilibration temperatures, >1200oC (Smith, 2000) displayed by Group I xenoliths from this same volcanic field. Taken at face value, the geothermometric results indicate unusually high temperatures in the upper mantle, normal temperatures in the crust and the possibility of a kinked geotherm in the region. Curiously the LCVF lies in an area of "normal" heat flow, south of the Battle Mountain area of high heat flow but the number of heat flow measurements in the Lunar Crater area is very low (Humphreys et al., 2003; Sass, 2005). References: Humphreys et al., 2003, Int. Geol. Rev. 45: 575; Sass et al., 2005, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1207/; Smith, 2000, JGR 105: 16769.

  14. Little People of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information. Our Sponsors Welcome to Little People of America Little People of America (LPA) is a nonprofit organization that provides support ... survey can be seen here. © Little People of America 250 El Camino Real Suite 218, Tustin, CA ...

  15. Monte-Carlo RAY tracing simulation of a falling particle receiver in connection with a central receiver field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alxneit, I. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The program RAY was developed to perform Monte-Carlo simulations of the flux distribution in solar reactors in connection with an arbitrary heliostat field. The code accounts for the shading of the incoming rays from the sun due to the reactor supporting tower as well as for full blocking and shading of the heliostats among themselves. A simplified falling particle reactor (FPR) was evaluated. A central receiver field was used with a total area of 311 m{sup 2} composed of 176 round, focusing heliostats. No attempt was undertaken to optimise either the geometry of the heliostat field nor the aiming strategy of the heliostats. The FPR was evaluated at two different geographic latitudes (-8.23W/47.542N; PSI and -8.23W/20.0N) and during the course of a day (May 30{sup th}). The incident power passing through the reactor aperture and the flux density distribution within the FPR was calculated. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  16. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Ducts in Conditioned Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America field testing that found moving ductwork into the home’s conditioned space can save 8%-15% on energy costs, improve comfort, reduce moisture problems, and even reduce installation costs.

  17. Contamination of groundwater under cultivated fields in an arid environment, Central Arava Valley, Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of this study was to understand the processes of contamination of groundwater in arid environments due to agriculture activity. A combination of physical, chemical and isotopic analyses was used to describe the hydrologic system and the trends in recharge of water and salts into the aquifer. The results indicate that intensive irrigation and fertilization substantially affected the quantity and quality of groundwater recharge. The water levels of shallow groundwater (2-5 m depth) rose during the agriculture season (September - March) by about 35 cm, indicating a significant contribution of irrigation water. It should be noted that there was no significant flood during this period. It is estimated that low irrigation efficiency of about 50 % caused recharge of about 3-4 million cubic meter of recycled irrigation water per year in the Arava Valley. Salt concentrations in soil profiles drilled down to depth of 2.5 m were low in cultivated fields and Wadi Arava, indicating that the irrigation water and intermittent floodwaters infiltrated and leached the salts downward. In contrast, there was an accumulation of various salts near the surface in undisturbed natural soil. There are 2 main sources of salt in contaminated ground water: (1) salts dissolved in the irrigation water itself, and (2) human additions include nitrogen from fertilizers and sewage ponds, as well as K. Mixed lines of different ions against TDS indicate that the dominant source of salinization is irrigation water from the surface. Nitrate concentrations increased in the aquifer, mainly in the last ten years. In parts of the aquifer that are closer to the surface, the increase was more rapid and the nitrate concentrations currently are higher. The nitrate concentration in the upper sub aquifer is over 50 mg/l and in a shallow local lens it ranges between 100-300 mg/l. The background nitrate concentrations, as found in the lower sub-aquifer, are 5-10 mg/l. Nitrate concentrations of

  18. Dust emission mechanisms in the central Sahara: new insights from remote field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.; Washington, R.; Engelstaedter, S.

    2013-12-01

    North Africa is the world's largest source of mineral aerosol (dust). The Fennec Project, an international consortium led by the University of Oxford, is the first project to systematically instrument the remote central Sahara Desert. These observations have, among others, provided new insights into the atmospheric mechanisms of dust emission. Bordj Badji Mokhtar, in south-west Algeria, is within kilometres of the centre of the global mean summer dust maximum. The site, operated by Fennec partners ONM Algerie, has been heavily instrumented since summer 2011. During the Intensive Observation Period (IOP) in June 2011, four main emission mechanisms were observed and documented: cold pool outflows, low level jets (LLJs), monsoon surges and dry convective plumes. Establishing the relative importance of dust emission mechanisms has been a long-standing research goal. A detailed partitioning exercise of dust events during the IOP shows that 45% of the dust over BBM was generated by local emission in cold pool outflows, 14% by LLJs and only 2% by dry convective plumes. 27% of the dust was advected to the site rather than locally emitted and 12% of the dust was residual or ';background' dust. The work shows the primacy of cold pool outflows for dust emission in the region and also the important contribution of dust advection. In accordance with long-held ideas, the cube of wind speed is strongly correlated with dust emission. Surprisingly however, particles in long-range advection (>500km) were found to be larger than locally emitted dust. Although a clear LLJ wind structure is evident in the mean diurnal cycle during the IOP (12m/s peak winds at 935hPa between 04-05h), LLJs are only responsible for a relatively small amount of dust emission. There is significant daily variability in LLJ strength; the strongest winds are produced by a relatively small number of events. The position and strength of the Saharan Heat Low is strongly associated with the development (or

  19. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Richard Pancake; JyunSyung Tsau; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2010-03-07

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide was injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide was injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By March 7,2010, 8,736 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver A7, Colliver A3, Colliver A14 and Graham A4 located on adjacent leases. About 19,166 bbl of incremental oil were estimated to have been produced from these wells as of March 7, 2010. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Estimated oil recovery attributed to the CO2 flood is 27,902 bbl which is equivalent to a gross CO2 utilization of 4.8 MCF/bbl. The pilot project is not economic.

  20. Hydro-geochemical and isotopic fluid evolution of the Los Azufres geothermal field, Central Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrothermal alteration at Los Azufres geothermal field is mostly propylitic with a progressive dehydration with depth and temperature increase. Argillic and advanced argillic zones overlie the propylitic zone owing to the activity of gases in the system. The deepest fluid inclusions (proto-fluid) are liquid-rich with low salinity, with NaCl dominant fluid type and ice melting temperatures (Tmi) near zero (0 deg C), and salinities of 0.8 wt% NaCl equivalent. The homogenization temperature (Th) = 325 ± 5 deg C. The boiling zone shows Th = ±300 deg C and apparent salinities between 1 and 4.9 wt% NaCl equivalent, implying a vaporization process and a very important participation of non-condensable gases (NCGs), mostly CO2. Positive clathrate melting temperatures (fusion) with Th = 150 deg C are observed in the upper part of the geothermal reservoir (from 0 to 700 m depth). These could well be the evidence of a high gas concentration. The current water produced at the geothermal wells is NaCl rich (geothermal brine) and is fully equilibrated with the host rock at temperatures between T = 300 and 340 deg C. The hot spring waters are acid-sulfate, indicating that they are derived from meteoric water heated by geothermal steam. The NCGs related to the steam dominant zone are composed mostly of CO2 (80-98% of all the gases). The gases represent between 2 and 9 wt% of the total mass of the fluid of the reservoir. The authors interpret the evolution of this system as deep liquid water boiling when ascending through fractures connected to the surface. Boiling is caused by a drop of pressure, which favors an increase in the steam phase within the brine ascending towards the surface. During this ascent, the fluid becomes steam-dominant in the shallowest zone, and mixes with meteoric water in perched aquifers. Stable isotope compositions (δ18O-δD) of the geothermal brine indicate mixing between meteoric water and a minor magmatic component. The enrichment in δ18O is due to

  1. Amaranthus cruentus L. is suitable for cultivation in Central Italy: field evaluation and response to plant densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Casini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of amaranth cultivation in Central Italy and to determine the optimum plant density. Field trials were carried out in 2011 and 2012 under non-irrigated conditions in Tuscany (43° 18’ N, 11° 47’ E. Twelve accessions of two amaranth species (Amaranthus cruentus L. and A. hypochondriacus L. were utilised. Genotypes were evaluated over a two-year period using a RCB design with three replicates. The effects of plant density were investigated in 2012. A with a split-plot design was used, where the A. cruentus accessions (AMES 5148, PI 511719 and PI 643045 constituted the main plots. Plant densities (7.5, 15, 30 and 60 plants m–2 constituted the subplots. Plants were transplanted at the 3-4 true leaf stage. Morphological traits were determined using 5 plants selected from the two central rows of the sampling area. Plots were hand-harvested and cleaned with a mechanical grid with appropriate sieve diameters. A. cruentus was shown to be more suitable to the Central Italy agro-ecological conditions than A. hypochondriacus. The accessions derived from Mexico (PI 477913, PI 576481, PI 643045, PI 643053, and PI 6495079, Guatemala (PI 511719 and Puerto Rico (AMES 5148, had both higher grain yields and a greater stability over the two-year period, with a mean grain production ranging from 2.8 to 3.2 t ha–1. The severe climatic stress in 2012 (high temperatures and aridity, resulted in a 43-60% reduction in seed production compared to that of the previous year. Under these conditions, PI 511719, AMES 26015, AMES 5386, AMES 5148, PI 477913 yielded on average 1.9 t ha–1. Yields of A. hypochondriacus were negligible in both years, probably attributable to greater photoperiod sensitivity, resulting in reduced flowering and delayed maturity. By increasing density up to 60 and 30 plants m–2 for PI 511719 and AMES 5148, respectively, grain production was increased by 55%. As the plant population

  2. Centennial and Extreme Climate Variability in the Last 1500 Year from the Belize Central Shelf Lagoon (Central America): Successive Droughts and Floods Linked to the Demise of the Mayan Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droxler, A. W.; Agar Cetin, A.; Bentley, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    This study focuses on the last 1500 yr precipitation record archived in the mixed carbonate/siliciclastic sediments accumulated in the Belize Central Shelf Lagoon, part of the Yucatan Peninsula eastern continental margin, proximal to the land areas where the Mayan Civilization thrived and then abruptly collapsed. This study is mainly based upon the detailed analyses of cores, BZE-RH-SVC-58 and 68, retrieved in 30 and 19 m of water depth from Elbow Caye Lagoon and English Caye Channel, respectively. The core timeframe is well-constrained by AMS radiocarbon dating of benthic foraminifera, Quinqueloculina. Carbonate content was determined by carbonate bomb, particle size fractions with a Malvern Master Sizer 2000 particle size analyzer, and element (Ti, Si, K, Fe, Al, Ca, and Sr) counts via X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). The variations of elements such as Ti and K counts, and Ti/Al in these two cores have recorded, in the past past 1500 years, the weathering rate variations of the adjacent Maya Mountain, defining alternating periods of high precipitation and droughts, linked to large climate fluctuations and extreme events, highly influenced by the ITCZ latitudinal migration. The CE 800-900 century just preceding the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), characterized by unusually low Ti counts and Ti/Al, is interpreted to represent a time of low precipitation and resulting severe droughts in the Yucatan Peninsula, contemporaneous with the Mayan Terminal Classic Collapse. High Ti counts and Ti/Al, although highly variable, during the MCA (CE 900-1350) are interpreted as an unusually warm period characterized by two 100-to-250 years-long intervals of higher precipitation when the number of tropical cyclones peaked. These two intervals of high precipitation during the MCA are separated by a century (CE 1000 -1100) of severe droughts and low tropical storm frequency coinciding with the collapse of Chichen Itza (CE 1040-1100). The Little Ice Age (CE 1350-1850), several centuries

  3. The political and intellectual dimension of educational field in Latin America and the CaribbeanîA look from the production of international organizations [1981-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Causa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the political and intellectual aspects of education in Latin America and the Caribbean between 1981 and 1992. Through the analysis of political and pedagogic ideas the paper explores concepts, topics and issues that characterized the intellectual work of international organizations. The paper compares the UNESCO Project, "Main Education Project for Latin America and the Caribbean" [1981-1989] and the UNESCO/CEPAL Document, "Education and Awareness: axis transformation with equity", 1992

  4. The ~ 2000 yr BP Jumento volcano, one of the youngest edifices of the Chichinautzin Volcanic Field, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Muñoz-Salinas, E.; Castillo, M.; Salinas, I.

    2015-12-01

    The Chichinautzin Volcanic Field is situated at the southern limit of the Basin of Mexico and the Metropolitan area of Mexico City, the third most populated city around the world. The Chichinautzin Volcanic field holds more than 220 monogenetic volcanoes. Xitle is the youngest of these with an estimated age of 1.6 ky BP. Xitle's eruptive activity took place during the Mesoamerican Mexican Pre-classic period and is related to the destruction of Cuicuilco Archaeological Site, the oldest civilization known in Central Mexico. However, there are still several regional cones that have not been dated. Based on 14C ages, stratigraphic and geomorphologic criteria, we conclude that the Jumento volcano, located to the west of Xitle, is one of the youngest cones of the Chichinautzin Volcanic Field. The Jumento volcano has a basaltic andesite composition, and its eruptive activity was initially hydromagmatic, followed by Strombolian and finally effusive events occurred recorded through: (1) a sequence of hydromagmatic pyroclastic surges and ashfall layers emplaced at a radius of > 5 km from the crater with charcoal fragments at its base; this activity built the Jumento's cone with slopes of 32°; and (2) lava flows that breached the southern part of the cone and flowed for up to 2.5 km from the vent. The resulting 14C ages for this volcano yielded a maximum age of ~ 2 ky BP. Morphometric analysis indicates that the state of degradation of Jumento cone is similar to the Xitle, suggesting that the Jumento could be in the state of degradation of a volcanic structure of similar age or younger adding credence to the probable radiocarbon age of ~ 2 ky BP for the Jumento edifice.

  5. Two-dimensional kinematics of the central region of NGC4501 from GMOS/Gemini integral field spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, C.; Riffel, R. A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Schnorr Muller, A.; Robinson, A.

    2014-10-01

    We present two-dimensional stellar and gas kinematics in the central region of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 4501 from optical Integral Field Spectroscopy obtained with Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) at Gemini-North telescope. The final data cube contains ˜ 16000 spectra covering the inner 7" × 15" at spatial resolution of ˜ 50 pc and covering the spectral region from 5600 Å to 7000 Å at a spectral resolution of 2.7 Å (FWHM). Two-dimensional maps for the flux, velocity and velocity dispersion (σ) were obtained from the fitting of the emission-line profiles of Hα, [N II] λ λ 6548,6584 and [S II] λ λ 6717,6731. All lines present extended emission to up to 5" the peak of flux of the nuclear at it. The gas velocity field for all lines are similar, being dominated by rotation in the plane of the galaxy with a velocity amplitude of 100 km^{-1}, although deviations from rotation are seen at some locations. On the far side of the galaxy we observed blueshifts and on the near side redshifts along spiral structures, being interpreted as inflows towards the nucleus of NGC 4501. The forbidden lines show σ values ranging from 50 to 150 km s^{-1} while the Hα shows overall smaller values, with the highest ones reaching ˜ 100 km s^{-1}. The highest σ values for all emission lines are observed at 2-3 arcsec northeast from the nucleus, being co-spatial with a distortion seen in the velocity field. The electron density map obtained from the [S II] λ λ 6731/6716 line ratio shows values between 100 cm^{-3} the nucleus to 900 cm^{-3} in a ring of high densities.

  6. Violent Reform: Costa Rica, Central America's Exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Shelly

    1988-01-01

    Examines factors contributing to Costa Rica's peaceful status in a region of violent political conflict. Describes the country's political and educational systems, stating that its democratic government allows the country to withstand many problems typical of the region and that its high level of education allows it to maintain the highest per…

  7. Petroleum geology of northern central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, W.F.

    1980-07-01

    Major reserves of oil exist in the Reforma area of Tabasco and Chiapas states and the Campeche Shelf of SE Mexico in high-energy, bank-edge, reef-derived or reef-associated carbonate rocks, ranging in age from Late Jurassic to earliest Late Cretaceous. It is the conclusion of this study that the Reforma reservoir facies does not extend into West Guatemala. However, there the potential for major reserves in bank and lagoonal carbonates of similar age is considered excellent. A variety of structures, mostly resulting from salt tectonics, is present. Known reservoir rocks include fractured carbonates with secondary porosity resulting from solution and dolomitization, and limestones with primary intergranular porosity. An indigenous source is likely for the large quantities of oil which have been tested at Rubelsanto. Seals in the form of thick intervals of Cretaceous anhydrite and, in places, of Tertiary fine-grained clastics, are abundant. The area E of Rubelsanto may have considered merit, particularly if detailed structural analysis indicates that similar salt-tectonic features are present. The less deeply-buried areas of Cretaceous carbonates are not highly regarded because: (1) salt is absent; (2) temperatures sufficient for maturation of hydrocarbons may be lacking; and (3) a considerable number of dry holes with no significant shows have been drilled. North Guatemala is somewhat attractive, because the proper combination of unmetamorphosed Paleozoic organic shale on basement highs, well-developed Todos Santos sandstone reservoirs, and the overlying thick evaporite seal could trap sizable hydrocarbon accumulations. However, as degree of metamorphism decreases, presumably basinward, distance from source terrain for detritus increases and reservoirs may be inadequate. 13 figures, 1 table.

  8. Production waters associated with the Ferron coalbed methane fields, central Utah: Chemical and isotopic composition and volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the composition of water co-produced with coalbed methane (CBM) from the Upper Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale in east-central Utah to better understand coalbed methane reservoirs. The Ferron coalbed methane play currently has more than 600 wells producing an average of 240 bbl/day/well water. Water samples collected from 28 wellheads in three fields (Buzzards Bench, Drunkards Wash, and Helper State) of the northeast-southwest trending play were analyzed for chemical and stable isotopic composition.Water produced from coalbed methane wells is a Na-Cl-HCO3 type. Water from the Drunkards Wash field has the lowest total dissolved solids (TDS) (6300 mg/l) increasing in value to the southeast and northeast. In the Helper State field, about 6 miles northeast, water has the highest total dissolved solids (43,000 mg/l), and major ion abundance indicates the possible influence of evaporite dissolution or mixing with a saline brine. In the southern Buzzards Bench field, water has variable total dissolved solids that are not correlated with depth or spatial distance. Significant differences in the relative compositions are present between the three fields implying varying origins of solutes and/or different water-rock interactions along multiple flow paths.Stable isotopic values of water from the Ferron range from +0.9??? to -11.4??? ?? 18O and -32??? to -90??? ?? 2H and plot below the global meteoric water line (GMWL) on a line near, but above values of present-day meteoric water. Isotopic values of Ferron water are consistent with modification of meteoric water along a flow path by mixing with an evolved seawater brine and/or interaction with carbonate minerals. Analysis of isotopic values versus chloride (conservative element) and total dissolved solids concentrations indicates that recharge water in the Buzzards Bench area is distinct from recharge water in Drunkards Wash and is about 3 ??C warmer. These variations in

  9. Exceptional ablation season 2009 on the Zhadang Glacier, Central Tibet - An approach combining field measurements and numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maussion, Fabien; Huintjes, Eva; Schneider, Christoph; Scherer, Dieter

    2010-05-01

    The central goal of the project DynRG-TiP (Dynamic Response of Glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau) is improving our understanding of atmosphere-cryosphere interactions on the Tibetan Plateau (TiP) by adding new data and improved methods combining field studies, remote sensing and numerical modelling. The setup of two automatic weather stations (AWS) on the slopes of Zhadang (north exposed) and Tangse River No. 2 Glacier (south exposed) - 5.850 m a.s.l, Western Nyainqentanglha Mountains (NyM) - in May 2009, joining the previous installations of the Chinese co-operating partners from the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, make the Zhadang glacier one of the most extensively equipped and best observed glaciers in Central Asia. Based on previous studies (Kang et al., 2009), a summer ablation lower than 2 m w.e. was expected at the positions of the AWS. However, at the time of the second field campaign in October 2009, both stations had fallen over. This incidence occurred already in mid-July, despite of the mast being fixed three meters deep in the ice. At that time approximately half of the ablation period had passed and the estimated lowering of the surface already summed up to about 2 m. The ice-atmosphere interaction processes leading to this exceptional high melt rates are studied using the data gathered from the two AWS, supplemented by the output of the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model. The downscaling approach using two-way nesting, following Box et al., 2006 and Caldwell et al., 2009, allows substantial improvements in surface mass balance (SMB) computations, providing additional spatial information on long-term time series. A first assessment of the downscaling capabilities of the WRF modelling system is realized for the ablation season 2009, analyzing the output of a 2 km grid resolution nested domain centered on the NyM. References: Box, J. E., Bromwich, D. H., Veenhuis, B. A., Bai, L.-S., Stroeve, J. C., Rogers, J. C., Steffen, K

  10. Analysis of viral protein-2 encoding gene of avian encephalomyelitis virus from field specimens in Central Java region, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Haryanto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Avian encephalomyelitis (AE is a viral disease which can infect various types of poultry, especially chicken. In Indonesia, the incidence of AE infection in chicken has been reported since 2009, the AE incidence tends to increase from year to year. The objective of this study was to analyze viral protein 2 (VP-2 encoding gene of AE virus (AEV from various species of birds in field specimen by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR amplification using specific nucleotides primer for confirmation of AE diagnosis. Materials and Methods: A total of 13 AEV samples are isolated from various species of poultry which are serologically diagnosed infected by AEV from some areas in central Java, Indonesia. Research stage consists of virus samples collection from field specimens, extraction of AEV RNA, amplification of VP-2 protein encoding gene by RT-PCR, separation of RT-PCR product by agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA sequencing and data analysis. Results: Amplification products of the VP-2 encoding gene of AEV by RT-PCR methods of various types of poultry from field specimens showed a positive results on sample code 499/4/12 which generated DNA fragment in the size of 619 bp. Sensitivity test of RT-PCR amplification showed that the minimum concentration of RNA template is 127.75 ng/μl. The multiple alignments of DNA sequencing product indicated that positive sample with code 499/4/12 has 92% nucleotide homology compared with AEV with accession number AV1775/07 and 85% nucleotide homology with accession number ZCHP2/0912695 from Genbank database. Analysis of VP-2 gene sequence showed that it found 46 nucleotides difference between isolate 499/4/12 compared with accession number AV1775/07 and 93 nucleotides different with accession number ZCHP2/0912695. Conclusions: Analyses of the VP-2 encoding gene of AEV with RT-PCR method from 13 samples from field specimen generated the DNA fragment in the size of 619 bp from one sample with

  11. Field based measurements of albedo for two candidate perennial cellulosic feedstocks and row crops in Central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. N.; VanLoocke, A.; Bernacchi, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The production of perennial cellulosic feedstocks for bioenergy present the potential to diversify regional economies and the national energy supply, while also serving as a climate 'regulators' due to a number of biogeochemical and biophysical differences relative to row crops. Numerous observationally and modeling based approaches, including life cycle analyses have investigated biogeochemical tradeoffs, such as increased carbon sequestration and biophysical increased water use, associated with growing cellulosic feedstocks. A less understood aspect is the biophysical changes associated with the difference in albedo, which will alter the local energy balance and could cause a local to regional cooling several times larger than that associated with offsetting carbon. To address this factor an experiment consisting of paired fields of Miscanthus and Switchgrass, two of the leading perennial cellulosic feedstock candidates, and traditional row crops was established in central Illinois. Data from the first two growing seasons indicate that this effect is most pronounced during the spring and fall as perennial biofuel crops green up earlier and senesce later than common annual row crops. The albedo of the perennials converges to that of the row crops during the growing season as the canopies develop. During the early winter, before the perennial crops are harvested, the albedo over fallow soybean and maize fields can vary greatly depending on snowfall and, to a lesser extent, soil moisture, whereas perennials show less variation. Thus, perennial biofuel crops also have the potential to buffer the local environment against short-term variations in climate. These factors should be considered when evaluating the tradeoffs and climate-regulation services associated with large-scale planting of bioenergy crops.

  12. The central region of the Fornax cluster; 2, A catalog and photometric properties of galaxies in selected CCD fields

    CERN Document Server

    Hilker, M; Richtler, T; Infante, L; Quintana, H

    1998-01-01

    We present a photometric catalog (based on V and I photometry) of galaxies in the central regions of the Fornax galaxy cluster. Our 11 CCD fields cover 0.17 degrees in total. The limiting surface brightness is around 24 mag arsec^-2, similar to that of Ferguson's (1989, AJ 98, 367) catalog, whereas our limiting total magnitude is around V = 22 mag, about two magnitudes fainter. It is the surface brightness limit, however, that prevents us from detecting the counterparts of the faintest Local Group dwarf spheroidals. The photometric properties of all objects are presented as a catalog. The properties and fit parameters of the surface brightness profiles for a sub-sample are presented as a second catalog (both catalogs are available in electronic form at the CDS). We can only add 4 new dwarf galaxies to Ferguson's catalog. However, we confirm that the dwarf galaxies in Fornax follow a similar surface brightness-magnitude relation as the Local Group dwarfs. They also follow the color (metallicity) - relation see...

  13. Technical specification of a tokamak poloidalfield-coil-system (ZEPHYR) with special consideration of the central (OH) coil within a magnetic field of extremely high value (27 T)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plant conditions giving the poloidal magnetic field required bring about extremly high loads and stresses within the coils, especially within the central OH transformer coil. The maximum magnetic field of nearly 27 T arises if the central OH coil is excited with a current of 9.1 KA/cm2. The pulsating load of the coils intended with pulses of 10 s duration produces a rise in temperature of Δ T > 120 K meaning that the start temperature has to be less than 80 K. The time between the current pulses used for cooling down the coils to their start temperature should be passed within a limit of 0.5 h. The report gives a detailed statement of the central OH coil and a proposal for manufacturing and working it. (orig./AH)

  14. Screwworm ecology from field observations to satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in its larval stage is a parasite of warm-blooded animals. Screwworm has been successfully eradicated from the United Sates and Central America using the sterile insect technique. Here we present how the field observations o...

  15. Central planning, market and subsistence from a tundra perspective: Field experience with reindeer herders in the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessislav Sabev

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on field experience in the tundra camp of a reindeer-herding brigade with mixed ethnic background (Komi, Sami, Nenets, Russians belonging to the ex-Sovkhoz of Krasnoschelie. Its purpose is to situate the new critical issues facing the reindeer-herding collectives after the economic collapse in Russia in 1998. My main argument is that the increasing economic isolation of the tundra periphery forces the herders to redefine their relationship with both the centre(s and the other tundra actors. Reindeer herding on the Kola Peninsula is analysed in relation to its heterogeneous economic system defined by the old Sovkhoz-like management and the new Western buyer of reindeer meat. Furthermore, the social environment in the herding territories has changed since the deterioration of the central planning economy, implying new renewable resources' users. After massive loss of jobs, militaries, miners and geologists came into the tundra for substantial hunting and fishing and so became actors in the local informal economy. Finally, tundra-located herders and hunters seem to be somewhere unified by a discourse against the town-based administrative power and economic actors such as mining industry. Therefore herders have to deal with both an old administrative system in the agrocentre and new realities in the tundra. Based on a case study of herding/hunting activities in a tundra camp, the paper analyses the social relationships between the different actors in the post-Soviet Kola tundra and express their quest for solutions.

  16. Linking hydropedology and ecosystem services: differential controls of surface field saturated hydraulic conductivity in a volcanic setting in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gómez-Tagle

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the variation of field saturated soil hydraulic conductivity (Kfs as key control variable and descriptor of infiltration was examined by means of a constant head single ring infiltrometer. The study took place in five coverage types and land uses in a volcanic setting in central Mexico. The tested hypothesis was that there exist a positive relationship between plant cover and surface Kfs for the study area. The examined coverage types included; Second growth pine-oak forest, pasture land, fallow land, gully and Cupresus afforestation. Results indicate that Kfs did not depend exclusively of plant cover; it was related to surface horizontal expression of the unburied soil horizons and linked to land use history. Therefore the Kfs measured at a certain location did not depend exclusively of the actual land use, it was also influenced by soil bioturbation linked to plant succession patterns and land use management practices history. The hypothesis accounts partially the variation between sites. Kfs under dense plant cover at the Cupresus afforestation was statistically equal to that measured at the fallow land or the gully sites, while second growth pine-oak forest Kfs figures were over an order of magnitude higher than the rest of the coverage types. The results suggest the relevance of unburied soil horizons in the soil hydrologic response when present at the surface. Under these conditions loosing surface soil horizons due to erosion, not only fertility is lost, but environmental services generation potential. A conceptual model within the hydropedological approach is proposed. It explains the possible controls of Kfs, for this volcanic setting. Land use history driven erosion plays a decisive role in subsurface horizon presence at the surface and soil matrix characteristic determination, while plant succession patterns seem to be strongly linked to soil bioturbation and

  17. The crustal structure of Beira High, central Mozambique-Combined investigation of wide-angle seismic and potential field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Christian Olaf; Jokat, Wilfried; Schreckenberger, Bernd

    2016-06-01

    The timing and geometry of the initial Gondwana break-up between Africa and East Antarctica is still poorly known due to missing information about the continent-ocean boundaries along the rifted margins. In this context, the Beira High off central Mozambique forms a critical geological feature of uncertain crustal fabric. Based on new wide-angle seismic and potential field data across Beira High a P-wave velocity model, supported by amplitude and gravity modelling, provides constraints on the crustal composition of this area. In the Mozambique Basin mainly normal oceanic crust of 5.5-7 km thickness with velocities of 6.5-7.0 km/s in the lower crust is present. A sharp transition towards Beira High marks the continent-ocean boundary. Here the crust thickens to 23 km at maximum. A small velocity-depth gradient and a constant increase in velocity with basal velocities of maximum 7.0 km/s are in good agreement with typical velocities of continental crust and continental fragments. The density model indicates the existence of felsic material in greater depths and supports a fabric of stretched, but highly intruded continental crust below Beira High. A gradual decrease in crustal thickness characterizes the transition towards the Mozambican shelf area. Here, in the Zambezi Delta Depression 12 km of sediments cover the underlying 7 km thick crust. The presence of a high-velocity lower crustal body with velocities of 7.1-7.4 km/s indicates underplated, magmatic material in this part of the profile. However, the velocity structure in the shelf area allows no definite interpretation because of the experimental setup. Thus, the crustal nature below the Zambezi Delta and consequently the landward position of the continent-ocean boundary remains unknown. The difference in stretching below the margins of Beira High suggests the presence of different thinning directions and a rift jump during the early rifting stage.

  18. Extensive Field Survey, Laboratory and Greenhouse Studies Reveal Complex Nature of Pseudomonas syringae-Associated Hazelnut Decline in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Bartoli, Claudia; Varvaro, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas avellanae (Pav) has been reported as the causal agent of bacterial decline and bacterial canker of hazelnut in Italy and Greece, respectively. Both hazelnut diseases were reported to be similar in terms of symptoms, severity and persistence. In this study, we found that both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees in the field were colonized by Pav. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) analysis showed that Pav strains isolated during this study in Italy belong to the P. syringae phylogroup 1 and they are closely related to Pav strains previously isolated in Greece from hazelnut bacterial canker. On the other hand, strains isolated in earlier studies from hazelnut decline in Italy belong to both phylogroup 1 and 2 of P. syringae. Both phylogroup 1 strains of P. syringae from Greece and Italy are different than strains isolated in this study in terms of their capacity to excrete fluorescent pigments on different media. Despite the same plant genotype and cropping practices adopted, the incidence of hazelnut decline ranged from nearly 0 to 91% across our study sites. No disease developed on plants inoculated with Pav through wounding while leaf scar inoculations produced only mild disease symptoms. Based on our results and the previously reported correlation between pedo-climatic conditions and hazelnut decline, we conclude that hazelnut decline in central Italy could be incited by a combination of predisposing (adverse pedo-climatic conditions) and contributing factors (Pav). Because this is a true decline different from "bacterial canker" described in Greece, we refer to it as hazelnut decline (HD). PMID:26840951

  19. Extensive Field Survey, Laboratory and Greenhouse Studies Reveal Complex Nature of Pseudomonas syringae-Associated Hazelnut Decline in Central Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Ram Lamichhane

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas avellanae (Pav has been reported as the causal agent of bacterial decline and bacterial canker of hazelnut in Italy and Greece, respectively. Both hazelnut diseases were reported to be similar in terms of symptoms, severity and persistence. In this study, we found that both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees in the field were colonized by Pav. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST analysis showed that Pav strains isolated during this study in Italy belong to the P. syringae phylogroup 1 and they are closely related to Pav strains previously isolated in Greece from hazelnut bacterial canker. On the other hand, strains isolated in earlier studies from hazelnut decline in Italy belong to both phylogroup 1 and 2 of P. syringae. Both phylogroup 1 strains of P. syringae from Greece and Italy are different than strains isolated in this study in terms of their capacity to excrete fluorescent pigments on different media. Despite the same plant genotype and cropping practices adopted, the incidence of hazelnut decline ranged from nearly 0 to 91% across our study sites. No disease developed on plants inoculated with Pav through wounding while leaf scar inoculations produced only mild disease symptoms. Based on our results and the previously reported correlation between pedo-climatic conditions and hazelnut decline, we conclude that hazelnut decline in central Italy could be incited by a combination of predisposing (adverse pedo-climatic conditions and contributing factors (Pav. Because this is a true decline different from "bacterial canker" described in Greece, we refer to it as hazelnut decline (HD.

  20. Lupus Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You. Learn More About the Lupus Foundation of America We are devoted to solving the mystery of ... Support for Lupus Research The Lupus Foundation of America applauds the U.S. Senate Appropriations Committee for voting ...

  1. Sarcoma Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mission The mission of the Sarcoma Foundation of America (SFA) is to advocate for sarcoma patients by ... behalf of everyone at the Sarcoma Foundation of America (SFA),THANK YOU! The Celebration of Life drew ...

  2. America's Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About the Forum | Publications | Data Sources | Help Search America's Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2015 ... Care Quality List of Tables List of Figures America's Children at a Glance Forum Agencies Data Source ...

  3. America's Blood Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or less. Please donate now! Full Stoplight Report America's Blood Centers is... FEATURED TODAY Support the Foundation ... purchase will be donated to the Foundation for America's Blood Centers! Simply Click Here! "We Are" This ...

  4. Immigration and the New Racial Diversity in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the new racial and ethnic diversity in rural America, which may be the most important but least anticipated population shift in recent demographic history. Ethnoracial change is central to virtually every aspect of rural America over the foreseeable future: agro-food systems, community life, labor force change, economic…

  5. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Outside Air Ventilation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    venThis Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research showing how automated night ventilation can reduce cooling energy costs up to 40% and peak demand up to 50% in California’s hot-dry central valley climates and can eliminate the need for air conditioning altogether in the coastal marine climate.

  6. Adolescent Literacies in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Lesley; Lopez, Dina; Mein, Erika; Valdiviezo, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2000, approximately 36 million youth and adults living in Latin America and the Caribbean were reported to be unable to read or write basic texts. Of these, 20 million were women. According to official statistics, some countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Honduras) have a youth and adult literacy rate of 80% or…

  7. Reverse Faulting as a Crucial Mechanism for Magma Ascent in Compressional Volcanic Arcs: Field Examples from the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, F. A.; Gonzalez, G.; Cembrano, J. M.; Veloso, E. E.

    2010-12-01

    The nature of crustal deformation in active arcs and the feedback mechanisms between tectonics and magma transport constitute fundamental problems in the understanding of volcanic systems. Additionally, for geothermal energy exploration, a better understanding of how crustal architecture and stress field controls fluid ascent and heat transfer from deep levels to the surface is crucial. The Central Andes volcanic belt is an excellent, modern example of such systems but, the scarcity of good outcrops has limited our ability to define the relations between structure and volcanism. In the Salar de Atacama Basin of northern Chile, there are good exposures of folded and faulted Neogene units (continental sediments, volcanic rocks and ignimbrites) and reverse faults spatially and temporally related to volcanic edifices. The subsurface of the study area has been interpreted by previous authors as a thin-skinned, 6-8 km-deep, east-vergent compressional belt. We carried out structural mapping, Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) analyses, strain tensor analyses and fault-related fold kinematic modelling to assess the causal relationship between compressional deformation and magmatism in this region. Field observations indicate that the structures deformed progressively Oligocene-Miocene continental sedimentary units, the upper sedimentary infill of the Salar de Atacama basin (Pliocene-Present), and Pliocene-Pleistocene Ignimbrites. The topographic expression of the compressional belt corresponds to a set of subparallel, asymmetric, fault-related-folds, which can be seen in the field as prominent NS-trending ridges with heights ranging between 50 and 400 m. Furthermore, we found evidence of a ~100 km-long structure along the active magmatic arc, so-called Miscanti Fault. This fault represents the easternmost expression of the above mentioned compressional belt. Pleistocene-Holocene monogenetic cones and strato-volcanoes are located either at the hinge zone of fault

  8. Tectonic background of a unique hydrogen-rich Kairei Hydrothermal Field, Central Indian Ridge: Results from Taiga Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okino, K.; Nakamura, K.; Morishita, T.; SATO, H.; Sato, T.; Mochizuki, N.; Okamura, K.; Fukuba, T.; Sunamura, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Central Indian Ridge (CIR) is slow~intermediate spreading systems and its southern end forms a R-R-R triple junction with SWIR and SEIR. The southern CIR shows slow-spreading morphology, where the axial valley develops along the ridge crest and an oceanic core complex has been reported near the triple junction. Kairei Hydrothermal Field (KHF) is unique hydrothermal system, located at the southern end of CIR. The fluids venting from the KHF are characterized by its high concentration of hydrogen with low methane/hydrogen ratio, and a hydrogen-based hyperthermophilic subsurface lithoautotrophic microbial ecosystem was confirmed (Takai et al., 2004). The KHF lies on basaltic lava area on the shoulder of ridge axial wall, being different from other hydrogen-rich hydrothermal fields hosted by ultramafic rocks. We selected this area as an integrated site for the Taiga Project, and conducted series of research cruises to characterize this unique system and to understand how the tectonic setting controls the fluid and ecosystem. We discover that the KHF itself is located above basaltic lava field but gabbro and ultramafic rocks are widely exhumed around the KHF. Besides a previously known oceanic core complex, small oceanic core complexes exist just east of the KHF (Kumagai et al., 2008) and the NTO massif north of the KHF shows peridotite exposure on its top. The unique fluid geochemistry of the KHF can be attributed to serpentinization of troctolites around or beneath the KHF and subsequent hydrothermal reactions with basaltic wall rocks (Nakamura et al., 2009). We also find several small hills where we collect deep crustal and mantle rocks. These hills suggesting melt-limited environment extend mainly along 2nd order segment boundary from the axial valley to 30km off-axis, i.e. ~1.7 Ma. The regional surface geophysical mapping and deep-tow magnetic profiling show high mantle Bouguer anomaly and prominent asymmetric spreading in the southernmost CIR segment. These

  9. Exposure to electromagnetic fields and the risk of disease in the central nervous system in employees at Danish electric companies; Udsaettelse for elektromagnetiske felter og risiko for sygdomme i det centrale nervesystem blandt ansatte ved danske elselskaber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Christoffer

    2002-07-01

    Introduction: Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields has been associated with neurological diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, senile dementia, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Material and method: I studied the incidence of disease in the central nervous system in 30,631 persons employed at Danish electric companies between 1900 and 1993. I linked the cohort to the nationwide, population-based Danish National Register of Patients and compared the number of cases of these diseases found between 1978 and 1993 with the corresponding rates in the general population. In addition, I fit the data on utility workers to a multiplicative Poisson regression model in relation to estimated levels of exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields. Results: Overall, there was an increase in the risk of senile dementia and motor neuron diseases combined. The incidence of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and other diseases of the central nervous system were essentially unrelated to exposure to electromagnetic fields. A decreased risk of epilepsy compared with the general population probably reflects a healthy worker effects; I observed an increased risk of epilepsy based on internal comparisons. Discussion: The increased risk of senile dementia and motor-neuron diseases may be associated with above average levels of exposure to electromagnetic fields. (au)

  10. Exploring Post-Wildfire Hydrologic Response in Central Colorado Using Field Observations and the Landlab Modeling Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. M.; Rengers, F. K.; Gasparini, N. M.; Tucker, G. E.; Nudurupati, S. S.; Hobley, D. E. J.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Hutton, E. W. H.

    2014-12-01

    In May 1996, the Buffalo Creek fire burned nearly 5,000 hectares of National Forest and private land 60 miles southwest of Denver, Colorado. Several weeks later, convective storms initiated severe flooding in the Buffalo and Spring Creek watersheds, leading to significant overland and fluvial sediment transport. To assess landscape response to fire, the U.S. Geological Survey monitored hydrologic and sedimentologic conditions between 1997 and 2000. In addition to precipitation, discharge and grain size distribution measurements over the study period, ground surveys and photogrammetry were done at representative cross-sections near the downstream channel outlet to estimate volumes of transported material after different precipitation events. These data can be used to validate numerical models that simulate landscape hydrologic and erosional responses post-fire. Modeling is a critical tool in understanding landscape response to fire across these short time scales, as post-fire erosion events can disrupt steady-state landscapes, subsequently affecting short and long-term landscape evolution. Anthropogenic climate change can exacerbate these morphologic changes over time, as precipitation and fire regimes will experience changes in event recurrence. Landlab, an open-source, componentized model written in Python, can be used to explore landscape evolution across both short and long time scales. The observed hydrologic conditions from Spring Creek are modeled across a 1-meter digital elevation model (DEM) of the watershed to simulate observed flow and sediment transport events. Once the flow and sediment transport data are validated using Landlab components, the model results can be extrapolated to understand landscape response to precipitation and discharge events that occurred immediately post-fire that were not measured in the field. Particularly, sediment transport by overland flow through sheet-flow and rilling are more significant in burned than unburned landscapes

  11. Microanalysis of the aerosol collected over south-central New Mexico during the alive field experiment, May-December 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Patrick J.; Schnell, Russel C.; Kahl, Jonathan D.; Boatman, Joe F.; Garvey, Dennis M.

    Thirty-eight size-segregated aerosol samples were collected in the lower troposphere over the high desert of south-central New Mexico, using cascade impactors mounted onboard two research aircraft. Four of these samples were collected in early May, sixteen in mid-July, and the remaining ones in December 1989, during three segments of the ALIVE field initiative. Analytical electron microscope analyses of aerosol deposits and individual particles from these samples were performed to physically and chemically characterize the major particulate species present in the aerosol. Air-mass trajectories arriving at the sampling area in the May program were quite different from those calculated for the July period. In general, the May trajectories showed strong westerly winds, while the July winds were weaker and southerly, consistently passing over or very near the border cities of El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Aerosol samples collected during the May period were predominantly fine (0.1-0.5 μm dia.), liquid H 2SO 4 droplets. Samples from the July experiment were comprised mostly of fine, solid (NH 4) 2SO 4 or mostly neutralized sulfate particles. In both sampling periods, numerous other particle classes were observed, including many types with probable terrestrial or anthropogenic sources. The numbers of these particles, however, were small when compared with the sulfates. Composite particle types, including sulfate/crustal and sulfate/carbonaceous, were also found to be present. The major differences in aerosol composition between the May and July samples (i.e. the extensive neutralization of sulfates in the July samples) can be explained by considering the different aerosol transport pathways and the proximity of the July aerosol to the El Paso/Juarez urban plume. Winds during the December experiment were quite variable, and may have contributed to the widely varying aerosol compositions observed in these samples. When the aircraft sampled the El Paso

  12. The Distributive Issue in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Adolfo

    1996-01-01

    Presents the central features of an economic theory of social equilibrium based on the theory of distributive equilibrium. Uses the situation in Latin America in the 1980s and 1990s to test the validity of the theory. Argues that excessive inequality cripples sustained growth and democratic movements. (MJP)

  13. The Merida Initiative: Security-Surveillance Harmonization in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Arteaga Botello

    2009-01-01

    This work analyses the Merida Initiative, whose objective is to coordinate the information systems used against terrorism, organized crime, and drug and arms trafficking between the United States, Mexico and Central America. This implies the introduction of communication equipment, data bases and surveillance technology, which not only reinforces the security policies of the ‘western hemisphere’, but also consolidates and broadens the spaces of exception in Mexico and Central America, thus er...

  14. Development of food crops by modern biotechnology techniques in Central America Desarrollo de cultivos y alimentos por técnicas de biotecnología moderna en Centroamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Garro Monge

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the adoption of Genetically Modified Crops (GMC has increased in stages worldwide. The worldwide total area planted with biotech crops reached 148 million hectares by 2010, also increasing the number of farmers around the world who decided to produce crops with this technology. At the regional level there are different responses of government agencies by generating rules and regu- lations according to the reality of these countries. In Central America, countries with greater partici- pation in the development and cultivation of food biotechnology techniques are Guatemala (papa- ya, Honduras (beans and maize and Costa Rica (cotton, soybean and pineapple, placing the latter two in the 29 countries with more GMO planting crops worldwide in 2010. Some of the countries of the region have implemented governance structures for the regulation through technical committees on Biosafety. The most important characteristics in terms of trade continue to be those that confer herbicide tolerance or pest resistance. But notice the incur- sion of new products that contain changes in their content, which are emerging as an alternative with great perspectives in the region. These experiences of culture and Biosafety regula- tion at the regional level could be a successful and progressive development of agricultural and food biotechnology in the near future.En la última década, la adopción de Cultivos Genéticamente Modificados (CGM se ha incre- mentado de forma escalonada a nivel mundial. El área sembrada con cultivos biotecnológicos llegó a un total de 148 millones de hectáreas en 2010, aumentando también el número de agricultores que decidieron producir este tipo de cultivos. A nivel regional, se producen respuestas diversas de los órganos gubernamentales mediante reglamen- tos y normativas acordes con la realidad local. En Centroamérica, los países con mayor participación en el desarrollo y cultivo de alimentos utilizando t

  15. Activation analysis in the Americas: recent and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 243 publications in the field of nuclear activation analysis and its applications during the period of 1977 through mid-1983, from laboratories in North, Central, and South America were reviewed. Various aspects of these populations are treated statistically, for indication of trends, and 146 of these are cited as publications that illustrate the extent of usage of various special forms of the nuclear activation analysis method (e.g., cyclic INAA, prompt-gamma INAA, epithermal NAA, the delayed-neutron method, the use of pre-irradiation chemical separations, etc.) - or that illustrate applications in such fields as archaeology, geochemistry, environmental chemistry, medicine, industry, and forensic chemistry. The overall conclusion is that the method of nuclear activation analysis continues to flourish in this region

  16. Use of gravity potential field methods for defining a shallow magmatic intrusion: the Mt. Amiata case history (Tuscany, Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Chiara; Rinaldo Barchi, Massimiliano; Pauselli, Cristina; Heyde, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed the Bouguer gravity anomaly signal beneath the Mt. Amiata area in order to reconstruct the subsurface setting. The study area is characterized by a pronounced gravity minimum, possibly correlated with the observed anomalous heat flow and hydrothermal activity. Using different approaches, previous authors defined a low density body (generally interpreted as a magmatic intrusion) beneath this area, which could explain the observed gravity anomaly minimum. However the proposed geologic models show different geometries and densities for the batholith. The gravity data used in this study (kindly provided by eni) were acquired from different institutions (eni, OGS, USDMA and Servizio Geologico d'Italia) and collected in a unique dataset, consisting of about 50000 stations, randomly distributed, which cover Central Italy, with a spacing of less than 1 km. For each station the elevation and the Bouguer gravity anomaly data are given. From this dataset, we created two maps of the Bouguer gravity anomaly and the topography, using the Minimum Curvature gridding method considering a grid cell size of 500m x 500m. The Bouguer gravity anomaly has been computed using a density of 2.67 g/cm3. From these maps we extracted a window of about 240 km2 (12x20 km) for the study area, which includes the Mt. Amiata region and the adjacent Radicofani sedimentary basin. The first part of this study was focused on calculating the first order vertical derivative and the power spectra analysis of the Bouguer gravity anomaly to enhance the effect of shallow bodies and estimating the source depth respectively. The second part of this study was focused on constructing a 3D geological density model of the subsurface setting of the studied area, implementing a forward modelling approach. The stratigraphy of the study area's upper crust schematically consists of six litho-mechanical units, whose density was derived from velocity data collected by active seismic surveys. A preliminary

  17. Helioclimatology of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurtaev, B. S.; Yakubov, M.; Shermatov, E.

    2013-05-01

    During the last 4 billion years, the Earth's climate has changed many times. There have been periods of warming and there have been ice ages. These large-scale climatic changes are shaped by factors like the tilt of the Earth's axis and tectonic plate movement. These major changes were driven by cyclical changes in the Earth's orbit, which altered the distribution of solar energy between the seasons and across the Earth. Milankovitch cycles explain well changes in climate over periods hundreds of thousands of years and are related to ice age cycles, but these cycles cannot explain the current rapid warming. The Sun is the most driving force for causing climate change. Much of the Sun energy evaporates water and causes atmospheric convection. Solar radiation, general circulation of atmosphere, geographical location of continents, oceans and the largest forms of a relief are the primary factors influencing on climate of lands. The purpose of this study is to identify contribution of the Sun on climate variability in the two continents, North and South America during instrumental records of air temperature. There were compared air temperatures of different weather stations in dependence from solar activity during the period 1878-1996. The high correlation between averaged temperature and solar activity was found for many weather stations of Americas. Air temperature in dependence from solar activity over the period 1878-1996 can be described by following equations: In Buenos Aires: T° = 0,04W+ 15,05, r-0,9; Caracas, Venezuela: T° = 0,03W + 18,88, r-0,73; Cordoba, Argentina: T° = 0,03W + 16,16, r-0,93; New York, Central Park: T° = 0,04W + 9,86, r-0,82; Toronto, T = 0,03W+ 6,66, r-0,81; Santiago Pudahuel, T= 0,019W + 13, 01, r - 0, 91; Rio de Janeiro:T°= 0,02W + 21,95, r= 0,88; Mexico over 1923-1986, T°= 0,021W+ 14,05, r-0,78; Miami over 1902-1996, T = 0,012W + 12,87 r-0,75; In our study, we used stations with reasonably long, consistently measured time records

  18. Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernethy, Bob; Chandra, Subrato; Baden, Steven; Cummings, Jim; Cummings, Jamie; Beal, David; Chasar, David; Colon, Carlos; Dutton, Wanda; Fairey, Philip; Fonorow, Ken; Gil, Camilo; Gordon, Andrew; Hoak, David; Kerr, Ryan; Peeks, Brady; Kosar, Douglas; Hewes, Tom; Kalaghchy, Safvat; Lubliner, Mike; Martin, Eric; McIlvaine, Janet; Moyer, Neil; Liguori, Sabrina; Parker, Danny; Sherwin, John; Stroer, Dennis; Thomas-Rees, Stephanie; Daniel, Danielle; McIlvaine, Janet

    2010-11-30

    This report summarizes the work conducted by the Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP - www.baihp.org) during the final budget period (BP5) of our contract, January 1, 2010 to November 30, 2010. Highlights from the four previous budget periods are included for context. BAIHP is led by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) of the University of Central Florida. With over 50 Industry Partners including factory and site builders, work in BP5 was performed in six tasks areas: Building America System Research Management, Documentation and Technical Support; System Performance Evaluations; Prototype House Evaluations; Initial Community Scale Evaluations; Project Closeout, Final Review of BA Communities; and Other Research Activities.

  19. Does small-game management benefit steppe birds of conservation concern? A field study in central Spain

    OpenAIRE

    ESTRADA, A.; Delibes-Mateos, Miguel; Caro, Jesús; Viñuela, Javier; Díaz-Fernández, Silvia; Casas, Fabián; Arroyo, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, hunting and game management are centuries-old activities that have had profound effects on the landscapes and the biodiversity they support. Game management is a potentially important tool to enhance game populations and may also affect other wildlife. We investigated the relationship between redlegged partridge Alectoris rufa game management and steppe-bird abundance in central Spain. We surveyed 54 red-legged partridge hunting estates with varying game-managemen...

  20. About correlation between modern deformation field and deep geoelectric structure of the Central Tien Shan according to GPS and MT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The work examines deformations of the Central Tien Shan Earth's crust using the method of calculation of two-dimensional deformation field according to the results of Global Positioning System (GPS) observations. New data on geoelectric structure of the regional lithospheric scale as interpretation results of detailed magnetotelluric soundings along the NARYN profile that indicate deep geoelectric image of the Central Tien Shan orogen along the 76 deg E meridian are discussed. There was held a joint analysis of the obtained deformation field and the parameters of deep geoelectric cross-section of the Central Tien Shan along the NARYN profile. In the northern part of the profile we have received the 0.84 correlation coefficient between the values of 2D deformation on the surface and the integral conductivity of the lithosphere in the depths interval 10-60 km. Such correlation shows that deformation observed on the Earth's surface by means of GPS techniques contains information about horizontal structure of plastic flow of substance in the lower crust of the region.

  1. Coexistence of pumice and manganese nodule fields-evidence for submarine silicic volcanism in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Sudhakar, M.

    -generation mine-sites of manganese nodules, of high abundance and paramarginal ore grade, seem to be closely related to the pumice field. Circumstantial evidence, i.e. juxtaposed pumice and nodule fields in the vicinity of three major fracture zones (73 degrees E...

  2. Early Earthquakes of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, James

    2004-11-01

    Robert Kovach's second book looks at the interplay of earthquake and volcanic events, archeology, and history in the Americas. Throughout history, major earthquakes have caused the deaths of millions of people and have damaged countless cities. Earthquakes undoubtedly damaged prehistoric cities in the Americas, and evidence of these events could be preserved in archeological records. Kovach asks, Did indigenous native cultures-Indians of the Pacific Northwest, Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas-document their natural history? Some events have been explicitly documented, for example, in Mayan codices, but many may have been recorded as myth and legend. Kovach's discussions of how early cultures dealt with fearful events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are colorful, informative, and entertaining, and include, for example, a depiction of how the Maya would talk to maize plants in their fields during earthquakes to reassure them.

  3. Regional structure of the southern segment of Central Iberian Zone (Spanish Variscan Belt) interpreted from potential field images and 2.5 D modelling of Alcudia gravity transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lobón, J. L.; Rey-Moral, C.; Ayala, C.; Martín-Parra, L. M.; Matas, J.; Reguera, M. I.

    2014-02-01

    This study presents a structural interpretation of potential field data at the southern segment of the Spanish Central Iberian Zone, where little is known about its geometry and physical properties in depth. We used ground gravity and aeromagnetic data from the Spanish Geological Survey (IGME) databases, together with a gravity survey recently acquired along the Alcudia deep seismic reflection profile, and also petrophysical data from rock samples, in part specifically acquired for this work. The aim is to characterize with potential fields the depth structure and physical properties of a complex area, focusing on features of the upper crust where the potential fields can provide a useful insight, as these features appear to be transparent in the images of seismic surveys carried up to date. After building a 2.5 D model of the magnetic susceptibility and density distribution for the whole crust with the constraints of the Alcudia seismic transect, relationships between lower and upper crustal structures can be better established, and surface geophysical maps allow estimating the lateral extensions of the main structures characterized by the potential field modelling. Interpreted gravity and magnetic Alcudia features consist of: 1) long-wavelength anomalies due to changes in crustal thickness and structure, identified along the Alcudia seismic reflection profile; some crustal boundaries and the seismic Moho have been slightly modified in the potential field model to fit the observed data; and, 2) short wavelength anomalies related to upper crustal features as large NW-SE faults and folds, and plutonic alignments. Northern and southern Alcudia segments show relevant lower-middle crust shortening structures underneath extensive Variscan plutons (Mora, Pedroches) and folded basins (Pedroches). Potential field imaging and modelling of these structures have provided a better understanding of the subsurface geology, particularly in non-reflective areas, unravelling the

  4. Schooling in Capitalist America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David K.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The symposium transcript presents and discusses commentaries on "Schooling in Capitalist America," by Sam Bowles and Herbert Gintis. The transcript serves three functions: (1) it offers a comprehensive account of the role of schools in America; (2) critiques efforts to reform schools; and (3) suggests alternative visions of how school reform…

  5. World review: Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) throughout Latin America in all aspects of the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Countries specifically mentioned are Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Trinidad and Venezuela. The future for the oil industry in Latin America is viewed as 'highly prospective'

  6. Fish Habitat Improvement Projects in the Fifteenmile Creek and Trout Creek Basins of Central Oregon: Field Review and Management Recommendations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffman, J. Boone

    1993-07-01

    A field review of stream habitat improvement project sites in the lower Deschutes River Basin was conducted by riparian ecology, fisheries, and hydrology specialists. Habitat management objectives, limiting factors, project implementation, land use history, and other factors were discussed at each site. This information, in conjunction with the reviewer`s field inspections of portions of a particular habitat project, provided the basis for this report.

  7. Optimum coil shape for a given volume of conductor to obtain maximum central field in an air core solenoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, P. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This paper is an expansion of engineering notes prepared in 1961 to address the question of how to wind circular coils so as to obtain the maximum axial field with the minimum volume of conductor. At the time this was a germain question because of the advent of superconducting wires which were in very limited supply, and the rapid push for generation of very high fields, with little concern for uniformity.

  8. Geoparks in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Geopark is a territory delimited part of a holistic concept of protection, education and sustainable development, based on geological sites of particular importance, rarity or aesthetic geological sites. A Geopark achieves its goals through three main areas: geoconservation, education and geotourism. The first network of Geoparks born in Europe in 2000, and from 2004 UNESCO is promoting the creation of a Global Geoparks Network (Global Geoparks Network, GGN ). Currently, there are 64 Global Geoparks in 19 countries, and the movement is in full development. In Latin America there is hardly Araripe Geopark in Brazil. Presented in this work, projects and studies related to the development of Geoparks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Peru and Venezuela. We understand that Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico and Nicaragua have projects in this line, but the details are not yet readily available. The authors invite geoscientists and professionals in related fields to join a movement for the creation of the Latin American Network of Geoparks, intended as a framework for the conservation, sustainable use and disclosure of our national geological heritage

  9. Frost damage of bricks composing a railway tunnel monument in Central Japan: field monitoring and laboratory simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Thomachot, C.; Matsuoka, N.; Kuchitsu, N.; Morii, M.

    2005-01-01

    Bricks of tunnels and bridges of Usui Pass railway (Japan) exposed to north are subject to frost damage. Average depth of erosion due to detachment of angular blocks is around 1-1.5 cm. In order to assess this weathering and to understand its mechanism, an experimental study was carried out in the field and laboratory. Field monitoring showed the combination of seasonal and diurnal freezing with a maximum of heave when the freezing front reached 5 cm depth. Bricks taken from the site were sub...

  10. Field Demonstration of Horizontal Infill Drilling Using Cost-effective Integrated Reservoir Modeling--Mississippian Carbonates, Central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saibal Bhattacharya

    2005-08-31

    Mississippian carbonate reservoirs have produced in excess of 1 billion barrels of oil in Kansas accounting for over 16% of the state's production. With declining production from other age reservoirs, the contribution of Mississippian reservoirs to Kansas's oil production has risen to 43% as of 2004. However, solution-enhanced features such as vertical shale intervals extending from the karst erosional surface at the top introduce complexities/compartmentalizations in Mississippian carbonate reservoirs. Coupled with this, strong water drives charge many of these reservoirs resulting in limited drainage from vertical wells due to high water cuts after an initial period of low water production. Moreover, most of these fields are operated by small independent operators without access to the knowledge bank of modern research in field characterization and exploitation/development practices. Thus, despite increasing importance of Mississippian fields to Kansas production, these fields are beset with low recovery factors and high abandonment rates leaving significant resources in the ground. Worldwide, horizontal infill wells have been successful in draining compartmentalized reservoirs with limited pressure depletion. The intent of this project was to demonstrate the application of horizontal wells to successfully exploit the remaining potential in mature Mississippian fields of the mid-continent. However, it is of critical importance that for horizontal wells to be economically successful, they must be selectively targeted. This project demonstrated the application of initial and secondary screening methods, based on publicly available data, to quickly shortlist fields in a target area for detailed studies to evaluate their potential to infill horizontal well applications. Advanced decline curve analyses were used to estimate missing well-level production data and to verify if the well produced under unchanging bottom-hole conditions--two commonly occurring

  11. Spontaneous restoration of target vegetation in old-fields in a central European landscape: a repeated analysis after three decades

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jírová, Alena; Klaudisová, A.; Prach, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2012), 245-252. ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : succession * vegetation * abandoned fields Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.263, year: 2012

  12. Middle America - Regional Geological Integrity, Hydrocarbon Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, K. H.

    2008-05-01

    Dogma holds that the Caribbean Plate and its islands formed in the Pacific and comprise oceanic crust and intra- oceanic arc rocks. Middle America, between N and S America, manifests a regional, N35°E and N60°W tectonic fabric. The NE trend results from Triassic-Jurassic reactivation of Palaeozoic convergent structures as extensional faults during Pangean rifting and commencement of N America drift. The NW trend parallels major inter-continental faults and oceanic fractures along which extension and drift occurred. Triassic-Jurassic red beds accumulated in the NE trending, intra-continental rifts of N, S and Central America. Proximal extended continental margins subsided to accommodate thick Cretaceous carbonate sections (Florida - Bahamas, Campeche, Nicaragua Rise). Distal margins formed continental blocks flanked by seaward-dipping wedges. Seismic and drilling in basins along the eastern seaboard of N America (Baltimore Canyon to Blake Plateau) document Triassic-Jurassic red beds overlain by salt and carbonates. Hydrocarbons are present. In Middle America the Gulf of Mexico remained "intra-continental", surrounded by continental blocks (N America, Maya, Florida). The area further south experienced greater extension, manifest by diverging oceanic fracture patterns to the east and west. Seismic data over the Caribbean Plateau reveal deep architecture of NE trending highs flanked by dipping wedges of reflections, similar to eastern N America distal basins. DSDP drilling calibrated the overlying smooth seismic Horizon B" as recording Cenomanian basalts. Smoothness, great lateral extent and coeval exposed sections with palaeosols followed by shallow marine carbonates suggest they were sub-aerial. Adjacent, rough seismic Horizon B" probably records top of submarine, serpentinized mantle. Seismic over the plateau also reveals features identical to drilled Sigsbee salt diapirs of the Gulf of Mexico. The regional tectonic fabric demonstrates a shared geological history

  13. l3a81nc.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity L-3A-81-NC in Central Coast, Northern California from 04/16/1981 to 04/26/1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry, gravity, and magnetic data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of field activity L-3A-81-NC in Central Coast, Northern...

  14. b172sc.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity B-1-72-SC in Central California from 11/11/1972 to 11/15/1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry, gravity, and magnetics data along with transit satellite navigation data was collected as part of field activity B-1-72-SC in Central...

  15. Frost damage of bricks composing a railway tunnel monument in Central Japan: field monitoring and laboratory simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Thomachot

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bricks of tunnels and bridges of Usui Pass railway (Japan exposed to north are subject to frost damage. Average depth of erosion due to detachment of angular blocks is around 1-1.5 cm. In order to assess this weathering and to understand its mechanism, an experimental study was carried out in the field and laboratory. Field monitoring showed the combination of seasonal and diurnal freezing with a maximum of heave when the freezing front reached 5 cm depth. Bricks taken from the site were submitted to unidirectional freezing at capillary and vacuum saturation in the laboratory. Results showed that frost damage of bricks was favoured by high saturation level and repetition of freeze-thaw cycles.

  16. Extensive Field Survey, Laboratory and Greenhouse Studies Reveal Complex Nature of Pseudomonas syringae-Associated Hazelnut Decline in Central Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoli, Claudia; Varvaro, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas avellanae (Pav) has been reported as the causal agent of bacterial decline and bacterial canker of hazelnut in Italy and Greece, respectively. Both hazelnut diseases were reported to be similar in terms of symptoms, severity and persistence. In this study, we found that both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees in the field were colonized by Pav. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) analysis showed that Pav strains isolated during this study in Italy belong to the P. syringae phylogrou...

  17. CFD Simulations of Pressure Drop and Velocity Field in a Cyclone Separator with Central Vortex Stabilization Rod

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Houben; Erwin Brunnmair; Christian Weiss; Stefan Pirker

    2016-01-01

    A problem of cyclone separators is the low grade efficiency of small particles. Therefore, a high efficiency cyclone separator has been developed and successfully tested in former work. In this cyclone separator, a vortex stabilizer is used to suppress the vortex core precession. In this article, the pressure and flow field in this cyclone separator are calculated by means of computational fluid dynamics using the commercial software Ansys Fluent 13. The position of the vortex cor...

  18. The Rotliegend reservoir in Block 30/24, UK Central North Sea: including the Argyll (renamed Ardmore) and Innes fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heward, A. [Alan Heward and Associates, Wallingford (United Kingdom); Schofield, P. [Tuscan Energy, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Gluyas, J. [Acorn Oil and Gas Ltd., Staines (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    Rotliegend Auk Formation sandstones form the second most productive reservoir in the 30/24 fields and the major source of aquifer pressure support. In the Argyll Field, where the Zechstein oversteps beyond the Rotliegend on to Devonian continental sandstones, there were initial difficulties distinguishing between the Rotliegend and the Devonian. Four facies associations are present in the Rotliegend Auk Formation: aeolian slipface sands, aeolian wind-ripple sands, water-lain Weissliegend sands and other water-lain conglomerates, breccias and sands. Five reservoir zones consist of different proportions of these facies which infill topography and onlap the Argyll high. Their distribution and character reflect periods of sediment supply, subsidence and fluctuating climatic conditions towards the margin of an interior continental basin. The Auk Formation as a whole forms a high quality reservoir at depths of 3000-4000 m. The best intervals, with Darey permeabilities, consist of coarse-grained Weissliegend sands. Two of the four initial wells in the Ardmore (Argyll) Field redevelopment are planned to target the Rotliegend reservoir. (author)

  19. The 24-2 Visual Field Test Misses Central Macular Damage Confirmed by the 10-2 Visual Field Test and Optical Coherence Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Grillo, Lola M.; Wang, Diane L.; Ramachandran, Rithambara; Ehrlich, Alyssa C.; De Moraes, Carlos Gustavo; Ritch, Robert; Hood, Donald C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the extent to which the 24-2 visual field (VF) misses macular damage confirmed with both 10-2 VF and optical coherence tomography (OCT) tests and to evaluate the patterns of damage missed. Methods One hundred forty-one eyes of 141 glaucoma patients or suspects underwent 24-2 VF (mean deviation [MD] better than −6 dB), 10-2 VF, and OCT testing. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and retinal ganglion cell plus inner plexiform (RGC+) probability plots were combined with 10-2 V...

  20. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  1. Donate Life America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us News You Have the Power to Donate Life. Register as an Organ, Eye and Tissue Donor ... reach 30K milestone, thanks to increased donations Donate Life America Announces 2015 James S. Wolf, M.D., Courage ...

  2. Cohabitation in Latin America: a comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sussai Soares, Maira Covre

    2014-01-01

    The coexistence of marriage and cohabitation is an intriguing feature of Latin American nuptiality. Historically common among lower social classes in Central America and the Caribbean, the incidence of cohabitation is also increasing among higher educated groups and southern Latin American countries. This study uses census and survey data to investigate the characteristics of Latin American cohabitation.First, the countries’ socioeconomic characteristics, related to the incidence of cohabitat...

  3. Tectonomagnetic study in the seismoactive area of Narmada–Son lineament, central India: Preliminary results on repeat field observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Y Waghmare; S D Pimprikar; P B Gawali; L Carlo; A G Patil

    2009-06-01

    Repeated measurements of the total geomagnetic field on the five profiles have revealed a picture of stress-induced tectonomagnetic effect in the form of secular variation of the total geomagnetic field in the tectonically and seismically active area of Jabalpur and adjoining areas of the Narmada-Son lineament (NSL),central India.For this experiment,a reference base station was established within the study area at Jabalpur.Using proton precession magnetometers with a sensitivity of 0.1 nT, simultaneous measurements of total geomagnetic field were made annually at the base and all field stations.Five cycles of repeated observations have been performed between 2003 and 2007.For data analysis,a difference method has been applied and the residuals have been calculated as secular variations of the total geomagnetic field with values ranging from ± 0.1nT to about > ± 14.6nT/yr over the different stations.The anomalies in secular variation of the total geomagnetic field may be related to anomalous accumulation of tectonic stresses and tensions on the deep fault zones and crustal blocks due to recent geodynamic processes and active geological inhomogeneities in the NSL.

  4. America in the Eyes of America Watchers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huiyun; He, Kai

    2015-01-01

    almost half of the survey participants thought that America would remain the global hegemon in the next ten years. Meanwhile, a large majority was also optimistic that China is a rising great power, especially in the economic sense, in the world. More than half of the respondents saw Asian military...... issues, such as the South China Sea issue, as the most difficult problem between China and the US....

  5. Sulfur isotopic composition of seafloor hydrothermal sediment from the Jade hydrothermal field in the central Okinawa Trough and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾志刚; 李军; 蒋富清; 翟世奎; 秦蕴珊; 侯增谦

    2002-01-01

    --Eighteen samples of hydrothermal sediments from the Jade hydrotherrnal field in the central Okinawa Trough have been analyzed. Sulfur isotopic values for 10 sulfide samples vary from 5.2 ×10-3to 7.2× 10-3, δ34S valUes for 7 sulfate samples vary from 16.3 × 10-3 to 22.3 × 10-3, and 1 native sulphur sample has a δ34S value of 8.2 × 10-3. The major sources of sulfur for hydrothermal sediment are intermediate to acid volcanic rocks and sea water sulfate, and it is possible that the partial sulfur of hydrothermal sediment is from the pelagic sediment by the interaction between hydrothermal fluid and sediment. The reasons of causing the distinct differences in sulfur isotopic values for sulfide samples from hydrothermal sediment ( compared with other hydrothermal fields), are the differences in the sources of sulfur, the magmatic activity and the tectonic evolution in different hydrothermal fields. The sulfur evolution is a long and complex process in the seafloor hydrothermal system, involving the ascending of heating sea water, the interaction between fluid and volcanic rocks, the mixing of sea water sulfate and sulfur from intermediate to acid volcanic rocks, and the fluid/pelagic-sediment interaction. And the interaction between sea water and intermediate to acid volcanic rocks is an important mechanism for the sulfur evolution in the Jade hydrothermal field.

  6. Immigrant America: A Portrait

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbaut, RG; Portes, A.

    2014-01-01

    This revised, updated, and expanded fourth edition of Immigrant America: A Portrait provides readers with a comprehensive and current overview of immigration to the United States in a single volume. Updated with the latest available data, Immigrant America explores the economic, political, spatial, and linguistic aspects of immigration; the role of religion in the acculturation and social integration of foreign minorities; and the adaptation process for the second generation. This revised ed...

  7. Nitrous oxide emissions from rape field as affected by nitrogen fertilizer management: A case study in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan; Iqbal, Javed; Hu, Ronggui; Wu, Jinshui; Zhao, Jinsong; Ruan, Leilei; Malghani, Saadatullah

    2011-03-01

    Agricultural soils are one of the major sources of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N 2O) emission. Red soil, one of the typical agricultural soils in sub-tropical China, plays an important role in the global N 2O flux emissions. To determine its N mineralization potential, a field study was conducted to assess the effect of application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in a rape field under red soil at the experimental station of Heshengqiao at Xianning, Hubei, China. To estimate N-induced N 2O flux, we examined N 2O flux during the growth stages of the rape field including four treatments: fertilizer PK (N0), fertilizer NPK (60 kg N ha -1) (N1), fertilizer NPK (120 kg N ha -1) (N2), fertilizer NPK (240 kg N ha -1) (N3). There were distinct variations in soil N 2O fluxes (from 0.16 to 0.90 kg N ha -1), with higher values being observed during the spring and autumn while low values were observed during winter season. Among different treatments, N fertilization significantly increased the N 2O fluxes, with highest fluxes from N3 while lowest values being observed from N0 treatment. This suggested increased microbial activity in response to increased N fertilizer application. It was interesting to note that fertilizer-induced emissions decreased as the applied fertilizer amount was increased. During the whole growing season, N 2O flux did not correlate with soil temperature, but it significantly correlated to other environmental variables; water-filled pore space (WFPS), soil NO 3--N and NH 4+-N contents, which suggests the need for efficient water use and low inorganic nitrogen fertilizer management practices.

  8. The structural architecture of the Los Humeros volcanic complex and geothermal field, Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norini, Gianluca; Groppelli, Gianluca; Sulpizio, Roberto; Carrasco Núñez, Gerardo; Davila Harris, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The development of geothermal energy in Mexico is a very important goal, given the presence of a large heat anomaly, associated with the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, the renewability of the resource and the low environmental impact. The Quaternary Los Humeros volcanic complex is an important geothermal target, whose evolution involved at least two caldera events, that alternated with other explosive and effusive activity. The first caldera forming event was the 460 ka eruption that produced the Xaltipan ignimbrite and formed a 15-20 km wide caldera. The second collapse event occurred 100 ka with the formation of the Zaragoza ignimbrite and a nested 8-10 km wide caldera. The whole volcano structure, the style of the collapses and the exact location of the calderas scarps and ring faults are still a matter of debate. The Los Humeros volcano hosts the productive Los Humeros Geothermal Field, with an installed capacity of 40 MW and additional 75 MW power plants under construction. Recent models of the geothermal reservoir predict the existence of at least two reservoirs in the geothermal system, separated by impermeable rock units. Hydraulic connectivity and hydrothermal fluids circulation occurs through faults and fractures, allowing deep steam to ascend while condensate flows descend. As a consequence, the plans for the exploration and exploitation of the geothermal reservoir have been based on the identification of the main channels for the circulation of hydrothermal fluids, constituted by faults, so that the full comprehension of the structural architecture of the caldera is crucial to improve the efficiency and minimize the costs of the geothermal field operation. In this study, we present an analysis of the Los Humeros volcanic complex focused on the Quaternary tectonic and volcanotectonics features, like fault scarps and aligned/elongated monogenetic volcanic centres. Morphostructural analysis and field mapping reveal the geometry, kinematics and dynamics of

  9. Science Editing in America: An Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara Gastel

    2003-01-01

    @@ In America, science editing appears to be an increasingly recognized field. In what settings do American science editors work, and what kinds of work do they do ? What is their educational background? What style manuals and other resources do they use? What organizations serve them? What topics and issues do they find of professional interest?

  10. Deformation of Northwestern South America from GPS Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Paez, H.; La Femina, P. C.; Mothes, P. A.; Ruiz, A. G.; Fernandes, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    The North Andes block (NAB) is a hypothesized tectonic block that migrates (escapes) north-northeast relative to a stable South American reference frame. The motion of this block is thought-to-be derived by the collision of the Carnegie Ridge in southern Ecuador and/or by oblique convergence and high degrees of interplate coupling north of the ridge (i.e., strain partitioning). At the latitude of Ecuador, the NAB is defined by transpressional deformation accommodating east-northeastward motion along its boundary with South America. In southern to central Colombia, the NAB is dissected by several mapped and prominent regional shear zones. At these latitudes the NAB may be bound to the west by the Choco block and the transpressional Atrato-Uraba fault system and to the east by the Guayaquil-Algeciras fault system. And in northern Colombia the Caribbean - South America plate boundary is defined by the NAB and proposed Maracaibo and Guajira blocks. We investigate the deformation of northwestern South America, including the kinematics of NAB utilizing a new velocity field based on continuous GPS and existing episodic GPS data in Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela and Panama. We reference these new velocities to a newly estimated Euler vector for the South America plate based on inversion of cGPS data from stations east of the Andes. The new velocity field and published earthquake slip vectors are inverted to solve for the Euler vectors of the NAB, Choco, Panama, Maracaibo and Guajira blocks and interseismic elastic strain accumulation (interseismic coupling) on block-bounding faults using a block modeling approach. We test a suite of block models to investigate the tectonic nature of the NAB along strike and the style of faulting in the upper plate accommodating block motion. Through the estimation of elastic strain accumulation on all block-bounding faults, we improve the understanding of interseismic coupling along a convergent margin capable of producing M>8 earthquakes

  11. Nutritional situation in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    PAHO member countries maintain food and nutrition surveillance systems. The prevalence of malnutrition among children aged 0-4 in Latin American and Caribbean countries ranges from 0.8% in Chile to 38.5% in Guatemala. It is 2.9% in the US. Low height-for-age is most common among children aged 0-4 in Guatemala (57.9%), Bolivia (38.3%), Peru (35.2%), and Ecuador (34%). The interval between observations of malnutrition prevalence ranged from 22 years in Honduras to 3-4 years in Nicaragua and Panama. Overall, there was a downward trend in malnutrition rates in the Americas. Yet, malnutrition is increasing in Guatemala and Panama. Breast feeding, good weaning practices, appropriate feeding during disease episodes, nutrition education, and programs for immunization and control of diarrhea and respiratory diseases account for the downward trend. Anemia rates among pregnant women (=or 11 g Hb/dl) vary from 13% in Asuncion, Paraguay, to 61% in Misiones, Argentina. Those for preschoolers range from 22% to 45% in Brazil and 27% to 53% in Peru. The prevalence of goiter is more than 50% in Merida, Venezuela, and Chameza, Colombia. It differs greatly in different areas within the same country. Most countries have laws requiring iodination of all salt for human consumption, yet violations are common. Certain areas of the countries in the Americas have vitamin A deficiency rates ranging from 5% to 48.8%. Some countries have enacted laws for sugar enrichment with retinol palmitate to reduce vitamin A deficiency. During the 1970s, deaths from chronic diseases related to nutrition increased 105% in South America, 56% in Central America, Mexico, and Panama, and 21% in the Caribbean. Prevalence of obesity among children aged 0-6 varies from 2.2% in Nicaragua and Brazil to 10.7% in Chile. Adult obesity is most common in Uruguay (about 50%). It is more common among females than males. The highest rates among 20-29 year olds are in Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, and Peru. The US adult obesity

  12. CFD Simulations of Pressure Drop and Velocity Field in a Cyclone Separator with Central Vortex Stabilization Rod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Houben

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A problem of cyclone separators is the low grade efficiency of small particles. Therefore, a high efficiency cyclone separator has been developed and successfully tested in former work. In this cyclone separator, a vortex stabilizer is used to suppress the vortex core precession. In this article, the pressure and flow field in this cyclone separator are calculated by means of computational fluid dynamics using the commercial software Ansys Fluent 13. The position of the vortex core is tracked in these simulations by searching the position of minimal dynamic pressure and the centre of moment of the horizontal velocity components as function of the axial coordinate. The results are compared with experimental data. It is demonstrated that when using a stabilizer, the vortex is kept in position. Furthermore the maximum of the tangential velocity is found to be larger, which is known to have a positive effect on the separation of small particles in the inner solid body rotation vortex.

  13. Predicting biomass of hyperdiverse and structurally complex central Amazonian forests - a virtual approach using extensive field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnabosco Marra, Daniel; Higuchi, Niro; Trumbore, Susan E.; Ribeiro, Gabriel H. P. M.; dos Santos, Joaquim; Carneiro, Vilany M. C.; Lima, Adriano J. N.; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I.; Holzwarth, Frederic; Reu, Björn; Wirth, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Old-growth forests are subject to substantial changes in structure and species composition due to the intensification of human activities, gradual climate change and extreme weather events. Trees store ca. 90 % of the total aboveground biomass (AGB) in tropical forests and precise tree biomass estimation models are crucial for management and conservation. In the central Amazon, predicting AGB at large spatial scales is a challenging task due to the heterogeneity of successional stages, high tree species diversity and inherent variations in tree allometry and architecture. We parameterized generic AGB estimation models applicable across species and a wide range of structural and compositional variation related to species sorting into height layers as well as frequent natural disturbances. We used 727 trees (diameter at breast height ≥ 5 cm) from 101 genera and at least 135 species harvested in a contiguous forest near Manaus, Brazil. Sampling from this data set we assembled six scenarios designed to span existing gradients in floristic composition and size distribution in order to select models that best predict AGB at the landscape level across successional gradients. We found that good individual tree model fits do not necessarily translate into reliable predictions of AGB at the landscape level. When predicting AGB (dry mass) over scenarios using our different models and an available pantropical model, we observed systematic biases ranging from -31 % (pantropical) to +39 %, with root-mean-square error (RMSE) values of up to 130 Mg ha-1 (pantropical). Our first and second best models had both low mean biases (0.8 and 3.9 %, respectively) and RMSE (9.4 and 18.6 Mg ha-1) when applied over scenarios. Predicting biomass correctly at the landscape level in hyperdiverse and structurally complex tropical forests, especially allowing good performance at the margins of data availability for model construction/calibration, requires the inclusion of predictors that express

  14. Predicting biomass of hyperdiverse and structurally complex Central Amazon forests - a virtual approach using extensive field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnabosco Marra, D.; Higuchi, N.; Trumbore, S. E.; Ribeiro, G. H. P. M.; dos Santos, J.; Carneiro, V. M. C.; Lima, A. J. N.; Chambers, J. Q.; Negrón-Juárez, R. I.; Holzwarth, F.; Reu, B.; Wirth, C.

    2015-09-01

    Old-growth forests are subject to substantial changes in structure and species composition due to the intensification of human activities, gradual climate change and extreme weather events. Trees store ca. 90 % of the total AGB above-ground biomass in tropical forests and AGB estimation models are crucial for forest management and conservation. In the Central Amazon, predicting AGB at large spatial-scales is a challenging task due to the heterogeneity of successional stages, high tree species diversity and inherent variations in allometry and architecture. We parameterized generic AGB estimation models applicable across species and a wide range of structural and compositional variation related to species sorting into height layers as well as frequent natural disturbances. We used 727 trees from 101 genera and at least 135 species harvested in a contiguous forest near Manaus, Brazil. Sampling from this dataset we assembled six scenarios designed to span existing gradients in floristic composition and size distribution in order to select models that best predict AGB at the landscape-level across successional gradients. We found that good individual tree model fits do not necessarily translate into good predictions of AGB at the landscape level. When predicting AGB (dry mass) over scenarios using our different models and an available pantropical model, we observed systematic biases ranging from -31 % (pantropical) to +39 %, with RMSE root-mean-square error values of up to 130 Mg ha-1 (pantropical). Our first and second best models had both low mean biases (0.8 and 3.9 %, respectively) and RMSE (9.4 and 18.6 Mg ha-1) when applied over scenarios. Predicting biomass correctly at the landscape-level in complex tropical forests, especially allowing good performance at the margins of data availability for model parametrization, requires the inclusion of predictors related to species architecture. The model of interest should comprise the floristic composition and size

  15. Fiscal 1998 engineer interexchange project (coal mine technology field). Preliminary survey on the international interexchange project in America; 1998 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Jizen chosa (Beikoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    As a part of the fiscal 1998 international interexchange project in a coal mine technology field, the survey was made in America. Geological engineering problem has large effect on the protection and productivity of underground coal mines. Promotion of long wall mining has contributed to reduction of disasters, however, recently deaths due to roof collapse and wall collapse are on the increase. A roof evaluation technique was developed for adequate selection of mining methods and support design, and its standardization and diffusion are in promotion. Integration and improvement advanced in facility technology because of worldwide integration by acquisition of coal mine facility manufacturers. Introduction of high-power high-capacity facilities is increasing with introduction of large long wall working faces, and development of rear transport system technology and labor saving by remote control are also in promotion according to such trend. As automation and labor saving technology of mining facilities, the automated direction detection and control system by laser and gyroscope is under development. (NEDO)

  16. The ribbon continent of northwestern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamira-Areyan, Armando

    The tectonic structure of the Plate Boundary Zone (PBZ) between the Caribbean Plate (CARIB) and the South American Plate (SOAM) is interpreted using models that require CARIB motion from the Pacific into the Atlantic. Those models can be subdivided into: (1) those in which the island arc rocks that are now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ have collided with the northern South America margin, either obliquely or directly during the Cretaceous or during the Cenozoic, and (2) those in which the island arc rocks now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ collided with the west coast of South America during the Cretaceous and were transferred to the northern margin by transform motion during the Cenozoic. Magnetic anomalies were first rotated in the Central and South Atlantic, holding Africa fixed to establish how much NOAM had converged on SOAM during the Cenozoic. WSW convergence was discovered to have been accommodated in the northern boundary of the CARIB. There is no evidence of convergence in the form of Cenozoic island arc igneous rocks on the north coast of South America. Those results are consistent only with models of Class (2) that call for transform movement of material that had collided with the west coast of South America along the CARIB-SOAM PBZ on the northern margin of South America. 40Ar/39Ar ages of island arc rocks from northern Venezuela were found to be older than ca 70 Ma, which is consistent with a requirement of models of Class (2) that those rocks are from an island arc which collided with the west coast of South America during Cretaceous times. Testing that conclusion using data from Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, the Netherlands Antilles, Trinidad and Tobago has led to the construction of a new ribbon continent model of the northwestern Cordillera of South America. Because the part of the ribbon continent on the north coast of South America has been experiencing substantial deformation in the Maracaibo block during the past 10 m.y., structures in that body have had to be

  17. The Pliocene-Quaternary Buffalo Valley volcanic field, Nevada: Post-extension, intraplate magmatism in the north-central Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousens, Brian; Wetmore, Stacey; Henry, Christopher D.

    2013-12-01

    The Buffalo Valley volcanic field consists of Pliocene through Quaternary lava flows and spatter cones located south of Battle Mountain and adjacent to the Fish Creek Mountains, north-central Nevada. The volcanic rocks are split into two groups by age and geochemistry. The Pliocene sequence (4.02 to 2.75 Ma) consists of olivine- and plagioclase-bearing alkali basaltic lava flows with minor pyroclastic deposits, found primarily along the south flank of Battle Mountain and also at the north end of the Fish Creek Mountains and within the Fish Creek Mountains caldera. The Quaternary series (1.99 to 1.14 Ma) includes nearly a dozen trachybasaltic spatter cones with short lava flows erupted along the northwest flank of the Fish Creek Mountains. Normalized rare earth element and incompatible element plots for both groups are light rare earth and Nb-Ta enriched, resembling alkali basalts from ocean islands, but the Quaternary lavas are more light rare earth element-enriched and cross the Pliocene basalt patterns at Eu. Radiogenic and stable isotope ratios are consistent with an asthenospheric mantle source, and the rare earth element patterns indicate a shift from melting in the spinel to garnet peridotite field with time. Basaltic rocks from other intraplate fields in the Great Basin, including the Lunar Crater and Cima fields, only include lavas that originated at depth in the garnet peridotite field. Buffalo Valley is located at the margin of a proposed lithospheric drip (delamination) and within a zone of lithospheric thinning that extends across northern Nevada, both of which may control where melting in the asthenosphere may occur. The proximity to the edge of Precambrian-Phanerozoic lithosphere boundary may also be a factor in melt generation.

  18. Is it safe? Voles in an unfamiliar dark open-field divert from optimal security by abandoning a familiar shelter and not visiting a central start point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilam, David

    2010-01-01

    Open-field behavior is a common tool in studying exploration and navigation, as well as emotions and motivations. However, it has been suggested that this behavior might be parsimoniously interpreted as directed to optimize security, with no need to interpret the animal's mental state. This latter view was challenged here by providing voles with presumably sense of optimal security. For this, voles were introduced into a dark open-field inside a familiar shelter in which they previously lived in their home cage. Voles then emerged either to locomote only in the vicinity of the shelter, or to travel further out to explore the entire arena and only later to return to the shelter. While their staying near the shelter confirms the notion of optimizing security, their traveling further out along the perimeter negates this notion. This divergence of behavior under the same security conditions illustrates that open-field behavior, which is a multi-faceted and dynamic process, is also affected by an emotional component. That is, safety is a subjective emotional state dictated by various inputs and, therefore, the resulting dynamic behavior, which is the ultimate output of the central nervous system, may vary beyond the possibility of being parsimoniously interpreted by only one factor. In a similar vein, we show that the impact of the start point on the paths of locomotion is not an intrinsic property of that point, but depends on its physical location. PMID:19744526

  19. New views on American colonization: critical tests from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Rourke, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional view of colonization of the Americas as a migration across Beringia and subsequent dispersal southward following the last glacial maximum is being increasingly questioned. In North America, archaeological links to Siberia are tenuous and genetic data are more consistent with an earlier entry of people into the Americas, from Central rather than Northeast Siberia. An entry of populations into the Americas prior to the last glacial maximum forces a reconsideration not only of timing, but also geographic points of entry and speed of dispersal, based on ecological theory. A number of emerging alternative hypotheses on the colonization of the Americas predict early entry and dispersal of people into South America - earlier than, or coeval with, initial dispersal in North America. The study of genetic, morphological, and archaeological variation across South America is critical to testing these new, alternative hypotheses of Native American origins. I will review the evidence for emerging, alternative views of American Colonization, and suggest ways in which data from South American populations and prehistory will be crucial in testing them.

  20. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and geochemical reconnaissance of the Eocene Lowland Creek volcanic field, west-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudas, F.O.; Ispolatov, V.O.; Harlan, S.S.; Snee, L.W.

    2010-01-01

    We report geochronological and geochemical data for the calc-alkalic Lowland Creek volcanic field (LCVF) in westcentral Montana. 40Ar/ 39Ar age determinations show that the LCVF was active from 52.9 to 48.6 Ma, with tuff-forming eruptions at 52.9 ?? 0.14 and 51.8 ?? 0.14 Ma. These dates span the age range of vigorous Eocene igneous activity in the Kamloops-Absaroka-Challis belt. The LCVF evolved upward from basal rhyolites (SiO 2>71 wt%) to dacites and andesites (SiO 2 > 62 wt%). Compositional change parallels a transition from early explosive volcanism to late effusive activity. Four geochemical components can be detected in the rocks. A component with 206Pb/204Pb 18.3 and epsilon;Nd>-9 contain a third component; and an andesite with low Nd content and epsilon;Nd near-9 probably contains a fourth component. The first three components probably derive from the lower and middle crust, whereas the fourth is probably from the lithospheric mantle. ?? 2010 by The University of Chicago.

  1. Effects of tillage and nitrogen fertilizers on CH4 and CO2 emissions and soil organic carbon in paddy fields of central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cheng-Fang

    Full Text Available Quantifying carbon (C sequestration in paddy soils is necessary to help better understand the effect of agricultural practices on the C cycle. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of tillage practices [conventional tillage (CT and no-tillage (NT] and the application of nitrogen (N fertilizer (0 and 210 kg N ha(-1 on fluxes of CH(4 and CO(2, and soil organic C (SOC sequestration during the 2009 and 2010 rice growing seasons in central China. Application of N fertilizer significantly increased CH(4 emissions by 13%-66% and SOC by 21%-94% irrespective of soil sampling depths, but had no effect on CO(2 emissions in either year. Tillage significantly affected CH(4 and CO(2 emissions, where NT significantly decreased CH(4 emissions by 10%-36% but increased CO(2 emissions by 22%-40% in both years. The effects of tillage on the SOC varied with the depth of soil sampling. NT significantly increased the SOC by 7%-48% in the 0-5 cm layer compared with CT. However, there was no significant difference in the SOC between NT and CT across the entire 0-20 cm layer. Hence, our results suggest that the potential of SOC sequestration in NT paddy fields may be overestimated in central China if only surface soil samples are considered.

  2. Effects of tillage and nitrogen fertilizers on CH4 and CO2 emissions and soil organic carbon in paddy fields of central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Fang, Li; Dan-Na, Zhou; Zhi-Kui, Kou; Zhi-Sheng, Zhang; Jin-Ping, Wang; Ming-Li, Cai; Cou-Gui, Cao

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying carbon (C) sequestration in paddy soils is necessary to help better understand the effect of agricultural practices on the C cycle. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of tillage practices [conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT)] and the application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer (0 and 210 kg N ha(-1)) on fluxes of CH(4) and CO(2), and soil organic C (SOC) sequestration during the 2009 and 2010 rice growing seasons in central China. Application of N fertilizer significantly increased CH(4) emissions by 13%-66% and SOC by 21%-94% irrespective of soil sampling depths, but had no effect on CO(2) emissions in either year. Tillage significantly affected CH(4) and CO(2) emissions, where NT significantly decreased CH(4) emissions by 10%-36% but increased CO(2) emissions by 22%-40% in both years. The effects of tillage on the SOC varied with the depth of soil sampling. NT significantly increased the SOC by 7%-48% in the 0-5 cm layer compared with CT. However, there was no significant difference in the SOC between NT and CT across the entire 0-20 cm layer. Hence, our results suggest that the potential of SOC sequestration in NT paddy fields may be overestimated in central China if only surface soil samples are considered. PMID:22574109

  3. Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlvaine, Janet; Chandra, Subrato; Barkaszi, Stephen; Beal, David; Chasar, David; Colon, Carlos; Fonorow, Ken; Gordon, Andrew; Hoak, David; Hutchinson, Stephanie; Lubliner, Mike; Martin, Eric; McCluney, Ross; McGinley, Mark; McSorley, Mike; Moyer, Neil; Mullens, Mike; Parker, Danny; Sherwin, John; Vieira, Rob; Wichers, Susan

    2006-06-30

    This final report summarizes the work conducted by the Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (www.baihp.org) for the period 9/1/99-6/30/06. BAIHP is led by the Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida and focuses on factory built housing. In partnership with over 50 factory and site builders, work was performed in two main areas--research and technical assistance. In the research area--through site visits in over 75 problem homes, we discovered the prime causes of moisture problems in some manufactured homes and our industry partners adopted our solutions to nearly eliminate this vexing problem. Through testing conducted in over two dozen housing factories of six factory builders we documented the value of leak free duct design and construction which was embraced by our industry partners and implemented in all the thousands of homes they built. Through laboratory test facilities and measurements in real homes we documented the merits of 'cool roof' technologies and developed an innovative night sky radiative cooling concept currently being tested. We patented an energy efficient condenser fan design, documented energy efficient home retrofit strategies after hurricane damage, developed improved specifications for federal procurement for future temporary housing, compared the Building America benchmark to HERS Index and IECC 2006, developed a toolkit for improving the accuracy and speed of benchmark calculations, monitored the field performance of over a dozen prototype homes and initiated research on the effectiveness of occupancy feedback in reducing household energy use. In the technical assistance area we provided systems engineering analysis, conducted training, testing and commissioning that have resulted in over 128,000 factory built and over 5,000 site built homes which are saving their owners over $17,000,000 annually in energy bills. These include homes built by Palm Harbor Homes, Fleetwood, Southern Energy

  4. Geochemical and Mineralogical Characteristics of Pleistocene Lignites and Associated Sediments of Marathousa Coal Field,Central Peloponnese,Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.E.KELEPERTSIS; E.KONTIS

    1997-01-01

    The mineralogy and geochemistry data are presented for thirty-seven shales,four concretions,two carbonate sediments and seven lignites from the Marathousa coal field of the Megalopolis Basin in Greece.The argillaceous rocks consist of chlorite,illite,kaolinte,albite,quartz.opal-A,calcite and dolomite;the concretions of aragonite,gypsum and pyrite;and the carbonate rocks of calcite,quartz and illite.The mineral matter in the lignites consists of gypsum,quartz,albite,chlorite,illite,opal-A,dolomite,pyrite,and rarely calcite and kaolinite Athree-factor model explains the total variaition of major and trace elements in the argillaceous sediments.The first factor is an aluminosilicate factor and involves the following elements:Al,Si,Mg,Na,K,Ti,Mn,Nb,Y,Rb,Zn,Cu,Ni,Cr,Nband V,associated with chlorite,albite and illite.The second factor involves the elements Ca,Sr,Ba,Znand Sc and is related to carbonate lithology and mainly the carbonate concretions with gypsum.The third factor involves Fe and Ce with a weak association with Mn.The diagenesis of the Marathousa sediments and lignites was not very advanced as indicated by (a) the total thickness of the sequence (500m),(b) the presence of biogenic silica(opal-A) and (c) the age of the deposit(Pleistocene).FOr these reasons the rpresence of chlorite,illite and kaolinite in the sediments and lignite is due not to diagenetic reactions but to weathering of the flysch and metamorphic rocks at the edges of the Megalopolis Basin and transport of the weathering products(illite,chlorite,kaolinite)into the basin of deposition.The diagenetic minerals of the Marathousa sequence include pyrite,gypsum,dolomite and aragonite.

  5. Morphological characterization of fungi associated with the ascochyta blight complex and pathogenic variability of Mycosphaerella pinodes on field pea crops in central Alberta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hafiz; Ahmed; Kan-Fa; Chang; Sheau-Fang; Hwang; Heting; Fu; Qixing; Zhou; Stephen; Strelkov; Robert; Conner; Bruce; Gossen

    2015-01-01

    Field pea crops in central Alberta were surveyed for ascochyta blight from 2011 to 2012 and fungal isolates were recovered from foliar lesions on selected plants. Cultural and microscopic characterization of the 275 isolates obtained revealed that 272 were of Mycosphaerella pinodes and three were of Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Ascochyta pisi or Phoma koolunga were not identified. Isolates of M. pinodes were divided into two groups,GI and GII, based on visual assessment of culture characteristics. GI isolates(light to dark, mostly gray colony color; pycnidial distribution radial and concentric; conidia10.5–14.5 × 4.2–6.2 μm most with one septum, occasionally two, constricted at the septum;spore mass light buff to flesh color) were predominant(83%), while GII isolates(dark to gray colony color; pycnidia abundant; conidia 8–16 × 3.5–6.2 μm most with 1 septum, constricted at the septum; spore mass light buff to flesh color) were less common(17%). The cultures of GII isolates were similar to recent descriptions of A. pisi, but they differed in spore color. In a host differential study, 13 pathotypes of M. pinodes were identified from 110 single-spore isolates. Pathotype I was predominant(88 isolates) and virulent on all nine differential genotypes. The other pathotypes(pathotypes II–XIII) were rare(1–6 isolates of each).Comparison of the present results with earlier studies suggests that pathotype I has been prevalent for many years, and that its aggressiveness on the host differentials has increased over time. Emphasis should be placed on breeding for resistance to M. pinodes in field pea cultivars intended for deployment in central Alberta.

  6. Contemporary discourses on violence in Central American newspapers

    OpenAIRE

    Huhn, Sebastian; Oettler, Anika; Peetz, Peter

    2009-01-01

    It is commonly understood that criminal violence has superseded political violence in Central America. Focusing on the social construction of violent realities in Costa Rica, El Salvador and Nicaragua, the authors describe the print media landscape in Central America and examine both the quality of leading newspapers and the main clusters of topics constituting the news discourse on violence. The analysis of the macro-structure of topic management in Central American newspapers allows a diffe...

  7. Characteristics and source of inorganic and organic compounds in the sediments from two hydrothermal fields of the Central Indian and Mid-Atlantic Ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaotong; Li, Jiwei; Zhou, Huaiyang; Wu, Zijun; Li, Jiangtao; Chen, Shun; Yao, Huiqiang

    2011-05-01

    A combined inorganic and organic geochemical study was carried out on sediments collected from the Kairei hydrothermal field on the Central Indian Ridge (CIR) and the Logatchev hydrothermal field on the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Analysis of the major and trace elements as well as the minerals shows that the Kairei hydrothermal sediments are formed by the mixing of silica-rich hydrothermal fluids with Mg-rich seawaters, but the Logatchev sediments are associated with pelagic carbonate oozes containing some precipitates derived from hydrothermal plume fall-out. The rare earth element (REE) patterns of Kairei sediments show a character of light REE (LREE) enrichment and positive Eu anomaly, whereas two of the three Logatchev sediment samples lack positive Eu anomaly and have negative Ce anomaly. Patterns of aliphatic hydrocarbon fractions in the sediments from both hydrothermal fields exhibit high relative concentrations of volatile resolved components, smooth n-alkane distributions and high concentrations of the isoprenoids pristane and phytane. The composition of organic matter and C isotope composition of individual n-alkanes indicate that they come from marine photosynthetic autotrophs and hydrothermal organisms, as well as terrestrial inputs in the Kairei and the Logatchev hydrothermal fields. Several parameters of organic geochemistry, used for assessing the maturity of bitumen, are well correlated with one another. In general, these parameters indicate that the Kairei sediments are more mature than the Logatchev sediments. The relationship between the inorganic parameters (REE/Fe and Eu/Eu ∗) and the organic parameter (bitumen maturity) might reflect changes of the hydrothermal influence on the sediments. The results of this study provide an insight into the variation of inorganic and organic geochemistry in deep-sea hydrothermal systems.

  8. Solar America Cities Awards: Solar America Initiative Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-03-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Solar America Cities activities within the Solar America Initiative and lists the 25 cities that have received financial awards from the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. Integración regional centroamericana de la Educación Superior Pública: escenarios y desafíos / Central america regional integration of the public higher education: challenges and scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Varela, Luis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Se aborda aquí un breve análisis acerca de la globalización y de la sociedad del conocimiento, en su relación con las iniciativas de articulación académica interinstitucional y de integración regional impulsadas por las instituciones de educación superior pública de Centroamérica, a partir de 1995 y en el escenario asociativo del Consejo Superior Universitario Centroamericano (CSUCA. El propósito consiste en identificar elementos que permitan discernir el carácter y los niveles de reconfiguración académica e institucional que, de manera general, las nuevas realidades estructurales en curso acarrean para la educación superior pública de Centroamérica.Abstract:This article develops a brief analysis about globalization and the society of knowledge in terms of the attempts of inter-institutional and regional academic articulation proposed –since 1995- by the Central American institutions of higher education through Consejo Superior Universitario Centroamericano (CSUCA. The principal aim is to identify those elements that could clarify the character and the levels of the academic and institutional reconfiguration that, in a general way, the new ongoing structural realities demand from Central American public higher education.

  10. Geological-economic analysis on the exploration of backup resources for depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field, central-southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the geological-economic evaluation program for pithead heap-leaching mining uranium deposits developed by the authors and the data of column-leaching tests and the geological reserve, the geological-economic evaluation is made to the residual geological reserves of both Lujing and Huangfengling deposit, and the geological reserves of Yangjiaonao deposit of the depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field, central-southern China. The results of static analysis on these reserves show that the residual geological reserves of both Lujing and Huangfengling deposit belong to sub-profitable type, but the ones of Yangjiaonao deposit is profitable with 26.56% tax-before profit. 1 tU profitable type of ore from Yangjiaonao deposit can use 2.40-3.79 tU subprofitable type of ores from Lujing and Huangfengling deposit. In order to solving the problem on scarcity of backup resources of the depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field and using the existing sub-profitable type of geological reserves, it is suggested that the high grade of profitable type of deposits should be explored around the exhausting mines so that the production of the mines could be profitable by the pithead heap-leaching mining method with arrangement groups of both sub-profitable and profitable type of ores. (authors)

  11. Variation of the Earth's magnetic field strength in South America during the last two millennia: New results from historical buildings of Buenos Aires and re-evaluation of regional data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Morales, Juan; Schavelzon, Daniel; Vásquez, Carlos; Gogorza, Claudia S. G.; Loponte, Daniel; Rapalini, Augusto

    2015-08-01

    The causes of the systematic decay of the Earth's Magnetic Field strength since eighteen century have been a matter of debate during the last decade. It is also well known that such variations may have completely different expressions under an area characterized with strong magnetic anomalies, such as the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. To fully understand these atypical phenomena, it is crucial to retrieve the past evolution of Earth's magnetic field beyond the observatory records. We report on detailed rock-magnetic and archeointensity investigations from some well-studied historical buildings of Buenos Aires city, located at the heart of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. Samples consist of bricks, tiles, fireplaces and pottery, which are considered as highly suitable materials for archaeointensity studies. The dating is ascertained by historical documents complemented by archeological constraints. Eighteen out of 26 analyzed samples yield reliable absolute intensity determinations. The site-mean archaeointensity values obtained in this study range from 28.5 to 43.5 μT, with corresponding virtual axial dipole moments (VADMs) ranging from 5.3 to 8.04 × 1022 Am2. Most determinations obtained in the present study are in remarkable agreement with the values predicted by the time varying field model CALS10k.1b (Korte et al., 2011). For the older periods the recently available SHA.DIF.14 model (Pavon-Carrasco et al., 2014) seems to have greater resolution. South American archaeointensity database now includes absolute intensities from 400 to 1930 AD based on 63 selected archaeointensity determinations. The data set reveals several distinct periods of quite large fluctuations of intensity. However, most data are concentrated into a relatively narrow interval from AD 1250 to AD 1450. At the beginning of the record, values between 400 AD and 830 AD match well with ARCH3k.1 model. Some general features may be detected: the time intervals from about AD 400 to 950 and

  12. Mathematical model to determine the dimensions of superconducting cylindrical coils with a given central field - the case study for MgB2 conductors with isotropic Ic(B) characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitel, Jozef; Melišek, Tibor; Tropeano, Matteo; Nardelli, Davide; Tumino, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we present a mathematical model which enables to design cylindrical coils with a given central field, made of the superconducting conductor with isotropic Ic(B) characteristic. The model results in a computer code that enables to find out the coil dimensions, and to calculate the coil parameters such as critical current, maximum field in the winding and field non-uniformity on the coil axis. The Ic(B) characteristic of the conductor is represented by the set of data measured in discrete points. This approach allows us to express the Ic(B) as a function linearized in parts. Then, it is possible to involve the central field of the coil, coil dimensions, and parameters of the conductor, including its Ic(B) characteristic, in one equation which can be solved using ordinary numerical non-linear methods. Since the coil dimensions and conductor parameters are mutually linked in one equation with respect to a given coil central field, it is possible to analyze an influence of one parameter on the other one. The model was applied to three commercially available MgB2/Ni/Cu conductors produced by Columbus Superconductors. The results of simulations with the Ic(B) data at 20 K illustrate that there exists a set of winding geometries that generate a required central field, changing from a disc shape to long thin solenoid. Further, we analyze how the thickness of stabilizing copper influences the coil dimensions, overall conductor length, coil critical current, maximum field in the winding. An influence of the safety coefficient in operating current on coil dimensions and other above mentioned parameters is studied as well. Finally, we compare the coil dimensions, overall conductor length as well as coil critical current and maximum field in the winding if the value of required central field changes between 1 and 3 T.

  13. Boys & Girls Clubs of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Group Teams Up With Boys & Girls Clubs of America to Support Young Alumni Through New Program Engaging ... million national partnership MORE» Boys & Girls Clubs of America Inducts Top Entertainers, Athletes and Business Leaders into ...

  14. Economic integration in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    This pioneering study shows that economic integration in the Americas is not simply a matter of removing trade barriers. Economic Integration in the Americas addresses the pervasive effects of economic integration on the economy as a whole.

  15. America's Children and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search America's Children and the Environment Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us America's Children and the Environment is an EPA report that presents key information ...

  16. Two Visions of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldi, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Since the seventeenth century, there have been two narratives about modernity in general and America in particular. The author uses the term "narrative" to include (a) facts, (b) arguments, and most important, (c) a larger vision of how one sees the world and chooses to engage the world. The first and originalist narrative is the Lockean Liberty…

  17. Only "In America"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Maria Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    As the daughter of an interracial couple growing up in a middle-class town on Long Island in the 1970s, Soledad O'Brien learned not to let inappropriate or racist comments throw her. Now as the anchorwoman of CNN's "In America" documentary unit, she says she asks those uncomfortable questions about race all the time. She shines spotlight on…

  18. Still Teaching for America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronholz, June

    2013-01-01

    In this article, June Kronholz talks to co-chief executives of Teach For America (TFA), Elisa Villanueva Beard and Matt Kramer about how TFA has managed to keep its forward momentum for almost 24 years. Four primary reasons are discussed: (1) Common Vision, Regional Innovation; (2) Data-Driven Improvement; (3) Global Reach; and (4) Stoking the…

  19. An Idea Called America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartoonian, Michael; Van Scotter, Richard; White, William E.

    2007-01-01

    America evolved out of the principles of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment, suggesting that individuals could govern themselves and that people were "endowed" with "unalienable rights" such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. To secure these principles, Americans would continue to work on forming a more perfect Union, by…

  20. Strengthening America's Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Rose; Kumpfer, Karol

    2000-01-01

    Improving parenting practices and the family environment is the most effective, enduring strategy for combating juvenile delinquency. Describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's Strengthening America's Families Initiative. Highlights several family-focused prevention programs identified as exemplary, explaining how they…