ter Haar Romenij, B.M.
In this paper we study the role of brain plasticity, and investigate the emergence and self-emergence of receptive fields from scalar and color natural images by principal component analysis of image patches. We describe the classical experiment on localized PCA on center-surround weighted patches
Petkov, Nicolai; Visser, Wicher T.
This paper describes modifications of the models of center-surround and dot-pattern selective cells proposed previously. These modifications concern mainly the normalization of the difference of Gaussians (DoG) function used to model center-surround receptive fields, the normalization of
Kozlov, Andrei S; Gentner, Timothy Q
High-level neurons processing complex, behaviorally relevant signals are sensitive to conjunctions of features. Characterizing the receptive fields of such neurons is difficult with standard statistical tools, however, and the principles governing their organization remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate multiple distinct receptive-field features in individual high-level auditory neurons in a songbird, European starling, in response to natural vocal signals (songs). We then show that receptive fields with similar characteristics can be reproduced by an unsupervised neural network trained to represent starling songs with a single learning rule that enforces sparseness and divisive normalization. We conclude that central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields that can arise through a combination of sparseness and normalization in neural circuits. Our results, along with descriptions of random, discontinuous receptive fields in the central olfactory neurons in mammals and insects, suggest general principles of neural computation across sensory systems and animal classes.
A receptive field constitutes a region in the visual field where a visual cell or a visual operator responds to visual stimuli. This paper presents a theory for what types of receptive field profiles can be regarded as natural for an idealized vision system, given a set of structural requirements on the first stages of visual processing that reflect symmetry properties of the surrounding world. These symmetry properties include (i) covariance properties under scale changes, affine image deformations, and Galilean transformations of space-time as occur for real-world image data as well as specific requirements of (ii) temporal causality implying that the future cannot be accessed and (iii) a time-recursive updating mechanism of a limited temporal buffer of the past as is necessary for a genuine real-time system. Fundamental structural requirements are also imposed to ensure (iv) mutual consistency and a proper handling of internal representations at different spatial and temporal scales. It is shown how a set of families of idealized receptive field profiles can be derived by necessity regarding spatial, spatio-chromatic, and spatio-temporal receptive fields in terms of Gaussian kernels, Gaussian derivatives, or closely related operators. Such image filters have been successfully used as a basis for expressing a large number of visual operations in computer vision, regarding feature detection, feature classification, motion estimation, object recognition, spatio-temporal recognition, and shape estimation. Hence, the associated so-called scale-space theory constitutes a both theoretically well-founded and general framework for expressing visual operations. There are very close similarities between receptive field profiles predicted from this scale-space theory and receptive field profiles found by cell recordings in biological vision. Among the family of receptive field profiles derived by necessity from the assumptions, idealized models with very good qualitative
Fereczkowski, Michal; Bothe, Hans-Heinrich
spectro-temporal receptive fields to auditory spectrogram input, motivated by the auditory pathway of humans, and ii) the adaptation or learning algorithms involved are biologically inspired. This is in contrast to state-of-the-art combinations of Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients and Hidden Markov...
Fan, Bin; Kong, Qingqun; Trzcinski, Tomasz; Wang, Zhiheng; Pan, Chunhong; Fua, Pascal
Feature description for local image patch is widely used in computer vision. While the conventional way to design local descriptor is based on expert experience and knowledge, learning-based methods for designing local descriptor become more and more popular because of their good performance and data-driven property. This paper proposes a novel data-driven method for designing binary feature descriptor, which we call receptive fields descriptor (RFD). Technically, RFD is constructed by thresholding responses of a set of receptive fields, which are selected from a large number of candidates according to their distinctiveness and correlations in a greedy way. Using two different kinds of receptive fields (namely rectangular pooling area and Gaussian pooling area) for selection, we obtain two binary descriptors RFDR and RFDG .accordingly. Image matching experiments on the well-known patch data set and Oxford data set demonstrate that RFD significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art binary descriptors, and is comparable with the best float-valued descriptors at a fraction of processing time. Finally, experiments on object recognition tasks confirm that both RFDR and RFDG successfully bridge the performance gap between binary descriptors and their floating-point competitors.
Jehee, Janneke F M; Rothkopf, Constantin; Beck, Jeffrey M; Ballard, Dana H
Previously, it was suggested that feedback connections from higher- to lower-level areas carry predictions of lower-level neural activities, whereas feedforward connections carry the residual error between the predictions and the actual lower-level activities [Rao, R.P.N., Ballard, D.H., 1999. Nature Neuroscience 2, 79-87.]. A computational model implementing the hypothesis learned simple cell receptive fields when exposed to natural images. Here, we use predictive feedback to explain tuning properties in medial superior temporal area (MST). We implement the hypothesis using a new, biologically plausible, algorithm based on matching pursuit, which retains all the features of the previous implementation, including its ability to efficiently encode input. When presented with natural images, the model developed receptive field properties as found in primary visual cortex. In addition, when exposed to visual motion input resulting from movements through space, the model learned receptive field properties resembling those in MST. These results corroborate the idea that predictive feedback is a general principle used by the visual system to efficiently encode natural input.
Keith P. Johnson
Full Text Available The spike trains of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs are the only source of visual information to the brain. Here, we genetically identify an RGC type in mice that functions as a pixel encoder and increases firing to light increments (PixON-RGC. PixON-RGCs have medium-sized dendritic arbors and non-canonical center-surround receptive fields. From their receptive field center, PixON-RGCs receive only excitatory input, which encodes contrast and spatial information linearly. From their receptive field surround, PixON-RGCs receive only inhibitory input, which is temporally matched to the excitatory center input. As a result, the firing rate of PixON-RGCs linearly encodes local image contrast. Spatially offset (i.e., truly lateral inhibition of PixON-RGCs arises from spiking GABAergic amacrine cells. The receptive field organization of PixON-RGCs is independent of stimulus wavelength (i.e., achromatic. PixON-RGCs project predominantly to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN of the thalamus and likely contribute to visual perception.
Akbarinia, Arash; Parraga, C Alejandro
The problem of removing illuminant variations to preserve the colours of objects (colour constancy) has already been solved by the human brain using mechanisms that rely largely on centre-surround computations of local contrast. In this paper we adopt some of these biological solutions described by long known physiological findings into a simple, fully automatic, functional model (termed Adaptive Surround Modulation or ASM). In ASM, the size of a visual neuron's receptive field (RF) as well as the relationship with its surround varies according to the local contrast within the stimulus, which in turn determines the nature of the centre-surround normalisation of cortical neurons higher up in the processing chain. We modelled colour constancy by means of two overlapping asymmetric Gaussian kernels whose sizes are adapted based on the contrast of the surround pixels, resembling the change of RF size. We simulated the contrast-dependent surround modulation by weighting the contribution of each Gaussian according to the centre-surround contrast. In the end, we obtained an estimation of the illuminant from the set of the most activated RFs' outputs. Our results on three single-illuminant and one multi-illuminant benchmark datasets show that ASM is highly competitive against the state-of-the-art and it even outperforms learning-based algorithms in one case. Moreover, the robustness of our model is more tangible if we consider that our results were obtained using the same parameters for all datasets, that is, mimicking how the human visual system operates. These results might provide an insight on how dynamical adaptation mechanisms contribute to make object's colours appear constant to us.
Grigorescu, Cosmin; Petkov, Nicolai; Westenberg, Michel A.
We propose a biologically motivated computational step, called nonclassical receptive field (non-CRF) inhibition, more generally surround inhibition or suppression, to improve contour detection in machine vision. Non-CRF inhibition is exhibited by 80% of the orientation-selective neurons in the
Froemke, Robert C; Martins, Ana Raquel O
The nervous system must dynamically represent sensory information in order for animals to perceive and operate within a complex, changing environment. Receptive field plasticity in the auditory cortex allows cortical networks to organize around salient features of the sensory environment during postnatal development, and then subsequently refine these representations depending on behavioral context later in life. Here we review the major features of auditory cortical receptive field plasticity in young and adult animals, focusing on modifications to frequency tuning of synaptic inputs. Alteration in the patterns of acoustic input, including sensory deprivation and tonal exposure, leads to rapid adjustments of excitatory and inhibitory strengths that collectively determine the suprathreshold tuning curves of cortical neurons. Long-term cortical plasticity also requires co-activation of subcortical neuromodulatory control nuclei such as the cholinergic nucleus basalis, particularly in adults. Regardless of developmental stage, regulation of inhibition seems to be a general mechanism by which changes in sensory experience and neuromodulatory state can remodel cortical receptive fields. We discuss recent findings suggesting that the microdynamics of synaptic receptive field plasticity unfold as a multi-phase set of distinct phenomena, initiated by disrupting the balance between excitation and inhibition, and eventually leading to wide-scale changes to many synapses throughout the cortex. These changes are coordinated to enhance the representations of newly-significant stimuli, possibly for improved signal processing and language learning in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ayinde, Babajide O; Zurada, Jacek M
This paper proposes new techniques for data representation in the context of deep learning using agglomerative clustering. Existing autoencoder-based data representation techniques tend to produce a number of encoding and decoding receptive fields of layered autoencoders that are duplicative, thereby leading to extraction of similar features, thus resulting in filtering redundancy. We propose a way to address this problem and show that such redundancy can be eliminated. This yields smaller networks and produces unique receptive fields that extract distinct features. It is also shown that autoencoders with nonnegativity constraints on weights are capable of extracting fewer redundant features than conventional sparse autoencoders. The concept is illustrated using conventional sparse autoencoder and nonnegativity-constrained autoencoders with MNIST digits recognition, NORB normalized-uniform object data and Yale face dataset. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Koen V Haak
Full Text Available Human visual cortex comprises many visual areas that contain a map of the visual field (Wandell et al 2007, Neuron 56, 366–383. These visual field maps can be identified readily in individual subjects with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during experimental sessions that last less than an hour (Wandell and Winawer 2011, Vis Res 718–737. Hence, visual field mapping with fMRI has been, and still is, a heavily used technique to examine the organisation of both normal and abnormal human visual cortex (Haak et al 2011, ACNR, 11(3, 20–21. However, visual field mapping cannot reveal every aspect of human visual cortex organisation. For example, the information processed within a visual field map arrives from somewhere and is sent to somewhere, and visual field mapping does not derive these input/output relationships. Here, we describe a new, model-based analysis for estimating the dependence between signals in distinct cortical regions using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data. Just as a stimulus-referred receptive field predicts the neural response as a function of the stimulus contrast, the neural-referred receptive field predicts the neural response as a function of responses elsewhere in the nervous system. When applied to two cortical regions, this function can be called the cortico-cortical receptive field (CCRF. We model the CCRF as a Gaussian-weighted region on the cortical surface and apply the model to data from both stimulus-driven and resting-state experimental conditions in visual cortex.
Verweij, J.; Kamermans, M.; van den Aker, E. C.; Spekreijse, H.
In the isolated goldfish retina, 700 nm background illumination increases the horizontal cell receptive field size, as measured with 565 nm slits of light, but decreases the receptive field size, when measured with 660 nm slits. These background-induced changes in receptive field size are absent
Hofmann, Volker; Chacron, Maurice J
Understanding how neural populations encode sensory information thereby leading to perception and behavior (i.e., the neural code) remains an important problem in neuroscience. When investigating the neural code, one must take into account the fact that neural activities are not independent but are actually correlated with one another. Such correlations are seen ubiquitously and have a strong impact on neural coding. Here we investigated how differences in the antagonistic center-surround receptive field (RF) organization across three parallel sensory maps influence correlations between the activities of electrosensory pyramidal neurons. Using a model based on known anatomical differences in receptive field center size and overlap, we initially predicted large differences in correlated activity across the maps. However, in vivo electrophysiological recordings showed that, contrary to modeling predictions, electrosensory pyramidal neurons across all three segments displayed nearly identical correlations. To explain this surprising result, we incorporated the effects of RF surround in our model. By systematically varying both the RF surround gain and size relative to that of the RF center, we found that multiple RF structures gave rise to similar levels of correlation. In particular, incorporating known physiological differences in RF structure between the three maps in our model gave rise to similar levels of correlation. Our results show that RF center overlap alone does not determine correlations which has important implications for understanding how RF structure influences correlated neural activity.
Ströh, Sebastian; Puller, Christian; Swirski, Sebastian; Hölzel, Maj-Britt; van der Linde, Lea I S; Segelken, Jasmin; Schultz, Konrad; Block, Christoph; Monyer, Hannah; Willecke, Klaus; Weiler, Reto; Greschner, Martin; Janssen-Bienhold, Ulrike; Dedek, Karin
In the mammalian retina, horizontal cells receive glutamatergic inputs from many rod and cone photoreceptors and return feedback signals to them, thereby changing photoreceptor glutamate release in a light-dependent manner. Horizontal cells also provide feedforward signals to bipolar cells. It is unclear, however, how horizontal cell signals also affect the temporal, spatial, and contrast tuning in retinal output neurons, the ganglion cells. To study this, we generated a genetically modified mouse line in which we eliminated the light dependency of feedback by deleting glutamate receptors from mouse horizontal cells. This genetic modification allowed us to investigate the impact of horizontal cells on ganglion cell signaling independent of the actual mode of feedback in the outer retina and without pharmacological manipulation of signal transmission. In control and genetically modified mice (both sexes), we recorded the light responses of transient OFF-α retinal ganglion cells in the intact retina. Excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were reduced and the cells were tuned to lower temporal frequencies and higher contrasts, presumably because photoreceptor output was attenuated. Moreover, receptive fields of recorded cells showed a significantly altered surround structure. Our data thus suggest that horizontal cells are responsible for adjusting the dynamic range of retinal ganglion cells and, together with amacrine cells, contribute to the center/surround organization of ganglion cell receptive fields in the mouse. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Horizontal cells represent a major neuronal class in the mammalian retina and provide lateral feedback and feedforward signals to photoreceptors and bipolar cells, respectively. The mode of signal transmission remains controversial and, moreover, the contribution of horizontal cells to visual processing is still elusive. To address the question of how horizontal cells affect retinal output signals, we recorded the light
Hunt, Jonathan J; Dayan, Peter; Goodhill, Geoffrey J
Receptive fields acquired through unsupervised learning of sparse representations of natural scenes have similar properties to primary visual cortex (V1) simple cell receptive fields. However, what drives in vivo development of receptive fields remains controversial. The strongest evidence for the importance of sensory experience in visual development comes from receptive field changes in animals reared with abnormal visual input. However, most sparse coding accounts have considered only normal visual input and the development of monocular receptive fields. Here, we applied three sparse coding models to binocular receptive field development across six abnormal rearing conditions. In every condition, the changes in receptive field properties previously observed experimentally were matched to a similar and highly faithful degree by all the models, suggesting that early sensory development can indeed be understood in terms of an impetus towards sparsity. As previously predicted in the literature, we found that asymmetries in inter-ocular correlation across orientations lead to orientation-specific binocular receptive fields. Finally we used our models to design a novel stimulus that, if present during rearing, is predicted by the sparsity principle to lead robustly to radically abnormal receptive fields.
Walker, Gary A; Ohzawa, Izumi; Freeman, Ralph D
By definition, the region outside the classical receptive field (CRF) of a neuron in the visual cortex does not directly activate the cell. However, the response of a neuron can be influenced by stimulation of the surrounding area. In previous work, we showed that this influence is mainly suppressive and that it is generally limited to a local region outside the CRF. In the experiments reported here, we investigate the mechanisms of the suppressive effect. Our approach is to find the position of a grating patch that is most effective in suppressing the response of a cell. We then use a masking stimulus at different contrasts over the grating patch in an attempt to disinhibit the response. We find that suppressive effects may be partially or completely reversed by use of the masking stimulus. This disinhibition suggests that effects from outside the CRF may be local. Although they do not necessarily underlie the perceptual analysis of a figure-ground visual scene, they may provide a substrate for this process.
Klein, Barrie P.; Fracasso, Alessio; van Dijk, Jelle A.; Paffen, Chris L.E.; te Pas, Susan F.; Dumoulin, Serge O.
Visual spatial attention concentrates neural resources at the attended location. Recently, we demonstrated that voluntary spatial attention attracts population receptive fields (pRFs) toward its location throughout the visual hierarchy. Theoretically, both a feed forward or feedback mechanism could
Detorakis, Georgios Is; Rougier, Nicolas P
In a previous work, we introduced a computational model of area 3b which is built upon the neural field theory and receives input from a simplified model of the index distal finger pad populated by a random set of touch receptors (Merkell cells). This model has been shown to be able to self-organize following the random stimulation of the finger pad model and to cope, to some extent, with cortical or skin lesions. The main hypothesis of the model is that learning of skin representations occurs at the thalamo-cortical level while cortico-cortical connections serve a stereotyped competition mechanism that shapes the receptive fields. To further assess this hypothesis and the validity of the model, we reproduced in this article the exact experimental protocol of DiCarlo et al. that has been used to examine the structure of receptive fields in area 3b of the primary somatosensory cortex. Using the same analysis toolset, the model yields consistent results, having most of the receptive fields to contain a single region of excitation and one to several regions of inhibition. We further proceeded our study using a dynamic competition that deeply influences the formation of the receptive fields. We hypothesized this dynamic competition to correspond to some form of somatosensory attention that may help to precisely shape the receptive fields. To test this hypothesis, we designed a protocol where an arbitrary region of interest is delineated on the index distal finger pad and we either (1) instructed explicitly the model to attend to this region (simulating an attentional signal) (2) preferentially trained the model on this region or (3) combined the two aforementioned protocols simultaneously. Results tend to confirm that dynamic competition leads to shrunken receptive fields and its joint interaction with intensive training promotes a massive receptive fields migration and shrinkage.
Full Text Available In a previous work, we introduced a computational model of area 3b which is built upon the neural field theory and receives input from a simplified model of the index distal finger pad populated by a random set of touch receptors(Merkell cells. This model has been shown to be able to self-organize following the random stimulation of the finger pad model and to cope, to some extent, with cortical or skin lesions. The main hypothesis of the model is that learning of skin representations occurs at the thalamo-cortical level while cortico-cortical connections serve a stereotyped competition mechanism that shapes the receptive fields. To further assess this hypothesis and the validity of the model, we reproduced in this article the exact experimental protocol of DiCarlo et al. that has been used to examine the structure of receptive fields in area 3b of the primary somatosensory cortex. Using the same analysis toolset, the model yields consistent results, having most of the receptive fields to contain a single region of excitation and one to severalregions of inhibition. We further proceeded our study using a dynamic competition that deeply influences the formation of the receptive fields. We hypothesized this dynamic competition to correspond to some form of somatosensory attention that may help to precisely shape the receptive fields. To test this hypothesis, we designed a protocol where an arbitrary region of interest is delineated on the index distal finger pad and we either (1 instructed explicitly the model to attend to this region (simulating an attentional signal (2 preferentially trained the model on this region or (3combined the two aforementioned protocols simultaneously. Results tend to confirm that dynamic competition leads to shrunken receptive fields and its joint interaction with intensive training promotes a massive receptive fields migration and shrinkage.
Verhoef, Bram-Ernst; Maunsell, John HR
Shifting attention among visual stimuli at different locations modulates neuronal responses in heterogeneous ways, depending on where those stimuli lie within the receptive fields of neurons. Yet how attention interacts with the receptive-field structure of cortical neurons remains unclear. We measured neuronal responses in area V4 while monkeys shifted their attention among stimuli placed in different locations within and around neuronal receptive fields. We found that attention interacts uniformly with the spatially-varying excitation and suppression associated with the receptive field. This interaction explained the large variability in attention modulation across neurons, and a non-additive relationship among stimulus selectivity, stimulus-induced suppression and attention modulation that has not been previously described. A spatially-tuned normalization model precisely accounted for all observed attention modulations and for the spatial summation properties of neurons. These results provide a unified account of spatial summation and attention-related modulation across both the classical receptive field and the surround. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17256.001 PMID:27547989
Häusler, Chris; Susemihl, Alex; Nawrot, Martin P
In their natural environment, animals experience a complex and dynamic visual scenery. Under such natural stimulus conditions, neurons in the visual cortex employ a spatially and temporally sparse code. For the input scenario of natural still images, previous work demonstrated that unsupervised feature learning combined with the constraint of sparse coding can predict physiologically measured receptive fields of simple cells in the primary visual cortex. This convincingly indicated that the mammalian visual system is adapted to the natural spatial input statistics. Here, we extend this approach to the time domain in order to predict dynamic receptive fields that can account for both spatial and temporal sparse activation in biological neurons. We rely on temporal restricted Boltzmann machines and suggest a novel temporal autoencoding training procedure. When tested on a dynamic multi-variate benchmark dataset this method outperformed existing models of this class. Learning features on a large dataset of natural movies allowed us to model spatio-temporal receptive fields for single neurons. They resemble temporally smooth transformations of previously obtained static receptive fields and are thus consistent with existing theories. A neuronal spike response model demonstrates how the dynamic receptive field facilitates temporal and population sparseness. We discuss the potential mechanisms and benefits of a spatially and temporally sparse representation of natural visual input. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brito, Carlos S N; Gerstner, Wulfram
The development of sensory receptive fields has been modeled in the past by a variety of models including normative models such as sparse coding or independent component analysis and bottom-up models such as spike-timing dependent plasticity or the Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro model of synaptic plasticity. Here we show that the above variety of approaches can all be unified into a single common principle, namely nonlinear Hebbian learning. When nonlinear Hebbian learning is applied to natural images, receptive field shapes were strongly constrained by the input statistics and preprocessing, but exhibited only modest variation across different choices of nonlinearities in neuron models or synaptic plasticity rules. Neither overcompleteness nor sparse network activity are necessary for the development of localized receptive fields. The analysis of alternative sensory modalities such as auditory models or V2 development lead to the same conclusions. In all examples, receptive fields can be predicted a priori by reformulating an abstract model as nonlinear Hebbian learning. Thus nonlinear Hebbian learning and natural statistics can account for many aspects of receptive field formation across models and sensory modalities.
Carlos S N Brito
Full Text Available The development of sensory receptive fields has been modeled in the past by a variety of models including normative models such as sparse coding or independent component analysis and bottom-up models such as spike-timing dependent plasticity or the Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro model of synaptic plasticity. Here we show that the above variety of approaches can all be unified into a single common principle, namely nonlinear Hebbian learning. When nonlinear Hebbian learning is applied to natural images, receptive field shapes were strongly constrained by the input statistics and preprocessing, but exhibited only modest variation across different choices of nonlinearities in neuron models or synaptic plasticity rules. Neither overcompleteness nor sparse network activity are necessary for the development of localized receptive fields. The analysis of alternative sensory modalities such as auditory models or V2 development lead to the same conclusions. In all examples, receptive fields can be predicted a priori by reformulating an abstract model as nonlinear Hebbian learning. Thus nonlinear Hebbian learning and natural statistics can account for many aspects of receptive field formation across models and sensory modalities.
Sun, Xiao; Chai, Guobei; Liu, Wei; Bao, Wenzhuo; Zhao, Xiaoning; Ming, Delie
Simple cells in primary visual cortex are believed to extract local edge information from a visual scene. In this paper, inspired by different receptive field properties and visual information flow paths of neurons, an improved Combination of Receptive Fields (CORF) model combined with non-classical receptive fields was proposed to simulate the responses of simple cell's receptive fields. Compared to the classical model, the proposed model is able to better imitate simple cell's physiologic structure with consideration of facilitation and suppression of non-classical receptive fields. And on this base, an edge detection algorithm as an application of the improved CORF model was proposed. Experimental results validate the robustness of the proposed algorithm to noise and background interference.
Debono, Kurt; Schütz, Alexander C; Spering, Miriam; Gegenfurtner, Karl R
Humans use smooth pursuit eye movements to track moving objects of interest. In order to track an object accurately, motion signals from the target have to be integrated and segmented from motion signals in the visual context. Most studies on pursuit eye movements used small visual targets against a featureless background, disregarding the requirements of our natural visual environment. Here, we tested the ability of the pursuit and the perceptual system to integrate motion signals across larger areas of the visual field. Stimuli were random-dot kinematograms containing a horizontal motion signal, which was perturbed by a spatially localized, peripheral motion signal. Perturbations appeared in a gaze-contingent coordinate system and had a different direction than the main motion including a vertical component. We measured pursuit and perceptual direction discrimination decisions and found that both steady-state pursuit and perception were influenced most by perturbation angles close to that of the main motion signal and only in regions close to the center of gaze. The narrow direction bandwidth (26 angular degrees full width at half height) and small spatial extent (8 degrees of visual angle standard deviation) correspond closely to tuning parameters of neurons in the middle temporal area (MT). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
organization of retinal receptive fields in monkeys and cats has been used to model the information flow to the retina in relation to the psychophysical...EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE Types of Animals Used Three types of monkeys were used in the present study, rhesus (Macaca mulatta), the Himalayan Macaque (Macaca...during the course of the program, although one died of Shigella infection. Attempts were made to trade the animals with local users in order to obtain
Meyer, Arne F; Diepenbrock, Jan-Philipp; Happel, Max F K; Ohl, Frank W; Anemüller, Jörn
Analysis of sensory neurons' processing characteristics requires simultaneous measurement of presented stimuli and concurrent spike responses. The functional transformation from high-dimensional stimulus space to the binary space of spike and non-spike responses is commonly described with linear-nonlinear models, whose linear filter component describes the neuron's receptive field. From a machine learning perspective, this corresponds to the binary classification problem of discriminating spike-eliciting from non-spike-eliciting stimulus examples. The classification-based receptive field (CbRF) estimation method proposed here adapts a linear large-margin classifier to optimally predict experimental stimulus-response data and subsequently interprets learned classifier weights as the neuron's receptive field filter. Computational learning theory provides a theoretical framework for learning from data and guarantees optimality in the sense that the risk of erroneously assigning a spike-eliciting stimulus example to the non-spike class (and vice versa) is minimized. Efficacy of the CbRF method is validated with simulations and for auditory spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF) estimation from experimental recordings in the auditory midbrain of Mongolian gerbils. Acoustic stimulation is performed with frequency-modulated tone complexes that mimic properties of natural stimuli, specifically non-Gaussian amplitude distribution and higher-order correlations. Results demonstrate that the proposed approach successfully identifies correct underlying STRFs, even in cases where second-order methods based on the spike-triggered average (STA) do not. Applied to small data samples, the method is shown to converge on smaller amounts of experimental recordings and with lower estimation variance than the generalized linear model and recent information theoretic methods. Thus, CbRF estimation may prove useful for investigation of neuronal processes in response to natural stimuli and
Arne F Meyer
Full Text Available Analysis of sensory neurons' processing characteristics requires simultaneous measurement of presented stimuli and concurrent spike responses. The functional transformation from high-dimensional stimulus space to the binary space of spike and non-spike responses is commonly described with linear-nonlinear models, whose linear filter component describes the neuron's receptive field. From a machine learning perspective, this corresponds to the binary classification problem of discriminating spike-eliciting from non-spike-eliciting stimulus examples. The classification-based receptive field (CbRF estimation method proposed here adapts a linear large-margin classifier to optimally predict experimental stimulus-response data and subsequently interprets learned classifier weights as the neuron's receptive field filter. Computational learning theory provides a theoretical framework for learning from data and guarantees optimality in the sense that the risk of erroneously assigning a spike-eliciting stimulus example to the non-spike class (and vice versa is minimized. Efficacy of the CbRF method is validated with simulations and for auditory spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF estimation from experimental recordings in the auditory midbrain of Mongolian gerbils. Acoustic stimulation is performed with frequency-modulated tone complexes that mimic properties of natural stimuli, specifically non-Gaussian amplitude distribution and higher-order correlations. Results demonstrate that the proposed approach successfully identifies correct underlying STRFs, even in cases where second-order methods based on the spike-triggered average (STA do not. Applied to small data samples, the method is shown to converge on smaller amounts of experimental recordings and with lower estimation variance than the generalized linear model and recent information theoretic methods. Thus, CbRF estimation may prove useful for investigation of neuronal processes in response to
Ghose, Geoffrey M; Bearl, David W
Expectations, especially those formed on the basis of extensive training, can substantially enhance visual performance. However, it is not clear that the physiological mechanisms underlying this enhancement are identical to those examined by experiments in which attention is directed by explicit instructions rather than strong expectations. To study the changes in visual representations associated with strong expectations, we trained animals to detect a brief motion pulse that was embedded in noise. Because the nature of the pulse and the statistics of its appearance were well known to the animals, they formed strong expectations which determined their behavioral performance. We used white-noise methods to infer the receptive field structure of single neurons in area MT while they were performing this task. Incorporating non-linearities, we compared receptive fields during periods of time when the animals were expecting the motion pulse with periods of time when they were not. We found receptive field changes consistent with an increased reliability in signaling pulse occurrence. Moreover, these changes were not consistent with a simple gain modulation. The results suggest that strong expectations can create very specific changes in the visual representations at a cellular level to enhance performance. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
As a result of a planning application for a windfarm comprising 20 wind turbines at Tynewydd Farm, Gilfach Goch in Mid Glamorgan, a report discussing any detrimental effects the proposal might have on u.h.f. television reception was produced. In order to make the report as definitive as possible, it was decided to carry out field tests on the exact model of wind turbine to be used at Tynewydd. This required a field trip to Denmark, and the opportunity was taken to make measurements on two other models of turbine at the same time. This report presents the analysis of the results for all three turbines. (author)
As a result of a planning application for a wind farm comprising 20 wind turbines at Tynewydd Farm, Gilfach Goch in Mid Glamorgan, it became necessary to produce a Report discussing any detrimental effects the proposal might have on UHF television reception. In order to make that Report as definitive as possible, it was decided to carry out field tests on the exact model of wind turbine to be used to Tynewydd. This required a field trip to Denmark, and the opportunity was taken to make measurements on two other models of turbine at the same time. This Report presents the analysis of the results for all three turbines. (Author)
Sergio A. Conde-Ocazionez
Full Text Available One leading hypothesis on the nature of visual callosal connections (CC is that they replicate features of intrahemispheric lateral connections. However, CC act also in the central part of the binocular visual field. In agreement, early experiments in cats indicated that they provide the ipsilateral eye part of binocular receptive fields (RFs at the vertical midline (Berlucchi and Rizzolatti, 1968, and play a key role in stereoscopic function. But until today callosal inputs to receptive fields activated by one or both eyes were never compared simultaneously, because callosal function has been often studied by cutting or lesioning either corpus callosum or optic chiasm not allowing such a comparison. To investigate the functional contribution of CC in the intact cat visual system we recorded both monocular and binocular neuronal spiking responses and receptive fields in the 17/18 transition zone during reversible deactivation of the contralateral hemisphere. Unexpectedly from many of the previous reports, we observe no change in ocular dominance during CC deactivation. Throughout the transition zone, a majority of RFs shrink, but several also increase in size. RFs are significantly more affected for ipsi- as opposed to contralateral stimulation, but changes are also observed with binocular stimulation. Noteworthy, RF shrinkages are tiny and not correlated to the profound decreases of monocular and binocular firing rates. They depend more on orientation and direction preference than on eccentricity or ocular dominance of the receiving neuron's RF. Our findings confirm that in binocularly viewing mammals, binocular RFs near the midline are constructed via the direct geniculo-cortical pathway. They also support the idea that input from the two eyes complement each other through CC: Rather than linking parts of RFs separated by the vertical meridian, CC convey a modulatory influence, reflecting the feature selectivity of lateral circuits, with a
Sun, M; Bonds, A B
The two-dimensional organization of receptive fields (RFs) of 44 cells in the cat visual cortex and four cells from the cat LGN was measured by stimulation with either dots or bars of light. The light bars were presented in different positions and orientations centered on the RFs. The RFs found were arbitrarily divided into four general types: Punctate, resembling DOG filters (11%); those resembling Gabor filters (9%); elongate (36%); and multipeaked-type (44%). Elongate RFs, usually found in simple cells, could show more than one excitatory band or bifurcation of excitatory regions. Although regions inhibitory to a given stimulus transition (e.g. ON) often coincided with regions excitatory to the opposite transition (e.g. OFF), this was by no means the rule. Measurements were highly repeatable and stable over periods of at least 1 h. A comparison between measurements made with dots and with bars showed reasonable matches in about 40% of the cases. In general, bar-based measurements revealed larger RFs with more structure, especially with respect to inhibitory regions. Inactivation of lower cortical layers (V-VI) by local GABA injection was found to reduce sharpness of detail and to increase both receptive-field size and noise in upper layer cells, suggesting vertically organized RF mechanisms. Across the population, some cells bore close resemblance to theoretically proposed filters, while others had a complexity that was clearly not generalizable, to the extent that they seemed more suited to detection of specific structures. We would speculate that the broadly varying forms of cat cortical receptive fields result from developmental processes akin to those that form ocular-dominance columns, but on a smaller scale.
St-Yves, Ghislain; Naselaris, Thomas
We introduce the feature-weighted receptive field (fwRF), an encoding model designed to balance expressiveness, interpretability and scalability. The fwRF is organized around the notion of a feature map-a transformation of visual stimuli into visual features that preserves the topology of visual space (but not necessarily the native resolution of the stimulus). The key assumption of the fwRF model is that activity in each voxel encodes variation in a spatially localized region across multiple feature maps. This region is fixed for all feature maps; however, the contribution of each feature map to voxel activity is weighted. Thus, the model has two separable sets of parameters: "where" parameters that characterize the location and extent of pooling over visual features, and "what" parameters that characterize tuning to visual features. The "where" parameters are analogous to classical receptive fields, while "what" parameters are analogous to classical tuning functions. By treating these as separable parameters, the fwRF model complexity is independent of the resolution of the underlying feature maps. This makes it possible to estimate models with thousands of high-resolution feature maps from relatively small amounts of data. Once a fwRF model has been estimated from data, spatial pooling and feature tuning can be read-off directly with no (or very little) additional post-processing or in-silico experimentation. We describe an optimization algorithm for estimating fwRF models from data acquired during standard visual neuroimaging experiments. We then demonstrate the model's application to two distinct sets of features: Gabor wavelets and features supplied by a deep convolutional neural network. We show that when Gabor feature maps are used, the fwRF model recovers receptive fields and spatial frequency tuning functions consistent with known organizational principles of the visual cortex. We also show that a fwRF model can be used to regress entire deep
James Joseph Wright
Full Text Available Receptive fields of neurons in the forelimb region of areas 3b and 1 of primary somatosensory cortex, in cats and monkeys, were mapped using extracellular recordings obtained sequentially from nearly radial penetrations. Locations of the field centroids indicated the presence of a functional system, in which cortical homotypic representations of the limb surfaces are entwined in three-dimensional Mobius-strip-like patterns of synaptic connections. Boundaries of somatosensory receptive field in nested groups irregularly overlie the centroid order, and are interpreted as arising from the superposition of learned connections upon the embryonic order. Since the theory of embryonic synaptic self-organisation used to model these results was devised and earlier used to explain findings in primary visual cortex, the present findings suggest the theory may be of general application throughout cortex, and may reveal a modular functional synaptic system, which, only in some parts of the cortex, and in some species, is manifest as anatomical ordering into columns.
Fritz, Jonathan; Elhilali, Mounya; Shamma, Shihab
Listening is an active process in which attentive focus on salient acoustic features in auditory tasks can influence receptive field properties of cortical neurons. Recent studies showing rapid task-related changes in neuronal spectrotemporal receptive fields (STRFs) in primary auditory cortex of the behaving ferret are reviewed in the context of current research on cortical plasticity. Ferrets were trained on spectral tasks, including tone detection and two-tone discrimination, and on temporal tasks, including gap detection and click-rate discrimination. STRF changes could be measured on-line during task performance and occurred within minutes of task onset. During spectral tasks, there were specific spectral changes (enhanced response to tonal target frequency in tone detection and discrimination, suppressed response to tonal reference frequency in tone discrimination). However, only in the temporal tasks, the STRF was changed along the temporal dimension by sharpening temporal dynamics. In ferrets trained on multiple tasks, distinctive and task-specific STRF changes could be observed in the same cortical neurons in successive behavioral sessions. These results suggest that rapid task-related plasticity is an ongoing process that occurs at a network and single unit level as the animal switches between different tasks and dynamically adapts cortical STRFs in response to changing acoustic demands.
Full Text Available Population receptive field (pRF mapping is a widely used approach to measuring aggregate human visual receptive field properties by recording non-invasive signals using functional MRI. Despite growing interest, no study to date has systematically investigated the effects of different stimulus configurations on pRF estimates from human visual cortex. Here we compared the effects of three different stimulus configurations on a model-based approach to pRF estimation: size-invariant bars and eccentricity-scaled bars defined in Cartesian coordinates and traveling along the cardinal axes, and a novel simultaneous ‘wedge and ring’ stimulus defined in polar coordinates, systematically covering polar and eccentricity axes. We found that the presence or absence of eccentricity scaling had a significant effect on goodness of fit and pRF size estimates. Further, variability in pRF size estimates was directly influenced by stimulus configuration, particularly for higher visual areas including V5/MT+. Finally, we compared eccentricity estimation between phase-encoded and model-based pRF approaches. We observed a tendency for more peripheral eccentricity estimates using phase-encoded methods, independent of stimulus size. We conclude that both eccentricity scaling and polar rather than Cartesian stimulus configuration are important considerations for optimal experimental design in pRF mapping. While all stimulus configurations produce adequate estimates, simultaneous wedge and ring stimulation produced higher fit reliability, with a significant advantage in reduced acquisition time.
Wan, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Chunhui
As a competitive machine learning algorithm, the stacked sparse autoencoder (SSA) has achieved outstanding popularity in exploiting high-level features for classification of hyperspectral images (HSIs). In general, in the SSA architecture, the nodes between adjacent layers are fully connected and need to be iteratively fine-tuned during the pretraining stage; however, the nodes of previous layers further away may be less likely to have a dense correlation to the given node of subsequent layers. Therefore, to reduce the classification error and increase the learning rate, this paper proposes the general framework of locally connected SSA; that is, the biologically inspired local receptive field (LRF) constrained SSA architecture is employed to simultaneously characterize the local correlations of spectral features and extract high-level feature representations of hyperspectral data. In addition, the appropriate receptive field constraint is concurrently updated by measuring the spatial distances from the neighbor nodes to the corresponding node. Finally, the efficient random forest classifier is cascaded to the last hidden layer of the SSA architecture as a benchmark classifier. Experimental results on two real HSI datasets demonstrate that the proposed hierarchical LRF constrained stacked sparse autoencoder and random forest (SSARF) provides encouraging results with respect to other contrastive methods, for instance, the improvements of overall accuracy in a range of 0.72%-10.87% for the Indian Pines dataset and 0.74%-7.90% for the Kennedy Space Center dataset; moreover, it generates lower running time compared with the result provided by similar SSARF based methodology.
Yildirim, Funda; Carvalho, Joana; Cornelissen, Frans W
Visual field or retinotopic mapping is one of the most frequently used paradigms in fMRI. It uses activity evoked by position-varying high luminance contrast visual patterns presented throughout the visual field for determining the spatial organization of cortical visual areas. While the advantage of using high luminance contrast is that it tends to drive a wide range of neural populations - thus resulting in high signal-to-noise BOLD responses - this may also be a limitation, especially for approaches that attempt to squeeze more information out of the BOLD response, such as population receptive field (pRF) mapping. In that case, more selective stimulation of a subset of neurons - despite reduced signals - could result in better characterization of pRF properties. Here, we used a second-order stimulus based on local differences in orientation texture - to which we refer as orientation contrast - to perform retinotopic mapping. Participants in our experiment viewed arrays of Gabor patches composed of a foreground (a bar) and a background. These could only be distinguished on the basis of a difference in patch orientation. In our analyses, we compare the pRF properties obtained using this new orientation contrast-based retinotopy (OCR) to those obtained using classic luminance contrast-based retinotopy (LCR). Specifically, in higher order cortical visual areas such as LO, our novel approach resulted in non-trivial reductions in estimated population receptive field size of around 30%. A set of control experiments confirms that the most plausible cause for this reduction is that OCR mainly drives neurons sensitive to orientation contrast. We discuss how OCR - by limiting receptive field scatter and reducing BOLD displacement - may result in more accurate pRF localization as well. Estimation of neuronal properties is crucial for interpreting cortical function. Therefore, we conclude that using our approach, it is possible to selectively target particular neuronal
Welbourne, Lauren E; Morland, Antony B; Wade, Alex R
The spatial sensitivity of the human visual system depends on stimulus color: achromatic gratings can be resolved at relatively high spatial frequencies while sensitivity to isoluminant color contrast tends to be more low-pass. Models of early spatial vision often assume that the receptive field size of pattern-sensitive neurons is correlated with their spatial frequency sensitivity - larger receptive fields are typically associated with lower optimal spatial frequency. A strong prediction of this model is that neurons coding isoluminant chromatic patterns should have, on average, a larger receptive field size than neurons sensitive to achromatic patterns. Here, we test this assumption using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We show that while spatial frequency sensitivity depends on chromaticity in the manner predicted by behavioral measurements, population receptive field (pRF) size measurements show no such dependency. At any given eccentricity, the mean pRF size for neuronal populations driven by luminance, opponent red/green and S-cone isolating contrast, are identical. Changes in pRF size (for example, an increase with eccentricity and visual area hierarchy) are also identical across the three chromatic conditions. These results suggest that fMRI measurements of receptive field size and spatial resolution can be decoupled under some circumstances - potentially reflecting a fundamental dissociation between these parameters at the level of neuronal populations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Piché, Marilyse; Thomas, Sébastien; Casanova, Christian
The pulvinar is the largest extrageniculate thalamic visual nucleus in mammals. It establishes reciprocal connections with virtually all visual cortexes and likely plays a role in transthalamic cortico-cortical communication. In cats, the lateral posterior nucleus (LP) of the LP-pulvinar complex can be subdivided in two subregions, the lateral (LPl) and medial (LPm) parts, which receive a predominant input from the striate cortex and the superior colliculus, respectively. Here, we revisit the receptive field structure of LPl and LPm cells in anesthetized cats by determining their first-order spatiotemporal profiles through reverse correlation analysis following sparse noise stimulation. Our data reveal the existence of previously unidentified receptive field profiles in the LP nucleus both in space and time domains. While some cells responded to only one stimulus polarity, the majority of neurons had receptive fields comprised of bright and dark responsive subfields. For these neurons, dark subfields' size was larger than that of bright subfields. A variety of receptive field spatial organization types were identified, ranging from totally overlapped to segregated bright and dark subfields. In the time domain, a large spectrum of activity overlap was found, from cells with temporally coinciding subfield activity to neurons with distinct, time-dissociated subfield peak activity windows. We also found LP neurons with space-time inseparable receptive fields and neurons with multiple activity periods. Finally, a substantial degree of homology was found between LPl and LPm first-order receptive field spatiotemporal profiles, suggesting a high integration of cortical and subcortical inputs within the LP-pulvinar complex. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Biurrun Manresa, José Alberto; Finnerup, Nanna Susanne Brix; Johannesen, Inger Lauge
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of central sensitization, elicited by intramuscular injection of capsaicin, by comparing the reflex receptive fields (RRF) of spinally-intact volunteers and spinal cord injured volunteers that present presensitized spinal nociceptive mechanisms. METHODS...... after an intramuscular injection of capsaicin in the foot sole in order to induce central sensitization. RESULTS: Both groups presented RRF expansion and lowered NWR thresholds immediately after capsaicin injection, reflected by the enlargement of RRF sensitivity areas and RRF probability areas....... Moreover, the topography of the RRF sensitivity and probability areas were significantly different in SCI volunteers compared to NI volunteers in terms of size and shape. CONCLUSIONS: SCI volunteers can develop central sensitization, despite adaptive/maladaptive changes in synaptic plasticity and lack...
Bamford, Simeon A; Murray, Alan F; Willshaw, David J
A distributed and locally reprogrammable address-event receiver has been designed, in which incoming address-events are monitored simultaneously by all synapses, allowing for arbitrarily large axonal fan-out without reducing channel capacity. Synapses can change the address of their presynaptic neuron, allowing the distributed implementation of a biologically realistic learning rule, with both synapse formation and elimination (synaptic rewiring). Probabilistic synapse formation leads to topographic map development, made possible by a cross-chip current-mode calculation of Euclidean distance. As well as synaptic plasticity in rewiring, synapses change weights using a competitive Hebbian learning rule (spike-timing-dependent plasticity). The weight plasticity allows receptive fields to be modified based on spatio-temporal correlations in the inputs, and the rewiring plasticity allows these modifications to become embedded in the network topology.
We study the interplay of Bayesian inference and natural image learning in a hierarchical vision system, in relation to the response properties of early visual cortex. We particularly focus on a Bayesian network with multinomial variables that can represent discrete feature spaces similar to hypercolumns combining minicolumns, enforce sparsity of activation to learn efficient representations, and explain divisive normalization. We demonstrate that maximal-likelihood learning using sampling-based Bayesian inference gives rise to classical receptive field properties similar to V1 simple cells and V2 cells, while inference performed on the trained network yields nonclassical context-dependent response properties such as cross-orientation suppression and filling in. Comparison with known physiological properties reveals some qualitative and quantitative similarities.
Meyer, Arne F; Diepenbrock, Jan-Philipp; Ohl, Frank W; Anemüller, Jörn
The receptive field (RF) represents the signal preferences of sensory neurons and is the primary analysis method for understanding sensory coding. While it is essential to estimate a neuron's RF, finding numerical solutions to increasingly complex RF models can become computationally intensive, in particular for high-dimensional stimuli or when many neurons are involved. Here we propose an optimization scheme based on stochastic approximations that facilitate this task. The basic idea is to derive solutions on a random subset rather than computing the full solution on the available data set. To test this, we applied different optimization schemes based on stochastic gradient descent (SGD) to both the generalized linear model (GLM) and a recently developed classification-based RF estimation approach. Using simulated and recorded responses, we demonstrate that RF parameter optimization based on state-of-the-art SGD algorithms produces robust estimates of the spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF). Results on recordings from the auditory midbrain demonstrate that stochastic approximations preserve both predictive power and tuning properties of STRFs. A correlation of 0.93 with the STRF derived from the full solution may be obtained in less than 10% of the full solution's estimation time. We also present an on-line algorithm that allows simultaneous monitoring of STRF properties of more than 30 neurons on a single computer. The proposed approach may not only prove helpful for large-scale recordings but also provides a more comprehensive characterization of neural tuning in experiments than standard tuning curves. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Klein, Barrie P; Fracasso, Alessio; van Dijk, Jelle A; Paffen, Chris L E; Te Pas, Susan F; Dumoulin, Serge O
Visual spatial attention concentrates neural resources at the attended location. Recently, we demonstrated that voluntary spatial attention attracts population receptive fields (pRFs) toward its location throughout the visual hierarchy. Theoretically, both a feed forward or feedback mechanism could underlie pRF attraction in a given cortical area. Here, we use sub-millimeter ultra-high field functional MRI to measure pRF attraction across cortical depth and assess the contribution of feed forward and feedback signals to pRF attraction. In line with previous findings, we find consistent attraction of pRFs with voluntary spatial attention in V1. When assessed as a function of cortical depth, we find pRF attraction in every cortical portion (deep, center and superficial), although the attraction is strongest in deep cortical portions (near the gray-white matter boundary). Following the organization of feed forward and feedback processing across V1, we speculate that a mixture of feed forward and feedback processing underlies pRF attraction in V1. Specifically, we propose that feedback processing contributes to the pRF attraction in deep cortical portions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Viswanathan, Pooja; Nieder, Andreas
The concept of receptive field (RF) describes the responsiveness of neurons to sensory space. Neurons in the primate association cortices have long been known to be spatially selective but a detailed characterisation and direct comparison of RFs between frontal and parietal association cortices are missing. We sampled the RFs of a large number of neurons from two interconnected areas of the frontal and parietal lobes, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and ventral intraparietal area (VIP), of rhesus monkeys by systematically presenting a moving bar during passive fixation. We found that more than half of neurons in both areas showed spatial selectivity. Single neurons in both areas could be assigned to five classes according to the spatial response patterns: few non-uniform RFs with multiple discrete response maxima could be dissociated from the vast majority of uniform RFs showing a single maximum; the latter were further classified into full-field and confined foveal, contralateral and ipsilateral RFs. Neurons in dlPFC showed a preference for the contralateral visual space and collectively encoded the contralateral visual hemi-field. In contrast, VIP neurons preferred central locations, predominantly covering the foveal visual space. Putative pyramidal cells with broad-spiking waveforms in PFC had smaller RFs than putative interneurons showing narrow-spiking waveforms, but distributed similarly across the visual field. In VIP, however, both putative pyramidal cells and interneurons had similar RFs at similar eccentricities. We provide a first, thorough characterisation of visual RFs in two reciprocally connected areas of a fronto-parietal cortical network. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bech, Miklós; Homberg, Uwe; Pfeiffer, Keram
Many animals, including insects, are able to use celestial cues as a reference for spatial orientation and long-distance navigation . In addition to direct sunlight, the chromatic gradient of the sky and its polarization pattern are suited to serve as orientation cues [2-5]. Atmospheric scattering of sunlight causes a regular pattern of E vectors in the sky, which are arranged along concentric circles around the sun [5, 6]. Although certain insects rely predominantly on sky polarization for spatial orientation , it has been argued that detection of celestial E vector orientation may not suffice to differentiate between solar and antisolar directions [8, 9]. We show here that polarization-sensitive (POL) neurons in the brain of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria can overcome this ambiguity. Extracellular recordings from POL units in the central complex and lateral accessory lobes revealed E vector tunings arranged in concentric circles within large receptive fields, matching the sky polarization pattern at certain solar positions. Modeling of neuronal responses under an idealized sky polarization pattern (Rayleigh sky) suggests that these "matched filter" properties allow locusts to unambiguously determine the solar azimuth by relying solely on the sky polarization pattern for compass navigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Ling-Yun; Xiong, Xiaorui R; Ibrahim, Leena A; Yuan, Wei; Tao, Huizhong W; Zhang, Li I
Cortical inhibitory circuits play important roles in shaping sensory processing. In auditory cortex, however, functional properties of genetically identified inhibitory neurons are poorly characterized. By two-photon imaging-guided recordings, we specifically targeted 2 major types of cortical inhibitory neuron, parvalbumin (PV) and somatostatin (SOM) expressing neurons, in superficial layers of mouse auditory cortex. We found that PV cells exhibited broader tonal receptive fields with lower intensity thresholds and stronger tone-evoked spike responses compared with SOM neurons. The latter exhibited similar frequency selectivity as excitatory neurons. The broader/weaker frequency tuning of PV neurons was attributed to a broader range of synaptic inputs and stronger subthreshold responses elicited, which resulted in a higher efficiency in the conversion of input to output. In addition, onsets of both the input and spike responses of SOM neurons were significantly delayed compared with PV and excitatory cells. Our results suggest that PV and SOM neurons engage in auditory cortical circuits in different manners: while PV neurons may provide broadly tuned feedforward inhibition for a rapid control of ascending inputs to excitatory neurons, the delayed and more selective inhibition from SOM neurons may provide a specific modulation of feedback inputs on their distal dendrites. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Shao, Feng; Li, Kemeng; Lin, Weisi; Jiang, Gangyi; Yu, Mei; Dai, Qionghai
Quality assessment of 3D images encounters more challenges than its 2D counterparts. Directly applying 2D image quality metrics is not the solution. In this paper, we propose a new full-reference quality assessment for stereoscopic images by learning binocular receptive field properties to be more in line with human visual perception. To be more specific, in the training phase, we learn a multiscale dictionary from the training database, so that the latent structure of images can be represented as a set of basis vectors. In the quality estimation phase, we compute sparse feature similarity index based on the estimated sparse coefficient vectors by considering their phase difference and amplitude difference, and compute global luminance similarity index by considering luminance changes. The final quality score is obtained by incorporating binocular combination based on sparse energy and sparse complexity. Experimental results on five public 3D image quality assessment databases demonstrate that in comparison with the most related existing methods, the devised algorithm achieves high consistency with subjective assessment.
Yubo Wang; Tatinati, Sivanagaraja; Liyu Huang; Kim Jeong Hong; Shafiq, Ghufran; Veluvolu, Kalyana C; Khong, Andy W H
Extracranial robotic radiotherapy employs external markers and a correlation model to trace the tumor motion caused by the respiration. The real-time tracking of tumor motion however requires a prediction model to compensate the latencies induced by the software (image data acquisition and processing) and hardware (mechanical and kinematic) limitations of the treatment system. A new prediction algorithm based on local receptive fields extreme learning machines (pLRF-ELM) is proposed for respiratory motion prediction. All the existing respiratory motion prediction methods model the non-stationary respiratory motion traces directly to predict the future values. Unlike these existing methods, the pLRF-ELM performs prediction by modeling the higher-level features obtained by mapping the raw respiratory motion into the random feature space of ELM instead of directly modeling the raw respiratory motion. The developed method is evaluated using the dataset acquired from 31 patients for two horizons in-line with the latencies of treatment systems like CyberKnife. Results showed that pLRF-ELM is superior to that of existing prediction methods. Results further highlight that the abstracted higher-level features are suitable to approximate the nonlinear and non-stationary characteristics of respiratory motion for accurate prediction.
Snyder, Adam C; Morais, Michael J; Kohn, Adam; Smith, Matthew A
The trial-to-trial response variability of nearby cortical neurons is correlated. These correlations may strongly influence population coding performance. Numerous studies have shown that correlations can be dynamically modified by attention, adaptation, learning, and potent stimulus drive. However, the mechanisms that influence correlation strength remain poorly understood. Here we test whether correlations are influenced by presenting stimuli outside the classical receptive field (RF) of visual neurons, where they recruit a normalization signal termed surround suppression. We recorded simultaneously the activity of dozens of cells using microelectrode arrays implanted in the superficial layers of V1 in anesthetized, paralyzed macaque monkeys. We presented annular stimuli that encircled--but did not impinge upon--the RFs of the recorded cells. We found that these "extra-classical" stimuli reduced correlations in the absence of stimulation of the RF, closely resembling the decorrelating effects of stimulating the RFs directly. Our results suggest that normalization signals may be an important mechanism for modulating correlations. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411222-06$15.00/0.
Shao, Feng; Lin, Weisi; Wang, Shanshan; Jiang, Gangyi; Yu, Mei; Dai, Qionghai
Blind quality assessment of 3D images encounters more new challenges than its 2D counterparts. In this paper, we propose a blind quality assessment for stereoscopic images by learning the characteristics of receptive fields (RFs) from perspective of dictionary learning, and constructing quality lookups to replace human opinion scores without performance loss. The important feature of the proposed method is that we do not need a large set of samples of distorted stereoscopic images and the corresponding human opinion scores to learn a regression model. To be more specific, in the training phase, we learn local RFs (LRFs) and global RFs (GRFs) from the reference and distorted stereoscopic images, respectively, and construct their corresponding local quality lookups (LQLs) and global quality lookups (GQLs). In the testing phase, blind quality pooling can be easily achieved by searching optimal GRF and LRF indexes from the learnt LQLs and GQLs, and the quality score is obtained by combining the LRF and GRF indexes together. Experimental results on three publicly 3D image quality assessment databases demonstrate that in comparison with the existing methods, the devised algorithm achieves high consistent alignment with subjective assessment.
Vidoto, Edson Luiz Gea
The aim of the present work was to optimize the signal to noise ratio in our NMR imaging system (TORM 005) by improving transducer's reception quality through better designed coils, balanced tuning circuit for this coils and power decoupling circuits and by reducing interference from the electromagnetic environment. For this purpose, we had to modify the internal electromagnetic shielding and incorporate line filters in the more critical signals paths. Also, new types of coils were developed, improving the signal to noise ratio, and allowing us to make clinical exams with superior quality for several anatomies. Balanced circuits for tuning and matching of the coil were studied and built, allowing a reduction of the coil losses because patient's load. This produced a more reliable coil tuning after positioning each new patient. Circuits to avoid the receiver input overload and decoupling circuits for the isolation of receiver coils from excitation coil were designed and incorporated to the TORM 005. All these alterations of our imaging system (TORM 005) contributed to a significant improvement in the signal to noise ratio, reliability and reproducibility of the system. This permitted to operate the system routinely for clinical applications, research and development in the area of ultra low magnetic field tomography. (author)
Gao, Kun; Yang, Hu; Chen, Xiaomei; Ni, Guoqiang
Because of complex thermal objects in an infrared image, the prevalent image edge detection operators are often suitable for a certain scene and extract too wide edges sometimes. From a biological point of view, the image edge detection operators work reliably when assuming a convolution-based receptive field architecture. A DoG (Difference-of- Gaussians) model filter based on ON-center retinal ganglion cell receptive field architecture with artificial eye tremors introduced is proposed for the image contour detection. Aiming at the blurred edges of an infrared image, the subsequent orthogonal polynomial interpolation and sub-pixel level edge detection in rough edge pixel neighborhood is adopted to locate the foregoing rough edges in sub-pixel level. Numerical simulations show that this method can locate the target edge accurately and robustly.
Mender, Bedeho M W; Stringer, Simon M
We propose and examine a model for how perisaccadic visual receptive field dynamics, observed in a range of primate brain areas such as LIP, FEF, SC, V3, V3A, V2, and V1, may develop through a biologically plausible process of unsupervised visually guided learning. These dynamics are associated with remapping, which is the phenomenon where receptive fields anticipate the consequences of saccadic eye movements. We find that a neural network model using a local associative synaptic learning rule, when exposed to visual scenes in conjunction with saccades, can account for a range of associated phenomena. In particular, our model demonstrates predictive and pre-saccadic remapping, responsiveness shifts around the time of saccades, and remapping from multiple directions.
Full Text Available In the auditory system, the stimulus-response properties of single neurons are often described in terms of the spectrotemporal receptive field (STRF, a linear kernel relating the spectrogram of the sound stimulus to the instantaneous firing rate of the neuron. Several algorithms have been used to estimate STRFs from responses to natural stimuli; these algorithms differ in their functional models, cost functions, and regularization methods. Here, we characterize the stimulus-response function of auditory neurons using a generalized linear model (GLM. In this model, each cell's input is described by: 1 a stimulus filter (STRF; and 2 a post-spike filter, which captures dependencies on the neuron's spiking history. The output of the model is given by a series of spike trains rather than instantaneous firing rate, allowing the prediction of spike train responses to novel stimuli. We fit the model by maximum penalized likelihood to the spiking activity of zebra finch auditory midbrain neurons in response to conspecific vocalizations (songs and modulation limited (ml noise. We compare this model to normalized reverse correlation (NRC, the traditional method for STRF estimation, in terms of predictive power and the basic tuning properties of the estimated STRFs. We find that a GLM with a sparse prior predicts novel responses to both stimulus classes significantly better than NRC. Importantly, we find that STRFs from the two models derived from the same responses can differ substantially and that GLM STRFs are more consistent between stimulus classes than NRC STRFs. These results suggest that a GLM with a sparse prior provides a more accurate characterization of spectrotemporal tuning than does the NRC method when responses to complex sounds are studied in these neurons.
Maguire, G.W.; Smith, E.L. III
Optic tract single-unit recordings were used to study ganglion cell response functions of the intact cat eye after 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioning of the dopaminergic amacrine cell (AC) population of the inner retina. The impairment of the dopaminergic AC was verified by high pressure-liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection of endogenous dopamine content and by [ 3 H]dopamine high-affinity uptake; the dopaminergic ACs of the treated eyes demonstrated reduced endogenous dopamine content and reduced [ 3 H]dopamine uptake compared with that of their matched controls. Normal appearing [ 3 H]GABA and [ 3 H]-glycine uptake in the treated retinas suggests the absence of any nonspecific action of the 6-OHDA on the neural retina. The impairment of the dopaminergic AC population was found to alter a number of response properties in off-center ganglion cells, but this impairment had only a modest effect on the on-center cells. An abnormally high proportion of the off-center ganglion cells in the 6-OHDA treated eyes possessed nonlinear, Y-type receptive fields. These cells also possessed shift-responses of greater than normal amplitude, altered intensity-response functions, reduced maintained activities, and more transient center responses. Of the on-center type cells, only the Y-type on-center cells were affected by 6-OHDA, possessing higher than normal maintained activities and altered intensity-response functions. The on-center X-cells were unaffected by 6-OHDA treatment. The dopaminergic AC of the photopically adapted cat retina therefore modulates a number of ganglion cell response properties and within the limits of this study is most prominent in off-center ganglion cell circuitry
Müller, Monika; Biurrun Manresa, José A; Treichel, Fabienne; Agten, Christoph A; Heini, Paul; Andersen, Ole K; Curatolo, Michele; Jüni, Peter
Low back pain has a life time prevalence of 70% to 85%. Approximately 10% to 20% of all patients experience recurrent episodes or develop chronic low back pain. Sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics explain the transition from acute to chronic low back pain only to a limited extent. Altered central pain processing may be a contributing mechanism. The measurement of reflex receptive fields (RRF) is a novel method to assess altered central pain processing. The RRF area denotes the area of the foot sole from which spinal nociceptive reflexes can be elicited. It was shown to be enlarged in patients with acute and chronic low back pain compared with pain-free individuals. The aim of the study was to explore the discriminative ability of the RRF to distinguish patients with acute and chronic low back pain with the hypothesis that enlarged RRF are associated with chronic low back pain. We included 214 patients with either acute or chronic low back pain and compared RRF between groups in both univariable and multivariable analyses adjusted for different sociodemographic and clinical characteristics possibly associated with the transition to chronic pain. We found a mean difference between patients with acute and chronic low back pain of -0.01 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.06 to 0.04) in the crude, -0.02 (95% CI, -0.08 to 0.04) in the age and sex adjusted, and -0.02 (95% CI, -0.09 to 0.05) in the fully adjusted model. Our results suggest that the enlargement of RRF area may not be associated with the transition from acute to chronic low back pain.
Wang, Xiao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Mingsha; Wu, Si
Our eyes move constantly at a frequency of 3-5 times per second. These movements, called saccades, induce the sweeping of visual images on the retina, yet we perceive the world as stable. It has been suggested that the brain achieves this visual stability via predictive remapping of neuronal receptive field (RF). A recent experimental study disclosed details of this remapping process in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP), that is, about the time of the saccade, the neuronal RF expands along the saccadic trajectory temporally, covering the current RF (CRF), the future RF (FRF), and the region the eye will sweep through during the saccade. A cortical wave (CW) model was also proposed, which attributes the RF remapping as a consequence of neural activity propagating in the cortex, triggered jointly by a visual stimulus and the corollary discharge (CD) signal responsible for the saccade. In this study, we investigate how this CW model is learned naturally from visual experiences at the development of the brain. We build a two-layer network, with one layer consisting of LIP neurons and the other superior colliculus (SC) neurons. Initially, neuronal connections are random and non-selective. A saccade will cause a static visual image to sweep through the retina passively, creating the effect of the visual stimulus moving in the opposite direction of the saccade. According to the spiking-time-dependent-plasticity rule, the connection path in the opposite direction of the saccade between LIP neurons and the connection path from SC to LIP are enhanced. Over many such visual experiences, the CW model is developed, which generates the peri-saccadic RF remapping in LIP as observed in the experiment.
Full Text Available Our eyes move constantly at a frequency of 3–5 times per second. These movements, called saccades, induce the sweeping of visual images on the retina, yet we perceive the world as stable. It has been suggested that the brain achieves this visual stability via predictive remapping of neuronal receptive field (RF. A recent experimental study disclosed details of this remapping process in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP, that is, about the time of the saccade, the neuronal RF expands along the saccadic trajectory temporally, covering the current RF (CRF, the future RF (FRF, and the region the eye will sweep through during the saccade. A cortical wave (CW model was also proposed, which attributes the RF remapping as a consequence of neural activity propagating in the cortex, triggered jointly by a visual stimulus and the corollary discharge (CD signal responsible for the saccade. In this study, we investigate how this CW model is learned naturally from visual experiences at the development of the brain. We build a two-layer network, with one layer consisting of LIP neurons and the other superior colliculus (SC neurons. Initially, neuronal connections are random and non-selective. A saccade will cause a static visual image to sweep through the retina passively, creating the effect of the visual stimulus moving in the opposite direction of the saccade. According to the spiking-time-dependent-plasticity rule, the connection path in the opposite direction of the saccade between LIP neurons and the connection path from SC to LIP are enhanced. Over many such visual experiences, the CW model is developed, which generates the peri-saccadic RF remapping in LIP as observed in the experiment.
Fritz, Jonathan; Elhilali, Mounya; David, Stephen; Shamma, Shihab
Acoustic filter properties of A1 neurons can dynamically adapt to stimulus statistics, classical conditioning, instrumental learning and the changing auditory attentional focus. We have recently developed an experimental paradigm that allows us to view cortical receptive field plasticity on-line as the animal meets different behavioral challenges by attending to salient acoustic cues and changing its cortical filters to enhance performance. We propose that attention is the key trigger that in...
Eiber, C D; Pietersen, A N J; Zeater, N; Solomon, S G; Martin, P R
The "blue-on" and "blue-off" receptive fields in retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of diurnal primates combine signals from short-wavelength sensitive (S) cone photoreceptors with signals from medium/long wavelength sensitive (ML) photoreceptors. Three questions about this combination remain unresolved. Firstly, is the combination of S and ML signals in these cells linear or non-linear? Secondly, how does the timing of S and ML inputs to these cells influence their responses? Thirdly, is there spatial antagonism within S and ML subunits of the receptive field of these cells? We measured contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency tuning for four types of drifting sine gratings: S cone isolating, ML cone isolating, achromatic (S + ML), and counterphase chromatic (S - ML), in extracellular recordings from LGN of marmoset monkeys. We found that responses to stimuli which modulate both S and ML cones are well predicted by a linear sum of S and ML signals, followed by a saturating contrast-response relation. Differences in sensitivity and timing (i.e. vector combination) between S and ML inputs are needed to explain the amplitude and phase of responses to achromatic (S + ML) and counterphase chromatic (S - ML) stimuli. Best-fit spatial receptive fields for S and/or ML subunits in most cells (>80%) required antagonistic surrounds, usually in the S subunit. The surrounds were however generally weak and had little influence on spatial tuning. The sensitivity and size of S and ML subunits were correlated on a cell-by-cell basis, adding to evidence that blue-on and blue-off receptive fields are specialised to signal chromatic but not spatial contrast. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Soo Hyun Park
Full Text Available Many direction-selective neurons have a receptive field structure that promotes suppressive interactions between center and surround regions. These interactions sculpt the overall pattern of activity among those neurons and, therefore, presumably impact perceived direction of motion. To test this conjecture, we have assessed the effect of motion signals produced by a moving stimulus on perceived motion within a neighboring region. On each trial a vertical bar (inducer appeared at 8 eccentricity in the upper visual field, moving either leftward or rightward, and a circular shaped random dot kinematogram (test appeared at 4 eccentricity. The test dots moved randomly except when the inducer passed nearby the test, at which time a pulse of coherent motion occurred in one of the two directions within the test. Coherence strength was adjusted by QUEST to maintain equal likelihood (point of subjective equality: PSE of leftward and rightward reports of perceived direction during this motion pulse. The inducer caused a substantial shift in PSE: it was necessary for the test to contain 50% coherent motion in the same direction as that of the inducer to nullify the illusory motion within the test caused by the inducer. The effect of the inducer could also be offset by simultaneously presenting a second inducer moving in the opposite direction. This pattern of results implies substantial suppressive interactions between neighboring moving stimuli, interactions whose strength and direction can be assessed psychophysically using nulling procedures.
The goal of this review is twofold. First, it aims to describe the dynamic regulation that constantly shapes the receptive fields (RFs) and maps in the thalamo-cortical sensory systems of undrugged animals. Second, it aims to discuss several important issues that remain unresolved at the intersection between behavioral neurosciences and sensory physiology. A first section presents the RF modulations observed when an undrugged animal spontaneously shifts from waking to slow-wave sleep or to paradoxical sleep (also called REM sleep). A second section shows that, in contrast with the general changes described in the first section, behavioral training can induce selective effects which favor the stimulus that has acquired significance during learning. A third section reviews the effects triggered by two major neuromodulators of the thalamo-cortical system--acetylcholine and noradrenaline--which are traditionally involved both in the switch of vigilance states and in learning experiences. The conclusion argues that because the receptive fields and maps of an awake animal are continuously modulated from minute to minute, learning-induced sensory plasticity can be viewed as a "crystallization" of the receptive fields and maps in one of the multiple possible states. Studying the interplays between neuromodulators can help understanding the neurobiological foundations of this dynamic regulation.
Hallum, Luke E; Shooner, Christopher; Kumbhani, Romesh D; Kelly, Jenna G; García-Marín, Virginia; Majaj, Najib J; Movshon, J Anthony; Kiorpes, Lynne
In amblyopia, a visual disorder caused by abnormal visual experience during development, the amblyopic eye (AE) loses visual sensitivity whereas the fellow eye (FE) is largely unaffected. Binocular vision in amblyopes is often disrupted by interocular suppression. We used 96-electrode arrays to record neurons and neuronal groups in areas V1 and V2 of six female macaque monkeys ( Macaca nemestrina ) made amblyopic by artificial strabismus or anisometropia in early life, as well as two visually normal female controls. To measure suppressive binocular interactions directly, we recorded neuronal responses to dichoptic stimulation. We stimulated both eyes simultaneously with large sinusoidal gratings, controlling their contrast independently with raised-cosine modulators of different orientations and spatial frequencies. We modeled each eye's receptive field at each cortical site using a difference of Gaussian envelopes and derived estimates of the strength of central excitation and surround suppression. We used these estimates to calculate ocular dominance separately for excitation and suppression. Excitatory drive from the FE dominated amblyopic visual cortex, especially in more severe amblyopes, but suppression from both the FE and AEs was prevalent in all animals. This imbalance created strong interocular suppression in deep amblyopes: increasing contrast in the AE decreased responses at binocular cortical sites. These response patterns reveal mechanisms that likely contribute to the interocular suppression that disrupts vision in amblyopes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Amblyopia is a developmental visual disorder that alters both monocular vision and binocular interaction. Using microelectrode arrays, we examined binocular interaction in primary visual cortex and V2 of six amblyopic macaque monkeys ( Macaca nemestrina ) and two visually normal controls. By stimulating the eyes dichoptically, we showed that, in amblyopic cortex, the binocular combination of signals is
Alyssa A. Brewer
Full Text Available Although several studies have suggested that cortical alterations underlie such age-related visual deficits as decreased acuity, little is known about what changes actually occur in visual cortex during healthy aging. Two recent studies showed changes in primary visual cortex (V1 during normal aging; however, no studies have characterized the effects of aging on visual cortex beyond V1, important measurements both for understanding the aging process and for comparison to changes in age-related diseases. Similarly, there is almost no information about changes in visual cortex in Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the most common form of dementia. Because visual deficits are often reported as one of the first symptoms of AD, measurements of such changes in the visual cortex of AD patients might improve our understanding of how the visual system is affected by neurodegeneration as well as aid early detection, accurate diagnosis and timely treatment of AD. Here we use fMRI to first compare the visual field map (VFM organization and population receptive fields (pRFs between young adults and healthy aging subjects for occipital VFMs V1, V2, V3, and hV4. Healthy aging subjects do not show major VFM organizational deficits, but do have reduced surface area and increased pRF sizes in the foveal representations of V1, V2, and hV4 relative to healthy young control subjects. These measurements are consistent with behavioral deficits seen in healthy aging. We then demonstrate the feasibility and first characterization of these measurements in two patients with mild AD, which reveal potential changes in visual cortex as part of the pathophysiology of AD. Our data aid in our understanding of the changes in the visual processing pathways in normal aging and provide the foundation for future research into earlier and more definitive detection of AD.
This book argues that it is time to rethink reception as a traditional paradigm for understanding the relation between the ancient Greco-Roman traditions and early Judaism and Christianity. The concept of reception implies taking something from one fixed box into another, often a chronological...... intend to develop a more multi-faceted view of such precesses and to go beyond the term reception....
Fritz, Jonathan B; Elhilali, Mounya; David, Stephen V; Shamma, Shihab A
Acoustic filter properties of A1 neurons can dynamically adapt to stimulus statistics, classical conditioning, instrumental learning and the changing auditory attentional focus. We have recently developed an experimental paradigm that allows us to view cortical receptive field plasticity on-line as the animal meets different behavioral challenges by attending to salient acoustic cues and changing its cortical filters to enhance performance. We propose that attention is the key trigger that initiates a cascade of events leading to the dynamic receptive field changes that we observe. In our paradigm, ferrets were initially trained, using conditioned avoidance training techniques, to discriminate between background noise stimuli (temporally orthogonal ripple combinations) and foreground tonal target stimuli. They learned to generalize the task for a wide variety of distinct background and foreground target stimuli. We recorded cortical activity in the awake behaving animal and computed on-line spectrotemporal receptive fields (STRFs) of single neurons in A1. We observed clear, predictable task-related changes in STRF shape while the animal performed spectral tasks (including single tone and multi-tone detection, and two-tone discrimination) with different tonal targets. A different set of task-related changes occurred when the animal performed temporal tasks (including gap detection and click-rate discrimination). Distinctive cortical STRF changes may constitute a "task-specific signature". These spectral and temporal changes in cortical filters occur quite rapidly, within 2min of task onset, and fade just as quickly after task completion, or in some cases, persisted for hours. The same cell could multiplex by differentially changing its receptive field in different task conditions. On-line dynamic task-related changes, as well as persistent plastic changes, were observed at a single-unit, multi-unit and population level. Auditory attention is likely to be pivotal in
Brown, H A; Allison, J D; Samonds, J M; Bonds, A B
A stimulus located outside the classic receptive field (CRF) of a striate cortical neuron can markedly influence its behavior. To study this phenomenon, we recorded from two cortical sites, recorded and peripheral, with separate electrodes in cats anesthetized with Propofol and nitrous oxide. The receptive fields of each site were discrete (2-7.3 deg between centers). A control orientation tuning (OT) curve was measured for a single recorded cell with a drifting grating. The OT curve was then remeasured while stimulating simultaneously the cell's CRF as well as the peripheral site with a stimulus optimized for that location. For 22/60 cells, the peripheral stimulus suppressed the peak response and/or shifted the center of mass of the OT curve. For 19 of these 22 cells, we then reversibly blocked stimulus-driven activity at the peripheral site by iontophoretic application of GABA (0.5 M). For 6/19 cells, the response returned to control levels, implying that for these cells the inhibitory influence arose from the blocked site. The responses of nine cells remained reduced during inactivation of the peripheral site, suggesting that influence was generated outside the region of local block in area 17. This is consistent with earlier findings suggesting that modulatory influences can originate from higher cortical areas. Three cells had mixed results, suggesting multiple origins of influence. The response of each cell returned to suppressed levels after dissipation of the GABA and returned to baseline values when the peripheral stimulus was removed. These findings support a cortical model in which a cell's response is modulated by an inhibitory network originating from beyond the receptive field that supplants convergence of excitatory lateral geniculate neurons. The existence of cells that exhibit no change in peripherally inhibited responses during the GABA application suggests that peripheral influences may arise from outside area 17, presumably from other cortical
Full Text Available Physiological evidence was sought for a center-surround attentional mechanism (CSM, which has been proposed to assist in the retrieval of weakly activated items from semantic memory. The CSM operates by facilitating strongly related items in the center of the weakly activated area of semantic memory, and inhibiting less strongly related items in its surround. In this study weak activation was created by having subjects acquire the meanings of new words to a recall criterion of only 50%. Subjects who attained this approximate criterion level of performance were subsequently included in a semantic priming task, during which ERPs were recorded. Primes were newly learned rare words, and targets were either synonyms, nonsynonymously related words, or unrelated words. All stimuli were presented to the RVF/LH (right visual field/left hemisphere or the LVF/RH (left visual field/right hemisphere. Under RVF/LH stimulation the newly learned word primes produced facilitation on N400 for synonym targets, and inhibition for related targets. No differences were observed under LVF/RH stimulation. The LH thus, supports a CSM, whereby a synonym in the center of attention focused on the newly learned word is facilitated, whereas a related word in the surround is inhibited. The data are consistent with the view of this laboratory that semantic memory is subserved by a spreading activation system in the LH. Also consistent with our view, there was no evidence of spreading activation in the RH. The findings are discussed in the context of additional recent theories of semantic memory. Finally, the adult right hemisphere may require more learning than the LH in order to demonstrate evidence of meaning acquisition.
Tamosiunaite, Minija; Asfour, Tamim; Wörgötter, Florentin
Reinforcement learning methods can be used in robotics applications especially for specific target-oriented problems, for example the reward-based recalibration of goal directed actions. To this end still relatively large and continuous state-action spaces need to be efficiently handled. The goal of this paper is, thus, to develop a novel, rather simple method which uses reinforcement learning with function approximation in conjunction with different reward-strategies for solving such problems. For the testing of our method, we use a four degree-of-freedom reaching problem in 3D-space simulated by a two-joint robot arm system with two DOF each. Function approximation is based on 4D, overlapping kernels (receptive fields) and the state-action space contains about 10,000 of these. Different types of reward structures are being compared, for example, reward-on- touching-only against reward-on-approach. Furthermore, forbidden joint configurations are punished. A continuous action space is used. In spite of a rather large number of states and the continuous action space these reward/punishment strategies allow the system to find a good solution usually within about 20 trials. The efficiency of our method demonstrated in this test scenario suggests that it might be possible to use it on a real robot for problems where mixed rewards can be defined in situations where other types of learning might be difficult.
Willmore, Ben D.B.; Bulstrode, Harry; Tolhurst, David J.
Neuronal populations in the primary visual cortex (V1) of mammals exhibit contrast normalization. Neurons that respond strongly to simple visual stimuli – such as sinusoidal gratings – respond less well to the same stimuli when they are presented as part of a more complex stimulus which also excites other, neighboring neurons. This phenomenon is generally attributed to generalized patterns of inhibitory connections between nearby V1 neurons. The Bienenstock, Cooper and Munro (BCM) rule is a neural network learning rule that, when trained on natural images, produces model neurons which, individually, have many tuning properties in common with real V1 neurons. However, when viewed as a population, a BCM network is very different from V1 – each member of the BCM population tends to respond to the same dominant features of visual input, producing an incomplete, highly redundant code for visual information. Here, we demonstrate that, by adding contrast normalization into the BCM rule, we arrive at a neurally-plausible Hebbian learning rule that can learn an efficient sparse, overcomplete representation that is a better model for stimulus selectivity in V1. This suggests that one role of contrast normalization in V1 is to guide the neonatal development of receptive fields, so that neurons respond to different features of visual input. PMID:22230381
Full Text Available A focal stimulus outside the receptive field robustly induces LFP change, while the same stimulus evokes no spike activity. We determined how this subthreshold LFP change interacted with spike response to the RF stimulus. Specifically, we sequentially presented two identical Gabor stimuli with a variable stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA; the first one (S1 was presented outside RF inducing a subthreshold LFP change, and the second one (S2 was subsequently presented within RF generating a spiking response. This enabled us to manipulate the temporal relation between subthreshold LFP and evoked spike activity and to determine whether subthreshold LFP contributed to modulation of spike activity in a SOA-dependent manner. We found that the subthreshold LFP propagated a considerably long distance, estimated to be more than 10 mm of cortical distance. The cross-correlation between the time course of subthreshold LFP and the pattern of SOA-dependency of spike activity was significant. These results indicate that signal integration is farther beyond the RF than previously estimated based on spike-triggered average, and suggest that subthreshold LFP modulate spike activity in a SOA-dependent manner.
Phillip A Romo
Full Text Available Spike-responses of single binocular neurons were recorded from a distinct part of primary visual cortex, the parastriate cortex (cytoarchitectonic area 18 of anaesthetized and immobilized domestic cats. Functional identification of neurons was based on the ratios of phase-variant (F1 component to the mean firing rate (F0 of their spike-responses to optimized (orientation, direction, spatial and temporal frequencies and size sine-wave-luminance-modulated drifting grating patches presented separately via each eye. In over 95% of neurons, the interocular differences in the phase-sensitivities (differences in F1/F0 spike-response ratios were small (≤ 0.3 and in over 80% of neurons, the interocular differences in preferred orientations were ≤ 10°. The interocular correlations of the direction selectivity indices and optimal spatial frequencies, like those of the phase sensitivies and optimal orientations, were also strong (coefficients of correlation r ≥ 0.7005. By contrast, the interocular correlations of the optimal temporal frequencies, the diameters of summation areas of the excitatory responses and suppression indices were weak (coefficients of correlation r ≤ 0.4585. In cells with high eye dominance indices (HEDI cells, the mean magnitudes of suppressions evoked by stimulation of silent, extra-classical receptive fields via the non-dominant eyes, were significantly greater than those when the stimuli were presented via the dominant eyes. We argue that the well documented 'eye-origin specific' segregation of the lateral geniculate inputs underpinning distinct eye dominance columns in primary visual cortices of mammals with frontally positioned eyes (distinct eye dominance columns, combined with significant interocular differences in the strength of silent suppressive fields, putatively contribute to binocular stereoscopic vision.
Tao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Bin; Shen, Guofu; Wensveen, Janice; Smith, Earl L; Nishimoto, Shinji; Ohzawa, Izumi; Chino, Yuzo M
Experiencing different quality images in the two eyes soon after birth can cause amblyopia, a developmental vision disorder. Amblyopic humans show the reduced capacity for judging the relative position of a visual target in reference to nearby stimulus elements (position uncertainty) and often experience visual image distortion. Although abnormal pooling of local stimulus information by neurons beyond striate cortex (V1) is often suggested as a neural basis of these deficits, extrastriate neurons in the amblyopic brain have rarely been studied using microelectrode recording methods. The receptive field (RF) of neurons in visual area V2 in normal monkeys is made up of multiple subfields that are thought to reflect V1 inputs and are capable of encoding the spatial relationship between local stimulus features. We created primate models of anisometropic amblyopia and analyzed the RF subfield maps for multiple nearby V2 neurons of anesthetized monkeys by using dynamic two-dimensional noise stimuli and reverse correlation methods. Unlike in normal monkeys, the subfield maps of V2 neurons in amblyopic monkeys were severely disorganized: subfield maps showed higher heterogeneity within each neuron as well as across nearby neurons. Amblyopic V2 neurons exhibited robust binocular suppression and the strength of the suppression was positively correlated with the degree of hereogeneity and the severity of amblyopia in individual monkeys. Our results suggest that the disorganized subfield maps and robust binocular suppression of amblyopic V2 neurons are likely to adversely affect the higher stages of cortical processing resulting in position uncertainty and image distortion. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3413840-15$15.00/0.
Tanaka, Takuma; Aoyagi, Toshio; Kaneko, Takeshi
We propose a new principle for replicating receptive field properties of neurons in the primary visual cortex. We derive a learning rule for a feedforward network, which maintains a low firing rate for the output neurons (resulting in temporal sparseness) and allows only a small subset of the neurons in the network to fire at any given time (resulting in population sparseness). Our learning rule also sets the firing rates of the output neurons at each time step to near-maximum or near-minimum levels, resulting in neuronal reliability. The learning rule is simple enough to be written in spatially and temporally local forms. After the learning stage is performed using input image patches of natural scenes, output neurons in the model network are found to exhibit simple-cell-like receptive field properties. When the output of these simple-cell-like neurons are input to another model layer using the same learning rule, the second-layer output neurons after learning become less sensitive to the phase of gratings than the simple-cell-like input neurons. In particular, some of the second-layer output neurons become completely phase invariant, owing to the convergence of the connections from first-layer neurons with similar orientation selectivity to second-layer neurons in the model network. We examine the parameter dependencies of the receptive field properties of the model neurons after learning and discuss their biological implications. We also show that the localized learning rule is consistent with experimental results concerning neuronal plasticity and can replicate the receptive fields of simple and complex cells.
Loxley, P N
The two-dimensional Gabor function is adapted to natural image statistics, leading to a tractable probabilistic generative model that can be used to model simple cell receptive field profiles, or generate basis functions for sparse coding applications. Learning is found to be most pronounced in three Gabor function parameters representing the size and spatial frequency of the two-dimensional Gabor function and characterized by a nonuniform probability distribution with heavy tails. All three parameters are found to be strongly correlated, resulting in a basis of multiscale Gabor functions with similar aspect ratios and size-dependent spatial frequencies. A key finding is that the distribution of receptive-field sizes is scale invariant over a wide range of values, so there is no characteristic receptive field size selected by natural image statistics. The Gabor function aspect ratio is found to be approximately conserved by the learning rules and is therefore not well determined by natural image statistics. This allows for three distinct solutions: a basis of Gabor functions with sharp orientation resolution at the expense of spatial-frequency resolution, a basis of Gabor functions with sharp spatial-frequency resolution at the expense of orientation resolution, or a basis with unit aspect ratio. Arbitrary mixtures of all three cases are also possible. Two parameters controlling the shape of the marginal distributions in a probabilistic generative model fully account for all three solutions. The best-performing probabilistic generative model for sparse coding applications is found to be a gaussian copula with Pareto marginal probability density functions.
Hamker, Fred H; Wiltschut, Jan
Most computational models of coding are based on a generative model according to which the feedback signal aims to reconstruct the visual scene as close as possible. We here explore an alternative model of feedback. It is derived from studies of attention and thus, probably more flexible with respect to attentive processing in higher brain areas. According to this model, feedback implements a gain increase of the feedforward signal. We use a dynamic model with presynaptic inhibition and Hebbian learning to simultaneously learn feedforward and feedback weights. The weights converge to localized, oriented, and bandpass filters similar as the ones found in V1. Due to presynaptic inhibition the model predicts the organization of receptive fields within the feedforward pathway, whereas feedback primarily serves to tune early visual processing according to the needs of the task.
Sproglæringsteoretisk værktøj til udvikling af IT-støttede materialer og programmer inden for sproglig reception......Sproglæringsteoretisk værktøj til udvikling af IT-støttede materialer og programmer inden for sproglig reception...
Galeazzi, Juan M; Navajas, Joaquín; Mender, Bedeho M W; Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo; Minini, Loredana; Stringer, Simon M
Neurons have been found in the primate brain that respond to objects in specific locations in hand-centered coordinates. A key theoretical challenge is to explain how such hand-centered neuronal responses may develop through visual experience. In this paper we show how hand-centered visual receptive fields can develop using an artificial neural network model, VisNet, of the primate visual system when driven by gaze changes recorded from human test subjects as they completed a jigsaw. A camera mounted on the head captured images of the hand and jigsaw, while eye movements were recorded using an eye-tracking device. This combination of data allowed us to reconstruct the retinal images seen as humans undertook the jigsaw task. These retinal images were then fed into the neural network model during self-organization of its synaptic connectivity using a biologically plausible trace learning rule. A trace learning mechanism encourages neurons in the model to learn to respond to input images that tend to occur in close temporal proximity. In the data recorded from human subjects, we found that the participant's gaze often shifted through a sequence of locations around a fixed spatial configuration of the hand and one of the jigsaw pieces. In this case, trace learning should bind these retinal images together onto the same subset of output neurons. The simulation results consequently confirmed that some cells learned to respond selectively to the hand and a jigsaw piece in a fixed spatial configuration across different retinal views.
Jacobsen, J.-H.; van Gemert, J.; Lou, Z.; Smeulders, A.W.M.
Learning powerful feature representations with CNNs is hard when training data are limited. Pre-training is one way to overcome this, but it requires large datasets sufficiently similar to the target domain. Another option is to design priors into the model, which can range from tuned
Donald R Cantrell
Full Text Available The functional separation of ON and OFF pathways, one of the fundamental features of the visual system, starts in the retina. During postnatal development, some retinal ganglion cells (RGCs whose dendrites arborize in both ON and OFF sublaminae of the inner plexiform layer transform into RGCs with dendrites that monostratify in either the ON or OFF sublamina, acquiring final dendritic morphology in a subtype-dependent manner. Little is known about how the receptive field (RF properties of ON, OFF, and ON-OFF RGCs mature during this time because of the lack of a reliable and efficient method to classify RGCs into these subtypes. To address this deficiency, we developed an innovative variant of Spike Triggered Covariance (STC analysis, which we term Spike Triggered Covariance - Non-Centered (STC-NC analysis. Using a multi-electrode array (MEA, we recorded the responses of a large population of mouse RGCs to a Gaussian white noise stimulus. As expected, the Spike-Triggered Average (STA fails to identify responses driven by symmetric static nonlinearities such as those that underlie ON-OFF center RGC behavior. The STC-NC technique, in contrast, provides an efficient means to identify ON-OFF responses and quantify their RF center sizes accurately. Using this new tool, we find that RGCs gradually develop sensitivity to focal stimulation after eye opening, that the percentage of ON-OFF center cells decreases with age, and that RF centers of ON and ON-OFF cells become smaller. Importantly, we demonstrate for the first time that neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 regulates the development of physiological properties of ON-OFF center RGCs. Overexpression of NT-3 leads to the precocious maturation of RGC responsiveness and accelerates the developmental decrease of RF center size in ON-OFF cells. In summary, our study introduces STC-NC analysis which successfully identifies subtype RGCs and demonstrates how RF development relates to a neurotrophic driver in the retina.
Vinck, Martin; Bosman, Conrado A.
During visual stimulation, neurons in visual cortex often exhibit rhythmic and synchronous firing in the gamma-frequency (30–90 Hz) band. Whether this phenomenon plays a functional role during visual processing is not fully clear and remains heavily debated. In this article, we explore the function of gamma-synchronization in the context of predictive and efficient coding theories. These theories hold that sensory neurons utilize the statistical regularities in the natural world in order to improve the efficiency of the neural code, and to optimize the inference of the stimulus causes of the sensory data. In visual cortex, this relies on the integration of classical receptive field (CRF) data with predictions from the surround. Here we outline two main hypotheses about gamma-synchronization in visual cortex. First, we hypothesize that the precision of gamma-synchronization reflects the extent to which CRF data can be accurately predicted by the surround. Second, we hypothesize that different cortical columns synchronize to the extent that they accurately predict each other’s CRF visual input. We argue that these two hypotheses can account for a large number of empirical observations made on the stimulus dependencies of gamma-synchronization. Furthermore, we show that they are consistent with the known laminar dependencies of gamma-synchronization and the spatial profile of intercolumnar gamma-synchronization, as well as the dependence of gamma-synchronization on experience and development. Based on our two main hypotheses, we outline two additional hypotheses. First, we hypothesize that the precision of gamma-synchronization shows, in general, a negative dependence on RF size. In support, we review evidence showing that gamma-synchronization decreases in strength along the visual hierarchy, and tends to be more prominent in species with small V1 RFs. Second, we hypothesize that gamma-synchronized network dynamics facilitate the emergence of spiking output that
Join us at the APS Diversity Reception to relax, network with colleagues, and learn about programs and initiatives for women, underrepresented minorities, and LGBT physicists. You'll have a great time meeting friends in a supportive environment and making connections.
Paulo, Ana; Zaal, Frank T J M; Fonseca, Sofia; Araujo, Duarte
Serve and serve-reception performance have predicted success in volleyball. Given the impact of serve-reception on the game, we aimed at understanding what it is in the serve and receiver's actions that determines the selection of the type of pass used in serve-reception and its efficacy. Four
Education and Technology Transfer Unit/ETT-EC
Friday 15.10.2004 CERN 50th Anniversary articles will be sold in the Main Building, ground floor on Friday 15th October from 10h00 to 16h00. T-shirt, (S, M, L, XL) 20.- K-way (M, L, XL) 20.- Silk tie (2 models) 30.- Einstein tie 45.- Umbrella 20.- Caran d'Ache pen 5.- 50th Anniversary Pen 5.- Kit of Cartoon Album & Crayons 10.- All the articles are also available at the Reception Shop in Building 33 from Monday to Saturday between 08.30 and 17.00 hrs. Education and Technology Transfer Unit/ETT-EC
Jensen, Klaus Bruhn
Gives examples of how qualitative methodologies have been employed to study media reception in the present. Identifies some forms of evidence that can creatively fill the gaps in knowledge about media reception in the past. Argues that the field must develop databases documenting media reception, which may broaden the scope of audience research in…
Some might argue that reception analysis is a remnant of the past in an age where “people formerly known as the audience” (Rosen, 2006) are producing and circulating content on a diversity of interactive and participatory media platforms. Far from being the case, reception research must continue......, which appears increasingly complex, multi-formed and integrated to the audience. The original dimensions of Schrøder’s model need to be looked at with reference to both reception and circulation (Jenkins et al., 2013), and to the network that binds participatory media culture. It appears that with media...... 2.0, phenomena which traditionally fell under the labels of interpretation or reception are increasingly taking part in the media text itself. As audiences become textual matters, they contribute to set a new agenda for media research....
At a reception on 28 January, the CERN management presented their best wishes for 2009 to politicians and representatives of the administrations in the local area, and diplomats representing CERN’s Member States, Observer States and other countries.
Yi, Weiguang; Law, S Edward; McCoy, Dennis; Wetzstein, Hazel Y
Fertilization is essential in almond production, and pollination can be limiting in production areas. This study investigated stigma receptivity under defined developmental stages to clarify the relationship between stigma morphology, pollen germination, tube growth and fruit set. Light and scanning electron microscopy were employed to examine stigma development at seven stages of flower development ranging from buds that were swollen to flowers in which petals were abscising. Flowers at different stages were hand pollinated and pollen germination and tube growth assessed. Artificial pollinations in the field were conducted to determine the effect of flower age on fruit set. Later stages of flower development exhibited greater stigma receptivity, i.e. higher percentages of pollen germination and more extensive tube growth occurred in older (those opened to the flat petal stage or exhibiting petal fall) than younger flowers. Enhanced stigma receptivity was associated with elongation of stigmatic papillae and increased amounts of stigmatic exudate that inundated papillae at later developmental stages. Field pollinations indicated that the stigma was still receptive and nut set was maintained in older flowers. Stigma receptivity in almond does not become optimal until flowers are past the fully open stage. The stigma is still receptive and fruit set is maintained in flowers even at the stage when petals are abscising. Strategies to enhance pollination and crop yield, including the timing and placement of honey bees, should consider the effectiveness of developmentally advanced flowers.
Transducer project and optimization of the ultra low magnetic field NMR tomograph reception system system; Projeto de transdutores e otimizacao do sistema de recepcao do tomografo de RMN de campo magnetico ultra baixo
Vidoto, Edson Luiz Gea
The aim of the present work was to optimize the signal to noise ratio in our NMR imaging system (TORM 005) by improving transducer`s reception quality through better designed coils, balanced tuning circuit for this coils and power decoupling circuits and by reducing interference from the electromagnetic environment. For this purpose, we had to modify the internal electromagnetic shielding and incorporate line filters in the more critical signals paths. Also, new types of coils were developed, improving the signal to noise ratio, and allowing us to make clinical exams with superior quality for several anatomies. Balanced circuits for tuning and matching of the coil were studied and built, allowing a reduction of the coil losses because patient`s load. This produced a more reliable coil tuning after positioning each new patient. Circuits to avoid the receiver input overload and decoupling circuits for the isolation of receiver coils from excitation coil were designed and incorporated to the TORM 005. All these alterations of our imaging system (TORM 005) contributed to a significant improvement in the signal to noise ratio, reliability and reproducibility of the system. This permitted to operate the system routinely for clinical applications, research and development in the area of ultra low magnetic field tomography. (author) 46 refs., 66 figs., 11 tabs.
Transducer project and optimization of the ultra low magnetic field NMR tomograph reception system system; Projeto de transdutores e otimizacao do sistema de recepcao do tomografo de RMN de campo magnetico ultra baixo
Vidoto, Edson Luiz Gea
The aim of the present work was to optimize the signal to noise ratio in our NMR imaging system (TORM 005) by improving transducer`s reception quality through better designed coils, balanced tuning circuit for this coils and power decoupling circuits and by reducing interference from the electromagnetic environment. For this purpose, we had to modify the internal electromagnetic shielding and incorporate line filters in the more critical signals paths. Also, new types of coils were developed, improving the signal to noise ratio, and allowing us to make clinical exams with superior quality for several anatomies. Balanced circuits for tuning and matching of the coil were studied and built, allowing a reduction of the coil losses because patient`s load. This produced a more reliable coil tuning after positioning each new patient. Circuits to avoid the receiver input overload and decoupling circuits for the isolation of receiver coils from excitation coil were designed and incorporated to the TORM 005. All these alterations of our imaging system (TORM 005) contributed to a significant improvement in the signal to noise ratio, reliability and reproducibility of the system. This permitted to operate the system routinely for clinical applications, research and development in the area of ultra low magnetic field tomography. (author) 46 refs., 66 figs., 11 tabs.
When observing teachers in action, one is likely to witness explaining, modeling, managing, guiding, and encouraging. These expressive behaviors constitute a directive force moving outward from teacher to students. Though less visible to an outside observer, teaching also requires receptive skills, the ability to take in information by being fully…
Members of the personnel are invited to take note that only parcels corresponding to official orders or contracts will be handled at CERN. Individuals are not authorised to have private merchandise delivered to them at CERN and private deliveries will not be accepted by the Goods Reception services. Thank you for your understanding.
The present study investigates (i) English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners' receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii) how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as linguistic proficiency develops; and (iii) the extent to which receptive knowledge of ...
The present day status of the problems of gravitation, wave radiation and reception is surveyed. The physical presentation and mathematical description of the processes of radiation, propagation and interaction of gravitation waves with matter and the electromagnetic field are given. The experiments on the search for gravitation waves of astophysical nature are analysed. The laboratory and cosmic sources of these waves and the methods of their reception are described. Special attention is drawn to the analysis of the proposals to perform a complete laboratory gravitation wave experiment
Pisarev, A F [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR)
The present day status of the problems of gravitation, wave radiation and reception is surveyed. The physical presentation and mathematical description of the processes of radiation, propagation and interaction of gravitation waves with matter and the electromagnetic field are given. The experiments on the search for gravitation waves of astophysical nature are analysed. The laboratory and cosmic sources of these waves and the methods of their reception are described. Special attention is drawn to the analysis of the proposals to perform a complete laboratory gravitation wave experiment.
Sheng, X.; He, Y.; Zhong, T.
In the field of vibration, driving point receptance is a well-established and widely applied concept. However, as demonstrated in this paper, when a driving point receptance is calculated using the finite element (FE) method with solid elements, it does not converge as the FE mesh becomes finer, suggesting that there is a singularity. Hence, the concept of driving point receptance deserves a rigorous examination. In this paper, it is firstly shown that, for a point harmonic force applied on the surface of an elastic half-space, the Boussinesq formula can be applied to calculate the displacement amplitude of the surface if the response point is sufficiently close to the load. Secondly, by applying the Betti reciprocal theorem, it is shown that the displacement of an elastic body near a point harmonic force can be decomposed into two parts, with the first one being the displacement of an elastic half-space. This decomposition is useful, since it provides a solid basis for the introduction of a contact spring between a wheel and a rail in interaction. However, according to the Boussinesq formula, this decomposition also leads to the conclusion that a driving point receptance is infinite (singular), and would be undefinable. Nevertheless, driving point receptances have been calculated using different methods. Since the singularity identified in this paper was not appreciated, no account was given to the singularity in these calculations. Thus, the validity of these calculation methods must be examined. This constructs the third part of the paper. As the final development of the paper, the above decomposition is utilised to define and determine driving point receptances required for dealing with wheel/rail interactions.
Full Text Available The object of study case is to analyze the quality of the logistics department, focusing on the audit process. Purpose of this paper is to present the advantages resulting from the systematic audit processes and methods of analysis and improvement of nonconformities found. The case study is realised at SC Miele Tehnica SRL Brasov, twelfth production line, and the fourth from outside Germany. The specific objectives are: clarifying the concept of audit quality, emphasizing requirements ISO 19011:2003 "Guidelines for auditing quality management systems and / or environment" on audits; cchieving quality audit and performance analysis; improved process performance reception materials; compliance with legislation and auditing standards applicable in EU and Romania.
Members of the personnel are invited to take note that only parcels corresponding to official orders or contracts will be handled at CERN. Individuals are not authorised to have private merchandise delivered to them at CERN and private deliveries will not be accepted by the Goods Reception services. Goods Reception Services
Larsen, Niels Sandholm; Larsen, Kristian
af disse forskningsarbejder er etablering af fænomenet 'motion på recept'. Konceptet om 'motion på recept' stammer oprindelig fra Sverige, hvor praktiserende læger i en periode har haft mulighed for at henvise visse typer af patienter til fysisk træning hos praktiserende fysioterapeuter. Ribe Amt...... 2007)....
Property owners living close to a proposed 500-kV transmission line route in Ontario expressed concerns that the line would affect their television reception. To give a reasonable evaluation of the impact of the transmission line, tests were conducted before and after installation of the line in which the possibility of active or passive interference to reception was assessed. Measurements were made of signal strength and ambient noise, and television reception was also recorded on videotape. Possible transmission line effects due to radiated noise, signal reduction, and ghosts are analyzed. The analysis of signal and noise conditions, and the assessment of videotaped reception, provide reasonable evidence that the line has had negligible impact on the television reception along the line route. 13 refs., 18 figs., 12 tabs
A. L. Comhrink
Full Text Available In recent years there has been a significant shift in emphasis from text- centred criticism in literature to reader-centred criticism. This new field of criticism, called Reception Theory or Reader Response Criticism, denies the immutable nature of the "text” and regards as its object of study the work of literature that is created through the co-constituent creative and interpretive acts o f both writer and reader.
Taylor, Brian K
Several animals use Earth's magnetic field in concert with other sensor modes to accomplish navigational tasks ranging from local homing to continental scale migration. However, despite extensive research, animal magnetic reception remains poorly understood. Similarly, the Earth's magnetic field offers a signal that engineered systems can leverage to navigate in environments where man-made positioning systems such as GPS are either unavailable or unreliable. This work uses a behavioral strategy inspired by the migratory behavior of sea turtles to locate a magnetic goal and respond to wind when it is present. Sensing is performed using a number of distributed sensors. Based on existing theoretical biology considerations, data processing is performed using combinations of circles and ellipses to exploit the distributed sensing paradigm. Agent-based simulation results indicate that this approach is capable of using two separate magnetic properties to locate a goal from a variety of initial conditions in both noiseless and noisy sensory environments. The system's ability to locate the goal appears robust to noise at the cost of overall path length.
Full Text Available The target of this work was verified effect of transport females in the car for advance state of receptivity in young females broiler rabbits. We used nulliparous females of broiler hybrid HYCOLE (age 4-5 months, weight 3.5-3.8 kg. Experiment was realizated twice. First in half of November (31 females, second in half of February (32 females. Females was layed individually in boxes. After they were transported by car 1 hour (50 km. Before and after experiment we detected state of receptivity in females with coloration of vulva. The state of receptivity was determited from 1 for 4 colour of vulva. ( 1 – anemic coloration of vulva, 2- pink, 3 – red, 4- violet. We detected positive state of transport, on the receptivity. In November before transport was average of receptivity 1.87, after transport 2.25. The state of receptivity will be improve in 12 females (38.71 %. Improve from 1 to 2 was detected in 4 females, from 2 to 3 in 8 females. Improved from 2 to 4 , or from 3 to 4 wasn´t noticed in this group. The state of receptivity wasn´t changed in 19 females (61.29 %. In the state of receptivity 1 stayed 2 females, in the state 2 stayed 15 females, in the state 3 stayed 2 females and in the state 4 wasn´t any female. In February after the end of experiment, state of receptivity was improved with transport in the car from 2.19 to 2.65. The state of receptivity was improved in 13 females (40.63 %. Improve from 1 to 2 we detected in 1 female, from 2 to 3 we detected in 8 females, from 2 to 4 we detected in 2 females, from 3 to 4 in 2 females. In 19 females (59.38% we don´t noticed change state of receptivity. In the state of receptivity 1 were 2 females, in 2 were 11 females, in 3 were 5 females, in 4 was 1 female.
Kornerup, Ida; Gravgaard, Mette Lykke
This paper focus on a special pedagogical context; morning receptions as a learning environment. The studies of mornings are part of a 3 year long research project in which different types of learning environments were investigated. Few studies have researched morning receptions in this perspecti...... even though pedagogues often emphasize that this particular pedagogical context have implications on the children’s wellbeing and learning possibilities throughout the day....
van Besouw, J.; van Dongen, J.A.E.F.
This article reviews the early academic and public reception of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity in the Netherlands, particularly after Arthur Eddington's eclipse experiments of 1919. Initially, not much attention was given to relativity, as it did not seem an improvement over Hendrik A.
Leap, William L
Erotic imagery is an important component of gay pornographic cinema, particularly, where work of audience reception is concerned. However, to assume the audience engagement with the films is limited solely to the erotic realm is to underestimate the workings of ideological power in the context and aftermath of reception. For example, the director of the film under discussion here (Men of Israel; Lucas, 2009b) intended to present an erotic celebration of the nation-state. Yet, most viewers ignore the particulars of context in their comments about audience reception, placing the "Israeli" narrative within a broader framework, using transnational rather than film-specific criteria to guide their "reading" of the Israeli-centered narrative. This article uses as its entry point the language that viewers employ when describing their reactions to Men of Israel on a gay video club's Web site; this article shows how the work of audience reception may draw attention to a film's erotic details while invoking social and political messages that completely reframe the film's erotic narrative.
Huis in 't Veld, M.H.A.; Voerman, Gerlienke; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé
Remotely supported myofeedback treatment (RSMT) is considered to be a potentially valuable alternative to the conventional myofeedback treatment, as it might increase efficiency of care. This study was aimed at examining the receptiveness of potential end users (patients and professionals) with
Full Text Available The present study investigates, (i English as Foreign Language (EFL learners’ receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as proficiency develops; and (iii the extent to which receptive knowledge of collocations of EFL learners varies across word frequency bands. A proficiency measure and a collocation test were administered to English majors at the University of Burundi. Results of the study suggest that receptive collocational competence develops alongside EFL learners’ linguistic proficiency; which lends empirical support to Gyllstad (2007, 2009 and Author (2011 among others, who reported similar findings. Furthermore, EFL learners’ collocations growth seems to be quantifiable wherein both linguistic proficiency level and word frequency occupy a crucial role. While more gains in terms of collocations that EFL learners could potentially add as a result of change in proficiency are found at lower levels of proficiency; collocations of words from more frequent word bands seem to be mastered first, and more gains are found at more frequent word bands. These results confirm earlier findings on the non-linearity nature of vocabulary growth (cf. Meara 1996 and the fundamental role played by frequency in word knowledge for vocabulary in general (Nation 1983, 1990, Nation and Beglar 2007, which are extended here to collocations knowledge.
mentioned, the reception process is a service-type system, which produces services to be rendered to the personnel and cargo flowing through it. The... Heizer , Ramon N. Chief, Supply Systems Branch, Dir- ectorate of Distribution, DCS/Logistics Operations, HQ AFLC, Wright-Patterson AFB OH. Personal inter
Soundsinging is one name for the practice of making music using an idiosyncratic palette of vocal and non-vocal oral techniques. This paper is concerned with the reception of soundsinging and, more specifically, with listeners whose reactions to soundsinging involve attempts to contain the practice.
Dr. William R. Lucas, Marshall's fourth Center Director (1974-1986), delivers a speech in front of a picture of the lunar landscape with Earth looming in the background while attending a Huntsville Chamber of Commerce reception honoring his achievements as Director of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).
Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold
The essay covers the critical reception of Mississippi-writer Lewis Nordan from his debut in 1983 to the boost in scholarly attention in the new millennium. The essay covers newspaper reviews but pays particular attention to the many academic essays that have placed Nordan as a writer...
Concetta Chiara Cannella; Gandolfa Cascio; Francesca Molonia; Serena Vitulo
After the description of the main migration routes toward Italian territory, the article provides an overview of the laws and administrative policy instruments that characterize the system of reception and detention of migrants in Italy. This type of information can help psychosocial workers supporting migrants to better cope with various psychosocial issues, such as the landing in a foreign country. Following a report on the first reception intervention carried out in Palermo, Sicily, by Psi...
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Klein, Barrie P; Paffen, Chris L E; Pas, Susan F Te; Dumoulin, Serge O
Attention is the mechanism through which we select relevant information from our visual environment. We have recently demonstrated that attention attracts receptive fields across the visual hierarchy (Klein, Harvey, & Dumoulin, 2014). We captured this receptive field attraction using an attention
Jasiewicz, Marcin; Powałka, Bartosz
This paper presents an issue of machining stability prediction of dynamic "lathe - workpiece" system evaluated using receptance coupling method. Dynamic properties of the lathe components (the spindle and the tailstock) are assumed to be constant and can be determined experimentally based on the results of the impact test. Hence, the variable of the system "machine tool - holder - workpiece" is the machined part, which can be easily modelled analytically. The method of receptance coupling enables a synthesis of experimental (spindle, tailstock) and analytical (machined part) models, so impact testing of the entire system becomes unnecessary. The paper presents methodology of analytical and experimental models synthesis, evaluation of the stability lobes and experimental validation procedure involving both the determination of the dynamic properties of the system and cutting tests. In the summary the experimental verification results would be presented and discussed.
Jensen, Frida Videbæk; Rozé, Caroline
This project is a reception analysis of how a target group receive online movie trailers. It utilized a focus group as means of research with participants from the dormitories Kollibrien and Korallen. We concluded that the group we investigated were not interested in online movie trailers as anything else than a preview of a movie. They preferred to experience movie trailers in the cinema. Their opinion of specific movie trailers were also determined by whether or not they identified with the...
Dalzell, Thomas G
On the 150th anniversary of Eugen Bleuler's birth, this article examines his reception of Sigmund Freud and his use of Freudian theory to understand the symptoms of schizophrenia. In addition, in contrast to earlier interpretations of Bleuler's relationship with Freud in terms of an eventual personal and theoretical incompatibility, the article demonstrates that, although Bleuler did distance himself from the psychoanalytic movement, he remained consistent in his views on Freud's theories.
Ashby, N.; Dreitlein, J.
The reception of gravitational waves by an elastic self-gravitating spherical detector is studied in detail. The equations of motion of a detector driven by a gravitational wave are presented in the intuitively convenient coordinate system of Fermi. An exact analytic solution is given for the homogeneous isotropic sphere. Nonlinear effects of a massive self-gravitating system are computed for a body of mass equal to that of the earth, and are shown to be numerically important
Cristiane Finger Costa
Full Text Available By inserting digital television in Brazil, the programming of open television becomes available in mobile and portable devices without any additional fares. The reception of contents anytime and anywhere is bound to provoke change in the relation between journalists and viewers. For this work, a survey was made in the field of reception to identify, in a qualitative way, the expectations and needs of senior/adult public when watching news in cell phones.
Mary-Anne Plaatjies van Huffel
Full Text Available This article attends to ecumenicity as the second reformation. The ecumenical organisations and agencies hugely influenced the theological praxis and reflection of the church during the past century. The First World Council of Churches (WCC Assembly in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, has been described as the most significant event in church history since the Reformation during the past decade. We saw the emergence of two initiatives that are going to influence ecumenical theology and practice in future, namely the Receptive Ecumenism and Catholic Learning research project, based in Durham, United Kingdom, and the International Theological Colloquium for Transformative Ecumenism of the WCC. Both initiatives constitute a fresh approach in methodology to ecumenical theology and practice. Attention will be given in this article to conciliar ecumenism, receptive ecumenism, transformative ecumenism and its implications for the development of an African transformative receptive ecumenism. In doing so, we should take cognisance of what Küng says about a confessionalist ghetto mentality: ‘We must avoid a confessionalistic ghetto mentality. Instead we should espouse an ecumenical vision that takes into consideration the world religions as well as contemporary ideologies: as much tolerance as possible toward those things outside the Church, toward the religious in general, and the human in general, and the development of that which is specifically Christian belong together!’
Gage, Nicole M; Eliashiv, Dawn S; Isenberg, Anna L; Fillmore, Paul T; Kurelowech, Lacey; Quint, Patti J; Chung, Jeffrey M; Otis, Shirley M
Neuroimaging studies have shed light on cortical language organization, with findings implicating the left and right temporal lobes in speech processing converging to a left-dominant pattern. Findings highlight the fact that the state of theoretical language knowledge is ahead of current clinical language mapping methods, motivating a rethinking of these approaches. The authors used magnetoencephalography and multiple tasks in seven candidates for resective epilepsy surgery to investigate language organization. The authors scanned 12 control subjects to investigate the time course of bilateral receptive speech processes. Laterality indices were calculated for left and right hemisphere late fields ∼150 to 400 milliseconds. The authors report that (1) in healthy adults, speech processes activated superior temporal regions bilaterally converging to a left-dominant pattern, (2) in four of six patients, this was reversed, with bilateral processing converging to a right-dominant pattern, and (3) in three of four of these patients, receptive and expressive language processes were laterally discordant. Results provide evidence that receptive and expressive language may have divergent hemispheric dominance. Right-sided receptive language dominance in epilepsy patients emphasizes the need to assess both receptive and expressive language. Findings indicate that it is critical to use multiple tasks tapping separable aspects of language function to provide sensitive and specific estimates of language localization in surgical patients.
Balakumar, Ponnampalam; Kegerise, Michael A.
The effects of adverse pressure gradients on the receptivity and stability of hypersonic boundary layers were numerically investigated. Simulations were performed for boundary layer flows over a straight cone and two flared cones. The steady and the unsteady flow fields were obtained by solving the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in axi-symmetric coordinates using the 5th order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for space discretization and using third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. The mean boundary layer profiles were analyzed using local stability and non-local parabolized stability equations (PSE) methods. After the most amplified disturbances were identified, two-dimensional plane acoustic waves were introduced at the outer boundary of the computational domain and time accurate simulations were performed. The adverse pressure gradient was found to affect the boundary layer stability in two important ways. Firstly, the frequency of the most amplified second-mode disturbance was increased relative to the zero pressure gradient case. Secondly, the amplification of first- and second-mode disturbances was increased. Although an adverse pressure gradient enhances instability wave growth rates, small nose-tip bluntness was found to delay transition due to the low receptivity coefficient and the resulting weak initial amplitude of the instability waves. The computed and measured amplitude-frequency spectrums in all three cases agree very well in terms of frequency and the shape except for the amplitude.
There is an urgent need to develop methodologies to examine the response by the media to radioactive disasters. 'Reception study' is a new research approach in the field of mass communication, studying how the viewers construct meaning from TV news. This ongoing reception study explores how fifteen respondents, all involved in the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, recall and interpret TV news coverage nine years after the accident. The main aim is to discover how the news affects the recipients' interpretations of a disaster and what kind of thoughts, reactions and associations risk messages provoke in retrospect, in the present and in the beliefs about the future. The initial findings indicate that the Chernobyl news on TV was mainly based on technical rationality, while viewers construct meaning founded on symbolic, cultural rationality. The transmission of catastrophe news is not just a matter of responding to the information needs of the public. Denotative risk messages simultaneously convey connotative, symbolic resonance of risk on a metaphysical level. (author)
Full Text Available Nowadays the Austrian School enjoys high reputation in Italy: books by Mises, Hayek and other Austrian economists are constantly republished and reviewed with great interest, both inside and outside academic circles. The situation was very different decades ago, when just a few Italian economists devoted attention to the Austrian School. This work studies the reception of Austrian Economics in Italy, from the beginning to our days, so as to bring out, by way of comparison, relevant features of Italian economic culture. We will try to offer just an overview of the entire story, in an attempt to provide useful elements for a deeper analysis of further topics and periods.
Venny Eka Meidasari
Full Text Available Literary theory sees reception theory from the reader response that emphasizes the reader’s reception of a literary text. It is generally called audience reception in the analysis of communications models. In literary studies, reception theory originated from the work of Hans-Robert Jauss in the late 1960s. Communication only means that the original message will be clearly sent in its equivalent context to the target receptor. Similarly, the main role of translators is to send the message across without any form of distortion or emphasis. It is delivering the genuine context of the message to the language that the active receptor understands. A single mistake in a context translation can result to offensive message that can eventually lead to misunderstandings between active receptors. This paper proposes on the role of translator as the mediator between a writer of the original text and the active target language receptors of translated version in the course of communication which definitely affects the process and result of translation practice. It also reveals the emphasis on the creation text of the translation theories originated from the strategic communication theories, which hopefully leads to a dream of the most equivalence between the text and the translated version.
Full Text Available This article intends to focus on the difficulty encountered by Werner Sombart’s works in gaining a hearing in various Italian intellectual circuits. As is well known, Sombart belonged to the German Historical School of economics, sharing with other scholars of that school the same problems in getting his work known in Italy. Our aim is to explain the reason for this hostile reception. First of all, we will analyze the factors which generally hindered the spread of the German Historical School in Italy, recognizing in economists like Francesco Ferrara, Idealists like Benedetto Croce and Marxists like Antonio Labriola some of its strongest opponents. We will dwell on the cases of Gustav Schmoller and Max Weber, in order to give two representative examples of the slow and complicated Italian reception of methodological approaches and analytical perspectives which characterized the scientific experience of the German Historical School. Secondly, we will try to show why Sombart was even less appreciated than other German social scientists, giving the reasons that attracted severe criticism from economists, economic historians and sociologists towards his interdisciplinary approach in the analysis of modern capitalism. Finally, we will show the reasons of the contemporary rediscovery of Sombart and of his works.
Ye, Qing; Heck, Gerard L.; Desimone, John A.
Sodium salts are potent taste stimuli, but their effectiveness is markedly dependent on the anion, with chloride yielding the greatest response. The cellular mechanisms that mediate this phenomenon are not known. This "anion paradox" has been resolved by considering the field potential that is generated by restricted electrodiffusion of the anion through paracellular shunts between taste-bud cells. Neural responses to sodium chloride, sodium acetate, and sodium gluconate were studied while the field potential was voltage-clamped. Clamping at electronegative values eliminated the anion effect, whereas clamping at electropositive potentials exaggerated it. Thus, field potentials across the lingual epithelium modulate taste reception, indicating that the functional unit of taste reception includes the taste cell and its paracellular microenvironment.
Full Text Available Nowadays, only companies that are adaptable and flexible in their structure and processes can survive. The basis for a motivated company aiming for peak performance is organisational innovation. Hungary is one of the less innovative countries in Europe. Only organisations that can integrate new solutions smoothly into their everyday operations will remain truly competitive. The Government of Hungary, in its Partnership Agreement with the European Union, set out the goals for improving and supporting the adaptability of enterprises, the promotion of flexible and family-friendly workplace practices and services, and the employment of women with young children. The aim of this study is to demonstrate, through a Hungarian example, the receptiveness of Hungarian small and medium-sized enterprises to flexible forms of employment. The effect of flexible employment on economic adaptability and competitiveness through workforce efficiency and retention is examined. Its aim is the raise the awareness of options to increase employment among Hungarian SME managers.
Full Text Available A multi-reception strategy with extended GRAPPA is proposed in this work to improve MR imaging performance at ultra-high field MR systems with limited receiver channels. In this method, coil elements are separated to two or more groups under appropriate grouping criteria. Those groups are enabled in sequence for imaging first, and then parallel acquisition is performed to compensate for the redundant scan time caused by the multiple receptions. To efficiently reconstruct the data acquired from elements of each group, a specific extended GRAPPA was developed. This approach was evaluated by using a 16-element head array on a 7 Tesla whole-body MRI scanner with 8 receive channels. The in-vivo experiments demonstrate that with the same scan time, the 16-element array with twice receptions and acceleration rate of 2 can achieve significant SNR gain in the periphery area of the brain and keep nearly the same SNR in the center area over an eight-element array, which indicates the proposed multi-reception strategy and extended GRAPPA are feasible to improve image quality for MRI systems with limited receive channels. This study also suggests that it is advantageous for a MR system with N receiver channels to utilize a coil array with more than N elements if an appropriate acquisition strategy is applied.
depending on the noise . Thus our model would suggest that the interpolation filters for deblurring are playing a role in Ii hyperacuity. This is novel...of additional precision in the information can be obtained by a process of deblurring , which could be relevant to hyperacuity. It also provides an... impulse of heat diffuses into increasingly larger Gaussian distributions as time proceeds. Mathematically, let f(x) denote the initial temperature
Rajan, Kanaka; Marre, Olivier; Tkačik, Gašper
Models of neural responses to stimuli with complex spatiotemporal correlation structure often assume that neurons are selective for only a small number of linear projections of a potentially high-dimensional input. In this review, we explore recent modeling approaches where the neural response depends on the quadratic form of the input rather than on its linear projection, that is, the neuron is sensitive to the local covariance structure of the signal preceding the spike. To infer this quadratic dependence in the presence of arbitrary (e.g., naturalistic) stimulus distribution, we review several inference methods, focusing in particular on two information theory-based approaches (maximization of stimulus energy and of noise entropy) and two likelihood-based approaches (Bayesian spike-triggered covariance and extensions of generalized linear models). We analyze the formal relationship between the likelihood-based and information-based approaches to demonstrate how they lead to consistent inference. We demonstrate the practical feasibility of these procedures by using model neurons responding to a flickering variance stimulus.
... order to pass the inspection under § 158.160, must— (1) Be a reception facility as defined under § 158... residue; (5) Be capable of receiving NLS residue from an oceangoing ship within 24 hours after notice by that ship of the need for reception facilities; and (6) Be capable of completing the transfer of NLS...
Buyl, Aafke; Housen, Alex
This study takes a new look at the topic of developmental stages in the second language (L2) acquisition of morphosyntax by analysing receptive learner data, a language mode that has hitherto received very little attention within this strand of research (for a recent and rare study, see Spinner, 2013). Looking at both the receptive and productive…
Glick, Thomas F.
The subfield of Darwin studies devoted to comparative reception coalesced around 1971 with the planning of a conference on the subject, at the University of Texas at Austin held in April 1972. The original focus was western Europe, Russia and the United States. Subsequently a spate of studies on the Italian reception added to the Eurocentric…
Reijneveld, S.A.; de Boer, J.B.; Bean, T.; Korfker, D.G.
We assessed the effects of a stringent reception policy on the mental health of unaccompanied adolescent asylum seekers by comparing the mental health of adolescents in a restricted campus reception setting and in a setting offering more autonomy (numbers [response rates]: 69 [93%] and 53 [69%],
Pierce, John P; Sargent, James D; White, Martha M; Borek, Nicolette; Portnoy, David B; Green, Victoria R; Kaufman, Annette R; Stanton, Cassandra A; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Strong, David R; Pearson, Jennifer L; Coleman, Blair N; Leas, Eric; Noble, Madison L; Trinidad, Dennis R; Moran, Meghan B; Carusi, Charles; Hyland, Andrew; Messer, Karen
Non-cigarette tobacco marketing is less regulated and may promote cigarette smoking among adolescents. We quantified receptivity to advertising for multiple tobacco products and hypothesized associations with susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Wave 1 of the nationally representative PATH (Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health) study interviewed 10 751 adolescents who had never used tobacco. A stratified random selection of 5 advertisements for each of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, smokeless products, and cigars were shown from 959 recent tobacco advertisements. Aided recall was classified as low receptivity, and image-liking or favorite ad as higher receptivity. The main dependent variable was susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Among US youth, 41% of 12 to 13 year olds and half of older adolescents were receptive to at least 1 tobacco advertisement. Across each age group, receptivity to advertising was highest for e-cigarettes (28%-33%) followed by cigarettes (22%-25%), smokeless tobacco (15%-21%), and cigars (8%-13%). E-cigarette ads shown on television had the highest recall. Among cigarette-susceptible adolescents, receptivity to e-cigarette advertising (39.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 37.9%-41.6%) was higher than for cigarette advertising (31.7%; 95% CI: 29.9%-33.6%). Receptivity to advertising for each tobacco product was associated with increased susceptibility to cigarette smoking, with no significant difference across products (similar odds for both cigarette and e-cigarette advertising; adjusted odds ratio = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09-1.37). A large proportion of US adolescent never tobacco users are receptive to tobacco advertising, with television advertising for e-cigarettes having the highest recall. Receptivity to advertising for each non-cigarette tobacco product was associated with susceptibility to smoke cigarettes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Males typically gain fitness from multiple mating, whereas females often lose fitness from numerous mating, potentially leading to sexual conflict over mating. This conflict is expected to favour the evolution of female resistance to mating. However, females may incur male harassment if they refuse to copulate; thus, greater female resistance may increase costs imposed by males. Here, I show that the evolution of resistance to mating raises fitness disadvantages of interacting with males when mating is harmful in female adzuki bean beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis. Females that were artificially selected for higher and lower remating propensity evolved to accept and resist remating, respectively. Compared with females that evolved to accept remating, females that evolved to resist it suffered higher fitness costs from continuous exposure to males. The costs of a single mating measured by the effect on longevity did not differ among selection line females. This study indicates that receptive rather than resistant females mitigate the fitness loss resulting from sexual conflict, suggesting that even though mating is harmful, females can evolve to accept additional mating. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of Greek historical writing of the Middle Byzantine period (approx. 800 until 1000 A.D., with a particular focus on the major chronicles, such as Theophanesthe Confessor (early 9th c., George the Monk (probably late 9th c., and Symeon the Logothete (second half of the 10th c.. On the one hand, it is discussed how the chroniclers engage with tradition and either accept it or reject it. Acceptance of tradition is illustrated by many cases where chroniclers keep very close to the narrative modes of their predecessors and in particular where they copy them extensively. Rejection of, or at least deviation from tradition is illustrated by many cases where new narrative techniques and modes of expression are apparent. Particular attention is paid to some aspects of narrative technique which seem to be innovative. In short, there seems to be an increased tendency towards greater logical (and hence, narrative coherence in the chronicles and an increased tendency towards concentration on a small number of settings, issues and persons (in particular, there is an increased concentration on the Capital of Constantinople and the Emperor’s person. Further, reception is discussed, and especially how Middle Byzantine historical texts were read and used in later writings, including the Slavic literatures. The need for further research in order to understand the transmission processes, especially in the form of the philological study of manuscripts, is stressed.
Full Text Available Citizenship involves being able to speak and be heard as a member of the community. This can be a formal right (e.g., a right to vote. It can also be something experienced in everyday life. However, the criteria for being judged a fellow member of the community are multiple and accorded different weights by different people. Thus, although one may self-define alongside one’s fellows, the degree to which these others reciprocate depends on the weight they give to various membership criteria. This suggests we approach everyday community membership in terms of an identity claims-making process in which first, an individual claims membership through invoking certain criteria of belonging, and second, others evaluate that claim. Pursuing this logic we report three experiments investigating the reception of such identity-claims. Study 1 showed that in Scotland a claim to membership of the national ingroup was accepted more if couched in terms of place of birth and ancestry rather than just in terms of one’s subjective identification. Studies 2 and 3 showed that this differential acceptance mattered for the claimant’s ability to be heard as a community member. We discuss the implications of these studies for the conceptualization of community membership and the realization of everyday citizenship rights.
Pae, Hye K.; Greenberg, Daphne
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between receptive and expressive language skills characterized by the performance of nonnative speakers (NNSs) of English in the academic context. Test scores of 585 adult NNSs were selected from Form 2 of the Pearson Test of English Academic's field-test database. A correlated…
Keywords: academic vocabulary, receptive knowledge, productive knowledge, collocations, vocabulary ...... The challenge of validation: Assessing the performance of a test of ..... This is a new drug used to tr…………… depression. 56.
Full Text Available This essay investigates the dynamics that led to the literary reception of Ernest Hemingway before the Islamic Revolution in Iran. This article deploys reception studies as a branch of Comparative Literature with a focus upon conceptions of Siegbert Salomon Prawer and the practical method of George Asselineau to unearth the ideological, political, and historical milieu that embraced Hemingway’s literary fortune in Iran. This investigation, unprecedented in the study of Iranian literature, discusses how and why Hemingway was initially received in Iran. As such, the inception of literary fortune of Ernest Hemingway in Iran is examined by the contextual features, Persian literary taste, and the translator’s incentives that paved the way for this reception. This article also uncovers the reasons for the delay in the literary reception of Hemingway in Iran and discussed why some of Hemingway’s oeuvres enjoyed recognition while others were neglected by the Iranian readership.
Full Text Available The paper presents research paradigms which study factors that allow influencing the language development of children with mild intellectual disabilities to the greatest extent possible. Special attention is dedicated to the development of the reception competence with the use of reception didactics methods based on a relatively frequent use of less demanding non-language semiotic functions. The core of the paper presents results of an experimental case study (on a sample of five children with a mild intellectual disability over a one school year period, through which the reception competence in these children was developed with a systematic use of an adapted communication model of literary education as an experimental factor. The results have confirmed the initially set hypothesis about reception progress.
Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P
This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Data were obtained from in-class surveys of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n = 1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity), and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents' receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors' marketing tactics.
Han, Hui; Song, Allen W; Truong, Trong-Kha
To develop a new concept for a hardware platform that enables integrated parallel reception, excitation, and shimming. This concept uses a single coil array rather than separate arrays for parallel excitation/reception and B0 shimming. It relies on a novel design that allows a radiofrequency current (for excitation/reception) and a direct current (for B0 shimming) to coexist independently in the same coil. Proof-of-concept B0 shimming experiments were performed with a two-coil array in a phantom, whereas B0 shimming simulations were performed with a 48-coil array in the human brain. Our experiments show that individually optimized direct currents applied in each coil can reduce the B0 root-mean-square error by 62-81% and minimize distortions in echo-planar images. The simulations show that dynamic shimming with the 48-coil integrated parallel reception, excitation, and shimming array can reduce the B0 root-mean-square error in the prefrontal and temporal regions by 66-79% as compared with static second-order spherical harmonic shimming and by 12-23% as compared with dynamic shimming with a 48-coil conventional shim array. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of the integrated parallel reception, excitation, and shimming concept to perform parallel excitation/reception and B0 shimming with a unified coil system as well as its promise for in vivo applications. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Denison, Marie F. C.
The reduction of drag and aerodynamic heating caused by boundary layer transition is of central interest for the development of hypersonic vehicles. Receptivity to flow perturbation in the form of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave growth often determines the first stage of the transition process, which can be delayed by depositing specific excitations into the boundary layer. Weakly ionized Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) actuators are being investigated as possible sources of such excitations, but little is known today about their interaction with high-speed flows. In this framework, the first part of the thesis is dedicated to a receptivity study of laminar compressible boundary layers over a flat plate by linear stability analysis following an adjoint operator formulation, under DBD representative excitations assumed independent of flow conditions. The second part of the work concentrates on the development of a coupled plasma-Navier and Stokes solver targeted at the study of supersonic flow and compressibility effects on DBD forcing and non-parallel receptivity. The linear receptivity study of quasi-parallel compressible flows reveals several interesting features such as a significant shift of the region of maximum receptivity deeper into the flow at high Mach number and strong wave amplitude reduction compared to incompressible flows. The response to DBD relevant excitation distributions and to variations of the base flow conditions and system length scales follows these trends. Observed absolute amplitude changes and relative sensitivity modifications between source types are related to the evolution of the offset between forcing peak profile and relevant adjoint mode maximum. The analysis highlights the crucial importance of designing and placing the actuator in a way that matches its force field to the position of maximum boundary layer receptivity for the specific flow conditions of interest. In order to address the broad time and length scale spectrum
Balakumar, P.; Chou, Amanda
Boundary-layer transition in hypersonic flows over a straight cone can be predicted using measured freestream spectra, receptivity, and threshold values for the wall pressure fluctuations at the transition onset points. Simulations are performed for hypersonic boundary-layer flows over a 7-degree half-angle straight cone with varying bluntness at a freestream Mach number of 10. The steady and the unsteady flow fields are obtained by solving the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in axisymmetric coordinates using a 5th-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for space discretization and using a third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. The calculated N-factors at the transition onset location increase gradually with increasing unit Reynolds numbers for flow over a sharp cone and remain almost the same for flow over a blunt cone. The receptivity coefficient increases slightly with increasing unit Reynolds numbers. They are on the order of 4 for a sharp cone and are on the order of 1 for a blunt cone. The location of transition onset predicted from the simulation including the freestream spectrum, receptivity, and the linear and the weakly nonlinear evolutions yields a solution close to the measured onset location for the sharp cone. The simulations over-predict transition onset by about twenty percent for the blunt cone.
Boyle, James; McCartney, Elspeth; O'Hare, Anne; Law, James
Studies indicate that language impairment that cannot be accounted for by factors such as below-average non-verbal ability, hearing impairment, behaviour or emotional problems, or neurological impairments affects some 6% of school-age children. Language impairment with a receptive language component is more resistant to intervention than specific…
Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Sutherland, Lisa A.; Longacre, Meghan R.; Beach, Michael L.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Gibson, Jennifer J.; Dalton, Madeline A.
Objective: This study examined the relationship between adolescent weight status and food advertisement receptivity. Design: Survey-based evaluation with data collected at baseline (initial and at 2 months), and at follow-up (11 months). Setting: New Hampshire and Vermont. Participants: Students (n = 2,281) aged 10-13 in 2002-2005. Main Outcome…
Nadal, Marcos; Vartanian, Oshin; Skov, Martin
We commend Menninghaus et al. for tackling the role of negative emotions in art reception. However, their model suffers from shortcomings that reduce its applicability to empirical studies of the arts: poor use of evidence, lack of integration with other models, and limited derivation of testable...... hypotheses. We argue that theories about art experiences should be based on empirical evidence....
Jensen, Klaus Bruhn
Analyzes research about the mass communication audience and describes a theoretical and methodological framework for further empirical studies. Discusses the (1) explanatory value of qualitative research; (2) social and cultural implications of the reception process, with special reference to television; and (3) applications and social relevance…
Learning to relate with people in their own style is important in helping to understand why they react the way they do. The purpose of this study therefore was to determine the differences in the receptive learning styles of introverts, ambiverts and extroverts in Senior High Schools (SHS) in the Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis, ...
This podcast is an overview of resources from the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Practical Tools for Radiation Emergency Preparedness. A specialist working with CDC's Radiation Studies Branch describes a web-based training tool known as a Virtual Community Reception Center (vCRC).
DESCRIPTION: The Karaites emerged as a school of thought within Middle Eastern Judaism in the 8th century. The Karaites were a “reading community” whose intellectual activity and daily lives were based around the divine scriptures. Over time Karaism became one of the two main competing schools of...... between the Rabbinate and the Karaite reception and interpretation of the Hebrew Bible....
Timberlake, David S
Cross-sectional data suggests that adolescents' receptivity to the advertising of smokeless tobacco is correlated with use of chewing tobacco or snuff. Lack of longitudinal data has precluded determination of whether advertising receptivity precedes or follows initiation of smokeless tobacco. The objective of this study was to test for the association between advertising receptivity and subsequent initiation of smokeless tobacco among adolescent males. Adolescent males from the 1993-1999 Teen Longitudinal California Tobacco Survey were selected at the baseline survey for never having used smokeless tobacco. Separate longitudinal analyses corresponded to two dependent variables, ever use of smokeless tobacco (1993-1996; N = 1,388) and use on 20 or more occasions (1993-1999; N = 1,014). Models were adjusted for demographic variables, risk factors for smokeless tobacco use, and exposure to users of smokeless tobacco. Advertising receptivity at baseline was predictive of ever use by late adolescence (RR(95% CI) = 2.0 (1.5, 2.8)) and regular use by young adulthood (RR(95% CI) = 3.7 (2.1, 6.7)) in models that were adjusted for covariates. Conclusions/ Importance: The findings challenge the tobacco industry's assertion that tobacco marketing does not impact youth initiation. This is particularly relevant to tobacco control in the United States because the 2009 Tobacco Control Act places fewer restrictions on smokeless tobacco products compared to cigarettes.
Blitz, Brad K; d'Angelo, Alessio; Kofman, Eleonore; Montagna, Nicola
The arrival of more than one million migrants, many of them refugees, has proved a major test for the European Union. Although international relief and monitoring agencies have been critical of makeshift camps in Calais and Eidomeni where infectious disease and overcrowding present major health risks, few have examined the nature of the official reception system and its impact on health delivery. Drawing upon research findings from an Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) funded project, this article considers the physical and mental health of asylum-seekers in transit and analyses how the closure of borders has engendered health risks for populations in recognised reception centres in Sicily and in Greece. Data gathered by means of a survey administered in Greece (300) and in Sicily (400), and complemented by in-depth interviews with migrants (45) and key informants (50) including representatives of government offices, humanitarian and relief agencies, NGOs and activist organisations, are presented to offer an analysis of the reception systems in the two frontline states. We note that medical provision varies significantly from one centre to another and that centre managers play a critical role in the transmission of vital information. A key finding is that, given such disparity, the criteria used by the UNHCR to grade health services reception do not address the substantive issue that prevent refugees from accessing health services, even when provided on site. Health provision is not as recorded in UNHCR reporting but rather there are critical gaps between provision, awareness, and access for refugees in reception systems in Sicily and in Greece. This article concludes that there is a great need for more information campaigns to direct refugees to essential services.
Brad K. Blitz
Full Text Available The arrival of more than one million migrants, many of them refugees, has proved a major test for the European Union. Although international relief and monitoring agencies have been critical of makeshift camps in Calais and Eidomeni where infectious disease and overcrowding present major health risks, few have examined the nature of the official reception system and its impact on health delivery. Drawing upon research findings from an Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC funded project, this article considers the physical and mental health of asylum–seekers in transit and analyses how the closure of borders has engendered health risks for populations in recognised reception centres in Sicily and in Greece. Data gathered by means of a survey administered in Greece (300 and in Sicily (400, and complemented by in-depth interviews with migrants (45 and key informants (50 including representatives of government offices, humanitarian and relief agencies, NGOs and activist organisations, are presented to offer an analysis of the reception systems in the two frontline states. We note that medical provision varies significantly from one centre to another and that centre managers play a critical role in the transmission of vital information. A key finding is that, given such disparity, the criteria used by the UNHCR to grade health services reception do not address the substantive issue that prevent refugees from accessing health services, even when provided on site. Health provision is not as recorded in UNHCR reporting but rather there are critical gaps between provision, awareness, and access for refugees in reception systems in Sicily and in Greece. This article concludes that there is a great need for more information campaigns to direct refugees to essential services.
Blitz, Brad K.; d’Angelo, Alessio; Kofman, Eleonore; Montagna, Nicola
The arrival of more than one million migrants, many of them refugees, has proved a major test for the European Union. Although international relief and monitoring agencies have been critical of makeshift camps in Calais and Eidomeni where infectious disease and overcrowding present major health risks, few have examined the nature of the official reception system and its impact on health delivery. Drawing upon research findings from an Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) funded project, this article considers the physical and mental health of asylum–seekers in transit and analyses how the closure of borders has engendered health risks for populations in recognised reception centres in Sicily and in Greece. Data gathered by means of a survey administered in Greece (300) and in Sicily (400), and complemented by in-depth interviews with migrants (45) and key informants (50) including representatives of government offices, humanitarian and relief agencies, NGOs and activist organisations, are presented to offer an analysis of the reception systems in the two frontline states. We note that medical provision varies significantly from one centre to another and that centre managers play a critical role in the transmission of vital information. A key finding is that, given such disparity, the criteria used by the UNHCR to grade health services reception do not address the substantive issue that prevent refugees from accessing health services, even when provided on site. Health provision is not as recorded in UNHCR reporting but rather there are critical gaps between provision, awareness, and access for refugees in reception systems in Sicily and in Greece. This article concludes that there is a great need for more information campaigns to direct refugees to essential services. PMID:29189766
Bollywood films are increasingly drawing scholarly attention for their global appeal and reception. Transnational studies have examined the reception of Bollywood in Australia, Britain, Scotland, South Africa, Russia, the United States of America, Bangladesh and Nepal. However, academic work on the Southeast Asian reception of these films is scarcer. This research seeks to fill this gap by looking at the reception of Bollywood in Malaysia from 1991-2012. The thesis adopts a...
This paper delivered at the University of Rio on 3rd June 2015 seeks to explore different approaches to the most fundamental questions in classical reception studies. What is classical reception? And more particularly what is so ‘classical’ about classical reception? It discusses current trends in theory and methodology via an analysis of two cinematic receptions of the ancient story of Electra; one that proclaims its debt to a classical text while the other masks its classical connections.
Full Text Available This paper delivered at the University of Rio on 3rd June 2015 seeks to explore different approaches to the most fundamental questions in classical reception studies. What is classical reception? And more particularly what is so ‘classical’ about classical reception? It discusses current trends in theory and methodology via an analysis of two cinematic receptions of the ancient story of Electra; one that proclaims its debt to a classical text while the other masks its classical connections.
Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.
This article presents receptive and expressive American Sign Language skills of 85 students, 6 through 22 years of age at a residential school for the deaf using the American Sign Language Receptive Skills Test and the Ozcaliskan Motion Stimuli. Results are presented by ages and indicate that students' receptive skills increased with age and…
Civelek, Ece Simin
Ankara : The Department of Communication and Design, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2012. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2012. Includes bibliographical references leaves 140-149. This study intends to analyze audience reception of foodstuff and related practices in films. In the study foodstuff and related practices are taken into consideration as a powerful semiotic system and in that respect are evaluated as an important property of filmic narration. Study e...
Li, Shu-Yun; Song, Zhuo; Song, Min-Jie; Qin, Jia-Wen; Zhao, Meng-Long; Yang, Zeng-Ming
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a complex endocrine disorder, is a leading cause of female infertility. An obvious reason for infertility in PCOS women is anovulation. However, success rate with high quality embryos selected by assisted reproduction techniques in PCOS patients still remain low with a high rate of early clinical pregnancy loss, suggesting a problem in uterine receptivity. Using a dehydroepiandrosterone-induced mouse model of PCOS, some potential causes of decreased fertility...
Carter, B Elijah; Conn, Caitlin C; Wiles, Jason R
Due to a phenomenon known as the 'backfire effect', intuition-based opinions can be inadvertently strengthened by evidence-based counterarguments. Students' views on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be subject to this effect. We explored the impact of an empathetically accessible topic, world hunger, on receptivity to GMO technology as an alternative to direct evidence-based approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available There is a long tradition of investigating various disorders of musical abilities after stroke. These impairments, associated with acquired amusia, can be highly selective, affecting only music perception (i.e., receptive abilities/functions or expression (music production abilities, and some patients report that these may dramatically influence their emotional state. The aim of this study was to systematically test both the melodic and rhythmic domains of music perception and expression in left- and right-sided stroke patients compared to healthy subjects. Music perception was assessed using rhythmic and melodic discrimination tasks, while tests of expressive function involved the vocal or instrumental reproduction of rhythms and melodies. Our approach revealed deficits in receptive and expressive functions in stroke patients, mediated by musical expertise. Those patients who had experienced a short period of musical training in childhood and adolescence performed better in the receptive and expressive subtests compared to those without any previous musical training. While discrimination of specific musical patterns was unimpaired after a right-sided stroke, patients with a left-sided stroke had worse results for fine melodic and rhythmic analysis. In terms of expressive testing, the most consistent results were obtained from a test that required patients to reproduce sung melodies. This implies that the means of investigating production abilities can impact the identification of deficits.
Full Text Available K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings. In the private sector, longtime fans have transitioned from participants to providers, and in the public sector, from observers to sponsors. Through in-depth interviews with event organizers, sponsors, and fans, this article offers an ethnographic study of the reception of K-pop in Europe that takes into consideration local interactions between fans and Korean sponsors, perspectives on the genre, patterns of social integration, and histories. As a case study, this research stresses the local situatedness of K-pop fan culture by arguing that local private and public sponsors and fans make the reception of K-pop different in each locality. By exploring local scenes of K-pop reception and fan culture, the article demonstrates the rapidly growing consumption of K-pop among Europeans and stresses multidirectional understandings of globalization.
Prime, Heather; Pauker, Sharon; Plamondon, André; Perlman, Michal; Jenkins, Jennifer
The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between sibship size and children's vocabulary as a function of quality of sibling interactions. It was hypothesized that coming from a larger sibship (ie, 3+ children) would be related to lower receptive vocabulary in children. However, we expected this association to be moderated by the level of cognitive sensitivity shown by children's next-in-age older siblings. Data on 385 children (mean age = 3.15 years) and their next-in-age older siblings (mean age = 5.57 years) were collected and included demographic questionnaires, direct testing of children's receptive vocabulary, and videos of mother-child and sibling interactions. Sibling dyads were taped engaging in a cooperative building task and tapes were coded for the amount of cognitive sensitivity the older sibling exhibited toward the younger sibling. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted and showed an interaction between sibship size and sibling cognitive sensitivity in the prediction of children's receptive vocabulary; children exposed to large sibships whose next-in-age older sibling exhibited higher levels of cognitive sensitivity were less likely to show low vocabulary skills when compared with those children exposed to large sibships whose siblings showed lower levels of cognitive sensitivity. Children who show sensitivity to the cognitive needs of their younger siblings provide a rich environment for language development. The negative impact of large sibships on language development is moderated by the presence of an older sibling who shows high cognitive sensitivity.
Full Text Available Reading is a process of aesthetically appreciative receptive to emphasize critical-creative reading activities. Metacognitively students understand, address any and explore the idea of the author in the text. Students responded, criticize, and evaluate the author's ideas in the text. At this stage, students can construct their post read text into other forms (new text. The aim of this strategy equips students to understand the meaning of the story, explore ideas, responding critically, and creatively pouring backstory idea. Reading strategies aesthetically-critical-creative receptive grabbed cognitive, effective, and psychomotor toward literacy critical reading and creative writing. Read appreciative included into the activities of reading comprehension. This activity involves the sensitivity and ability to process aesthetically-receptive reading and critical-creative. Readers imagination roam the author to obtain meaningful understanding and experience of reading. Some models of reading comprehension proposed experts covering the steps before reading, when reading, and after reading. At that stage to enable students after reading thinking abilities. Activities that can be done at this stage, for example, examine the back story, retell, make drawings, diagrams, or maps the concept of reading, as well as making a road map that describes the event. Other activities that can be done is to transform our student's text stories through reinforcement form illustrated stories into comic book form, for example (transliteration.
Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Sutherland, Lisa A; Longacre, Meghan R; Beach, Michael L; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Gibson, Jennifer J; Dalton, Madeline A
This study examined the relationship between adolescent weight status and food advertisement receptivity. Survey-based evaluation with data collected at baseline (initial and at 2 months), and at follow-up (11 months). New Hampshire and Vermont. Students (n = 2,281) aged 10-13 in 2002-2005. Overweight. Generalized estimating equations to model the relationship between identifying a food advertisement as their favorite and being overweight. Overall, 35.9% of the adolescents were overweight. Less than one fifth named a food advertisement as their favorite (16.1%). Most of the food advertisements were for less-healthful food (89.6%). After controlling for school, age, sex, sociodemographics, physical activity, number of TV sessions watched, and having a TV in the bedroom, overweight adolescents were significantly less likely to be receptive to food advertisements (relative risk = 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.70, 0.98) compared to non-overweight adolescents. This study provides preliminary evidence that normal-weight adolescents are receptive to unhealthful food advertisements. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate whether consistent exposure to advertisements for unhealthful food, particularly if they are promoted with healthful behaviors such as being physically active, influence adolescents' food choices, and ultimately their body mass index, over the long term. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rosslau, Ken; Steinwede, Daniel; Schröder, C; Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Dobel, Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart
There is a long tradition of investigating various disorders of musical abilities after stroke. These impairments, associated with acquired amusia, can be highly selective, affecting only music perception (i.e., receptive abilities/functions) or expression (music production abilities), and some patients report that these may dramatically influence their emotional state. The aim of this study was to systematically test both the melodic and rhythmic domains of music perception and expression in left- and right-sided stroke patients compared to healthy subjects. Music perception was assessed using rhythmic and melodic discrimination tasks, while tests of expressive function involved the vocal or instrumental reproduction of rhythms and melodies. Our approach revealed deficits in receptive and expressive functions in stroke patients, mediated by musical expertise. Those patients who had experienced a short period of musical training in childhood and adolescence performed better in the receptive and expressive subtests compared to those without any previous musical training. While discrimination of specific musical patterns was unimpaired after a left-sided stroke, patients with a right-sided stroke had worse results for fine melodic and rhythmic analysis. In terms of expressive testing, the most consistent results were obtained from a test that required patients to reproduce sung melodies. This implies that the means of investigating production abilities can impact the identification of deficits.
Rashtchi, Mojgan; Zokaee, Zahra; Ghaffarinejad, Ali R; Sadeghi, Mohammad M
To compare the comprehension of depressed and non-depressed male and female Iranian learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in receptive skills, and to investigate whether inefficiency in learning English could be due to depression. We selected 126 boys and 96 girls aged between 15 and 18 by simple random sampling from 2 high schools in Kerman, Iran to examine whether there was any significant relationship between depression and comprehension of receptive skills in males and females. We undertook this descriptive, correlational study between January and May 2011 in Kerman, Iran. After administration of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), we found that 93 students were non-depressed, 65 had minimal depression, 48 mild depression, and 16 suffered from severe depression. The correlation between participants` scores on listening and reading test with depression level indicated a significant relationship between depression and comprehension of both listening, and reading. Males had higher scores in both reading and listening. In listening, there was no significant difference among the levels of depression and males and females. Regarding the reading skill, there was no significant difference among levels of depression; however, the reading comprehension of males and females differed significantly. Learners who show a deficiency in receptive skills should be examined for the possibility of suffering from some degree of depression.
Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg; Carr, James E
We review recommendations for sequencing instruction in receptive and expressive language objectives in early and intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) programs. Several books recommend completing receptive protocols before introducing corresponding expressive protocols. However, this recommendation has little empirical support, and some evidence exists that the reverse sequence may be more efficient. Alternative recommendations include teaching receptive and expressive skills simultaneously (M. L. Sundberg & Partington, 1998) and building learning histories that lead to acquisition of receptive and expressive skills without direct instruction (Greer & Ross, 2008). Empirical support for these recommendations also is limited. Future research should assess the relative efficiency of receptive-before-expressive, expressive-before-receptive, and simultaneous training with children who have diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders. In addition, further evaluation is needed of the potential benefits of multiple-exemplar training and other variables that may influence the efficiency of receptive and expressive instruction.
Balakumar, P.; King, Rudolph A.; Chou, Amanda; Owens, Lewis R.; Kegerise, Michael A.
Supersonic boundary-layer receptivity to freestream acoustic disturbances is investigated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations for Mach 3.5 flow over a sharp flat plate and a 7-deg half-angle cone. The freestream disturbances are generated from a wavy wall placed at the nozzle wall. The freestream acoustic disturbances radiated by the wavy wall are obtained by solving the linearized Euler equations. The results for the flat plate show that instability modes are generated at all the incident angles ranging from zero to highly oblique. However, the receptivity coefficient decreases by about 20 times when the incident angle increases from zero to a highly oblique angle of 68 degrees. The results for the cone show that no instability modes are generated when the acoustic disturbances impinge the cone obliquely. The results show that the perturbations generated inside the boundary layer by the acoustic disturbances are the response of the boundary layer to the external forcing. The amplitude of the forced disturbances inside the boundary layer are about 2.5 times larger than the incoming field for zero azimuthal wavenumber and they are about 1.5 times for large azimuthal wavenumbers.
Kara, Kursat; Balakumar, Ponnampalam; Kandil, Osama A.
The receptivity to freestream acoustic disturbances and the stability properties of hypersonic boundary layers are numerically investigated for boundary-layer flows over a 5 straight cone at a freestream Mach number of 6.0. To compute the shock and the interaction of the shock with the instability waves, the Navier-Stokes equations in axisymmetric coordinates were solved. In the governing equations, inviscid and viscous flux vectors are discretized using a fifth-order accurate weighted-essentially-non-oscillatory scheme. A third-order accurate total-variation-diminishing Runge-Kutta scheme is employed for time integration. After the mean flow field is computed, disturbances are introduced at the upstream end of the computational domain. The appearance of instability waves near the nose region and the receptivity of the boundary layer with respect to slow mode acoustic waves are investigated. Computations confirm the stabilizing effect of nose bluntness and the role of the entropy layer in the delay of boundary-layer transition. The current solutions, compared with experimental observations and other computational results, exhibit good agreement.
Vettenranta, S. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Dragvoll (Norway). Dept. of edcation
There is an urgent need to develop methodologies to examine the response by the media to radioactive disasters. `Reception study` is a new research approach in the field of mass communication, studying how the viewers construct meaning from TV news. This ongoing reception study explores how fifteen respondents, all involved in the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, recall and interpret TV news coverage nine years after the accident. The main aim is to discover how the news affects the recipients` interpretations of a disaster and what kind of thoughts, reactions and associations risk messages provoke in retrospect, in the present and in the beliefs about the future. The initial findings indicate that the Chernobyl news on TV was mainly based on technical rationality, while viewers construct meaning founded on symbolic, cultural rationality. The transmission of catastrophe news is not just a matter of responding to the information needs of the public. Denotative risk messages simultaneously convey connotative, symbolic resonance of risk on a metaphysical level. (author).
Yarkova, M A; Seredenin, S B
We studied the duration of the drop of specific (3)H-flunitrazepam binding by synaptosomal membranes from the brain of C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice after open-field and "contact with predator" tests. It was found that reduced benzodiazepine reception in BALB/c mice after open-field test persisted for 1.5 h, but no changes of this parameter were found in C57Bl/6 mice. After contact with predator, the binding capacity of the benzodiazepine site of GABAA receptor was reduced for 8 h in BALB/c mice and for 24 h in C57Bl/6 mice.
Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher; Leacox, Lindsey
The authors of this study described developmental trajectories and predicted kindergarten performance of Spanish and English receptive vocabulary acquisition of young Latino/a English language learners (ELLs) from socioeconomically disadvantaged migrant families. In addition, the authors examined the extent to which gender and individual initial performance in Spanish predict receptive vocabulary performance and growth rate. The authors used hierarchical linear modeling of 64 children's receptive vocabulary performance to generate growth trajectories, predict performance at school entry, and examine potential predictors of rate of growth. The timing of testing varied across children. The ELLs (prekindergarten to 2nd grade) participated in 2-5 testing sessions, each 6-12 months apart. The ELLs' average predicted standard score on an English receptive vocabulary at kindergarten was nearly 2 SDs below the mean for monolingual peers. Significant growth in the ELLs' receptive vocabulary was observed between preschool and 2nd grade, indicating that the ELLs were slowly closing the receptive vocabulary gap, although their average score remained below the standard score mean for age-matched monolingual peers. The ELLs demonstrated a significant decrease in Spanish receptive vocabulary standard scores over time. Initial Spanish receptive vocabulary was a significant predictor of growth in English receptive vocabulary. High initial Spanish receptive vocabulary was associated with greater growth in English receptive vocabulary and decelerated growth in Spanish receptive vocabulary. Gender was not a significant predictor of growth in either English or Spanish receptive vocabulary. ELLs from low socioeconomic backgrounds may be expected to perform lower in English compared with their monolingual English peers in kindergarten. Performance in Spanish at school entry may be useful in identifying children who require more intensive instructional support for English vocabulary
Micevych, Paul E.; Dewing, Phoebe
Estradiol has profound actions on the structure and function of the nervous system. In addition to nuclear actions that directly modulate gene expression, the idea that estradiol can rapidly activate cell signaling by binding to membrane estrogen receptors (mERs) has emerged. Even the regulation of sexual receptivity, an action previously thought to be completely regulated by nuclear ERs, has been shown to have a membrane-initiated estradiol signaling (MIES) component. This highlighted the question of the nature of mERs. Several candidates have been proposed, ERα, ERβ, ER-X, GPR30 (G protein coupled estrogen receptor), and a receptor activated by a diphenylacrylamide compound, STX. Although each of these receptors has been shown to be active in specific assays, we present evidence for and against their participation in sexual receptivity by acting in the lordosis-regulating circuit. The initial MIES that activates the circuit is in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH). Using both activation of μ-opioid receptors (MOR) in the medial preoptic nucleus and lordosis behavior, we document that both ERα and the STX-receptor participate in the required MIES. ERα and the STX-receptor activation of cell signaling are dependent on the transactivation of type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1a) that augment progesterone synthesis in astrocytes and protein kinase C (PKC) in ARH neurons. While estradiol-induced sexual receptivity does not depend on neuroprogesterone, proceptive behaviors do. Moreover, the ERα and the STX-receptor activation of medial preoptic MORs and augmentation of lordosis were sensitive to mGluR1a blockade. These observations suggest a common mechanism through which mERs are coupled to intracellular signaling cascades, not just in regulating reproduction, but in actions throughout the neuraxis including the cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and dorsal root ganglias. PMID:22649369
Paul E Micevych
Full Text Available Estradiol has profound actions on the structure and function of the nervous system. In addition to nuclear actions that directly modulate gene expression, the idea that estradiol can rapidly activate cell signaling by binding to membrane estrogen receptors (mERs has emerged. Even the regulation of sexual receptivity, an action previously thought to be completely regulated by nuclear ERs, has been shown to have a membrane-initiated estradiol signaling (MIES component. This highlighted the question of the nature of mERs. Several candidates have been proposed, ERα, ERβ, ER-X, GPR30 (G protein coupled estrogen receptor; GPER, and a receptor activated by a diphenylacrylamide compound, STX. Although each of these receptors has been shown to be active in specific assays, we present evidence for and against their participation in sexual receptivity by acting in the lordosis-regulating circuit. The initial MIES that activates the circuit is in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH. Using both activation of μ-opioid receptors (MOR in the medial preoptic nucleus and lordosis behavior, we document that both ERα and the STX receptor participate in the required MIES. ERα and the STX receptor activation of cell signaling are dependent on the transactivation of type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1a that augment progesterone synthesis in astrocytes and protein kinase C (PKC in ARH neurons. While estradiol-induced sexual receptivity does not depend on neuroprogesterone, proceptive behaviors do. Moreover, the ERα and the STX receptor activation of medial preoptic MORs and augmentation of lordosis were sensitive to mGluR1a blockade. These observations suggest a common mechanism through which mERs are coupled to intracellular signaling cascades, not just in regulating reproduction, but in actions throughout the neuraxis including the cortex, hippocampus, striatum and DRGs.
Brad J. Arnold
Full Text Available Surface irrigation, such as flood or furrow, is the predominant form of irrigation in California for agronomic crops. Compared to other irrigation methods, however, it is inefficient in terms of water use; large quantities of water, instead of being used for crop production, are lost to excess deep percolation and tail runoff. In surface-irrigated fields, irrigators commonly cut off the inflow of water when the water advance reaches a familiar or convenient location downfield, but this experience-based strategy has not been very successful in reducing the tail runoff water. Our study compared conventional cutoff practices to a retroactively applied model-based cutoff method in four commercially producing alfalfa fields in Northern California, and evaluated the model using a simple sensor system for practical application in typical alfalfa fields. These field tests illustrated that the model can be used to reduce tail runoff in typical surface-irrigated fields, and using it with a wireless sensor system saves time and labor as well as water.
This podcast is an overview of resources from the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Practical Tools for Radiation Emergency Preparedness. A specialist working with CDC's Radiation Studies Branch describes a web-based training tool known as a Virtual Community Reception Center (vCRC). Created: 2/28/2011 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Radiation Studies Branch and Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR). Date Released: 2/28/2011.
Eisenhardt, W.A. Jr.; Hedaya, E.; Theodoropulos, S.
This patent claim on behalf of Union Carbide Corporation, relates to synthesizing isocyantes useful for forming synthetic antigens receptive to radio labelling. The claim is for an isocyanate having the structural formula (R) 3 SiO-R' -N=C=O, wherein each R is independently selected from alkyl, alicyclic, aryl, alkaryl and aralkyl groups, each having no more than 10 carbon atoms and being optionally substituted by one or more halogen atoms, and R' is selected from -C 6 H 4 -CH 2 -CH 2 - and -C 6 H 4 -CH 2 -CH-COOCH 3 . (U.K.)
Till, Benedikt; Vitouch, Peter; Herberth, Arno; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas
The authors investigated the impact of suicidality on identity work during film exposure. Adults with low suicidality (n = 150) watched either It's My Party or The Fire Within, censored versions of these films not depicting the suicide, or the control film that concluded with a non-suicidal death. Baseline suicidality was measured with questionnaires before the movie. Identity work and identification with the protagonist were measured after the movie. Suicidality was directly associated with identity work during film dramas depicting suicide methods. The reception of suicide-related media content seems to partially depend on personal suicidality. Potential implications for suicide prevention are discussed.
In this essay a mediated video game reception of the game Life Is Strange is made, with the purpose of examining the players' meaning-making processes from a gender perspective. The materials of this essay consist of videos from six different YouTube channels where each player film themselves whilst playing through Life Is Strange as a way to review and share the gaming experience. The results show how the meaning-making processes are littered with gender discourses and affects. The affects o...
Gibson, Todd A.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Jarmulowicz, Linda; Ethington, Corinna A.
Adults and children learning a second language show difficulty accessing expressive vocabulary that appears accessible receptively in their first language (L1). We call this discrepancy the receptive-expressive gap. Kindergarten Spanish (L1) - English (L2) sequential bilinguals were given standardized tests of receptive and expressive vocabulary in both Spanish and English. We found a small receptive-expressive gap in English but a large receptive-expressive gap in Spanish. We categorized chi...
Heger, A; Sator, M; Pietrowski, D
Endometrial receptivity plays a crucial role in the establishment of a healthy pregnancy in cycles of assisted reproduction. The endometrium as a key factor during reproduction can be assessed in multiple ways, most commonly through transvaginal grey-scale or 3-D ultrasound. It has been shown that controlled ovarian hyperstimulation has a great impact on the uterine lining, which leads to different study results for the predictive value of endometrial factors measured on different cycle days. There is no clear consensus on whether endometrial factors are appropriate to predict treatment outcome and if so, which one is suited best. The aim of this review is to summarize recent findings of studies about the influence of endometrial thickness, volume and pattern on IVF- and ICSI-treatment outcome and provide an overview of future developments in the field.
Full Text Available This paper reviews the public reception of the Research Assessment Exercise 1996 (RAE from its announcement in December 1996 to the decline of discussion at end May 1997. A model for diffusion of the RAE is established which distinguishes extra-communal (or exoteric from intra-communal (or esoteric media. The different characteristics of each medium and the changing nature of the discussion over time are considered. Different themes are distinguished in the public reception of the RAE: the spatial distribution of research; the organisation of universities; disciplinary differences in understanding; a perceived conflict between research and teaching; the development of a culture of accountability; and analogies with the organisation of professional football. In conclusion, it is suggested that the RAE and its effects can be more fully considered from the perspective of scholarly communication and understandings of the development of knowledge than it has been by previous contributions in information science, which have concentrated on the possibility of more efficient implementation of existing processes. A fundamental responsibility for funding councils is also identified: to promote the overall health of university education and research, while establishing meaningful differentiations between units.
Edwards, Luke; Tumin, Anatoli
The receptivity of high-speed compressible boundary layers to kinetic fluctuations (KF) is considered within the framework of fluctuating hydrodynamics. The formulation is based on the idea that KF-induced dissipative fluxes may lead to the generation of unstable modes in the boundary layer. Fedorov and Tumin solved the receptivity problem using an asymptotic matching approach which utilized a resonant inner solution in the vicinity of the generation point of the second Mack mode. Here we take a slightly more general approach based on a multiple scales WKB ansatz which requires fewer assumptions about the behavior of the stability spectrum. The approach is modeled after the one taken by Luchini to study low speed incompressible boundary layers over a swept wing. The new framework is used to study examples of high-enthalpy, flat plate boundary layers whose spectra exhibit nuanced behavior near the generation point, such as first mode instabilities and near-neutral evolution over moderate length scales. The configurations considered exhibit supersonic unstable second Mack modes despite the temperature ratio Tw /Te > 1 , contrary to prior expectations. Supported by AFOSR and ONR.
Fatemi, H M; Popovic-Todorovic, B
Implantation failure in assisted reproduction is thought to be mainly due to impaired uterine receptivity. With normal uterine anatomy, changes in endocrine profile during ovarian stimulation and medical conditions of the mother (i.e. thrombophilia and abnormal immunological response) could result in a non-receptive endometrium. High oestradiol concentrations during ovarian stimulation lead to premature progesterone elevation, causing endometrial advancement and hampering implantation, which can be overcome by a freeze-all approach and embryo transfer in natural cycles or by milder stimulation protocols. Patients with recurrent implantation failure (RIF) should be tested for inherited and acquired thrombophilias. Each patient should be individually assessed and counselled regarding therapy with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). Empirical treatment with LMWH, aspirin or corticosteroids is not effective for women with RIF who have negative thrombophilic tests. If thrombophilic tests are normal, patients should be tested for immunological causes. If human leukocyte antigen dissimilarity is proven, treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin might be beneficial. Preliminary observational studies using intralipid infusion in the presence of increased natural killer cytotoxic activity are interesting but the proposed rationale is controversial and randomized controlled trials are needed. Hysteroscopy and/or endometrial scratching in the cycle preceding ovarian stimulation should become standard for patients with RIF. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leung, J P; Wu, K I
The facilitative effect of incorporating echolalia on teaching receptive naming of Chinese characters to children with autism was assessed. In Experiment 1, echoing the requested character name prior to the receptive naming task facilitated matching a character to its name. In addition, task performance was consistently maintained only when echolalia preceded the receptive manual response. Positive results from generalization tests suggested that learned responses occurred across various nove...
Gibson, Todd A; Oller, D Kimbrough; Jarmulowicz, Linda
Receptive standardized vocabulary scores have been found to be much higher than expressive standardized vocabulary scores in children with Spanish as L1, learning L2 (English) in school (Gibson et al., 2012). Here we present evidence suggesting the receptive-expressive gap may be harder to evaluate than previously thought because widely-used standardized tests may not offer comparable normed scores. Furthermore monolingual Spanish-speaking children tested in Mexico and monolingual English-speaking children in the US showed other, yet different statistically significant discrepancies between receptive and expressive scores. Results suggest comparisons across widely used standardized tests in attempts to assess a receptive-expressive gap are precarious.
Ryan, Ashling; Gibbon, Fiona E; O'shea, Aoife
Evidence suggests that children present with receptive language skills that are equivalent to or more advanced than expressive language skills. This profile holds true for typical and delayed language development. This study aimed to determine if such a profile existed for preschool children from an area of social deprivation and to investigate if particular language skills influence any differences found between expressive and receptive skills. Data from 187 CELF P2 UK assessments conducted on preschool children from two socially disadvantaged areas in a city in southern Ireland. A significant difference was found between Receptive Language Index (RLI) and Expressive Language Index (ELI) scores with Receptive scores found to be lower than Expressive scores. The majority (78.6%) of participants had a lower Receptive Language than Expressive score (RLI ELI), with very few (3.2%) having the same Receptive and Expressive scores (RLI = ELI). Scores for the Concepts and Following Directions (receptive) sub-test were significantly lower than for the other receptive sub tests, while scores for the Expressive Vocabulary sub-test were significantly higher than for the other expressive sub tests. The finding of more advanced expressive than receptive language skills in socially deprived preschool children is previously unreported and clinically relevant for speech-language pathologists in identifying the needs of this population.
Favero-Longo, Sergio E; Borghi, Alessandro; Tretiach, Mauro; Piervittori, Rosanna
Sterile cultured isolates of lichen-forming aposymbionts have not yet been used to investigate lichen-rock interactions under controlled conditions. In this study mycobionts and photobiont of the endolithic lichens Bagliettoa baldensis and Bagliettoa marmorea were isolated and inoculated with coupons of one limestone and four marbles commonly employed in the Cultural Heritage framework. After one year of incubation, microscopic observations of polished cross-sections were performed to verify if the typical colonization patterns observed in the field may be reproduced in vitro and to evaluate the receptivity of the five lithotypes to endolithic lichens. The mycobionts of the two species developed both on the surface of and within all the lithotypes, showing different penetration pathways which depend on mineralogical and structural features and highlight different receptivity. By contrast, algae inoculated with the coupons did not penetrate them. Observations suggest that the hyphal penetration along intrinsic discontinuities of rocks is a relatively fast phenomenon when these organisms are generally considered as slow-growing. Samples from limestone outcrops and abandoned marble quarries, colonized by the same species or other representatives of Verrucariaceae, showed penetration pathways intriguingly similar to those reproduced in vitro and highlighted that lichen-driven erosion processes only increase the availability of hyphal passageways after a long-term colonization. These results show that in vitro incubation of sterile cultured lichen-forming ascomycetes with rock coupons is a practicable experimental system to investigate the lichen-rock interactions under controlled conditions and, together with analysis in situ, may support decisions on conservative treatments of historical and cultural significant stone substrata.
Lauritsen, Maj-Britt Glenn; Söderström, Margareta; Kreiner, Svend
PURPOSE: We tested "the Galker test", a speech reception in noise test developed for primary care for Danish preschool children, to explore if the children's ability to hear and understand speech was associated with gender, age, middle ear status, and the level of background noise. METHODS......: The Galker test is a 35-item audio-visual, computerized word discrimination test in background noise. Included were 370 normally developed children attending day care center. The children were examined with the Galker test, tympanometry, audiometry, and the Reynell test of verbal comprehension. Parents...... and daycare teachers completed questionnaires on the children's ability to hear and understand speech. As most of the variables were not assessed using interval scales, non-parametric statistics (Goodman-Kruskal's gamma) were used for analyzing associations with the Galker test score. For comparisons...
One of the most common complaints of people with impaired hearing concerns their difficulty with understanding speech. Particularly in the presence of background noise, hearing-impaired people often encounter great difficulties with speech communication. In most cases, the problem persists even...... if reduced audibility has been compensated for by hearing aids. It has been hypothesized that part of the difficulty arises from changes in the perception of sounds that are well above hearing threshold, such as reduced frequency selectivity and deficits in the processing of temporal fine structure (TFS......) at the output of the inner-ear (cochlear) filters. The purpose of this work was to investigate these aspects in detail. One chapter studies relations between frequency selectivity, TFS processing, and speech reception in listeners with normal and impaired hearing, using behavioral listening experiments. While...
Hopkins, William D; Keebaugh, Alaine C; Reamer, Lisa A
Despite their genetic similarity to humans, our understanding of the role of genes on cognitive traits in chimpanzees remains virtually unexplored. Here, we examined the relationship between genetic variation in the arginine vasopressin V1a receptor gene (AVPR1A) and social cognition in chimpanzees...... cognition task was significantly heritable. Furthermore, males with one DupB(+) allele performed significantly better and were more responsive to socio-communicative cues than males homozygous for the DupB- deletion. Performance on a non-social cognition task was not associated with the AVPR1A genotype....... The collective findings show that AVPR1A polymorphisms are associated with individual differences in performance on a receptive joint attention task in chimpanzees....
Zhang, Jin; Walker, William B; Wang, Guirong
Male moths detect and find their mates using species-specific sex pheromones emitted by conspecific females. Olfaction plays a vital role in this behavior. Since the first discovery of an insect sex pheromone from the silkmoth Bombyx mori, great efforts have been spent on understanding the sensing of the pheromones in vivo. Much progress has been made in elucidating the molecular mechanisms that mediate chemoreception in insects in the past few decades. In this review, we focus on pheromone reception and detection in moths, from the molecular to the behavioral level. We trace the information pathway from the capture of pheromone by male antennae, binding and transportation to olfactory receptor neurons, receptor activation, signal transduction, molecule inactivation, through brain processing and behavioral response. We highlight the impact of recent studies and also provide our insights into pheromone processing. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection to reception of TV channel 6. 73.825... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.825 Protection to reception of TV... separation distances in the following table are met with respect to all full power TV Channel 6 stations. FM...
Full Text Available The new Regulation regarding the reception of construction works and corresponding installations, approved by Government's Decision no. 347/2017 (“Regulation 2017” has general applicability for all construction works for which there is an obligation to obtain a building permit. Regulation 2017 brings significant changes and clarifications expected by the real estate sector regarding: (i the composition of the commissions involved in the reception procedure, (ii the role of the site supervisor who thus gains significant participation in the reception procedure, and (iii the participation of the public authorities' representatives at the reception, having the veto right on the decision of the reception commission upon the completion of the construction works. Another element of novelty brought by Regulation 2017 is the possibility to do the reception upon the completion of the construction works, respectively the final reception for parts / objectives / sectors of or from the building, if they are distinct/ independent from a physical and functional point of view. Thus, the new regulation facilitates the procedure of authorizing investment objectives and the costs of the process. The partial reception is another innovation brought by the Regulation 2017 in support of the investor, who can thus take over a part of the construction, at a certain stage, and obtain its registration with the Land Book.
Abstract: This article reviews Christopher W. Tindale’s The Philosophy of Argument and Audience Reception (Cambridge, 2015). Résumé: Cet article est une critique de The Philosophy of Argument and Audience Reception (Cambridge, 2015) de Christopher W. Tindale.
Mohamed, Shafizan; Wok, Saodah; Lahabou, Mahaman
In 2011, a study was conducted to look at students' reception of IIUM.FM, a newly launched online campus radio. Using the Technological Acceptance Model (TAM), the study found that factors such as perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and attitude highly influenced audience reception of the online radio. In 2016, a corresponding study,…
Faraj, Avan Kamal Aziz
Vocabulary acquisition has been a main concern of EFL English teachers and learners. There have been tons of research to examine the student's level of receptive vocabulary and productive vocabulary, but no research has conducted on how turning receptive vocabulary into productive vocabulary. This study has reported the impact of the teaching…
Leung, Jin-Pang; Wu, Kit-I
The facilitative effect of incorporating echolalia on teaching receptive naming of Chinese characters to four Hong Kong children (ages 8-10) with autism was assessed. Results from two experiments indicated echolalia was the active component contributing to the successful acquisition and maintenance of receptive naming of Chinese characters.…
This article reports a historical case study of extensive educational transfer: the reception, adaptation, and use of German progressive education and German school reform ideas and practices in Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century. The reception of German educational ideas greatly enriched the theory and practice of the Russian school…
Reijneveld, S.A.; Boer, J.B.de; Bean, T.; Korfker, D.G.
We assessed the effects of a stringent reception policy on the mental health of unaccompanied adolescent asylum seekers by comparing the mental health of adolescents in a restricted campus reception setting and in a setting offering more autonomy (numbers [response rates]: 69 [93%] and 53 [69%],
English as a foreign language students in Japan learned target words in word pairs receptively and productively. Five aspects of vocabulary knowledge--orthography, association, syntax, grammatical functions, and meaning and form--were each measured by receptive and productive tests. The study uses an innovative methodology in that each target word…
Leahy, Matthew M.; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Walters, Scott T.
This project examined the reliability and validity of a newly developed measure of college students' receptiveness to alcohol related information and advice. Participants were 116 college students who reported having consumed alcohol at some point in their lifetime. Participants completed a measure of receptiveness to alcohol-related…
Harlaar, Nicole; Meaburn, Emma L.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Docherty, Sophia; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Price, Thomas S.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert
Purpose: Researchers have previously shown that individual differences in measures of receptive language ability at age 12 are highly heritable. In the current study, the authors attempted to identify some of the genes responsible for the heritability of receptive language ability using a "genome-wide association" approach. Method: The…
Shtarkov, Y. M.
Some possible criteria for estimating the effectiveness of correcting codes are presented, and the energy effectiveness of correcting codes is studied for symbol-by-symbol reception. Expressions for the energetic effectiveness of binary correcting codes for reception in the whole are produced. Asymptotic energetic effectiveness and finite signal/noise ratio cases are considered.
Enciso, M; Carrascosa, J P; Sarasa, J; Martínez-Ortiz, P A; Munné, S; Horcajadas, J A; Aizpurua, J
comparing LH + 2 and LH + 7 samples (paired t-test, P terms in this group of genes. Principal component analysis and discriminant functional analysis showed that 40 of the differentially expressed genes allowed accurate classification of samples according to endometrial status (proliferative, pre-receptive, receptive and post-receptive) in both fertile and infertile groups. N/A. To evaluate the efficacy of this new tool to improve ART outcomes, further investigations such as non-selection studies and randomized controlled trials will also be required. A new comprehensive system for human endometrial receptivity evaluation based on gene expression analysis has been developed. The identification of the optimal time for embryo transfer is essential to maximize the effectiveness of ART. This study is a new step in the field of personalized medicine in human reproduction which may help in the management of endometrial preparation for embryo transfer, increasing the chances of pregnancy for many couples. The authors have no potential conflict of interest to declare. No external funding was obtained for this study. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Gregson, Kim D; Erath, Stephen A; Pettit, Gregory S; Tu, Kelly M
Associations linking parenting emotional climate and quality of parental social coaching with young adolescents' receptivity to parental social coaching were examined (N = 80). Parenting emotional climate was assessed with adolescent-reported parental warmth and hostility. Quality of parental social coaching (i.e., prosocial advice, benign framing) was assessed via parent-report and behavioral observations during a parent-adolescent discussion about negative peer evaluation. An adolescent receptivity latent variable score was derived from observations of adolescents' behavior during the discussion, change in adolescents' peer response plan following the discussion, and adolescent-reported tendency to seek social advice from the parent. Parenting climate moderated associations between coaching and receptivity: Higher quality coaching was associated with greater receptivity in the context of a more positive climate. Analyses suggested a stronger association between coaching and receptivity among younger compared to older adolescents. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Gibson, Todd A.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Jarmulowicz, Linda; Ethington, Corinna A.
Adults and children learning a second language show difficulty accessing expressive vocabulary that appears accessible receptively in their first language (L1). We call this discrepancy the receptive-expressive gap. Kindergarten Spanish (L1)-English (L2) sequential bilinguals were given standardized tests of receptive and expressive vocabulary in…
Yun, Soon Gyu; Shin, Jeong Won; Park, Eun Su; Bang, Hae In; Kang, Jung Gu
Recent advances in laboratory information systems have largely been focused on automation. However, the phlebotomy services have not been completely automated. To address this issue, we introduced an automated reception and turnaround time (TAT) management system, for the first time in Korea, whereby the patient's information is transmitted directly to the actual phlebotomy site and the TAT for each phlebotomy step can be monitored at a glance. The GNT5 system (Energium Co., Ltd., Korea) was installed in June 2013. The automated reception and TAT management system has been in operation since February 2014. Integration of the automated reception machine with the GNT5 allowed for direct transmission of laboratory order information to the GNT5 without involving any manual reception step. We used the mean TAT from reception to actual phlebotomy as the parameter for evaluating the efficiency of our system. Mean TAT decreased from 5:45 min to 2:42 min after operationalization of the system. The mean number of patients in queue decreased from 2.9 to 1.0. Further, the number of cases taking more than five minutes from reception to phlebotomy, defined as the defect rate, decreased from 20.1% to 9.7%. The use of automated reception and TAT management system was associated with a decrease of overall TAT and an improved workflow at the phlebotomy room.
McDaniel, Jena; Yoder, Paul; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Watson, Linda R
Correlates of receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancies may provide insights into why language development in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) deviates from typical language development and ultimately improve intervention outcomes. We indexed receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancies of 65 initially preverbal children with ASD (20-48 months) to a comparison sample from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Wordbank (Frank, Braginsky, Yurovsky, & Marchman, 2017) to quantify typicality. We then tested whether attention toward a speaker and oral motor performance predict typicality of the discrepancy 8 months later. Attention toward a speaker correlated positively with receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancy typicality. Imitative and nonimitative oral motor performance were not significant predictors of vocabulary size discrepancy typicality. Secondary analyses indicated that midpoint receptive vocabulary size mediated the association between initial attention toward a speaker and end point receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancy typicality. Findings support the hypothesis that variation in attention toward a speaker might partially explain receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancy magnitude in children with ASD. Results are consistent with an input-processing deficit explanation of language impairment in this clinical population. Future studies should test whether attention toward a speaker is malleable and causally related to receptive-expressive discrepancies in children with ASD.
Boundary-layer receptivity and stability of Mach 6 flows over smooth and rough seven-degree half-angle sharp-tipped cones are numerically investigated. The receptivity of the boundary layer to slow acoustic disturbances, fast acoustic disturbances, and vortical disturbances is considered. The effects of three-dimensional isolated roughness on the receptivity and stability are also simulated. The results for the smooth cone show that the instability waves are generated in the leading edge region and that the boundary layer is much more receptive to slow acoustic waves than to the fast acoustic waves. Vortical disturbances also generate unstable second modes, however the receptivity coefficients are smaller than that of the slow acoustic wave. Distributed roughness elements located near the nose region decreased the receptivity of the second mode generated by the slow acoustic wave by a small amount. Roughness elements distributed across the continuous spectrum increased the receptivity of the second mode generated by the slow and fast acoustic waves and the vorticity wave. The largest increase occurred for the vorticity wave. Roughness elements distributed across the synchronization point did not change the receptivity of the second modes generated by the acoustic waves. The receptivity of the second mode generated by the vorticity wave increased in this case, but the increase is lower than that occurred with the roughness elements located across the continuous spectrum. The simulations with an isolated roughness element showed that the second mode waves generated by the acoustic disturbances are not influenced by the small roughness element. Due to the interaction, a three-dimensional wave is generated. However, the amplitude is orders of magnitude smaller than the two-dimensional wave.
Sun Xiao-Dong; Wang Xin; Zhou Yu-Qi; Ma Qing-Yu; Zhang Dong
Based on the acoustic radiation theory of a dipole source, the influence of the transducer reception pattern is studied for magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI). Numerical studies are conducted to simulate acoustic pressures, waveforms, and reconstructed images with unidirectional, omnidirectional, and strong directional transducers. With the analyses of equivalent and projection sources, the influences of the model dimension and the layer effect are qualitatively analyzed to evaluate the performance of MAT-MI. Three-dimensional simulation studies show that the strong directional transducer with a large radius can reduce the influences of equivalent sources, projection sources, and the layer effect effectively, resulting in enhanced pressure and improved image contrast, which is beneficial for boundary pressure extraction in conductivity reconstruction. The reconstructed conductivity contrast images present the conductivity boundaries as stripes with different contrasts and polarities, representing the values and directions of the conductivity changes of the scanned layer. The favorable results provide solid evidence for transducer selection and suggest potential practical applications of MAT-MI in biomedical imaging. (paper)
Abbas V. Kazemi
Full Text Available In this article, we studied student dissertations in cultural studies departments and articles of two important journals (Iranian Journal of Cultural Research and Quarterly Journal of Iranian Association for Cultural Studies & Communication. Our main questions are how the condition of reception possibility is assumed in Iranian cultural studies? How we can classify our audiences? In particular, how and who is the audience in Iran? This analysis shows that most of the Iranian cultural studies oriented to urban middle class of Tehran, instead of lower middle class or labor class. The result demonstrates that, most of scholars consider audience as an active subject that resists against text massages. Hence, they overlook the role of ideology and power in construction of subject and audience. As if, a type of optimistic cultural studies was adapted in an authoritarian political context. This approach on resistance is called resistance ideology by the authors; a situation in which we believe resistance is a sort of relieving and appeasing drug for critical cultural scholars.
Li, Shu-Yun; Song, Zhuo; Song, Min-Jie; Qin, Jia-Wen; Zhao, Meng-Long; Yang, Zeng-Ming
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a complex endocrine disorder, is a leading cause of female infertility. An obvious reason for infertility in PCOS women is anovulation. However, success rate with high quality embryos selected by assisted reproduction techniques in PCOS patients still remain low with a high rate of early clinical pregnancy loss, suggesting a problem in uterine receptivity. Using a dehydroepiandrosterone-induced mouse model of PCOS, some potential causes of decreased fertility in PCOS patients were explored. In our study, ovulation problem also causes sterility in PCOS mice. After blastocysts from normal mice are transferred into uterine lumen of pseudopregnant PCOS mice, the rate of embryo implantation was reduced. In PCOS mouse uteri, the implantation-related genes are also dysregulated. Additionally, artificial decidualization is severely impaired in PCOS mice. The serum estrogen level is significantly higher in PCOS mice than vehicle control. The high level of estrogen and potentially impaired LIF-STAT3 pathway may lead to embryo implantation failure in PCOS mice. Although there are many studies about effects of PCOS on endometrium, both embryo transfer and artificial decidualization are applied to exclude the effects from ovulation and embryos in our study.
The term 'spread-spectrum' implies a technique whereby digitized information is added to a pseudo-random number sequence and the resultant bit stream changes some parameter of the carrier frequency in discrete increments. The discrete modulation of the carrier frequency is usually realized either as a multiple level phase shift keyed or frequency shift keyed signal. The resultant PSK-modulated frequency spectrum is referred to as direct sequence spread-spectrum, whereas the FSK-modulated carrier frequency is referred to as a frequency hopped spread spectrum. These can be considered the major subsets of the more general term 'spread-spectrum'. In discussing signal reception, it is pointed out that active correlation methods are used for channel synchronization when the psuedo random sequences are long or when the processing gain is large, whereas the passive methods may be used for either short pseudo-random noise generation codes or to assist in attaining initial synchronization in long sequence spread-spectrum systems.
Full Text Available Martin Krpan z Vrha, written by Fran Levstik as a conscious experiment in prose-writing, has been interpreted variously during the last century and a half. The duel between a Slovenian peasant and a giant who comes to terrorise Vienna was in turn read by scholars as a political satire, the realisation of a literary and linguistic programme, a literary parody etc. Its motif was mostly interpreted with reference to Slavic folklore characters (Pegam and Lambergar, Prince Marko,peter Klepec etc.. The analysis according to the model devised by Vladimir Propp, however, shows striking similarities with Biblical story of David and Goliath (1 Sm 17. The reception of this motif is marked by significant political overtones, already present in antiquity and then interest ingly developed in places as diverse as sixteenth-century Florence, Prague, and the Netherlands. As attested by the sources, Levstik used this motif several limes; to a certain extent he even identi fied with its hero.
In this paper I discuss the relationship between two different approaches to critical theory – the reflective and the receptive approaches. I show how it can be fruitful to discuss the relationship between Habermas and Foucault through this distinction. My point is that whereas Habermas focusses...... on critique as a reflexive activity, Foucault mainly focusses on the receptive conditions for critique to be possible. I argue further that Foucault focusses on the receptive aspects of critique, the quest for universality is not as pressing as it is in Habermas’ approach, because problematizing critique can...
.... During the three-year period, we have conducted extensive DNS studies on the receptivity of hypersonic boundary layer flows over a sharp wedge, a flat plate, a blunt cone, and the FRESH aeroshell...
Semenyuk, Nataliya; Kostiv, Ulyana; Dudok, Galyna; Nechay, Jaroslav; Skorokhoda, Volodymyr
The use of polyvinylpyrrolidone matrix as an effective reducing agent and stabilizer during reception of silver nanoparticles in composites is substantiated. The influence of various factors on patterns of obtaining silver nanoparticles and their size.
Full Text Available This study examined women’s and men’s preferences for humor production and humor receptivity in long-term and short-term relationships, and how these factors interact with physical attractiveness to influence desirability. Undergraduates viewed photographs of the opposite sex individuals who were high or low in physical attractiveness, along with vignettes varying in humor production and receptivity. Participants rated physical attractiveness and desirability for long-term and short-term relationships. The main findings were that individuals desired partners who were high in humor production and receptivity, though the effects were particularly pronounced for women judging long-term relationships. Moreover, humor production was more important than receptivity for women’s ratings of male desirability. Notably, we also found that ratings of physical attractiveness were influenced by the humor conditions. These results are discussed in terms of the fitness indicator, interest indicator, and encryption hypotheses of the evolutionary functions of humor.
A Pennsylvania college arranges a series of receptions in several cities to encourage seniors to meet alumni with similar career interests and to help students develop the social skills to make further contacts. (MSE)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Invocon proposes the Surface-borne Time-Of-Reception Measurements (STORM) system as a method to locate the position of lightning strikes on aerospace vehicles....
Gamp, Martina; Renner, Britta
Personalised health-risk assessment is one of the most common components of health promotion programs. Previous research on responses to health risk feedback has commonly focused on the reception of bad news (high-risk feedback). The reception of low-risk feedback has been comparably neglected since it is assumed that good news is reassuring and readily received. However, field studies suggest mixed responses to low-risk health feedback. Accordingly, we examine whether pre-feedback risk expectancies can mitigate the reassuring effects of good news. In two studies (N = 187, N = 565), after assessing pre-feedback risk expectancies, participants received low-risk personalised feedback about their own risk of developing (the fictitious) Tucson Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (TCFS). Study 2 also included peer TCFS risk status feedback. Afterwards, self- and peer-related risk perception for TCFS was assessed. In both studies, participants who expected to be at high risk but received good news (unexpected low-risk feedback) showed absolute lack of reassurance. Specifically, they felt at significantly greater TCFS risk than participants who received expected good news. Moreover, the unexpected low-risk group even believed that their risk was as high as (Study 1) or higher (Study 2) than that of their peers (comparative lack of reassurance). Results support the notion that high pre-feedback risk expectancies can mitigate absolute and comparative reassuring effects of good news. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Zhang, Bo; Malouin, Christian; Schmidt, Theodore J
In addition to linear compensation of fiber channel impairments, coherent receivers also provide colorless selection of any desired data channel within multitude of incident wavelengths, without the need of a channel selecting filter. In this paper, we investigate the design requirements for colorless reception using a coherent balanced receiver, considering both the optical front end (OFE) and the transimpedance amplifier (TIA). We develop analytical models to predict the system performance as a function of receiver design parameters and show good agreement against numerical simulations. At low input signal power, an optimum local oscillator (LO) power is shown to exist where the thermal noise is balanced with the residual LO-RIN beat noise. At high input signal power, we show the dominant noise effect is the residual self-beat noise from the out of band (OOB) channels, which scales not only with the number of OOB channels and the common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of the OFE, but also depends on the link residual chromatic dispersion (CD) and the orientation of the polarization tributaries relative to the receiver. This residual self-beat noise from OOB channels sets the lower bound for the LO power. We also investigate the limitations imposed by overload in the TIA, showing analytically that the DC current scales only with the number of OOB channels, while the differential AC current scales only with the link residual CD, which induces high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). Both DC and AC currents at the input to the TIA set the upper bounds for the LO power. Considering both the OFE noise limit and the TIA overload limit, we show that the receiver operating range is notably narrowed for dispersion unmanaged links, as compared to dispersion managed links. © 2012 Optical Society of America
Ida Bagus Rai Putra
Full Text Available The object of the study is Dwijendra Text (hereinafter abbreviated to DT. It containsinteresting narrations and is importantly related to the dharmayatra, the holy religious journeymade by Dang Hyang Nirartha, the charismatic figure, in Bali, Lombok and Sumbawa. Beforethe analysis of reception was conducted, the corpus text of the DT texts completely andstructurally telling the religious journey made by Dang Hyang Nirartha was successfullydetermined. The analysis in this study was made to answer the following questions: what is thenarrative structure of the DT text; what are the enlightenment image entities of the dharmayatraof the DT text; how do people appreciate the dharmayatra of the DT text? The answers to thenarrative structure of the DT text; the image entities and the appreciation provided by people arethe main objectives of this study.The theories adopted in this study are the theory of reception introduced by Jauss, thetheory of semiotics introduced by Pierce and the theory of mythology introduced by Barthes. Asa qualitative study, the data needed were collected by the methods of observation, note taking,documentation and interview supported with a sound recorder and pictures. The results of theanalysis are informally presented, meaning that they are verbally described in the form of wordswhich are systematically composed based on the problems formulated in this study.The analysis of the narrative structure of the DT text contains narrative units which are inthe forms of theme, characters and plots. They all unite to form stories which are mythological,legendary, symbolic, hagiographic and suggestive in nature. Based on the analysis ofenlightenment image entities, it can be concluded that there are three basic entities leading to thecreation of the DT text. They are first enlightenment; second protection of Hinduism; and thirdconstruction of temple institutions. Based on the reception analysis, it can be concluded thatpeople, through
Nord, Johan Christian
Fremmedsproglig forskningsformidling af hovedpunkterne i artiklen "En Poet og en Religionsstifter, med hvem jeg er enig i næsten alle Ting" Indledende betragtninger over Johannes Jørgensens Schopenhauer-reception.......Fremmedsproglig forskningsformidling af hovedpunkterne i artiklen "En Poet og en Religionsstifter, med hvem jeg er enig i næsten alle Ting" Indledende betragtninger over Johannes Jørgensens Schopenhauer-reception....
The aim of this study is to examine the vocabulary and receptive collocation knowledge in English among Swedish upper secondary school students. The primary material consists of two vocabulary tests, one collocation test, and a background questionnaire. The first research question concerns whether the students who receive a major part of their education in English have a higher level of vocabulary and receptive collocation knowledge in English than those who are taught primarily in Swedish. T...
Full Text Available In this paper, the author discusses foreign reception of Jovan Babić’s works, which turns out to be very much alive and diverse. More precisely, the author limits himself to a short and very partial review of reception of only two Babić’s texts that, so far, attracted the most attention. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007 i br. 179041
Ashour, Osama Naim
The boundary-layer receptivity resulting from acoustic forcing over a flat plate with a surface irregularity is investigated. The unsteady free-stream disturbances couple with the steady perturbations resulting from the surface irregularity to form a traveling-wave mode. The resonance condition necessary for receptivity requires a forcing at a wave number equal to that of the Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) eigenmode and a frequency equal to that of the free-stream acoustic disturban...
McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Li, Zhigang; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.
Background Advertisement of fast food on TV may contribute to youth obesity. Purpose The goal of the study was to use cued recall to determine whether TV fast-food advertising is associated with youth obesity. Methods A national sample of 2541 U.S. youth, aged 15–23 years, were surveyed in 2010–2011; data were analyzed in 2012. Respondents viewed a random subset of 20 advertisement frames (with brand names removed) selected from national TV fast-food restaurant advertisements (n=535) aired in the previous year. Respondents were asked if they had seen the advertisement, if they liked it, and if they could name the brand. A TV fast-food advertising receptivity score (a measure of exposure and response) was assigned; a 1-point increase was equivalent to affirmative responses to all three queries for two separate advertisements. Adjusted odds of obesity (based on self-reported height and weight), given higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity, are reported. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity, weighted to the U.S. population, was 20% and 16%, respectively. Obesity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, fast-food restaurant visit frequency, weekday TV time, and TV alcohol advertising receptivity were associated with higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity (median=3.3 [interquartile range: 2.2–4.2]). Only household income, TV time, and TV fast-food advertising receptivity retained multivariate associations with obesity. For every 1-point increase in TV fast-food advertising receptivity score, the odds of obesity increased by 19% (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.01, 1.40). There was no association between receptivity to televised alcohol advertisements or fast-food restaurant visit frequency and obesity. Conclusions Using a cued-recall assessment, TV fast-food advertising receptivity was found to be associated with youth obesity. PMID:24139768
Charlop, M H
This investigation, consisting of two experiments, was designed to assess the effects of autistic immediate echolalia on acquisition and generalization of receptive labeling tasks. Experiment 1 addressed whether autistic children could use their echolalia to facilitate acquisition. The results indicated that incorporating echolalia (echo of the requested object's label) into the task before manual response (handing the requested object to the experimenter) facilitated receptive labeling. Expe...
In his article "Variation Theory and Reception of Chinese Literature in the English-Speaking World" Shunqing Cao introduces "variation theory" he developed and suggests that the framework can be applied in studying the dissemination and reception of Chinese literature in the English-speaking world. Cao argues that cultural and literary differences produce variations in literary exchanges among different cultures and variation theory concentrates on these variations. With unique perspectives o...
Michelle Tornquist; Dan Chiappe
This study examined women’s and men’s preferences for humor production and humor receptivity in long-term and short-term relationships, and how these factors interact with physical attractiveness to influence desirability. Undergraduates viewed photographs of the opposite sex individuals who were high or low in physical attractiveness, along with vignettes varying in humor production and receptivity. Participants rated physical attractiveness and desirability for long-term and short-term rela...
McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Li, Zhigang; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D
Advertisement of fast food on TV may contribute to youth obesity. The goal of the study was to use cued recall to determine whether TV fast-food advertising is associated with youth obesity. A national sample of 2541 U.S. youth, aged 15-23 years, were surveyed in 2010-2011; data were analyzed in 2012. Respondents viewed a random subset of 20 advertisement frames (with brand names removed) selected from national TV fast-food restaurant advertisements (n=535) aired in the previous year. Respondents were asked if they had seen the advertisement, if they liked it, and if they could name the brand. A TV fast-food advertising receptivity score (a measure of exposure and response) was assigned; a 1-point increase was equivalent to affirmative responses to all three queries for two separate advertisements. Adjusted odds of obesity (based on self-reported height and weight), given higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity, are reported. The prevalence of overweight and obesity, weighted to the U.S. population, was 20% and 16%, respectively. Obesity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, fast-food restaurant visit frequency, weekday TV time, and TV alcohol advertising receptivity were associated with higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity (median=3.3 [interquartile range: 2.2-4.2]). Only household income, TV time, and TV fast-food advertising receptivity retained multivariate associations with obesity. For every 1-point increase in TV fast-food advertising receptivity score, the odds of obesity increased by 19% (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.01, 1.40). There was no association between receptivity to televised alcohol advertisements or fast-food restaurant visit frequency and obesity. Using a cued-recall assessment, TV fast-food advertising receptivity was found to be associated with youth obesity. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
Full Text Available The reception of the American TV show Game of Thrones (2011– by French and Spanish fans and nonfans is addressed via a qualitative methodology, the goal of which is to understand how European viewers perceive themselves as fans and what it means for them to be fans. Analysis of characteristics of a specifically European reception helps us learn what fan studies tell us about fans and what fans really think about fandoms.
Shaik, Jakeer Hussain; Ramakotaiah, K.; Srinivas, J.
In order to assess the stability of high speed machining, estimate the frequency response at the end of tool tip is of great importance. Evaluating dynamic response of several combinations of integrated spindle-tool holder-tool will consume a lot of time. This paper presents coupled field dynamic response at tool tip for the entire integrated spindle tool unit. The spindle unit is assumed to be relying over the front and rear bearings and investigated using the Timoshenko beam theory to arrive the receptances at different locations of the spindle-tool unit. The responses are further validated with conventional finite element model as well as with the experiments. This approach permits quick outputs without losing accuracy of solution and further these methods are utilized to analyze the various design variables on system dynamics. The results obtained through this analysis are needed to design the better spindle unit in an attempt to reduce the frequency amplitudes at the tool tip to improvise the milling stability during cutting process.
Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Schmid, Simone; Kawamoto, Crissy T; Unger, Jennifer B
We tested how various measures of e-cigarette advertising exposure and receptivity are related to each other and compare to each other in their associations with e-cigarette use susceptibility and behavior. Cross-sectional data were collected from young adult college students (N = 470; M age = 20.9, SD = 2.1; 65% women). Measures of e-cigarette advertising exposure/receptivity compared included a cued recall measure, measures of marketing receptivity, perceived ad exposure, liking of e-cigarette ads, and frequency of convenience store visit, which is considered a measure of point-of-sale ad exposure. The cued-recall measure was associated with e-cigarette use experimentation but not current e-cigarette use. Marketing receptivity was associated with current e-cigarette use but not e-cigarette use experimentation. Liking of e-cigarette ads was the only measure associated with e-cigarette use susceptibility. Frequency of convenience store visit was associated with current e-cigarette use but not e-cigarette use experimentation or susceptibility. Inclusion of multiple measures of marketing exposure and receptivity is recommended for regulatory research concerning e-cigarette marketing. Marketing receptivity and cued recall measures are strong correlates of current and ever e-cigarette use, respectively.
Full Text Available The present study explores academic vocabulary knowledge, operationalised through the Academic Word List, among first-year higher education students. Both receptive and productive knowledge and the proportion between the two are examined. Results show that while receptive knowledge is readily acquired by first-year students, productive knowledge lags behind and remains problematic. This entails that receptive knowledge is much larger than productive knowledge, which confirms earlier indications that receptive vocabulary knowledge is larger than productive knowledge for both academic vocabulary (Zhou 2010 and general vocabulary (cf. Laufer 1998, Webb 2008, among others. Furthermore, results reveal that the ratio between receptive and productive knowledge is slightly above 50%, which lends empirical support to previous findings that the ratio between the two aspects of vocabulary knowledge can be anywhere between 50% and 80% (Milton 2009. This finding is extended here to academic vocabulary; complementing Zhou’s (2010 study that investigated the relationship between the two aspects of vocabulary knowledge without examining the ratio between them. On the basis of these results, approaches that could potentially contribute to fostering productive knowledge growth are discussed. Avenues worth exploring to gain further insight into the relationship between receptive and productive knowledge are also suggested.
Noor, Abdisalan Mohamed; Alegana, Victor Adagi; Patil, Anand Prabhakar; Moloney, Grainne; Borle, Mohammed; Yusuf, Fahmi; Amran, Jamal; Snow, Robert William
To measure the receptive risks of malaria in Somalia and compare decisions on intervention scale-up based on this map and the more widely used contemporary risk maps. Cross-sectional community Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) data for the period 2007-2010 corrected to a standard age range of 2 to contemporary (2010) mean PfPR(2-10) and the maximum annual mean PfPR(2-10) (receptive) from the highest predicted PfPR(2-10) value over the study period as an estimate of receptivity. Randomly sampled communities in Somalia. Randomly sampled individuals of all ages. Cartographic descriptions of malaria receptivity and contemporary risks in Somalia at the district level. The contemporary annual PfPR(2-10) map estimated that all districts (n=74) and population (n=8.4 million) in Somalia were under hypoendemic transmission (≤10% PfPR(2-10)). Of these, 23% of the districts, home to 13% of the population, were under transmission of 10%-50% PfPR(2-10)) and the rest as hypoendemic. Compared with maps of receptive risks, contemporary maps of transmission mask disparities of malaria risk necessary to prioritise and sustain future control. As malaria risk declines across Africa, efforts must be invested in measuring receptivity for efficient control planning.
Watanabe, Kazuki; Sakai, Takaomi
In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, females take the initiative to mate successfully because they decide whether to mate or not. However, little is known about the molecular and neuronal mechanisms regulating sexual receptivity in virgin females. Genetic tools available in Drosophila are useful for identifying molecules and neural circuits involved in the regulation of sexual receptivity. We previously demonstrated that insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in the female brain are critical to the regulation of female sexual receptivity. Ablation and inactivation of IPCs enhance female sexual receptivity, suggesting that neurosecretion from IPCs inhibits female sexual receptivity. IPCs produce and release insulin-like peptides (Ilps) that modulate various biological processes such as metabolism, growth, lifespan and behaviors. Here, we report a novel role of the Ilps in sexual behavior in Drosophila virgin females. Compared with wild-type females, females with knockout mutations of Ilps showed a high mating success rate toward wild-type males, whereas wild-type males courted wild-type and Ilp-knockout females to the same extent. Wild-type receptive females retard their movement during male courtship and this reduced female mobility allows males to copulate. Thus, it was anticipated that knockout mutations of Ilps would reduce general locomotion. However, the locomotor activity in Ilp-knockout females was significantly higher than that in wild-type females. Thus, our findings indicate that the high mating success rate in Ilp-knockout females is caused by their enhanced sexual receptivity, but not by improvement of their sex appeal or by general sluggishness.
Kelly, L. D.; Luebke, J. F.; Clayton, S.; Saunders, C. D.; Matiasek, J.; Grajal, A.
Much effort has been devoted to finding ways to explain climate change to uninterested audiences and encourage mitigation behaviors among dismissive audiences. Most approaches have focused on conveying information about climate change processes or threats. Here we report the results of a national survey designed to characterize the readiness of zoo and aquarium visitors to engage with the issue of climate change. Two survey forms, one focused primarily on attitudes (N=3,594) and another on behaviors (N=3,588), were administered concurrently in summer 2011 at 15 Association of Zoos and Aquariums accredited institutions. The attitudes survey used Global Warming's Six Americas segmentation protocols (climatechangecommunication.org) to compare climate change attitudes of zoo and aquarium visitors with the American public (Leiserowitz et al., 2011). Our results reveal that visitors are receptive audiences for climate change education and want to do more to address climate change. Even these favorable audiences, however, perceive barriers to engaging in the issue, signifying the importance of meeting the learning needs of those who acknowledge anthropogenic climate change, and not only of climate change 'deniers.' While 39% of the general public is 'concerned' or 'alarmed' about global warming, 64% of zoo and aquarium visitors fall into these two "Six Americas" segments. Visitors also differ from the national sample in key attitudinal characteristics related to global warming. For example, nearly two-thirds believe human actions are related to global warming, versus less than one-half of the general public; and approximately 60% think global warming will harm them personally, moderately or a great deal, versus less than 30% of the general public. Moreover, 69% of visitors would like to do more to address climate change. Despite zoo and aquarium visitors' awareness of climate change and motivation to address it, survey results indicate they experience barriers to
Atiwannapat, Penchaya; Thaipisuttikul, Papan; Poopityastaporn, Patchawan; Katekaew, Wanwisa
To compare the effects of 1) active group music therapy and 2) receptive group music therapy to group counseling in treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). On top of standard care, 14 MDD outpatients were randomly assigned to receive 1) active group music therapy (n=5), 2) receptive group music therapy (n=5), or 3) group counseling (n=4). There were 12 one-hour weekly group sessions in each arm. Participants were assessed at baseline, 1 month (after 4 sessions), 3 months (end of interventions), and 6 months. Primary outcomes were depressive scores measured by Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) Thai version. Secondary outcomes were self-rated depression score and quality of life. At 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months, both therapy groups showed statistically non-significant reduction in MADRS Thai scores when compared with the control group (group counseling). The reduction was slightly greater in the active group than the receptive group. Although there were trend toward better outcomes on self-report depression and quality of life, the differences were not statistically significant. Group music therapy, either active or receptive, is an interesting adjunctive treatment option for outpatients with MDD. The receptive group may reach peak therapeutic effect faster, but the active group may have higher peak effect. Group music therapy deserves further comprehensive studies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Rezaie, Roozbeh; Narayana, Shalini; Schiller, Katherine; Birg, Liliya; Wheless, James W; Boop, Frederick A; Papanicolaou, Andrew C
Non-invasive assessment of hemispheric dominance for receptive language using magnetoencephalography (MEG) is now a well-established procedure used across several epilepsy centers in the context of pre-surgical evaluation of children and adults while awake, alert and attentive. However, the utility of MEG for the same purpose, in cases of sedated patients, is contested. Establishment of the efficiency of MEG is especially important in the case of children who, for a number of reasons, must be assessed under sedation. Here we explored the efficacy of MEG language mapping under sedation through retrospective review of 95 consecutive pediatric patients, who underwent our receptive language test as part of routine clinical evaluation. Localization of receptive language cortex and subsequent determination of laterality was successfully completed in 78% (n = 36) and 55% (n = 27) of non-sedated and sedated patients, respectively. Moreover, the proportion of patients deemed left hemisphere dominant for receptive language did not differ between non-sedated and sedated patients, exceeding 90% in both groups. Considering the challenges associated with assessing brain function in pediatric patients, the success of passive MEG in the context of the cases reviewed in this study support the utility of this method in pre-surgical receptive language mapping.
Full Text Available Non-invasive assessment of hemispheric dominance for receptive language using Magnetoencephalography (MEG is now a well-established procedure used across several epilepsy centers in the context of pre-surgical evaluation of children and adults while awake, alert and attentive. However, the utility of MEG for the same purpose, in cases of sedated patients, is contested. Establishment of the efficiency of MEG is especially important in the case of children who, for a number of reasons, must be assessed under sedation. Here we explored the efficacy of MEG language mapping under sedation through retrospective review of 95 consecutive pediatric patients, who underwent our receptive language test as part of routine clinical evaluation. Localization of receptive language cortex and subsequent determination of laterality was successfully completed in 78% (n=36 and 55% (n=27 of non-sedated and sedated patients, respectively. Moreover, the proportion of patients deemed left hemisphere dominant for receptive language did not differ between non-sedated and sedated patients, exceeding 90% in both groups. Considering the challenges associated with assessing brain function in pediatric patients, the success of passive MEG in the context of the cases reviewed in this study support the utility of this method in pre-surgical receptive language mapping.
Li, Ming; Yu, Feng; Zhang, Ruiqiang; Li, Yan; Chen, Xiaodong; Yu, Daoyin
Embedded Ultrasonic Endoscope, based on embedded microprocessor and embedded real-time operating system, sends a micro ultrasonic probe into coelom through the biopsy channel of the Electronic Endoscope to get the fault histology features of digestive organs by rotary scanning, and acquires the pictures of the alimentary canal mucosal surface. At the same time, ultrasonic signals are processed by signal reception and processing system, forming images of the full histology of the digestive organs. Signal Reception and Processing System is an important component of Embedded Ultrasonic Endoscope. However, the traditional design, using multi-level amplifiers and special digital processing circuits to implement signal reception and processing, is no longer satisfying the standards of high-performance, miniaturization and low power requirements that embedded system requires, and as a result of the high noise that multi-level amplifier brought, the extraction of small signal becomes hard. Therefore, this paper presents a method of signal reception and processing based on double variable gain amplifier and FPGA, increasing the flexibility and dynamic range of the Signal Reception and Processing System, improving system noise level, and reducing power consumption. Finally, we set up the embedded experiment system, using a transducer with the center frequency of 8MHz to scan membrane samples, and display the image of ultrasonic echo reflected by each layer of membrane, with a frame rate of 5Hz, verifying the correctness of the system.
Full Text Available Understanding of the existence of various religious receptions in culture gives a great opportunity for the building and nurturance of harmony among religious followers and for the creating of solidarities in the society. This article uncovers receptions of religious aspects (ultimate truth aspect/god, cosmological aspect and religious ritual aspect in the cultural products of Radin Lambat, a folktale from Lampung. The article is based on the texts of Radin Lambat folktale, interviews, and other literary sources about Lampung cultures. Religious receptions as shown in Radin Lambat folktale indicate the preservation of past beliefs, coupled with the gentle addition and inclusion of Islamic teachings, to create harmonization between religion and tradition through folktale. This shows that Islam in the societies of Lampung is Islam that values cultures through the processes of gradual and varied receptions. This article is expected to add evidence to related sources about the concepts and practices of harmony among religious followers in Indonesia in local tradition, and the addition to the range of the rare religious-cultural reception studies of Lampung society
Thrul, Johannes; Lisha, Nadra E.; Ling, Pamela M.
Purpose Use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, hookah, cigarillo, e-cigarettes) is increasing, particularly among young adults, and there are few regulations on marketing for these products. We examined the associations between tobacco marketing receptivity and other tobacco product (OTP) use among young adult bar patrons (aged 18-26 years). Methods Time-location sampling was used to collect cross-sectional surveys from 7,540 young adult bar patrons from January 2012 through March of 2014. Multivariable logistic regression analyses in 2015 examined if tobacco marketing receptivity was associated (1) with current (past 30 day) OTP use controlling for demographic factors, and (2) with dual/poly use among current cigarette smokers (n=3,045), controlling for demographics and nicotine dependence. Results Among the entire sample of young adult bar patrons (Mage=23.7, SD=1.8; 48.1% female), marketing receptivity was consistently associated with current use of all OTP including smokeless tobacco (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]= 2.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.90-3.27, pmarketing receptivity was significantly associated with use of smokeless tobacco (AOR=1.44, 95% CI 1.05-1.98, pmarketing receptivity. Efforts to limit tobacco marketing should address OTP in addition to cigarettes. PMID:27707516
Lin, Nay; Reed, Helen L.; Saric, W. S.
The receptivity to freestream sound of the laminar boundary layer over a semi-infinite flat plate with an elliptic leading edge is simulated numerically. The incompressible flow past the flat plate is computed by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates. A finite-difference method which is second-order accurate in space and time is used. Spatial and temporal developments of the Tollmien-Schlichting wave in the boundary layer, due to small-amplitude time-harmonic oscillations of the freestream velocity that closely simulate a sound wave travelling parallel to the plate, are observed. The effect of leading-edge curvature is studied by varying the aspect ratio of the ellipse. The boundary layer over the flat plate with a sharper leading edge is found to be less receptive. The relative contribution of the discontinuity in curvature at the ellipse-flat-plate juncture to receptivity is investigated by smoothing the juncture with a polynomial. Continuous curvature leads to less receptivity. A new geometry of the leading edge, a modified super ellipse, which provides continuous curvature at the juncture with the flat plate, is used to study the effect of continuous curvature and inherent pressure gradient on receptivity.
Boundary-layer receptivity to two-dimensional acoustic and vortical disturbances for hypersonic flows over two-dimensional and axi-symmetric geometries were numerically investigated. The role of bluntness, wall cooling, and pressure gradients on the receptivity and stability were analyzed and compared with the sharp nose cases. It was found that for flows over sharp nose geometries in adiabatic wall conditions the instability waves are generated in the leading-edge region and that the boundary layer is much more receptive to slow acoustic waves as compared to the fast waves. The computations confirmed the stabilizing effect of nose bluntness and the role of the entropy layer in the delay of boundary layer transition. The receptivity coefficients in flows over blunt bodies are orders of magnitude smaller than that for the sharp cone cases. Wall cooling stabilizes the first mode strongly and destabilizes the second mode. However, the receptivity coefficients are also much smaller compared to the adiabatic case. The adverse pressure gradients increased the unstable second mode regions.
Thrul, Johannes; Lisha, Nadra E; Ling, Pamela M
Use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, hookah, cigarillo, and e-cigarettes) is increasing, particularly among young adults, and there are few regulations on marketing for these products. We examined the associations between tobacco marketing receptivity and other tobacco product (OTP) use among young adult bar patrons (aged 18-26 years). Time-location sampling was used to collect cross-sectional surveys from 7,540 young adult bar patrons from January 2012 through March of 2014. Multivariable logistic regression analyses in 2015 examined if tobacco marketing receptivity was associated (1) with current (past 30 day) OTP use controlling for demographic factors and (2) with dual/poly use among current cigarette smokers (n = 3,045), controlling for demographics and nicotine dependence. Among the entire sample of young adult bar patrons (Mean age = 23.7, standard deviation = 1.8; 48.1% female), marketing receptivity was consistently associated with current use of all OTP including smokeless tobacco (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]= 2.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.08-3.16, p marketing receptivity was significantly associated with use of smokeless tobacco (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.22-2.18, p marketing receptivity. Efforts to limit tobacco marketing should address OTP in addition to cigarettes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nov 13, 2013 ... by field artificial pollination were analyzed in this study. The maximum pollen viability .... the day before anthesis to avoid self-pollination. Subsequently, between ..... The Lagerstroemia handbook/checklist. Ameri. Association ...
Fernando de Figueiredo Balieiro
Full Text Available From the perspective of cultural studies, in its dialogs with feminist and queer studies, this article analyzes the identification of various publics with Carmen Miranda based on the consumption of her filmic, musical and artistic products, accessing her professional trajectory in its imbrication with its various forms of reception. The focus will be on the negotiations of the artist with her publics, touching on how her career involved reconfigurations concerning aspects of gender, race and sexuality. It is based on a perspective that considers the dynamism of mass culture, considering possibilities for various forms of appropriation of cultural products, as well as shifts and dissonances in receptions. To analyze these aspects, the paper focuses on feminine receptions in Brazil and the United States, and those of a male homosexual public contemporary to her career.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the role of foreign media as the agitators of popular culture. For that with reception analysis it’s pay to describe decoding of youth audiences about this series. Globalization theory and Reception in Communication theory are formed the theoretical system of current article. The methodology in this research is qualitative one, and two techniques as in-depth interview and observation are used for data collection. The results show different people based on individual features, social and cultural backgrounds have inclination toward special characters and identify with them. This inclination so far the audience fallow the series because of his/her favorite character. Also there is a great compatibility between audience backgrounds and their receptions. A number of audience have criticized the series and point out the negative consequences on its society. However, seeing the series continue; really they prefer watching series enjoying to risks of it.
Full Text Available The research “Transfer and Reception of New Institutional Economics: An Example of Two Universities in Serbia” was conducted in 2005/2006. In order to achieve the goals of the Serbian team of the DIOSCURI project, the main aim of the case study is analysis of the influence of Western institutions in the light of transfer and reception of new institutional economics in two academic institutions in Serbia: The Faculty of Law (The Department of Law and Economics of the University of Belgrade, and The Faculty of Management of BK University. The title of the case study illustrates the focus of the entire research: analysis of Western influence, namely transfer and reception of new institutional economics, on the two institutions and possible obstacles caused by old-fashioned stakeholders and informal institutions. Bearing in mind that the Department of Law and Economics is the leader in the reception of the new institutional economics (NIE in Serbia, the case study will be mostly about it. The Faculty of Management was chosen because of its “greenfield” character and the fact that from its very beginning it followed the experiences of North American universities. The research investigates whether and how the transfer and reception of the Western ideas and economic theory, particularly the NIE, is affected by the difference between an institution with a two-hundred-year tradition and a newly established one. The question is how a traditionalist institution like the Faculty of Law communicated Western economic thought and whether endurance in teaching the exclusively Marxian paradigm up until the 1990s, was an obstacle to the reception of Western economic thought, particularly NIE.
Vidyarthi SurendraK, Nayak RoopaP, GuptaSandeep K
Full Text Available Background: Lecturing is widely used teaching method in higher education. Instructors of large classes may have only option to deliver lecture to convey informations to large group students.Aims and Objectives: The present study was to evaluate the effectiveness/receptivity of interactive lecturing in a large group of MBBS second year students. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted in the well-equipped lecture theater of Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital (DSMCH, Tamil Nadu. A fully prepared interactive lecture on the specific topic was delivered by using power point presentation for second year MBBS students. Before start to deliver the lecture, instructor distributed multiple choice 10 questionnaires to attempt within 10 minutes. After 30 minutes of delivering lecture, again instructor distributed same 10 sets of multiple choice questionnaires to attempt in 10 minutes. The topic was never disclosed to the students before to deliver the lecture. Statistics: We analyzed the pre-lecture & post-lecture questions of each student by applying the paired t-test formula by using www.openepi.com version 3.01 online/offline software and by using Microsoft Excel Sheet Windows 2010. Results: The 31 male, 80 female including 111 students of average age 18.58 years baseline (pre-lecture receptivity mean % was 30.99 ± 14.64 and post-lecture receptivity mean % was increased upto 53.51± 19.52. The only 12 students out of 111 post-lecture receptivity values was less (mean % 25.8± 10.84 than the baseline (mean % 45± 9.05 receptive value and this reduction of receptivity was more towards negative side. Conclusion: In interactive lecture session with power point presentation students/learners can learn, even in large-class environments, but it should be active-learner centered.
Chen, Xinguang; Cruz, Tess Boley; Schuster, Darleen V; Unger, Jennifer B; Johnson, Carl Anderson
Adolescents from different ethnic groups show different cigarette smoking prevalence rates, suggesting potential differences in receptivity to and influences from protobacco media. Understanding these differences will be helpful in tailoring smoking prevention and cessation programs for diverse adolescent populations in the United States. Data from cross-sectional surveys of 20,332 randomly sampled California boys and girls, 12-17 years of age, were analyzed. Results indicate that receptivity to protobacco media was lower among African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanics than among White youth. There was a consistent dose-response relationship between receptivity to protobacco media and 30-day cigarette smoking across ethnic groups. Having a cigarette brand preference was associated with the highest risk for cigarette smoking, having a favorite tobacco ad showed the lowest risk, while having received or being willing to use tobacco promotional items was associated with a moderate risk. After controlling for 13 covariates, the odds ratio for receptivity to protobacco media and 30-day cigarette smoking was significant for Whites (RR = 1.38, p 0.05) and Asian American (RR = 1.17, p > 0.05) youth. African American, Asian American, and Hispanic adolescents have a lower level of receptivity to protobacco media than do Whites. The association between media receptivity and 30-day cigarette smoking exists for all four ethnic groups without controlling for other smoking predictor variables, but only for Hispanics and Whites when other variables are controlled. Protecting adolescents from protobacco advertising influences is an important element in tobacco control among ethnic minority youth.
Nonlinear absorption and receptivity of the third order and coefficient nonlinear absorption in InAs n-type with different degree of alloying was measured. Obtained score considerably exceed sense, calculated on the basis of the models describing nonlinear receptivity of electrons, situated in the nonparabolic area of conductivity. It was shown that, observable deviations withdraw; if in the calculation apply energy dissipation of electrons. Growth of the efficiency under four-wave interaction in low-energy-gap semiconductors confines nonlinear absorption of interacting waves
Full Text Available In this essay, we review the work of Wolfgang Iser, the major proponent of reception theory, and Mark Turner, the major proponent of cognitive criticism. The two theoretical lines advocated by Iser and Turner focus on the cognitive processes involved with reading literary texts. Unfortunately, bibliographic blind spots in both lines lead to the assumption that there is little overlap between reception theory and cognitive criticism. We put this assumption to rest by comparing and contrasting works by Iser and Turner in detail, starting with Iser’s work in the mid-1970s and ending with Turner’s work in the late 1990s.
Satli, M A; Aron, C
Olfactory bulb deprivation increased sexual receptivity in 4-day cyclic female rats on the late afternoon of prooestrus (6-7, p.m.). The proportion of receptive females was higher in bulbectomized (B) than in sham operated (SH) animals. On the contrary the same proportion of B and SH females mated in the evening of prooestrus (10. 30-11. 30 p.m.). An increased lordosis quotient was observed in the B females at either of these two stages of the cycle.
Wunderlich, Kara L; Vollmer, Timothy R
The current study compared the use of serial and concurrent methods to train multiple exemplars when teaching receptive language skills, providing a systematic replication of Wunderlich, Vollmer, Donaldson, and Phillips (2014). Five preschoolers diagnosed with developmental delays or autism spectrum disorders were taught to receptively identify letters or letter sounds. Subjects learned the target stimuli slightly faster in concurrent training and a high degree of generalization was obtained following both methods of training, indicating that both the serial and concurrent methods of training are efficient and effective instructional procedures. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Fedorov, A. V.; Ryzhov, A. A.; Soudakov, V. G.; Utyuzhnikov, S. V.
Two-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the receptivity of a flat-plate boundary layer to temperature spottiness in the Mach 6 free stream is carried out. The influence of spottiness parameters on the receptivity process is studied. It is shown that the temperature spots propagating near the upper boundary-layer edge generate mode F inside the boundary layer. Further downstream mode F is synchronized with unstable mode S (Mack second mode) and excites the latter via the inter-mod...
O. A. Romanova
Full Text Available In this article author marks out the life phases of socio-economic systems from the point of view of theirs stability / instability, determines the correlation between life phase and receptivity degree of system to changes. They offer the order parameters of socio-economic system and assessment methods through which instability is conveyed. The suggested methods have been used for solving the problem of assessing the degree of receptivity of the regional economic systems to the currents global crisis and the following modernization process.
Full Text Available Sexual receptivity of rabbit does at insemination greatly influences fertility and is generally induced by hormones or techniques known as “biostimulation”. Searching for more sustainable farming systems, an original alternative would be to utilise the genetic pathway to increase the does’receptivity. The purpose of the present study was to identify genetic and non-genetic factors that influence rabbit doe sexual receptivity, in the context of a divergent selection experiment over 1 generation. The experiment spanned 2 generations: the founder generation (G0 consisting of 140 rabbit does, and the G1 generation comprising 2 divergently selected lines (L and H lines with 70 does each and 2 successive batches from each generation. The selection rate of the G0 females to form the G1 lines was 24/140. The selection tests consisted of 16 to 18 successive receptivity tests at the rate of 3 tests per week. On the basis of 4716 tests from 275 females, the average receptivity was 56.6±48.2%. A batch effect and a test operator effect were revealed. The contribution of females to the total variance was 20.0%, whereas that of bucks was only 1.1%. Throughout the experiment, 18.2% of does expressed a low receptivity (< 34%, 50.7% a medium one and 33.1% a high one (>66%. Some does were frequently receptive, whereas others were rarely receptive. The repeatability of sexual receptivity was approximately 20%. The results confirmed the high variability of sexual receptivity of non-lactating rabbit does maintained without any biostimulation or hormonal treatment. A lack of selection response on receptivity was observed. Accordingly, the heritability of receptivity was estimated at 0.01±0.02 from an animal model and at 0.02±0.03 from a sire and dam model. The heritability of the average receptivity of a doe was calculated as 0.04. In agreement with the low estimated heritability, the heritability determined was no different from zero
Park, Heather L.; Hatchett, Gregory T.
This study had two objectives. The first objective was to evaluate how well sex and sex-role orientation predicted receptivity to psychotherapy. The second objective was to evaluate whether exposure to gender-congruent therapy videos influenced participants' receptivity to psychotherapy. Participants were randomly assigned to three conditions: (1)…
Polišenská, Kamila; Kapalková, Svetlana; Novotková, Monika
The study aims to describe receptive language skills in children with intellectual disability (ID) and to contribute to the debate on deviant versus delayed language development. This is the 1st study of receptive skills in children with ID who speak a Slavic language, providing insight into how language development is affected by disability and also language typology. Twenty-eight Slovak-speaking children participated in the study (14 children with ID and 14 typically developing [TD] children matched on nonverbal reasoning abilities). The children were assessed by receptive language tasks targeting words, sentences, and stories, and the groups were compared quantitatively and qualitatively. The groups showed similar language profiles, with a better understanding of words, followed by sentences, with the poorest comprehension for stories. Nouns were comprehended better than verbs; sentence constructions also showed a qualitatively similar picture, although some dissimilarities emerged. Verb comprehension was strongly related to sentence comprehension in both groups and related to story comprehension in the TD group only. The findings appear to support the view that receptive language skills follow the same developmental route in children with ID as seen in younger TD children, suggesting that language development is a robust process and does not seem to be differentially affected by ID even when delayed.
This article explores the reception of Galatians 2:20 in the Patristic period, and ... theological framework in which later generations placed the communities wherein ... quality of reality – and in Christ that is as perfect as eternal life can ever be.
Alegana, Victor Adagi; Patil, Anand Prabhakar; Moloney, Grainne; Borle, Mohammed; Yusuf, Fahmi; Amran, Jamal; Snow, Robert William
Objectives To measure the receptive risks of malaria in Somalia and compare decisions on intervention scale-up based on this map and the more widely used contemporary risk maps. Design Cross-sectional community Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) data for the period 2007–2010 corrected to a standard age range of 2 to Somalia. Participants Randomly sampled individuals of all ages. Main outcome measure Cartographic descriptions of malaria receptivity and contemporary risks in Somalia at the district level. Results The contemporary annual PfPR2–10 map estimated that all districts (n=74) and population (n=8.4 million) in Somalia were under hypoendemic transmission (≤10% PfPR2–10). Of these, 23% of the districts, home to 13% of the population, were under transmission of 10%–50% PfPR2–10) and the rest as hypoendemic. Conclusion Compared with maps of receptive risks, contemporary maps of transmission mask disparities of malaria risk necessary to prioritise and sustain future control. As malaria risk declines across Africa, efforts must be invested in measuring receptivity for efficient control planning. PMID:22855625
Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana; Kaushanskaya, Margarita
The authors examined the effects of conceptual scoring on the performance of simultaneous and sequential bilinguals on standardized receptive and expressive vocabulary measures in English and Spanish. Participants included 40 English-speaking monolingual children, 39 simultaneous Spanish-English bilingual children, and 19 sequential bilingual children, ages 5-7. The children completed standardized receptive and expressive vocabulary measures in English and also in Spanish for those who were bilingual. After the standardized administration, bilingual children were given the opportunity to respond to missed items in their other language to obtain a conceptual score. Controlling for group differences in socioeconomic status (SES), both simultaneous and sequential bilingual children scored significantly below monolingual children on single-language measures of English receptive and expressive vocabulary. Conceptual scoring removed the significant difference between monolingual and simultaneous bilingual children in the receptive modality but not in the expressive modality; differences remained between monolingual and sequential bilingual children in both modalities. However, in both bilingual groups, conceptual scoring increased the proportion of children with vocabulary scores within the average range. Conceptual scoring does not fully ameliorate the bias inherent in single-language standardized vocabulary measures for bilingual children, but the procedures employed here may assist in ruling out vocabulary deficits, particularly in typically developing simultaneous bilingual children.
Cassotti, Mathieu; Moutier, Sylvain
Intuitive predictions and judgments under conditions of uncertainty are often mediated by judgment heuristics that sometimes lead to biases. Using the classical conjunction bias example, the present study examines the relationship between receptivity to metacognitive executive training and emotion-based learning ability indexed by Iowa Gambling…
Haug, Tobias; Herman, Rosalind; Woll, Bencie
This paper presents the features of an online test framework for a receptive skills test that has been adapted, based on a British template, into different sign languages. The online test includes features that meet the needs of the different sign language versions. Features such as usability of the test, automatic saving of scores, and score…
Full Text Available The article discusses the beginnings of the reception of Ludwik Fleck’s theory of thought styles and thought collectives in Polish, from his first polemics with Izydora Dąmbska in 1936 to the first edition of the Polish translation of Entstehung und Entwicklung
Arora, Poonam; Irving, Katrina
Continues questioning the position of the ethnographer as filmmaker in relation to those of whom the filmmaker speaks, while arguing that attention be given to the position of those to whom the filmmaker speaks. Refocuses attention on the effects of the ethnographic film in the place of its reception. (PRA)
In the early modern period, black European lives were and remained highly visible and exceptional. This article focuses on the experiences and reception of Jacobus Capitein and two other African men who came to Europe as children in the eighteenth century. Jacobus Capitein was enslaved when he
Ward, Sara Ann
The major objectives of this study were to determine the reception of "In the News" by children within the target audience's ages, to determine if children within the target audience recognize the news program as a program, to determine if children learn from "In the News," and to compare children's learning from hard news…
In 1999, a mandatory and interdisciplinary art course, Cultural and Artistic Education (Culturele en Kunstzinnige Vorming, or CKV), was introduced in the Dutch secondary school system. The course focuses on receptive, rather than active, art education. Cultural activities, such as visiting an art
Entering the Corridors of Power: State and Church in the Reception History of Revelation. ... In this regard, it focuses as example on the rereading of Revelation by Oecumenius, the Greek commentator of the sixth century C.E. This will be illustrated in terms of two examples. First, the article will discuss how Oecumenius ...
Keygnaert, I.; Dias, S.F.; Degomme, O.; Devillé, W.; Kennedy, P.; Kovats, A.; Meyer, S. de; Vettenburg, N.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.
Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and
Keygnaert, I.; Dias, S.F.; Degomme, O.; Devillé, W.; Kennedy, P.; Kováts, A.; De Meyer, S.; Vettenburg, N.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.
Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and
Keygnaert, Ines; Dias, Sonia F.; Degomme, Olivier; Devillé, Walter; Kennedy, Patricia; Kováts, András; De Meyer, Sara; Vettenburg, Nicole; Roelens, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen
Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and
In fertile women, expression of molecular marker of endometrial receptivity, HOXA11, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and basic transcriptional element binding protein 1 (BTEB1), rises during the luteal phase with the peak occurring during the implantation window. We evaluated the transcript levels of HOXA-11, LIF and ...
The current study attempted to investigate the development of Arabic academic vocabulary knowledge among middle-school Arabic native speakers, taking into account the socioeconomic status of the Arab population in Israel. For this purpose, Arabic academic word list was developed, mapping the required academic words that are needed for adequate coping with informational texts as appearing in the different content areas text-books. Six-hundred Arabic speaking middle school pupils from the different areas in Israel, representing the different Arab subgroups: general Arab community, Druze and Bedouins, have participated in the current study. Two academic vocabulary tests, including receptive and productive academic vocabulary evaluation tests, were administrated to the students across the different age groups (7th, 8th and 9th). The results pointed to no significant difference between 7th and 9th grade in academic vocabulary knowledge. In contrast, significant difference was encountered between the different Arab sub-groups where the lowest scores were noted among the Bedouin sub-group, characterized by the lowest SES. When comparing receptive and productive academic vocabulary knowledge between 7th and 9th grade, the results pointed to improvement in receptive academic knowledge towards the end of middle school but not on the productive knowledge level. In addition, within participants' comparison indicated a gap between the pupils' receptive and productive vocabulary. The results are discussed in relation to the existing scientific literature and to its implication of both research and practice in the domain of Arabic literacy development.
Charlop, Marjorie H.
Two experiments, with about five autistic children (two to 14 years old) in each experiment, assessed the effects of autistic immediate echolalia on acquisition and generalization of receptive labeling tasks. These results indicated that echolalia faciliated generalization for echolalic autistic children but not for functionally mute autistic…
This paper explores the significance of the concept of power/knowledge in educational theory. The argument proceeds in two main parts. In the first, I consider aspects of Stephen J. Ball's highly influential work in educational theory. I examine his reception of Foucault's concept of power/knowledge and suggest that there are problems in his…
Strand, Paul S.; Pula, Kacy; Parks, Craig D.; Cerna, Sandra
The present study utilized a short-term longitudinal research design to model the relationship between shyness-anxiousness and receptive language skills. Hypotheses regarding the direction of the causal relationship, mediation, and moderation were evaluated. Subjects included 340 Head Start attendees from primarily English- and Spanish-speaking…
Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.
This article presents results of a longitudinal study of receptive American Sign Language (ASL) skills for a large portion of the student body at a residential school for the deaf across four consecutive years. Scores were analyzed by age, gender, parental hearing status, years attending the residential school, and presence of a disability (i.e.,…
Full Text Available Review of: Nigel Glendinning and Hilary Macartney, eds, Spanish Art in Britain and Ireland, 1750–1920: Studies in Reception in Memory of Enriqueta Harris Frankfort, Woodbridge: Tamesis, 2010. This review evaluates the first scholarly study exclusively dedicated to the reception history of Spanish art in Britain and Ireland, 1750–1920. Progressing systematically through the different chapters, it highlights the various responses and perspectives that are addressed in the book. Issues of taste and collecting are examined, followed by historiographical concerns such as the methods and techniques of writing, illustrating and reproducing Spanish art in the nineteenth century. Shifting attitudes towards Spain and Spanish art are also explored, as are the roles of prominent figures in disseminating knowledge and appreciation of Spanish art, notably Sir William Stirling Maxwell and Richard Ford. Finally, the review outlines the critical fortunes of Spain’s foremost artists: Murillo, Velázquez, Ribera, Zurbarán and Goya. It ends by suggesting how this study could be expanded methodologically, considering the reception history of Spanish art in the light of important literature on reception theory and aesthetics.
Opening times Please note the new and definitive opening times of the Receptions of the hostels on the Swiss site of CERN and in St. Genis : CERN hostels St.-Genis hostel from Monday to Friday 7:30 - 19:30 8:00 - 12:00 16:00 - 19:00 Saturday 9:00 - 13:00 closed Sunday 9:00 - 13:00 closed Outside these times keys to rooms reserved in advance can be obtained from the guards on duty at the main entrance to the Meyrin, Switzerland, CERN site (Gate B), where they are deposited some fifteen minutes after the closure of the Reception. As for the St. Genis hostel, for arrivals on Saturdays and Sundays, the keys are deposited with the guards in advance on the preceding Friday evening. Reminder : reservations, whether for the CERN hostels or the St. Genis hostel, are available through the Reception of the CERN hostels. Once the reservation has been confirmed, in the case of St. Genis, all other business, including payment, is dealt with by the St. Genis hostel reception. As far as possible, all r...
This thesis analyzes the role of individual mediators in the early reception of the works of the Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986). It focuses on a number of key mediators such as publishers, editors, translators, and critics in the translation and publication process and in criticism
Phillips, Linda M.; Norris, Stephen P.; Hayward, Denyse V.; Lovell, Meridith A.
This study investigated whether mothers' measured reading proficiency and their educational level predict, over and above each other, their children's receptive vocabulary and reading proficiency when confounding factors of speaking a minority language, ethnicity, number of children in the family, and marital and employment status are controlled.…
The proposed model overlooks the contribution of a relational/prosocial dimension to the enjoyment of negative emotion in art reception. Negative experiences have a unique capacity to build social bonds and may also increase motivation to "connect" with the artist. This affiliative motivation ensures that people experience an artwork as more emotional, more intense, more interesting, and ultimately more rewarding.
Harrison, C.J.; Konings, K.D.; Dannefer, E.F.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Wass, V.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der
INTRODUCTION: Feedback after assessment is essential to support the development of optimal performance, but often fails to reach its potential. Although different assessment cultures have been proposed, the impact of these cultures on students' receptivity to feedback is unclear. This study aimed to
McDuffie, Andrea; Kover, Sara; Abbeduto, Leonard; Lewis, Pamela; Brown, Ted
The authors examined receptive and expressive language profiles for a group of verbal male children and adolescents who had fragile X syndrome along with varying degrees of autism symptoms. A categorical approach for assigning autism diagnostic classification, based on the combined use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview--Revised and the Autism…
de Wilde, M.
The article analyzes the Roman notion of des publica and its reception by Grotius and Locke. The Romans considered des publica a general standard of behavior for all those invested with state power. It was regarded as a legal norm with moral connotations, which applied especially, though not
Stephens, Peggy C.; Sloboda, Zili; Grey, Scott; Stephens, Richard; Hammond, Augustine; Hawthorne, Richard; Teasdale, Brent; Williams, Joseph
Drawing on the elaboration likelihood model of persuasive communication, the authors examine the impact of the perceptions of the instructor or source on students' receptivity to a new substance abuse prevention curriculum. Using survey data from a cohort of students participating in the Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study, the authors use…
CLIL keeps on gaining ground in the European educational context, one clear example is Spain, where the number of schools adopting this methodology has kept growing exponentially in recent years. The present study has a dual perspective looking at the motivation of students towards English and CLIL and showing students' receptive vocabulary…
Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.
We identified leaders’ achievement goals and composition of creative input as important factors that can clarify when and why leaders are receptive to, and supportive of, subordinates’ creative input. As hypothesized, in two experimental studies, we found that relative to mastery goal leaders,
This study investigates the effects of receptive and productive vocabulary learning on word knowledge. Japanese students studying English as a foreign language learned target words in three glossed sentences and in a sentence production task in two experiments. Five aspects of vocabulary knowledge--orthography, syntax, association, grammatical…
Kim, Scott Sungki
The present research study investigated the effects of 8 versions of a computer-based vocabulary learning program on receptive and productive knowledge levels of college students. The participants were 106 male and 103 female Korean EFL students from Kyungsung University and Kwandong University in Korea. Students who participated in versions of…
Ameel, Eef; Malt, Barbara C.; Storms, Gert
Usage patterns for common nouns continue to change well past the early years of language acquisition in free naming (Andersen, 1975; Ameel, Malt, & Storms, 2008). The current research evaluates whether this continued evolution is shown in receptive judgments as well, given their differing cognitive demands. We found an extended learning…
Aizawa, Kazumi; Iso, Tatsuo; Nadasdy, Paul
Testing learners' English proficiency is central to university English classes in Japan. This study developed and implemented a set of parallel online receptive aural and visual vocabulary tests that would predict learners' English proficiency. The tests shared the same target words and choices--the main difference was the presentation of the…
Nguyen, Thi My Hang; Webb, Stuart
This study investigated Vietnamese EFL learners' knowledge of verb-noun and adjective-noun collocations at the first three 1,000 word frequency levels, and the extent to which five factors (node word frequency, collocation frequency, mutual information score, congruency, and part of speech) predicted receptive knowledge of collocation. Knowledge…
Conclusion: The 3D-power Doppler ultrasound is a more comprehensive and sensitive method for evaluating endometrial receptivity. Endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, as well as VI in early pregnancy, can be considered as predictive factors for recurrent miscarriage.
Meyer, Meinert A.; Rakhkochkine, Anatoli
We take the reception of Wolfgang Klafki's didactics in Russia as our example for the difficult relations between knowledge transfer and knowledge transformation. We start with a description, analysis and evaluation of Klafki's two didactical models, categorical didactics and critical-constructive didactics, and then describe and evaluate their…
Grossman, Ruth B.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen
We analyzed several studies of non-verbal communication (prosody and facial expressions) completed in our lab and conducted a secondary analysis to compare performance on receptive vs. expressive tasks by adolescents with ASD and their typically developing peers. Results show a significant between-group difference for the aggregate score of…
Full Text Available This article discusses about the importance of the industrial revolution and the remains left behind from its beginnings, which reminds us of an extremely important period very different from our own. The architecture of the industrial sites from the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century shows us both a unique architectural style, created by the economic needs of that time, but also a way of life and socio-economic development for cities. To not lose important remains such as this, in this study, we proposed the transformation of the important industrial complexes and buildings in Bucharest decided by their history and former functions, adding innovative elements to grow their attractiveness. These buildings currently in a state of degradation, once transformed into different cultural attractions, will have the purpose of increasing the quality of the spaces around the city’s center, will help with the gentrifying process of the city’s abandoned zones, with growing the attractiveness and the revenues of the city and at the same time they will keep alive the history of the city through elements of identity which lead to its development.
Sanjuan, Ana; Avila, Cesar; Forn, Cristina; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Rodriguez-Pujadas, Aina; Garcia-Porcar, Maria; Belloch, Vicente; Villanueva, Vicente
To test the capacity of a sentence verification (SV) task to reliably activate receptive language areas. Presurgical evaluation of language is useful in predicting postsurgical deficits in patients who are candidates for neurosurgery. Productive language tasks have been successfully elaborated, but more conflicting results have been found in receptive language mapping. Twenty-two right-handed healthy controls made true-false semantic judgements of brief sentences presented auditorily. Group maps showed reliable functional activations in the frontal and temporoparietal language areas. At the individual level, the SV task showed activation located in receptive language areas in 100% of the participants with strong left-sided distributions (mean lateralisation index of 69.27). The SV task can be considered a useful tool in evaluating receptive language function in individual subjects. This study is a first step towards designing the fMRI task which may serve to presurgically map receptive language functions. (orig.)
Sanjuan, Ana; Avila, Cesar [Universitat Jaume I, Departamento de Psicologia Basica, Clinica y Psicobiologia, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Hospital La Fe, Unidad de Epilepsia, Servicio de Neurologia, Valencia (Spain); Forn, Cristina; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Rodriguez-Pujadas, Aina; Garcia-Porcar, Maria [Universitat Jaume I, Departamento de Psicologia Basica, Clinica y Psicobiologia, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Belloch, Vicente [Hospital La Fe, Eresa, Servicio de Radiologia, Valencia (Spain); Villanueva, Vicente [Hospital La Fe, Unidad de Epilepsia, Servicio de Neurologia, Valencia (Spain)
To test the capacity of a sentence verification (SV) task to reliably activate receptive language areas. Presurgical evaluation of language is useful in predicting postsurgical deficits in patients who are candidates for neurosurgery. Productive language tasks have been successfully elaborated, but more conflicting results have been found in receptive language mapping. Twenty-two right-handed healthy controls made true-false semantic judgements of brief sentences presented auditorily. Group maps showed reliable functional activations in the frontal and temporoparietal language areas. At the individual level, the SV task showed activation located in receptive language areas in 100% of the participants with strong left-sided distributions (mean lateralisation index of 69.27). The SV task can be considered a useful tool in evaluating receptive language function in individual subjects. This study is a first step towards designing the fMRI task which may serve to presurgically map receptive language functions. (orig.)
Hald, Gert Martin; Hogh-Olesen, Henrik
This study investigated the primary conclusion from Clark and Hatfield's often cited field experiment ``Consent to Sex with a Stranger'' that men agree to sexual invitations from moderately attractive strangers of the opposite gender more readily than women do. In addition, this study investigated...... whether rates of consent are influenced by a subject's age, relationship status, rating of confederate attractiveness, and type of sexual invitation. A number of moderately attractive confederates of the opposite gender individually approached 173 men and 216 women. After a standard introduction...
Catherine L Taylor
Full Text Available Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC. Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB, low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children
Taylor, Catherine L; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R
Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental outcomes
Betancourt, Laura M; Yang, Wei; Brodsky, Nancy L; Gallagher, Paul R; Malmud, Elsa K; Giannetta, Joan M; Farah, Martha J; Hurt, Hallam
Preclinical studies of gestational cocaine exposure (GCE) show evidence of changes in brain function at the anatomical, physiological, and behavioral levels, to include effects on developing dopaminergic systems. In contrast, human studies have produced less consistent results, with most showing small effects or no effects on developmental outcomes. Important changes in brain structure and function occur through adolescence, therefore it is possible that prenatal cocaine exposure has latent effects on neurocognitive (NC) outcome that do not manifest until adolescence or young adulthood. We examined NC function using a set of 5 tasks designed to tap 4 different systems: inhibitory control, working memory, receptive language, and incidental memory. For each NC task, data were collected longitudinally at ages 12, 14.5 and 17 years and examined using generalized estimating equations. One hundred and nine children completed at least two of the three evaluations. Covariates included in the final model were assessment number, gender, participant age at first assessment, caregiver depression, and two composites from the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME), Environmental Stimulation and Parental Nurturance. We found no cocaine effects on inhibitory control, working memory, or receptive language (p=0.18). GCE effects were observed on incidental face memory task (p=0.055), and GCE by assessment number interaction effects were seen on the incidental word memory task (p=0.031). Participant performance on inhibitory control, working memory, and receptive language tasks improved over time. HOME Environmental Stimulation composite was associated with better receptive language functioning. With a larger sample size smaller differences between groups may have been detected. This report shows no evidence of latent effects of GCE on inhibitory control, working memory, or receptive language. GCE effects were observed on the incidental face memory task, and GCE by
Feighery, E.; Borzekowski, D.; Schooler, C.; Flora, J.
OBJECTIVE—To assess the effect of the tobacco industry's marketing practices on adolescents by examining the relationship between their receptivity to these practices and their susceptibility to start smoking. DESIGN—Paper-and-pencil surveys measuring association with other smokers, exposure to tobacco industry marketing strategies, experience with smoking, and resolve not to smoke in the future. SETTING—25 randomly selected classrooms in five middle schools in San Jose, California. SUBJECTS—571 seventh graders with an average age of 13 years and 8 months; 57% were female. Forty-five per cent of the students were Asian, 38% were Hispanic, 12% were white, and 5% were black. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Exposure to social influences, receptivity to marketing strategies, susceptibility to start smoking. RESULTS—About 70% of the participants indicated at least moderate receptivity to tobacco marketing materials. Children who are more receptive are also more susceptible to start smoking. In addition to demographics and social influences, receptivity to tobacco marketing materials was found to be strongly associated with susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS—Tobacco companies conduct marketing campaigns that effectively capture teenage attention and stimulate desire for their promotional items. These marketing strategies may function to move young teenagers from non-smoking status toward regular use of tobacco. Our results demonstrate that there is a clear association between tobacco marketing practices and youngsters' susceptibility to smoke. The findings, along with other research, provide compelling support for regulating the manner in which tobacco products are marketed, to protect young people from the tobacco industry's strategies to reach them. Keywords: adolescents; advertising; smoking initiation PMID:9789929
Bion describes transformation in hallucinosis (TH) as a psychic defence present in elusive psychotic scenarios in which there is a total adherence to concrete reality: as the hallucinatory activity which physiologically infiltrates perception and allows us to know reality, setting it off against a background of familiarity; and then, surprisingly, as the ideal state of mind towards which the analyst has to move in order to intuit the facts of the analysis. When hallucinosis is followed by 'awakening', the analyst gains understanding from the experience and goes through a transformation that will inevitably be transmitted to the analytic field and to the patient. In this paper I illustrate Bion's concept and underline its eminently intersubjective nature. Then I differentiate it from two other technical devices: reverie, which unlike hallucinosis does not imply the persistence of a feeling of the real, and Ferro's transformation in dreaming, i.e., purposeful listening to everything that is said in the analysis as if it were the telling of a dream. Finally, I try to demonstrate the practical utility of the concept of transformation in hallucinosis in order to read the complex dynamics of a clinical vignette. Though not well known (only two references in English in the PEP archive), TH proves to be remarkably versatile and productive for thinking about psychoanalytic theory, technique and clinical work. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.
Full Text Available The impact of a premature elevation of serum progesterone level, the day of hCG administration in patients under controlled ovarian stimulation during IVF procedure, on human endometrial receptivity is still debated. In the present study, we investigated the endometrial gene expression profile shifts during the prereceptive and receptive secretory stage in patients with normal and elevated serum progesterone level on the day of hCG administration in fifteen patients under stimulated cycles. Then, specific biomarkers of endometrial receptivity in these two groups of patients were tested. Endometrial biopsies were performed on oocyte retrieval day and on day 3 of embryo transfer, respectively, for each patient. Samples were analysed using DNA microarrays and qRT-PCR. The endometrial gene expression shift from the prereceptive to the receptive stage was altered in patients with high serum progesterone level (>1.5 ng/mL on hCG day, suggesting accelerated endometrial maturation during the periovulation period. This was confirmed by the functional annotation of the differentially expressed genes as it showed downregulation of cell cycle-related genes. Conversely, the profile of endometrial receptivity was comparable in both groups. Premature progesterone rise alters the endometrial gene expression shift between the prereceptive and the receptive stage but does not affect endometrial receptivity.
Huliar, S O; Lymans'kyĭ, Iu P
An existence of separate functional system of regulation of electromagnetic balance of organism has been substantiated and a working conception of light therapy has been formulated. As a basis, there is a possibility to use the acupuncture points for input of biologically necessary electromagnetic waves into the system of their conductors in a body that might be considered as a transport facility for energy of the polarized electromagnetic waves. Zones-recipients are organs having an electromagnetic disbalance due to excess of biologically inadequate radiation and being the targets for peroxide oxidation. Foremost, a body has the neurohormonal and immune regulatory systems. Electromagnetic stimulation or modification of functions of the zones-recipients determines the achievement of therapeutic and useful effects, and their combination with local reparative processes allows to attain a clinical goal. We represent own and literary experimental data about the development of physiological responses (analgesia) to BIOPTRON-light exposure on the acupuncture points or biologically active zones. We show the experimental facts in support of a hypothesis that a living organism can perceive an action of the electromagnetic fields of optical range not only via the visual system, but also through the off-nerve receptors (specific energy-sensitive proteins detecting critical changes of energy in cells and functioning as the "sensory" cell systems), as well as via the acupuncture points. It confirms an important role of the electromagnetic waves of optical range in providing normal vital functions of living organisms. A current approach to BIOPTRON light therapy (by polarized polychromatic coherent low energy light) consists in combined (local and system) exposure of the electromagnetic waves within the biologically necessary range.
A system is provided for conversion of a first electromagnetic field into a desired second electromagnetic field, for example for coupling modes between waveguides or into microstructured waveguides. The system comprises a complex spatial electromagnetic field converter that is positioned...... for reception of at least a part of the first electromagnetic field and that is adapted for conversion of the received field into the desired electromagnetic field, and wherein at least one of the first and second fields matches a mode of a microstructured waveguide. It is an important advantage of the present...
GERMAN A. DE LA REZA
Full Text Available Abstract In the present article we analyze the characteristics and the reception of the first plan for global governance, the New Cyneas by Émeric Crucé. With this goal in mind, we examine the history of its readings and the possible influence on the Duke of Sully's project for European confederation, the case most often cited by historians of ideas. Our analysis takes into consideration the 17th century reception, the scant dissemination of the work and the possible causes of its limited impact. Our conclusions support, on the one hand, the novelty of Crucé's principal ideas, and on the other, their limited impact over the time with the exception of the period surrounding the creation of the League of Nations.
Full Text Available Reception staff loyalty is much influenced by several factors, one of them is job satisfaction. Employee job satisfaction plays important role in creating employee loyalty. For hoteliers who serve as provider of accommodation services, the demand for the creation of quality human resources is maximum achievement. One of the important section in the front office is receptionist. Today, hoteliers pay very close attention because the employee turnover will certainly affect the consistency of services offered by the hotel. Therefore, the hotel is getting active in increasing the satisfaction of its staff in order to minimize employee turnover especially in a very important role such the receptionist. Although the validity of the relationship between job satisfaction and reception staff loyalty is still an exciting debate, the result of the research conducted in the Hotel X is expected to help increase employee satisfaction in order to create quality of life that will improve labor productivity.
Far from being a remnant of the past, reception analysis must continue to set the question of meaning as a central issue in media studies, an issue that appears to be missing from current understandings of social media in which audiences are often reduced to a single reality or simply ignored...... as empirical reality. This paper argues for the continued relevance of reception analysis, inspite of the mismatch of the label, and develops this argument by applying one of its most fundamental insights, namely its investigation of the relationship between media and audience —or between text and context......—, to the study of social media audiences. In particular, the paper suggests three ways to look at the text-context relationship on Facebook with reference to its use during the “student crisis” in Quebec, Canada in 2012. It suggests three nexuses that represent as many sites of circulation of meaning in society...
Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Kehl, Lisa; Herzog, Thaddeus A
To test whether exposure and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing are associated with recent e-cigarette use among young adults through increased beliefs that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students; approximately equal proportions of current, never, and former cigarette smokers [mean age = 23.5 (SD = 5.5); 65% female]. Higher receptivity to e-cigarette marketing was associated with perceptions that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, which in turn, were associated with higher recent e-cigarette use. The findings provide preliminary support to the proposition that marketing of e-cigarettes as safer alternatives to cigarettes or cessation aids is associated with increased e-cigarette use among young adults. The findings have implications for development of e-cigarette regulations.
Full Text Available This article aims to offer a broader understanding of the Lithuanian reception of the Warsaw Autumn festival in relation to the modernisation of national music in Lithuania since the late 1950s – early 1960s. Based on a micro-historical and comparative approach to the network of individuals and events, it is intended to explore the shifts of reception through analysis of musical criticism, composers’ work and discourse, and artistic exchange between the Lithuanian and Polish new music scenes. The author discusses the cultural and political factors which affected the changing role of the Warsaw Autumn festival and its impact on the modernisation processes in Lithuanian music. In addition, the asymmetries of mutual understanding and interests between the Polish and Lithuanian music cultures have been highlighted both during the Cold War and the post-communist transformation periods.
Interpreting IT as a medium for continuous communication across time and place of the communicators offers a way of analyzing the effect of IT in concrete practices. The users’ readings determine the actual communication with IT. A poetics of how meaning is translated from one person to another...... through semiotic texts is presented, termed the poetics of the e-text. The poetics of the e-text offers a meta-communicational framework for identifying user constraints in the possibilities of interacting with the system. Identifying communicational problems with ICT-mediated interactions again offer...... grounds for redesigning and re-author the e-text. The poetics of the e-text are subsequently applied as a method of analyzing user-reception and evaluating the interaction with ICT. Examples are given from user-receptions of collaborating with ICT in home care, Denmark....
DeGaudenzi, Riccardo; Giannetti, Filippo
The downlink of a satellite-mobile personal communication system employing power-controlled Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) and exploiting satellite-diversity is analyzed and its performance compared with a more traditional communication system utilizing single satellite reception. The analytical model developed has been thoroughly validated by means of extensive Monte Carlo computer simulations. It is shown how the capacity gain provided by diversity reception shrinks considerably in the presence of increasing traffic or in the case of light shadowing conditions. Moreover, the quantitative results tend to indicate that to combat system capacity reduction due to intra-system interference, no more than two satellites shall be active over the same region. To achieve higher system capacity, differently from terrestrial cellular systems, Multi-User Detection (MUD) techniques are likely to be required in the mobile user terminal, thus considerably increasing its complexity.
Cornelius, Judith B.; St Lawrence, Janet S.
PURPOSE This study assessed African American adolescents’ receptivity to an HIV-prevention curriculum enhanced by text messaging. DESIGN AND METHODS Two focus groups were conducted with 14 African American adolescents regarding how an HIV-prevention curriculum could be enhanced for text messaging delivery. RESULTS The adolescents were receptive to the idea of text messaging HIV-prevention information but wanted to receive a maximum of three messages per day during the hours of 4:00–6:00 p.m. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS By taking the findings of this study, nurses, other healthcare providers, and community-based organizations can adapt evidence-based interventions for text messaging delivery to individuals at high risk for HIV infection. PMID:19356206
Chou, Amanda; Schneider, Steven P.; Kegerise, Michael A.
A better understanding of receptivity can contribute to the development of an amplitude-based method of transition prediction. This type of prediction model would incorporate more physics than the semi-empirical methods, which are widely used. The experimental study of receptivity requires a characterization of the external disturbances and a study of their effect on the boundary layer instabilities. Characterization measurements for a laser-generated perturbation were made in two different wind tunnels. These measurements were made with hot-wire probes, optical techniques, and pressure transducer probes. Existing methods all have their limitations, so better measurements will require the development of new instrumentation. Nevertheless, the freestream laser-generated perturbation has been shown to be about 6 mm in diameter at a static density of about 0.045 kg/cubic m. The amplitude of the perturbation is large, which may be unsuitable for the study of linear growth.
Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Kehl, Lisa; Herzog, Thaddeus A.
Objective To test whether exposure and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing are associated with recent e-cigarette use among young adults through increased beliefs that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Methods Data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students; approximately equal proportions of current, never, and former cigarette smokers [mean age = 23.5 (SD = 5.5); 65% female]. Results Higher receptivity to e-cigarette marketing was associated with perceptions that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, which in turn, were associated with higher recent e-cigarette use. Conclusions The findings provide preliminary support to the proposition that marketing of e-cigarettes as safer alternatives to cigarettes or cessation aids is associated with increased e-cigarette use among young adults. The findings have implications for development of e-cigarette regulations. PMID:25290604
Dulin, V.A.; Dulin, V.V.; Pavlova, O.N.
To determine neutrons multiplication the measurements and calculations of spatial distributions of neutron counting and absolute fission rates in a reception capacity of IPPE radioactive waste shop have been carried out and analyzed. A content of fissionable medium was unknown. The approach developed has allowed implementing a calculation analysis of the experimental data on determination of the most probable spatial distributions of basic parameters of the fissionable medium of unknown content. It has allowed determining the neutrons multiplication factor in a reception capacity of a tank No. 17. It has been found that the value of neutrons multiplication factor in a tank is 1.07 ± 0.03. The developed measurement method and calculation analysis used for experimental data also can be applied in other cases when the multiplication medium content is unknown [ru
Receptive music therapy is active hearing of music that is specifically selected to cause a certain effect on a person, such as pain reduction, mental opening, confrontation etc. This active, guided hearing could be helpful as a supporting ritual for patients at home and could extend traditional therapy. However, patients are often unable to select the music pieces that might be helpful for them in a current situation. We are suggesting a self-learning decision support system that allows a patient to answer questions on music anamnesis, is ready for inclusion into an electronic health record, and which enables a therapist to compile a therapeutic music program for the patient at home. Beyond this, the system also suggests appropriate music and duration of listening based on the patient's reported current mental state. In this paper, a concept for such a mobile system for receptive music therapy will be proposed.
Dias, Mariane Rezende; Cavicchioli, Valéria Quintana; Camargo, Anderson Carlos; Lanna, Frederico Germano Piscitelli Alvarenga; Pinto, Paulo Sérgio de Arruda; Bersot, Luciano dos Santos; Nero, Luís Augusto
Due to the importance of Salmonella spp. in poultry products, this study aimed to track its main contamination routes since slaughtering reception to processing of chicken end cuts. Samples from different steps of slaughtering and processing (n = 277) were collected from two chicken slaughterhouses (Sl1 and Sl2) located in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and subjected to Salmonella spp. detection. The obtained isolates were subjected to serological identification and tested by PCR for specific Sa...
N. Mandagi, Natasya; Lailiyah, S.Sos, M.I.Kom, Nuriyatul
The emergence of reality show programs on various television stations became a unique phenomenon to the community. Trans TV station became one of the famous private television that has many programs in television reality show, one of which is Janji Suci Raffi & Gigi. The program presents stories about the private lives of households Raffi Ahmad and Nagita Slavina, as well as the story of the people around them. The purpose of this study is to determine audience reception of the private sp...
Soudakov, Vitaly; Fedorov, Alexander; Ryzhov, Alexander
Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of receptivity of a boundary layer over flat plate is carried out. The free stream Mach number is equal to 6. The following two-dimensional disturbances are introduced into the free-stream flow: fast and slow acoustic waves, temperature spottiness. A theoretical model describing the excitation of unstable waves in the boundary layer is developed using the biorthogonal eigenfunction decomposition method. The DNS results agree with the theoretical predictions.
Shahriari, Nima; Hanifi, Ardeshir; Henningson, Dan S.
Acoustic receptivity of a two-dimensional boundary layer on a flat plate with elliptic leading edge is studied through direct numerical simulation (DNS). Sound waves are modelled by a uniform oscillation of freestream boundaries in time which results to an infinite-wavelength acoustic wave. Acoustic disturbances interact with strong streamwise gradients at the leading edge or surface non- homogeneities and create Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves inside the boundary layer. Measuring amplitude o...
The purpose is to contribute to the theory and practice of listening reception as one of the four language arts in Swedish as a school subject. The object of inquiry is The Art of Listening (Adelmann 2009) as a Swedish example from a Scandinavian context, compared to mainstream listening research in the USA. The problem explored is: How can we, as researchers and teachers, handle some of the problems within international listening research and adapt listening research to a Scandinavian contex...
Wallace, Barbara; Coe, James M.
This report offers guidelines for the provision of adequate port reception facilities for vessel-generated garbage under the requirements of Annex V of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973 (MARPOL 73/78), Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships. MARPOL Annex V prohibits at-sea disposal of plastic materials from vessels, and specifies the distance from shore at which other materials may be dumped. Annex V also require...
Full Text Available The intended aim of this article is to present approximation results of the exemplary measurements of EMERGENCY signal reception probability. The probability is under-stood as a distance function between the aircraft and a ground-based system under established conditions. The measurements were approximated using the properties of logistic functions. This probability, as a distance function, enables to determine the range of the EMERGENCY signal for a pre-set confidence level.
Izdihar Khalisha, Annisa; Dwiningtyas, S.Sos, MA, Dr. Hapsari
This research envisages information about how the construction of masculinty showed on @LMEN's Instagram influences male's perspective in case of the ideal appearance of masculinity. The purposes of this research are to analyze how @LMEN's Instagram constructs the male's masculinity and how the man interprets those of masculinity concepts. Critical paradigm is used to analyze this research, furthurmore, this research also uses reception analysis method written by Ien Ang. Muscular Male Body I...
Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2010. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2010. Includes bibliographical references leaves 99-104. This study investigated the effect of proficiency level on the rate of receptive and productive vocabulary acquisition, in conjunction with an examination of materials and instruction. The study was conducted with the participation of 68 beginner and elementary level students, and their ...
Raposo, Henrique; Mughal, Shahid; Ashworth, Richard
Acoustic receptivity to Tollmien-Schlichting waves in the presence of surface roughness is investigated for a flat plate boundary layer using the time-harmonic incompressible linearized Navier-Stokes equations. It is shown to be an accurate and efficient means of predicting receptivity amplitudes and, therefore, to be more suitable for parametric investigations than other approaches with direct-numerical-simulation-like accuracy. Comparison with the literature provides strong evidence of the correctness of the approach, including the ability to quantify non-parallel flow effects. These effects are found to be small for the efficiency function over a wide range of frequencies and local Reynolds numbers. In the presence of a two-dimensional wavy-wall, non-parallel flow effects are quite significant, producing both wavenumber detuning and an increase in maximum amplitude. However, a smaller influence is observed when considering an oblique Tollmien-Schlichting wave. This is explained by considering the non-parallel effects on receptivity and on linear growth which may, under certain conditions, cancel each other out. Ultimately, we undertake a Monte Carlo type uncertainty quantification analysis with two-dimensional distributed random roughness. Its power spectral density (PSD) is assumed to follow a power law with an associated uncertainty following a probabilistic Gaussian distribution. The effects of the acoustic frequency over the mean amplitude of the generated two-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting waves are studied. A strong dependence on the mean PSD shape is observed and discussed according to the basic resonance mechanisms leading to receptivity. The growth of Tollmien-Schlichting waves is predicted with non-linear parabolized stability equations computations to assess the effects of stochasticity in transition location.
Schlitzkus, Lisa L; Schenarts, Paul J; Schenarts, Kimberly D
Hosting a reception for prospective interns the evening before the interview has become a well-established expectation. It is thought that these initial impressions significantly influence the ranking process. Despite these well-held beliefs, there has been a paucity of studies exploring the preinterview reception. A survey tool was created and piloted to ensure validity. The survey was then administered to a fourth-year class of allopathic medical students immediately after interviews but before Match Day. A university, teaching hospital. Fourth-year allopathic medical students. The response rate was 100% (n = 69). Ninety-six percent of programs hosted an event. Although these events were minimally stressful (86%), the same percent felt that not attending would limit their knowledge of the program, and 66% felt that it would negatively affect their application. Forty percent believe this event to be extremely important to residency programs in selecting interns. Ninety-five percent are attended by residents only, and approximately half were at a casual restaurant. Most applicants (97%) never paid for their own meal, and 69% felt that if they did, it would leave a negative impression of the program. Candidates believe the preinterview reception is important in the selection process, that failing to attend would negatively affect their application, and provides insight about the program. Alcohol is often provided but rarely has a negative effect. Applicants prefer an informal setting with unfettered interactions with the residents. © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ohnuki, S.; Adachi, S.; Ohnuma, T.
The radiation and reception characteristics of the oblate spheroidal antenna for electron plasma waves are theoretically investigated. The analysis is carried out as a boundary-value problem. The formulas for the radiation and reception characteristics such as radiation impedance, electron charge distributions, radiated wave potential, directional properties, and receiving voltage of the oblate spheroidal antenna are analytically obtained. As a result, it is concluded that the radiation and reception characteristics of the antennas are not uniquely determined by k/sub p/a (k/sub p/ is the wave number of an electron plasma wave, and a is the radius of the circular-plate antenna), but are determined by two out of three factors, k/sub p/a, zeta (radius divided by Debye length), and ω/ω/sub p/ (angular signal frequency to angular plasma frequency). This conclusion is in marked contrast to the conventional theory in which the charge distribution on the antenna is assumed a priori as uniform and, thus, the antenna characteristics are uniquely determined by k/sub p/a. It is claimed that the experimental results obtained hitherto support the present new theory
Fabrício César Aguiar
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the 8th poem Num meio dia de fim de primavera written by Alberto Caeiro. The analysis proposed will be based on some of the Reception Aesthetics concepts mainly focusing on enriching the sensory aspects of the text, especially the visual one. For that purpose, the poetic devices used in the construction of the text as well as its reception by the readers will be highlighted. The analysis will be based on the concepts theorized by Wolfgang Iser. Such concepts are: a the interaction between text and reader and the position of the latter at the time of the former reception; b the blank places; c the negation and negativity structures; and d it will also consider the approach to reading as an act in which the reader is responsible for achieving the meaning for the text and for creating an “aesthetic pleasure” through it. This last concept is grounded in Hans Robert Jauss theory.
Daikoku, Takiko; Cha, Jeeyeon; Sun, Xiaofei; Tranguch, Susanne; Xie, Huirong; Fujita, Tomoko; Hirota, Yasushi; Lydon, John; DeMayo, Francesco; Maxson, Robert; Dey, Sudhansu K
An effective bidirectional communication between an implantation-competent blastocyst and the receptive uterus is a prerequisite for mammalian reproduction. The blastocyst will implant only when this molecular cross-talk is established. Here we show that the muscle segment homeobox gene (Msh) family members Msx1 and Msx2, which are two highly conserved genes critical for epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during development, also play crucial roles in embryo implantation. Loss of Msx1/Msx2 expression correlates with altered uterine luminal epithelial cell polarity and affects E-cadherin/β-catenin complex formation through the control of Wnt5a expression. Application of Wnt5a in vitro compromised blastocyst invasion and trophoblast outgrowth on cultured uterine epithelial cells. The finding that Msx1/Msx2 genes are critical for conferring uterine receptivity and readiness to implantation could have clinical significance, because compromised uterine receptivity is a major cause of pregnancy failure in IVF programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gremillion, Monica L.; Martel, Michelle M.
Children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) often seem to have poorer language skills compared to same-age peers; however, language as an early risk factor for DBD has received little empirical attention. The present study provides an empirical examination of associations between normal language variation and DBD by investigating receptive, expressive, and pragmatic language skills and preschool DBD symptoms. The sample consisted of 109 preschoolers ages 3 to 6 (M = 4.77 years, SD = 1.10, 59% boys; 73% with DBD, including oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]) along with their primary caregivers, who completed a clinician-administered interview, symptom questionnaires, and a questionnaire measure of pragmatic language, and teacher and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires. Children completed objective tests of receptive and expressive vocabulary. Preschoolers with DBD showed poorer receptive, expressive, and pragmatic skills compared to preschoolers without DBD. Preschoolers with ADHD-only or ADHD+ODD exhibited poorer language skills, compared to ODD and non-DBD groups. Specificity analyses suggested that parent-rated hyperactivity-impulsivity were particularly associated with poorer language skills. Thus, preschoolers with DBD exhibited poorer language skills compared to preschoolers without DBD, and preschoolers with increased hyperactivity-impulsivity exhibited particular problems with language skills. This work suggests the need for early assessment of language in preschoolers, particularly those with ADHD, as well as the possible utility of tailored interventions focused on improving language skills, particularly for those with high hyperactivity-impulsivity. PMID:23924073
Majdancić, Zeljko; Jukić, Vlado; Bojić, Miroslav
Computerized medical record has become a necessity today, because of both the amount of present-day medical data and the need of better handling and processing them. In more than 120 years of the Vrapce Psychiatric Hospital existence, the most important changes in the working concept of the reception office took place when computer technology was introduced into the routine use. The reception office of the Hospital is the vital place where administrative activities intersect with medical care for a patient presenting to the Hospital. The importance of this segment of the Hospital is emphasized by the fact that the reception office is in function and at patients' disposition round-the-clock, for 365 days a year, with great frequency of patients. The shift from the established way of registering medical data on patient admission in handwriting or, later, typescript, to computer recording was a challenging and demanding task (from the aspects of hardware, software, network, education) for the development team as well as for the physicians because it has changed the concept (logic of the working process) of previous way of collecting the data from the patient (history, status, diagnostic procedures, therapy, etc.). The success in the development and implementation of this project and the confirmation of its usefulness during the four-year practice at Vrapce Psychiatric Hospital are best illustrated by the fact that other psychiatric hospitals in Croatia have already introduced or are introducing it in their daily practice.
Maier, Michelle F; Bohlmann, Natalie L; Palacios, Natalia A
The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's ( N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages.
Full Text Available The acquisition of lexical knowledge in a second/foreign language is often investigated by means of vocabulary size tests which assess two aspects of the learners' competence: reception and production. Estimates of these two dimensions, as well as the (potential gap between them, have important pedagogical implications in that they indicate the degree to which the learners can comprehend or use the language autonomously. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore the vocabulary size of three generations of B2-level L2 learners (CEFR, first-year students majoring in English at the Faculty of Philology and Arts in Kragujevac, Serbia, by means of Vocabulary Levels Tests (Laufer & Nation, 1999; Nation, 1990. The results of the statistical analyses show that the receptive vocabulary of Serbian L2 learners is much more developed than their productive vocabulary, and that the gap between lexical production and reception changes depending on the frequency of the lexemes and the proficiency level of L2 learners. The findings imply that, at the primary and secondary level of education, more attention should be paid to the development of productive lexical knowledge which is crucial not only for success in English degree courses but communication in English in general.
Macleod, Andrea An; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Boegner-Pagé, Sarah; Fontolliet, Salomé
Parents often turn to educators and healthcare professionals for advice on how to best support their child's language development. These professionals frequently suggest implementing the 'one-parent-one-language' approach to ensure consistent exposure to both languages. The goal of this study was to understand how language exposure influences the receptive vocabulary development of simultaneous bilingual children. To this end, we targeted nine German-French children growing up in bilingual families. Their exposure to each language within and outside the home was measured, as were their receptive vocabulary abilities in German and French. The results indicate that children are receiving imbalanced exposure to each language. This imbalance is leading to a slowed development of the receptive vocabulary in the minority language, while the majority language is keeping pace with monolingual peers. The one-parent-one-language approach does not appear to support the development of both of the child's languages in the context described in the present study. Bilingual families may need to consider other options for supporting the bilingual language development of their children. As professionals, we need to provide parents with advice that is based on available data and that is flexible with regards to the current and future needs of the child and his family.
Maier, Michelle F.; Bohlmann, Natalie L.; Palacios, Natalia A.
The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's (N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages. PMID:26807002
Marchman, Virginia A; Adams, Katherine A; Loi, Elizabeth C; Fernald, Anne; Feldman, Heidi M
As rates of prematurity continue to rise, identifying which preterm children are at increased risk for learning disabilities is a public health imperative. Identifying continuities between early and later skills in this vulnerable population can also illuminate fundamental neuropsychological processes that support learning in all children. At 18 months adjusted age, we used socioeconomic status (SES), medical variables, parent-reported vocabulary, scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (third edition) language composite, and children's lexical processing speed in the looking-while-listening (LWL) task as predictor variables in a sample of 30 preterm children. Receptive vocabulary as measured by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (fourth edition) at 36 months was the outcome. Receptive vocabulary was correlated with SES, but uncorrelated with degree of prematurity or a composite of medical risk. Importantly, lexical processing speed was the strongest predictor of receptive vocabulary (r = -.81), accounting for 30% unique variance. Individual differences in lexical processing efficiency may be able to serve as a marker for information processing skills that are critical for language learning.
Okalidou, Areti; Syrika, Asimina; Beckman, Mary E; Edwards, Jan R
Receptive vocabulary is an important measure for language evaluations. Therefore, norm-referenced receptive vocabulary tests are widely used in several languages. However, a receptive vocabulary test has not yet been normed for Modern Greek. To adapt an American English vocabulary test, the Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test-II (ROWPVT-II), for Modern Greek for use with Greek-speaking preschool children. The list of 170 English words on ROWPVT-II was adapted by (1) developing two lists (A and B) of Greek words that would match either the target English word or another concept corresponding to one of the pictured objects in the four-picture array; and (2) determining a developmental order for the chosen Greek words for preschool-aged children. For the first task, adult word frequency measures were used to select the words for the Greek wordlist. For the second task, 427 children, 225 boys and 202 girls, ranging in age from 2;0 years to 5;11 years, were recruited from urban and suburban areas of Greece. A pilot study of the two word lists was performed with the aim of comparing an equal number of list A and list B responses for each age group and deriving a new developmental list order. The relative difficulty of each Greek word item, that is, its accuracy score, was calculated by taking the average proportion of correct responses across ages for that word. Subsequently, the word accuracy scores in the two lists were compared via regression analysis, which yielded a highly significant relationship (R(2) = 0.97; p word item from the two lists was a better fit. Finally, new starting levels (basals) were established for preschool ages. The revised word list can serve as the basis for adapting a receptive vocabulary test for Greek preschool-aged children. Further steps need to be taken when testing larger numbers of 2;0 to 5;11-year-old children on the revised word list for determination of norms. This effort will facilitate early identification and remediation
Facio, Beatriz Castanheira; Marski, Bruna de Souza Lima; Higarashi, Ieda Harumi; Misko, Maira Deguer; Silveira, Aline Oliveira; Wernet, Monika
To analyze the influence of health professionals' receptiveness on parental care of children with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A qualitative study developed under the theoretical framework of Symbolic Interactionism and using a narrative research methodology. Six women and three men, being parents of children with retinopathy of prematurity were individually interviewed in depth. From the scope of information, emotions and their rights, the parents experienced receptiveness from some professionals and unreceptiveness from others. The predominance of unreceptive attitudes in the parental narratives originated the following analysis themes: Informational (un)receptiveness, Emotional (un)receptiveness, and (Un)receptiveness of rights. The study supports human and comprehensive healthcare in the context of retinopathy of prematurity by pointing out the interactive process with health professionals as a potential stressor of parental care. The results signal a nuclear of attitudinal changes and reinforce challenges to the child and family-centered approach. Analisar a influência do acolhimento do profissional de saúde no cuidado parental junto ao filho com retinopatia da prematuridade. Estudo qualitativo desenvolvido sob o referencial teórico do Interacionismo Simbólico e metodológico da pesquisa de narrativas. Foram entrevistados em profundidade e individualmente seis mulheres e três homens, pais de crianças com retinopatia da prematuridade. Os pais vivenciam, nos âmbitos informacional, emocional e de direitos, acolhimento com alguns profissionais e destrato com outros. A predominância da postura de desacolhimento nas narrativas parentais deu origem aos temas de análise: (Des)acolhimento informacional, (Des)acolhimento emocional, e (Des)acolhimento de direitos. O estudo oferece subsídios ao cuidado humano e integral em saúde no contexto da retinopatia da prematuridade ao apontar o processo interativo com os profissionais de saúde enquanto potencial
Morozov, A N; Turchin, I V [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)
The method of optical coherence tomography with the scheme of parallel reception of the interference signal (P-OCT) is developed on the basis of spatial paralleling of the reference wave by means of a phase diffraction grating producing the appropriate time delay in the Mach–Zehnder interferometer. The absence of mechanical variation of the optical path difference in the interferometer essentially reduces the time required for 2D imaging of the object internal structure, as compared to the classical OCT that uses the time-domain method of the image construction, the sensitivity and the dynamic range being comparable in both approaches. For the resulting field of the interfering object and reference waves an analytical expression is derived that allows the calculation of the autocorrelation function in the plane of photodetectors. For the first time a method of linear phase modulation by 2π is proposed for P-OCT systems, which allows the use of compact high-frequency (a few hundred kHz) piezoelectric cell-based modulators. For the demonstration of the P-OCT method an experimental setup was created, using which the images of the inner structure of biological objects at the depth up to 1 mm with the axial spatial resolution of 12 μm were obtained. (optical coherence tomography)
Zhao, Huaqiao; Gao, Huotao; Cao, Ting; Li, Boya
In this work, the collection of solar energy by a broad-band nanospiral antenna is investigated in order to solve the low efficiency of the solar rectenna based on conventional nanoantennas. The antenna impedance, radiation, polarization and effective area are all considered in the efficiency calculation using the finite integral technique. The wavelength range investigated is 300-3000 nm, which corresponds to more than 98% of the solar radiation energy. It's found that the nanospiral has stronger field enhancement in the gap than a nanodipole counterpart. And a maximum harvesting efficiency about 80% is possible in principle for the nanospiral coupled to a rectifier resistance of 200 Ω, while about 10% for the nanodipole under the same conditions. Moreover, the nanospiral could be coupled to a rectifier diode of high resistance more easily than the nanodipole. These results indicate that the efficient full-spectrum utilization, reception and conversion of solar energy can be achieved by the nanospiral antenna, which is expected to promote the solar rectenna to be a promising technology in the clean, renewable energy application.
Balakumar, P.; King, Rudolph A.; Eppink, Jenna L.
The effects of forward- and backward-facing steps on the receptivity and stability of three-dimensional supersonic boundary layers over a swept wing with a blunt leading edge are numerically investigated for a freestream Mach number of 3 and a sweep angle of 30 degrees. The flow fields are obtained by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations. The evolution of instability waves generated by surface roughness is simulated with and without the forward- and backward-facing steps. The separation bubble lengths are about 5-10 step heights for the forward-facing step and are about 10 for the backward-facing step. The linear stability calculations show very strong instability in the separated region with a large frequency domain. The simulation results show that the presence of backward-facing steps decreases the amplitude of the stationary crossflow vortices with longer spanwise wavelengths by about fifty percent and the presence of forward-facing steps does not modify the amplitudes noticeably across the steps. The waves with the shorter wavelengths grow substantially downstream of the step in agreement with the linear stability prediction.
Strong, David R; Messer, Karen; Hartman, Sheri J; Nodora, Jesse; Vera, Lisa; White, Martha M; Leas, Eric; Pharris-Ciurej, Nikolas; Borek, Nicolette; Pierce, John P
This study extends research on receptivity to tobacco marketing over a key developmental period for cigarette smoking experimentation. The purpose of this study was to understand the effect of receptivity to tobacco marketing and exposure to friends who smoke on smoking experimentation. Participants were 10 to 13 years old who had never tried cigarettes (n = 878), interviewed six times at 8-month intervals. At baseline, 25% percent of the 10 and 11 years old in the sample of never smokers were receptive to tobacco marketing, while less than 5% had friends who smoked. Having a friend who smoked at study baseline and acquiring such friends for the first time during the study were the strongest predictors of smoking experimentation. Initial receptivity to tobacco marketing increased the risk of smoking experimentation independently of having friends who smoke at baseline or acquiring friends who smoke throughout the study period. The high level of receptivity observed even among 10 and 11 years old and its robust relationship with cigarette smoking experimentation independent of the significant risk associated with having friends who smoke suggests that successful prevention of receptivity may require intervention at an early age.
Huertas, José Ignacio; Barraza, Roberto; Echeverry, Julian Mauricio
This paper describes analytical and experimental work developed to evaluate the effects of the electromagnetic fields produced by high-voltage lines (400 kV) on wireless data transmission at the 900MHz band. In this work the source of the data transmission is located inside the electromagnetic field and the reception station is located at different distances from the power lines. Different atmospheric conditions are considered.
Freeman, Bradley D; Butler, Kevin; Bolcic-Jankovic, Dragana; Clarridge, Brian R; Kennedy, Carie R; LeBlanc, Jessica; Chandros Hull, Sara
Collection of genetic biospecimens as part of critical illness investigations is increasingly commonplace. Oversight bodies vary in restrictions imposed on genetic research, introducing inconsistencies in study design, potential for sampling bias, and the possibility of being overly prohibitive of this type of research altogether. We undertook this study to better understand whether restrictions on genetic data collection beyond those governing research on cognitively intact subjects reflect the concerns of surrogates for critically ill patients. We analyzed survey data collected from 1,176 patients in nonurgent settings and 437 surrogates representing critically ill adults. Attitudes pertaining to genetic data (familiarity, perceptions, interest in participation, concerns) and demographic information were examined using univariate and multivariate techniques. We explored differences among respondents who were receptive (1,333) and nonreceptive (280) to genetic sample collection. Whereas factors positively associated with receptivity to research participation were "complete trust" in health-care providers (OR, 2.091; 95% CI, 1.544-2.833), upper income strata (OR, 2.319; 95% CI, 1.308-4.114), viewing genetic research "very positively" (OR, 3.524; 95% CI, 2.122-5.852), and expressing "no worry at all" regarding disclosure of results (OR, 2.505; 95% CI, 1.436-4.369), black race was negatively associated with research participation (OR, 0.410; 95% CI, 0.288-0.585). We could detect no difference in receptivity to genetic sample collection comparing ambulatory patients and surrogates (OR, 0.738; 95% CI, 0.511-1.066). Expressing trust in health-care providers and viewing genetic research favorably were associated with increased willingness for study enrollment, while concern regarding breach of confidentiality and black race had the opposite effect. Study setting had no bearing on willingness to participate.
Mohr, Philip; Quinn, Sinéad; Morell, Matthew; Topping, David
To investigate community engagement with the health benefits of dietary fibre (DF) and its potential as a framework for the promotion of increased consumption of resistant starch (RS). A nationwide postal Food and Health Survey conducted in Australia by CSIRO Human Nutrition. Adults aged 18 years and above, selected at random from the Australian Electoral Roll (n 849). A cross-sectional design was employed to analyse ratings of (i) the importance of various RS health and functional claims and (ii) receptiveness to different foods as RS delivery vehicles, according to the respondents' level of fibre engagement as classified under the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM) of Health Behaviour. There was a high level of recognition (89·5 %) of DF as being important for health. Significant gender differences were found for ratings of RS attributes and RS delivery options. Women were both more fibre-engaged than men and more receptive than men to RS and its potential benefits. Ratings of the acceptability of several foods as means of delivering RS revealed a general preference for healthy staples over indulgences, with the margin between acceptability of staples and indulgences increasing markedly with increased fibre engagement. Application of the PAPM to awareness of DF reveals a ready-made target group for health messages about RS and pockets of differential potential receptiveness. The findings support the promotion of RS as providing health benefits of DF with the added reduction of risk of serious disease, its delivery through healthy staples and the targeting of messages at both fibre-engaged individuals and women in general.
Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Ullman, Michael T; Lum, Jarrad A G
What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing (TD) children and children with specific language impairment (SLI)? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which procedural, declarative, and working memory abilities predict receptive grammar in 45 primary school aged children with SLI (30 males, 15 females) and 46 TD children (30 males, 16 females), both on average 9;10 years of age. Regression analyses probed measures of all three memory systems simultaneously as potential predictors of receptive grammar. The model was significant, explaining 51.6% of the variance. There was a significant main effect of learning in procedural memory and a significant group × procedural learning interaction. Further investigation of the interaction revealed that procedural learning predicted grammar in TD but not in children with SLI. Indeed, procedural learning was the only predictor of grammar in TD. In contrast, only learning in declarative memory significantly predicted grammar in SLI. Thus, different memory systems are associated with receptive grammar abilities in children with SLI and their TD peers. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a significant group by memory system interaction in predicting grammar in children with SLI and their TD peers. In line with Ullman's Declarative/Procedural model of language and procedural deficit hypothesis of SLI, variability in understanding sentences of varying grammatical complexity appears to be associated with variability in procedural memory abilities in TD children, but with declarative memory, as an apparent compensatory mechanism, in children with SLI.
CARMEN D. CARAIMAN
Full Text Available In this paper we intend to present the reception of the play Evangheliştii [The Evangelists] (published in volume in 1993 and represented on stage in 2005 written by Alina Mungiu Pippidi in post-communist Romanian society. In the interpretation of this topic we have considered the author’s artistic goals in relation to the “horizon of expectation” of the Romanian theatre public, as well as to the reaction that critics and institutions outside the world of theatre, such as the Orthodox and Catholic Churches, and local public institutions, had as regards its publication and stage representation. Thus, we have pointed out the clash and the gap that exist between the author’s postmodernist approach to religious faith (i.e. the deconstruction of the Christian ideology and the often wrong reception of the play’s topic coming basically from the Church and in part from the theatre audience. The reception of this play in post-communist Romania is analysed in relation to the rigid, formalist perspective on art shared by an important part of the theatre audience. One of the main conclusions we have drawn is that the openness degree of our society members to the freedom of artistic creation illustrates, in fact, the degree of civilization and, implicitly, of tolerance which we have acquired up to a certain point in time as a society, especially that today our country is no longer totalitarian and, in consequence, no artistic manifestation can be censored by any ideologies coming from the public space.
This article draws on over 60 years of British medical journals and psychiatry textbooks to indicate the chronological stages of the reception of Eugen Bleuler in British psychiatry. Bleuler was already well known in Britain before his schizophrenia book appeared, with the journals containing numerous references, mainly positive, to his work. The psychiatry textbooks, however, were slower to integrate his contribution. This paper argues that this was not due to Bleuler\\'s placing Freud on a par with Kraepelin, but because of the early negative reaction to Kraepelin\\'s dementia praecox concept, despite Bleuler\\'s wider and less ominous conception of the illness.
Lu Xiaowen; Zhu Jinkang
A novel access protocol called Multiple-Reception Access Protocol (MRAP) and its modification MRAP/WI are proposed. In this protocol, all colliding users with a common code can be identified by the base station due to the offset of arrival time Thus they can retransmit access requests under the base station's control. Furthermore new arrivals with higher priority level can interrupt the lower retransmission in order to reduce its access delay although it increases the lower priority's delay. Simulation results of MRAP and MRAP/WI are given in order to highlight the superior performance of the proposed approach.
Full Text Available This paper is an application of the "Multiple Mediation" Model, as it has been developing by the author during the last 10 years. The model is used as a way to substantiate a reconceptualization of different aspects of the television reception process. As understood by Orozco, it is continually under construction, and emerges from analysis made by different thinkers. Its formulation has been and will continue to be the outcome of much reflexivity between existing theoretical and epistemological assumptions (within the Cultural Studies and Critical Audience Research traditions and empirical, mostly qualitative, data.
Zhan Hao; Xiong Jie; Huang Daijuan; Yuan Bin; Xu Wendai; Zhang Yongxue
Reception of nuclear medicine department is often ignored. In fact, it is an important part of clinical work. If the patient's psychological status is understood, and the psychological knowledge is handles and applied in practice, the quality of work can be improved. The personnel in nuclear medicine should recognize the significance of humanity in medical practice and acquire the communication skill between doctors and patients. They should also understand the four aspects of psychological need of patients: The need of being understood and respected; the need of being greeted, accepted and a sense of belonging; the need of being informed; the need of feeling safe and rehabilitated
Carlos Eduardo de Abreu Boucault
This article aims to examine the reception of « Pure theory of Law », of Hans Kelsen in some South-American countries, throughout institutional approaches and also the diffusion of this theory as well its acceptance by cultural agents who represented academic and professional law environment, in Uruguay, Colombia, Argentina and Brazil. The historical period of this study concerns the early times of 40 till our days. Although the reference of Kelsen’s thought about theory of law may appear as ...
This research tackles the poetic tales in Ahmed Shawki’s poetry in terms of reception theory. This theory comprises readers’ perception of literary texts. One of the objectives of this theoretical approach is to examine the horizon of expectation of the reader, either explicit or implied. We have studied the horizon of expectation of the explicit reader in the following points: Rhythmic expectation, Linguistic expectation, and Dramatic expectation. We have also got to know the aesthetic dista...
Ganz, Jennifer B; Hong, Ee Rea; Goodwyn, Fara; Kite, Elizabeth; Gilliland, Whitney
The purpose of this brief report was to determine the effect on receptive identification of photos of a tablet computer-based augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) system with voice output. A multiple baseline single-case experimental design across vocabulary words was implemented. One participant, a preschool-aged boy with autism and little intelligible verbal language, was included in the study. Although a functional relation between the intervention and the dependent variable was not established, the intervention did appear to result in mild improvement for two of the three vocabulary words selected. The authors recommend further investigations of the collateral impacts of AAC on skills other than expressive language.
Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to analyze various types of the reception of Vygotsky’s theory in the international academic communities. The paper develops a critical analysis of three widespread theoretical frameworks of interpretation of Vygotsky’s theory: cognitivism, culturalism, cultural-historical activity theory. It is argues that fragmented readings of particular ideas of Vygotsky, without enough understanding of the theoretical programme in which these ideas have been included dominates in North-Atlantic research. The paper proposes the reconstruction of the theoretical programme of cultural-historical psychology in the social and scientific context of its formation.
Akoev, G.N.; Avelev, V.D.
Low intensity millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation of less than 10 mW cm -2 power intensity has a nonthermal effect on the body and it is widely used in medical practice for treatment of various diseases. Nevertheless, the effect of EMR on biological tissues is not understood. The skin and its sensory receptors are considered to be responsible for EMR reception, but this has yet to be confirmed. The present experiments were designed to study the effect of millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation on the ampullae of Lorenzini in skates, which are very sensitive to weak electrical stimuli at low frequency. (author)
Shigeta, K; Taniguchi, T; Kubota, K [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)
Based on the principle of capacitance-loaded window antennas, a new film antenna construction pasting an antenna element on a defogger element printed on a rear window was found. The film antennas show high reception performance, and can be used as television diversity antennas or a VICS-FM multiplex antenna. This paper describes the antenna design concept, the antenna construction and the application to a recreational vehicle which styling is 1.3-Box wagon for the electric accessory. 2 refs., 11 figs.
Le Vigouroux, Philippe; Gohau, Gabriel
At the beginning of the XXth century, Wegener proposed a theory – that of the roaming drift of the continents – unifying the rival theories of the Europeans and the Americans. As the work of a non-specialist who didn’t trouble himself with specific details, it raised numerous criticisms from specialists in various disciplines though others welcomed and supported it. Some even understood that despite its flaws, it started a new research program. Paradoxically, as regards its simplicity, nonspecialists – engineers, popularizers, secondary school teachers and even believers in para-sciences – gave it a favorable reception. Being amateurs, they continued to endorse it when specialists abandoned it.
Vedora, Joseph; Grandelski, Katrina
The use of a simple-conditional discrimination training procedure, in which stimuli are initially taught in isolation with no other comparison stimuli, is common in early intensive behavioral intervention programs. Researchers have suggested that this procedure may encourage the development of faulty stimulus control during training. The current study replicated previous work that compared the simple-conditional and the conditional-only methods to teach receptive labeling of pictures to young children with autism spectrum disorder. Both methods were effective, but the conditional-only method required fewer sessions to mastery. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Mackenzie, Colin; Donohue, John; Wasylina, Philip; Cullum, Woodrow; Hu, Peter; Lam, David M
In Maryland, there have been no military/civilian training exercises of the Medical Mutual Aid Agreement for >20 years. The aims of this paper are to describe the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS), to coordinate military and civilian medical mutual aid in response to arrival of overseas mass casualties, and to evaluate the mass-casualty reception and bed "surge" capacity of Maryland NDMS Hospitals. Three tabletop exercises and a functional exercise were performed using a simulated, overseas, military mass-casualty event. The first tabletop exercise was with military and civilian NMDS partners. The second tested the revised NDMS activation plan. The third exercised the Authorities of State Emergency Medical System and Walter Reed Army Medical Center Directors of Emergency Medicine over Maryland NDMS hospitals, and their Medical Mutual Aid Agreement. The functional exercise used Homeland Security Exercise Evaluation Program tools to evaluate reception, triage, staging, and transportation of 160 notional patients (including 20 live, moulaged "patients") and one canine. The first tabletop exercise identified deficiencies in operational protocols for military/civilian mass-casualty reception, triage, treatment, and problems with sharing a Unified Command. The second found improvements in the revised NDMS activation plan. The third informed expectations for NDMS hospitals. In the functional exercise, all notional patients were received, triaged, dispatched, and accounted in military and five civilian hospitals within two hours. The canine revealed deficiencies in companion/military animal reception, holding, treatment, and evacuation. Three working groups were suggested: (1) to ensure 100% compliance with triage tags, patient accountability, and return of equipment used in mass casualty events and exercises; (2) to investigate making information technology and imaging networks available for Emergency Operation Centers and Incident Command; and (3) to establish NDMS
Smith, Stephen F [Loudon, TN; Moore, James A [Powell, TN
Systems and methods are described for carrier phase synchronization for improved AM and TV broadcast reception. A method includes synchronizing the phase of a carrier frequency of a broadcast signal with the phase of a remote reference frequency. An apparatus includes a receiver to detect the phase of a reference signal; a phase comparator coupled to the reference signal-phase receiver; a voltage controlled oscillator coupled to the phase comparator; and a phase-controlled radio frequency output coupled to the voltage controlled oscillator.
Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Rodriguez, Daniel; Patel, Vaishali; Faith, Myles S; Rodgers, Kelli; Cuevas, Jocelyn
To determine whether novelty seeking and depressive symptoms had mediated or indirect effects on adolescent smoking progression through tobacco advertising receptivity. More than 1000 adolescents were monitored from 9th grade to 12th grade and completed annual surveys that measured demographic characteristics, smoking behavior, tobacco advertising receptivity, novelty-seeking personality, depressive symptoms, family and peer smoking, alcohol use, and marijuana use. Latent growth modeling indicated that novelty seeking had a significant indirect effect on smoking progression through baseline tobacco advertising receptivity. For each 1-SD increase in novelty seeking, the odds of being more receptive to tobacco advertising increased by 12% (ie, being in a specific category or higher), which in turn resulted in an 11% increase in the odds of smoking progression from 9th grade to 12th grade. The indirect effect from depressive symptoms to smoking progression did not reach significance. These findings may inform future research on other factors that influence tobacco advertising receptivity, as well as programs aimed at preventing adolescent smoking initiation and progression.
New hours for visitors Monday to FridayReception: 8:00 a.m. to 5:45 p.m.Microcosm: 8:15 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.Shop: 9:00 a.m. to 5:45 p.m. Globe: 2:00 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. (on days the Globe is open)SaturdayReception: 8:30 a.m. to 5:15 p.m. Microcosm: 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Shop: 9:00 a.m. to 5:15 p.m. Globe: 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. (on days the Globe is open) The new opening hours will be displayed on both sides of the entrance to Building 33. People working at CERN should note the modified closing times: Access times for CERN staff Monday to Friday:\tThe foyer in Building 33 opens at 8:00 a.m. and closes at 5:45 p.m. Saturday:\tThe foyer in Building 33 opens at 8:30 a.m. and closes at 5:15 p.m. Outside these hours, CERN staff must use the small entrance that opens directly onto the car park.
Roberts, Stephen A; Hann, Mark; Brison, Daniel R
Many studies have identified prognostic factors for IVF treatment outcome; however, little information is available on the mechanism of their action. Embryo-uterus models have the potential to distinguish between factors acting on the embryo directly and those acting through the uterine environment. Here we apply embryo-uterus models to comprehensive UK registry data from two periods, 2000-2005 and 2007-2011, containing 139,444 and 226,542 embryo transfer cycles, respectively. Given this large dataset, the embryo-uterus model is capable of distinguishing between uterine and embryo effects. Maternal age is the predominant predictor of live birth and acts on both the embryo and uterine components, but with larger effects on the embryo. Prolonged embryo culture is associated with greater embryo viability, reflecting the greater degree of selection, but is also associated with greater uterine receptivity. Cryopreserved embryos are less viable and were associated with poorer uterine receptivity. This work suggests that, in addition to the direct effects of in-vitro culture on the embryonic environment during the first few days of the embryo's life, the delay in transfer after extended culture or cryopreservation can lead to an altered uterine environment for the embryo after transfer. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ewton, Tiffany A; Siboni, Ruth B; Jackson, Andrea; Freeman, Louise M
Neural aromatization of testosterone (T) to estrogen during development is thought to be important for sexual differentiation of many altricial mammals. We evaluated the effects of neonatal injections of the non-aromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHTP) and estradiol (E2) on the copulatory behavior of the female musk shrew, an altricial insectivore. Following adult ovariectomy and replacement T, animals were paired with a stimulus female for two 60-minute copulatory behavior tests. The latency to induce sexual receptivity (in the form of tail-wagging by the female), mount latency and total number of mounts were recorded in experimental females and in a group of untreated control males. While neither hormone treatment significantly affected mounting behavior, DHTP-treated animals induced receptivity faster and with latencies not significantly different from intact males, suggesting that early non-aromatizable androgens can have masculinizing actions by either increasing sexual motivation or making the treated animal more attractive to the stimulus female. Reliance on androgenic rather than estrogenic metabolites for the differentiation of courtship behaviors conforms to the pattern seen more typically in primates than rodents. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The paper examines the social, cultural and disciplinary factors that influenced the reception and appropriation of Darwinism by China's first generation paleontologists. Darwinism was mixed with Social Darwinism when first introduced to China, and the co-option of Darwinian phrases for nationalistic awakening obscured the scientific essence of Darwin's evolutionary theory. First generation Chinese paleontologists started their training in 1910s-1920s. They quickly asserted their professional identity by successfully focusing on morphology, taxonomy and biostratigraphy. Surrounded by Western paleontologists with Lamarckian or orthogenetic leanings, early Chinese paleontologists enthusiastically embraced evolution and used fossils as factual evidence; yet not enough attention was given to mechanistic evolutionary studies. The 1940s saw the beginning of a new trend for early Chinese paleontologists to incorporate more biological and biogeographical components in their work, but external events such as the dominance of Lysenkoism in the 1950s made the Modern Synthesis pass by without being publicly noticed in Chinese paleontology. Characterized by the larger goal of using science for nation building and by the utilitarian approach favoring local sciences, the reception and appropriation of Darwinism by first generation Chinese paleontologists raise important questions for studying the indigenizing efforts of early Chinese scientists to appropriate Western scientific theories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lamônica, Dionísia Aparecida Cusin; Silva-Mori, Mariana Jales Felix da; Ribeiro, Camila da Costa; Maximino, Luciana Paula
To compare the performance in the abilities of receptive and expressive language of children with cleft lip and palate with that of children without cleft lip and palate with typical 12 to 36-month chronological development. The sample consisted of 60 children aged 12 and 36 months: 30 with cleft lip and palate diagnosis and 30 without cleft lip and palate diagnosis with typical development. The groups were paired according to gender, age (in months), and socioeconomic level. The procedures consisted of analysis of medical records, anamnesis with family members, and valuation of the Early Language Milestone Scale (ELMS). The chart analysis showed 63.34% of the children with unilateral cleft lip and palate, 16.66% with bilateral incisive transforamen cleft, and 20% with post-foramen cleft. Children with cleft lip and palate underwent surgeries (lip repair and/or palatoplasty) at the recommended ages and participated in early intervention programs; 40% presented recurrent otitis history, and 50% attended schools. Statistical analysis included the use of the Mann Whitney test with significance level of p cleft lip and palate showed statistically significant low performance in receptive and expressive language compared with children without cleft lip and palate.
Kim, Annice E; Lee, Youn Ok; Shafer, Paul; Nonnemaker, James; Makarenko, Olga
The aim of the present work was to examine adult smokers' awareness of and receptivity to an electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) television advert, and whether viewing the advert influenced urge to smoke and intention to try ENDS. A television advert for ENDS brand blu eCigs was shown to an online convenience sample of 519 Florida adult smokers. We measured current smokers' awareness of and receptivity to the advert, and whether seeing the advert influenced their thoughts about smoking or quitting, urge to smoke and intention to try ENDS. Results were stratified by prior ENDS use. Approximately 62.3% of current smokers were aware of the advert. Smokers found the advert informative (73.8%), attention grabbing (67.5%) and innovative (64.5%), with prior ENDS users rating the advert more favourably than non-users. Seeing the advert elicited an urge to smoke (mean 42.1, SD=1.9) and thoughts about smoking cigarettes (75.8%) as well as quitting (74.6%). Prior END users were significantly more likely than non-users to report thinking about smoking cigarettes after seeing the advert (Padvertising and examine how exposure to ENDS adverts influences smokers' use of ENDS, dual use with cigarettes and cessation behaviour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Menninghaus, Winfried; Wagner, Valentin; Hanich, Julian; Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Jacobsen, Thomas; Koelsch, Stefan
Why are negative emotions so central in art reception far beyond tragedy? Revisiting classical aesthetics in the light of recent psychological research, we present a novel model to explain this much discussed (apparent) paradox. We argue that negative emotions are an important resource for the arts in general, rather than a special license for exceptional art forms only. The underlying rationale is that negative emotions have been shown to be particularly powerful in securing attention, intense emotional involvement, and high memorability, and hence is precisely what artworks strive for. Two groups of processing mechanisms are identified that conjointly adopt the particular powers of negative emotions for art's purposes. The first group consists of psychological distancing mechanisms that are activated along with the cognitive schemata of art, representation, and fiction. These schemata imply personal safety and control over continuing or discontinuing exposure to artworks, thereby preventing negative emotions from becoming outright incompatible with expectations of enjoyment. This distancing sets the stage for a second group of processing components that allow art recipients to positively embrace the experiencing of negative emotions, thereby rendering art reception more intense, more interesting, more emotionally moving, more profound, and occasionally even more beautiful. These components include compositional interplays of positive and negative emotions, the effects of aesthetic virtues of using the media of (re)presentation (musical sound, words/language, color, shapes) on emotion perception, and meaning-making efforts. Moreover, our Distancing-Embracing model proposes that concomitant mixed emotions often help integrate negative emotions into altogether pleasurable trajectories.
Yachnev, I. L.; Penniyaynen, V. A.; Podzorova, S. A.; Rogachevskii, I. V.; Krylov, B. V.
The role of the temperature factor in the mechanism of reception of the CO2 laser low-power infrared (IR) radiation (λ = 10.6 μm) by a sensory neuron membrane has been studied. Organotypic embryonic tissue culture has been used to measure and estimate the temperature of a sensory ganglia monolayer exposed to radiation at different energy densities. The effects of tissue exposure to low-power IR radiation have been investigated. It has been found that inhibition of tissue growth by radiation of low energy density (10-14-10-10 J/cm2) is replaced by tissue growth (10-7-10-4 J/cm2), and again followed by inhibition in the range of 0.1-6 J/cm2. A statistically significant specific reaction to nonthermal radiation has been detected at the radiation power density of 3 × 10-10 J/cm2, which is due to activation of the Na+,K+-ATPase transducer function. The mechanisms of interaction of IR radiation with embryonic nerve tissue have been considered. Low-power IR radiation with the wavelength of 10.6 μm has been demonstrated to specifically activate a novel signal transducer function of the sodium pump, which controls the reception of nonthermal IR radiation in the energy density range of 10-14 to 10-10 J/cm2.
Full Text Available Torsional vibration of shafts is a very important problem in engineering, in particular in ship engines and aeroengines. Due to their high levels of integration and complexity, it is hard to get their accurate structural data or accurate modal data. This lack of data is unhelpful to vibration control in the form of structural modifications. Besides, many parts in shaft systems are not allowed to be modified such as rotary inertia of a pump or an engine, which is designed for achieving certain functions. This paper presents a strategy for torsional vibration control of shaft systems in the form of structural modifications based on receptances, which does not need analytical or modal models of the systems under investigation. It only needs the torsional receptances of the system, which can be obtained by testing simple auxiliary structure attached to relevant locations of the shaft system and using the finite element model (FEM of the simple structure. An optimization problem is constructed to determine the required structural modifications, based on the actual requirements of modal frequencies and mode shapes. A numerical experiment is set up and the influence of several system parameters is analysed. Several scenarios of constraints in practice are considered. The numerical simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method and its feasibility in solving torsional vibration problems in practice.
Héctor del Estal Sánchez
Full Text Available This essay intends to examine the reception of Arthur Schopenhauer’s philosophy in the period betweeen 1818 and 1848, thereby contributing to a demythologization of the luck of the philosopher’s thought on these three decades prior to the beginning of his fame. In order to achieve this, after showing a general picture of the personal myth that has characterised a great part of the historiographic tradition according to which his philosophy would have been ignored or silenced (1, we will present the four key lines of his reception, through the analysis of the news that his contemporaries gave of his philosophy in reviews, manuals of history of philosophy, or encyclopedias. Those four key lines are: a reading of Schopenhauer’s philosophy that stressed on its oriental features (2, an interpretation in an idealistic key which placed a lack of originality in Schopenhauer’s philosophy (3, an academic community that placed it against “the spirit of the times” due to the secondary place of Reason against the Will (4 and finally, the emergence of the first followers of Schopenhauer’s philosophy (5.
Fitri Wulandari Wulandari
Full Text Available Exam plays a powerful role in educational system and exerts significant washback onstudents’ learning. Washback, the impact of exams on education in general andlanguage examining in particular, has become a popular area of study withineducational research. This paper focuses on the washback effects of college entranceexam on students’ productive and receptive skills in STKIP MuhammadiyahPringsewu Lampung. The main concern of the study was to investigate the impact ofcollege entrance exam on productive and receptive language skills in STKIPMuhammadiyah Pringsewu Lampung. 53 first year students at English EducationDepartment in the academic year of 2015-2016 of STKIP Muhammadiyah PringsewuLampung attended the study. A 26-item questionnaire was designed and administeredto 53 students. The data were analyzed using statistical analysis including descriptivestatistics (frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation. It has been found outthat the exam has some negative effects on students’ language productive andreceptive skills on the first year students at English Education Department of STKIPMuhammadiyah Pringsewu Lampung. Some changes to exam that might be gratefulare discussed in the last section of the paper.Keywords: washback effect, college entrance exam, students’ productive skills
Full Text Available Direct numerical simulation (DNS of a hypersonic compressible flow over a blunt wedge with fast acoustic disturbances in freestream is performed. The receptivity characteristics of boundary layer to freestream pulse acoustic disturbances are numerically investigated at Mach 6, and the frequency effects of freestream pulse wave on boundary layer receptivity are discussed. Results show that there are several main disturbance mode clusters in boundary layer under acoustic pulse wave, and the number of main disturbance clusters decreases along the streamwise. As disturbance wave propagates from upstream to downstream direction, the component of the modes below fundamental frequency decreases, and the component of the modes above second harmonic components increases quickly in general. There are competition and disturbance energy transfer between different boundary layer modes. The nose boundary layer is dominated by the nearby mode of fundamental frequency. The number of the main disturbance mode clusters decreases as the freestream disturbance frequency increases. The frequency range with larger growth narrows along the streamwise. In general, the amplitudes of both fundamental mode and harmonics become larger with the decreasing of freestream disturbance frequency. High frequency freestream disturbance accelerates the decay of disturbance wave in downstream boundary layer.
Ratković Dragana M.
Full Text Available In this paper, we present and analyze the creativity of Aleksandar Petrov, and the reception of his work in the country and abroad. In the first part, Petrov's literary and scientific work and its reception in Serbia and the world are described, and in the second-we give Petrov's view on poetry and prose, and we write about its reception in Poland. The subject of the analysis in the second part consists of the following: the poetry published in the January issue of the magazine Creativity (Twórczosc in 1987, the collection of peoms Gold in fire (Ztoto w ogniu from 2005, Alexandria with Ithaca in mind (Aleksandria z Itakq wpamiqci from 2013, and an excerpt from Turkish Vienna (2000 called 'October again' (Znów pazdziernik, published in the no. 1-3 of the magazine Tygiel kultury of tódž in 2007.
Ahmad Nizan Mat Noor
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to scrutinize the impact of employees’ perceptions of their organization’s human resource diversity management (HRDM practices on their organizational citizenship behavior (OCB level. The influence of diversity receptiveness as a mediator in the proposed relationship is also examined. Survey data were gathered from operational employees attached to large hotel in Malaysia. 430 usable questionnaires were used in statistical analyses. The results indicated that the hypothesized linkage between HRDM practices and diversity receptiveness as well as between HRDM practices and OCB were partially supported. The mediating role of diversity receptiveness in the relationship was also partially supported. Implications and limitations of the findings are specified. Finally, directions for future research are suggested.
Full Text Available Background & aims In response to limited research on early language development in infants at high risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, the current prospective study examined early expressive and receptive language trajectories in familial high-risk (HR infants who were and were not later diagnosed with ASD (HR-ASD and HR-N, respectively, and low-risk (LR controls with no family history of ASD. Methods Participants were 523 children (371 HR siblings, 56% boys; 152 LR controls, 52% boys followed from age 6 or 12 months to 36 months. Based on independent, best-estimate clinical diagnoses at 36 months, HR participants were classified as HR-ASD (n = 94; 69% boys, or HR-N (n = 277; 52% boys; the sample also included 152 LR controls (52% boys. Expressive and receptive language trajectories were examined based on corresponding domain standard scores on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning ( MSEL at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. In the combined sample of HR and LR infants, semi-parametric group-based modeling was used to identify distinct trajectories in MSEL standard scores. Results A 3-group solution provided optimal fit to variation in both expressive and receptive language, with the following patterns of scores: (1 inclining from average to above average, (2 stable-average, and (3 declining from average to well below average. For both expressive and receptive language, membership in these trajectories was related to 3-year diagnostic outcomes. Conclusions Although HR-ASD, HR-N, and LR control infants were in each trajectory group, membership in the declining trajectory (expressive and/or receptive was associated with an ASD diagnosis. Implications Evidence of declining trajectories in either expressive or receptive language may be a risk marker for ASD in a high-risk sample.
Castro, Rafael Dias de
The research note presents the initial reception of psychoanalytic theory by psychiatric physicians in Rio de Janeiro in the first decades of the twentieth century before it became an institutionalized scientific tool. To understand the specificities of its reception, it examines, from the standpoint of the circulation of scientific knowledge and the process of adaptation to the local context, how the perceptions of psychiatrists regarding psychoanalytic theory were embedded in the then prevailing scientific theories and assumptions, initially in the dabates on the hysteria and nervousness categories. It also suggests that psychoanalytic theory should be used to deeply understand other debates of the time, such as sexuality and nervous diseases.
Wagner, Valentin; Klein, Julian; Hanich, Julian; Shah, Mira; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobsen, Thomas
We investigated cognitive “art schema” effects—as resulting from framing a situation as one of art reception—on the enjoyability of negative emotions by means of an elaborate disguised anger induction in the field. Because situations of both art reception and participation in lab experiments are
Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Vincent, L.
Reception of partially correlated fields by two closely coupled electrical dipoles is discussed as a function of load impedances and open-circuit correlations. Two local maxima of the power may be achieved for two different load impedances, but in those cases the output correlations are high...
Raaber, Nikolaj; Duvald, Iben; Riddervold, Ingunn; Christensen, Erika F; Kirkegaard, Hans
Emergency departments (ED) recognize crowding and handover from prehospital to in-hospital settings to be major challenges. Prehospital Geographical Information Systems (GIS) may be a promising tool to address such issues. In this study, the use of prehospital GIS data was implemented in an ED in order to investigate its effect on 1) wait time and unprepared activations of Trauma Teams (TT) and Medical Emergency Teams (MET) and 2) nurses' perceptions regarding patient reception, workflow and resource utilization. From May 1st 2014 to October 31th 2014, GIS data was displayed in the ED. Data included real-time estimated time of arrival, distance to ED, dispatch criteria, patient data and ambulance contact information. Data was used by coordinating nurses for time activation of TT and MET involved in the initial treatment of severely-injured or critically-ill patients. In addition, it was used as a logistics tool for handling all other patients transported by ambulance to the ED. The study followed a mixed-methods design, consisting of a quantitative study (before and after intervention) and a qualitative study (survey and interviews). Participants included all patients received by TT or MET and coordinating nurses in the ED. 1.) Quantitative: 599 patients were included. The median wait time for TT and MET was 5 min both before and after the GIS intervention, showing no difference (p = 0.18). A significant reduction in the subgroup of waits >10 min was found (p GIS data as a tool to optimize resource utilization and quality of all patients' reception, critically or non-critically ill. No substantial disadvantages were reported. The contradiction of measured median wait time and nurses perceived improved timing of team activation may result from having both RT- ETA and supplemental patient information not only for seriously-injured or critically-ill patients received by the TT and MET, but for all patients transported by ambulance. The reduction in waits > 10
McIntyre, Laureen J; Hellsten, Laurie-Ann M; Bidonde, Julia; Boden, Catherine; Doi, Carolyn
The majority of a child's language development occurs in the first 5 years of life when brain development is most rapid. There are significant long-term benefits to supporting all children's language and literacy development such as maximizing their developmental potential (i.e., cognitive, linguistic, social-emotional), when children are experiencing a critical period of development (i.e., early childhood to 9 years of age). A variety of people play a significant role in supporting children's language development, including parents, guardians, family members, educators, and/or speech-language pathologists. Speech-language pathologists and educators are the professionals who predominantly support children's language development in order for them to become effective communicators and lay the foundation for later developing literacy skills (i.e., reading and writing skills). Therefore, these professionals need formal and informal assessments that provide them information on a child's understanding and/or use of the increasingly complex aspects of language in order to identify and support the receptive and expressive language learning needs of diverse children during their early learning experiences (i.e., aged 1.5 to 9 years). However, evidence on what methods and tools are being used is lacking. The authors will carry out a scoping review of the literature to identify studies and map the receptive and expressive English language assessment methods and tools that have been published and used since 1980. Arksey and O'Malley's (2005) six-stage approach to conducting a scoping review was drawn upon to design the protocol for this investigation: (1) identifying the research question; (2) identifying relevant studies; (3) study selection; (4) charting the data; (5) collating, summarizing, and reporting the results; and (6) consultation. This information will help these professionals identify and select appropriate assessment methods or tools that can be used to support
With Beyond the Pleasure Principle, Freud attempted 'to describe and to account for the facts of daily observation in our field of study' (1920, p. 7), in particular concerning destructive clinical phenomena that confront us in the analytic situation: traumatic neuroses, melancholic states, negative-therapeutic reactions, masochism, repetition compulsion and so on. The author demonstrates in the first section how Freud's own resistance - later self-diagnosed - to recognizing these unwelcome facts was expressed in the terminological and conceptual ambiguities of the death drive hypothesis then introduced, ambiguities that to some extent continue to impede the reception of its clinical usefulness to this day. As soon as Freud had demonstrated the connection with clinical practice more directly in The Ego and the Id (1923), some contemporaries adopted it as a helpful clinical concept, while others believed that they could (and must) refute it. The second part outlines its reception in the 1920s and 1930s, which was part of an international discussion that was, of course, initially conducted mainly in German. The beginnings of an important further development of the death drive hypothesis are described in a separate section because it originated from Melanie Klein's earliest experiences in analysing children in Berlin in the early to mid-1920s. She referred at that time to an 'evil principle', and in 1932 published her view of the death drive hypothesis, which was further developed in subsequent decades by her and her followers in London. In this period, conditions changed dramatically: in Germany Freud's books (among others) were burnt, crimes against humanity were instigated and psychoanalysis ceased to exist in this country. Almost all the analysts who published on the death drive had to emigrate. From then on, entirely different discourses took place in the various regions. In Germany, the death drive hypothesis was (largely) disregarded or rejected for decades
Citro, Vincenzo; Giannetti, Flavio; Pralits, Jan O
We investigate the stability properties of flows over an open square cavity for fluids with shear-dependent viscosity. Analysis is carried out in context of the linear theory using a normal-mode decomposition. The incompressible Cauchy equations, with a Carreau viscosity model, are discretized with a finite-element method. The characteristics of direct and adjoint eigenmodes are analyzed and discussed in order to understand the receptivity features of the flow. Furthermore, we identify the regions of the flow that are more sensitive to spatially localized feedback by building a spatial map obtained from the product between the direct and adjoint eigenfunctions. Analysis shows that the first global linear instability of the steady flow is a steady or unsteady three-dimensionl bifurcation depending on the value of the power-law index n. The instability mechanism is always located inside the cavity and the linear stability results suggest a strong connection with the classical lid-driven cavity problem. (paper)
Faulkner, Guy; Finlay, Sara-Jane
Research evaluating mediated physical activity campaigns uses an unsophisticated conceptualization of the media and would benefit from the application of a media studies approach. The purpose of this article is to report on the application of this type of analysis to the Canada on the Move media campaign. Through interviews and document analysis, the press release surrounding Canada on the Move was examined at four levels: inception, production, transmission and reception. Analytic strategies of thematic and textual analysis were conducted. The press release was well received by journalists and editors and was successfully transmitted as inferred from national and local television coverage, although there was no national print pickup. Canada on the Move was perceived by sampled audience members as a useful and interesting strategy to encourage walking. A holistic approach to media analysis reveals the complex and frequently messy process of this mediated communication process. Implications for future media disseminations of Canada on the Move are discussed.
Mat Rahim Ainurliza
Full Text Available In the context of multi-ethnic Britain, the major concern lies in the diversity and complexity of Muslims living in the West, which somehow is misrepresented in the western media as a frozen, static population, fixed in time and space. This misrepresentation dominates mainstream media through the hegemony of western superiority. The operation and role of Muslim media organisations are still underresearched yet potentially constitute an integral part of accommodating the minority population within the wider society. This paper discusses on the reception of images published in two British Muslim magazines by taking views from Muslims and non-Muslims into account. The results show that both groups recognize the identities of British Muslims via visual representations in the Muslim media and that the representations challenge the mainstream images of Muslims.
Gupta, Arnob Das; Roy, Subrata
We introduce a passive receptive rectangular channel at the trailing edge of an open rectangular cavity to reduce the acoustic tones generated due to coherent shear layer impingement. The channel is numerically tested at Mach 0.3 using an unsteady three-dimensional large eddy simulation. Results show reduction in pressure fluctuations in the cavity due to which sound pressure levels are suppressed. Two linear dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators are placed inside the channel to enhance the flow through it. Specifically, acoustic suppression of 7 dB was obtained for Mach 0.3 flow with the plasma actuated channel. Also, the drag coefficient for the cavity reduced by over three folds for the channel and over eight folds for the plasma actuated channel. Such a channel can be useful in noise and drag reduction for various applications, including weapons bay, landing gear and branched piping systems. (fast track communication)
Full Text Available The paper is concerned with reception strategies where interdisciplinary competencies are connected to musical expectations towards a text, which – i.a. because of metatextual suggestions – needs a musical explanation – “musical supplement”. The objective of the article is the musical and literary dialog, which belongs to intermediality (definition by W. Wolf, and intertextuality in the large sense as well. Although the penetration of musical and literary correspondence does not threaten “scientist hysteria”, it also does not promise fruitful strategies and satisfactory conclusions. The paper includes terminological proposals which are an attempt at universal, semiotic transposition into musical and literary borderland, which in the practice of interpretation has too eclectic, and mostly one-time solutions.
This paper describes a new type of receptive music therapy which aims to build the patients' psychological resilience by increasing the levels of dopamine, serotonin and oxytocin in order to increase standard psychopharmacological treatment efficiency. Previous research concerning the musically induced production of the two neurotransmitters and a hormone is discussed and reviewed. Based upon the existent studies concerning the influence of music on dopamine, serotonin and oxytocin induction, a new design of specific music features for this purpose is proposed and elaborated upon. The music features are numerically described using Music Information Retrieval software in order to objectivise the otherwise intuitively chosen music elements such as event density (number of notes started in one second of time), tempo, harmonic rhythm (number of harmonies changes in one second), dynamics, key changes and roughness coefficient (level of sensory dissonance). Finally, the new concept of resilience enhancing therapy is proposed and defined using the music features described above.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to undertand how the receptor might be affected in the consumption of contemporary cultural products, speciﬁcally, those works of art and design generated from digital media. Thus, the reading strategies previously proposed on the conﬁguration of the objects studied were investigated, in order to understand how the different receptive practices were structured, considering the horizons of expectation which circumscribe the objects created from the use of mobile devices and decoding technology markers. First, you will see a discussion about these mobile media, and, second, a Peircean approach to rating and taking into account the forms of presentation of the objects studied. The paper classiﬁes and rates these objects, assuming the dominance of interaction inherent to the poetic-technological proposals adopted.
Full Text Available The pollen–stigma interaction plays an important role in reproductive process and has been continuously studied in many interspecific and intergeneric crossing experiments. The aim of this study was to investigate stigma receptivity (SR of willow in order to determine the most suitable period for its pollination with poplar pollen and improve the effectiveness of Salix × Populus crosses. Tissue samples were examined histologically using light, epifluorescent, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Willow SR was determined by stigma morphological traits, test of pollen germination rate, Peroxtesmo test of peroxidase and esterase activity on stigma surface as well as papilla ultrastructure at anthesis. We have ascertained that the SR duration in willow is short, lasting from 1 to 2 DA. The poplar pollen germination rate on willow stigmas on 1 DA ranged from 26.3 to 11.2%.
Lauritsen, Maj-Britt Glenn; Kreiner, Svend; Söderström, Margareta
Purpose: This study evaluates initial validity and reliability of the “Galker test of speech reception in noise” developed for Danish preschool children suspected to have problems with hearing or understanding speech against strict psychometric standards and assesses acceptance by the children....... Methods:The Galker test is an audio-visual, computerised, word discrimination test in background noise, originally comprised of 50 word pairs. Three hundred and eighty eight children attending ordinary day care centres and aged 3–5 years were included. With multiple regression and the Rasch item response...... model it was examined whether the total score of the Galker test validly reflected item responses across subgroups defined by sex, age, bilingualism, tympanometry, audiometry and verbal comprehension. Results: A total of 370 children (95%) accepted testing and 339 (87%) completed all 50 items...
Full Text Available The main challenge confronting African postcolonial societies is the failure of political, social, and cultural transformation to confront and transcend the limitations imposed by historical and contemporary contingencies. Hence the task of postcolonial theorists is to develop conceptual resources for a more sustained evaluation and analysis of the challenge. In this article, I recast Sembène's film, Moolaade, in a new relief to foreground the core issue of the postcolonial condition. I proceed to reappropriate Kompridis's concepts of ‘reflective disclosure’ and ‘receptivity’, which he develops from Heidegger's ‘world disclosure’, to devise what I term ‘postcolonial receptivity’. I then argue that postcolonial receptivity is an important concept that lends more intelligibility and coherence to the African quest to transform social and political forms of life.
Arthur M Jacobs
Full Text Available A long tradition of research including classical rhetoric, aesthetics and poetics theory, formalism and structuralism, as well as current perspectives in (neurocognitive poetics has investigated structural and functional aspects of literature reception. Despite a wealth of literature published in specialised journals like Poetics, however, still little is known about how the brain processes and creates literary and poetic texts. Still, such stimulus material might be suited better than other genres for demonstrating the complexities with which our brain constructs the world in and around us, because it unifies thought and language, music and imagery in a clear, manageable way, most often with play, pleasure, and emotion (Schrott & Jacobs, 2011. In this paper, I discuss methods and models for investigating the neuronal and cognitive-affective bases of literary reading together with pertinent results from studies on poetics, text processing, emotion, or neuroaesthetics, and outline current challenges and future perspectives.
Bhardwaj, N; Hasan, S B; Zaheer, M
A longitudinal study was conducted on 212 pregnant women from May 1987 to April 1988. Maternal Care Receptivity (MCR) "an innovative approach" was adopted for the assessment of maternal care services provided to pregnant mothers at their door steps. During follow-up, scores were allotted to each of the services rendered and antenatal status of pregnant women. Depending on the score--MCR was classified as high (11 to 8), moderate (7 to 4) or poor (3 to 0). Perinatal and neonatal deaths were recorded and an inverse relationship between MCR and perinatal and mortalities was observed (z = 5.46, p women with high MCR. One of the most important cause of high PNMR and neonatal mortality rate in developing countries is poor MCR, i.e., under utilization of even the existing maternal health services. The main reasons for this under utilization appear to be poverty, illiteracy, ignorance and lack of faith in modern medicine.
Nishino, Y; Schunck, M
This research examines young unmarried women's ways of talking about AIDS, AIDS prevention, and its relationship to mass media AIDS messages in Thailand. Data were derived from a survey conducted in four districts of Kanchanaburi province. Three hundred ninety-seven unmarried women were extracted from the approximately 1,800 original subjects for this analysis. Respondents were asked about the subjects and extent of their conversations about AIDS, the choice of discussion partners, considerations of social appropriateness in talking about the disease, as well as their risk perception. Important findings were that (a) women tend to talk about AIDS primarily with friends and siblings, (b) their reception level of mass media messages is related to the number of topics discussed and frequency of talks by the subjects, and (c) socioeconomic status and age are related to the variety and frequency of talking about AIDS. Implications for AIDS education are discussed.
Doherty, Leo F; Taylor, Hugh S
To determine whether transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3 is a paracrine signal secreted by leiomyoma that inhibits bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-mediated endometrial receptivity and decidualization. Experimental. Laboratory. Women with symptomatic leiomyomas. Endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and leiomyoma cells were isolated from surgical specimens. Leiomyoma-conditioned media (LCM) was applied to cultured ESC. The TGF-β was blocked by two approaches: TGF-β pan-specific antibody or transfection with a mutant TGF-β receptor type II. Cells were then treated with recombinant human BMP-2 to assess BMP responsiveness. Expression of BMP receptor types 1A, 1B, 2, as well as endometrial receptivity mediators HOXA10 and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed elevated TGF-β levels in LCM. LCM treatment of ESC reduced expression of BMP receptor types 1B and 2 to approximately 60% of pretreatment levels. Preincubation of LCM with TGF-β neutralizing antibody or mutant TGF receptor, but not respective controls, prevented repression of BMP receptors. HOXA10 and LIF expression was repressed in recombinant human BMP-2 treated, LCM exposed ESC. Pretreatment of LCM with TGF-β antibody or transfection with mutant TGF receptor prevented HOXA10 and LIF repression. Leiomyoma-derived TGF-β was necessary and sufficient to alter endometrial BMP-2 responsiveness. Blockade of TGF-β prevents repression of BMP-2 receptors and restores BMP-2-stimulated expression of HOXA10 and LIF. Blockade of TGF signaling is a potential strategy to improve infertility and pregnancy loss associated with uterine leiomyoma. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Romantic approach to William Shakespeare’s dramatic works, as well as the notions and questions so vital for the consciousness of the epoch concerning the capacity and function of destiny, unrecognizability of existence, interference of supernatural powers in the world that can be grasped with human mind and common sense, are all intriguingly transparent in Giuseppe Verdi’s Macbeth. The Italian composer, who knew the Romantic reception of Shakespeare’s dramatic plays well (e.g. the Italian translations of the lectures given by August W. Schlegel, embarked upon the issue of the ambiguity of the scene with the witches that appear to Macbeth, posed a question on the cognitive value in the dreamy apparition (in the brilliantly constructed Lady Macbeth’s sleepwalking scene, and, finally, emphasized the aspect of hybridity of the world that inseparably combines the grandeur and the grotesque (the point highlighted in Victor Hugo’s considerations on Shakespeare. The two versions of the operatic Macbeth — the one produced in Florence in 1847, the other, 1865 revised version produced for Paris — relate well with the long sequence of changeable conventions in the nineteenth century theatre, taking into consideration its requirements (the need for a spectacular character of staging, the introduction of multiple Ake a Romantic implant in the operetta world of farcical braggadocio dominant on the Parisian stage at the time of the Second Empire, testifies to the enormous influence of the Romantic reception of Shakespeare exerted at the time and defining for a considerable period of time the concept of adaptation of the works of the Stradford master to meet the needs of the operatic stage.
Full Text Available Spoken English may sometimes cause us to face a peculiar problem in respect of the reception and the decoding of auditive signals, which might lead to mishearings. Risen from erroneous perception, from a lack in understanding the communication and an involuntary mental replacement of a certain element or structure by a more familiar one, these mistakes are most frequently encountered in the case of listening to songs, where the melodic line can facilitate the development of confusion by its somewhat altered intonation, which produces the so called mondegreens. Still, instances can be met in all domains of verbal communication, as proven in several examples noticed during classes of English as a foreign language (EFL taught to non-philological subjects. Production and perceptions of language depend on a series of elements that influence the encoding and the decoding of the message. These filters belong to both psychological and semantic categories which can either interfere with the accuracy of emission and reception. Poor understanding of a notion or concept combined with a more familiar relation with a similarly sounding one will result in unconsciously picking the structure which is better known. This means ‘hearing’ something else than it had been said, something closer to the receiver’s preoccupations and baggage of knowledge than the original structure or word. Some mishearings become particularly relevant as they concern teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP. Such are those encountered during classes of Business English or in English for Law. Though not very likely to occur too often, given an intuitively felt inaccuracy - as the terms are known by the users to need to be more specialised -, such examples are still not ignorable. Thus, we consider they deserve a higher degree of attention, as they might become quite relevant in the global context of an increasing work force migration and a spread of multinational companies.
Chen, Tianmu; Zhang, Shaosen; Zhou, Shui-Sen; Wang, Xuezhong; Luo, Chunhai; Zeng, Xucan; Guo, Xiangrui; Lin, Zurui; Tu, Hong; Sun, Xiaodong; Zhou, Hongning
The re-establishment of malaria has become an important public health issue in and out of China, and receptivity to this disease is key to its re-emergence. Yingjiang is one of the few counties with locally acquired malaria cases in the China-Myanmar border in China. This study aimed to understand receptivity to malaria in Yingjiang County, China, from June to October 2016. Light-traps were employed to capture the mosquitoes in 17 villages in eight towns which were categorized into four elevation levels: level 1, 0-599 m; level 2, 600-1199 m; level 3, 1200-1799 m; and level 4, > 1800 m. Species richness, diversity, dominance and evenness were used to picture the community structure. Similarity in species composition was compared between different elevation levels. Data of seasonal abundance of mosquitoes, human biting rate, density of light-trap-captured adult mosquitoes and larvae, parous rate, and height distribution (density) of Anopheles minimus and Anopheles sinensis were collected in two towns (Na Bang and Ping Yuan) each month from June to October, 2016. Over the study period, 10,053 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from the eight towns, and 15 Anopheles species were identified, the most-common of which were An. sinensis (75.4%), Anopheles kunmingensis (15.6%), and An. minimus (3.5%). Anopheles minimus was the major malaria vector in low-elevation areas (malaria in the China-Myanmar border in Yingjiang County.
Lee, Joseph J.; Murphy, John; Baker, Amanda
This study traces the reception history of Freeman and Johnson's (1998) widely cited article dedicated to theory and practices of second language teacher education (SLTE). It illuminates the degree to which that article has impacted SLTE theory, research, and potentially instructional practices. The reception study analysis is based on a data set…
Full Text Available The paper reveals some mostly unnoticed and unexpected trends in reception of novel ideas in science. The author formulates certain principles of the reception of these ideas by scientific communities and justifies them by examples from modern mathematics and non-classical logic.
Lwin, May O.; Vijaykumar, Santosh; Foo, Schubert; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton; Lim, Gentatsu; Panchapakesan, Chitra; Wimalaratne, Prasad
This article focuses on a novel social media-based system that addresses dengue prevention through an integration of three components: predictive surveillance, civic engagement and health education. The aim was to conduct a potential receptivity assessment of this system among smartphone users in the city of Colombo, the epicenter of the dengue…
Celik, Onder; Acet, Mustafa; Celik, Sudenaz; Sahin, Levent; Koc, Onder; Celik, Nilufer
As with other organs endometrial functions are altered with the advancing age. Age related decrease in reproductive functions leads to decline in the number of oocytes retrieved and the synthesis of endometrial receptivity molecules. Despite the significant improvement in assisted reproductive technologies we do not have so many options to enhance endometrial receptivity. Due to lack of drugs having endometrium receptivity enhancement properties, oocyte donation seems to be the only solution for women with implantation failure. The euploid oocytes come from young and healthy donors may overcome age associated endometrial receptivity defect. Nevertheless, many reasons restrict us from using oocyte donation in women with implantation failure. We, therefore, hypothesized that by mimicking a young blastocyst's effect on endometrium, the transfer of genuine embryos and implantation-promoting compounds together might be the new treatment option for infertile women with recurrent implantation failure. Artificial beads, MI or GV oocytes, and empty zona can be used as a container for intrauterine replacement of implantation-promoting compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wehby, George L; Trujillo, Antonio J
We examine disparities in early child cognitive and receptive-expressive skills by ethnic ancestry among infants aged 3-24 months from Brazil and Argentina. We employ unique data on the neurodevelopment of children who were seeking routine well-child care at a set of pediatric clinics in these countries. The sample included children who had normal birth outcomes and no major health complications, allowing us to focus on variation in neurodevelopment among children without major physical health limitations. The physicians attending the pediatric clinics were trained in administering the Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener, a standardized instrument used to screen an infant's risk of neurodevelopmental problems on various domains of abilities. We evaluate disparities in overall neurodevelopmental scores and risk for neurodevelopmental problems as well as in cognitive functioning and receptive-expressive neurodevelopment. We also examine the extent to which household demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and geographic location explain these disparities. We find large gaps in both cognitive and receptive-expressive neurodevelopment by ancestry. In Brazil, children of African ancestry have lower scores on both cognitive and receptive-expressive domains and on overall neurodevelopment than children of European ancestry. In Argentina, children of Native ancestry have lower scores on these outcomes than children of European ancestry. These gaps however are largely explained by differences in geographic location and household characteristics, highlighting the importance of policies that reduce socioeconomic and geographic disparities in social capital and economic development for eliminating ethnic disparities in infant neurodevelopment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Conclusion: Our study reported the preponderance of benign lesions than malignant lesions in the sample population. Comparatively, MT exhibited the best dye-tissue receptivity in both benign and malignant lesions than the baseline dye (H&E and remains a valuable tool for the diagnosis of gynecological lesions.
Gao, Zhen; Daneva, Anna; Salanenka, Yuliya; Van Durme, Matthias; Huysmans, Marlies; Lin, Zongcheng; De Winter, Freya; Vanneste, Steffen; Karimi, Mansour; Van de Velde, Jan; Vandepoele, Klaas; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen; Lambrecht, Bart N; Nowack, Moritz K
Flowers have a species-specific functional life span that determines the time window in which pollination, fertilization and seed set can occur. The stigma tissue plays a key role in flower receptivity by intercepting pollen and initiating pollen tube growth toward the ovary. In this article, we show that a developmentally controlled cell death programme terminates the functional life span of stigma cells in Arabidopsis. We identified the leaf senescence regulator ORESARA1 (also known as ANAC092) and the previously uncharacterized KIRA1 (also known as ANAC074) as partially redundant transcription factors that modulate stigma longevity by controlling the expression of programmed cell death-associated genes. KIRA1 expression is sufficient to induce cell death and terminate floral receptivity, whereas lack of both KIRA1 and ORESARA1 substantially increases stigma life span. Surprisingly, the extension of stigma longevity is accompanied by only a moderate extension of flower receptivity, suggesting that additional processes participate in the control of the flower's receptive life span.
The article deals with the question of a possible reception of Origen's ideas about universal salvation in Danish theology and literature in the 19th century. The focus is on H.L. Martensen, B.S. Ingemann and H.C. Andersen who were positive towards the idea about universal salvation and P...
Reis, Luiz C.A.; Guzella, Marcia F.R.; Seles, Sandro R.N.; Cuccia, Valeria
For reception of the received sources and for accomplish with CNEN regulations and IAEA recommendations, the CDTN have implanted a system for receiving those sources and all the procedures for effective control and recovering of information. The CDTN posses a source deposit, a data bank for the inventory and also a Laboratory for Treatment of Sealed Sources
This article analyses Mind the Gap's Boo, a re-imagining of Harper Lee's "To Kill a Mockingbird", which features a cast of learning disabled actors. It is concerned with the public reception of the work, particularly the "effect" of an all-disabled cast. What are the consequences, both ethical and aesthetic, for these actors to tell this story on…
Menninghaus, Winfried; Wagner, Valentin; Hanich, Julian; Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Jacobsen, Thomas; Koelsch, Stefan
While covering all commentaries, our response specifically focuses on the following issues: How can the hypothesis of emotional distancing (qua art framing) be compatible with stipulating high levels of felt negative emotions in art reception? Which concept of altogether pleasurable mixed emotions does our model involve? Can mechanisms of predictive coding, social sharing, and immersion enhance the power of our model?
This article discusses transformation of passive knowledge receptivity into experiences of deep learning in a lecture-based music theory course at the second-year undergraduate level through implementation of collaborative projects that evoke natural critical learning environments. It presents an example of such a project, addresses key features…
Serrano, Irene; Olmedilla, Adela
Stigma-surface and style enzymes are important for pollen reception, selection and germination. This report deals with the histochemical location of the activity of four basic types of enzyme involved in these processes in the olive (Olea europaea L.). The detection of peroxidase, esterase and acid-phosphatase activities at the surface of the stigma provided evidence of early receptivity in olive pistils. The stigma maintained its receptivity until the arrival of pollen. Acid-phosphatase activity appeared in the style at the moment of anthesis and continued until the fertilization of the ovule. RNase activity was detected in the extracellular matrix of the styles of flowers just before pollination and became especially evident in pistils after self-pollination. This activity gradually decreased until it practically disappeared in more advanced stages. RNase activity was also detected in pollen tubes growing in pollinated pistils and appeared after in vitro germination in the presence of self-incompatible pistils. These findings suggest that RNases may well be involved in intraspecific pollen rejection in olive flowers. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that evidence of enzyme activity in stigma receptivity and pollen selection has been described in this species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ellina V. Shustova
Full Text Available This article identifies problems of translation of J.R.R. Tolkien`s works to the Russian language. Due to complexity of their reception in the Russian literature and culture, these problems continue at the present time. The purpose of this article is to consider the translational interpretations as a form of reception of J.R.R. Tolkien`s works in Russia and perform analysis of relevant stages of the receptive process. The leading approach to the study of this problem is the methodology of receptive aesthetics; this takes into account the development trends of the method. This research shows that it is the translation, in many respects, that sets trends for further understanding of writings by J.R.R. Tolkien in Russia and includes them in a Russian cultural and literary context, as well as set their level of systematic perception. Contents of this article may be used for readings in general and special courses for Western literature at universities, and may be useful to a wide range of readers interested in the work of J.R.R. Tolkien.
Previous work in the area of choosing channel quantization levels for a additive white Gaussian noise channel composed of one receiver-demodulator is reviewed, and how this applies to the Deep Space Network composed of several receiver-demodulators (space diversity reception) is shown. Viterbi decoding for the resulting quantized channel is discussed.
Ebbels, Susan H.; Maric, Nataša; Murphy, Aoife; Turner, Gail
Background: Little evidence exists for the effectiveness of therapy for children with receptive language difficulties, particularly those whose difficulties are severe and persistent. Aims: To establish the effectiveness of explicit speech and language therapy with visual support for secondary school-aged children with language impairments…
Petkov, Nicolai; Westenberg, Michel A.
Band-spectrum noise has been shown to suppress the visual perception of printed letters. The suppression exhibits a specific dependence on the spatial frequency of the noise, and the frequency domain of most effective inhibition has been related to the size of the letters. In this paper, we address
Langen, de P.W.; Nijdam, M.H.
Effective coastal zone management requires regulations of various forms. Inevitably, some of these have an impact on seaports. Understandably, regulations that may weaken the competitive position of a seaport are difficult to implement. The stakeholders of ports are well aware of their local,
Full Text Available An E-field probe has been developed for EMC immunity tests performed in closed space. The leads are flexible resistive transmission lines. Their influence on the field distribution is negligible. The probe has an isotropic reception from 100 MHz to 18 GHz; the sensitivity is in the 3 V/m–10 V/m range. The device is an accessory of the EMC test chamber. The readout of the field magnitude is carried out by personal computer, which fulfils also the required corrections of the raw data.
Valentin-Silva, Adriano; Coelho, Victor Peçanha de Miranda; Ventrella, Marília Contin; Vieira, Milene Faria
Dichogamy is a common characteristic among angiosperms, including Piper species. In this genus, the tiny flowers are morphologically similar and have an asynchronous stamen development. However, there is no information on the duration of stigma receptivity and whether it overlaps with pollen release. To better understand mechanisms of floral function in Piper vicosanum, we provide a detailed characterization of the timing of pollen release from the four stamens and the period of stigma receptivity and exposure mode of the receptive areas. We investigated plants of a natural population in a semideciduous seasonal forest (Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil), based on chemical tests, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Incomplete protogyny-a mechanism that favors outcrossing-was recorded. The period of stigma receptivity was long (14 d), and the sequential exposure and senescence of stigmatic papillae occurred gradually and in a basipetal direction. Pollen release began 2-6 d after the beginning of the pistillate phase, with an average pollen viability of 87.7%, during the bisexual flower phase. Pollen was released for up to 6 d and occurred in one stamen at a time. The fruit set observed in tests of self-pollination indicated self-compatibility. The gradual and sequential exposure of stigmatic papillae in P. vicosanum flowers is described here as the mechanism for the long duration of receptivity. Anther development and pollen release were also sequential. These findings are yet unreported reproductive characteristics of the genus and offer new perspectives for future studies on the floral biology of other Piper species. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.
Aubakirova, R.K.; Zhumakanova, V.R.; Kudasova, D.K.
also on an arrangement of a line liquidus on the concrete diagram of a status, i.e. generally mode of heat treatment essentially influences display of fast diffusion grooves. Thus, the received data allow speaking that, varying modes of meltdowns heat treatment of the specified systems, the reception of alloys with new morphology structures is possible, and, means, and the properties, i.e. give an opportunity of management of process of reception materials with new, given set of properties. There is an opportunity to manage the process of receiving materials with new given set of properties
Full Text Available A high-order finite difference method was used to simulate the hypersonic flow field over a blunt cone with different height roughness elements. The unsteady flow field induced by pulse disturbances was analyzed and compared with that under continuous disturbances. The temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of disturbances in the boundary layer were investigated and the propagation of different disturbance modes in the boundary layer was researched through the fast Fourier transform (FFT method. The effect of the roughness element on the receptivity characteristic of the hypersonic boundary layer under pulse entropy disturbances was explored. The results showed that the different mode disturbances near roughness in the boundary layer were enlarged in the upstream half of the roughness element and suppressed in the downstream half. However, the effect of roughness weakened gradually as the disturbance frequency increased in the boundary layer. A phenomenon of mode competition in the downstream region of the roughness element exited. As the disturbances propagated downstream, the fundamental mode gradually became the dominant mode. A certain promotion effect on the mode competition was induced by the roughness element and the effect was enhanced with the increase in the roughness element height.
Full Text Available The important role of collocation in learners’ language proficiency has been acknowledged widely. In Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL, collocation is known as one prominent member of the super-ordinate lexical cohesion, which contributes significantly to the textual coherence, together with grammatical cohesion and structural cohesion (Halliday & Hasan, 1985. Collocation is also viewed as the hallmark of truly advanced English learners since the higher the learners’ proficiency is, the more they tend to use collocation (Bazzaz & Samad, 2011; Hsu, 2007; Zhang, 1993. Further, knowledge of collocation is regarded as part of the native speakers’ communicative competence (Bazzaz & Samad, 2011; and lack of the knowledge is the most important sign of foreignness among foreign language learners (McArthur, 1992; McCarthy, 1990. Taking the importance of collocation into account, this study is aimed to shed light on Indonesian EFL learners’ levels of collocational competence. In the study, the collocational competence is restricted to v+n and adj+n of collocation but broken down into productive and receptive competence, about which little work has been done (Henriksen, 2013. For this purpose, 49 second-year students of an English department in a state polytechnic were chosen as the subjects. Two sets of tests (filling in the blanks and multiple-choice were administered to obtain the data of the subjects’ levels of productive and receptive competence and to gain information of which type was more problematic for the learners. The test instruments were designed by referring to Brashi’s (2006 test model, and Koya’s (2003. In the analysis of the data, interpretive-qualitative method was used primarily to obtain broad explanatory information. The data analysis showed that the scores of productive competence were lower than those of receptive competence in both v+n and adj+n collocation. The analysis also revealed that the scores of productive
Full Text Available Receptive vocabulary development is a component of the human language system that emerges in the first year of life and is characterised by onward expansion throughout life. Beginning in infancy, children's receptive vocabulary knowledge builds the foundation for oral language and reading skills. The foundations for success at school are built early, hence the public health policy focus on reducing developmental inequalities before children start formal school. The underlying assumption is that children's development is stable, and therefore predictable, over time. This study investigated this assumption in relation to children's receptive vocabulary ability. We investigated the extent to which low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years was associated with low receptive vocabulary ability at 8 years, and the predictive utility of a multivariate model that included child, maternal and family risk factors measured at 4 years. The study sample comprised 3,847 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate risks for low receptive vocabulary ability from 4-8 years and sensitivity-specificity analysis was used to examine the predictive utility of the multivariate model. In the multivariate model, substantial risk factors for receptive vocabulary delay from 4-8 years, in order of descending magnitude, were low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years, low maternal education, and low school readiness. Moderate risk factors, in order of descending magnitude, were low maternal parenting consistency, socio-economic area disadvantage, low temperamental persistence, and NESB status. The following risk factors were not significant: One or more siblings, low family income, not reading to the child, high maternal work hours, and Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander ethnicity. The results of the sensitivity-specificity analysis showed that a well
Piechowski-Jozwiak, Bartlomiej; Boller, François; Bogousslavsky, Julien
Art is defined as expression or application of human creative skill and imagination producing works to be appreciated primarily for their aesthetic value or emotional power. This definition encompasses two very important elements-the creation and reception of art-and by doing so it establishes a link, a dialogue between the artist and spectator. From the evolutionary biological perspective, activities need to have an immediate or remote effect on the population through improving survival, gene selection, and environmental adjustment, and this includes art. It may serve as a universal means of communication bypassing time, cultural, ethnic, and social differences. The neurological mechanisms of both art production and appreciation are researched by neuroscientists and discussed both in terms of healthy brain biology and complex neuronal networking perspectives. In this paper, we describe folk art and the issue of symbolic archetypes in psychoanalytic thought as well as offer neuronal mechanisms for art by emphasizing mirror/neurons and the role they play in it.
Robinson H.; Mage, M.; Dolan, M.; Wang, R.; Boyd, L.; Revilleza, M.; Natarajan, K.; Myers, N.; Hansen, T.; Margulies, D.
MHC class I (MHC-I) proteins of the adaptive immune system require antigenic peptides for maintenance of mature conformation and immune function via specific recognition by MHC-I-restricted CD8(+) T lymphocytes. New MHC-I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum are held by chaperones in a peptide-receptive (PR) transition state pending release by tightly binding peptides. In this study, we show, by crystallographic, docking, and molecular dynamics methods, dramatic movement of a hinged unit containing a conserved 3(10) helix that flips from an exposed 'open' position in the PR transition state to a 'closed' position with buried hydrophobic side chains in the peptide-loaded mature molecule. Crystallography of hinged unit residues 46-53 of murine H-2L(d) MHC-I H chain, complexed with mAb 64-3-7, demonstrates solvent exposure of these residues in the PR conformation. Docking and molecular dynamics predict how this segment moves to help form the A and B pockets crucial for the tight peptide binding needed for stability of the mature peptide-loaded conformation, chaperone dissociation, and Ag presentation.
Mooney, T Aran; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Yu, Hsin-Yi; Ketten, Darlene R; Jen, I-Fan
While odontocetes do not have an external pinna that guides sound to the middle ear, they are considered to receive sound through specialized regions of the head and lower jaw. Yet odontocetes differ in the shape of the lower jaw suggesting that hearing pathways may vary between species, potentially influencing hearing directionality and noise impacts. This work measured the audiogram and received sensitivity of a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) in an effort to comparatively examine how this species receives sound. Jaw hearing thresholds were lowest (most sensitive) at two locations along the anterior, midline region of the lower jaw (the lower jaw tip and anterior part of the throat). Responses were similarly low along a more posterior region of the lower mandible, considered the area of best hearing in bottlenose dolphins. Left- and right-side differences were also noted suggesting possible left-right asymmetries in sound reception or differences in ear sensitivities. The results indicate best hearing pathways may vary between the Risso's dolphin and other odontocetes measured. This animal received sound well, supporting a proposed throat pathway. For Risso's dolphins in particular, good ventral hearing would support their acoustic ecology by facilitating echo-detection from their proposed downward oriented echolocation beam.
Istiqlaliah Nurul Hidayati
Full Text Available Abstract: The debate over the use of Bahasa Indonesia and English has been an unsolved issue. Some teachers still lack confidence in using Bahasa Indonesia in their teaching to promote classroom interaction. Classroom interaction is important since the more engaged the students are, the more successful the material delivery will be. Hence this study was aimed at finding out whether or not teacher’s use of Bahasa Indonesia in teaching receptive skills of language and grammar contributes to classroom interaction and investigating the benefits of the use of Bahasa Indonesia in EFL classes as perceived by the teachers and the students. Six classes of different majors and six English lecturers from a polytechnic in Bandung participated in the study. The data were collected through questionnaires, interview, and classroom observation. The findings support the idea that teachers’ use of Bahasa Indonesia judiciously promotes classroom interaction. Both students and teachers found the benefits of the use of Bahasa Indonesia in the classroom only when it was needed. However, some teachers still overused Bahasa Indonesia in the EFL classrooms. Keywords: teachers and students’ perceptions, classroom interaction, English (L2, Bahasa Indonesia (L1, English as a Foreign Language Teaching
Myers, Gael; Pettigrew, Simone
Entomophagy presents a novel approach to securing a nutritive and environmentally sustainable food source to meet the needs of a growing and ageing population. To date, research exploring the receptiveness of Western consumers towards entomophagy has focused on younger age groups and there has been little examination of the views of older adults. The aims of this study were to (i) explore the factors associated with older people's attitudes towards entomophagy and (ii) identify strategies to encourage seniors to adopt the practice. Interviews were conducted with 77 Western Australian seniors aged 60years and over. The average age of the interviewees was 73years and most were female (n=67). Reflecting the lack of promotion of entomophagy as a desirable eating behaviour, there were very low levels of awareness of the environmental and nutritional advantages of this practice. Most of the interviewed seniors saw entomophagy as a disgusting practice that was incompatible with their cultural beliefs and values, however a small group viewed it as a novel and potentially enjoyable experience. The findings suggest that strategies to target the former group could focus on overcoming the disgust reaction, such as by disguising insects in food and providing guarantees of food safety. Consumption in the latter group could be facilitated by improving knowledge and skills relating to the preparation of insect-based foods. Strategies to increase entomophagy in the Western world need to consider the unique views of different consumer groups towards the practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Traoré, Leila Thérèse; Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Lütken, Henrik Vlk
Several members of the Kalanchoë genus are popular as ornamental plants. Cross-breeding and wide hybridisation are essential to continuously introduce novel traits into cultivated plant material. This study aimed to identify the major factors related to the stigma affecting cross-pollination in t......Several members of the Kalanchoë genus are popular as ornamental plants. Cross-breeding and wide hybridisation are essential to continuously introduce novel traits into cultivated plant material. This study aimed to identify the major factors related to the stigma affecting cross......-pollination in the Kalanchoë blossfeldiana. Pollen tube growth after pollination of K. blossfeldiana 'Jackie' and 'Reese' was examined at different stigma developmental stages. Five distinct developmental stages were identified based on changes in morphology and activity of stigmatic peroxidase. After reciprocal pollination...... at the five stigma developmental stages, fluorescence microscopy was used to estimate the number of pollen tubes in situ. Both cultivars had receptive stigmas from stage I to IV, which concurred with the continuous expansion of the stigma covered with exudates. No pollen tube growth was observed at stage V...
Uhrig, Jennifer D; Bann, Carla M; Wasserman, Jill; Guenther-Grey, Carolyn; Eroğlu, Doğan
This study measured audience reactions and receptivity to five draft HIV prevention messages developed for people living with HIV (PLWH) to inform future HIV message choice and audience targeting decisions. Our premise was that message concepts that receive wide audience appeal constitute a strong starting point for designing future HIV prevention messages, program activities, and health communication and marketing campaigns for PLWH. The majority of participants indicated agreement with evaluative statements that expressed favorable attitudes toward all five of the message concepts we evaluated. Participants gave the lowest approval to the message promoting sero-sorting. Sociodemographic characteristics played less of a role in predicting differences in message perceptions than attitudes, beliefs and sexual behavior. The general appeal for these messages is encouraging given that messages were expressed in plain text without the support of other creative elements that are commonly used in message execution. These results confirm the utility of systematic efforts to generate and screen message concepts prior to large-scale testing.
Subramanian, Nakkeerar; Ramanathan, Rajkumar; Kumar, Venkatesh Madhan; Chellappan, Dhanabalan Kalingarayan Palayam; Ramasamy, Jeyaprakash
Law governs the admission and management of involuntary admissions of mentally ill persons who are admitted under the provisions of the mental health act. The court directs the doctor to take charge of such persons. In the further dealings of such person the medical officer of the psychiatric facility comes across legal terms, which require understanding so that patients could be dealt with properly. Various terms such as accused, under police custody, judicial custody, remand prisoner, or under trial prisoner are used to denote their legal status. It is imperative for the medical officer to understand the nuances in the meanings of these terms. There are many times when the relevant section under which the admission is ordered is not found in the reception order. In these cases the terminology by which the patient is mentioned throws a light on the status of the patient. Towards this aim a study was carried out to assess the awareness and understanding of such terms by the faculty and post- graduates of a tertiary care hospital that deals with the admission and care of such patients. They were administered a questionnaire containing these terms and asked to provide the meaning of these terms. The results showed that nearly half the faculty and students were not having clarity in awareness or understanding of the terms. Hence these terms and their meanings were gleaned from various judgments. The proper meaning of these terms and their use in judicial process and their importance is discussed.
Gfeller, Kate; Turner, Christopher; Oleson, Jacob; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Driscoll, Virginia
This study examined speech recognition abilities of cochlear implant (CI) recipients in the spectrally complex listening condition of 3 contrasting types of background music, and compared performance based upon listener groups: CI recipients using conventional long-electrode devices, Hybrid CI recipients (acoustic plus electric stimulation), and normal-hearing adults. We tested 154 long-electrode CI recipients using varied devices and strategies, 21 Hybrid CI recipients, and 49 normal-hearing adults on closed-set recognition of spondees presented in 3 contrasting forms of background music (piano solo, large symphony orchestra, vocal solo with small combo accompaniment) in an adaptive test. Signal-to-noise ratio thresholds for speech in music were examined in relation to measures of speech recognition in background noise and multitalker babble, pitch perception, and music experience. The signal-to-noise ratio thresholds for speech in music varied as a function of category of background music, group membership (long-electrode, Hybrid, normal-hearing), and age. The thresholds for speech in background music were significantly correlated with measures of pitch perception and thresholds for speech in background noise; auditory status was an important predictor. Evidence suggests that speech reception thresholds in background music change as a function of listener age (with more advanced age being detrimental), structural characteristics of different types of music, and hearing status (residual hearing). These findings have implications for everyday listening conditions such as communicating in social or commercial situations in which there is background music.
Fagan, Mary K; Pisoni, David B
This study investigated receptive vocabulary delay in deaf children with cochlear implants. Participants were 23 children with profound hearing loss, ages 6-14 years, who received a cochlear implant between ages 1.4 and 6 years. Duration of cochlear implant use ranged from 3.7 to 11.8 years. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Third Edition (PPVT-III) data were analyzed first by examining children's errors for evidence of difficulty in specific lexical content areas, and second by calculating standard scores with reference to hearing age (HA) (i.e., chronological age [CA]--age at implantation) rather than CA. Participants showed evidence of vocabulary understanding across all PPVT-III content categories with no strong evidence of disproportionate numbers of errors in any specific content area despite below-average mean standard scores. However, whereas mean standard scores were below the test mean established for hearing children when based on CA, they were within the average range for hearing children when calculated based on HA. Thus, children's vocabulary knowledge was commensurate with years of cochlear implant experience, providing support for the role of spoken language experience in vocabulary acquisition.
Gfeller, Kate; Turner, Christopher; Oleson, Jacob; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Driscoll, Virginia
Objectives This study (a) examined speech recognition abilities of cochlear implant (CI) recipients in the spectrally complex listening condition of three contrasting types of background music, and (b) compared performance based upon listener groups: CI recipients using conventional long-electrode (LE) devices, Hybrid CI recipients (acoustic plus electric stimulation), and normal-hearing (NH) adults. Methods We tested 154 LE CI recipients using varied devices and strategies, 21 Hybrid CI recipients, and 49 NH adults on closed-set recognition of spondees presented in three contrasting forms of background music (piano solo, large symphony orchestra, vocal solo with small combo accompaniment) in an adaptive test. Outcomes Signal-to-noise thresholds for speech in music (SRTM) were examined in relation to measures of speech recognition in background noise and multi-talker babble, pitch perception, and music experience. Results SRTM thresholds varied as a function of category of background music, group membership (LE, Hybrid, NH), and age. Thresholds for speech in background music were significantly correlated with measures of pitch perception and speech in background noise thresholds; auditory status was an important predictor. Conclusions Evidence suggests that speech reception thresholds in background music change as a function of listener age (with more advanced age being detrimental), structural characteristics of different types of music, and hearing status (residual hearing). These findings have implications for everyday listening conditions such as communicating in social or commercial situations in which there is background music. PMID:23342550
Full Text Available This essay examines the reception of the ten-year Complete Works translation project undertaken by the Finnish publishing company Werner Söderström Oy (WSOY in 2004-13. Focusing on reviews published in the first and last years of the project, the essay details ongoing processes of Shakespeare (re-canonization in Finland, as each new generation explains to itself what Shakespeare means to them, and why it continues to read, translate and perform Shakespeare. These processes are visible in comments from the series editors and translators extolling the importance of Shakespeare’s work and the necessity of creating new, modern translations so Finns can read Shakespeare in their mother tongue; in discussions of the literary qualities of a good Shakespeare translation, e.g. whether it is advisable to use iambic pentameter in Finnish, a trochaic language; and in the creation of publisher and translator “heroes,” who at significant cost to themselves, whether in money in terms of the publisher, or time and effort in terms of the translators, labour to provide the public with their Shakespeare in modern Finnish. While on the whole reviewers celebrated the new translations, there was some resistance to changes in familiar lines from older translations, such as Macbeth’s “tomorrow” speech, suggesting that there are nevertheless some limits on modernizing “classic” translations.
Jang, Shinae; Spencer Jr, Billie F; Sim, Sung-Han
Various structural health monitoring strategies have been proposed recently that can be implemented in the decentralized computing environment intrinsic to wireless smart sensor networks (WSSN). Many are based on changes in the experimentally determined flexibility matrix for the structure under consideration. However, the flexibility matrix contains only static information; much richer information is available by considering the dynamic flexibility, or receptance, of the structure. Recently, the stochastic dynamic damage locating vector (SDDLV) method was proposed based on changes of dynamic flexibility matrices employing centrally collected output-only measurements. This paper investigates the potential of the SDDLV method for implementation on a network of wireless smart sensors, where a decentralized, hierarchical, in-network processing approach is used to address issues of scalability of the SDDLV algorithm. Two approaches to aggregate results are proposed that provide robust estimates of damage locations. The efficacy of the developed strategy is first verified using wired sensors emulating a wireless sensor network. Subsequently, the decentralized damage detection strategy is implemented on MEMSIC’s Imote2 smart sensor platform and validated experimentally on a laboratory scale truss bridge. (paper)
Kreibich, Heidi; Müller, Meike; Schröter, Kai; Thieken, Annegret H.
Flood damage can be mitigated if the parties at risk are reached by flood warnings and if they know how to react appropriately. To gain more knowledge about warning reception and emergency response of private households and companies, surveys were undertaken after the August 2002 and the June 2013 floods in Germany. Despite pronounced regional differences, the results show a clear overall picture: in 2002, early warnings did not work well; e.g. many households (27 %) and companies (45 %) stated that they had not received any flood warnings. Additionally, the preparedness of private households and companies was low in 2002, mainly due to a lack of flood experience. After the 2002 flood, many initiatives were launched and investments undertaken to improve flood risk management, including early warnings and an emergency response in Germany. In 2013, only a small share of the affected households (5 %) and companies (3 %) were not reached by any warnings. Additionally, private households and companies were better prepared. For instance, the share of companies which have an emergency plan in place has increased from 10 % in 2002 to 34 % in 2013. However, there is still room for improvement, which needs to be triggered mainly by effective risk and emergency communication. The challenge is to continuously maintain and advance an integrated early warning and emergency response system even without the occurrence of extreme floods.
Full Text Available Flood damage can be mitigated if the parties at risk are reached by flood warnings and if they know how to react appropriately. To gain more knowledge about warning reception and emergency response of private households and companies, surveys were undertaken after the August 2002 and the June 2013 floods in Germany. Despite pronounced regional differences, the results show a clear overall picture: in 2002, early warnings did not work well; e.g. many households (27 % and companies (45 % stated that they had not received any flood warnings. Additionally, the preparedness of private households and companies was low in 2002, mainly due to a lack of flood experience. After the 2002 flood, many initiatives were launched and investments undertaken to improve flood risk management, including early warnings and an emergency response in Germany. In 2013, only a small share of the affected households (5 % and companies (3 % were not reached by any warnings. Additionally, private households and companies were better prepared. For instance, the share of companies which have an emergency plan in place has increased from 10 % in 2002 to 34 % in 2013. However, there is still room for improvement, which needs to be triggered mainly by effective risk and emergency communication. The challenge is to continuously maintain and advance an integrated early warning and emergency response system even without the occurrence of extreme floods.
Ghosh, Wriddhiman; Roy, Chayan; Roy, Rimi; Nilawe, Pravin; Mukherjee, Ambarish; Haldar, Prabir Kumar; Chauhan, Neeraj Kumar; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi; Agarwal, Atima; George, Ashish; Pyne, Prosenjit; Mandal, Subhrangshu; Rameez, Moidu Jameela; Bala, Goutam
To elucidate how geothermal irregularities affect the sustainability of high-temperature microbiomes we studied the synecological dynamics of a geothermal microbial mat community (GMMC) vis-à-vis fluctuations in its environment. Spatiotemporally-discrete editions of a photosynthetic GMMC colonizing the travertine mound of a circum-neutral hot spring cluster served as the model-system. In 2010 a strong geyser atop the mound discharged mineral-rich hot water, which nourished a GMMC continuum from the proximal channels (PC) upto the slope environment (SE) along the mound's western face. In 2011 that geyser extinguished and consequently the erstwhile mats disappeared. Nevertheless, two relatively-weaker vents erupted in the southern slope and their mineral-poor outflow supported a small GMMC patch in the SE. Comparative metagenomics showed that this mat was a relic of the 2010 community, conserved via population dispersal from erstwhile PC as well as SE niches. Subsequently in 2012, as hydrothermal activity augmented in the southern slope, ecological niches widened and the physiologically-heterogeneous components of the 2011 "seed-community" split into PC and SE meta-communities, thereby reclaiming either end of the thermal gradient. Resilience of incumbent populations, and the community's receptiveness towards immigrants, were the key qualities that ensured the GMMC's sustenance amidst habitat degradation and dispersal to discrete environments.
Ulbrich, Susanne E; Groebner, Anna E; Bauersachs, Stefan
The development of a fertilized oocyte into a differentiated multi-cellular organism is a major challenge with regard to the orchestration of the expression of the mammalian genome. Highly complex networks of genes are temporally and spatially regulated during cellular differentiation to generate specific cell types. Embryonic development is critically influenced by external impacts in the female reproductive tract. A most critical phase of pregnancy in mammals is the pre- and peri-implantation period, during which the uterine environment plays a crucial role in supporting the development of the conceptus. The analytical description of the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome of the embryo-maternal interface is a prerequisite for the understanding of the complex regulatory processes taking place during this time. This review lines out potentials and limitations of different approaches to unravel the determinants of endometrial receptivity in cattle, the pig and the horse. Suitable in vivo and in vitro models, which have been used to elucidate factors participating in the embryo-maternal dialog are discussed. Taken together, transcriptome analyses and specified selective candidate gene driven approaches contribute to the understanding of endometrial function. The endometrium as sensor and driver of fertility may indicate the qualitative and quantitative nature of signaling molecules sent by the early embryo and in turn, accordingly impact on embryonic development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Leu, Janxin; Walton, Emily; Takeuchi, David
This article investigates differences in the mental health among male and female immigrants from an ecological perspective, testing the influences of both individual acculturation domains and social contexts. Data from the first nationally representative psychiatric survey of immigrant Asians in the US is used (N = 1,583). These data demonstrate the importance of understanding acculturation domains (e.g., individual differences in English proficiency, ethnic identity, and time in the US), within the social contexts of family, community, and neighborhood. Results demonstrate that among immigrant Asian women, the association between family conflict and mental health problems is stronger for those with higher ethnic identity; among immigrant Asian men, community reception (e.g., everyday discrimination) was more highly associated with increases in mental health symptoms among those with poor English fluency. Findings suggest that both individual domains of acculturation and social context measures contribute to immigrant mental health, and that it is important to consider these relationships within the context of gender.
Camilleri, Bernard; Botting, Nicola
Children's low scores on vocabulary tests are often erroneously interpreted as reflecting poor cognitive and/or language skills. It may be necessary to incorporate the measurement of word-learning ability in estimating children's lexical abilities. To explore the reliability and validity of the Dynamic Assessment of Word Learning (DAWL), a new dynamic assessment of receptive vocabulary. A dynamic assessment (DA) of word learning ability was developed and adopted within a nursery school setting with 15 children aged between 3;07 and 4;03, ten of whom had been referred to speech and language therapy. A number of quantitative measures were derived from the DA procedure, including measures of children's ability to identify the targeted items and to generalize to a second exemplar, as well as measures of children's ability to retain the targeted items. Internal, inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the DAWL was established as well as correlational measures of concurrent and predictive validity. The DAWL was found to provide both quantitative and qualitative information which could be used to improve the accuracy of differential diagnosis and the understanding of processes underlying the child's performance. The latter can be used for the purpose of designing more individualized interventions. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Krebs, Luke T.; Norton, Christine R.; Gridley, Thomas
Summary The ductus arteriosus is an arterial vessel that shunts blood flow away from the lungs during fetal life, but normally occludes after birth to establish the adult circulation pattern. Failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth is termed patent ductus arteriosus, and is one of the most common congenital heart defects. Our previous work demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cell expression of the Jag1 gene, which encodes a ligand for Notch family receptors, is essential for postnatal closure of the ductus arteriosus in mice. However, it was not known what cell population was responsible for receiving the Jag1-mediated signal. Here we show, using smooth muscle cell-specific deletion of the Rbpj gene, which encodes a transcription factor that mediates all canonical Notch signaling, that Notch signal reception in the vascular smooth muscle cell compartment is required for ductus arteriosus closure. These data indicate that homotypic vascular smooth muscle cell interactions are required for proper contractile smooth muscle cell differentiation and postnatal closure of the ductus arteriosus in mice. PMID:26742650
Panday, Seema; Kathard, Harsha; Pillay, Mershen; Govender, Cyril
The aim of this investigation was to determine which of 58 preselected Zulu words developed by Panday et al. (2007) could be used for Speech Reception Threshold (SRT) testing. To realize this aim the homogeneity of audibility of 58 bisyllabic Zulu low tone verbs was measured, followed by an analysis of the prosodic features of the selected words. The words were digitally recorded by a Zulu first language male speaker and presented at 6 intensity levels to 30 Zulu first language speakers (18-25 years, mean age of 21.5 years), whose hearing was normal. Homogeneity of audibility was determined by employing logistic regression analysis. Twenty eight words met the criterion of homogeneity of audibility. This was evidenced by a mean slope of 50% at 5.98%/dB. The prosodic features of the twenty eight words were further analyzed using a computerized speech laboratory system. The findings confirmed that the pitch contours of the words followed the prosodic pattern apparent within Zulu linguistic structure. Eighty nine percent of the Zulu verbs were found to have a difference in the pitch pattern between the two syllables i.e. the first syllable was low in pitch, while the second syllable was high in pitch. It emerged that the twenty eight words could be used for establishing SRT within a normal hearing Zulu speaking population. Further research within clinical populations is recommended.
Carlos Eduardo de Abreu Boucault
Full Text Available This article aims to examine the reception of « Pure theory of Law », of Hans Kelsen in some South-American countries, throughout institutional approaches and also the diffusion of this theory as well its acceptance by cultural agents who represented academic and professional law environment, in Uruguay, Colombia, Argentina and Brazil. The historical period of this study concerns the early times of 40 till our days. Although the reference of Kelsen’s thought about theory of law may appear as a constant feature on South-American jurists, mainly till the decade of 1980, actually we can identify real problems that claim for a falsehood about the guidelines of the pure theory of law and ambiguities in connection to theoretical issues within positivist traditions in face of authoritarian governments in Latin America.
Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina
Language profiles of children with autistic disorder and intellectual disability (n = 36) were significantly different from the comparison groups of children with intellectual disability (n = 26) and typically developing children (n = 34). The group low-functioning children with autistic disorder obtained a higher mean score on expressive than on receptive language, whereas both comparison groups showed the reverse pattern. Nonverbal mental age, joint attention, and symbolic understanding of pictures were analyzed in relation to concurrent receptive and expressive language abilities. In the group with autistic disorder and intellectual disability, symbol understanding and joint attention were most strongly related to language abilities. Nonverbal mental age was the most important predictor of language abilities in the comparison groups.
Pierce, John P; Sargent, James D; Portnoy, David B; White, Martha; Noble, Madison; Kealey, Sheila; Borek, Nicolette; Carusi, Charles; Choi, Kelvin; Green, Victoria R; Kaufman, Annette R; Leas, Eric; Lewis, M Jane; Margolis, Katherine A; Messer, Karen; Shi, Yuyan; Silveira, Marushka L; Snyder, Kimberly; Stanton, Cassandra A; Tanski, Susanne E; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Trinidad, Dennis; Hyland, Andrew
Cigarette marketing contributes to initiation of cigarette smoking among young people, which has led to restrictions on use of cigarette advertising. However, little is known about other tobacco advertising and progression to tobacco use in youth and young adults. To investigate whether receptivity to tobacco advertising among youth and young adults is associated with progression (being a susceptible never user or ever user) to use of the product advertised, as well as conventional cigarette smoking. The Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study at wave 1 (2013-2014) and 1-year follow-up at wave 2 (2014-2015) was conducted in a US population-based sample of never tobacco users aged 12 to 24 years from wave 1 of the PATH Study (N = 10 989). Household interviews using audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted. Advertising for conventional cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), cigars, and smokeless tobacco products at wave 1. Progression to susceptibility or ever tobacco use at 1-year follow-up in wave 2. Of the 10 989 participants (5410 male [weighted percentage, 48.3%]; 5579 female [weighted percentage, 51.7%]), receptivity to any tobacco advertising at wave 1 was high for those aged 12 to 14 years (44.0%; 95% confidence limit [CL], 42.6%-45.4%) but highest for those aged 18 to 21 years (68.7%; 95% CL, 64.9%-72.2%). e-Cigarette advertising had the highest receptivity among all age groups. For those aged 12 to 17 years, susceptibility to use a product at wave 1 was significantly associated with product use at wave 2 for conventional cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco products. Among committed never users aged 12 to 17 years at wave 1, any receptivity was associated with progression toward use of the product at wave 2 (conventional cigarettes: adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.43; 95% CL, 1.23-1.65; e-cigarettes: AOR, 1.62; 95% CL, 1.41-1.85; cigars: AOR, 2.01; 95% CL, 1.62-2.49; and smokeless (males only
Fukunari, Masafumi; Wongsuryrat, Nat; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Nakamura, Yusuke; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Koizumi, Hiroyuki
This study examined the performance of a developed taper-tube concentrator for 94-GHz millimeter-wave beam reception during wireless power transfer. The received energy is converted into kinetic energy of a working gas in the tube to drive an engine or thruster. The concentrator, which is assumed to have mirror reflection of millimeter waves in it, is designed to be shorter than conventional tapered waveguides of millimeter waves. A dimensionless design law of a concentrator is proposed based on geometric optics theory. Because the applicability of geometric optics theory is unclear, the ratio of its bore diameter to its wavelength was set as small compared to those in other possible applications. Then, the discrepancy between the designed and measured power reception was examined. Results show that the maximum discrepancy was as low as 7 % for the bore-to-wavelength ratio of 20 at the narrow end of the concentrator.
During the eighteenth century, several towns located in what is known today as the Suisse romande were extremely receptive toward scientific culture, and most notably Newtonianism. In this paper I deal with a nine-volume publication of Newton's Opera Omnia that was planned in Geneva and Lausanne during the late 1730s and 1740s. This publication has not received the attention it deserves. To the best of my knowledge, even an awareness of its existence is lacking in the literature devoted to the reception of Newtonianism. This paper examines the circumstances of the publication of a complete set of all of Newton's works known at the time, and the motivations of the editors, mathematicians, and publishers who were involved in this editorial enterprise.
Beaton, Alan A; Gruneberg, Michael M; Hyde, Christopher; Shufflebottom, Alex; Sykes, Robert N
Ellis and Beaton (1993a) reported that the keyword method of learning enhanced memory of foreign vocabulary items when receptive learning was measured. However, for productive learning, rote repetition was superior to the keyword method. The first two experiments reported here show that, in comparison with rote repetition, both receptive and productive learning can be enhanced by the keyword method, provided that the quality of the keyword images is adequate. In a third experiment using a subset of words from Ellis and Beaton (1993a), the finding they reported, that for productive learning rote repetition was superior to the keyword method, was reversed. The quality of keyword images will vary from study to study and any generalisation regarding the efficacy of the keyword method must take this into account.
Jalindre, Swaraj Sunil
Ink absorption performance in inkjet receptive coatings containing synthetic zeolite pigments was studied. Coating pigment pore and particle size distribution are the key parameters that influence in modifying media surface properties, thus affecting the rate of ink penetration and drying time (Scholkopf, et al. 2004). The primary objective of this study was: (1) to investigate the synthetic zeolite pigment effects on inkjet ink absorption, dynamic contact angle and printability, and (2) to evaluate these novel synthetic zeolite pigments in replacing the fumed silica pigments in conventional inkjet receptive coatings. In this research study, single pigment coating formulations (in equal P:B ratio) were prepared using microporous synthetic zeolite pigments (5A, Organophilic and 13X) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) binder. The laboratory-coated samples were characterized for absorption, air permeance, roughness, drying time, wettability and print fidelity. Based on the rheological data, it was found that the synthetic zeolite formulated coatings depicted a Newtonian flow behavior at low shear; while the industry accepted fumed silica based coatings displayed a characteristically high pseudoplastic flow behavior. Our coated samples generated using microporous synthetic zeolite pigments produced low absorption, reduced wettability and accelerated ink drying characteristics. These characteristics were caused due to the synthetic zeolite pigments, which resulted in relatively closed surface structure coated samples. The research suggested that no single selected synthetic zeolite coating performed better than the conventional fumed silica based coatings. Experimental data also showed that there was no apparent relationship between synthetic zeolite pigment pore sizes and inkjet ink absorption. For future research, above coated samples should be evaluated for pore size distribution using Mercury Porosimeter, which quantifies surface porosity of coated samples. This presented
screening questionnaire for Asperger Syndrome and other high-functioning autism spectrum disorders in school age children. Journal of Autism ...Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0404 TITLE: Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge in Low-Functioning Autism as Assessed by Eye Movements, Pupillary...Knowledge in Low-Functioning Autism as Assessed by Eye- Movements, Pupillary Dilation, and Event-Related Potentials 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0404
Pierce, JP; Sargent, JD; Portnoy, DB; White, M; Noble, M; Kealey, S; Borek, N; Carusi, C; Choi, K; Green, VR; Kaufman, AR; Leas, E; Lewis, MJ; Margolis, KA; Messer, K
© 2018 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. IMPORTANCE Cigarette marketing contributes to initiation of cigarette smoking among young people, which has led to restrictions on use of cigarette advertising. However, little is known about other tobacco advertising and progression to tobacco use in youth and young adults. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether receptivity to tobacco advertising among youth and young adults is associated with progression (being a susceptible never user or ...
Goldberg, Jay K.; Wallace, Alisa K.; Weiss, Stacey L.
Sex pheromones can perform a variety of functions ranging from revealing the location of suitable mates to being honest signals of mate quality, and they are used in the mate selection process by many species of reptile. In this study, we determined whether the skin lipids of female striped plateau lizards ( Sceloporus virgatus) can predict the reproductive quality of females, thereby having the potential to serve as pheromones. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified 17 compounds present in skin lipids of female lizards. Using principal component analysis to compare the skin lipid profile of receptive and non-receptive females, we determined that an uncharacterized compound may allow for chemical identification of receptive mates. We also compared extracted principal components to measures of female fitness and reproductive qualities and found that the level of two 18 carbon fatty acids present in a female's skin lipids may indicate her clutch size. Finally, we compared the information content of the skin lipids to that of female-specific color ornaments to assess whether chemical and visual cues transmit different information or not. We found that the chroma of a female's orange throat patch is also related to her clutch size, suggesting that chemical signals may reinforce the information communicated by visual ornamentation in this species which would support the "backup signals" hypothesis for multiple signals.
Eliashiv, Dawn S; Kurelowech, Lacey; Quint, Patti; Chung, Jeffrey M; Otis, Shirley M; Gage, Nicole M
The central goal of presurgical language mapping is to identify brain regions that subserve cortical language function to minimize postsurgical language deficits. Presurgical language mapping in patients with epilepsy presents a key challenge because of the atypical pattern of hemispheric language dominance found in this population, with higher incidences of bilateral and right-biased language dominance than typical. In this prospective study, we combine magnetoencephalography with a panel of tasks designed to separately assess receptive and expressive function to provide a sensitive measure of language function in 15 candidates for resective surgery. We report the following: 4 of 15 patients (27%) showed left hemisphere dominance across all tasks, 4 of 15 patients (27%) showed right hemisphere dominance across all tasks, and 7 of 15 (46%) showed discordant language dominance, with right-dominant receptive and left-dominant expressive language. All patients with discordant language dominance showed this right-receptive and left-expressive pattern. Results provide further evidence supporting the importance of using a panel of tasks to assess separable aspects of language function. The clinical relevance of the findings is discussed, especially about current clinical operative measures for assessing language dominance, which use single hemisphere procedure (intracarotid amobarbital procedure and awake intraoperative stimulation) for determining language laterality.
Full Text Available In the present study, the comparative effects of comprehensible input, output and corrective feedback on the receptive acquisition of L2 vocabulary items were investigated. Two groups of beginning EFL learners participated in the study. The control group received comprehensible input only, while the experimental group received input and was required to produce written output. They also received corrective feedback on their lexical errors if any. This could result in the production of modified output. The results of the study indicated that (a the group which produced output and received feedback (if necessary outperformed the group which only received input in the post-test, (b within the experimental group, feedback played a greater role in learners’ better performance than output, (c also a positive correlation between the amount of feedback an individual learner received, and his overall performance in the post-test; and also between the amount of feedback given for a specific word and the correct responses given to its related item in the post-test was found. The findings of this study provide evidence for the role of output production along with receiving corrective feedback in enhancing L2 processing by drawing further L2 learners’ attention to their output which in turn may result in improving their receptive acquisition of L2 words. Furthermore, as the results suggested, feedback made a more contribution to L2 development than output. Keywords: comprehensible input, output, interaction, corrective feedback, modified output, receptive vocabulary acquisition
Full Text Available Whales receive underwater sounds through a fundamentally different mechanism than their close terrestrial relatives. Instead of hearing through the ear canal, cetaceans hear through specialized fatty tissues leading to an evolutionarily novel feature: an acoustic funnel located anterior to the tympanic aperture. We traced the ontogenetic development of this feature in 56 fetal specimens from 10 different families of toothed (odontocete and baleen (mysticete whales, using X-ray computed tomography. We also charted ear ossification patterns through ontogeny to understand the impact of heterochronic developmental processes. We determined that the acoustic funnel arises from a prominent V-shaped structure established early in ontogeny, formed by the malleus and the goniale. In odontocetes, this V-formation develops into a cone-shaped funnel facing anteriorly, directly into intramandibular acoustic fats, which is likely functionally linked to the anterior orientation of sound reception in echolocation. In contrast, the acoustic funnel in balaenopterids rotates laterally, later in fetal development, consistent with a lateral sound reception pathway. Balaenids and several fossil mysticetes retain a somewhat anteriorly oriented acoustic funnel in the mature condition, indicating that a lateral sound reception pathway in balaenopterids may be a recent evolutionary innovation linked to specialized feeding modes, such as lunge-feeding.
Ivana Loraine LINDEMANN
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate reception of nutrition information (outcome, associated factors, and types of sources. Methods: This cross-sectional study, conducted in 2013, included 1,246 adult and older adult users of the Primary Healthcare network of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The sample was characterized by reception of nutrition information, its sources, and demographic, socioeconomic, health, knowledge, and life habit variables. Prevalence ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals investigated associations between reception of nutrition information and independent variables. Results: More than one-third of the sample (37.6% received nutrition information (95%CI=34.9-40.3. Older adults, individuals with positive self-perceived diet, those who received health information, and those who were physically active were more likely to receive nutrition information, and normal weight individuals were less likely. The outcome differed by income strata, being highest in the highest quintile. There was a linear trend for education level and for following the Ten Steps to Healthy Eating: the outcome was more likely in individuals with at least higher education and those who followed at least four steps. The most cited sources of nutrition information were television shows (56.2%, other (46.2%, physician (41.2%, Internet (25.1%, and family members (20.9%, which did not differ by sex. Conclusion: Primary healthcare users received little nutrition information, and television could be a useful tool for the institutions responsible for the sector to disseminate the official nutritional recommendations.
Yamato, Maya; Ketten, Darlene R; Arruda, Julie; Cramer, Scott; Moore, Kathleen
Cetaceans possess highly derived auditory systems adapted for underwater hearing. Odontoceti (toothed whales) are thought to receive sound through specialized fat bodies that contact the tympanoperiotic complex, the bones housing the middle and inner ears. However, sound reception pathways remain unknown in Mysticeti (baleen whales), which have very different cranial anatomies compared to odontocetes. Here, we report a potential fatty sound reception pathway in the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), a mysticete of the balaenopterid family. The cephalic anatomy of seven minke whales was investigated using computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, verified through dissections. Findings include a large, well-formed fat body lateral, dorsal, and posterior to the mandibular ramus and lateral to the tympanoperiotic complex. This fat body inserts into the tympanoperiotic complex at the lateral aperture between the tympanic and periotic bones and is in contact with the ossicles. There is also a second, smaller body of fat found within the tympanic bone, which contacts the ossicles as well. This is the first analysis of these fatty tissues' association with the auditory structures in a mysticete, providing anatomical evidence that fatty sound reception pathways may not be a unique feature of odontocete cetaceans. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Background: Autism as part of the category called Autism spectrum disorder (ASD, is caused by disorders in brain and nervous network and characterized by defect in social behavior, language and cognition. This study aimed to investigate receptive and expressive language performance and the severity of the disorder in 30 children with autism aged 2-8 years who speak in Persian language. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study 30 children with autism were selected using random sampling method. The study tools included "The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS", and "Newsha Developmental Scale (NDS" for assessing the receptive - expressive language skills. In order to assess the level of language impairment in subjects, the participants were divided into 5 groups with 6 people (considering the speaking ability including sign language and speech, with equal number of boys and girls (3 girls and 3 boys in each group. All of these children were evaluated by pediatric psychiatry, pediatric neurologist and pediatrician and were assessed according to the criteria for autism based on the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V. Eventually, the data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS version 16.0 software. Results The results showed that there was a significant difference between the mean (standard deviation and scores of receptive – expressive language skills in autistic subjects in each of the groups (P
Kreem, Juhan, 1971-
Arvustus: The reception of medieval Europe in the Baltic Sea Region : papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium, held at Gotland University, Visby / editor: Jörn Staecker. Visby : Gotland University Press, 2009. (Acta Visbyensia ; 12)
Donecker, Stefan, 1977-
Arvustus : The Reception of Medieval Europa in the Baltic Sea Region. Papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium held at Gotland University, Visby. Viby : Gotland University Press, 2009. (Acta Visbyensia. 12)
Borodulin, V. I.; Ivanov, A. V.; Kachanov, Y. S.; Mischenko, D. A.; Fedenkova, A. A.
The paper is devoted to quantitative experimental investigation of effective mechanisms of excitation of 3D TS instability waves due to distributed boundary layer receptivity to free-stream vortices. Experiments carried out in a self-similar boundary layer with Hartree parameter βH = -0.115 and concentrated on studying two receptivity mechanisms connected with distributed scattering of 3D unsteady free-stream vortices both on the natural boundary layer nonuniformity (smooth surface) and on 2D surface nonuniformity (waviness). Obtained quantitative characteristics (distributed receptivity coefficients) are compared directly with those obtained in Blasius boundary layer. It is found that the adverse pressure gradient leads to reduction of efficiency of the vortex-roughness receptivity mechanism.
Braun, Sandra; Abad-Vivero, Erika Nayeli; Mejía, Raúl; Barrientos, Inti; Sargent, James D; Thrasher, James F
In a previous cross-sectional study of early adolescents, we developed a marketing receptivity index (MRI) that integrates point-of-sale (PoS) marketing exposures, brand recall, and ownership of branded merchandise. The MRI had independent, positive associations with smoking susceptibility among never smokers and with current smoking behavior. The current longitudinal study assessed the MRI's predictive validity among adolescents who have never smoked cigarettes METHODS: Data come from a longitudinal, school-based survey of 33 secondary schools in Argentina. Students who had never smoked at baseline were followed up approximately 17months later (n=1700). Questions assessed: PoS marketing exposure by querying frequency of going to stores where tobacco is commonly sold; cued recall of brand names for 3 cigarette packages from dominant brands but with the brand name removed; and ownership of branded merchandise. A four-level MRI was derived: 1.low PoS marketing exposure only; 2. high PoS exposure or recall of 1 brand; 3. recall of 2 or more brands; and 4. ownership of branded merchandise. Logistic regression models regressed smoking initiation by follow up survey on the MRI, each of its components, and students' willingness to try a brand, adjusting for sociodemographics, social network smoking, and sensation seeking. The MRI had an independent positive association with smoking initiation. When analyzed separately, each MRI component was associated with outcomes except branded merchandise ownership. The MRI and its components were associated with smoking initiation, except for branded merchandise ownership, which may better predict smoking progression than initiation. The MRI appears valid and useful for future studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the area postrema (AP) represent targets for hormonal and metabolic signals involved in energy homoeostasis, e.g. glucose, amylin, insulin, leptin, peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin. Orexigenic neuropeptide Y expressing ARC neurons are activated by food deprivation and inhibited by feeding in a nutrient-dependent manner. PYY and leptin also reverse or prevent fasting-induced activation of the ARC. Interestingly, hypothalamic responses to fasting are blunted in different models of obesity (e.g. diet-induced obesity (DIO) or late-onset obesity). The AP also responds to feeding-related signals. The pancreatic hormone amylin acts via the AP to control energy intake. Amylin-sensitive AP neurons are also glucose-responsive. Furthermore, diet-derived protein attenuates amylin responsiveness suggesting a modulation of AP sensitivity by macronutrient supply. This review gives an overview of the receptive function of the ARC and the AP to hormonal and nutritional stimuli involved in the control of energy balance and the possible implications in the context of obesity. Collectively, there is consistency between the neurophysiological actions of these stimuli and their effects on energy homoeostasis under experimental conditions. However, surprisingly little progress has been made in the development of effective pharmacological approaches against obesity. A promising way to improve effectiveness involves combination treatments (e.g. amylin/leptin agonists). Hormonal alterations (e.g. GLP-1 and PYY) are also considered to mediate body weight loss observed in obese patients receiving bariatric surgery. The effects of hormonal and nutritional signals and their interactions might hold the potential to develop poly-mechanistic therapeutic strategies against obesity.
Aribi, N; Oulhaci, M C; Kilani-Morakchi, S; Sandoz, J C; Kaiser, L; Denis, B; Joly, D
Azadirachtin, a neem compound (Azadirachta indica) with medical and anti-insect properties, is one the most successful botanical pesticides in agricultural use. However, its controversial impact on non-targeted species and its mechanism of action need to be clarified. In addition, Azadirachtin impact on pre- and post-mating traits remains largely undocumented. The current study examined the effects of Azadirachtin on Drosophila melanogaster as a non-target and model species. Azadirachtin was applied topically at its LD 50 (0.63μg) on the day of adult emergence and its effect was evaluated on several traits of reproductive behavior: mate choice, male activity, female sexual receptivity, sperm storage and female sterility. In choice and no choice conditions, only male treatment reduced mating probability. Female treatment impaired mating probability only when males had the choice. Males' mating ability may have been impaired by an effect of the treatment on their mobility. Such an effect was observed in the actimeter, which revealed that treated males were less active than untreated ones, and this effect persisted over 8days. Azadirachtin treatment had, however, no effect on the nycthemeral rhythm of those males. Even when mating occurred, Azadirachtin treatment impaired post-mating responses especially when females or both sexes were treated: remating probability increases and female fertility (presence of larvae) decreases. No impairment was observed on the efficiency of mating, evaluated by the presence of sperm in the spermatheca or the ventral receptacle. Male treatment only had no significant effect on these post-mating responses. These findings provide clear evidence that Azadirachtin alters the reproductive behavior of both sexes in D. melanogaster via mating and post-mating processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ted W Cranford
Full Text Available Hearing mechanisms in baleen whales (Mysticeti are essentially unknown but their vocalization frequencies overlap with anthropogenic sound sources. Synthetic audiograms were generated for a fin whale by applying finite element modeling tools to X-ray computed tomography (CT scans. We CT scanned the head of a small fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus in a scanner designed for solid-fuel rocket motors. Our computer (finite element modeling toolkit allowed us to visualize what occurs when sounds interact with the anatomic geometry of the whale's head. Simulations reveal two mechanisms that excite both bony ear complexes, (1 the skull-vibration enabled bone conduction mechanism and (2 a pressure mechanism transmitted through soft tissues. Bone conduction is the predominant mechanism. The mass density of the bony ear complexes and their firmly embedded attachments to the skull are universal across the Mysticeti, suggesting that sound reception mechanisms are similar in all baleen whales. Interactions between incident sound waves and the skull cause deformations that induce motion in each bony ear complex, resulting in best hearing sensitivity for low-frequency sounds. This predominant low-frequency sensitivity has significant implications for assessing mysticete exposure levels to anthropogenic sounds. The din of man-made ocean noise has increased steadily over the past half century. Our results provide valuable data for U.S. regulatory agencies and concerned large-scale industrial users of the ocean environment. This study transforms our understanding of baleen whale hearing and provides a means to predict auditory sensitivity across a broad spectrum of sound frequencies.
Full Text Available The red turpentine beetle (RTB, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae, is a destructive invasive pest of conifers which has become the second most important forest pest nationwide in China. Dendroctonus valens is known to use host odors and aggregation pheromones, as well as non-host volatiles, in host location and mass-attack modulation, and thus antennal olfaction is of the utmost importance for the beetles' survival and fitness. However, information on the genes underlying olfaction has been lacking in D. valens. Here, we report the antennal transcriptome of D. valens from next-generation sequencing, with the goal of identifying the olfaction gene repertoire that is involved in D. valens odor-processing.We obtained 51 million reads that were assembled into 61,889 genes, including 39,831 contigs and 22,058 unigenes. In total, we identified 68 novel putative odorant reception genes, including 21 transcripts encoding for putative odorant binding proteins (OBP, six chemosensory proteins (CSP, four sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP, 22 odorant receptors (OR, four gustatory receptors (GR, three ionotropic receptors (IR, and eight ionotropic glutamate receptors. We also identified 155 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes from the antennal transcriptome, putatively identified to be involved in olfaction processes including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Predicted protein sequences were compared with counterparts in Tribolium castaneum, Megacyllene caryae, Ips typographus, Dendroctonus ponderosae, and Agrilus planipennis.The antennal transcriptome described here represents the first study of the repertoire of odor processing genes in D. valens. The genes reported here provide a significant addition to the pool of identified olfactory genes in Coleoptera, which might represent novel targets for insect management. The results from our study also will assist with evolutionary
Tan, Shu-Yin; Hang, Fu; Purvarshi, Gowreesunkur; Li, Min-Qing; Meng, Da-Hua; Huang, Ling-Ling
To evaluate the predictive value of three-dimensional (3D)-power Doppler sonography on recurrent miscarriage. The study patients were divided into a recurrent miscarriage group (30 cases) and a normal pregnancy group (21 cases). Measurement of endometrial thickness was performed using two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound in the midluteal phase. The endometrial volume, vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization-flow index (VFI) in midluteal and placenta volume, as well as the VI, FI, and VFI of early pregnancy were measured using Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis of 3D-power Doppler ultrasound. Endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, endometrial vascular data, VI, FI, and VFI of the midluteal phase were lower in the recurrent miscarriage group compared with the normal pregnancy group (p FI between the recurrent miscarriage and control groups during early pregnancy (p > 0.05). The predictive accuracy of endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, and placenta volume, VI, FI, and VFI in early pregnancy as measured by the receiver operating characteristic curve to predict miscarriage before 12 gestational weeks in participants was 0.681, 0.876, 0.770, 0.720, 0.879, 0.771, 0.907, 0.592, respectively. The 3D-power Doppler ultrasound is a more comprehensive and sensitive method for evaluating endometrial receptivity. Endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, as well as VI in early pregnancy, can be considered as predictive factors for recurrent miscarriage. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Jackson, Emily; Leitao, Suze; Claessen, Mary
Children with specific language impairment (SLI) often experience word-learning difficulties, which are suggested to originate in the early stage of word learning: fast mapping. Some previous research indicates significantly poorer fast mapping capabilities in children with SLI compared with typically developing (TD) counterparts, with a range of methodological factors impacting on the consistency of this finding. Research has explored key issues that might underlie fast mapping difficulties in children with SLI, with strong theoretical support but little empirical evidence for the role of phonological short-term memory (STM). Additionally, further research is required to explore the influence of receptive vocabulary on fast mapping capabilities. Understanding the factors associated with fast mapping difficulties that are experienced by children with SLI may lead to greater theoretically driven word-learning intervention. To investigate whether children with SLI demonstrate significant difficulties with fast mapping, and to explore the related factors. It was hypothesized that children with SLI would score significantly lower on a fast mapping production task compared with TD children, and that phonological STM and receptive vocabulary would significantly predict fast mapping production scores in both groups of children. Twenty-three children with SLI (mean = 64.39 months, SD = 4.10 months) and 26 TD children (mean = 65.92 months, SD = 2.98) were recruited from specialist language and mainstream schools. All participants took part in a unique, interactive fast-mapping task whereby nine novel objects with non-word labels were presented and production accuracy was assessed. A non-word repetition test and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition (PPVT-IV) were also administered as measures of phonological STM capacity and receptive vocabulary, respectively. Results of the fast-mapping task indicated that children with SLI had significantly poorer fast
Nava Sevilla Sadeh
Full Text Available The motif of the abduction of a woman is one of the most frequent in Ancient Greek and Roman art. Abductions in mythology are generally portrayed as carried out by a god disguised as a human or an animal, such as Zeus who, in the form of a bull, golden rain or a swan, seduces a beautiful young maiden. These myths have been interpreted from different viewpoints, such as gender, social, political and philosophical. One of the most frequent myths of abduction is that of Leda and the Swan, which appears in both Greek and Roman painting and sculpture. This theme has found many echoes in contemporary Israeli art, and constitutes the case study for this discussion, which belongs to the field of Classical Reception studies. The interpretations of this myth are diverse, ranging from a socio-gender context, to post-colonialism and its relevance to the local situation; to subversives, concerning tradition versus contemporary culture; to emotionality and romantic suffering; and to love as phantasmagoria. These varied interpretations will be examined in the following analysis in light of both ancient concepts and contemporary outlooks, based on literary and philosophical sources.
Ledoux, Kerry; Coderre, Emily; Bosley, Laura; Buz, Esteban; Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Gordon, Barry
Recent years have seen the advent and proliferation of the use of implicit techniques to study learning and cognition. One such application is the use of event-related potentials (ERPs) to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge. Other implicit assessment techniques that may be well-suited to other testing situations or to use with varied participant groups have not been used as widely to study receptive vocabulary knowledge. We sought to develop additional implicit techniques to study receptive vocabulary knowledge that could augment the knowledge gained from the use of the ERP technique. Specifically, we used a simple forced-choice paradigm to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge in normal adult participants using eye movement monitoring (EM) and pupillometry. In the same group of participants, we also used an N400 semantic incongruity ERP paradigm to assess their knowledge of two groups of words: those expected to be known to the participants (high-frequency, familiar words) and those expected to be unknown (low-frequency, unfamiliar words). All three measures showed reliable differences between the known and unknown words. EM and pupillometry thus may provide insight into receptive vocabulary knowledge similar to that from ERPs. The development of additional implicit assessment techniques may increase the feasibility of receptive vocabulary testing across a wider range of participant groups and testing situations, and may make the conduct of such testing more accessible to a wider range of researchers, clinicians, and educators.
Radhakrishnan, K.; Manjunath, A. S.; Kumar, Anil
With the rapid advancement in remote sensing technology and corresponding applications, the Earth Observation Ground Segment has undergone a significant change at NRSA. From dedicated data acquisition and processing systems, we have realized multi-mission data acquisition quick look and browse systems and also multi-mission integrated information management systems. Front end of data reception station has been upgraded to handle wider bandwidth and data rates up to 320 Mbps for near future missions such as the Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT). Antenna, feed, down converters and RF chain have been upgraded. To cater to multi-mission scenario mission independent, fully configurable demodulator/bit synchs have been deployed. For handling data acquisition in multi-satellite scenario where in data from 5 to 6 remote sensing satellites are to be received almost simultaneously, automation of operations has been incorporated towards station configuration to avoid manual errors. From media-based data handling, there has been a shift towards net centric data handling among the various work centers such as user order processing, data processing systems, special processing systems, data quality evaluation, and product quality control work centers. The turn around time for dissemination of user desired data products has been improved from two weeks to one day. Presently a state of the art integrated environment has been envisaged which will bring down the turn around time for the supply of data products significantly. Automation has been incorporated at both data acquisition and data processing to improve the product throughput. Presently NRSA is catering to a demand of about 30,000 data products per annum and in the next two years it is aimed to reach a level of 50,000 products per annum by realizing the integrated multi-mission ground system for earth observation (IMGEOS). This will significantly modify the entire data production and dissemination chain so that data can be
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to determine the reception’s specifics of the Antique text and to observe its role in historiosophy and esthetics of Eugen Malaniuk. Using contact and comparative methods we analyzed his lyrics and elucidated that the author had put in the basis of his poetic historiosophy his comprehension of concepts “Hellas” and “Rome”. In Malaniuk’s interpretation these concepts became the metaphors of past and future of Ukraine (“Polittia”, “Variaz′ka vesna”, “Liuds′ke”, “Epiloh”, “Uryvok”, etc.. Its present he comprehend transforming the antique maxim “world – theatre” (“Teatr, Doba”, “Odyn vechir”, “V maіbutnie”, “Pobachennia”, etc.. This comprehension resulted into quotations in epigraphs and text (“Tertia vigilia”, “Сampus Martius”, “Ars poetica”, “Ave, Caesar…”, “Post scriptum”, etc., reminiscence and allusions of antique plots and motives (“Martivs′ki idy”, “Osinnii Stiks”, “Muza”, “Bezkrovna Muza…”, “Perykl”, etc., explicit (“Prysviatni strofy”, “Doba”, “Bezsonnia”, “Tak dovho buv dvolykyi i dvoiakyi…”, “Nostal′hiia” and implicit (“Proloh” embodiment of “text in text” structure and transformation of the lyrical hero into images of the prototext’s characters (Odysseus, Theseus, Aeneas. The research revealed that transplantation of the antique text by the poet caused the uprise of the “Prague” interpretation variant, distinctive features of which are synthesis of neoclassic and neoromantic perception of the Classic tradition, focus on the Baroque experience of its reception, reading through the historisophical prism. The study “Malaniuk and Antiqity” creates a perspective of separating and researching masculine, Rome’s rationality oriented, with Apollo’s principles domineering (Ol′zhych, Klen; and feminine, with Dionysus’ element prevalence in dialogue with emotional
While Bion's 1967 memory and desire paper reflected a crucial episode in his clinical thinking during his epistemological period, it was also central to his evolution as a Kleinian psychoanalyst who worked with seriously disturbed adult patients. The author explicates and contextualizes these claims with a new archival document, the Los Angeles Seminars delivered by Bion in April 1967, and the full-length version of Notes on memory and desire. Bion here instigated a radical departure from years of theory-laden work when he made his clinical work and ideas accessible to a new audience of American Freudian analysts. While this new group was keenly interested to hear about Bion's clinical technique with both borderline and psychotic patients, there were varied reactions to Bion's ideas on the technical implications of the analyst's abandonment of memory and desire. Both the Los Angeles Seminars and Notes elicited responses ranging from bewilderment, admiration to skepticism amongst his audience of listeners and readers. These materials also however allow for a more complete and systematic presentation of important ideas about analytic technique - and while his ideas in this domain have been long valued and known by many psychoanalysts, this contribution stresses the crucial aspect of the reception of his ideas about technique in a particular American context. American analysts gained a much more explicit idea of how Bion worked analytically, how he listened, formulated interpretations and factored in the analyst's listening receptivity in the here-and-now. The author concludes with a consideration of the importance of Bion's American reception in 1967. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.