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Sample records for centipede scolopendromorphae chilopoda

  1. Epidemiological aspects of centipede (Scolopendromorphae: Chilopoda bites registered in Greater S. Paulo, SP, Brazil

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    Irene Knysak

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The lack of basic knowledge on venomous arthropods and the benignity of the clinical manifestations contribute to the centipede bite victims' not being taken to a treatment reference center, leading to underestimation of the number of cases and minimizing the possibility of a broader epidemiological view. An inventory of the centipede bite occurrences in Greater S. Paulo, Brazil, and the therapeutic methods employed, by the main Brazilian medical center for the notification of poisoning by venomous animals, is presented. METHOD: All patient cards of the period 1980-1989 have been checked as to place, month and time of occurrence; sex, age, affected part of the body, signs and symptoms have been observed, as well as the therapeutic methods employed. The centipedes that caused the accidents were identified at the Arthropods Laboratory. RESULTS: It was registered 216 accidents, with a 69% predominance of the Greater S. Paulo and in only 63% of the cases (136 was the agent brought in by the victim for identification. The genera most frequently represented were Cryptops (58%, Otostigmus (33% and Scolopendra (4%. Of the 136 cases, 87% showed erythema, edema, hemorrhage, burns, cephalalgia, and intense pain. There was a predominance of accidents in the warm rainy season, in the morning and for females between 21 and 60 years of age. Hands and feet were the parts of the body most affected. The benign evolution of the clinical picture (54% made therapeutical treatment unnecessary. Only the victims of Scolopendra and Otostigmus (46% were medicated with anesthetics (51%, analgesics (25%, antihistamines and cortisone (24%. CONCLUSION: The reproductive period of the centipedes, associated with their sinanthropic habits, contributes to the greater incidence of accidents in urban areas in the warm rainy season. Only patients bitten by Scolopendra and Otostigmus require therapeutical treatment.

  2. First molecular data and the phylogenetic position of the millipede-like centipede Edentistoma octosulcatum Tömösváry, 1882 (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae.

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    Varpu Vahtera

    Full Text Available Edentistoma octosulcatum Tömösváry, 1882, is a rare, superficially millipede-like centipede known only from Borneo and the Philippines. It is unique within the order Scolopendromorpha for its slow gait, robust tergites, and highly modified gizzard and mandible morphology. Not much is known about the biology of the species but it has been speculated to be arboreal with a possibly vegetarian diet. Until now its phylogenetic position within the subfamily Otostigminae has been based only on morphological characters, being variably ranked as a monotypic tribe (Arrhabdotini or classified with the Southeast Asian genus Sterropristes Attems, 1934. The first molecular data for E. octosulcatum sourced from a newly collected specimen from Sarawak were analysed with and without morphology. Parsimony analysis of 122 morphological characters together with two nuclear and two mitochondrial loci resolves Edentistoma as sister group to three Indo-Australian species of Rhysida, this clade in turn grouping with Ethmostigmus, whereas maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses of the molecular data on their own ally Edentistoma with species of Otostigmus. A position of Edentistoma within Otostigmini (rather than being its sister group as predicted by the Arrhabdotini hypothesis is consistently retrieved under different analytical conditions, but support values within the subfamily remain low for most nodes. The species exhibits strong pushing behaviour, suggestive of burrowing habits. Evidence against a suggested vegetarian diet is provided by observation of E. octosulcatum feeding on millipedes in the genus Trachelomegalus.

  3. Presencia intradomiciliar del ciempiés Rhysida celeris (Chilopoda: Scolopendridae en el semiárido periurbano del estado Falcón, Venezuela | Intradomiciliar presence of the centipede Rhysida celeris (Chilopoda: Scolopendridae in periurban semiarid region of Falcón state, Venezuela

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    Dalmiro Cazorla-Perfetti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the centipede Rhysida celeris (Humbert y Saussure, 1870 (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae: Otostigminae is recorded for the first time captured into a bathroom in a dwelling of periurban area of the city of Coro, semiarid north-western region, Falcon state, Venezuela. Details of its morphology, taxonomy and geographical distribution, are described and discussed.

  4. Millipedes and centipedes in German greenhouses (Myriapoda: Diplopoda, Chilopoda

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    Peter Decker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A review is given of all the literature records of millipedes and centipedes that have been found in German greenhouses together with additional records for 29 such sites. Species lists are given for 46 greenhouses investigated throughout Germany. Thirty-five diplopod and 18 chilopod species were found to occur in greenhouses, of which 15 (3 Chilopoda, 12 Diplopoda are restricted to this type of habitat. First records for Germany include Anadenobolus monilicornis (Porat, 1876, Epinannolene cf. trinidadensis Chamberlin, 1918, Epinannolene sp., Mesoiulus gridellii Strasser, 1934, Leptogoniulus sorornus (Butler, 1876, Rhinotus purpureus (Pocock, 1894, Cryptops doriae Pocock, 1891, Lamyctes coeculus (Brölemann, 1889 and Tygarrup javanicus (Attems, 1907. The millipedes Oxidus gracilis (C. L. Koch, 1847 and Amphitomeus attemsi (Schubart, 1934 and the centipedes Lithobius forficatus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Cryptops hortensis (Donovan, 1810 are the species most frequently found in greenhouses.

  5. Impact of windstorm on a community of centipedes (Chilopoda) in a beech forest in Western Poland.

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    Leśniewska, Małgorzata; Skwierczyński, Filip

    2018-01-01

    The study was carried out in the years 2016-2017, five years after a windstorm which destroyed 1/3 of the protected beech forest area in the west of Poland. The community of centipedes in the area affected by the windstorm was depleted in terms of the species richness, diversity, and population density. The dominance structures were shortened and the species composition was rebuilt. The areas that proved to be the richest in terms of species richness and diversity among the sites affected by the windstorm were the one where windfallen trees were left and the other where beech trees had been planted by humans. In total, the quantitative and qualitative samples collected four times throughout a year featured 608 specimens from 11 species of two centipede orders - Lithobiomorpha and Geophilomorpha. Lithobius curtipes and L. forficatus were found in all of the investigated areas. L. pelidnus and L. piceus were captured at control sites exclusively. Only one species - L. erythrocephalus was found solely at the damaged site. The most numerous and most frequently found species in the community were L. curtipes , L. mutabilis , and Strigamia acuminata respectively. Although windstorms are natural phenomena their consequences may lead to significant changes in the community of the investigated soil animals. The importance of coarse woody debris, significantly contributing to the improvement and maintenance of species richness and diversity of Chilopoda, has once again been confirmed.

  6. ChiloKey, an interactive identification tool for the geophilomorph centipedes of Europe (Chilopoda, Geophilomorpha).

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    Bonato, Lucio; Minelli, Alessandro; Lopresti, Massimo; Cerretti, Pierfilippo

    2014-01-01

    ChiloKey is a matrix-based, interactive key to all 179 species of Geophilomorpha (Chilopoda) recorded from Europe, including species of uncertain identity and those whose morphology is known partially only. The key is intended to assist in identification of subadult and adult specimens, by means of microscopy and simple dissection techniques whenever necessary. The key is freely available through the web at: http://www.biologia.unipd.it/chilokey/ and at http://www.interactive-keys.eu/chilokey/.

  7. A new high-altitude species of centipede from the Andes of Ecuador (Chilopoda, Geophilomorpha, Schendylidae).

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    Pereira, Luis Alberto

    2018-01-18

    Pectiniunguis aequatorialis sp. nov. (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Schendylidae) is described and illustrated on the basis of specimens collected in the Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve in the High Andes of Ecuador. The new species is characterized by having ventral pore-fields on the anterior region of the trunk only, a trait that is shared by a single Neotropical congener: Pectiniunguis ascendens Pereira, Minelli Barbieri, 1994 to which it is similar and is compared taxonomically. This is only the second report of a species of the genus Pectiniunguis Bollman, 1889 from mainland Ecuador. The other taxon is Pectiniunguis roigi Pereira, Foddai Minelli, 2001, so far only known from the type locality, Limoncocha (Sucumbíos Province), and herein reported for the first time from Parque Nacional Sumaco Napo-Galeras (Napo Province).

  8. Type specimens of centipedes (Myriapoda, Chilopoda in the National Museum, Prague (Czech Republic

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    Petr Dolejš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The centipede collection in the National Museum in Prague contains type material of 16 taxa (14 species and two subspecies, of which 15 were described by Luděk J. Dobroruka and one by Karl W. Verhoeff: Allothereua wilsonae Dobroruka, 1979; Chinobius alenae Dobroruka, 1980; Lithobius corrigendus Dobroruka, 1988; L. creticus Dobroruka, 1977; L. erythrocephalus mohelensis Dobroruka, 1959; L. evae Dobroruka, 1958; L. magurensis Dobroruka, 1971; L. purkynei Dobroruka, 1957; L. tatricus Dobroruka, 1958; L. tatricus monounguis Dobroruka, 1958; Monotarsobius homolaci Dobroruka, 1971; M. krali Dobroruka, 1979; Pachymerium dilottiae Dobroruka, 1976; P. hanzaki Dobroruka, 1976; Scolopendra aztecorum Verhoeff, 1934 and Strigamia olympica Dobroruka, 1977. Of these 16 taxa, five were described from the Czech Republic, three from Slovakia and eight from other countries (Greece, Iraq, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Nepal, Russia and Uzbekistan. The eight taxa described from the Czech and Slovak Republics are now considered as junior synonyms but the eight taxa described from the other countries are still valid.

  9. Revision of the rare centipede genus Sterropristes Attems, 1934, with description of a new species from Thailand (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae)

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    Muadsub, Sawitree; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Pimvichai, Piyatida

    2012-01-01

    (type species of Sterropristes) and S.metallicus (Verhoeff, 1937) from Penang Hill, Penang, Malaysia (type species of Malaccolabis) are redescribed based on their type material, together with newly collected topotypes of S. metallicus. Sterropristes violaceus Muadsub and Panha n. sp., found under leaves...

  10. A further contribution to the knowledge of two inadequately known species of geophilid centipedes from the Andes of South-Central Chile, currently assigned to the genus Plateurytion Attems, 1909 (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha).

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    Pereira, Luis Alberto

    2015-10-06

    Two poorly known species of geophilid centipedes from the Andes of South-Central Chile, i.e., Plateurytion mundus (Chamberlin, 1955) and Plateurytion zapallar (Chamberlin, 1955) (Myriapoda: Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha), are herein redescribed and illustrated after type specimens of both taxa and new material of the latter, rectifying the condition of the coxosternites of the second maxillae, which are medially joined through a narrow, hyaline and non-areolate membranous isthmus only (instead of "broadly fused as in Pachymerium", as stated by Chamberlin), this being consistent with the current generic assignment of these species under Plateurytion Attems, 1909. New data on many morphological features of specific value, until now unknown, are also given for both taxa. Plateurytion zapallar is reported for the first time from Coquimbo region, 11 Km N of Los Vilos (Elqui province), Valparaíso region, Quebrada Huaquén, Pichicuy (Petorca province), La Campana National Park (Quillota province), and Quebrada el Tigre, Cachagua (Valparíso province). A key for identification of the South American species currently included in Plateurytion is given.

  11. Resurrection of Scolopendra longipes Wood and Scolopendra cubensis Saussure from synonymy with Scolopendra alternans Leach (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae): an enigmatic species-group needing phylogeographic analysis, with an overview on the origin and distribution of centipedes in the Caribbean region.

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    Mercurio, Randy J

    2016-05-12

    Resurrection of Scolopendra longipes Wood, 1862, and Scolopendra cubensis Saussure, 1860, from junior synonymy with Scolopendra alternans Leach, 1815, is proposed. A neotype specimen of Scolopendra longipes is designated. Scolopendra longipes has a restricted range from the Dry Tortugas up through the Florida Keys of Monroe County into the mainland Florida counties of Collier and Dade southeast to the Bahamas, while Scolopendra cubensis is endemic to Cuba. Characters distinguishing S. longipes, and S. cubensis from S. alternans are illustrated and compared using digital photography, micrography and morphometric data. It is suggested that what has been considered Scolopendra alternans from southern Florida through the Caribbean and into northern South America is probably an evolving species-group that has undergone major diversification sometime during the Paleocene and early Eocene ~65.5-50 million years ago (Ma), mainly due to geographic isolation caused by a combination of plate tectonics and 100,000 year cycles of glaciation/deglaciation.

  12. An annotated checklist of the Chilopoda and Diplopoda (Myriapoda) of the Abrau Peninsula, northwestern Caucasus, Russia

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    Semenyuk, Irina I.; Tuf, Ivan H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Abrau Peninsula is located in northwestern Caucasus between the cities of Novorossiysk and Anapa, Krasnodar Province, Russia. This paper contains an annotated checklist of the Chilopoda and Diplopoda inhabiting the Abrau Peninsula. New information The fauna of the Abrau Peninsula comprises 17 centipede (4 orders) and 16 millipede (6 orders) species. Henia taurica, hitherto known only from the Crimea, has now been reported from several localities in the studied region. The study also reveals two possibly new millipede species. Statistical analyses showed that habitat preferences of myriapod species within the Abrau Peninsula are caused by species geographic distribution pattern and microbiotope preferences. PMID:27346949

  13. Hinkler Well - Centipede uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabb, D.; Dudley, R.; Mann, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Hinkler Well - Centipede deposits are near the northeastern margin of the Archean Yilgarn Block on a drainage system entering Lake Way. Basement rocks are granitoids and greenstones. The rocks are deeply weathered and overlain by alluvism. Granitoids, the probable uranium source, currently contain up to 25 ppm uranium, in spite of the weathering. The host calcrete body is 33 km long and 2 km wide. Uranium up to 1000 ppm occurs in carnotite over a 15 km by 2.5 km area. (author)

  14. Quantum centipedes with strong global constraint

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    Grange, Pascal

    2017-06-01

    A centipede made of N quantum walkers on a one-dimensional lattice is considered. The distance between two consecutive legs is either one or two lattice spacings, and a global constraint is imposed: the maximal distance between the first and last leg is N  +  1. This is the strongest global constraint compatible with walking. For an initial value of the wave function corresponding to a localized configuration at the origin, the probability law of the first leg of the centipede can be expressed in closed form in terms of Bessel functions. The dispersion relation and the group velocities are worked out exactly. Their maximal group velocity goes to zero when N goes to infinity, which is in contrast with the behaviour of group velocities of quantum centipedes without global constraint, which were recently shown by Krapivsky, Luck and Mallick to give rise to ballistic spreading of extremal wave-front at non-zero velocity in the large-N limit. The corresponding Hamiltonians are implemented numerically, based on a block structure of the space of configurations corresponding to compositions of the integer N. The growth of the maximal group velocity when the strong constraint is gradually relaxed is explored, and observed to be linear in the density of gaps allowed in the configurations. Heuristic arguments are presented to infer that the large-N limit of the globally constrained model can yield finite group velocities provided the allowed number of gaps is a finite fraction of N.

  15. Centipede Venoms and Their Components: Resources for Potential Therapeutic Applications

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    Md Abdul Hakim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Venomous animals have evolved with sophisticated bio-chemical strategies to arrest prey and defend themselves from natural predators. In recent years, peptide toxins from venomous animals have drawn considerable attention from researchers due to their surprising chemical, biochemical, and pharmacological diversity. Similar to other venomous animals, centipedes are one of the crucial venomous arthropods that have been used in traditional medicine for hundreds of years in China. Despite signifying pharmacological importance, very little is known about the active components of centipede venoms. More than 500 peptide sequences have been reported in centipede venomous glands by transcriptome analysis, but only a small number of peptide toxins from centipede has been functionally described. Like other venomous animals such as snakes, scorpions, and spiders, the venom of centipedes could be an excellent source of peptides for developing drugs for treatments as well as bio-insecticides for agrochemical applications. Although centipede venoms are yet to be adequately studied, the venom of centipedes as well as their components described to date, should be compiled to help further research. Therefore, based on previous reports, this review focusses on findings and possible therapeutic applications of centipede venoms as well as their components.

  16. Ultrastructure of the salivary glands in Lithobius forficatus (Myriapoda, Chilopoda, Lithobiidae) according to seasonal and circadian rhythms.

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    Kamińska, K; Włodarczyk, A; Sonakowska, L; Ostróżka, A; Marchewka, A; Rost-Roszkowska, M

    2016-11-01

    The salivary glands (mandibular epidermal glands) of adult males and females of Lithobius forficatus (Myriapoda, Chilopoda) were isolated during spring, summer and autumn. In addition, the organs were isolated at different times of the day - at about 12:00 (noon) and about 00:00 (midnight). The ultrastructure of these organs depending on seasonal and circadian rhythms was analyzed using transmission and scanning electron microscopy and histochemical methods. The paired salivary glands of L. forficatus are situated in the vicinity of the foregut and they are formed by numerous acini that are surrounded by the fat body, hemocytes and tracheolae. The salivary glands are composed of a terminal acinar component and a system of tubular ducts that are lined with a cuticle. The glandular part is composed of secretory epithelial cells that are at various stages of their secretory activity. The saliva that is produced by the secretory cells of the acini is secreted into the salivary ducts, which are lined with a simple epithelium that is based on the non-cellular basal lamina. The ultrastructural variations suggest that salivary glands function differently depending on seasonal rhythms and prepare the animal for overwintering. Therefore, the salivary glands of the centipedes that were analyzed participate in the accumulation of proteins, lipids and polysaccharides during the spring, summer and autumn. Subtle differences in the ultrastructure of the secretory cells of the salivary glands during the circadian cycle must be related to the physiological reactions of the organism. The salivary ducts showed no differences in the specimens that were analyzed during the day/night cycle or during the seasonal cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Peptidomics combined with cDNA library unravel the diversity of centipede venom

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    Rong, Mingqiang; Yang, Shilong; Wen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    of centipede venom. In the present study, we use peptidomics combined with cDNA library to uncover the diversity of centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans L. Koch. 192 peptides were identified by LC-MS/MS and 79 precursors were deduced by cDNA library. Surprisingly, the signal peptides of centipede toxins...

  18. Hay-bait traps are a useful tool for sampling of soil dwelling millipedes and centipedes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tuf, I. H.; Chmelík, V.; Dobroruka, I.; Habová, L.; Hudcová, P.; Šipoš, Jan; Stašiov, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 510 (2015), s. 197-207 ISSN 1313-2989 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : chilopoda * populations * diplopoda * Diplopoda * Chilopoda * soil sampling * agroecosystem * soil fauna Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2015

  19. Comparative analysis of deutocerebral neuropils in Chilopoda (Myriapoda: implications for the evolution of the arthropod olfactory system and support for the Mandibulata concept

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    Sombke Andy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Originating from a marine ancestor, the myriapods most likely invaded land independently of the hexapods. As these two evolutionary lineages conquered land in parallel but separately, we are interested in comparing the myriapod chemosensory system to that of hexapods to gain insights into possible adaptations for olfaction in air. Our study connects to a previous analysis of the brain and behavior of the chilopod (centipede Scutigera coleoptrata in which we demonstrated that these animals do respond to volatile substances and analyzed the structure of their central olfactory pathway. Results Here, we examined the architecture of the deutocerebral brain areas (which process input from the antennae in seven additional representatives of the Chilopoda, covering all major subtaxa, by histology, confocal laser-scan microscopy, and 3D reconstruction. We found that in all species that we studied the majority of antennal afferents target two separate neuropils, the olfactory lobe (chemosensory, composed of glomerular neuropil compartments and the corpus lamellosum (mechanosensory. The numbers of olfactory glomeruli in the different chilopod taxa ranged from ca. 35 up to ca. 90 and the shape of the glomeruli ranged from spheroid across ovoid or drop-shape to elongate. Conclusion A split of the afferents from the (first pair of antennae into separate chemosensory and mechanosensory components is also typical for Crustacea and Hexapoda, but this set of characters is absent in Chelicerata. We suggest that this character set strongly supports the Mandibulata hypothesis (Myriapoda + (Crustacea + Hexapoda as opposed to the Myriochelata concept (Myriapoda + Chelicerata. The evolutionary implications of our findings, particularly the plasticity of glomerular shape, are discussed.

  20. Quantum centipedes: collective dynamics of interacting quantum walkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapivsky, P L; Luck, J M; Mallick, K

    2016-01-01

    We consider the quantum centipede made of N fermionic quantum walkers on the one-dimensional lattice interacting by means of the simplest of all hard-bound constraints: the distance between two consecutive fermions is either one or two lattice spacings. This composite quantum walker spreads ballistically, just as the simple quantum walk. However, because of the interactions between the internal degrees of freedom, the distribution of its center-of-mass velocity displays numerous ballistic fronts in the long-time limit, corresponding to singularities in the empirical velocity distribution. The spectrum of the centipede and the corresponding group velocities are analyzed by direct means for the first few values of N . Some analytical results are obtained for arbitrary N by exploiting an exact mapping of the problem onto a free-fermion system. We thus derive the maximal velocity describing the ballistic spreading of the two extremal fronts of the centipede wavefunction, including its non-trivial value in the large- N limit. (paper)

  1. Antimicrobial peptides in the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans.

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    Yoo, Won Gi; Lee, Joon Ha; Shin, Younhee; Shim, Jae-Young; Jung, Myunghee; Kang, Byeong-Chul; Oh, Jaedon; Seong, Jiyeon; Lee, Hak Kyo; Kong, Hong Sik; Song, Ki-Duk; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, In-Woo; Kwon, Young-Nam; Lee, Dong Gun; Hwang, Ui-Wook; Park, Junhyung; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2014-06-01

    The centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans is an environmentally beneficial and medically important arthropod species. Although this species is increasingly applied as a reliable source of new antimicrobial peptides, the transcriptome of this species is a prerequisite for more rational selection of antimicrobial peptides. In this report, we isolated total RNA from the whole body of adult centipedes, S. subspinipes mutilans, that were nonimmunized and immunized against Escherichia coli, and we generated a total of 77,063 pooled contigs and singletons using high-throughput sequencing. To screen putative antimicrobial peptides, in silico analyses of the S. subspinipes mutilans transcriptome were performed based on the physicochemical evidence of length, charge, isoelectric point, and in vitro and in vivo aggregation scores together with the existence of continuous antimicrobial peptide stretches. Moreover, we excluded some transcripts that showed similarity with both previously known antimicrobial peptides and the human proteome, had a proteolytic cleavage site, and had downregulated expression compared with the nonimmunized sample. As a result, we selected 17 transcripts and tested their antimicrobial activity with a radial diffusion assay. Among them, ten synthetic peptides experimentally showed antimicrobial activity against microbes and no toxicity to mouse erythrocytes. Our results provide not only a useful set of antimicrobial peptide candidates and an efficient strategy for novel antimicrobial peptide development but also the transcriptome data of a big centipede as a valuable resource.

  2. Scolopendromorpha associados a termitários de Constrictotermes cyphergaster Silvestri (Isoptera: Termitidae na Chapada do Araripe, Ceará, Brasil

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    Raul Azevedo

    2018-04-01

    Abstract. Abandoned termites allow predators species like spiders and scolopendromorphs use it for forage or refuge. This note reports an occurrence of five Scolopendromorpha species associated indoor and outdoor of sixty abandoned Constrictortermes cyphergaster Silvestri nests on rainy and dry season of 2016. The nest were collected indoor Parque Estadual Sítio Fundão, Crato, Ceará, Araripe Plateau, Northeast Brazil. Exemplars of four Scolopendromorpha species were collected associated to 12 nests of C. cyphergaster: Newportia balzanii (Silvestri, Newportia maxima Bücherl, Cryptops sp., e Schendylidae. Around the nests, it was collected Scolopocrytops piauhyensi (Chamberlinand Cryptops sp. by pitfall trap along the rainy and dry season of 2016. The species collected increase their geographical distribution and places they can be found.

  3. Social Value Induction and Cooperation in the Centipede Game.

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    Briony D Pulford

    Full Text Available The Centipede game provides a dynamic model of cooperation and competition in repeated dyadic interactions. Two experiments investigated psychological factors driving cooperation in 20 rounds of a Centipede game with significant monetary incentives and anonymous and random re-pairing of players after every round. The main purpose of the research was to determine whether the pattern of strategic choices observed when no specific social value orientation is experimentally induced--the standard condition in all previous investigations of behavior in the Centipede and most other experimental games--is essentially individualistic, the orthodox game-theoretic assumption being that players are individualistically motivated in the absence of any specific motivational induction. Participants in whom no specific state social value orientation was induced exhibited moderately non-cooperative play that differed significantly from the pattern found when an individualistic orientation was induced. In both experiments, the neutral treatment condition, in which no orientation was induced, elicited competitive behavior resembling behavior in the condition in which a competitive orientation was explicitly induced. Trait social value orientation, measured with a questionnaire, influenced cooperation differently depending on the experimentally induced state social value orientation. Cooperative trait social value orientation was a significant predictor of cooperation and, to a lesser degree, experimentally induced competitive orientation was a significant predictor of non-cooperation. The experimental results imply that the standard assumption of individualistic motivation in experimental games may not be valid, and that the results of such investigations need to take into account the possibility that players are competitively motivated.

  4. Discovery of an Exotic Population of Thereuonema tuberculata (Chilopoda:Scutigeromorpha), the Japanese House Centipede, in Ohio, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-28

    and small animals . The Epidemiology Consult Service in the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine houses an entomology section with one... carcass had already been discarded. On subsequent weeks from 28 Apr. until 10 June 2016, building #840 and other neighboring buildings were searched for...RAFINESQUE, C. S. 1820. Annals of nature or annual synopsis of new genera and species of animals and plants discovered in North America. First Ann

  5. Apoptosis and necrosis during the circadian cycle in the centipede midgut

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rost-Roszkowska, M.M.; Chajec, Ł.; Vilímová, J.; Tajovský, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 253, č. 4 (2016), s. 1051-1061 ISSN 0033-183X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cell death * centipede * digestive cells * midgut epithelium * ultrastructure Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2016

  6. Does autophagy in the midgut epithelium of centipedes depend on the day/night cycle?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rost-Roszkowska, M.M.; Chajec, Ł.; Vilímová, J.; Tajovský, Karel; Kszuk-Jendrysik, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 68, January (2015), s. 130-139 ISSN 0968-4328 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : centipede * midgut epithelium * digestive cells * ultrastructure * autophagy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2015

  7. Stonožky (Chilopoda) hnědouhelných výsypek na Sokolovsku

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voženílková, K.; Tajovský, Karel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2001), s. 81-84 ISSN 1213-4732 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : Centipedes * colliery spoil heaps * succession Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  8. Cesium-134 and strontium-85 turnover rates in the centipede Scolopocryptops nigridia McNeill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, L.R.; Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1979-07-01

    Radioactive tracers are providing significant information about the ecology of food chains, including such phenomena as accumulation of radioactive fission products, movement of materials along food chains, assimilation and ingestion rates, and nutrient accumulation and turnover. In this study the ingestion, assimilation and turnover to two radioactive tracers were investigated for Scolopocryptops nigridia, an abundant species in forests of the southeastern United States. The two tracers utilized, cesium-134 and strontium-85, are metabolic analogs of potassium and calcium, respectively. The research was performed as part of a larger investigation on the population ecology of the centipede species, emphasizing its relations to nutrient cycling and energy flow in a forest floor system

  9. The first myriapod genome sequence reveals conservative arthropod gene content and genome organisation in the centipede Strigamia maritima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chipman, Ariel D; Ferrier, David E K; Brena, Carlo; Qu, Jiaxin; Hughes, Daniel S T; Schröder, Reinhard; Torres-Oliva, Montserrat; Znassi, Nadia; Jiang, Huaiyang; Almeida, Francisca C; Alonso, Claudio R; Apostolou, Zivkos; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Arthur, Wallace; Barna, Jennifer C J; Blankenburg, Kerstin P; Brites, Daniela; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Coyle, Marcus; Dearden, Peter K; Du Pasquier, Louis; Duncan, Elizabeth J; Ebert, Dieter; Eibner, Cornelius; Erikson, Galina; Evans, Peter D; Extavour, Cassandra G; Francisco, Liezl; Gabaldón, Toni; Gillis, William J; Goodwin-Horn, Elizabeth A; Green, Jack E; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Gubbala, Sai; Guigó, Roderic; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; Havlak, Paul; Hayden, Luke; Helbing, Sophie; Holder, Michael; Hui, Jerome H L; Hunn, Julia P; Hunnekuhl, Vera S; Jackson, LaRonda; Javaid, Mehwish; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Jiggins, Francis M; Jones, Tamsin E; Kaiser, Tobias S; Kalra, Divya; Kenny, Nathan J; Korchina, Viktoriya; Kovar, Christie L; Kraus, F Bernhard; Lapraz, François; Lee, Sandra L; Lv, Jie; Mandapat, Christigale; Manning, Gerard; Mariotti, Marco; Mata, Robert; Mathew, Tittu; Neumann, Tobias; Newsham, Irene; Ngo, Dinh N; Ninova, Maria; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Ongeri, Fiona; Palmer, William J; Patil, Shobha; Patraquim, Pedro; Pham, Christopher; Pu, Ling-Ling; Putman, Nicholas H; Rabouille, Catherine; Ramos, Olivia Mendivil; Rhodes, Adelaide C; Robertson, Helen E; Robertson, Hugh M; Ronshaugen, Matthew; Rozas, Julio; Saada, Nehad; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Scherer, Steven E; Schurko, Andrew M; Siggens, Kenneth W; Simmons, DeNard; Stief, Anna; Stolle, Eckart; Telford, Maximilian J; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin; Thornton, Rebecca; van der Zee, Maurijn; von Haeseler, Arndt; Williams, James M; Willis, Judith H; Wu, Yuanqing; Zou, Xiaoyan; Lawson, Daniel; Muzny, Donna M; Worley, Kim C; Gibbs, Richard A; Akam, Michael; Richards, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present

  10. XX/XY System of Sex Determination in the Geophilomorph Centipede Strigamia maritima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack E Green

    Full Text Available We show that the geophilomorph centipede Strigamia maritima possesses an XX/XY system of sex chromosomes, with males being the heterogametic sex. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of sex chromosomes in any geophilomorph centipede. Using the recently assembled Strigamia genome sequence, we identified a set of scaffolds differentially represented in male and female DNA sequence. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we confirmed that three candidate X chromosome-derived scaffolds are present at approximately twice the copy number in females as in males. Furthermore, we confirmed that six candidate Y chromosome-derived scaffolds contain male-specific sequences. Finally, using this molecular information, we designed an X chromosome-specific DNA probe and performed fluorescent in situ hybridization against mitotic and meiotic chromosome spreads to identify the Strigamia XY sex-chromosome pair cytologically. We found that the X and Y chromosomes are recognizably different in size during the early pachytene stage of meiosis, and exhibit incomplete and delayed pairing.

  11. Competitive Centipede Games: Zero-End Payoffs and Payoff Inequality Deter Reciprocal Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M. Krockow

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reciprocal cooperation can be studied in the Centipede game, in which two players alternate in choosing between a cooperative GO move and a non-cooperative STOP move. GO sustains the interaction and increases the player pair’s total payoff while incurring a small personal cost; STOP terminates the interaction with a favorable payoff to the defector. We investigated cooperation in four Centipede games differing in their payoffs at the game’s end (positive versus zero and payoff difference between players (moderate versus high difference. The games shared the same game-theoretic solution, therefore they should have elicited identical decision patterns, according to orthodox game theory. Nevertheless, both zero-end payoffs and high payoff inequality were found to reduce cooperation significantly. Contrary to previous predictions, combining these two factors in one game resulted in a slight weakening of their independent deterrent effects. These findings show that small changes in the payoff function have large and significant effects on cooperation, and that the effects do not combine synergistically.

  12. Centipede assemblages along an urbanization gradient in the city of Heraklion, Crete (Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Papastefanou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Global urbanization is a major force that causes alteration and loss of natural habitats. Urban ecosystems are strongly affected by humans and there is a gradient of decreasing human influence from city centers to natural habitats. To study ecological changes along this continuum, researchers introduced the urban-rural gradient approach. The responses of centipedes to an urbanization gradient (urban-suburban-rural areas were studied using pitfall traps in and near the city of Heraklion, in the island of Crete, Greece, from November 2010 to November 2011. Our results do not support the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, in which suburban areas located in the transitional zone between urban and rural habitats failed to indicate significant increase in terms of species richness and diversity.

  13. Does autophagy in the midgut epithelium of centipedes depend on the day/night cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost-Roszkowska, M M; Chajec, Ł; Vilimova, J; Tajovský, K; Kszuk-Jendrysik, M

    2015-01-01

    The midgut epithelium of two centipedes, Lithobius forficatus and Scolopendra cingulata, is composed of digestive, secretory and regenerative cells. In L. forficatus, the autophagy occurred only in the cytoplasm of the digestive cells as a sporadic process, while in S. cingulata, it occurred intensively in the digestive, secretory and regenerative cells of the midgut epithelium. In both of the species that were analyzed, this process proceeded in a continuous manner and did not depend on the day/night cycle. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the autophagosomes and autolysosomes were located mainly in the apical and perinuclear cytoplasm of the digestive cells in L. forficatus. However, in S. cingulata, the entire cytoplasm was filled with autophagosomes and autolysosomes. Initially the membranes of phagophores surround organelles during autophagosome formation. Autolysosomes result from the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes. Residual bodies which are the last stage of autophagy were released into the midgut lumen due to necrosis. Autophagy in the midgut epithelia that were analyzed was confirmed using acid phosphatase and mono-dansyl-cadaverine stainings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Insects, arachnids and centipedes venom: A powerful weapon against bacteria. A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratini, Filippo; Cilia, Giovanni; Turchi, Barbara; Felicioli, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    Currently, new antimicrobial molecules extracted or obtained by natural sources, could be a valide alternative to traditional antibiotics. Most of these molecules are represented by antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are essential compounds of insect, arachnids and centipedes venom. AMPs, due to their strong effectiveness, low resistance rates and peculiar mode of action, seem to have all the suitable features to be a powerful weapon against several bacteria, especially considering the increasing antibiotic-resistance phenomena. The present literature review focuses on the antibacterial activity of bee, wasp, ant, scorpion, spider and scolopendra crude venom and of their main biological active compounds. After a brief overview of each animal and venom use in folkloristic medicine, this review reports, in a comprehensive table, the results obtained by the most relevant and recent researches carried out on the antibacterial activity of different venom and their AMPs. For each considered study, the table summarizes data concerning minimal inhibitory concentration values, minimal bactericidal concentration values, the methods employed, scientific name and common names and provenience of animal species from which the crude venom and its respective compounds were obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamic probability of reinforcement for cooperation: Random game termination in the centipede game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krockow, Eva M; Colman, Andrew M; Pulford, Briony D

    2018-03-01

    Experimental games have previously been used to study principles of human interaction. Many such games are characterized by iterated or repeated designs that model dynamic relationships, including reciprocal cooperation. To enable the study of infinite game repetitions and to avoid endgame effects of lower cooperation toward the final game round, investigators have introduced random termination rules. This study extends previous research that has focused narrowly on repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games by conducting a controlled experiment of two-player, random termination Centipede games involving probabilistic reinforcement and characterized by the longest decision sequences reported in the empirical literature to date (24 decision nodes). Specifically, we assessed mean exit points and cooperation rates, and compared the effects of four different termination rules: no random game termination, random game termination with constant termination probability, random game termination with increasing termination probability, and random game termination with decreasing termination probability. We found that although mean exit points were lower for games with shorter expected game lengths, the subjects' cooperativeness was significantly reduced only in the most extreme condition with decreasing computer termination probability and an expected game length of two decision nodes. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  16. msCentipede: Modeling Heterogeneity across Genomic Sites and Replicates Improves Accuracy in the Inference of Transcription Factor Binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Raj

    Full Text Available Understanding global gene regulation depends critically on accurate annotation of regulatory elements that are functional in a given cell type. CENTIPEDE, a powerful, probabilistic framework for identifying transcription factor binding sites from tissue-specific DNase I cleavage patterns and genomic sequence content, leverages the hypersensitivity of factor-bound chromatin and the information in the DNase I spatial cleavage profile characteristic of each DNA binding protein to accurately infer functional factor binding sites. However, the model for the spatial profile in this framework fails to account for the substantial variation in the DNase I cleavage profiles across different binding sites. Neither does it account for variation in the profiles at the same binding site across multiple replicate DNase I experiments, which are increasingly available. In this work, we introduce new methods, based on multi-scale models for inhomogeneous Poisson processes, to account for such variation in DNase I cleavage patterns both within and across binding sites. These models account for the spatial structure in the heterogeneity in DNase I cleavage patterns for each factor. Using DNase-seq measurements assayed in a lymphoblastoid cell line, we demonstrate the improved performance of this model for several transcription factors by comparing against the Chip-seq peaks for those factors. Finally, we explore the effects of DNase I sequence bias on inference of factor binding using a simple extension to our framework that allows for a more flexible background model. The proposed model can also be easily applied to paired-end ATAC-seq and DNase-seq data. msCentipede, a Python implementation of our algorithm, is available at http://rajanil.github.io/msCentipede.

  17. msCentipede: Modeling Heterogeneity across Genomic Sites and Replicates Improves Accuracy in the Inference of Transcription Factor Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anil; Shim, Heejung; Gilad, Yoav; Pritchard, Jonathan K; Stephens, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Understanding global gene regulation depends critically on accurate annotation of regulatory elements that are functional in a given cell type. CENTIPEDE, a powerful, probabilistic framework for identifying transcription factor binding sites from tissue-specific DNase I cleavage patterns and genomic sequence content, leverages the hypersensitivity of factor-bound chromatin and the information in the DNase I spatial cleavage profile characteristic of each DNA binding protein to accurately infer functional factor binding sites. However, the model for the spatial profile in this framework fails to account for the substantial variation in the DNase I cleavage profiles across different binding sites. Neither does it account for variation in the profiles at the same binding site across multiple replicate DNase I experiments, which are increasingly available. In this work, we introduce new methods, based on multi-scale models for inhomogeneous Poisson processes, to account for such variation in DNase I cleavage patterns both within and across binding sites. These models account for the spatial structure in the heterogeneity in DNase I cleavage patterns for each factor. Using DNase-seq measurements assayed in a lymphoblastoid cell line, we demonstrate the improved performance of this model for several transcription factors by comparing against the Chip-seq peaks for those factors. Finally, we explore the effects of DNase I sequence bias on inference of factor binding using a simple extension to our framework that allows for a more flexible background model. The proposed model can also be easily applied to paired-end ATAC-seq and DNase-seq data. msCentipede, a Python implementation of our algorithm, is available at http://rajanil.github.io/msCentipede.

  18. Ancestral patterning of tergite formation in a centipede suggests derived mode of trunk segmentation in trilobites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ortega-Hernández

    Full Text Available Trilobites have a rich and abundant fossil record, but little is known about the intrinsic mechanisms that orchestrate their body organization. To date, there is disagreement regarding the correspondence, or lack thereof, of the segmental units that constitute the trilobite trunk and their associated exoskeletal elements. The phylogenetic position of trilobites within total-group Euarthropoda, however, allows inferences about the underlying organization in these extinct taxa to be made, as some of the fundamental genetic processes for constructing the trunk segments are remarkably conserved among living arthropods. One example is the expression of the segment polarity gene engrailed, which at embryonic and early postembryonic stages is expressed in extant panarthropods (i.e. tardigrades, onychophorans, euarthropods as transverse stripes that define the posteriormost region of each trunk segment. Due to its conservative morphology and allegedly primitive trunk tagmosis, we have utilized the centipede Strigamia maritima to study the correspondence between the expression of engrailed during late embryonic to postembryonic stages, and the development of the dorsal exoskeletal plates (i.e. tergites. The results corroborate the close correlation between the formation of the tergite borders and the dorsal expression of engrailed, and suggest that this association represents a symplesiomorphy within Euarthropoda. This correspondence between the genetic and phenetic levels enables making accurate inferences about the dorsoventral expression domains of engrailed in the trunk of exceptionally preserved trilobites and their close relatives, and is suggestive of the widespread occurrence of a distinct type of genetic segmental mismatch in these extinct arthropods. The metameric organization of the digestive tract in trilobites provides further support to this new interpretation. The wider evolutionary implications of these findings suggest the presence of a

  19. Population genetic structure of a centipede species with high levels of developmental instability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Fusco

    Full Text Available European populations of the geophilomorph centipede Haplophilus subterraneus show a high proportion of individuals with morphological anomalies, suggesting high levels of developmental instability. The broad geographic distribution of this phenomenon seems to exclude local environmental causes, but the source of instability is still to be identified. The goal of the present study was to collect quantitative data on the occurrence of phenodeviants in different populations, along with data on the patterns of genetic variation within and between populations, in order to investigate possible association between developmental instability and genetic features. In a sample of 11 populations of H. subterraneus, distributed in western and central Europe, we looked for phenodeviants, in particular with respect to trunk morphology, and studied genetic variation through the genotyping of microsatellite loci. Overall, no support was found to the idea that developmental instability in H. subterraneus is related to a specific patterns of genetic variation, including inbreeding estimates. We identified a major genetic partition that subdivides French populations from the others, and a low divergence among northwestern areas, which are possibly related to the post-glacial recolonization from southern refugia and/or to recent anthropogenic soil displacements. A weak correlation between individual number of leg bearing segments and the occurrence of trunk anomalies seems to support a trade-off between these two developmental traits. These results, complemented by preliminary data on developmental stability in two related species, suggest that the phenomenon has not a simple taxonomic distribution, while it exhibits an apparent localization in central and eastern Europe.

  20. On a meeting between the Horn Viper and a Centipede in the Peloponnese, southern Greece  or the Biter, bit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Kretzschmar, Horst

    2009-01-01

    Vipera ammodytes L., (the European Horn-Nosed Viper) is a small venomous snake occurring in southern L., (the European Horn-Nosed Viper) is a small venomous snake occurring in southern Europe. It was documented attacking Scolopendra cingulata Latreille (the venomous Mediterranean Banded Centipede...

  1. Antifungal effect and pore-forming action of lactoferricin B like peptide derived from centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyemin; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Lee, Dong Gun

    2013-11-01

    The centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans has been a medically important arthropod species by using it as a traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. In this study, we derived a novel lactoferricin B like peptide (LBLP) from the whole bodies of adult centipedes, S. s. mutilans, and investigated the antifungal effect of LBLP. LBLP exerted an antifungal and fungicidal activity without hemolysis. To investigate the antifungal mechanism of LBLP, a membrane study with propidium iodide was first conducted against Candida albicans. The result showed that LBLP caused fungal membrane permeabilization. The assays of the three dimensional flow cytometric contour plot and membrane potential further showed cell shrinkage and membrane depolarization by the membrane damage. Finally, we confirmed the membrane-active mechanism of LBLP by synthesizing model membranes, calcein and FITC-dextran loaded large unilamellar vesicles. These results showed that the antifungal effect of LBLP on membrane was due to the formation of pores with radii between 0.74nm and 1.4nm. In conclusion, this study suggests that LBLP exerts a potent antifungal activity by pore formation in the membrane, eventually leading to fungal cell death. © 2013.

  2. The First Myriapod Genome Sequence Reveals Conservative Arthropod Gene Content and Genome Organisation in the Centipede Strigamia maritima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, Ariel D.; Ferrier, David E. K.; Brena, Carlo; Qu, Jiaxin; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Schröder, Reinhard; Torres-Oliva, Montserrat; Znassi, Nadia; Jiang, Huaiyang; Almeida, Francisca C.; Alonso, Claudio R.; Apostolou, Zivkos; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Arthur, Wallace; Barna, Jennifer C. J.; Blankenburg, Kerstin P.; Brites, Daniela; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Coyle, Marcus; Dearden, Peter K.; Du Pasquier, Louis; Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Ebert, Dieter; Eibner, Cornelius; Erikson, Galina; Evans, Peter D.; Extavour, Cassandra G.; Francisco, Liezl; Gabaldón, Toni; Gillis, William J.; Goodwin-Horn, Elizabeth A.; Green, Jack E.; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J. P.; Gubbala, Sai; Guigó, Roderic; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; Havlak, Paul; Hayden, Luke; Helbing, Sophie; Holder, Michael; Hui, Jerome H. L.; Hunn, Julia P.; Hunnekuhl, Vera S.; Jackson, LaRonda; Javaid, Mehwish; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Jiggins, Francis M.; Jones, Tamsin E.; Kaiser, Tobias S.; Kalra, Divya; Kenny, Nathan J.; Korchina, Viktoriya; Kovar, Christie L.; Kraus, F. Bernhard; Lapraz, François; Lee, Sandra L.; Lv, Jie; Mandapat, Christigale; Manning, Gerard; Mariotti, Marco; Mata, Robert; Mathew, Tittu; Neumann, Tobias; Newsham, Irene; Ngo, Dinh N.; Ninova, Maria; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Ongeri, Fiona; Palmer, William J.; Patil, Shobha; Patraquim, Pedro; Pham, Christopher; Pu, Ling-Ling; Putman, Nicholas H.; Rabouille, Catherine; Ramos, Olivia Mendivil; Rhodes, Adelaide C.; Robertson, Helen E.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Ronshaugen, Matthew; Rozas, Julio; Saada, Nehad; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Scherer, Steven E.; Schurko, Andrew M.; Siggens, Kenneth W.; Simmons, DeNard; Stief, Anna; Stolle, Eckart; Telford, Maximilian J.; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin; Thornton, Rebecca; van der Zee, Maurijn; von Haeseler, Arndt; Williams, James M.; Willis, Judith H.; Wu, Yuanqing; Zou, Xiaoyan; Lawson, Daniel; Muzny, Donna M.; Worley, Kim C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Akam, Michael; Richards, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Strigamia maritima. It retains a compact genome that has undergone less gene loss and shuffling than previously sequenced arthropods, and many orthologues of genes conserved from the bilaterian ancestor that have been lost in insects. Our analysis locates many genes in conserved macro-synteny contexts, and many small-scale examples of gene clustering. We describe several examples where S. maritima shows different solutions from insects to similar problems. The insect olfactory receptor gene family is absent from S. maritima, and olfaction in air is likely effected by expansion of other receptor gene families. For some genes S. maritima has evolved paralogues to generate coding sequence diversity, where insects use alternate splicing. This is most striking for the Dscam gene, which in Drosophila generates more than 100,000 alternate splice forms, but in S. maritima is encoded by over 100 paralogues. We see an intriguing linkage between the absence of any known photosensory proteins in a blind organism and the additional absence of canonical circadian clock genes. The phylogenetic position of myriapods allows us to identify where in arthropod phylogeny several particular molecular mechanisms and traits emerged. For example, we conclude that juvenile hormone signalling evolved with the emergence of the exoskeleton in the arthropods and that RR-1 containing cuticle proteins evolved in the lineage leading to Mandibulata. We also identify when various gene expansions and losses occurred. The genome of S. maritima offers us a unique glimpse into the ancestral arthropod genome, while also displaying many adaptations to its specific

  3. Sampling strategies for millipedes (Diplopoda), centipedes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At present considerable effort is being made to document and describe invertebrate diversity as part of numerous biodiversity conservation research projects. In order to determine diversity, rapid and effective sampling and estimation procedures are required and these need to be standardized for a particular group of ...

  4. Venomous and poisonous arthropods: identification, clinical manifestations of envenomation, and treatments used in human injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Haddad Junior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review presents the main species of venomous and poisonous arthropods, with commentary on the clinical manifestations provoked by the toxins and therapeutic measures used to treat human envenomations. The groups of arthopods discussed include the class Arachnida (spiders and scorpions, which are responsible for many injuries reported worldwide, including Brazil; the subphylum Myriapoda, with the classes Chilopoda and Diplopoda (centipedes and millipedes; and the subphylum Hexapoda, with the class Insecta and the orders Coleoptera (beetles, Hemiptera (stink bugs, giant water bugs, and cicadas, Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, and bees, and Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths.

  5. Molecular Verification of Cryptops hortensis (Scolopendromorpha: Cryptopidae) in theNearctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-29

    Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) March – April 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Molecular Verification of Cryptops hortensis...PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) USAF School of Aerospace Medicine ...Public Health and Preventive Medicine Dept/PHR 2510 Fifth St., Bldg. 840 Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7913 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT

  6. Exploring Phylogenetic Relationships within Myriapoda and the Effects of Matrix Composition and Occupancy on Phylogenomic Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rosa; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-09-01

    Myriapods, including the diverse and familiar centipedes and millipedes, are one of the dominant terrestrial arthropod groups. Although molecular evidence has shown that Myriapoda is monophyletic, its internal phylogeny remains contentious and understudied, especially when compared to those of Chelicerata and Hexapoda. Until now, efforts have focused on taxon sampling (e.g., by including a handful of genes from many species) or on maximizing matrix size (e.g., by including hundreds or thousands of genes in just a few species), but a phylogeny maximizing sampling at both levels remains elusive. In this study, we analyzed 40 Illumina transcriptomes representing 3 of the 4 myriapod classes (Diplopoda, Chilopoda, and Symphyla); 25 transcriptomes were newly sequenced to maximize representation at the ordinal level in Diplopoda and at the family level in Chilopoda. Ten supermatrices were constructed to explore the effect of several potential phylogenetic biases (e.g., rate of evolution, heterotachy) at 3 levels of gene occupancy per taxon (50%, 75%, and 90%). Analyses based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian mixture models retrieved monophyly of each myriapod class, and resulted in 2 alternative phylogenetic positions for Symphyla, as sister group to Diplopoda + Chilopoda, or closer to Diplopoda, the latter hypothesis having been traditionally supported by morphology. Within centipedes, all orders were well supported, but 2 deep nodes remained in conflict in the different analyses despite dense taxon sampling at the family level. Relationships among centipede orders in all analyses conducted with the most complete matrix (90% occupancy) are at odds not only with the sparser but more gene-rich supermatrices (75% and 50% supermatrices) and with the matrices optimizing phylogenetic informativeness or most conserved genes, but also with previous hypotheses based on morphology, development, or other molecular data sets. Our results indicate that a high percentage of ribosomal

  7. A redescription of Rhysida celeris (Humbert & Saussure, 1870), with a proposal of eight new synonyms (Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae, Otostigminae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Júnior, Amazonas

    2013-01-01

    Seven species of the genus Rhysida Wood, 1862 from Venezuela and one subspecies from Peru described by Manuel Angel González Sponga and Wolfgang Bücherl respectively, are revised. Rhysida caripensis González-Sponga, 2002, Rhysida neoespartana González-Sponga, 2002, Rhysida guayanica González-Sponga, 2002, Rhysida maritima González-Sponga, 2002, Rhysida monaguensis González-Sponga, 2002, Rhysida porlamarensis González-Sponga 2002, Rhysida sucupanensis González-Sponga, 2002 and Rhysida celeris andina Bücherl, 1953 are junior synonyms of Rhysida celeris (Humbert & Saussure, 1870), which is redescribed and illustrated for the first time. Its geographic distribution is updated and a map showing its distribution is presented.

  8. XX/XY system of sex determination in the geophilomorph centipede Strigamia maritima

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Green, J. E.; Dalíková, Martina; Sahara, K.; Marec, František; Akam, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2016), č. článku e0150292. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960925; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22765S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : sex determination * Strigamia maritima * XX/XY system Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0150292

  9. Development of Ingredients of the Feed-stuff for Improving Immune system using Centipede grass Extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Hyoungwoo; Chung, Byungyeoup; Lee, Seungsik; Lee, Sungbeom

    2013-09-15

    The purpose of the this project provides new application areas using naturally occurring flavonoids, cenetpedegrass extracts, for improving immune system and used as ingredients for feed-stuff. In order to provide the immune improving effects of centipedegrass, cell and animal experiments were carried out. Research scope includes determine the effect of centipedegrass extracts on immune functions using LPS-induced RAW cells and found that cytokines, IL-6 and IL-10, which were induced by LPS, were reduced by inhibiting phosphorylation of STAT-3, determine the effects of immune stimulating activity of centipedegrass in animals, cenetipedegrass extracts were administrated once a day for 2 weeks. After treated with LPS, immune suppressor, cytokines were down regulated, however, the cytokines in the group pretreated with centipedegrass extracts, were not down regulated as much as non treated group. The overall mechanism of immune stimulating effect of centipedegrass extracts, was that STAT-3 phosphorylation was inhibited by contipedegrass extracts.

  10. Trophic dynamics in a simple experimental ecosystem: Interactions among centipedes, Collembola and introduced earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixiang Gao; Melanie K. Taylor; Mac A. Callaham

    2017-01-01

    Invasive earthworms in North America are known to have dramatic influences on soil ecosystems, including negative effects on other soil fauna. In general, studies examining this phenomenon have focused on invasive earthworm impacts on organisms at the same or lower trophic level as the earthworms themselves (i.e., detritivores and decomposers). In contrast, there have...

  11. Eupolybothrus cavernicolus Komerički & Stoev sp. n. (Chilopoda Lithobiomorpha: Lithobiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoev, Pavel; Komerički, Ana; Akkari, Nesrine

    2013-01-01

    ), found in a remote karst region in Knin, Croatia, is the first eukaryotic species for which, in addition to the traditional morphological description, we provide a fully sequenced transcriptome, a DNA barcode, detailed anatomical X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) scans, and a movie of the living specimen...... to document important traits of its ex-situ behaviour. By employing micro-CT scanning in a new species for the first time, we create a high-resolution morphological and anatomical dataset that allows virtual reconstructions of the specimen and subsequent interactive manipulation to test the recently...

  12. Invasion patterns of ground-dwelling arthropods in Canarian laurel forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Erik; Perner, Jörg

    2008-09-01

    Patterns of invasive species in four different functional groups of ground-dwelling arthropods (Carnivorous ground dwelling beetles; Chilopoda; Diplopoda; Oniscoidea) were examined in laurel forests of the Canary Islands. The following hypotheses were tested: (A) increasing species richness is connected with decreasing invasibility as predicted by the Diversity-invasibility hypothesis (DIH); (B) disturbed or anthropogenically influenced habitats are more sensitive for invasions than natural and undisturbed habitats; and (C) climatic differences between laurel forest sites do not affect the rate of invasibility. A large proportion of invasives (species and abundances) was observed in most of the studied arthropod groups. However, we did not find any support for the DIH based on the examined arthropod groups. Regarding the impact of the extrinsic factors 'disturbance' and 'climate' on invasion patterns, we found considerable differences between the studied functional groups. Whereas the 'disturbance parameters' played a minor role and only affected the relative abundances of invasive centipedes (positively) and millipedes (negatively), the 'climate parameters' were significantly linked with the pattern of invasive detritivores. Interactions between native and invading species have not been observed thus far, but cannot completely be excluded.

  13. Terrestrial invertebrates in the Rhynie chert ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Jason A; Garwood, Russell J

    2018-02-05

    The Early Devonian Rhynie and Windyfield cherts remain a key locality for understanding early life and ecology on land. They host the oldest unequivocal nematode worm (Nematoda), which may also offer the earliest evidence for herbivory via plant parasitism. The trigonotarbids (Arachnida: Trigonotarbida) preserve the oldest book lungs and were probably predators that practiced liquid feeding. The oldest mites (Arachnida: Acariformes) are represented by taxa which include mycophages and predators on nematodes today. The earliest harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones) includes the first preserved tracheae, and male and female genitalia. Myriapods are represented by a scutigeromorph centipede (Chilopoda: Scutigeromorpha), probably a cursorial predator on the substrate, and a putative millipede (Diplopoda). The oldest springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola) were probably mycophages, and another hexapod of uncertain affinities preserves a gut infill of phytodebris. The first true insects (Hexapoda: Insecta) are represented by a species known from chewing (non-carnivorous?) mandibles. Coprolites also provide insights into diet, and we challenge previous assumptions that several taxa were spore-feeders. Rhynie appears to preserve a largely intact community of terrestrial animals, although some expected groups are absent. The known fossils are (ecologically) consistent with at least part of the fauna found around modern Icelandic hot springs.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The Rhynie cherts: our earliest terrestrial ecosystem revisited'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. The first myriapod genome sequence reveals conservative arthropod gene content and genome organisation in the centipede Strigamia maritima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chipman, Ariel D.; Ferrier, David E.K.; Brena, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    phylogeny several particular molecular mechanisms and traits emerged. For example, we conclude that juvenile hormone signalling evolved with the emergence of the exoskeleton in the arthropods and that RR-1 containing cuticle proteins evolved in the lineage leading to Mandibulata. We also identify when...

  15. Why be red listed? Threatened Myriapoda species in Brazil with implications for their conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam-Gemael, Manoela; Izzo, Thiago Junqueira; Chagas, Amazonas

    2018-01-01

    The biodiversity crisis we live in, marked by high extinction rates, requires well-planned conservation efforts. To overcome this issue, red lists of threatened species are recognized as the main objective approach for evaluating the conservation status of species and therefore guiding conservation priorities. This work focuses on the Myriapoda (Chilopoda and Diplopoda) species listed in the Brazilian red list of fauna to enable discussion of the practical implications of red lists for conservation. Almost all myriapods assessed are endemic to Brazil (99 %) and 73 % are known from subterranean habitats only. Despite of 33 % being recorded from protected areas (PAs), downgrading, degazettement or downsizing of PAs and intense and unregulated ecotourism represent great threats. The PAs network in Brazil tends to fail in conserving myriapod species. The number of data deficient species (42 %) states the need of investing in ecological and taxonomic studies about the group, in order to fill in important knowledge gaps in species assessments nationally and globally. In this work we show that there is a lack of communication between national and global agencies concerning red lists, which results in a significant loss for science and for conservation. Despite investing in national and state red lists, individual countries must take the final step of submitting its data to IUCN global database, as significant international funding is available for IUCN red listed species conservation. Being one of the most diverse countries in the world, and facing the biggest cuts ever on national science funding, losing these important funding opportunities is a huge loss for Brazilian biodiversity conservation and for science. This study raises awareness on subterranean habitats conservation, due to its high endemism and fragility. Since the first edition of the Brazilian Red List in 1968, centipedes are now included for the first time, and millipedes for the second time. The presence

  16. Regional conditions and land-use alter the potential contribution of soil arthropods to ecosystem services in grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus eBirkhofer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of regional conditions and land-use intensity on eight selected arthropod taxa of Mesostigmata (Parasitidae, Oribatida (3 species, Collembola (1 species, Chilopoda (2 species and Diplopoda (1 species sampled in differently managed permanent grasslands of three German study regions. By jointly analyzing changes in abundance and trophic behavior (measured as natural variation in 15N/14N and 13C/12C ratios we intended to develop a framework for evaluating the impact of local and regional conditions on the ecosystem services delivered by soil animals (mainly decomposition- and predation-related services. The investigated taxa could be assorted to three major groups: (1 numerical response only, (2 numerical and trophic response and (3 trophic response only. Since the combination of taxa assembled in the individual groups does not correspond to any of the conventional soil ecological classification systems, this grouping offers a new approach for analyzing soil communities. The complementing consideration of both the direction of the numerical response and the type of the trophic response (change of the basal food source vs. trophic level shift vs. variations in isotopic niches provided a differential insight into the effect of management and geographic differences on soil arthropods. It could be shown that the effect of land-use on the abundance of detritivorous microarthropods varies among regions, but does not induce any changes in feeding behavior. Our findings on Parasitidae indicate that carnivorous microarthropods exert substantial predation pressure on soil mesofauna and may be quite resistant to environmental changes due to high trophic flexibility. If conditions are favorable, centipedes may reach comparatively high densities in permanent grasslands and could be very important for controlling belowground pests. Concerning millipedes, isotopic signatures suggest that some species could exert a substantial disservice

  17. Půdní fauna (Oribatida, Lumbricidae, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Oniscidea) NPR Kaňon Labe a PR Libouchecké rybníčky (CHKO Labské pískovce)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pižl, Václav; Starý, Josef; Tajovský, Karel

    -, 35/36 (2013), s. 9-18 ISSN 1214-2573 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soil fauna * Kaňon Labe NNR * Libouchecké rybníčky NR * Northern Bohemia Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  18. Environ: E00528 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00528 Centipede Scolopendra Crude drug ... Scolopendra morsitans, Scolopendra subspi...nipes [TAX:55038], Scolopendra [TAX:41364] ... Scolopendridae Scolopendra morsitans, Scolopendra subspinipes (dried) ...

  19. The relationship between autophagy and apoptosis in the midgut epithelium of Myriapoda

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rost-Roszkowska, M.M.; Vilímová, J.; Tajovský, Karel; Płachno, B.J.; Pavlíček, T.; Sosinka, A.; Ostróžka, A.; Kaszuba, F.; Chajec, Ł.; Włodarczyk, A.; Marchewka, A.

    -, Suppl. 5 (2017), s. 24 ISSN 1513-9700. [International Congress of Myriapodology /17./. 23.07.2017-26.07.2017, Krabi] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : millipedes * centipedes * midgut ultrastructure * autophagy * apoptosis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology

  20. Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Construction of a Gas Station, Car-Care Center, Shoppette and Class Six, and Taco John’s Restaurant at Keesler Air Force Base, Biloxi, Harrison County, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Groundcover on base consists primarily of Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dactylon), centipede grass (Eremochloa ophiluroides), and St. Augustine grass...notification to allow adequate lime fori eview. COASTAL PROGRAM COMPLIANCE (Coastal ari • activities only) : ( ) The activity has been reviewed and

  1. Litter-dwelling arthropod abundance peaks near coarse woody debris in loblolly pine forest of the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; J.L. Hanula

    2009-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that many litter-dwelling arthropod and other invertebrate taxa (e.g., Isopoda, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Araneae, Pseudo scorpionida, Coleoptera, and Gastropoda) are more numerous near dead wood than away from it in the broad-leaved forests of Europe (Jabin et al. 2004; Topp et al. 2006a, 2006b; Kappes et...

  2. Litter-dwelling arthropod abundance peaks near coarse woody debris in loblolly pine forests of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula

    2009-01-01

    litter-dwelling arthropod and other invertebrate taxa (e.g., Isopoda, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Araneae, Pseudoscorpionida, Coleoptera, and Gastropoda) are more numerous near dead wood than away from it in the broad-leaved forests of Europe(Jabin et al. 2004; Topp et al. 2006a, 2006b; Kappes et al. 2006; Kappes 2006; Jabin et al. 2007) and...

  3. Stability Test and Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of the Amino Acids in Pharmacopuncture Extracted from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, GyeYoon; Han, KyuChul; Yoon, JinYoung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (S. subspinipes mutilans) is known as a traditional medicine and includes various amino acids, peptides and proteins. The amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans by using derivatization methods were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) over a 12 month period to confirm its stability. Methods: Amino acids of pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans were derived by using O-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) & 9-fluorenyl methoxy carbonyl chloride (FMOC) reagent and were analyzed using HPLC. The amino acids were detected by using a diode array detector (DAD) and a fluorescence detector (FLD) to compare a mixed amino acid standard (STD) to the pharmacopuncture from centipedes. The stability tests on the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were done using HPLC for three conditions: a room temperature test chamber, an acceleration test chamber, and a cold test chamber. Results: The pharmacopuncture from centipedes was prepared by using the method of the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute (KPI) and through quantitative analyses was shown to contain 9 amino acids of the 16 amino acids in the mixed amino acid STD. The amounts of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were 34.37 ppm of aspartate, 123.72 ppm of arginine, 170.63 ppm of alanine, 59.55 ppm of leucine and 57 ppm of lysine. The relative standard deviation (RSD %) results for the pharmacopuncture from centipedes had a maximum value of 14.95% and minimum value of 1.795% on the room temperature test chamber, the acceleration test chamber and the cold test chamber stability tests. Conclusion: Stability tests on and quantitative and qualitative analyses of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from centipedes by using derivatization methods were performed by using HPLC. Through research, we hope to determine the relationship between time and the

  4. Protists from caves: preliminary data on populations of the "Covolo della guerra", Berici hills (Vicenza, Italy): Jamski enoceličarji: predhodne razsikave o njihovih populacijah v kraški jami "Covolo della guerra" v hribovju Berici (Vicenza, Italija):

    OpenAIRE

    Coppellotti Krupa, Olimpia; Guidolin, Laura

    1999-01-01

    Posledica povečanega zanimanja za speleologijo je nekaj prav presenetljivih odkritij iz obdobja zadnjih nekaj let v italijanskih jamah. Toda na podlagi zbranega favnističnega gradiva so bila do danes posebno raziskane le nekatere taksonomske skupine, na primer Insecta, Chilopoda, Gastropoda in Chiroptera. Zaradi pomena organizmov, ki živijo v skoraj vseh ekosistemih, se je zdelo še posebno zanimivo raziskati, kot preproste modele za sistem njihovega spremljanja (monitoringa), populacije enoce...

  5. Factors affecting invertebrate assemblages in bryophytes of the Litovelské Luhy National Nature Reserve, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Božanić, B.; Hradílek, Z.; Machač, O.; Pižl, Václav; Šťáhlavský, F.; Tufová, J.; Véle, A.; Tuf, I.H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2013), s. 197-206 ISSN 0324-0770 Grant - others:GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D3/155/08; GA MŽP(CZ) IGA PrF/2010/001 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Chilopoda * Diplopoda * Oniscidea * Araneae * Pseudoscorpiones * Opiliones * Formicidae * Lumbricidae * Litovelské Pomoraví Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.357, year: 2013

  6. Changing Perceptions of Unpopular Animals through Facts, Poetry, Crafts, and Puppet Plays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Zhbanova, Ksenia S.

    2012-01-01

    Today's children are often separated from the natural world, developing fear and aversion to wild creatures. This humane education program used curriculum-blended science lessons that focused on eight generally disliked animals: bat, skunk, snake, mouse, spider, centipede, cockroach, and mosquito. First and second grade students participated in 6…

  7. Doing it now, later, or never

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cingiz, K.; Flesch, J.; Herings, P.J.J.; Predtetchinski, A.

    2015-01-01

    We study centipede games played by an infinite sequence of players. Following the literature on time-inconsistent preferences, we distinguish two types of decision makers, naive and sophisticated, and the corresponding solution concepts, naïve ϵ-equilibrium and sophisticated ϵ-equilibrium. We show

  8. Invertebrates of the Macocha Abyss (Moravian Karst, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Vlastimil; Mlejnek, R.; Juřičková, L.; Tajovský, Karel; Šmilauer, P.; Zajíček, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2016), s. 71-84 ISSN 0583-6050 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ants * centipedes * beetles Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.585, year: 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.3986/ac.v45i1.896

  9. Evaluation of cimi-shield knock-out bed bug eliminator against house fly (Musca domestica) adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimi-Shield Knock-Out (CSKO) Bed Bug Eliminator is a green treatment labeled for use against bed bugs, carpet beetles, ants, roaches, fleas, ticks, silverfish, millipedes and centipedes. The active ingredient is soybean oil. If CSKO is formulated according to label instructions and sprayed directly ...

  10. Breeding and foraging behaviour and habitat characteristics of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aggressiveness towards intruding conspecifics. Of the 269 prey items observed, 71.5% were invertebrates, 7.5% vertebrates, and 21.0% unidentified. Earthworms and centipedes represented the most numerous prey-types taken, representing 55% and 21% of the identified prey, respectively. Three nests were located in

  11. Land-use type and intensity differentially filter traits in above- and below-ground arthropod communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhofer, Klaus; Gossner, Martin M; Diekötter, Tim; Drees, Claudia; Ferlian, Olga; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Wolters, Volkmar; Wurst, Susanne; Zaitsev, Andrey S; Smith, Henrik G

    2017-05-01

    Along with the global decline of species richness goes a loss of ecological traits. Associated biotic homogenization of animal communities and narrowing of trait diversity threaten ecosystem functioning and human well-being. High management intensity is regarded as an important ecological filter, eliminating species that lack suitable adaptations. Below-ground arthropods are assumed to be less sensitive to such effects than above-ground arthropods. Here, we compared the impact of management intensity between (grassland vs. forest) and within land-use types (local management intensity) on the trait diversity and composition in below- and above-ground arthropod communities. We used data on 722 arthropod species living above-ground (Auchenorrhyncha and Heteroptera), primarily in soil (Chilopoda and Oribatida) or at the interface (Araneae and Carabidae). Our results show that trait diversity of arthropod communities is not primarily reduced by intense local land use, but is rather affected by differences between land-use types. Communities of Auchenorrhyncha and Chilopoda had significantly lower trait diversity in grassland habitats as compared to forests. Carabidae showed the opposite pattern with higher trait diversity in grasslands. Grasslands had a lower proportion of large Auchenorrhyncha and Carabidae individuals, whereas Chilopoda and Heteroptera individuals were larger in grasslands. Body size decreased with land-use intensity across taxa, but only in grasslands. The proportion of individuals with low mobility declined with land-use intensity in Araneae and Auchenorrhyncha, but increased in Chilopoda and grassland Heteroptera. The proportion of carnivorous individuals increased with land-use intensity in Heteroptera in forests and in Oribatida and Carabidae in grasslands. Our results suggest that gradients in management intensity across land-use types will not generally reduce trait diversity in multiple taxa, but will exert strong trait filtering within

  12. Formation of Mesoherpetobionts Communities on a Reclamated Coal Open Pit Dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzyanin, Sergey; Eremeeva, Natalya

    2017-11-01

    The structure of the mesoherpetobionts arthropod communities of the reclamated dump of the Krasnobrodsky coal pit (Kemerovo region, Russia) has been studied. It was established that the pioneer grouping of mesoherpetobionts arthropod represented by classes of Chilopoda, Arachnida and Insecta-Ectognatha has been formed on the dump for two years after the soil deposition. From the Arachnida, the species of the order Aranei are the most active in the stocking of the dumps. From the class Chilopoda, the species of Lithobiomorpha appear the first on the dump. Insects from the following three orders, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera and especially Coleoptera take the main part in the expansion of dumps and the formation of primary communities. Among the Coleoptera, the beetles of the family of Carabidae (44 species, dynamic density 22.9 specimens/10 trapped per day) dominate. From them, small or medium-sized species are mainly involved in stocking the dumps. There are significant differences in the complexes of ground dump carabid beetles in comparison with the control group, differing in species composition of dominant species, species richness and species diversity parameters

  13. Diversity And Abundance Of Arthropods At Mbeya University Of Science And Technology Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick Ojija

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high abundance of arthropods in many terrestrial environments our understanding of their ecological diversity and abundance remain unknown in some habitats. The aim of this study is to assess the abundance diversity and species richness of some arthropods found in grassland and woodland habitats at Mbeya University of Science and Technology in Tanzania. A total of 1719 arthropods belonging to 63 species under 12 orders and 46 families were collected. Parameters such as Shannon index Simpson index Margalef index Evenness index and Sorenson similarity index were used to analyse the diversity of arthropods. Result showed that Hymenoptera 33.101 Coleoptera 28.098 and Orthoptera 17.510 were the most dominant orders whereas the least abundant order were Diptera 0.814 and Scolopendromorpha 0.291. The grassland showed high species richness Margalef index D 6.930 abundance n 1177 Evenness E 0.854 and Shannon diversity H 3.339 of arthropods. The abundance of arthropod groups between grassland and woodland differed significantly p0.05. Sorensen similarity index in both habitats showed 53.5 similarity. Therefore result indicates that the grassland habitat has the potential to support arthropod diversity and act as effective refugia for some arthropods from woodland.

  14. Are vegetated areas of mangroves attractive to juvenile and small fish? The case of Dongzhaigang Bay, Hainan Island, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mao; Huang, Zhenyuan; Shi, Fushan; Wang, Wenqing

    2009-11-01

    Well-developed aerial roots of mangroves make it difficult to study how fish utilize the mangrove forest as a habitat. In the present study, we compared the differences in fish assemblages in three major types of habitats of mangrove estuary (vegetated area, treeless mudflat, and creek) of a mangrove bay in Hainan Island, China, at different seasons during two consecutive years. Three types of gears, centipede net, gill net and cast net, were used in the different habitats of mangrove estuary and sampling efficiencies among gears were evaluated. Centipede nets were used in all the three types of habitats and cast nets and gill nets in treeless mudflats and creeks. Fish assemblages were dependent on gears used. Centipede net could efficiently catch fish occurring both inside and outside of vegetated areas efficiently. A total of 115 fish species in 51 families were collected. In terms of numbers of species per family, Gobiidae was the most diverse (17 species), followed by Mugilidae (5 species). Almost all of the fish were juvenile or small fish and few predators were recorded, implying low predation pressure in the bay. ANOVA analysis showed that significant seasonal and spatial variation existed in species richness, abundance, and biomass, which were less in the vegetated areas than those of treeless mudflats and creeks. The attraction of vegetated areas to fish was less than that of creeks and mudflats. Many species were specific to a particular habitat type, 4 species occurring exclusively in the creeks, 45 species occurring exclusively in the treeless mudflats, and 5 species occurring exclusively in the vegetated areas. The results indicated that mangrove estuaries were potentially attractive habitats for juvenile and small fish, but this attraction was accomplished by a connection of vegetated areas, treeless mudflats and creeks, not only by vegetated areas.

  15. High precision survey and alignment techniques in accelerator construction

    CERN Document Server

    Gervaise, J

    1974-01-01

    Basic concepts of precision surveying are briefly reviewed, and an historical account is given of instruments and techniques used during the construction of the Proton Synchrotron (1954-59), the Intersecting Storage Rings (1966-71), and the Super Proton Synchrotron (1971). A nylon wire device, distinvar, invar wire and tape, and recent automation of the gyrotheodolite and distinvar as well as auxiliary equipment (polyurethane jacks, Centipede) are discussed in detail. The paper ends summarizing the present accuracy in accelerator metrology, giving an outlook of possible improvement, and some aspects of staffing for the CERN Survey Group. (0 refs).

  16. Segmentation of the millipede trunk as suggested by a homeotic mutant with six extra pairs of gonopods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkari, Nesrine; Enghoff, Henrik; Minelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    morphological entities. Two predictions were suggested to test the plausibility of multiple-duplication models of segmentation: first, a specific pattern of evolvability of segment number in those arthropod clades in which segment number is not fixed (e.g., epimorphic centipedes and millipedes); second...... of ectopic ones on ring 8) is reiterated by the posterior set (on rings 15-16) after exactly 16 leg positions along the AP body axis. This suggests that a body section including 16 leg pairs could be a module deriving from 4 cycles of regular binary splitting of an embryonic ‘primary segment’. Conclusions...

  17. Peristaltic Wave Locomotion and Shape Morphing with a Millipede Inspired System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinello, Davide; Fattahi, Javad S.

    2017-08-01

    We present the mechanical model of a bio-inspired deformable system, modeled as a Timoshenko beam, which is coupled to a substrate by a system of distributed elements. The locomotion action is inspired by the coordinated motion of coupling elements that mimic the legs of millipedes and centipedes, whose leg-to-ground contact can be described as a peristaltic displacement wave. The multi-legged structure is crucial in providing redundancy and robustness in the interaction with unstructured environments and terrains. A Lagrangian approach is used to derive the governing equations of the system that couple locomotion and shape morphing. Features and limitations of the model are illustrated with numerical simulations.

  18. The first venomous crustacean revealed by transcriptomics and functional morphology: remipede venom glands express a unique toxin cocktail dominated by enzymes and a neurotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reumont, Björn M; Blanke, Alexander; Richter, Sandy; Alvarez, Fernando; Bleidorn, Christoph; Jenner, Ronald A

    2014-01-01

    Animal venoms have evolved many times. Venomous species are especially common in three of the four main groups of arthropods (Chelicerata, Myriapoda, and Hexapoda), which together represent tens of thousands of species of venomous spiders, scorpions, centipedes, and hymenopterans. Surprisingly, despite their great diversity of body plans, there is no unambiguous evidence that any crustacean is venomous. We provide the first conclusive evidence that the aquatic, blind, and cave-dwelling remipede crustaceans are venomous and that venoms evolved in all four major arthropod groups. We produced a three-dimensional reconstruction of the venom delivery apparatus of the remipede Speleonectes tulumensis, showing that remipedes can inject venom in a controlled manner. A transcriptomic profile of its venom glands shows that they express a unique cocktail of transcripts coding for known venom toxins, including a diversity of enzymes and a probable paralytic neurotoxin very similar to one described from spider venom. We screened a transcriptomic library obtained from whole animals and identified a nontoxin paralog of the remipede neurotoxin that is not expressed in the venom glands. This allowed us to reconstruct its probable evolutionary origin and underlines the importance of incorporating data derived from nonvenom gland tissue to elucidate the evolution of candidate venom proteins. This first glimpse into the venom of a crustacean and primitively aquatic arthropod reveals conspicuous differences from the venoms of other predatory arthropods such as centipedes, scorpions, and spiders and contributes valuable information for ultimately disentangling the many factors shaping the biology and evolution of venoms and venomous species.

  19. Effects of of habitats and pesticides on aerobic capacity and survival of soil fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, G; Sharma, B M

    2005-06-01

    Faunal health is largely dependent on their soil environment and available litter quality. So the effects of different soil habitats and pesticides on citrate synthase (CS) activity of soil fauna and its population were studied. The soil animals were collected from different pedoecosystems for habitat study. Whereas Vigna radiata based system was selected for pesticidal observations. The field was divided into five equal plots for control and treatment of gamma-BHC, quinalphos, carbaryl and cypermethrin. Soil fauna was collected by quadrat method and extracted by Tullgren funnel. Individuals of a species having similar sizes were collected for the estimation of CS activity. They were homogenized and fractions were obtained by differential centrifugation. The activity of CS was assayed spectrophotometrically. Citrate synthase (CS) activity of beetle (Rasphytus fregi), woodlouse (Porcellio laevis) and centipede (Scolopendra morsitans) varied significantly with respect to changes in different soil habitats. Though the CS activity of R. fregi, P. laevis, and S. morsitans differed among themselves but the highest activity of CS in these animals was in V. radiata and lowest in A. nilotica based pedoecosystem. The aerobic capacity of centipede was maximum followed by woodlouse and beetle. The treatment of gamma-BHC, quinalphos, carbaryl and cypermethrin significantly reduced the CS activity of these animals. Gamma-BHC showed maximum reduction in CS activity indicating highly toxic effect of organochlorine on aerobic metabolism of soil fauna. However, minimum reduction was observed in response to carbaryl (in beetle) or cypermethrin (in woodlouse/centipede) leading to impairment of aerobic capacity. The differences in pesticide effects might be assigned to the differences in chemical nature of pesticides and their interactions with below-ground fauna. Treatment of gamma-BHC and quinalphos reduced the population of Acari, Coleoptera, Collembola, other arthropods as well as

  20. Complex solution of problem of all-season construction of roads and pipelines on universal composite pontoon units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabkov, A. V.; Stafeeva, N. A.; Ivanov, V. A.; Zakuraev, A. F.

    2018-05-01

    A complex construction consisting of a universal floating pontoon road for laying pipelines in automatic mode on its body all year round and in any weather for Siberia and the Far North has been designed. A new method is proposed for the construction of pipelines on pontoon modules, which are made of composite materials. Pontoons made of composite materials for bedding pipelines with track-forming guides for automated wheeled transport, pipelayer, are designed. The proposed system eliminates the construction of a road along the route, ensures the buoyancy and smoothness of the self-propelled automated stacker in the form of a "centipede", which has a number of significant advantages in the construction and operation of the entire complex in the swamp and watered areas without overburden.

  1. Taxonomic status and biology of the Cuban blackhawk, Buteogallus anthracinus gundlachii (AVES: Accipitridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.; Garrido, O.H.

    2005-01-01

    We reevaluate the taxonomic status of the Cuban population of the Common Black-Hawk (Buteogallus anthracinus) based on our examination of additional specimens, nests, eggs, and voice data. Buteogallus a. gundlachii is smaller than mainland populations of anthracinus and differs from mainland birds in plumage coloration and pattern. The common (alarm) call of gundlachii is a series of three or four notes, differing from that of mainland anthracinus, whose call consists of 9-24 notes. In the Isla de Pinos, Cuba, we observed gundlachii eating two species of land crabs (71.4%), centipedes (7.1%), lizards (10.7%), mammals (7.1%), and a bird (3.6%). We consider Buteogallus gundlachii Cabanis 1854 (1855), the Cuban Black-Hawk, to be a full species, endemic to Cuba, Isla de Pinos, and many of the cays of the Cuban Archipelago. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  2. BACKWARD INDUCTION: MERITS AND FLAWS

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    Kamiński Marek M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Backward induction (BI was one of the earliest methods developed for solving finite sequential games with perfect information. It proved to be especially useful in the context of Tom Schelling’s ideas of credible versus incredible threats. BI can be also extended to solve complex games that include an infinite number of actions or an infinite number of periods. However, some more complex empirical or experimental predictions remain dramatically at odds with theoretical predictions obtained by BI. The primary example of such a troublesome game is Centipede. The problems appear in other long games with sufficiently complex structure. BI also shares the problems of subgame perfect equilibrium and fails to eliminate certain unreasonable Nash equilibria.

  3. Arthropod Envenomation in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Timothy B; Cheema, Navneet

    2017-05-01

    Arthropods (phylum Arthopoda) account for a higher percentage of morbidity and mortality to humans than do mammalian bites, snake bites, or marine envenomation. They are ubiquitous in domestic dwellings, caves, and campsites and in wilderness settings such as deserts, forests, and lakes. Although arthropods are most intrusive during warmer months, many are active throughout the winter, particularly indoors. Arthropods are also nocturnal and often bite unsuspecting victims while they are sleeping. Encounters with humans are generally defensive, accidental, or reactive. An individual stung by an insect or bitten by an arachnid may experience pain and local swelling, an anaphylactic reaction, or life-threatening toxicity. This review discusses the clinical presentation and latest treatment recommendations for bites and stings from spiders, scorpions, bees, ants, ticks and centipedes of North America. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Rise and Fall of an Evolutionary Innovation: Contrasting Strategies of Venom Evolution in Ancient and Young Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagar, Kartik; Moran, Yehu

    2015-10-01

    Animal venoms are theorized to evolve under the significant influence of positive Darwinian selection in a chemical arms race scenario, where the evolution of venom resistance in prey and the invention of potent venom in the secreting animal exert reciprocal selection pressures. Venom research to date has mainly focused on evolutionarily younger lineages, such as snakes and cone snails, while mostly neglecting ancient clades (e.g., cnidarians, coleoids, spiders and centipedes). By examining genome, venom-gland transcriptome and sequences from the public repositories, we report the molecular evolutionary regimes of several centipede and spider toxin families, which surprisingly accumulated low-levels of sequence variations, despite their long evolutionary histories. Molecular evolutionary assessment of over 3500 nucleotide sequences from 85 toxin families spanning the breadth of the animal kingdom has unraveled a contrasting evolutionary strategy employed by ancient and evolutionarily young clades. We show that the venoms of ancient lineages remarkably evolve under the heavy constraints of negative selection, while toxin families in lineages that originated relatively recently rapidly diversify under the influence of positive selection. We propose that animal venoms mostly employ a 'two-speed' mode of evolution, where the major influence of diversifying selection accompanies the earlier stages of ecological specialization (e.g., diet and range expansion) in the evolutionary history of the species-the period of expansion, resulting in the rapid diversification of the venom arsenal, followed by longer periods of purifying selection that preserve the potent toxin pharmacopeia-the period of purification and fixation. However, species in the period of purification may re-enter the period of expansion upon experiencing a major shift in ecology or environment. Thus, we highlight for the first time the significant roles of purifying and episodic selections in shaping animal

  5. Molecular and functional characterization of hemocyanin of the giant African millipede, Archispirostreptus gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Christian; Fago, Angela; Hagner-Holler, Silke; Malte, Hans; Burmester, Thorsten; Weber, Roy E

    2013-05-01

    In contrast to other terrestrial arthropods, where gaseous O2 that fuels aerobic metabolism diffuses to the tissues in tracheal tubes, and most other metazoans, where O2 is transported to tissues by circulating respiratory proteins, the myriapods (millipedes and centipedes) strikingly have tracheal systems as well as circulating hemocyanin (Hc). In order to elucidate the evolutionary origin and biological significance of millipede Hc, we report the molecular structure (subunit composition and amino acid sequence) of multimeric (36-mer) Hc from the forest floor-dwelling giant African millipede Archispirostreptus gigas and its allosteric oxygen-binding properties under various physico-chemical conditions. Archispirostreptus gigas Hc consists of only a single subunit type with differential glycosylation. Phylogenic analysis revealed that millipede Hc is a sister group to centipede HcA, which supports an early divergence of distinct Hc subunits in myriapods and an ancient origin of multimeric Hcs. Archispirostreptus gigas Hc binds O2 with a high affinity and shows a strong Bohr effect. O2 binding is, moreover, modulated by Ca(2+) ions, which increase the O2 affinity of the Hc in the tense (T; deoxygenated) as well as the relaxed (R; oxygenated) states, and by (l)-lactate, which modulates Hc-O2 affinity by changing the allosteric equilibrium constant, L. Cooperativity in O2 binding at half O2 saturation (n50) is pH dependent and maximal at ~pH 7.4, and the number of interacting O2-binding sites (q) is markedly increased by binding Ca(2+). The data are discussed in the light of the mutually supplementary roles of Hc and the tracheal system for tissue O2 supply.

  6. The Rise and Fall of an Evolutionary Innovation: Contrasting Strategies of Venom Evolution in Ancient and Young Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Sunagar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal venoms are theorized to evolve under the significant influence of positive Darwinian selection in a chemical arms race scenario, where the evolution of venom resistance in prey and the invention of potent venom in the secreting animal exert reciprocal selection pressures. Venom research to date has mainly focused on evolutionarily younger lineages, such as snakes and cone snails, while mostly neglecting ancient clades (e.g., cnidarians, coleoids, spiders and centipedes. By examining genome, venom-gland transcriptome and sequences from the public repositories, we report the molecular evolutionary regimes of several centipede and spider toxin families, which surprisingly accumulated low-levels of sequence variations, despite their long evolutionary histories. Molecular evolutionary assessment of over 3500 nucleotide sequences from 85 toxin families spanning the breadth of the animal kingdom has unraveled a contrasting evolutionary strategy employed by ancient and evolutionarily young clades. We show that the venoms of ancient lineages remarkably evolve under the heavy constraints of negative selection, while toxin families in lineages that originated relatively recently rapidly diversify under the influence of positive selection. We propose that animal venoms mostly employ a 'two-speed' mode of evolution, where the major influence of diversifying selection accompanies the earlier stages of ecological specialization (e.g., diet and range expansion in the evolutionary history of the species-the period of expansion, resulting in the rapid diversification of the venom arsenal, followed by longer periods of purifying selection that preserve the potent toxin pharmacopeia-the period of purification and fixation. However, species in the period of purification may re-enter the period of expansion upon experiencing a major shift in ecology or environment. Thus, we highlight for the first time the significant roles of purifying and episodic selections

  7. New records and detailed distribution and abundance of selected arthropod species collected between 1999 and 2011 in Azorean native forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Clara; Crespo, Luís Carlos Fonseca; Rigal, François; Cardoso, Pedro; Pereira, Fernando; Rego, Carla; Amorim, Isabel R.; Melo, Catarina; Aguiar, Carlos; André, Genage; Mendonça, Enésima P.; Ribeiro, Sérvio; Hortal, Joaquín; Santos, Ana M.C.; Barcelos, Luís; Enghoff, Henrik; Mahnert, Volker; Pita, Margarida T.; Ribes, Jordi; Baz, Arturo; Sousa, António B.; Vieira, Virgílio; Wunderlich, Jörg; Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Whittaker, Robert J.; Quartau, José Alberto; Serrano, Artur R.M.; Triantis, Kostas A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In this contribution we present detailed distribution and abundance data for arthropod species identified during the BALA – Biodiversity of Arthropods from the Laurisilva of the Azores (1999-2004) and BALA2 projects (2010-2011) from 18 native forest fragments in seven of the nine Azorean islands (all excluding Graciosa and Corvo islands, which have no native forest left). New information Of the total 286 species identified, 81% were captured between 1999 and 2000, a period during which only 39% of all the samples were collected. On average, arthropod richness for each island increased by 10% during the time frame of these projects. The classes Arachnida, Chilopoda and Diplopoda represent the most remarkable cases of new island records, with more than 30% of the records being novelties. This study stresses the need to expand the approaches applied in these projects to other habitats in the Azores, and more importantly to other less surveyed taxonomic groups (e.g. Diptera and Hymenoptera). These steps are fundamental for getting a more accurate assessment of biodiversity in the archipelago. PMID:28174509

  8. Entomologic perception by teachers and students in the municipality of Santa Cruz do Xingu, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Emanuel Maia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify and interpret the entomologic perception of students and teachers living in the Santa Cruz do Xingu, Médio Araguaia region. Semistructured interviews were carried out in December 2006 with students and teachers of the basic and intermediate levels, as well as in Youth and Adult Education, in the municipality of Santa Cruz do Xingu, Mato Grosso. Of the living beings perceived as “insects” by all the interviewees, 82.75% belonged to the Insecta Class, but the rest belonged either to the Fungi Kingdom or to Classes of Animalia (Amphibia, Arachnida, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Gastropoda, Mammalia and Reptilia. The “insects” were defined by the interviewees as small bugs, which were disgusting and dangerous. When in contact with the “insects”, 76% of the interviewees admitted that they killed them, and the greatest reason given for this was the psychological damage caused by the presence of these animals (65%. To 78% of those interviewed, the “insects” were beings without positive importance. Due to the scarce knowledge about their positive aspects, the perception of the “insects” by the students and teachers living in the Santa Cruz do Xingu region is mainly related to their belief in the negative qualities of these animals, causing aggressive reactions against them as soon as they are perceived in the environment.

  9. [Effects of mulching management of Phyllostachys heterocycla forests on the characteristics of soil infiltration and biometrics in southwest Zhejiang Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi Kun; Jin, Ai Wu; Fang, Sheng Zuo

    2017-05-18

    Soil infiltration, soil physical and chemical properties, root length density and soil fauna diversity were studied in Phyllostachys heterocycla forests with different mulching times in southwest Zhejiang Province, China. Significant differences of soil infiltration capability were found among the forests with different mulching times and among soil layers. Soil infiltration capability generally declined in the deeper soil layers. With mulching management, soil infiltration capability increased under the first mulching, and then declined with the increase of mulching times. The Kostiakov model was suitable for simulating soil infiltration process. With the extending of mulching times (4 to 6 years), soil pH and total/non-capillary porosity decreased, while soil bulk density, soil orga-nic matter and total nitrogen contents increased significantly. Soil initial, steady, and average infiltration rates as well as the cumulative infiltration amount correlated closely with the length density of roots with diameter from 0.5 mm to 5.0 mm, showing a decreasing tendency with the decrease in root length density. Soil fauna density was highest in the forest under the first mulching, and was lowest after third mulching. The decreased numbers of large and meso-arthropods, including Symphyla, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Hymenoptera and pseudoscorpions, and the micro-arthropods, including Oribatida, Mesostigmata, Onychiuridae, Neanuridae, Cyphoderidae, and Entomobryidae, showed negative effects on soil infiltration. In conclusion, long-term mulching changed soil physical and chemical properties, decreased soil infiltration capability, and suppressed the development of soil fauna, which might cause the decline ofP. heterocycla forests.

  10. THE ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE BIODIVERSITY OF THE INVERTEBRATES FAUNA IN THE CORN CULTURE SOIL IN COPSA MICA (SIBIU COUNTY ROMANIA

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    Iuliana ANTONIE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our researches is in bringing the scientific arguments of the necessity of including the biologic parameters, mainly of the invertebrates in the soil, in the evaluation studies of the impact upon the environment and the national strategies of monitoring of the soils quality. If the chemical analysis measure the quantity of the polluters, the invertebrates in the soil, especially the insects, reflect intensively the anthropologic influences, emphasizing the intensifications or inhibitions of their activity under the stress conditions. The study upon the invertebrates’ fauna was carried on in Copsa Mica area (Sibiu County in the corn agricultural ecosystem. The properties of the soil in this area are strongly changed by the industrial activity as a result of an accumulation of great quantities of heavy metals (lead, cadmium. The researches in this area are a part of a greater study upon the invertebrates’ fauna in the corn culture soil of the Sibiu County, researches that took place during 2011-2013. The technology applied in this area is a semi intensive one. For collecting the invertebrates there were used two methods: drilling the soil and pitfall traps. There were identified invertebrates belonging to 4 classes (Annelida, Arachnida, Chilopoda, Insecta and 11 orders (Haplotaxida, Aranea, Acari, Lithobiomorpha, Geophilomorpha, Collembola, Orthoptera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera.

  11. Abundance and diversity of soil arthropods in the olive grove ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Maria Fátima; Pereira, José Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Arthropods are part of important functional groups in soil food webs. Recognizing these arthropods and understanding their function in the ecosystem as well as when they are active is essential to understanding their roles. In the present work, the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods is examined in olive groves in the northeast region of Portugal during the spring. Five classes of arthropods were found: Chilopoda, Malacostraca, Entognatha, Insecta, and Arachnida. Captures were numerically dominated by Collembola within Entognatha, representing 70.9% of total captures. Arachnida and Insecta classes represented about 20.4 and 9.0%, respectively. Among the predatory arthropods, the most representative groups were Araneae and Opiliones from Arachnida, and Formicidae, Carabidae, and Staphylinidae from Insecta. From the Formicidae family, Tetramorium semilaeve (Andre 1883), Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander 1856), and Crematogaster scutellaris (Olivier 1792) were the most representative ant species. Arthropods demonstrated preference during the day, with 74% of the total individuals recovered in this period, although richness and similarity were analogous during the day and night.

  12. Effects of a Major Tree Invader on Urban Woodland Arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions are a major threat to biodiversity; however, the degree of impact can vary depending on the ecosystem and taxa. Here, we test whether a top invader at a global scale, the tree Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust or false acacia), which is known to profoundly change site conditions, significantly affects urban animal diversity. As a first multi-taxon study of this kind, we analyzed the effects of Robinia dominance on 18 arthropod taxa by pairwise comparisons of woodlands in Berlin, Germany, that were dominated by R. pseudoacacia or the native pioneer tree Betula pendula. As a negative effect, abundances of five arthropod taxa decreased (Chilopoda, Formicidae, Diptera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera); 13 others were not affected. Woodland type affected species composition of carabids and functional groups in spiders, but surprisingly did not decrease alpha and beta diversity of carabid and spider assemblages or the number of endangered species. Tree invasion thus did not induce biotic homogenization at the habitat scale. We detected no positive effects of alien dominance. Our results illustrate that invasions by a major tree invader can induce species turnover in ground-dwelling arthropods, but do not necessarily reduce arthropod species abundances or diversity and might thus contribute to the conservation of epigeal invertebrates in urban settings. Considering the context of invasion impacts thus helps to set priorities in managing biological invasions and can illustrate the potential of novel ecosystems to maintain urban biodiversity. PMID:26359665

  13. Effects of a Major Tree Invader on Urban Woodland Arthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Buchholz

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are a major threat to biodiversity; however, the degree of impact can vary depending on the ecosystem and taxa. Here, we test whether a top invader at a global scale, the tree Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust or false acacia, which is known to profoundly change site conditions, significantly affects urban animal diversity. As a first multi-taxon study of this kind, we analyzed the effects of Robinia dominance on 18 arthropod taxa by pairwise comparisons of woodlands in Berlin, Germany, that were dominated by R. pseudoacacia or the native pioneer tree Betula pendula. As a negative effect, abundances of five arthropod taxa decreased (Chilopoda, Formicidae, Diptera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera; 13 others were not affected. Woodland type affected species composition of carabids and functional groups in spiders, but surprisingly did not decrease alpha and beta diversity of carabid and spider assemblages or the number of endangered species. Tree invasion thus did not induce biotic homogenization at the habitat scale. We detected no positive effects of alien dominance. Our results illustrate that invasions by a major tree invader can induce species turnover in ground-dwelling arthropods, but do not necessarily reduce arthropod species abundances or diversity and might thus contribute to the conservation of epigeal invertebrates in urban settings. Considering the context of invasion impacts thus helps to set priorities in managing biological invasions and can illustrate the potential of novel ecosystems to maintain urban biodiversity.

  14. Effects of a Major Tree Invader on Urban Woodland Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Sascha; Tietze, Hedwig; Kowarik, Ingo; Schirmel, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions are a major threat to biodiversity; however, the degree of impact can vary depending on the ecosystem and taxa. Here, we test whether a top invader at a global scale, the tree Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust or false acacia), which is known to profoundly change site conditions, significantly affects urban animal diversity. As a first multi-taxon study of this kind, we analyzed the effects of Robinia dominance on 18 arthropod taxa by pairwise comparisons of woodlands in Berlin, Germany, that were dominated by R. pseudoacacia or the native pioneer tree Betula pendula. As a negative effect, abundances of five arthropod taxa decreased (Chilopoda, Formicidae, Diptera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera); 13 others were not affected. Woodland type affected species composition of carabids and functional groups in spiders, but surprisingly did not decrease alpha and beta diversity of carabid and spider assemblages or the number of endangered species. Tree invasion thus did not induce biotic homogenization at the habitat scale. We detected no positive effects of alien dominance. Our results illustrate that invasions by a major tree invader can induce species turnover in ground-dwelling arthropods, but do not necessarily reduce arthropod species abundances or diversity and might thus contribute to the conservation of epigeal invertebrates in urban settings. Considering the context of invasion impacts thus helps to set priorities in managing biological invasions and can illustrate the potential of novel ecosystems to maintain urban biodiversity.

  15. A Comparison of the Pitfall Trap, Winkler Extractor and Berlese Funnel for Sampling Ground-Dwelling Arthropods in Tropical Montane Cloud Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabu, Thomas K.; Shiju, Raj T.; Vinod, KV.; Nithya, S.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the ground-dwelling arthropod diversity in tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF). Due to unique habitat conditions in TMCFs with continuously wet substrates and a waterlogged forest floor along with the innate biases of the pitfall trap, Berlese funnel and Winkler extractor are certain to make it difficult to choose the most appropriate method to sample the ground-dwelling arthropods in TMCFs. Among the three methods, the Winkler extractor was the most efficient method for quantitative data and pitfall trapping for qualitative data for most groups. Inclusion of floatation method as a complementary method along with the Winkler extractor would enable a comprehensive quantitative survey of ground-dwelling arthropods. Pitfall trapping is essential for both quantitative and qualitative sampling of Diplopoda, Opiliones, Orthoptera, and Diptera. The Winkler extractor was the best quantitative method for Psocoptera, Araneae, Isopoda, and Formicidae; and the Berlese funnel was best for Collembola and Chilopoda. For larval forms of different insect orders and the Acari, all the three methods were equally effective. PMID:21529148

  16. An Epidemiological Study of Animal Bites and Envenomings in a Rural District of Tamilnadu, India

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    Venkatesan M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To find out the period prevalence of animal bites and envenomings, its epidemiological risk factors and treatment seeking behaviour. Materials and methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in the 34 villages of the field practising areas of the Rural Health Training Centre, Thiruvenainallur. Considering the prevalence of bites as 7.4%, and taking 5 members in each household with a non response of 10% the number households studied were 4150 covering a population of 18865 which was calculated using an Open EPI version (2.3 software package. Sampling frame of households was prepared and systemic random sampling method was used to select households from each village. Trained medical interns and social workers collected information on bites in the preceding one year. Data was entered and analyzed in Epi_info (3.4.3 software. Results: In this study, information of 12947 adults was included and the overall period prevalence of bites was 81.8/1000 population. The most common bite is dog bite (22.3 followed by scorpion (22.1 and centipede (17.8 per 1000 population. The dog bites are significantly higher among males, people below the poverty line, farmers and laborers. There is significantly increased risk of snake bites among people working in agriculture fields. Only 35% of the dog bite victims washed their wound with soap and water and 28% applied irritants such as ash, ink, calotropis milk etc. over the wounds. Anti-rabies vaccination was given in 60% of the dog bite victims and life saving measure of Rabies Immunoglobulins (RIGS was given in only in 6.2%. Almost half of the bitten victims of scorpion and centipede follow traditional methods of treatment. Conclusions: Considering the high prevalence of different bites and treatment seeking behavior indicates there is a lack of awareness regarding all forms of bites in the rural community. The existing program of rabies control has to be strengthened and community awareness about

  17. Soil organisms in organic and conventional cropping systems Organismos do solo em sistemas de cultivo orgânico e convencional

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    Wagner Bettiol

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recent interest in organic agriculture, little research has been carried out in this area. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare, in a dystrophic Ultisol, the effects of organic and conventional agricultures on soil organism populations, for the tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum and corn (Zea mays crops. In general, it was found that fungus, bacterium and actinomycet populations counted by the number of colonies in the media, were similar for the two cropping systems. CO2 evolution during the cropping season was higher, up to the double for the organic agriculture system as compared to the conventional. The number of earthworms was about ten times higher in the organic system. There was no difference in the decomposition rate of organic matter of the two systems. In general, the number of microartropods was always higher in the organic plots in relation to the conventional ones, reflectining on the Shannon index diversity. The higher insect population belonged to the Collembola order, and in the case of mites, to the superfamily Oribatuloidea. Individuals of the groups Aranae, Chilopoda, Dyplopoda, Pauropoda, Protura and Symphyla were occasionally collected in similar number in both cropping systems.Apesar do crescente interesse pela agricultura orgânica, são poucas as informações de pesquisa disponíveis sobre o assunto. Assim, num Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico foram comparados os efeitos de sistemas de cultivo orgânico e convencional, para as culturas do tomate (Lycopersicum esculentum e do milho (Zea mays, sobre a comunidade de organismos do solo e suas atividades. As populações de fungos, bactérias e actinomicetos, determinadas pela contagem de colônias em meio de cultura, foram semelhantes para os dois sistemas de produção. A atividade microbiana, avaliada pela evolução de CO2, manteve-se superior no sistema orgânico, sendo que em determinadas avaliações foi o dobro da evolução verificada no

  18. Soil macrofauna under integrated crop-livestock systems in a Brazilian Cerrado Ferralsol Macrofauna edáfica em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária num Latossolo Vermelho do Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robélio Leandro Marchão

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effects of integrated crop-livestock systems, associated with two tillage and two fertilization regimes, on the abundance and diversity of the soil macrofauna. Four different management systems were studied: continuous pasture (mixed grass; continuous crop; two crop-livestock rotations (crop/pasture and pasture/crop; and native Cerrado as a control. Macrofauna was sampled using a modified Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility method, and all individuals were counted and identified at the morphospecies level for each plot. A total of 194 morphospecies were found, distributed among 30 groups, and the most representative in decreasing order of density were: Isoptera, Coleoptera larvae, Formicidae, Oligochaeta, Coleoptera adult, Diplopoda, Hemiptera, Diptera larvae, Arachnida, Chilopoda, Lepidoptera, Gasteropoda, Blattodea and Orthoptera. Soil management systems and tillage regimes affected the structure of soil macrofauna, and integrated crop-livestock systems, associated with no-tillage, especially with grass/legume species associations, had more favorable conditions for the development of "soil engineers" compared with continuous pasture or arable crops. Soil macrofauna density and diversity, assessed at morphospecies level, are effective data to measure the impact of land use in Cerrado soils.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária, associados a dois tipos de preparo e de fertilização do solo, sobre a abundância e a diversidade da macrofauna edáfica. Quatro sistemas de manejo foram estudados: pastagem contínua de gramíneas; lavoura contínua de culturas anuais; dois sistemas integrados lavoura-pecuária (lavoura/pastagem e pastagem/lavoura; e Cerrado nativo (controle. A macrofauna foi avaliada pelo método "Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility" modificado e todos os indivíduos coletados nas parcelas foram contados e identificados ao nível de

  19. Life cycle of lithobiidae - with a discussion of the r-and K-selection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Anke M

    1983-02-01

    The life cycle of two lithobiid species (Chilopoda: Lithobiidae) Lithobius mutabilis L. Koch and L. curtipes C.L. Koch in an old beech stand in the Solling is described. In addition to a main egg-laying period lithobiids are able to lay eggs continuously throughout the year. The reproductive potential is small, as only one egg is laid over several days. Most juveniles hatch in the spring and over-winter as L3 or L4 larvae. Epimorph development to attainment of sexual maturity takes nearly 2 years. Adult L. mutablilis live a further 2 years or more, adult L. curtipes about 1 year or more. Total life span is about 5-6 years for L. mutabilis and 4-5 years for L. curtipes. Egg development times and instar durations can be very different for different animals. Mortality is relatively high for eggs and small juveniles and low for post larval instars except the very old animals. A method is presented for construction of a survivorship curve from monthly abundance figures. Due to their slow development, late attainment of reproductive period, long reproductive phase, low reproductive potential, long life span, low mortality of post larval instars except very old animals, lithobiids can be regarded as K-strategists or, better, equilibrium species, among the arthropods. It is argued that the theory of r- and K-selection in its general use is not sufficient for a description of the ecological strategies of animals such as Lithobiomorpha. For lithobiids, variability in development time is a very important means of keeping population size at a constant level. The life cycle of the two lithobiid species is compared with ahat of Geophilomorpha and one henicopid species also occurring in the Solling.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of Pauropus longiramus (Myriapoda: Pauropoda): implications on early diversification of the myriapods revealed from comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Sun, Hongying; Guo, Hua; Pan, Da; Qian, Changyuan; Hao, Sijing; Zhou, Kaiya

    2012-08-15

    Myriapods are among the earliest arthropods and may have evolved to become part of the terrestrial biota more than 400 million years ago. A noticeable lack of mitochondrial genome data from Pauropoda hampers phylogenetic and evolutionary studies within the subphylum Myriapoda. We sequenced the first complete mitochondrial genome of a microscopic pauropod, Pauropus longiramus (Arthropoda: Myriapoda), and conducted comprehensive mitogenomic analyses across the Myriapoda. The pauropod mitochondrial genome is a circular molecule of 14,487 bp long and contains the entire set of thirty-seven genes. Frequent intergenic overlaps occurred between adjacent tRNAs, and between tRNA and protein-coding genes. This is the first example of a mitochondrial genome with multiple intergenic overlaps and reveals a strategy for arthropods to effectively compact the mitochondrial genome by overlapping and truncating tRNA genes with neighbor genes, instead of only truncating tRNAs. Phylogenetic analyses based on protein-coding genes provide strong evidence that the sister group of Pauropoda is Symphyla. Additionally, approximately unbiased (AU) tests strongly support the Progoneata and confirm the basal position of Chilopoda in Myriapoda. This study provides an estimation of myriapod origins around 555 Ma (95% CI: 444-704 Ma) and this date is comparable with that of the Cambrian explosion and candidate myriapod-like fossils. A new time-scale suggests that deep radiations during early myriapod diversification occurred at least three times, not once as previously proposed. A Carboniferous origin of pauropods is congruent with the idea that these taxa are derived, rather than basal, progoneatans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Percepção entomológica por docentes e discentes do município de Santa Cruz do Xingu, Mato Grosso, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Frida Hatsue Modro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n2p153 Este trabalho objetivou identificar e interpretar a percepção entomológica de alunos e professores residentes em Santa Cruz do Xingu, região do Médio Araguaia. Entrevistas semi-estruturadas foram realizadas em dezembro de 2006 com alunos e professores dos ensinos fundamental, médio e Educação de Jovens e Adultos em dezembro de 2006, no Município de Santa Cruz do Xingu, Mato Grosso. Dos seres vivos percebidos como “insetos” por todos os entrevistados, 82,75% pertenceram à Classe Insecta, as demais citações foram pertencentes ao Reino Fungi e a outras Classes do Reino Animalia (Amphibia, Arachnida, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Gastropoda, Mammalia e Reptilia. Os “insetos” foram definidos, como bichos pequenos, nojentos ou perigosos. Em contato com os “insetos”, 76% dos entrevistados admitiram matá-los e a maior razão para tal reação foi o dano psicológico causado pela presença destes animais (65%. Para 78% dos entrevistados, os “insetos” foram seres sem importância positiva. Devido ao pouco conhecimento sobre os seus aspectos positivos, a percepção dos “insetos” por alunos e professores residentes da região de Santa Cruz do Xingu está relacionada, principalmente, à atribuição de qualidades negativas a estes animais, provocando reações de agressividade contra os “insetos” assim que percebidos no ambiente.

  2. Study on production of useful metabolites by development of advanced cell culture techniques using radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jin Hong; Lee, Seung Sik; Kim, Jae Sung; An, Byung Chull; Moon, Yu Ran; Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Jae Tack [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of this project is improvement of investigation, materialization and evaluation techniques on effectiveness for functional natural compounds throughout development of tissue/cell culture techniques for mass production of useful metabolites using radiation. Research scope includes 1) Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture, 2) Database construction for radiation response in plants and radiation effects, 3) Construction of general-purpose national based techniques of cell culture technique using radiation. Main results are as follow: mass culture of the adventitious roots of mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) roots using rare earth elements in bioreactor: characterization of a transcription factor EoP gene from centipedegrass and the transcription regulation of LexA from Synechocystis sp PCC6803 and E. coli: identification of gamma-ray induced hydrogenase synthesis in hox gene transformed E. coli: transformation and the selection of the EoP transgene from Arabidopsis, rice and lettuce: Identification of the maysin and maysin derivatives in centipedegrass: characterization of gamma-ray induced color change in Taxus cuspidata: verification of the expression of antioxidant proteins (POD, APX and CAT) to gamma-ray in Arabidopsis: comparison of the response of the expression level to gamma-ray or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in Arabidopsis; verification of the responses and effects to gamma-ray from plants (analysis of NPQ and ROS levels): the development method for rapidly enhancing maysin content of centipede grass; establishment of mass culture system for red beet

  3. Venomous snake bites, scorpions, and spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kularatne, S A M; Senanayake, Nimal

    2014-01-01

    Neurologic dysfunction due to natural neurotoxins is an important, but neglected, public health hazard in many parts of the world, particularly in the tropics. These toxins are produced by or found among a variety of live forms that include venomous snakes, arthropods such as scorpions, spiders, centipedes, stinging insects (Hymenoptera), ticks, certain poisonous fish, shellfish, crabs, cone shells, skin secretions of dart-poison frogs, and bacterial poisons such as botulinum toxin. These toxins commonly act on neuromuscular transmission at the neuromuscular junction where acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter, but in certain situations the toxins interfere with neurotransmitters such as GABA, noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, and γ-aminobutyrate. Of the toxins, α-toxins and κ-toxins (e.g., Chinese krait, Bungarus multicinctus) act on the postsynaptic membrane, blocking the receptors, whilst β-toxin (e.g., common krait, B. caeruleus) acts on the presynaptic membrane, causing impairment of acetylcholine release. Conversely, dendrotoxins of the African mamba enhance acetylcholine release. The toxins of scorpions and spiders commonly interfere with voltage-gated ion channels. Clinically, the cardinal manifestation is muscle paralysis. In severe cases respiratory paralysis could be fatal. Effective antivenoms are the mainstay of treatment of envenoming, but their lack of availability is the major concern in the regions of the globe where they are desperately needed. Interestingly, some toxins have proved to be valuable pharmaceutical agents, while some others are widely exploited to study neuromuscular physiology and pathology. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A TALE of shrimps: Genome-wide survey of homeobox genes in 120 species from diverse crustacean taxa [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Hoong Chang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The homeodomain-containing proteins are an important group of transcription factors found in most eukaryotes including animals, plants and fungi. Homeobox genes are responsible for a wide range of critical developmental and physiological processes, ranging from embryonic development, innate immune homeostasis to whole-body regeneration. With continued fascination on this key class of proteins by developmental and evolutionary biologists, multiple efforts have thus far focused on the identification and characterization of homeobox orthologs from key model organisms in attempts to infer their evolutionary origin and how this underpins the evolution of complex body plans. Despite their importance, the genetic complement of homeobox genes has yet been described in one of the most valuable groups of animals representing economically important food crops. With crustacean aquaculture being a growing industry worldwide, it is clear that systematic and cross-species identification of crustacean homeobox orthologs is necessary in order to harness this genetic circuitry for the improvement of aquaculture sustainability. Using publicly available transcriptome data sets, we identified a total of 4183 putative homeobox genes from 120 crustacean species that include food crop species, such as lobsters, shrimps, crayfish and crabs. Additionally, we identified 717 homeobox orthologs from 6 other non-crustacean arthropods, which include the scorpion, deer tick, mosquitoes and centipede. This high confidence set of homeobox genes will now serve as a key resource to the broader community for future functional and comparative genomics studies.

  5. [Microelement contents of litter, soil fauna and soil in Pinus koraiensis and broad-leaved mixed forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiu-qin; Li, Jin-xia; Dong, Wei-hua

    2007-02-01

    The analysis on the Mn, Zn and Cu contents of litter, soil fauna and soil in Pinus korazenszis and broad-leaved mixed forest in Liangshui Natural Reserve of Xiaoxing' an Mountains showed that the test microelement contents in the litter, soil fauna and soil all followed the sequence of Mn > Zn > Cu, but varied with these environmental components, being in the sequence of soil > litter > soil fauna for Mn, soil fauna > litter and soil for Zn, and soil fauna > soil > litter for Cu. The change range of test microelement contents in litter was larger in broad-leaved forest than in coniferous forest. Different soil fauna differed in their microelement-enrichment capability, e. g. , earthworm, centipede, diplopod had the highest content of Mn, Zn and Cu, respectively. The contents of test microelements in soil fauna had significant correlations with their environmental background values, litter decomposition rate, food habit of soil fauna, and its absorbing selectivity and enrichment to microelements. The microelements contained in 5-20 cm soil layer were more than those in 0-5 cm soil layer, and their dynamics differed in various soil layers.

  6. Quo Vadis Venomics? A Roadmap to Neglected Venomous Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reumont, Bjoern Marcus; Campbell, Lahcen I.; Jenner, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms. PMID:25533518

  7. Effects of red-backed salamanders on ecosystem functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Hocking

    Full Text Available Ecosystems provide a vast array of services for human societies, but understanding how various organisms contribute to the functions that maintain these services remains an important ecological challenge. Predators can affect ecosystem functions through a combination of top-down trophic cascades and bottom-up effects on nutrient dynamics. As the most abundant vertebrate predator in many eastern US forests, woodland salamanders (Plethodon spp. likely affect ecosystems functions. We examined the effects of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus on a variety of forest ecosystem functions using a combined approach of large-scale salamander removals (314-m(2 plots and small-scale enclosures (2 m(2 where we explicitly manipulated salamander density (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 m(-2. In these experiments, we measured the rates of litter and wood decomposition, potential nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates, acorn germination, and foliar insect damage on red oak seedlings. Across both experimental venues, we found no significant effect of red-backed salamanders on any of the ecosystem functions. We also found no effect of salamanders on intraguild predator abundance (carabid beetles, centipedes, spiders. Our study adds to the already conflicting evidence on effects of red-backed salamander and other amphibians on terrestrial ecosystem functions. It appears likely that the impact of terrestrial amphibians on ecosystem functions is context dependent. Future research would benefit from explicitly examining terrestrial amphibian effects on ecosystem functions under a variety of environmental conditions and in different forest types.

  8. Ecological effects and animal risk assessment of radiation pollution in Russia and former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivolutsky, D.

    1995-01-01

    The ecological after-effects of long-term radiation pollution, animal biodiversity changes and life-cycle assessment of model species of soil invertebrates mammals, birds, reptiles have been studied in 1968-1994 in the former USSR (Russia, Ukraine, Kazachstan). There has been observed an initial reduction of animal biodiversity community structure in Kyshtym (south Ural) and Chernobyl polluted areas and a low return to the former ecosystems. The secondary changes and side-effects for the active migrants (insects, birds, mammals) have been registered. The most valid bioindicators and biomarkers of radioactive pollution may be stable populations of reptiles, birds, earthworms, centipede, microarthropods. The radioactive soil pollution exerts the greatest impact on the permanent soil dwelling animals. As direct effects it has been seen the appreciable reduction of population density disturbance of the breeding process, degradation of species diversity community structure. In fact a soil with high level 90 Sr and a radiation 1--3 R/day containing 10-fold reduction of population soil inhabit millipedes earthworms, insect larvae, Enchytraeidae aranea. The accumulation of radionuclides by terrestrial and soil animals effects of trophic levels, zoogenical radionuclides migration have been studied in polluted ecosystems of South Ural and Chernobyl

  9. A TALE of shrimps: Genome-wide survey of homeobox genes in 120 species from diverse crustacean taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wai Hoong; Lai, Alvina G

    2018-01-01

    The homeodomain-containing proteins are an important group of transcription factors found in most eukaryotes including animals, plants and fungi. Homeobox genes are responsible for a wide range of critical developmental and physiological processes, ranging from embryonic development, innate immune homeostasis to whole-body regeneration. With continued fascination on this key class of proteins by developmental and evolutionary biologists, multiple efforts have thus far focused on the identification and characterization of homeobox orthologs from key model organisms in attempts to infer their evolutionary origin and how this underpins the evolution of complex body plans. Despite their importance, the genetic complement of homeobox genes has yet been described in one of the most valuable groups of animals representing economically important food crops. With crustacean aquaculture being a growing industry worldwide, it is clear that systematic and cross-species identification of crustacean homeobox orthologs is necessary in order to harness this genetic circuitry for the improvement of aquaculture sustainability. Using publicly available transcriptome data sets, we identified a total of 4183 putative homeobox genes from 120 crustacean species that include food crop species, such as lobsters, shrimps, crayfish and crabs. Additionally, we identified 717 homeobox orthologs from 6 other non-crustacean arthropods, which include the scorpion, deer tick, mosquitoes and centipede. This high confidence set of homeobox genes will now serve as a key resource to the broader community for future functional and comparative genomics studies.

  10. The toxicogenomic multiverse: convergent recruitment of proteins into animal venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Bryan G; Roelants, Kim; Champagne, Donald E; Scheib, Holger; Tyndall, Joel D A; King, Glenn F; Nevalainen, Timo J; Norman, Janette A; Lewis, Richard J; Norton, Raymond S; Renjifo, Camila; de la Vega, Ricardo C Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    Throughout evolution, numerous proteins have been convergently recruited into the venoms of various animals, including centipedes, cephalopods, cone snails, fish, insects (several independent venom systems), platypus, scorpions, shrews, spiders, toxicoferan reptiles (lizards and snakes), and sea anemones. The protein scaffolds utilized convergently have included AVIT/colipase/prokineticin, CAP, chitinase, cystatin, defensins, hyaluronidase, Kunitz, lectin, lipocalin, natriuretic peptide, peptidase S1, phospholipase A(2), sphingomyelinase D, and SPRY. Many of these same venom protein types have also been convergently recruited for use in the hematophagous gland secretions of invertebrates (e.g., fleas, leeches, kissing bugs, mosquitoes, and ticks) and vertebrates (e.g., vampire bats). Here, we discuss a number of overarching structural, functional, and evolutionary generalities of the protein families from which these toxins have been frequently recruited and propose a revised and expanded working definition for venom. Given the large number of striking similarities between the protein compositions of conventional venoms and hematophagous secretions, we argue that the latter should also fall under the same definition.

  11. Effects of red-backed salamanders on ecosystem functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Daniel J; Babbitt, Kimberly J

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems provide a vast array of services for human societies, but understanding how various organisms contribute to the functions that maintain these services remains an important ecological challenge. Predators can affect ecosystem functions through a combination of top-down trophic cascades and bottom-up effects on nutrient dynamics. As the most abundant vertebrate predator in many eastern US forests, woodland salamanders (Plethodon spp.) likely affect ecosystems functions. We examined the effects of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) on a variety of forest ecosystem functions using a combined approach of large-scale salamander removals (314-m(2) plots) and small-scale enclosures (2 m(2)) where we explicitly manipulated salamander density (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 m(-2)). In these experiments, we measured the rates of litter and wood decomposition, potential nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates, acorn germination, and foliar insect damage on red oak seedlings. Across both experimental venues, we found no significant effect of red-backed salamanders on any of the ecosystem functions. We also found no effect of salamanders on intraguild predator abundance (carabid beetles, centipedes, spiders). Our study adds to the already conflicting evidence on effects of red-backed salamander and other amphibians on terrestrial ecosystem functions. It appears likely that the impact of terrestrial amphibians on ecosystem functions is context dependent. Future research would benefit from explicitly examining terrestrial amphibian effects on ecosystem functions under a variety of environmental conditions and in different forest types.

  12. Are groups more rational than individuals? A review of interactive decision making in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Tamar; Kausel, Edgar E; Kocher, Martin G

    2012-07-01

    Many decisions are interactive; the outcome of one party depends not only on its decisions or on acts of nature but also on the decisions of others. Standard game theory assumes that individuals are rational, self-interested decision makers-that is, decision makers are selfish, perfect calculators, and flawless executors of their strategies. A myriad of studies shows that these assumptions are problematic, at least when examining decisions made by individuals. In this article, we review the literature of the last 25 years on decision making by groups. Researchers have compared the strategic behavior of groups and individuals in many games: prisoner's dilemma, dictator, ultimatum, trust, centipede and principal-agent games, among others. Our review suggests that results are quite consistent in revealing that group decisions are closer to the game-theoretic assumption of rationality than individual decisions. Given that many real-world decisions are made by groups, it is possible to argue that standard game theory is a better descriptive model than previously believed by experimental researchers. We conclude by discussing future research avenues in this area. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:471-482. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1184 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Somatic and Germline Diversification of a Putative Immunoreceptor within One Phylum: Dscam in Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brites, Daniela; Du Pasquier, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod Dscam, the homologue of the human Down Syndrome cell adhesion molecule, is a receptor used by the nervous and immune systems. Unlike in vertebrates, evolutionary pressure has selected and maintained a vast Dscam diversity of isoforms, known to specifying neuronal identity during the nervous system differentiation. This chapter examines the different modes of Dscam diversification in the context of arthropods' evolution and that of their immune system, where its role is controversial. In the single Dscam gene of insects and crustaceans, mutually exclusive alternative splicing affects three clusters of duplicated exons encoding the variable parts of the receptor. The Dscam gene produces over 10,000 isoforms. In the more basal arthropods such as centipedes, Dscam diversity results from a combination of many germline genes (over 80) with, in about half of those, the possibility of alternative splicing affecting only one exon cluster. In the even more basal arthropods, such as chelicerates, no splicing possibility is detected, but there exist dozens of germline Dscam genes. Compared to controlling the expression of multiple germline genes, the somatic mutually alternative splicing within a single gene may offer a simplified way of expressing a large Dscam repertoire. Expressed by hemocytes, Dscam is considered a phagocytic receptor but is also encountered in solution. More information is necessary about its binding to pathogens, its role in phagocytosis, its possible role in specifying hemocyte identity, its kinetics of expression, and the regulation of its RNA splicing to understand how its diversity is linked to immunity.

  14. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Clifford; Steedman, Catrina

    2012-07-01

    A variety of exotic vertebrate and invertebrate species are kept as 'pets' including fishes, amphibians (for example, frogs and toads), reptiles (turtles, crocodiles, lizards and snakes), birds, mammals (for example, primates, civets, and lions), and invertebrates (for example spiders, scorpions, and centipedes), and ownership of some of these animals is rising. Data for 2009-2011 suggest that the number of homes with reptiles rose by approximately 12.5%. Recent surveys, including only some of these animals, indicated that they might be present in around 18.6% of homes (equal to approximately 42 million animals of which around 40 million are indoor or outdoor fish). Many exotic 'pets' are capable of causing injury or poisoning to their keepers and some contacts prove fatal. We examined NHS Health Episode Statistics for England using selected formal categories for hospital admissions and bed days for 2004-2010 using the following categories of injury, envenomation or sting; bitten or struck by crocodile or alligator; bitten or crushed by other reptiles: contact with venomous snakes and lizards; contact with scorpions. Between 2004 and 2010 these data conservatively show a total of 760 full consultation episodes, 709 admissions and 2,121 hospital bed days were associated with injuries probably from exotic pets. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets constitute a small but important component of emerging medical problems. Greater awareness of relevant injuries and medical sequelae from exotic pet keeping may help medics formulate their clinical assessment and advice to patients.

  15. The Impact of Vegetative Slope on Water Flow and Pollutant Transport through Embankments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liting Sheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Embankments are common structures along rivers or lakes in riparian zones in plain areas. They should have natural slopes instead of slopes covered by concrete or other hard materials, in order to rebuild sustainable ecosystems for riparian zones. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of vegetative slopes on water flow and pollutant transport through the embankments. Three embankments with different slope treatments (a bare slope, a slope covered in centipede grass, a slope covered in tall fescue were examined, and three inflow applications of pollute water with different concentration of total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP used to simulate different agricultural non-point pollution levels. The results showed that the water flux rates of the three embankments were relatively stable under all inflow events, and almost all values were higher than 80%. The embankments with vegetative slopes had better nitrogen removal than the bare slope under all events, and the one with tall fescue slope was best, but the benefits of vegetative slopes decreased with increasing inflow concentration. Moreover, there were no significant differences between the embankments on phosphorus removal, for which the reductions were all high (above 90% with most loads remaining in the front third of embankment bodies. Overall, the embankments with vegetative slopes had positive effects on water exchange and reducing non-point pollutant into lake or river water, which provides a quantitative scientific basis for the actual layout of lakeshores.

  16. Study on production of useful metabolites by development of advanced cell culture techniques using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jin Hong; Lee, Seung Sik; Kim, Jae Sung; An, Byung Chull; Moon, Yu Ran; Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Jae Tack

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this project is improvement of investigation, materialization and evaluation techniques on effectiveness for functional natural compounds throughout development of tissue/cell culture techniques for mass production of useful metabolites using radiation. Research scope includes 1) Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture, 2) Database construction for radiation response in plants and radiation effects, 3) Construction of general-purpose national based techniques of cell culture technique using radiation. Main results are as follow: mass culture of the adventitious roots of mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) roots using rare earth elements in bioreactor: characterization of a transcription factor EoP gene from centipedegrass and the transcription regulation of LexA from Synechocystis sp PCC6803 and E. coli: identification of gamma-ray induced hydrogenase synthesis in hox gene transformed E. coli: transformation and the selection of the EoP transgene from Arabidopsis, rice and lettuce: Identification of the maysin and maysin derivatives in centipedegrass: characterization of gamma-ray induced color change in Taxus cuspidata: verification of the expression of antioxidant proteins (POD, APX and CAT) to gamma-ray in Arabidopsis: comparison of the response of the expression level to gamma-ray or H 2 O 2 in Arabidopsis; verification of the responses and effects to gamma-ray from plants (analysis of NPQ and ROS levels): the development method for rapidly enhancing maysin content of centipede grass; establishment of mass culture system for red beet

  17. Quo Vadis Venomics? A Roadmap to Neglected Venomous Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjoern Marcus von Reumont

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms.

  18. [Origin of animal experimentation legislation in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocard, M

    1999-01-01

    The first legislation in the world, designed to protect animals used in research, was passed in England in 1876, and is still in force today. It is one of the strictest in Europe. At the same period, France had no such law, and was the country conducting the greatest amount of animal experimentation. Comparing, these two countries, in the middle of the 19th century, can account for this difference. The most important difference seems to be related to the theological question: are animals endowed with a soul? Saint Augustine, claimed, in the 4th century, perhaps because of an experiment with the centipede, that animals do not have a soul. In the 17th century, René Descartes, using a different philosophical system, reached a similar conclusion, in France. On the other hand, under the influence of Charles Darwin, England rejected the Roman Catholic conclusion, about the soul of animals. The industrial revolution, occurring earlier in England than in France, also changed the society, developing urban areas, where people were cut off from rural life and changing human relationships with animals. The industrial revolution enabled the development of the press, giving impetus to public opinion. These facts, combined with a caution of science, which was more developed in England than in France, brought about the first important "anti-doctor" campaign.

  19. Study of microarthropod communities to assess soil quality in different managed vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnarli, Elena; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Bouneb, Mabrouk; Corino, Lorenzo; Goggioli, Donatella; Guidi, Silvia; Lottero, Mariarosa; Tarchi, Franca; Simoni, Sauro

    2014-05-01

    conventional/IPM management). The mites represented about 50% of the arthropodofauna recorded, collembolans 30%, and 20% other microarthropods (Blattaria, Chilopoda, Coleoptera, Diplopoda, Diplura, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Isopoda, Homoptera, Pauropoda, Protura, Pseudoscopionida, Psocoptera, Symphyla, Thysanoptera). The mesofauna abundance was affected by the type of management (P=0.015) and soil texture (P=0.029). At the identification level considered, the biological indices calculated showed no substantial differences between different crop managements (H'=1.26, D=0.97 in organic vineyard, H'=1.30, D=0.89 in IPM vineyard). The analysis of microarthropod communities by QBSar, however, showed higher values in organic compared to IPM managed vineyards (QBSar 199 vs 98 in 2011 and 205 vs 188 in 2012, respectively) which are close to figures characteristic of preserved soils.

  20. Poison exposures in young Israeli military personnel: a National Poison Center Data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavon, Ophir; Bentur, Yedidia

    2017-06-01

    To characterize poison exposures in young Israeli military personnel as reported to the national poison center. Retrospective poison center chart review over a 14-year period. Cases included were Israeli soldiers aged 18-21 years, the compulsory military service age required by the Israeli law. 1770 records of poison exposures in young military personnel were identified. Most exposed individuals involved males (n = 1268, 71.6%). Main routes of exposure were ingestion (n = 854, 48.3%), inhalation (n = 328, 18.6%) and ocular (n = 211, 11.9%). Accidents or misuse (n = 712, 40.2%) were the most frequently reported circumstances, followed by suicide attempts (370, 20.9%), and bites and stings (161, 9.1%). More than half of the cases involved chemicals (n = 939, 53.1%); hydrocarbons, gases and corrosives were the main causative agents. Pharmaceuticals (mainly analgesics) were involved in 519 (29.3%) cases, venomous animals (mainly scorpions, centipedes, and snakes) in 79 (4.5%). Clinical manifestations were reported in 666 (37.6%) cases, mostly gastrointestinal, neurologic, and respiratory. The vast majority of cases (1634, 92.3%) were asymptomatic or mildly affected; no fatalities were recorded. In 831 (46.9%) cases the clinical toxicologist recommended referral to an emergency department; ambulatory observation was recommended in 563 (31.8%) cases, and hospitalization in 86 (4.9%). Our data show that poison exposures among young soldiers involve mainly males, accidents, misuse and suicides, oral route and chemicals; most exposures were asymptomatic or with mild severity. Repeated evaluations of poison center data pertaining to military personnel is advised for identifying trends in poison exposure and characteristics in this particular population.

  1. Structural diversity of the lanthanide oxalates: Condensation of neodymium oxygen polyhedra under hydrothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mer, A.; Rivenet, M.; Abraham, F.; De Almeida, L.; Grandjean, S.

    2013-01-01

    New neodymium hydroxo-oxalate and oxalate [Nd 6 (H 2 O) 6 (C 2 O 4 ) 7 (OH) 4 ].4H 2 O (1) and [Nd 2 (H 2 O) 4 (C 2 O 4 ) 3 ].2H 2 O (2) were synthesized by hydrothermal reaction at 150 C between neodymium nitrate and oxalic acid solutions at pH = 10-11 obtained by adding various monoamines. The structures were determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The two compounds crystallize in the monoclinic system with space group P21/c and a = 17.4384 (11), b = 8.1717 (5), c = 12.9929 (7), β = 94.66 (1) degrees, V = 1845.38 (19) (Angstroms) 3 , Z = 2 for 1 and a = 9.8249 (2) Angstroms, b = 8.2487 (2) Angstroms, c = 10.1911 (3) Angstroms, β = 99.09 (1), V = 815.53 (4) (Angstroms) 3 , Z = 2 for 2. Full matrix least-squares refinement yielded R1 = 0.0365 and 0.0267 for 6033 and 3382 independent reflections for 1 and 2 respectively. In 2, the three-dimensional neodymium oxalate arrangement results from dimeric units of edge shared NdO 9 polyhedra connected through oxalate ions acting as bis-bidentate. In 1, the neodymium atoms are connected through μ2-OH and μ3-OH ions to form a hexa-nuclear inorganic core [Nd 6 (OH) 4 (H 2 O) 6 ] with an un-precedently reported geometry leading to a hexa-nuclear polyhedra block. The blocks are connected through an O-O bridge involving two oxygen atoms of two oxalate ions to build a centipede-like ribbon. The ribbons are further connected through oxalate ions to form a three dimensional neodymium oxalate arrangement. In 1, oxalates adopt four distinct bridging modes of coordination, μ2, μ3, μ4 and μ5. (authors)

  2. RSS (http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/rss.xml

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    Arthropods (ISSN 2224-4255

    Full Text Available Arthropods ISSN 2224-4255 URL: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/online-version.asp RSS: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/rss.xml E-mail: arthropods@iaees.org Editor-in-Chief: WenJun Zhang Aims and Scope ARTHROPODS (ISSN 2224-4255 is an international journal devoted to the publication of articles on various aspects of arthropods, e.g., ecology, biogeography, systematics, biodiversity (species diversity, genetic diversity, et al., conservation, control, etc. The journal provides a forum for examining the importance of arthropods in biosphere (both terrestrial and marine ecosystems and human life in such fields as agriculture, forestry, fishery, environmental management and human health. The scope of Arthropods is wide and embraces all arthropods-insects, arachnids, crustaceans, centipedes, millipedes, and other arthropods. Articles/short communications on new taxa (species, genus, families, orders, etc. and new records of arthropods are particularly welcome. Authors can submit their works to the email box of this journal, arthropods@iaees.org. All manuscripts submitted to this journal must be previously unpublished and may not be considered for publication elsewhere at any time during review period of this journal. Authors are asked to read Author Guidelines before submitting manuscripts. In addition to free submissions from authors around the world, special issues are also accepted. The organizer of a special issue can collect submissions (yielded from a research project, a research group, etc. on a specific research topic, or submissions of a scientific conference for publication of special issue.

  3. Arthropods (http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/online-version.asp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    arthropods@iaees.org

    Full Text Available Arthropods ISSN 2224-4255 URL: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/online-version.asp RSS: http://www.iaees.org/publications/journals/arthropods/rss.xml E-mail: arthropods@iaees.org Editor-in-Chief: WenJun Zhang Aims and Scope ARTHROPODS (ISSN 2224-4255 is an international journal devoted to the publication of articles on various aspects of arthropods, e.g., ecology, biogeography, systematics, biodiversity (species diversity, genetic diversity, et al., conservation, control, etc. The journal provides a forum for examining the importance of arthropods in biosphere (both terrestrial and marine ecosystems and human life in such fields as agriculture, forestry, fishery, environmental management and human health. The scope of Arthropods is wide and embraces all arthropods-insects, arachnids, crustaceans, centipedes, millipedes, and other arthropods. Articles/short communications on new taxa (species, genus, families, orders, etc. and new records of arthropods are particularly welcome. Authors can submit their works to the email box of this journal, arthropods@iaees.org. All manuscripts submitted to this journal must be previously unpublished and may not be considered for publication elsewhere at any time during review period of this journal. Authors are asked to read Author Guidelines before submitting manuscripts. In addition to free submissions from authors around the world, special issues are also accepted. The organizer of a special issue can collect submissions (yielded from a research project, a research group, etc. on a specific research topic, or submissions of a scientific conference for publication of special issue.

  4. Predictive modeling of hazardous waste landfill total above-ground biomass using passive optical and LIDAR remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Brian Christopher

    This dissertation assessed remotely sensed data and geospatial modeling technique(s) to map the spatial distribution of total above-ground biomass present on the surface of the Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) hazardous waste landfill. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, regression kriging, and tree-structured regression were employed to model the empirical relationship between in-situ measured Bahia (Paspalum notatum Flugge) and Centipede [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.] grass biomass against an assortment of explanatory variables extracted from fine spatial resolution passive optical and LIDAR remotely sensed data. Explanatory variables included: (1) discrete channels of visible, near-infrared (NIR), and short-wave infrared (SWIR) reflectance, (2) spectral vegetation indices (SVI), (3) spectral mixture analysis (SMA) modeled fractions, (4) narrow-band derivative-based vegetation indices, and (5) LIDAR derived topographic variables (i.e. elevation, slope, and aspect). Results showed that a linear combination of the first- (1DZ_DGVI), second- (2DZ_DGVI), and third-derivative of green vegetation indices (3DZ_DGVI) calculated from hyperspectral data recorded over the 400--960 nm wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum explained the largest percentage of statistical variation (R2 = 0.5184) in the total above-ground biomass measurements. In general, the topographic variables did not correlate well with the MWMF biomass data, accounting for less than five percent of the statistical variation. It was concluded that tree-structured regression represented the optimum geospatial modeling technique due to a combination of model performance and efficiency/flexibility factors.

  5. Step process for selecting and testing surrogates and indicators of afrotemperate forest invertebrate diversity.

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    Charmaine Uys

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diversity and complexity of invertebrate communities usually result in their exclusion from conservation activities. Here we provide a step process for assessing predominantly ground-dwelling Afrotemperate forest invertebrates' (earthworms, centipedes, millipedes, ants, molluscs potential as surrogates for conservation and indicators for monitoring. We also evaluated sampling methods (soil and litter samples, pitfall traps, active searching quadrats and tree beating and temporal (seasonal effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lack of congruence of species richness across taxa indicated poor surrogacy potential for any of the focus taxa. Based on abundance and richness, seasonal stability, and ease of sampling, molluscs were the most appropriate taxon for use in monitoring of disturbance impacts. Mollusc richness was highest in March (Antipodal late summer wet season. The most effective and efficient methods were active searching quadrats and searching litter samples. We tested the effectiveness of molluscs as indicators for monitoring by contrasting species richness and community structure in burned relative to unburned forests. Both species richness and community structure changed significantly with burning. Some mollusc species (e.g. Macroptychia africana showed marked negative responses to burning, and these species have potential for use as indicators. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite habitat type (i.e., Afrotemperate forest being constant, species richness and community structure varied across forest patches. Therefore, in conservation planning, setting targets for coarse filter features (e.g., habitat type requires fine filter features (e.g., localities for individual species. This is especially true for limited mobility taxa such as those studied here. Molluscs have high potential for indicators for monitoring, and this requires broader study.

  6. Helminthes and insects: maladies or therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tantawy, Nora L

    2015-02-01

    By definition, parasites cause harm to their hosts. But, considerable evidence from ancient traditional medicine has supported the theory of using parasites and their products in treating many diseases. Maggots have been used successfully to treat chronic, long-standing, infected wounds which failed to respond to conventional treatment by many beneficial effects on the wound including debridement, disinfection, and healing enhancement. Maggots are also applied in forensic medicine to estimate time between the death and discovery of a corpse and in entomotoxicology involving the potential use of insects as alternative samples for detecting drugs and toxins in death investigations. Leeches are segmented invertebrates, famous by their blood-feeding habits and used in phlebotomy to treat various ailments since ancient times. Leech therapy is experiencing resurgence nowadays in health care principally in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Earthworms provide a source of medicinally useful products with potential antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer properties. Lumbrokinases are a group of fibrinolytic enzymes isolated and purified from earthworms capable of degrading plasminogen-rich and plasminogen-free fibrin and so can be used to treat various conditions associated with thrombotic diseases. Helminth infection has been proved to have therapeutic effects in both animal and human clinical trials with promising evidence in treating many allergic diseases and can block the induction of or reduce the severity of some autoimmune disorders as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. What is more, venomous arthropods such as scorpions, bees, wasps, spiders, ants, centipedes, snail, beetles, and caterpillars. The venoms and toxins from these arthropods provide a promising source of natural bioactive compounds which can be employed in the development of new drugs to treat diseases as cancer. The possibility of using these active molecules in biotechnological processes can

  7. Influence of surface flattening on biodiversity of terrestrial arthropods during early stages of brown coal spoil heap restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Jabbar; Potocký, Pavel; Kočárek, Petr; Bartuška, Martin; Tajovský, Karel; Tichánek, Filip; Frouz, Jan; Tropek, Robert

    2018-08-15

    Heterogeneity of environmental conditions is the crucial factor supporting biodiversity in various habitats, including post-mining sites. The effects of micro-topographic heterogeneity on biodiversity and conservation potential of arthropod communities in post-industrial habitats had not been studied before now. At one of the largest European brown coal spoil heaps, we sampled eight groups of terrestrial arthropods with different life strategies (moths, spiders, ground beetles, ants, orthopteroids, centipedes, millipedes, and woodlice), in successionally young plots (5-18 y), with a heterogeneous wavy surface after heaping, and compared the communities with plots flattened by dozing. A combination of the standardized quantitative sampling, using two different methods, and a paired design of the plot selection enabled a robust analysis. Altogether, we recorded 380 species of the focal arthropods, 15 of them nationally threatened. We revealed the importance of the micro-topographic heterogeneity for the formation of the biodiversity of arthropods in their secondary refuges. The communities with higher biodiversity and conservation value were detected in the plots with heterogeneous surfaces; exceptions were ground beetles and millipedes. The surface flattening, often the first step of technical reclamation projects, thus suppress biodiversity of most terrestrial arthropods during the restoration of post-mining sites. Since the communities of both surface types differed, the proportional presence on both surfaces could be more efficient in supporting the local biodiversity. We suggest reducing the surface dozing for the cases with other concerns only, to achieve a proportional representation of both surface types. Such a combination of different restoration approaches would, thus, efficiently support high biodiversity of groups with various needs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

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    Wallace M Meyer

    Full Text Available The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May and summer (September 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1 beetles (Coleoptera, (2 spiders (Araneae, (3 grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera, and (4 millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species and 76% (254 species of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests. Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon, significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  9. Habitat creation and biodiversity maintenance in mangrove forests: teredinid bivalves as ecosystem engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian W. Hendy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Substantial amounts of dead wood in the intertidal zone of mature mangrove forests are tunnelled by teredinid bivalves. When the tunnels are exposed, animals are able to use tunnels as refuges. In this study, the effect of teredinid tunnelling upon mangrove forest faunal diversity was investigated. Mangrove forests exposed to long emersion times had fewer teredinid tunnels in wood and wood not containing teredinid tunnels had very few species and abundance of animals. However, with a greater cross-sectional percentage surface area of teredinid tunnels, the numbers of species and abundance of animals was significantly higher. Temperatures within teredinid-attacked wood were significantly cooler compared with air temperatures, and animal abundance was greater in wood with cooler temperatures. Animals inside the tunnels within the wood may avoid desiccation by escaping the higher temperatures. Animals co-existing in teredinid tunnelled wood ranged from animals found in terrestrial ecosystems including centipedes, crickets and spiders, and animals found in subtidal marine ecosystems such as fish, octopods and polychaetes. There was also evidence of breeding within teredinid-attacked wood, as many juvenile individuals were found, and they may also benefit from the cooler wood temperatures. Teredinid tunnelled wood is a key low-tide refuge for cryptic animals, which would otherwise be exposed to fishes and birds, and higher external temperatures. This study provides evidence that teredinids are ecosystem engineers and also provides an example of a mechanism whereby mangrove forests support intertidal biodiversity and nurseries through the wood-boring activity of teredinids.

  10. Contribution of soil fauna to soil functioning in degraded environments: a multidisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Laura; Mele, Giacomo; Moradi, Jabbar; Kukla, Jaroslav; Jandová, Kateřina; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The restoration of the soil functions is essential for the recovery of highly degraded sites and, consequently, the study of the soil fauna role in the soil development in such environments has great potential from a practical point of view. The soils of the post-mining sites represent unique models for the study of the natural ecological succession because mining creates similar environments characterized by the same substrate, but by different ages according to the year of closure of mines. The aim of this work was to assess the contribution of different species of macrofauna on the evolution of soil structure and on the composition and activity of the microbial community in soil samples subjected to ecological restoration or characterized by spontaneous ecological succession. For this purpose, an experimental test was carried out in two sites characterized by different post-mining conditions: 1) natural succession, 2) reclamation with planting trees. These sites are located in the post-mining area of Sokolov (Czech Republic). For the experimental test repacked soil cores were prepared in laboratory with sieved soil sampled from the two sites. The soil cores were prepared maintaining the sequence of soil horizons present in the field. These samples were inoculated separately with two genera of earthworms (Lumbricus and Aporrectodea) and two of centipedes (Julida and Polydesmus). In particular, based on their body size, were inoculated for each cylinder 2 individuals of millipedes, 1 individual of Lumbricus and 4 individuals of Aporrectodea. For each treatment and for control samples 5 replicates were prepared and all samples were incubated in field for 1 month in the two original sampling sites. After the incubation the samples were removed from the field and transported in laboratory in order to perform the analysis of microbial respiration, of PLFA (phospholipid-derived fatty acids) and ergosterol contents and finally for the characterization of soil structure

  11. Six3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmetz Patrick RH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The heads of annelids (earthworms, polychaetes, and others and arthropods (insects, myriapods, spiders, and others and the arthropod-related onychophorans (velvet worms show similar brain architecture and for this reason have long been considered homologous. However, this view is challenged by the 'new phylogeny' placing arthropods and annelids into distinct superphyla, Ecdysozoa and Lophotrochozoa, together with many other phyla lacking elaborate heads or brains. To compare the organisation of annelid and arthropod heads and brains at the molecular level, we investigated head regionalisation genes in various groups. Regionalisation genes subdivide developing animals into molecular regions and can be used to align head regions between remote animal phyla. Results We find that in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii, expression of the homeobox gene six3 defines the apical region of the larval body, peripherally overlapping the equatorial otx+ expression. The six3+ and otx+ regions thus define the developing head in anterior-to-posterior sequence. In another annelid, the earthworm Pristina, as well as in the onychophoran Euperipatoides, the centipede Strigamia and the insects Tribolium and Drosophila, a six3/optix+ region likewise demarcates the tip of the developing animal, followed by a more posterior otx/otd+ region. Identification of six3+ head neuroectoderm in Drosophila reveals that this region gives rise to median neurosecretory brain parts, as is also the case in annelids. In insects, onychophorans and Platynereis, the otx+ region instead harbours the eye anlagen, which thus occupy a more posterior position. Conclusions These observations indicate that the annelid, onychophoran and arthropod head develops from a conserved anterior-posterior sequence of six3+ and otx+ regions. The six3+ anterior pole of the arthropod head and brain accordingly lies in an anterior-median embryonic region and, in consequence, the optic

  12. Understanding Biological Roles of Venoms Among the Caenophidia: The Importance of Rear-Fanged Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackessy, Stephen P; Saviola, Anthony J

    2016-11-01

    Snake venoms represent an adaptive trophic response to the challenges confronting a limbless predator for overcoming combative prey, and this chemical means of subduing prey shows several dominant phenotypes. Many front-fanged snakes, particularly vipers, feed on various vertebrate and invertebrate prey species, and some of their venom components (e.g., metalloproteinases, cobratoxin) appear to have been selected for "broad-brush" incapacitation of different prey taxa. Using proteomic and genomic techniques, the compositional diversity of front-fanged snakes is becoming well characterized; however, this is not the case for most rear-fanged colubroid snakes. Because these species consume a high diversity of prey, and because venoms are primarily a trophic adaptation, important clues for understanding specific selective pressures favoring venom component composition will be found among rear-fanged snake venoms. Rear-fanged snakes typically (but not always) produce venoms with lower complexity than front-fanged snakes, and there are even fewer dominant (and, arguably, biologically most relevant) venom protein families. We have demonstrated taxon-specific toxic effects, where lizards and birds show high susceptibility while mammals are largely unaffected, for both Old World and New World rear-fanged snakes, strongly indicating a causal link between toxin evolution and prey preference. New data are presented on myotoxin a, showing that the extremely rapid paralysis induced by this rattlesnake toxin is specific for rodents, and that myotoxin a is ineffectual against lizards. Relatively few rear-fanged snake venoms have been characterized, and basic natural history data are largely lacking, but directed sampling of specialized species indicates that novel compounds are likely among these specialists, particularly among those species feeding on invertebrate prey such as scorpions and centipedes. Because many of the more than 2200 species of colubroid snakes are rear

  13. Review of the sanitary state of coniferous forests in windfall places in the Ile-Alatau National park (Kazakhstan in 2011–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir L. Kazenas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study on the species composition of stem pests- insects and limitation of their number, carried out in the Ile-Alatau State National Park (Kazakhstan in 2011–2015. The reason for this study was a windfall, which occurred in 2011 in the National Park and followed a few years later by forest fires. These emergencies created a favourable environment for the reproduction of stem pests. The management of the Ile-Alatau National Park, together with the Institute of Zoology of the MES, has taken the necessary measures to investigate the species composition of the pests, their natural regulators and to conduct protective measures in the hotbeds of xylophages mass production. At the same time consultations and joint research with scientists from Kazakhstan, Russia, Kyrgyzstan and the Czech Republic were held. The monitoring of the state of forests started in 2011. The composition of species and number of xylophagous pests has been carried out. In the 2011–2015-surveys 48 species of stem pests, belonging to three orders of the class of insects, were found: Hemiptera, or Bugs (1 species, 1 family, Coleoptera, or Beetles (42 species, 5 families, Hymenoptera (5 species, 1 family. During all the years of research the Hauzer bark beetle Ips hauseri and the longhorn beetle ribbed ragy Rhagium inquisitor dominated numerically. Slightly less Orthotomicus suturalis and the kyrgyzstan micrograph Pityophthorus kirgisicus were found. Besides, the study of diseases of stem pests and their entomophages (predators and parasites was carried out, which is a prerequisite for carrying out forest-pathological examinations. In total 53 species, from five classes, eleven orders and 27 families of invertebrates have been revealed. Most of them belong to the class of insects, others to spiders and centipedes. On several species of bark beetles and longhorn beetles an entomopathogenic fungus – white muscardine Beauveria bassiana was

  14. The behaviour of radiocaesium in woodland ecosystems. Measurement and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toal, M.

    1999-02-01

    In order to better quantify risk to non-human biota from environmental radioactivity, our understanding of the behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere needs to be increased. Hence the aims of the present study were threefold: 1) Review Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) methodologies, 2) Quantify radiocaesium distribution in woodland biota in the vicinity of BNFL Sellafield, 3) Use this information to develop radiocaesium food-chain and dosimetry models for terrestrial invertebrates and small-mammals. A review of ERA literature concluded that of the two main methodologies available (individual receptor and holistic ERA), individual receptor based analysis is the most credible method given in today's level of scientific understanding. lt was also concluded that the use of modelling techniques in ERA will increase in future years. Two study sites were sampled, a Picea sitchensis monoculture (Lady Wood) and a mixed deciduous site (Longrigg Wood). Mean levels of Cs-137 (all activities quoted in Bq/kg dry weight) in soils:leaf litter were 473:408 (Lady Wood) and 142:32 (Longrigg Wood). The activity of understorey vegetation varied with ranges of 17-508 and 4-48 Bq/kg in Lady Wood and Longrigg, respectively. No vegetation species had concentration ratios (CRs) > 1. The greatest range in Cs-137 activity (2-5242 Bq/kg DW, Lady Wood) was found in fungi, with Mycena galariculata and Hypholoma fasciculare attaining the highest biomagnifications (CRs = 2.6, 2.0 respectively). Due to radioanalytical constraints, only 'mixed invertebrate' samples were measured for Longrigg Wood (yearly average = 8.5 Bq/kg). No significant invertebrate body-burden differences were found between taxa or between seasons for each invertebrate group in Lady Wood. Mean yearly Cs-137 body-burdens (Bq/kg DW) were 94 (Diplopoda), 104 (Isopoda), 54 (Chilopoda), 120 (Araneae), 91 (Opilionidae) and 41 (Carabidae). No invertebrates had CRs > 1. Seasonal Cs-137 body-burdens were also measured for the

  15. Cyanogenesis in Arthropods: From Chemical Warfare to Nuptial Gifts

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    Mika Zagrobelny

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical defences are key components in insect–plant interactions, as insects continuously learn to overcome plant defence systems by, e.g., detoxification, excretion or sequestration. Cyanogenic glucosides are natural products widespread in the plant kingdom, and also known to be present in arthropods. They are stabilised by a glucoside linkage, which is hydrolysed by the action of β-glucosidase enzymes, resulting in the release of toxic hydrogen cyanide and deterrent aldehydes or ketones. Such a binary system of components that are chemically inert when spatially separated provides an immediate defence against predators that cause tissue damage. Further roles in nitrogen metabolism and inter- and intraspecific communication has also been suggested for cyanogenic glucosides. In arthropods, cyanogenic glucosides are found in millipedes, centipedes, mites, beetles and bugs, and particularly within butterflies and moths. Cyanogenic glucosides may be even more widespread since many arthropod taxa have not yet been analysed for the presence of this class of natural products. In many instances, arthropods sequester cyanogenic glucosides or their precursors from food plants, thereby avoiding the demand for de novo biosynthesis and minimising the energy spent for defence. Nevertheless, several species of butterflies, moths and millipedes have been shown to biosynthesise cyanogenic glucosides de novo, and even more species have been hypothesised to do so. As for higher plant species, the specific steps in the pathway is catalysed by three enzymes, two cytochromes P450, a glycosyl transferase, and a general P450 oxidoreductase providing electrons to the P450s. The pathway for biosynthesis of cyanogenic glucosides in arthropods has most likely been assembled by recruitment of enzymes, which could most easily be adapted to acquire the required catalytic properties for manufacturing these compounds. The scattered phylogenetic distribution of cyanogenic