Zhang, Bin; Zheng, Jianghe; Watanabe, Ichiro; Maruko, Ichiro; Bi, Hua; Smith, Earl L.; Chino, Yuzo
Neurons in the adult visual cortex are capable of integrating signals over a large area that surrounds their classic receptive field (RF), and this ability of cortical neurons is thought to be intimately involved in perceptual binding. It is not known, however, at what age these long-range signal interactions emerge. Here, we report that qualitatively adult-like center/surround interactions are already present in the primary visual cortex as early as postnatal day 14 in macaque monkeys. Howev...
Zhang, Bin; Zheng, Jianghe; Watanabe, Ichiro; Maruko, Ichiro; Bi, Hua; Smith, Earl L; Chino, Yuzo
Neurons in the adult visual cortex are capable of integrating signals over a large area that surrounds their classic receptive field (RF), and this ability of cortical neurons is thought to be intimately involved in perceptual binding. It is not known, however, at what age these long-range signal interactions emerge. Here, we report that qualitatively adult-like center/surround interactions are already present in the primary visual cortex as early as postnatal day 14 in macaque monkeys. However, the RF surrounds of visual area 2 (V2) neurons were largely absent until 4 weeks of age and, as late as 8 weeks of age, center/surround signal interactions in V2 neurons were immature. Our results suggest that the cortical circuits underlying the RF center/surround of individual neurons mature considerably later in V2 than in the primary visual cortex and give critical evidence for the hypothesis that the functional maturation of the primate visual brain proceeds in a hierarchical manner.
Fracasso, Alessio; Petridou, N; Dumoulin, Serge O
Receptive fields (RFs) in visual cortex are organized in antagonistic, center-surround, configurations. RF properties change systematically across eccentricity and between visual field maps. However, it is unknown how center-surround configurations are organized in human visual cortex across lamina.
Keith P. Johnson; Lei Zhao; Daniel Kerschensteiner
The spike trains of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the only source of visual information to the brain. Here, we genetically identify an RGC type in mice that functions as a pixel encoder and increases firing to light increments (PixON-RGC). PixON-RGCs have medium-sized dendritic arbors and non-canonical center-surround receptive fields. From their receptive field center, PixON-RGCs receive only excitatory input, which encodes contrast and spatial information linearly. From their receptive ...
Zeidman, Peter; Silson, Edward Harry; Schwarzkopf, Dietrich Samuel; Baker, Chris Ian; Penny, Will
We introduce a probabilistic (Bayesian) framework and associated software toolbox for mapping population receptive fields (pRFs) based on fMRI data. This generic approach is intended to work with stimuli of any dimension and is demonstrated and validated in the context of 2D retinotopic mapping. The framework enables the experimenter to specify generative (encoding) models of fMRI timeseries, in which experimental stimuli enter a pRF model of neural activity, which in turns drives a nonlinear model of neurovascular coupling and Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) response. The neuronal and haemodynamic parameters are estimated together on a voxel-by-voxel or region-of-interest basis using a Bayesian estimation algorithm (variational Laplace). This offers several novel contributions to receptive field modelling. The variance/covariance of parameters are estimated, enabling receptive fields to be plotted while properly representing uncertainty about pRF size and location. Variability in the haemodynamic response across the brain is accounted for. Furthermore, the framework introduces formal hypothesis testing to pRF analysis, enabling competing models to be evaluated based on their log model evidence (approximated by the variational free energy), which represents the optimal tradeoff between accuracy and complexity. Using simulations and empirical data, we found that parameters typically used to represent pRF size and neuronal scaling are strongly correlated, which is taken into account by the Bayesian methods we describe when making inferences. We used the framework to compare the evidence for six variants of pRF model using 7 T functional MRI data and we found a circular Difference of Gaussians (DoG) model to be the best explanation for our data overall. We hope this framework will prove useful for mapping stimulus spaces with any number of dimensions onto the anatomy of the brain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The linear receptive field describes a mapping from sensory stimuli to a one-dimensional variable governing a neuron's spike response. However, traditional receptive field estimators such as the spike-triggered average converge slowly and often require large amounts of data. Bayesian methods seek to overcome this problem by biasing estimates towards solutions that are more likely a priori, typically those with small, smooth, or sparse coefficients. Here we introduce a novel Bayesian receptive field estimator designed to incorporate locality, a powerful form of prior information about receptive field structure. The key to our approach is a hierarchical receptive field model that flexibly adapts to localized structure in both spacetime and spatiotemporal frequency, using an inference method known as empirical Bayes. We refer to our method as automatic locality determination (ALD, and show that it can accurately recover various types of smooth, sparse, and localized receptive fields. We apply ALD to neural data from retinal ganglion cells and V1 simple cells, and find it achieves error rates several times lower than standard estimators. Thus, estimates of comparable accuracy can be achieved with substantially less data. Finally, we introduce a computationally efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm for fully Bayesian inference under the ALD prior, yielding accurate Bayesian confidence intervals for small or noisy datasets.
A receptive field constitutes a region in the visual field where a visual cell or a visual operator responds to visual stimuli. This paper presents a theory for what types of receptive field profiles can be regarded as natural for an idealized vision system, given a set of structural requirements on the first stages of visual processing that reflect symmetry properties of the surrounding world. These symmetry properties include (i) covariance properties under scale changes, affine image deformations, and Galilean transformations of space-time as occur for real-world image data as well as specific requirements of (ii) temporal causality implying that the future cannot be accessed and (iii) a time-recursive updating mechanism of a limited temporal buffer of the past as is necessary for a genuine real-time system. Fundamental structural requirements are also imposed to ensure (iv) mutual consistency and a proper handling of internal representations at different spatial and temporal scales. It is shown how a set of families of idealized receptive field profiles can be derived by necessity regarding spatial, spatio-chromatic, and spatio-temporal receptive fields in terms of Gaussian kernels, Gaussian derivatives, or closely related operators. Such image filters have been successfully used as a basis for expressing a large number of visual operations in computer vision, regarding feature detection, feature classification, motion estimation, object recognition, spatio-temporal recognition, and shape estimation. Hence, the associated so-called scale-space theory constitutes a both theoretically well-founded and general framework for expressing visual operations. There are very close similarities between receptive field profiles predicted from this scale-space theory and receptive field profiles found by cell recordings in biological vision. Among the family of receptive field profiles derived by necessity from the assumptions, idealized models with very good qualitative
Fan, Bin; Kong, Qingqun; Trzcinski, Tomasz; Wang, Zhiheng; Pan, Chunhong; Fua, Pascal
Feature description for local image patch is widely used in computer vision. While the conventional way to design local descriptor is based on expert experience and knowledge, learning-based methods for designing local descriptor become more and more popular because of their good performance and data-driven property. This paper proposes a novel data-driven method for designing binary feature descriptor, which we call receptive fields descriptor (RFD). Technically, RFD is constructed by thresholding responses of a set of receptive fields, which are selected from a large number of candidates according to their distinctiveness and correlations in a greedy way. Using two different kinds of receptive fields (namely rectangular pooling area and Gaussian pooling area) for selection, we obtain two binary descriptors RFDR and RFDG .accordingly. Image matching experiments on the well-known patch data set and Oxford data set demonstrate that RFD significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art binary descriptors, and is comparable with the best float-valued descriptors at a fraction of processing time. Finally, experiments on object recognition tasks confirm that both RFDR and RFDG successfully bridge the performance gap between binary descriptors and their floating-point competitors.
Suresh, Vandana; Çiftçioğlu, Ulaş M; Wang, Xin; Lala, Brittany M; Ding, Kimberly R; Smith, William A; Sommer, Friedrich T; Hirsch, Judith A
Comparative physiological and anatomical studies have greatly advanced our understanding of sensory systems. Many lines of evidence show that the murine lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) has unique attributes, compared with other species such as cat and monkey. For example, in rodent, thalamic receptive field structure is markedly diverse, and many cells are sensitive to stimulus orientation and direction. To explore shared and different strategies of synaptic integration across species, we made whole-cell recordings in vivo from the murine LGN during the presentation of visual stimuli, analyzed the results with different computational approaches, and compared our findings with those from cat. As for carnivores, murine cells with classical center-surround receptive fields had a "push-pull" structure of excitation and inhibition within a given On or Off subregion. These cells compose the largest single population in the murine LGN (∼40%), indicating that push-pull is key in the form vision pathway across species. For two cell types with overlapping On and Off responses, which recalled either W3 or suppressed-by-contrast ganglion cells in murine retina, inhibition took a different form and was most pronounced for spatially extensive stimuli. Other On-Off cells were selective for stimulus orientation and direction. In these cases, retinal inputs were tuned and, for oriented cells, the second-order subunit of the receptive field predicted the preferred angle. By contrast, suppression was not tuned and appeared to sharpen stimulus selectivity. Together, our results provide new perspectives on the role of excitation and inhibition in retinothalamic processing. We explored the murine lateral geniculate nucleus from a comparative physiological perspective. In cat, most retinal cells have center-surround receptive fields and push-pull excitation and inhibition, including neurons with the smallest (highest acuity) receptive fields. The same is true for thalamic relay cells
Bennequin, D; Berthoz, A
We present a set of formulas for the receptive fields of the vestibular neurons that are motivated by Galilean invariance. We show that these formulas explain non-trivial data in neurophysiology, and suggest new hypothesis to be tested in dynamical 3D conditions. Moreover our model offers a way for neuronal computing with 3D displacements, which is reputed to be hard, underlying the vestibular reflexes. This computation is presented in a Bayesian framework. The basis of the model is the necessity of living bodies to work invariantly in space-time, allied to the necessary discreteness of neuronal transmission.
This paper traces the history of the visual receptive field (RF) from Hartline to Hubel and Wiesel. Hartline (1938, 1940) found that an isolated optic nerve fiber in the frog could be excited by light falling on a small circular area of the retina. He called this area the RF, using a term first introduced by Sherrington (1906) in the tactile domain. In 1953 Kuffler discovered the antagonistic center-surround organization of cat RFs, and Barlow, Fitzhugh, and Kuffler (1957) extended this work to stimulus size and state of adaptation. Shortly thereafter, Lettvin and colleagues (1959) in an iconic paper asked "what the frog's eye tells the frog's brain". Meanwhile, Jung and colleagues (1952-1973) searched for the perceptual correlates of neuronal responses, and Jung and Spillmann (1970) proposed the term perceptive field (PF) as a psychophysical correlate of the RF. The Westheimer function (1967) enabled psychophysical measurements of the PF center and surround in human and monkey, which correlated closely with the underlying RF organization. The sixties and seventies were marked by rapid progress in RF research. Hubel and Wiesel (1959-1974), recording from neurons in the visual cortex of the cat and monkey, found elongated RFs selective for the shape, orientation, and position of the stimulus, as well as for movement direction and ocularity. These findings prompted the emergence in visual psychophysics of the concept of feature detectors selective for lines, bars, and edges, and contributed to a model of the RF in terms of difference of Gaussians (DOG) and Fourier channels. The distinction between simple, complex, and hypercomplex neurons followed. Although RF size increases towards the peripheral retina, its cortical representation remains constant due to the reciprocal relationship with the cortical magnification factor (M). This constitutes a uniform yardstick for M-scaled stimuli across the retina. Developmental studies have shown that RF properties are not fixed
Full Text Available The brain is able to maintain a stable perception although the visual stimuli vary substantially on the retina due to geometric transformations and lighting variations in the environment. This paper presents a theory for achieving basic invariance properties already at the level of receptive fields. Specifically, the presented framework comprises (i local scaling transformations caused by objects of different size and at different distances to the observer, (ii locally linearized image deformations caused by variations in the viewing direction in relation to the object, (iii locally linearized relative motions between the object and the observer and (iv local multiplicative intensity transformations caused by illumination variations. The receptive field model can be derived by necessity from symmetry properties of the environment and leads to predictions about receptive field profiles in good agreement with receptive field profiles measured by cell recordings in mammalian vision. Indeed, the receptive field profiles in the retina, LGN and V1 are close to ideal to what is motivated by the idealized requirements. By complementing receptive field measurements with selection mechanisms over the parameters in the receptive field families, it is shown how true invariance of receptive field responses can be obtained under scaling transformations, affine transformations and Galilean transformations. Thereby, the framework provides a mathematically well-founded and biologically plausible model for how basic invariance properties can be achieved already at the level of receptive fields and support invariant recognition of objects and events under variations in viewpoint, retinal size, object motion and illumination. The theory can explain the different shapes of receptive field profiles found in biological vision, which are tuned to different sizes and orientations in the image domain as well as to different image velocities in space-time, from a
Froemke, Robert C; Martins, Ana Raquel O
The nervous system must dynamically represent sensory information in order for animals to perceive and operate within a complex, changing environment. Receptive field plasticity in the auditory cortex allows cortical networks to organize around salient features of the sensory environment during postnatal development, and then subsequently refine these representations depending on behavioral context later in life. Here we review the major features of auditory cortical receptive field plasticity in young and adult animals, focusing on modifications to frequency tuning of synaptic inputs. Alteration in the patterns of acoustic input, including sensory deprivation and tonal exposure, leads to rapid adjustments of excitatory and inhibitory strengths that collectively determine the suprathreshold tuning curves of cortical neurons. Long-term cortical plasticity also requires co-activation of subcortical neuromodulatory control nuclei such as the cholinergic nucleus basalis, particularly in adults. Regardless of developmental stage, regulation of inhibition seems to be a general mechanism by which changes in sensory experience and neuromodulatory state can remodel cortical receptive fields. We discuss recent findings suggesting that the microdynamics of synaptic receptive field plasticity unfold as a multi-phase set of distinct phenomena, initiated by disrupting the balance between excitation and inhibition, and eventually leading to wide-scale changes to many synapses throughout the cortex. These changes are coordinated to enhance the representations of newly-significant stimuli, possibly for improved signal processing and language learning in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Grigorescu, Cosmin; Petkov, Nicolai; Westenberg, Michel A.
We propose a biologically motivated computational step, called nonclassical receptive field (non-CRF) inhibition, more generally surround inhibition or suppression, to improve contour detection in machine vision. Non-CRF inhibition is exhibited by 80% of the orientation-selective neurons in the
Grigorescu, C; Petkov, N; Westenberg, MA; Bulthoff, HH; Lee, SW; Poggio, TA; Wallraven, C
We propose a biologically motivated computational step, called non-classical receptive field (non-CRF) inhibition, to improve the performance of contour detectors. We introduce a Gabor energy operator augmented with non-CRF inhibition, which we call the bar cell operator. We use natural images with
Peña, José Luis
The owl's auditory system computes interaural time (ITD) and interaural level (ILD) differences to create a two-dimensional map of auditory space. Space-specific neurons are selective for combinations of ITD and ILD, which define, respectively, the horizontal and vertical dimensions of their receptive fields. ITD curves for postsynaptic potentials indicate that ICx neurons integrate the results of binaural cross correlation in different frequency bands. However, the difference between the main and side peaks is slight. ICx neurons further enhance this difference in the process of converting membrane potentials to impulse rates. Comparison of subthreshold postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) and spike output for the same neurons showed that receptive fields measured in PSPs were much larger than those measured in spikes in both ITD and ILD dimensions. A multiplication of separate postsynaptic potentials tuned to ITD and ILD can account for the combination sensitivity of these neurons to ITD-ILD pairs.
Obara, Keitaro; O'Hashi, Kazunori; Tanifuji, Manabu
Visual object information is conveyed from V1 to area TE along the ventral visual pathway with increasing receptive field (RF) sizes. The RFs of TE neurons are known to be large, but it is largely unknown how large RFs are shaped along the ventral visual pathway. In this study, we addressed this question in two aspects, static and dynamic mechanisms, by recording neural responses from macaque area TE and V4 to object stimuli presented at various locations in the visual field. As a component related to static mechanisms, we found that in area TE, but not in V4, response latency to objects presented at fovea were different from objects in periphery. As a component of the dynamic mechanisms, we examined effects of spatial attention on the RFs of TE neurons. Spatial attention did not affect response latency but modulated response magnitudes depending on attended location, shifting of the longitudinal axis of RFs toward the attended locations. In standard models of large RF formation, downstream neurons pool information from nearby RFs, and this process is repeated across the visual field and at each step along the ventral visual pathway. The present study revealed that this mechanism is not that simple: 1) different circuit mechanisms for foveal and peripheral visual fields may be situated between V4 and area TE, and 2) spatial attention dynamically changes the shape of RFs.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Receptive fields (RFs) of neurons are progressively increased along the ventral visual pathway so that an RF at the final stage, area TE, covers a large area of the visual field. We explored the mechanism and suggested involvement of parallel circuit mechanisms between V4 and TE for foveal and peripheral parts of visual field. We also found a dynamic component of RF shape formation through attentional modulation of responses in a location-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Deneve, Sophie; Gutkin, Boris
In order to respond reliably to specific features of their environment, sensory neurons need to integrate multiple incoming noisy signals. Crucially, they also need to compete for the interpretation of those signals with other neurons representing similar features. The form that this competition should take depends critically on the noise corrupting these signals. In this study we show that for the type of noise commonly observed in sensory systems, whose variance scales with the mean signal, sensory neurons should selectively divide their input signals by their predictions, suppressing ambiguous cues while amplifying others. Any change in the stimulus context alters which inputs are suppressed, leading to a deep dynamic reshaping of neural receptive fields going far beyond simple surround suppression. Paradoxically, these highly variable receptive fields go alongside and are in fact required for an invariant representation of external sensory features. In addition to offering a normative account of context-dependent changes in sensory responses, perceptual inference in the presence of signal-dependent noise accounts for ubiquitous features of sensory neurons such as divisive normalization, gain control and contrast dependent temporal dynamics. PMID:28622330
Full Text Available In order to respond reliably to specific features of their environment, sensory neurons need to integrate multiple incoming noisy signals. Crucially, they also need to compete for the interpretation of those signals with other neurons representing similar features. The form that this competition should take depends critically on the noise corrupting these signals. In this study we show that for the type of noise commonly observed in sensory systems, whose variance scales with the mean signal, sensory neurons should selectively divide their input signals by their predictions, suppressing ambiguous cues while amplifying others. Any change in the stimulus context alters which inputs are suppressed, leading to a deep dynamic reshaping of neural receptive fields going far beyond simple surround suppression. Paradoxically, these highly variable receptive fields go alongside and are in fact required for an invariant representation of external sensory features. In addition to offering a normative account of context-dependent changes in sensory responses, perceptual inference in the presence of signal-dependent noise accounts for ubiquitous features of sensory neurons such as divisive normalization, gain control and contrast dependent temporal dynamics.
Arne Freerk Meyer
Full Text Available Temporal variability of neuronal response characteristics during sensory stimulation is a ubiquitous phenomenon that may reflect processes such as stimulus-driven adaptation, top-down modulation or spontaneous fluctuations. It poses a challenge to functional characterization methods such as the receptive field, since these often assume stationarity. We propose a novel method for estimation of sensory neurons' receptive fields that extends the classic static linear receptive field model to the time-varying case. Here, the long-term estimate of the static receptive field serves as the mean of a probabilistic prior distribution from which the short-term temporally localized receptive field may deviate stochastically with time-varying standard deviation. The derived corresponding generalized linear model permits robust characterization of temporal variability in receptive field structure also for highly non-Gaussian stimulus ensembles. We computed and analyzed short-term auditory spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF estimates with characteristic temporal resolution 5 s to 30 s based on model simulations and responses from in total 60 single-unit recordings in anesthetized Mongolian gerbil auditory midbrain and cortex. Stimulation was performed with short (100 ms overlapping frequency-modulated tones. Results demonstrate identification of time-varying STRFs, with obtained predictive model likelihoods exceeding those from baseline static STRF estimation. Quantitative characterization of STRF variability reveals a higher degree thereof in auditory cortex compared to midbrain. Cluster analysis indicates that significant deviations from the long-term static STRF are brief, but reliably estimated. We hypothesize that the observed variability more likely reflects spontaneous or state-dependent internal fluctuations that interact with stimulus-induced processing, rather than experimental or stimulus design.
Hurri, Jarmo; Hyvärinen, Aapo
Recently, statistical models of natural images have shown the emergence of several properties of the visual cortex. Most models have considered the nongaussian properties of static image patches, leading to sparse coding or independent component analysis. Here we consider the basic time dependencies of image sequences instead of their nongaussianity. We show that simple-cell-type receptive fields emerge when temporal response strength correlation is maximized for natural image sequences. Thus, temporal response strength correlation, which is a nonlinear measure of temporal coherence, provides an alternative to sparseness in modeling simple-cell receptive field properties. Our results also suggest an interpretation of simple cells in terms of invariant coding principles, which have previously been used to explain complex-cell receptive fields.
Greggers, Uwe; Koch, Gesche; Schmidt, Viola; Dürr, Aron; Floriou-Servou, Amalia; Piepenbrock, David; Göpfert, Martin C; Menzel, Randolf
Honeybees, like other insects, accumulate electric charge in flight, and when their body parts are moved or rubbed together. We report that bees emit constant and modulated electric fields when flying, landing, walking and during the waggle dance. The electric fields emitted by dancing bees consist of low- and high-frequency components. Both components induce passive antennal movements in stationary bees according to Coulomb's law. Bees learn both the constant and the modulated electric field components in the context of appetitive proboscis extension response conditioning. Using this paradigm, we identify mechanoreceptors in both joints of the antennae as sensors. Other mechanoreceptors on the bee body are potentially involved but are less sensitive. Using laser vibrometry, we show that the electrically charged flagellum is moved by constant and modulated electric fields and more strongly so if sound and electric fields interact. Recordings from axons of the Johnston organ document its sensitivity to electric field stimuli. Our analyses identify electric fields emanating from the surface charge of bees as stimuli for mechanoreceptors, and as biologically relevant stimuli, which may play a role in social communication.
Duffy, Kevin R; Hubel, David H
Knowledge of the physiology of the primate visual cortex (area V-1) comes mostly from studies done in photopic conditions, in which retinal cones are active and rods play little or no part. Conflicting results have come from research into the effects of dark adaptation on receptive field organization of cells in the retina and the lateral geniculate nucleus. These studies claim either that the effect of the surround disappears with dark adaptation or that it does not. The current study has as its objective a comparison of responses of V-1 cells in awake-alert macaque monkeys under conditions of light and dark adaptation. We reasoned that basic receptive field properties of V-1 cells such as orientation selectivity, direction selectivity, and end-stopping should be preserved in scotopic conditions if the receptive field organization of antecedent cells is maintained in dim light. Our results indicate that dark adaptation does not alter basic V-1 receptive field characteristics such as selectivity for orientation, direction, and bar length.
Cohen, Michael A; Rhee, Juliana Y; Alvarez, George A
Human cognition has a limited capacity that is often attributed to the brain having finite cognitive resources, but the nature of these resources is usually not specified. Here, we show evidence that perceptual interference between items can be predicted by known receptive field properties of the visual cortex, suggesting that competition within representational maps is an important source of the capacity limitations of visual processing. Across the visual hierarchy, receptive fields get larger and represent more complex, high-level features. Thus, when presented simultaneously, high-level items (e.g., faces) will often land within the same receptive fields, while low-level items (e.g., color patches) will often not. Using a perceptual task, we found long-range interference between high-level items, but only short-range interference for low-level items, with both types of interference being weaker across hemifields. Finally, we show that long-range interference between items appears to occur primarily during perceptual encoding and not during working memory maintenance. These results are naturally explained by the distribution of receptive fields and establish a link between perceptual capacity limits and the underlying neural architecture. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
The large receptive fields of retinal horizontal cells result primarily from extensive intercellular coupling via gap (electrical) junctions; thus, the extent of the receptive field provides an index of the degree to which the cells are electrically coupled. For rod-driven horizontal cells in the dark-adapted skate retina, a space constant of 1.18 +/- 0.15 mm (SD) was obtained from measurements with a moving slit stimulus, and a comparable value (1.43 +/- 0.55 mm) was obtained with variation in spot diameter. These values, and the extensive spread of a fluorescent dye (Lucifer Yellow) from the site of injection to neighboring cells, indicate that the horizontal cells of the all-rod retina of skate are well coupled electrically. Neither the receptive field properties nor the gap-junctional features of skate horizontal cells were influenced by the adaptive state of the retina: (a) the receptive field organization was unaffected by light adaptation, (b) similar dye coupling was seen in both dark- and light-adapted retinae, and (c) no significant differences were found in the gap-junctional particle densities measured in dark- and light-adapted retinas, i.e., 3,184 +/- 286/microns 2 (n = 8) and 3,073 +/- 494/microns 2 (n = 11), respectively. Moreover, the receptive fields of skate horizontal cells were not altered by either dopamine, glycine, GABA, or the GABAA receptor antagonists bicuculline and picrotoxin. We conclude that the rod-driven horizontal cells of the skate retina are tightly coupled to one another, and that the coupling is not affected by photic and pharmacological conditions that are known to modulate intercellular coupling between cone-driven horizontal cells in other species. PMID:1359000
The changes of threshold and receptive field of the Babinski reflex, with time, were assessed in ten patients with acute cerebrovascular lesions. It was found that the threshold of the reflex decreased gradually and the size of the cutaneous afferent reflex field enlarged with the passage of time. These findings suggest that there is a gradual release or organisation of the reflex flexor synergy of which the Babinski sign is a modified part. PMID:6606699
Arne F Meyer
Full Text Available Analysis of sensory neurons' processing characteristics requires simultaneous measurement of presented stimuli and concurrent spike responses. The functional transformation from high-dimensional stimulus space to the binary space of spike and non-spike responses is commonly described with linear-nonlinear models, whose linear filter component describes the neuron's receptive field. From a machine learning perspective, this corresponds to the binary classification problem of discriminating spike-eliciting from non-spike-eliciting stimulus examples. The classification-based receptive field (CbRF estimation method proposed here adapts a linear large-margin classifier to optimally predict experimental stimulus-response data and subsequently interprets learned classifier weights as the neuron's receptive field filter. Computational learning theory provides a theoretical framework for learning from data and guarantees optimality in the sense that the risk of erroneously assigning a spike-eliciting stimulus example to the non-spike class (and vice versa is minimized. Efficacy of the CbRF method is validated with simulations and for auditory spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF estimation from experimental recordings in the auditory midbrain of Mongolian gerbils. Acoustic stimulation is performed with frequency-modulated tone complexes that mimic properties of natural stimuli, specifically non-Gaussian amplitude distribution and higher-order correlations. Results demonstrate that the proposed approach successfully identifies correct underlying STRFs, even in cases where second-order methods based on the spike-triggered average (STA do not. Applied to small data samples, the method is shown to converge on smaller amounts of experimental recordings and with lower estimation variance than the generalized linear model and recent information theoretic methods. Thus, CbRF estimation may prove useful for investigation of neuronal processes in response to
Duffy, Kevin R.; Hubel, David H.
Knowledge of the physiology of the primate visual cortex (area V-1) comes mostly from studies done in photopic conditions, in which retinal cones are active and rods play little or no part. Conflicting results have come from research into the effects of dark adaptation on receptive field organization of cells in the retina and the lateral geniculate nucleus. These studies claim either that the effect of the surround disappears with dark adaptation or that it does not. The current study has as...
Qiu, Anqi; Schreiner, Christoph E; Escabí, Monty A
The spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF) is a model representation of the excitatory and inhibitory integration area of auditory neurons. Recently it has been used to study spectral and temporal aspects of monaural integration in auditory centers. Here we report the properties of monaural STRFs and the relationship between ipsi- and contralateral inputs to neurons of the central nucleus of cat inferior colliculus (ICC) of cats. First, we use an optimal singular-value decomposition method to approximate auditory STRFs as a sum of time-frequency separable Gabor functions. This procedure extracts nine physiologically meaningful parameters. The STRFs of approximately 60% of collicular neurons are well described by a time-frequency separable Gabor STRF model, whereas the remaining neurons exhibited obliquely oriented or multiple excitatory/inhibitory subfields that require a nonseparable Gabor fitting procedure. Parametric analysis reveals distinct spectro-temporal tradeoffs in receptive field size and modulation filtering resolution. Comparisons between an identical model used to study spatio-temporal integration areas of visual neurons further shows that auditory and visual STRFs share numerous structural properties. We then use the Gabor STRF model to compare quantitatively receptive field properties of contra- and ipsilateral inputs to the ICC. We show that most interaural STRF parameters are highly correlated bilaterally. However, the spectral and temporal phases of ipsi- and contralateral STRFs often differ significantly. This suggests that activity originating from each ear share various spectro-temporal response properties such as their temporal delay, bandwidth, and center frequency but have shifted or interleaved patterns of excitation and inhibition. These differences in converging monaural receptive fields expand binaural processing capacity beyond interaural time and intensity aspects and may enable colliculus neurons to detect disparities in the spectro
Meyer, Arne F; Diepenbrock, Jan-Philipp; Happel, Max F K; Ohl, Frank W; Anemüller, Jörn
Analysis of sensory neurons' processing characteristics requires simultaneous measurement of presented stimuli and concurrent spike responses. The functional transformation from high-dimensional stimulus space to the binary space of spike and non-spike responses is commonly described with linear-nonlinear models, whose linear filter component describes the neuron's receptive field. From a machine learning perspective, this corresponds to the binary classification problem of discriminating spike-eliciting from non-spike-eliciting stimulus examples. The classification-based receptive field (CbRF) estimation method proposed here adapts a linear large-margin classifier to optimally predict experimental stimulus-response data and subsequently interprets learned classifier weights as the neuron's receptive field filter. Computational learning theory provides a theoretical framework for learning from data and guarantees optimality in the sense that the risk of erroneously assigning a spike-eliciting stimulus example to the non-spike class (and vice versa) is minimized. Efficacy of the CbRF method is validated with simulations and for auditory spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF) estimation from experimental recordings in the auditory midbrain of Mongolian gerbils. Acoustic stimulation is performed with frequency-modulated tone complexes that mimic properties of natural stimuli, specifically non-Gaussian amplitude distribution and higher-order correlations. Results demonstrate that the proposed approach successfully identifies correct underlying STRFs, even in cases where second-order methods based on the spike-triggered average (STA) do not. Applied to small data samples, the method is shown to converge on smaller amounts of experimental recordings and with lower estimation variance than the generalized linear model and recent information theoretic methods. Thus, CbRF estimation may prove useful for investigation of neuronal processes in response to natural stimuli and
Luque, Niceto R; Garrido, Jesús A; Ralli, Jarno; Laredo, Juanlu J; Ros, Eduardo
In biological systems, instead of actual encoders at different joints, proprioception signals are acquired through distributed receptive fields. In robotics, a single and accurate sensor output per link (encoder) is commonly used to track the position and the velocity. Interfacing bio-inspired control systems with spiking neural networks emulating the cerebellum with conventional robots is not a straight forward task. Therefore, it is necessary to adapt this one-dimensional measure (encoder output) into a multidimensional space (inputs for a spiking neural network) to connect, for instance, the spiking cerebellar architecture; i.e. a translation from an analog space into a distributed population coding in terms of spikes. This paper analyzes how evolved receptive fields (optimized towards information transmission) can efficiently generate a sensorimotor representation that facilitates its discrimination from other "sensorimotor states". This can be seen as an abstraction of the Cuneate Nucleus (CN) functionality in a robot-arm scenario. We model the CN as a spiking neuron population coding in time according to the response of mechanoreceptors during a multi-joint movement in a robot joint space. An encoding scheme that takes into account the relative spiking time of the signals propagating from peripheral nerve fibers to second-order somatosensory neurons is proposed. Due to the enormous number of possible encodings, we have applied an evolutionary algorithm to evolve the sensory receptive field representation from random to optimized encoding. Following the nature-inspired analogy, evolved configurations have shown to outperform simple hand-tuned configurations and other homogenized configurations based on the solution provided by the optimization engine (evolutionary algorithm). We have used artificial evolutionary engines as the optimization tool to circumvent nonlinearity responses in receptive fields.
Ghose, Geoffrey M; Bearl, David W
Expectations, especially those formed on the basis of extensive training, can substantially enhance visual performance. However, it is not clear that the physiological mechanisms underlying this enhancement are identical to those examined by experiments in which attention is directed by explicit instructions rather than strong expectations. To study the changes in visual representations associated with strong expectations, we trained animals to detect a brief motion pulse that was embedded in noise. Because the nature of the pulse and the statistics of its appearance were well known to the animals, they formed strong expectations which determined their behavioral performance. We used white-noise methods to infer the receptive field structure of single neurons in area MT while they were performing this task. Incorporating non-linearities, we compared receptive fields during periods of time when the animals were expecting the motion pulse with periods of time when they were not. We found receptive field changes consistent with an increased reliability in signaling pulse occurrence. Moreover, these changes were not consistent with a simple gain modulation. The results suggest that strong expectations can create very specific changes in the visual representations at a cellular level to enhance performance. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Kang; Kozyrev, Vladislav; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Treue, Stefan; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Bundesen, Claus
A fundamental question concerning representation of the visual world in our brain is how a cortical cell responds when presented with more than a single stimulus. We find supportive evidence that most cells presented with a pair of stimuli respond predominantly to one stimulus at a time, rather than a weighted average response. Traditionally, the firing rate is assumed to be a weighted average of the firing rates to the individual stimuli (response-averaging model) (Bundesen et al., 2005). Here, we also evaluate a probability-mixing model (Bundesen et al., 2005), where neurons temporally multiplex the responses to the individual stimuli. This provides a mechanism by which the representational identity of multiple stimuli in complex visual scenes can be maintained despite the large receptive fields in higher extrastriate visual cortex in primates. We compare the two models through analysis of data from single cells in the middle temporal visual area (MT) of rhesus monkeys when presented with two separate stimuli inside their receptive field with attention directed to one of the two stimuli or outside the receptive field. The spike trains were modeled by stochastic point processes, including memory effects of past spikes and attentional effects, and statistical model selection between the two models was performed by information theoretic measures as well as the predictive accuracy of the models. As an auxiliary measure, we also tested for uni- or multimodality in interspike interval distributions, and performed a correlation analysis of simultaneously recorded pairs of neurons, to evaluate population behavior. PMID:28082892
Brewer, Alyssa A.; Barton, Brian
Although several studies have suggested that cortical alterations underlie such age-related visual deficits as decreased acuity, little is known about what changes actually occur in visual cortex during healthy aging. Two recent studies showed changes in primary visual cortex (V1) during normal aging; however, no studies have characterized the effects of aging on visual cortex beyond V1, important measurements both for understanding the aging process and for comparison to changes in age-related diseases. Similarly, there is almost no information about changes in visual cortex in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia. Because visual deficits are often reported as one of the first symptoms of AD, measurements of such changes in the visual cortex of AD patients might improve our understanding of how the visual system is affected by neurodegeneration as well as aid early detection, accurate diagnosis and timely treatment of AD. Here we use fMRI to first compare the visual field map (VFM) organization and population receptive fields (pRFs) between young adults and healthy aging subjects for occipital VFMs V1, V2, V3, and hV4. Healthy aging subjects do not show major VFM organizational deficits, but do have reduced surface area and increased pRF sizes in the foveal representations of V1, V2, and hV4 relative to healthy young control subjects. These measurements are consistent with behavioral deficits seen in healthy aging. We then demonstrate the feasibility and first characterization of these measurements in two patients with mild AD, which reveal potential changes in visual cortex as part of the pathophysiology of AD. Our data aid in our understanding of the changes in the visual processing pathways in normal aging and provide the foundation for future research into earlier and more definitive detection of AD. PMID:24570669
Miconi, Thomas; VanRullen, Rufin
Visual attention has many effects on neural responses, producing complex changes in firing rates, as well as modifying the structure and size of receptive fields, both in topological and feature space...
Tadin, Duje; Kim, Jejoong; Doop, Mikisha L; Gibson, Crystal; Lappin, Joseph S; Blake, Randolph; Park, Sohee
.... Center-surround suppression has been implicated in a range of visual functions, including figure-ground segregation and pursuit eye movements, visual functions that are impaired in schizophrenia...
Ross, Muriel D.; Cutler, Lynn; Meyer, Glenn; Lam, Tony; Vaziri, Parshaw
Computer-assisted, 3-dimensional reconstructions of macular receptive fields and of their linkages into a neural network have revealed new information about macular functional organization. Both type I and type II hair cells are included in the receptive fields. The fields are rounded, oblong, or elongated, but gradations between categories are common. Cell polarizations are divergent. Morphologically, each calyx of oblong and elongated fields appears to be an information processing site. Intrinsic modulation of information processing is extensive and varies with the kind of field. Each reconstructed field differs in detail from every other, suggesting that an element of randomness is introduced developmentally and contributes to endorgan adaptability.
James Joseph Wright
Full Text Available Receptive fields of neurons in the forelimb region of areas 3b and 1 of primary somatosensory cortex, in cats and monkeys, were mapped using extracellular recordings obtained sequentially from nearly radial penetrations. Locations of the field centroids indicated the presence of a functional system, in which cortical homotypic representations of the limb surfaces are entwined in three-dimensional Mobius-strip-like patterns of synaptic connections. Boundaries of somatosensory receptive field in nested groups irregularly overlie the centroid order, and are interpreted as arising from the superposition of learned connections upon the embryonic order. Since the theory of embryonic synaptic self-organisation used to model these results was devised and earlier used to explain findings in primary visual cortex, the present findings suggest the theory may be of general application throughout cortex, and may reveal a modular functional synaptic system, which, only in some parts of the cortex, and in some species, is manifest as anatomical ordering into columns.
Silva, Maria Fatima; Brascamp, Jan W; Ferreira, Sónia; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Dumoulin, Serge O; Harvey, Ben M
Human visual cortex does not represent the whole visual field with the same detail. Changes in receptive field size, population receptive field (pRF) size and cortical magnification factor (CMF) with eccentricity are well established, and associated with changes in visual acuity with eccentricity. Visual acuity also changes across polar angle. However, it remains unclear how RF size, pRF size and CMF change across polar angle. Here, we examine differences in pRF size and CMF across polar angle in V1, V2 and V3 using pRF modeling of human fMRI data. In these visual field maps, we find smaller pRFs and larger CMFs in horizontal (left and right) than vertical (upper and lower) visual field quadrants. Differences increase with eccentricity, approximately in proportion to average pRF size and CMF. Similarly, we find larger CMFs in the lower than upper quadrant, and again differences increase with eccentricity. However, pRF size differences between lower and upper quadrants change direction with eccentricity. Finally, we find slightly smaller pRFs in the left than right quadrants of V2 and V3, though this difference is very small, and we find no differences in V1 and no differences in CMF. Moreover, differences in pRF size and CMF vary gradually with polar angle and are not limited to the meridians or visual field map discontinuities. PRF size and CMF differences do not consistently follow patterns of cortical curvature, despite the link between cortical curvature and polar angle in V1. Thus, the early human visual cortex has a radially asymmetric representation of the visual field. These asymmetries may underlie consistent reports of asymmetries in perceptual abilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Population receptive field (pRF mapping is a widely used approach to measuring aggregate human visual receptive field properties by recording non-invasive signals using functional MRI. Despite growing interest, no study to date has systematically investigated the effects of different stimulus configurations on pRF estimates from human visual cortex. Here we compared the effects of three different stimulus configurations on a model-based approach to pRF estimation: size-invariant bars and eccentricity-scaled bars defined in Cartesian coordinates and traveling along the cardinal axes, and a novel simultaneous ‘wedge and ring’ stimulus defined in polar coordinates, systematically covering polar and eccentricity axes. We found that the presence or absence of eccentricity scaling had a significant effect on goodness of fit and pRF size estimates. Further, variability in pRF size estimates was directly influenced by stimulus configuration, particularly for higher visual areas including V5/MT+. Finally, we compared eccentricity estimation between phase-encoded and model-based pRF approaches. We observed a tendency for more peripheral eccentricity estimates using phase-encoded methods, independent of stimulus size. We conclude that both eccentricity scaling and polar rather than Cartesian stimulus configuration are important considerations for optimal experimental design in pRF mapping. While all stimulus configurations produce adequate estimates, simultaneous wedge and ring stimulation produced higher fit reliability, with a significant advantage in reduced acquisition time.
Xiao, Qian; Li, Da-Peng; Wang, Shu-Rong
The tectofugal pathway in birds goes from the optic tectum to the telencephalic entopallium via the thalamic nucleus rotundus (nRt). This pathway may be homologous to the colliculo-pulvinar-cortical pathway in mammals. It is known that a population of rotundal neurons in the pigeon can signal impending collision of looming objects with the animal. Here we show by single-unit recording that there exist two groups of looming-sensitive neurons in the entopallium. A tau cell starts firing at a nearly constant time before collision whereas the response onset time of an eta cell is linearly related to the square root of the diameter/velocity ratio of looming objects. These cells are localized in the caudal entopallium. The receptive field (RF) of looming-sensitive cells was mapped on the screen plane but its inhibitory region could not suppress responses to looming objects. It appears that a population of telencephalic cells in pigeons responds to looming objects and their looming responses are not determined by the receptive field organization mapped on the screen plane.
Nishimoto, Shinji; Gallant, Jack L
Area MT has been an important target for studies of motion processing. However, previous neurophysiological studies of MT have used simple stimuli that do not contain many of the motion signals that occur during natural vision. In this study we sought to determine whether views of area MT neurons developed using simple stimuli can account for MT responses under more naturalistic conditions. We recorded responses from macaque area MT neurons during stimulation with naturalistic movies. We then used a quantitative modeling framework to discover which specific mechanisms best predict neuronal responses under these challenging conditions. We find that the simplest model that accurately predicts responses of MT neurons consists of a bank of V1-like filters, each followed by a compressive nonlinearity, a divisive nonlinearity, and linear pooling. Inspection of the fit models shows that the excitatory receptive fields of MT neurons tend to lie on a single plane within the three-dimensional spatiotemporal frequency domain, and suppressive receptive fields lie off this plane. However, most excitatory receptive fields form a partial ring in the plane and avoid low temporal frequencies. This receptive field organization ensures that most MT neurons are tuned for velocity but do not tend to respond to ambiguous static textures that are aligned with the direction of motion. In sum, MT responses to naturalistic movies are largely consistent with predictions based on simple stimuli. However, models fit using naturalistic stimuli reveal several novel properties of MT receptive fields that had not been shown in prior experiments.
Miconi, Thomas; VanRullen, Rufin
Visual attention has many effects on neural responses, producing complex changes in firing rates, as well as modifying the structure and size of receptive fields, both in topological and feature space. Several existing models of attention suggest that these effects arise from selective modulation of neural inputs. However, anatomical and physiological observations suggest that attentional modulation targets higher levels of the visual system (such as V4 or MT) rather than input areas (such as V1). Here we propose a simple mechanism that explains how a top-down attentional modulation, falling on higher visual areas, can produce the observed effects of attention on neural responses. Our model requires only the existence of modulatory feedback connections between areas, and short-range lateral inhibition within each area. Feedback connections redistribute the top-down modulation to lower areas, which in turn alters the inputs of other higher-area cells, including those that did not receive the initial modulation. This produces firing rate modulations and receptive field shifts. Simultaneously, short-range lateral inhibition between neighboring cells produce competitive effects that are automatically scaled to receptive field size in any given area. Our model reproduces the observed attentional effects on response rates (response gain, input gain, biased competition automatically scaled to receptive field size) and receptive field structure (shifts and resizing of receptive fields both spatially and in complex feature space), without modifying model parameters. Our model also makes the novel prediction that attentional effects on response curves should shift from response gain to contrast gain as the spatial focus of attention drifts away from the studied cell.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Receptive fields of retinal neural signals of different origin can be determined from extracellular microelectrode recordings at the inner retinal surface. However, locations and types of neural processes generating the different signal components are difficult to separate and identify. We here report epiretinal receptive fields (RFs from simultaneously recorded spikes and local electroretinograms (LERGs using a semi-chronic multi-electrode in vivo recording technique in cats. Broadband recordings were filtered to yield LERG and multi unit as well as single unit spike signals. RFs were calculated from responses to multifocal pseudo-random spatiotemporal visual stimuli registered at the retinal surface by a 7-electrode array. Results LERGs exhibit spatially unimodal RFs always centered at the location of the electrode tip. Spike-RFs are either congruent with LERG-RFs (N = 26/61 or shifted distally (N = 35/61 but never proximally with respect to the optic disk. LERG-RFs appear at shorter latencies (11.9 ms ± 0.5 ms, N = 18 than those of spikes (18.6 ms ± 0.4 ms, N = 53. Furthermore, OFF-center spike-RFs precede and have shorter response rise times than ON-center spike-RFs. Our results indicate that displaced spike-RFs result from action potentials of ganglion cell axons passing the recording electrode en route to the optic disk while LERG-RFs are related to superimposed postsynaptic potentials of cells near the electrode tip. Conclusion Besides contributing to the understanding of retinal function we demonstrate the caveats that come with recordings from the retinal surface, i.e., the likelihood of recordings from mixed sets of retinal neurons. Implications for the design of an epiretinal visual implant are discussed.
Hamker, Fred H; Zirnsak, Marc
Visual attention is generally considered to facilitate the processing of the attended stimulus. Its mechanisms, however, are still under debate. We have developed a systems-level model of visual attention which predicts that attentive effects emerge by the interactions between different brain areas. Recent physiological studies have provided evidence that attention also alters the receptive field structure. For example, V4 receptive fields typically shrink and shift towards the saccade target around saccade onset. We show that receptive field dynamics are inherently predicted by the mechanism of feedback in our model. According to the model an oculomotor feedback signal from an area involved in the competition for the saccade target location, e.g. the frontal eye field, enhances the gain of V4 cells. V4 receptive field dynamics can be observed after pooling the gain modulated responses to obtain a certain degree of spatial invariance. The time course of the receptive field dynamics in the model resemble those obtained from macaque V4.
Rogers, Stephen M; Harston, George W J; Kilburn-Toppin, Fleur; Matheson, Thomas; Burrows, Malcolm; Gabbiani, Fabrizio; Krapp, Holger G
Desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) can transform reversibly between the swarming gregarious phase and a solitarious phase, which avoids other locusts. This transformation entails dramatic changes in morphology, physiology, and behavior. We have used the lobula giant movement detector (LGMD) and its postsynaptic target, the descending contralateral movement detector (DCMD), which are visual interneurons that detect looming objects, to analyze how differences in the visual ecology of the two phases are served by altered neuronal function. Solitarious locusts had larger eyes and a greater degree of binocular overlap than those of gregarious locusts. The receptive field to looming stimuli had a large central region of nearly equal response spanning 120 degrees x 60 degrees in both phases. The DCMDs of gregarious locusts responded more strongly than solitarious locusts and had a small caudolateral focus of even further sensitivity. More peripherally, the response was reduced in both phases, particularly ventrally, with gregarious locusts showing greater proportional decrease. Gregarious locusts showed less habituation to repeated looming stimuli along the eye equator than did solitarious locusts. By contrast, in other parts of the receptive field the degree of habituation was similar in both phases. The receptive field organization to looming stimuli contrasts strongly with the receptive field organization of the same neurons to nonlooming local-motion stimuli, which show much more pronounced regional variation. The DCMDs of both gregarious and solitarious locusts are able to detect approaching objects from across a wide expanse of visual space, but phase-specific changes in the spatiotemporal receptive field are linked to lifestyle changes.
Bech, Miklós; Homberg, Uwe; Pfeiffer, Keram
Many animals, including insects, are able to use celestial cues as a reference for spatial orientation and long-distance navigation . In addition to direct sunlight, the chromatic gradient of the sky and its polarization pattern are suited to serve as orientation cues [2-5]. Atmospheric scattering of sunlight causes a regular pattern of E vectors in the sky, which are arranged along concentric circles around the sun [5, 6]. Although certain insects rely predominantly on sky polarization for spatial orientation , it has been argued that detection of celestial E vector orientation may not suffice to differentiate between solar and antisolar directions [8, 9]. We show here that polarization-sensitive (POL) neurons in the brain of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria can overcome this ambiguity. Extracellular recordings from POL units in the central complex and lateral accessory lobes revealed E vector tunings arranged in concentric circles within large receptive fields, matching the sky polarization pattern at certain solar positions. Modeling of neuronal responses under an idealized sky polarization pattern (Rayleigh sky) suggests that these "matched filter" properties allow locusts to unambiguously determine the solar azimuth by relying solely on the sky polarization pattern for compass navigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Soo Hyun Park
Full Text Available Many direction-selective neurons have a receptive field structure that promotes suppressive interactions between center and surround regions. These interactions sculpt the overall pattern of activity among those neurons and, therefore, presumably impact perceived direction of motion. To test this conjecture, we have assessed the effect of motion signals produced by a moving stimulus on perceived motion within a neighboring region. On each trial a vertical bar (inducer appeared at 8 eccentricity in the upper visual field, moving either leftward or rightward, and a circular shaped random dot kinematogram (test appeared at 4 eccentricity. The test dots moved randomly except when the inducer passed nearby the test, at which time a pulse of coherent motion occurred in one of the two directions within the test. Coherence strength was adjusted by QUEST to maintain equal likelihood (point of subjective equality: PSE of leftward and rightward reports of perceived direction during this motion pulse. The inducer caused a substantial shift in PSE: it was necessary for the test to contain 50% coherent motion in the same direction as that of the inducer to nullify the illusory motion within the test caused by the inducer. The effect of the inducer could also be offset by simultaneously presenting a second inducer moving in the opposite direction. This pattern of results implies substantial suppressive interactions between neighboring moving stimuli, interactions whose strength and direction can be assessed psychophysically using nulling procedures.
Maturana, Matias I; Apollo, Nicholas V; Garrett, David J; Kameneva, Tatiana; Cloherty, Shaun L; Grayden, David B; Burkitt, Anthony N; Ibbotson, Michael R; Meffin, Hamish
Implantable retinal stimulators activate surviving neurons to restore a sense of vision in people who have lost their photoreceptors through degenerative diseases. Complex spatial and temporal interactions occur in the retina during multi-electrode stimulation. Due to these complexities, most existing implants activate only a few electrodes at a time, limiting the repertoire of available stimulation patterns. Measuring the spatiotemporal interactions between electrodes and retinal cells, and incorporating them into a model may lead to improved stimulation algorithms that exploit the interactions. Here, we present a computational model that accurately predicts both the spatial and temporal nonlinear interactions of multi-electrode stimulation of rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The model was verified using in vitro recordings of ON, OFF, and ON-OFF RGCs in response to subretinal multi-electrode stimulation with biphasic pulses at three stimulation frequencies (10, 20, 30 Hz). The model gives an estimate of each cell's spatiotemporal electrical receptive fields (ERFs); i.e., the pattern of stimulation leading to excitation or suppression in the neuron. All cells had excitatory ERFs and many also had suppressive sub-regions of their ERFs. We show that the nonlinearities in observed responses arise largely from activation of presynaptic interneurons. When synaptic transmission was blocked, the number of sub-regions of the ERF was reduced, usually to a single excitatory ERF. This suggests that direct cell activation can be modeled accurately by a one-dimensional model with linear interactions between electrodes, whereas indirect stimulation due to summated presynaptic responses is nonlinear.
Full Text Available Detection of a tactile stimulus on one finger is impaired when a concurrent stimulus (masker is presented on an additional finger of the same or the opposite hand. This phenomenon is known to be finger-specific at the within-hand level. However, whether this specificity is also maintained at the between-hand level is not known. In four experiments, we addressed this issue by combining a Bayesian adaptive staircase procedure (QUEST with a two-interval forced choice (2IFC design in order to establish threshold for detecting 200ms, 100Hz sinusoidal vibrations applied to the index or little fingertip of either hand (targets. We systematically varied the masker finger (index, middle, ring, or little finger of either hand, while controlling the spatial location of the target and masker stimuli. Detection thresholds varied consistently as a function of the masker finger when the latter was on the same hand (Experiments 1 and 2, but not when on different hands (Experiments 3 and 4. Within the hand, detection thresholds increased for masker fingers closest to the target finger (i.e., middle>ring when the target was index. Between the hands, detection thresholds were higher only when the masker was present on any finger as compared to when the target was presented in isolation. The within hand effect of masker finger is consistent with the segregation of different fingers at the early stages of somatosensory processing, from the periphery to the primary somatosensory cortex (SI. We propose that detection is finger-specific and reflects the organisation of somatosensory receptive fields in SI within, but not between the hands.
Full Text Available A goal of computational models is not only to explain experimental data but also to make new predictions. A current focus of computational neuroimaging is to predict features of the presented stimulus from measured brain signals. These computational neuroimaging approaches may be agnostic about the underlying neural processes or may be biologically inspired. Here, we use the biologically inspired population receptive field (pRF approach to identify presented images from fMRI recordings of the visual cortex, using an explicit model of the underlying neural response selectivity. The advantage of the pRF-model is its simplicity: it is defined by a handful of parameters, which can be estimated from fMRI data that was collected within half an hour. Using 7T MRI, we measured responses elicited by different visual stimuli: (i conventional pRF mapping stimuli, (ii semi-random synthetic images and (iii natural images. The pRF mapping stimuli were used to estimate the pRF-properties of each cortical location in early visual cortex. Next, we used these pRFs to identify which synthetic or natural images was presented to the subject from the fMRI responses. We show that image identification using V1 responses is far above chance, both for the synthetic and natural images. Thus, we can identify visual images, including natural images, using the most fundamental low-parameter pRF model estimated from conventional pRF mapping stimuli. This allows broader application of image identification.
Müller, Monika; Biurrun Manresa, José A; Treichel, Fabienne; Agten, Christoph A; Heini, Paul; Andersen, Ole K; Curatolo, Michele; Jüni, Peter
Low back pain has a life time prevalence of 70% to 85%. Approximately 10% to 20% of all patients experience recurrent episodes or develop chronic low back pain. Sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics explain the transition from acute to chronic low back pain only to a limited extent. Altered central pain processing may be a contributing mechanism. The measurement of reflex receptive fields (RRF) is a novel method to assess altered central pain processing. The RRF area denotes the area of the foot sole from which spinal nociceptive reflexes can be elicited. It was shown to be enlarged in patients with acute and chronic low back pain compared with pain-free individuals. The aim of the study was to explore the discriminative ability of the RRF to distinguish patients with acute and chronic low back pain with the hypothesis that enlarged RRF are associated with chronic low back pain. We included 214 patients with either acute or chronic low back pain and compared RRF between groups in both univariable and multivariable analyses adjusted for different sociodemographic and clinical characteristics possibly associated with the transition to chronic pain. We found a mean difference between patients with acute and chronic low back pain of -0.01 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.06 to 0.04) in the crude, -0.02 (95% CI, -0.08 to 0.04) in the age and sex adjusted, and -0.02 (95% CI, -0.09 to 0.05) in the fully adjusted model. Our results suggest that the enlargement of RRF area may not be associated with the transition from acute to chronic low back pain.
Full Text Available Our eyes move constantly at a frequency of 3–5 times per second. These movements, called saccades, induce the sweeping of visual images on the retina, yet we perceive the world as stable. It has been suggested that the brain achieves this visual stability via predictive remapping of neuronal receptive field (RF. A recent experimental study disclosed details of this remapping process in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP, that is, about the time of the saccade, the neuronal RF expands along the saccadic trajectory temporally, covering the current RF (CRF, the future RF (FRF, and the region the eye will sweep through during the saccade. A cortical wave (CW model was also proposed, which attributes the RF remapping as a consequence of neural activity propagating in the cortex, triggered jointly by a visual stimulus and the corollary discharge (CD signal responsible for the saccade. In this study, we investigate how this CW model is learned naturally from visual experiences at the development of the brain. We build a two-layer network, with one layer consisting of LIP neurons and the other superior colliculus (SC neurons. Initially, neuronal connections are random and non-selective. A saccade will cause a static visual image to sweep through the retina passively, creating the effect of the visual stimulus moving in the opposite direction of the saccade. According to the spiking-time-dependent-plasticity rule, the connection path in the opposite direction of the saccade between LIP neurons and the connection path from SC to LIP are enhanced. Over many such visual experiences, the CW model is developed, which generates the peri-saccadic RF remapping in LIP as observed in the experiment.
Hallum, Luke E; Shooner, Christopher; Kumbhani, Romesh D; Kelly, Jenna G; García-Marín, Virginia; Majaj, Najib J; Movshon, J Anthony; Kiorpes, Lynne
In amblyopia, a visual disorder caused by abnormal visual experience during development, the amblyopic eye (AE) loses visual sensitivity whereas the fellow eye (FE) is largely unaffected. Binocular vision in amblyopes is often disrupted by interocular suppression. We used 96-electrode arrays to record neurons and neuronal groups in areas V1 and V2 of six female macaque monkeys ( Macaca nemestrina ) made amblyopic by artificial strabismus or anisometropia in early life, as well as two visually normal female controls. To measure suppressive binocular interactions directly, we recorded neuronal responses to dichoptic stimulation. We stimulated both eyes simultaneously with large sinusoidal gratings, controlling their contrast independently with raised-cosine modulators of different orientations and spatial frequencies. We modeled each eye's receptive field at each cortical site using a difference of Gaussian envelopes and derived estimates of the strength of central excitation and surround suppression. We used these estimates to calculate ocular dominance separately for excitation and suppression. Excitatory drive from the FE dominated amblyopic visual cortex, especially in more severe amblyopes, but suppression from both the FE and AEs was prevalent in all animals. This imbalance created strong interocular suppression in deep amblyopes: increasing contrast in the AE decreased responses at binocular cortical sites. These response patterns reveal mechanisms that likely contribute to the interocular suppression that disrupts vision in amblyopes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Amblyopia is a developmental visual disorder that alters both monocular vision and binocular interaction. Using microelectrode arrays, we examined binocular interaction in primary visual cortex and V2 of six amblyopic macaque monkeys ( Macaca nemestrina ) and two visually normal controls. By stimulating the eyes dichoptically, we showed that, in amblyopic cortex, the binocular combination of signals is
Alyssa A. Brewer
Full Text Available Although several studies have suggested that cortical alterations underlie such age-related visual deficits as decreased acuity, little is known about what changes actually occur in visual cortex during healthy aging. Two recent studies showed changes in primary visual cortex (V1 during normal aging; however, no studies have characterized the effects of aging on visual cortex beyond V1, important measurements both for understanding the aging process and for comparison to changes in age-related diseases. Similarly, there is almost no information about changes in visual cortex in Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the most common form of dementia. Because visual deficits are often reported as one of the first symptoms of AD, measurements of such changes in the visual cortex of AD patients might improve our understanding of how the visual system is affected by neurodegeneration as well as aid early detection, accurate diagnosis and timely treatment of AD. Here we use fMRI to first compare the visual field map (VFM organization and population receptive fields (pRFs between young adults and healthy aging subjects for occipital VFMs V1, V2, V3, and hV4. Healthy aging subjects do not show major VFM organizational deficits, but do have reduced surface area and increased pRF sizes in the foveal representations of V1, V2, and hV4 relative to healthy young control subjects. These measurements are consistent with behavioral deficits seen in healthy aging. We then demonstrate the feasibility and first characterization of these measurements in two patients with mild AD, which reveal potential changes in visual cortex as part of the pathophysiology of AD. Our data aid in our understanding of the changes in the visual processing pathways in normal aging and provide the foundation for future research into earlier and more definitive detection of AD.
Thomas Miconi; Rufin VanRullen
Visual attention has many effects on neural responses, producing complex changes in firing rates, as well as modifying the structure and size of receptive fields, both in topological and feature space...
This book argues that it is time to rethink reception as a traditional paradigm for understanding the relation between the ancient Greco-Roman traditions and early Judaism and Christianity. The concept of reception implies taking something from one fixed box into another, often a chronological la...
Cooke, Dylan F; Goldring, Adam B; Baldwin, Mary K L; Recanzone, Gregg H; Chen, Arnold; Pan, Tingrui; Simon, Scott I; Krubitzer, Leah
Somatosensory processing in the anesthetized macaque monkey was examined by reversibly deactivating posterior parietal areas 5L and 7b and motor/premotor cortex (M1/PM) with microfluidic thermal regulators developed by our laboratories. We examined changes in receptive field size and configuration for neurons in areas 1 and 2 that occurred during and after cooling deactivation. Together the deactivated fields and areas 1 and 2 form part of a network for reaching and grasping in human and nonhuman primates. Cooling area 7b had a dramatic effect on receptive field size for neurons in areas 1 and 2, while cooling area 5 had moderate effects and cooling M1/PM had little effect. Specifically, cooling discrete locations in 7b resulted in expansions of the receptive fields for neurons in areas 1 and 2 that were greater in magnitude and occurred in a higher proportion of sites than similar changes evoked by cooling the other fields. At some sites, the neural receptive field returned to the precooling configuration within 5-22 min of rewarming, but at other sites changes in receptive fields persisted. These results indicate that there are profound top-down influences on sensory processing of early cortical areas in the somatosensory cortex. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.
Kellner, Christian J; Wachtler, Thomas
In the retina of trichromatic primates, chromatic information is encoded in an opponent fashion and transmitted to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and visual cortex via parallel pathways. Chromatic selectivities of neurons in the LGN form two separate clusters, corresponding to two classes of cone opponency. In the visual cortex, however, the chromatic selectivities are more distributed, which is in accordance with a population code for color. Previous studies of cone signals in natural scenes typically found opponent codes with chromatic selectivities corresponding to two directions in color space. Here we investigated how the non-linear spatio-chromatic filtering in the retina influences the encoding of color signals. Cone signals were derived from hyper-spectral images of natural scenes and preprocessed by center-surround filtering and rectification, resulting in parallel ON and OFF channels. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) on these signals yielded a highly sparse code with basis functions that showed spatio-chromatic selectivities. In contrast to previous analyses of linear transformations of cone signals, chromatic selectivities were not restricted to two main chromatic axes, but were more continuously distributed in color space, similar to the population code of color in the early visual cortex. Our results indicate that spatio-chromatic processing in the retina leads to a more distributed and more efficient code for natural scenes.
Gao, Dashan; Mahadevan, Vijay; Vasconcelos, Nuno
It has been suggested that saliency mechanisms play a role in perceptual organization. This work evaluates the plausibility of a recently proposed generic principle for visual saliency: that all saliency decisions are optimal in a decision-theoretic sense. The discriminant saliency hypothesis is combined with the classical assumption that bottom-up saliency is a center-surround process to derive a (decision-theoretic) optimal saliency architecture. Under this architecture, the saliency of each image location is equated to the discriminant power of a set of features with respect to the classification problem that opposes stimuli at center and surround. The optimal saliency detector is derived for various stimulus modalities, including intensity, color, orientation, and motion, and shown to make accurate quantitative predictions of various psychophysics of human saliency for both static and motion stimuli. These include some classical nonlinearities of orientation and motion saliency and a Weber law that governs various types of saliency asymmetries. The discriminant saliency detectors are also applied to various saliency problems of interest in computer vision, including the prediction of human eye fixations on natural scenes, motion-based saliency in the presence of ego-motion, and background subtraction in highly dynamic scenes. In all cases, the discriminant saliency detectors outperform previously proposed methods from both the saliency and the general computer vision literatures.
Full Text Available Physiological evidence was sought for a center-surround attentional mechanism (CSM, which has been proposed to assist in the retrieval of weakly activated items from semantic memory. The CSM operates by facilitating strongly related items in the center of the weakly activated area of semantic memory, and inhibiting less strongly related items in its surround. In this study weak activation was created by having subjects acquire the meanings of new words to a recall criterion of only 50%. Subjects who attained this approximate criterion level of performance were subsequently included in a semantic priming task, during which ERPs were recorded. Primes were newly learned rare words, and targets were either synonyms, nonsynonymously related words, or unrelated words. All stimuli were presented to the RVF/LH (right visual field/left hemisphere or the LVF/RH (left visual field/right hemisphere. Under RVF/LH stimulation the newly learned word primes produced facilitation on N400 for synonym targets, and inhibition for related targets. No differences were observed under LVF/RH stimulation. The LH thus, supports a CSM, whereby a synonym in the center of attention focused on the newly learned word is facilitated, whereas a related word in the surround is inhibited. The data are consistent with the view of this laboratory that semantic memory is subserved by a spreading activation system in the LH. Also consistent with our view, there was no evidence of spreading activation in the RH. The findings are discussed in the context of additional recent theories of semantic memory. Finally, the adult right hemisphere may require more learning than the LH in order to demonstrate evidence of meaning acquisition.
Joiner, Wilsaan M; Cavanaugh, James; Wurtz, Robert H; Cumming, Bruce G
When light falls within a neuronal visual receptive field (RF) the resulting activity is referred to as the visual response. Recent work suggests this activity is in response to both the visual stimulation and the abrupt appearance, or salience, of the presentation. Here we present a novel method for distinguishing the two, based on the timing of random and nonrandom presentations. We examined these contributions in frontal eye field (FEF; N = 51) and as a comparison, an early stage in the primary visual cortex (V1; N = 15) of male monkeys (Macaca mulatta). An array of identical stimuli was presented within and outside the neuronal RF while we manipulated salience by varying the time between stimulus presentations. We hypothesized that the rapid presentation would reduce salience (the sudden appearance within the visual field) of a stimulus at any one location, and thus decrease responses driven by salience in the RF. We found that when the interstimulus interval decreased from 500 to 16 ms there was an approximate 79% reduction in the FEF response compared with an estimated 17% decrease in V1. This reduction in FEF response for rapid presentation was evident even when the random sequence preceding a stimulus did not stimulate the RF for 500 ms. The time course of these response changes in FEF suggest that salience is represented much earlier (visual system.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The neuronal responses in early visual processing [e.g., primary visual cortex (V1)] reflect primarily the retinal stimulus. Processing in higher visual areas is modulated by a combination of the visual stimulation and contextual factors, such as salience, but identifying these components separately has been difficult. Here we quantified these contributions at a late stage of visual processing [frontal eye field (FEF)] and as a comparison, an early stage in V1. Our results suggest that as visual information continues through higher levels of processing the neural responses are no longer
Ben Mark Harvey
Full Text Available Population receptive field (pRF modelling reconstructs the properties of visually responsive neuronal populations, typically using fMRI in humans. However, fMRI is an indirect measure of neural activity. Electrocorticography (ECoG measures electrical activity directly in humans using subdural electrodes. Here, we model pRF properties using both fMRI and ECoG data from the same subject. Prior to clinical intervention, we recorded fMRI responses to visual field mapping stimuli to determine pRF properties and visual area layout. The same subject subsequently underwent surgery to implant subdural ECoG electrodes and was shown the same visual field mapping stimuli while recording ECoG signals. ECoG data were filtered into different spectral bands, which were analysed separately. ECoG electrodes were localised to V1, MT, LO2, and IPS visual areas. Gamma-band responses allowed pRF modelling in all electrodes, and beta-band responses could also be fit in V1. pRF sizes were similar between ECoG and fMRI models. V1 alpha-band amplitude was highest when the stimulus was in the inhibitory surround of the neural population, although this did not reduce the gamma signal below baseline. IPS, MT, and LO2 alpha amplitude was highest when a blank screen was displayed, which was also found in the IPS beta-band. ECoG recording produces comparable results to fMRI for pRF modelling, providing useful validation and extension of fMRI-based reconstruction of neural pRF properties. The fMRI signal cannot be explained by one ECoG spectral density band alone. Alpha band amplitudes reflect inhibitory signals in V1 and resting-state in extra-striate cortex. The same spectral band can reflect different functional processing depending on cortical location.
Perez, Rogelio; Castro, Adrian F; Justo, Maria S; Bermudez, Maria A; Gonzalez, Francisco
To explore the neural mechanisms underlying disparity sensitivity in complex cells of the macaque visual cortex, the relationship between interocular receptive field (RF) positional shift and disparity sensitivity was studied in area V1. Single-unit recordings were made from area V1 of awake Macaca mulatta. Monocular RFs were mapped by means of a reverse cross-correlation technique, and their centers were determined after performing a bidimensional Gaussian function fitting. Interocular RF shifts were calculated for both bright and dark stimuli. Similarly, Gabor adjustments were obtained from disparity profiles to bright and dark dynamic random-dot stereograms (RDSs). Twenty-five complex cells were studied. The response profiles to disparity were similar for bright and dark RDSs. Interocular RF positional shift correlated significantly with both the peaks of Gabor fittings of disparity-sensitivity profiles and the peaks of the Gaussian envelopes of these Gabor fittings. Correlation between interocular RF positional shift and the peaks of the Gaussian envelopes was stronger than correlation between interocular RF positional shift and peaks of Gabor fittings. Interocular shift of monocular RFs is more related to the center of the range of disparities to which the cell is sensitive, than to the preferred disparity of the cell.
Phillip A Romo
Full Text Available Spike-responses of single binocular neurons were recorded from a distinct part of primary visual cortex, the parastriate cortex (cytoarchitectonic area 18 of anaesthetized and immobilized domestic cats. Functional identification of neurons was based on the ratios of phase-variant (F1 component to the mean firing rate (F0 of their spike-responses to optimized (orientation, direction, spatial and temporal frequencies and size sine-wave-luminance-modulated drifting grating patches presented separately via each eye. In over 95% of neurons, the interocular differences in the phase-sensitivities (differences in F1/F0 spike-response ratios were small (≤ 0.3 and in over 80% of neurons, the interocular differences in preferred orientations were ≤ 10°. The interocular correlations of the direction selectivity indices and optimal spatial frequencies, like those of the phase sensitivies and optimal orientations, were also strong (coefficients of correlation r ≥ 0.7005. By contrast, the interocular correlations of the optimal temporal frequencies, the diameters of summation areas of the excitatory responses and suppression indices were weak (coefficients of correlation r ≤ 0.4585. In cells with high eye dominance indices (HEDI cells, the mean magnitudes of suppressions evoked by stimulation of silent, extra-classical receptive fields via the non-dominant eyes, were significantly greater than those when the stimuli were presented via the dominant eyes. We argue that the well documented 'eye-origin specific' segregation of the lateral geniculate inputs underpinning distinct eye dominance columns in primary visual cortices of mammals with frontally positioned eyes (distinct eye dominance columns, combined with significant interocular differences in the strength of silent suppressive fields, putatively contribute to binocular stereoscopic vision.
Kobayashi, Takumi; Shimatani, Yuichi; Kyoso, Masaki
As a novel vital sign monitor, we have developed wireless ECG monitoring system with Near-field intra-body communication (NF-IBC) technique. However, it was hard to ensure communication reliability because transmission channel is noisy and unstable. In order to solve the problem, we utilize spread spectrum (SS), which is known as robust communication technique even through poor transmission channel. In previous study, we have already developed an ECG monitor using NF-IBC enhanced by SS. In this paper, we evaluated on structure of the reception electrode for reliable communication. Based on the evaluations with bit error rate, we suggested the reception electrode structure which can keep the communication reliability. As the results we considered that we can expand the reception electrode up to 2.25 m(2). Moreover, we proposed the structure of the reception electrodes that can keep the communication reliability. Finally we suggested how to use the SS NF-IBC vital-sign monitor in room that larger than 2.25 m(2), and we had shown the practicability of the systems.
Ghosh, Kuntal; Sarkar, Sandip; Bhaumik, Kamales
The low-level brightness-contrast illusions constitute a special class within visual illusions. Speculations exist that these illusions may be processed through the filtering action of the retinal ganglion cells without necessitating much intervention from higher order processes of visual perception. Concept of the classical receptive field of the ganglion cell, derived from early physiological studies, prompted the idea that a Difference of Gaussian (DoG) model might explain the low-level illusions. In spite of its many successes, the DoG model fails to explain some of these illusions. It has been shown in this paper that it is possible to simulate those illusions with a model that takes into cognizance the role of the extended classical receptive field.
Pienkowski, Martin; Eggermont, Jos J
The effects of nonlinear interactions between different sound frequencies on the responses of neurons in primary auditory cortex (AI) have only been investigated using two-tone paradigms. Here we stimulated with relatively dense, Poisson-distributed trains of tone pips (with frequency ranges spanning five octaves, 16 frequencies /octave, and mean rates of 20 or 120 pips /s), and examined within-frequency (or auto-frequency) and cross-frequency interactions in three types of AI unit responses by computing second-order "Poisson-Wiener" auto- and cross-kernels. Units were classified on the basis of their spectrotemporal receptive fields (STRFs) as "double-peaked", "single-peaked" or "peak-valley". Second-order interactions were investigated between the two bands of excitatory frequencies on double-peaked STRFs, between an excitatory band and various non-excitatory bands on single-peaked STRFs, and between an excitatory band and an inhibitory sideband on peak-valley STRFs. We found that auto-frequency interactions (i.e., those within a single excitatory band) were always characterized by a strong depression of (first-order) excitation that decayed with the interstimulus lag up to approximately 200 ms. That depression was weaker in cross-frequency compared to auto-frequency interactions for approximately 25% of dual-peaked STRFs, evidence of "combination sensitivity" for the two bands. Non-excitatory and inhibitory frequencies (on single-peaked and peak-valley STRFs, respectively) typically weakly depressed the excitatory response at short interstimulus lags (interactions with inhibitory frequencies rather than just non-excitatory ones. Finally, facilitation in single-peaked and peak-valley units decreased with increasing stimulus density. Our results indicate that the strong combination sensitivity and cross-frequency facilitation suggested by previous two-tone-paradigm studies are much less pronounced when using more temporally-dense stimuli.
Galeazzi, Juan M.; Navajas, Joaquin; Mender, Bedeho M. W.; Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo; Minini, Loredana; Stringer, Simon M.
ABSTRACT Neurons have been found in the primate brain that respond to objects in specific locations in hand-centered coordinates. A key theoretical challenge is to explain how such hand-centered neuronal responses may develop through visual experience. In this paper we show how hand-centered visual receptive fields can develop using an artificial neural network model, VisNet, of the primate visual system when driven by gaze changes recorded from human test subjects as they completed a jigsaw....
Loxley, P N
The two-dimensional Gabor function is adapted to natural image statistics, leading to a tractable probabilistic generative model that can be used to model simple cell receptive field profiles, or generate basis functions for sparse coding applications. Learning is found to be most pronounced in three Gabor function parameters representing the size and spatial frequency of the two-dimensional Gabor function and characterized by a nonuniform probability distribution with heavy tails. All three parameters are found to be strongly correlated, resulting in a basis of multiscale Gabor functions with similar aspect ratios and size-dependent spatial frequencies. A key finding is that the distribution of receptive-field sizes is scale invariant over a wide range of values, so there is no characteristic receptive field size selected by natural image statistics. The Gabor function aspect ratio is found to be approximately conserved by the learning rules and is therefore not well determined by natural image statistics. This allows for three distinct solutions: a basis of Gabor functions with sharp orientation resolution at the expense of spatial-frequency resolution, a basis of Gabor functions with sharp spatial-frequency resolution at the expense of orientation resolution, or a basis with unit aspect ratio. Arbitrary mixtures of all three cases are also possible. Two parameters controlling the shape of the marginal distributions in a probabilistic generative model fully account for all three solutions. The best-performing probabilistic generative model for sparse coding applications is found to be a gaussian copula with Pareto marginal probability density functions.
Binns, K E; Salt, T E
When the rat's eyes open (P14) the retino-collicular projection is largely mature but the cortico-collicular afferents are naive and mature considerably in the following week. At P14, single units in the superior colliculus' superficial grey layer (SGS) had discrete receptive fields (RFs) (diameter = 15 +/- 1.6 degrees) which expanded with age, reaching 30 +/- 2.6 degrees at P21, possibly reflecting the increasing influence of the visual cortex, whose RFs are known to be enlarged at P21. Subsequently SGS RFs retracted to 13 +/- 1.3 degrees by P23. Dark-reared (DR) rats followed a similar but delayed developmental pattern, such that RFs were still large (27 +/- 3.4 degrees) at P24. By P30 however the RFs of DR rats were the same as those of normal adults. Thus visual experience accelerates the emergence of normal RFs in the SGS.
Full Text Available Both judgment and receptivity are important to optimal politics, and both are important to each other. In making this argument, I use an Arendtian conception of judgment and take mindfulness as an example of receptivity. I argue that receptivity offers a needed dimension to addressing the puzzles of what makes Arendtian judgment possible, and that judgment provides a necessary complement to receptivity for action in the world. Exploring this complementary relation between judgment and receptivity also reveals a surprising similarity between what each offers to the practice of politics, in particular to freedom and the possibility of transformation. At the same time, I argue, these important contributions to politics are best understood and realized if judgment and receptivity are thought of as distinct forms of relating to the world.
Sproglæringsteoretisk værktøj til udvikling af IT-støttede materialer og programmer inden for sproglig reception......Sproglæringsteoretisk værktøj til udvikling af IT-støttede materialer og programmer inden for sproglig reception...
Galeazzi, Juan M; Navajas, Joaquín; Mender, Bedeho M W; Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo; Minini, Loredana; Stringer, Simon M
Neurons have been found in the primate brain that respond to objects in specific locations in hand-centered coordinates. A key theoretical challenge is to explain how such hand-centered neuronal responses may develop through visual experience. In this paper we show how hand-centered visual receptive fields can develop using an artificial neural network model, VisNet, of the primate visual system when driven by gaze changes recorded from human test subjects as they completed a jigsaw. A camera mounted on the head captured images of the hand and jigsaw, while eye movements were recorded using an eye-tracking device. This combination of data allowed us to reconstruct the retinal images seen as humans undertook the jigsaw task. These retinal images were then fed into the neural network model during self-organization of its synaptic connectivity using a biologically plausible trace learning rule. A trace learning mechanism encourages neurons in the model to learn to respond to input images that tend to occur in close temporal proximity. In the data recorded from human subjects, we found that the participant's gaze often shifted through a sequence of locations around a fixed spatial configuration of the hand and one of the jigsaw pieces. In this case, trace learning should bind these retinal images together onto the same subset of output neurons. The simulation results consequently confirmed that some cells learned to respond selectively to the hand and a jigsaw piece in a fixed spatial configuration across different retinal views.
Vinck, Martin; Bosman, Conrado A
During visual stimulation, neurons in visual cortex often exhibit rhythmic and synchronous firing in the gamma-frequency (30-90 Hz) band. Whether this phenomenon plays a functional role during visual processing is not fully clear and remains heavily debated. In this article, we explore the function of gamma-synchronization in the context of predictive and efficient coding theories. These theories hold that sensory neurons utilize the statistical regularities in the natural world in order to improve the efficiency of the neural code, and to optimize the inference of the stimulus causes of the sensory data. In visual cortex, this relies on the integration of classical receptive field (CRF) data with predictions from the surround. Here we outline two main hypotheses about gamma-synchronization in visual cortex. First, we hypothesize that the precision of gamma-synchronization reflects the extent to which CRF data can be accurately predicted by the surround. Second, we hypothesize that different cortical columns synchronize to the extent that they accurately predict each other's CRF visual input. We argue that these two hypotheses can account for a large number of empirical observations made on the stimulus dependencies of gamma-synchronization. Furthermore, we show that they are consistent with the known laminar dependencies of gamma-synchronization and the spatial profile of intercolumnar gamma-synchronization, as well as the dependence of gamma-synchronization on experience and development. Based on our two main hypotheses, we outline two additional hypotheses. First, we hypothesize that the precision of gamma-synchronization shows, in general, a negative dependence on RF size. In support, we review evidence showing that gamma-synchronization decreases in strength along the visual hierarchy, and tends to be more prominent in species with small V1 RFs. Second, we hypothesize that gamma-synchronized network dynamics facilitate the emergence of spiking output that is
Novak, Joseph D.
Presented is a paradigm for science education research. The paradigm advances the reception learning theory, where regularities to be learned are presented explicitly to the learner. A tool for the study of knowledge production in science education, the Gowin "V," is presented. (RE)
Paulo, Ana; Zaal, Frank T J M; Fonseca, Sofia; Araujo, Duarte
Serve and serve-reception performance have predicted success in volleyball. Given the impact of serve-reception on the game, we aimed at understanding what it is in the serve and receiver's actions that determines the selection of the type of pass used in serve-reception and its efficacy. Four
To provide theoretical basis for artificial pollination in Lagerstroemia indica L., pollen viability and stigma receptivity were tested and the morphological change of stigma was observed. Pollen viability tested by in vitro culture, stigma receptivity examined by benzidine-H2O2 testing and fruit set estimated by field artificial ...
Education and Technology Transfer Unit/ETT-EC
Friday 15.10.2004 CERN 50th Anniversary articles will be sold in the Main Building, ground floor on Friday 15th October from 10h00 to 16h00. T-shirt, (S, M, L, XL) 20.- K-way (M, L, XL) 20.- Silk tie (2 models) 30.- Einstein tie 45.- Umbrella 20.- Caran d'Ache pen 5.- 50th Anniversary Pen 5.- Kit of Cartoon Album & Crayons 10.- All the articles are also available at the Reception Shop in Building 33 from Monday to Saturday between 08.30 and 17.00 hrs. Education and Technology Transfer Unit/ETT-EC
Some might argue that reception analysis is a remnant of the past in an age where “people formerly known as the audience” (Rosen, 2006) are producing and circulating content on a diversity of interactive and participatory media platforms. Far from being the case, reception research must continue...... on social media can help us better understand the participatory media culture that has established itself over the past decade. To properly address the question of meaning, however, reception research needs to be adapted to the current media landscape. Taking my point of departure in the multi...... (motivation, comprehension, discrimination, position, implementation) for their relevance and explanatory power in today’s media landscape, suggesting new interpretations and new formulations. A revision of reception research does not only concern the notion of reception itself, but also that of the text...
Full Text Available Serve and serve-reception performance have predicted success in volleyball. Given the impact of serve-reception on the game, we aimed at understanding what it is in the serve and receiver’s actions that determines the selection of the type of pass used in serve-reception and its efficacy. Four high-level players received jump-float serves from four servers in two reception zones – zone 1 and 5. The ball and the receiver’s head were tracked with two video cameras, allowing 3D world-coordinates reconstruction. Logistic-regression models were used to predict the type of pass used (overhand or underhand and serve-reception efficacy (error, out, or effective from variables related with the serve kinematics and related with the receiver’s on-court positioning and movement. Receivers’ initial position was different when in zone 1 and 5. This influenced the serve-related variables as well as the type of pass used. Strong predictors of using an underhand rather than overhand pass were higher ball contact of the server, reception in zone 1, receiver’s initial position more to the back of the court and backward receiver movement. Receiver’s larger longitudinal displacements and an initial position more to the back of the court had a strong relationship with the decreasing of the serve-reception efficacy. Receivers’ positioning and movement were the factors with the largest impact on the type of pass used and the efficacy of the reception. Reception zone affected the variance in the ball’s kinematics (with the exception of the ball’s lateral displacement, as well as in the receivers’ positioning (distances from the net and from the target. Also the reception zone was associated with the type of pass used by the receiver but not with reception efficacy. Given volleyball’s rotation rule, the receiver needs to master receiving in the different reception zones; he/she needs to adapt to the diverse constraints of each zone to maintain
Paulo, Ana; Zaal, Frank T. J. M.; Fonseca, Sofia; Araújo, Duarte
Serve and serve-reception performance have predicted success in volleyball. Given the impact of serve-reception on the game, we aimed at understanding what it is in the serve and receiver's actions that determines the selection of the type of pass used in serve-reception and its efficacy. Four high-level volleyball players received jump-float serves from four servers in two reception zones—zone 1 and 5. The ball and the receiver's head were tracked with two video cameras, allowing 3D world-coordinates reconstruction. Logistic-regression models were used to predict the type of pass used (overhand or underhand) and serve-reception efficacy (error, out, or effective) from variables related with the serve kinematics and related with the receiver's on-court positioning and movement. Receivers' initial position was different when in zone 1 and 5. This influenced the serve-related variables as well as the type of pass used. Strong predictors of using an underhand rather than overhand pass were higher ball contact of the server, reception in zone 1, receiver's initial position more to the back of the court and backward receiver movement. Receiver's larger longitudinal displacements and an initial position more to the back of the court had a strong relationship with the decreasing of the serve-reception efficacy. Receivers' positioning and movement were the factors with the largest impact on the type of pass used and the efficacy of the reception. Reception zone affected the variance in the ball's kinematics (with the exception of the ball's lateral displacement), as well as in the receivers' positioning (distances from the net and from the target). Also the reception zone was associated with the type of pass used by the receiver but not with reception efficacy. Given volleyball's rotation rule, the receiver needs to master receiving in the different reception zones; he/she needs to adapt to the diverse constraints of each zone to maintain performance efficacy. Thus
Cooper, Neil, fl 1983-2004, photographer
A slide showing Indira Gandhi, Indian Prime Minister and Chair of the Conference, Kenneth Kaunda, President of Zambia, and Robert and Sally Mugabe, President and First Lady of Zimbabwe, in discussion at the President's Reception.
At a reception on 28 January, the CERN management presented their best wishes for 2009 to politicians and representatives of the administrations in the local area, and diplomats representing CERN’s Member States, Observer States and other countries.
Transducer project and optimization of the ultra low magnetic field NMR tomograph reception system system; Projeto de transdutores e otimizacao do sistema de recepcao do tomografo de RMN de campo magnetico ultra baixo
Vidoto, Edson Luiz Gea
The aim of the present work was to optimize the signal to noise ratio in our NMR imaging system (TORM 005) by improving transducer`s reception quality through better designed coils, balanced tuning circuit for this coils and power decoupling circuits and by reducing interference from the electromagnetic environment. For this purpose, we had to modify the internal electromagnetic shielding and incorporate line filters in the more critical signals paths. Also, new types of coils were developed, improving the signal to noise ratio, and allowing us to make clinical exams with superior quality for several anatomies. Balanced circuits for tuning and matching of the coil were studied and built, allowing a reduction of the coil losses because patient`s load. This produced a more reliable coil tuning after positioning each new patient. Circuits to avoid the receiver input overload and decoupling circuits for the isolation of receiver coils from excitation coil were designed and incorporated to the TORM 005. All these alterations of our imaging system (TORM 005) contributed to a significant improvement in the signal to noise ratio, reliability and reproducibility of the system. This permitted to operate the system routinely for clinical applications, research and development in the area of ultra low magnetic field tomography. (author) 46 refs., 66 figs., 11 tabs.
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Lankinen, Asa; Hellriegel, Barbara; Bernasconi, Giorgina
In flowering plants, the onset and duration of female receptivity vary among species. In several species the receptive structures wilt upon pollination. Here we explore the hypothesis that postpollination wilting may be influenced by pollen and serve as a general means to secure paternity of the pollen donor at the expense of female fitness. Taking a game-theoretical approach, we examine the potential for the evolution of a pollen-borne wilting substance, and for the coevolution of a defense strategy by the recipient plant. The model without defense predicts an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) for the production of wilting substance. The ESS value is highest when pollinator visiting rates are intermediate and when the probability that pollen from several donors arrives at the same time is low. This finding has general implications in that it shows that male traits to secure paternity also can evolve in species, such as plants, where mating is not strictly sequential. We further model coevolution of the wilting substance with the timing of stigma receptivity. We assume that pollen-receiving plants can reduce the costs induced by toxic pollen by delaying the onset of stigmatic receptivity. The model predicts a joint ESS, but no female counter-adaptation when the wilting substance is highly toxic. This indicates that toxicity affects the probability that a male manipulative trait stays beneficial (i.e., not countered by female defense) over evolutionary time. We discuss parallels to male induced changes in female receptivity known to occur in animals and the role of harm for the evolution of male manipulative adaptations.
Fereczkowski, Michal; Bothe, Hans-Heinrich
The main idea of the project is to build a widely speaker-independent, biologically motivated automatic speech recognition (ASR) system. The two main differences between our approach and current state-of-the-art ASRs are that i) the features used here are based on the responses of neuronlike...... Model-based adaptation procedures. Two databases are used, TI46 for discrete speech a subset of the TIMIT database collected from speakers belonging to the New York dialect region. Each of the selection of 10 sentences is uttered once by each of 35 speakers. The major differences between the two data...... sets initiate the development and comparison of two distinct ASRs within the project, which will be presented in the following. Employing a reduced sampling frequency and bandwidth of the signals, the ASR algorithm reaches and goes beyond recognition results that are known from humans....
The present study investigates (i) English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners' receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii) how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as linguistic proficiency develops; and (iii) the extent to which receptive knowledge of ...
Zhang, Li; Li, Bing
In primary visual cortex, spiking activity that evoked by stimulus confined in receptive field can be modulated by surround stimulus. This center-surround interaction is hypothesized to be the basis of visual feature integration and segregation. Spiking output has been extensively reported to be surround suppressive. However, less is known about the modulation properties of the local field potential (LFP), which generally reflects synaptic inputs. We simultaneously recorded spiking activity and LFP in the area 17 of anesthetized cats to examine and compare their modulation characteristics. When the stimulus went beyond the classical receptive field, LFP exhibited decreased power along the gamma band (30-100 Hz) in most of our recording sites. Further investigation revealed that suppression of the LFP gamma mean power (gLFP) depended on the angle between the center and surround orientations. The strongest suppression was induced when center and surround orientations were parallel. Moreover, the surround influence of the gLFP exhibited an asymmetric spatial organization. These results demonstrate that the gLFP has similar but not identical surround modulation properties, as compared to the spiking activity. The spatiotemporal integration of LFP implies that the oscillation and synchronization of local synaptic inputs may have important functions in surround modulation.
Santos, Maria de Fátima Oliveira dos; Fernandes, Maria das Graças Melo; Oliveira, Harison José de
Receptiveness is a tool that brings contributions for health care humanization, especially with regard to its practice in the field of Anesthesiology. The aim was to investigate through the report of anesthesiologists the understanding of the receptiveness phenomenon among these professionals. This is a descriptive qualitative research held at the Hospital Universitário Lauro Wanderley (HULW), in the city of João Pessoa, PB. The sample consisted of 16 attending anesthesiologists, 25% female doctors and 75% male doctors. Data were collected through interviews guided by two semi-structured questions from September to October 2010. Data analysis was performed using the technique of Collective Subject Discourse (CSD). The anesthesiologists' answer to the following question was considered as this study's result: "What do you think about the practice of receptiveness as a strategy to humanize the doctor-patient relationship?" The doctors' CSD presented two central ideas: 1) a holistic approach to the patient; 2) a strategy that improves the doctor-patient relationship. When asked about the strategies adopted by them to humanize the relationship with the patient at the time of reception, their reports were organized based on three central ideas: 1) observation of patients' rights; 2) therapeutic communication; 3) preanesthetic visit. It was found that the physicians involved in the research recognized the value of receptiveness as a strategy to humanize the doctor-patient relationship. The receptivity to the patient in the course of anesthesia is very important because it allows the professional to perform a qualified hearing of the patient's history, together with the humanized care process, which enables the improvement of the interaction between doctor and patient. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
.... This article argues that reception analysis, developed in the field of cultural studies, could be usefully applied to children and their reading of fiction, as it offers a particular understanding of media audiences...
Full Text Available The object of study case is to analyze the quality of the logistics department, focusing on the audit process. Purpose of this paper is to present the advantages resulting from the systematic audit processes and methods of analysis and improvement of nonconformities found. The case study is realised at SC Miele Tehnica SRL Brasov, twelfth production line, and the fourth from outside Germany. The specific objectives are: clarifying the concept of audit quality, emphasizing requirements ISO 19011:2003 "Guidelines for auditing quality management systems and / or environment" on audits; cchieving quality audit and performance analysis; improved process performance reception materials; compliance with legislation and auditing standards applicable in EU and Romania.
Members of the personnel are invited to take note that only parcels corresponding to official orders or contracts will be handled at CERN. Individuals are not authorised to have private merchandise delivered to them at CERN and private deliveries will not be accepted by the Goods Reception services. Goods Reception Services
Full Text Available The target of this work was verified effect of transport females in the car for advance state of receptivity in young females broiler rabbits. We used nulliparous females of broiler hybrid HYCOLE (age 4-5 months, weight 3.5-3.8 kg. Experiment was realizated twice. First in half of November (31 females, second in half of February (32 females. Females was layed individually in boxes. After they were transported by car 1 hour (50 km. Before and after experiment we detected state of receptivity in females with coloration of vulva. The state of receptivity was determited from 1 for 4 colour of vulva. ( 1 – anemic coloration of vulva, 2- pink, 3 – red, 4- violet. We detected positive state of transport, on the receptivity. In November before transport was average of receptivity 1.87, after transport 2.25. The state of receptivity will be improve in 12 females (38.71 %. Improve from 1 to 2 was detected in 4 females, from 2 to 3 in 8 females. Improved from 2 to 4 , or from 3 to 4 wasn´t noticed in this group. The state of receptivity wasn´t changed in 19 females (61.29 %. In the state of receptivity 1 stayed 2 females, in the state 2 stayed 15 females, in the state 3 stayed 2 females and in the state 4 wasn´t any female. In February after the end of experiment, state of receptivity was improved with transport in the car from 2.19 to 2.65. The state of receptivity was improved in 13 females (40.63 %. Improve from 1 to 2 we detected in 1 female, from 2 to 3 we detected in 8 females, from 2 to 4 we detected in 2 females, from 3 to 4 in 2 females. In 19 females (59.38% we don´t noticed change state of receptivity. In the state of receptivity 1 were 2 females, in 2 were 11 females, in 3 were 5 females, in 4 was 1 female.
Christopher Engelhard; Ralph P Diensthuber; Andreas Möglich; Robert Bittl
.... Using electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) spectroscopy and site-directed spin labelling, we chart the structural transitions facilitating blue-light reception in the engineered light-oxygen-voltage (LOV...
Gupta, Ramwant; Sutradhar, Hrishikesh; Chakrabarty, S K; Ansari, Mohhammed Wahid; Singh, Yogendra
Stigmatic receptivity restricts the successful pollination in cereal crops. The present study deals with the biochemical test for enzymes producing in stigma of field crops such as Indian mustard, rice and wheat. The alcohol dehydrogenase and hydrogen peroxide assays revealed stigmatic receptivity as a violet color and oxygen bubbles released by the chemical reaction. Therefore, the 2 quick tests are in conformity to each other and supported the seed set data, which was utmost at blooming stage of flower ranged between 2-4 d All the 3 crops showed variation in stigmatic receptivity with respect to different time periods of blooming stages and hence, it may affects simultaneous pollen germination and tube growth, fertilization and seed set. The present finding suggests that the growth of pollen tube and stigma receptivity could be influenced by specific enzymes on stigma surface after 2-4 d of blooming stage, which contributes to proper seed set.
Full Text Available With so much attention on the issue of voice in democratic theory, the inverse question of how people come to listen remains a marginal one. Recent scholarship in affect and neuroscience reveals that cognitive and verbal strategies, while privileged in democratic politics, are often insufficient to cultivate the receptivity that constitutes the most basic premise of democratic encounters. This article draws on this scholarship and a recent case of forum theatre to examine the conditions of receptivity and responsiveness, and identify specific strategies that foster such conditions. It argues that the forms of encounter most effective in cultivating receptivity are those that move us via affective intensity within pointedly mediated contexts. It is this constellation of strategies—this strange marriage of immersion and mediation—that enabled this performance to surface latent memory, affect and bias, unsettle entrenched patterns of thought and behaviour, and provide the conditions for revisability. This case makes clear that to lie beyond the domain of cognitive and verbal processes is not to lie beyond potential intervention, and offers insight to how such receptivity might be achieved in political processes more broadly.
extent to which receptive knowledge of collocations of EFL learners varies across word frequency bands. ..... language through in-class reading and conversation tasks which totalled 75 hours. The .... 4 Readers are referred to Wray (2002) and Barfield and Gyllstad (2009) for more details on how to teach collocations.
van Besouw, J.; van Dongen, J.; Maas, A.; Schatz, H.
This article reviews the early academic and public reception of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity in the Netherlands, particularly after Arthur Eddington's eclipse experiments of 1919. Initially, not much attention was given to relativity, as it did not seem an improvement over Hendrik A.
Full Text Available The present study investigates, (i English as Foreign Language (EFL learners’ receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as proficiency develops; and (iii the extent to which receptive knowledge of collocations of EFL learners varies across word frequency bands. A proficiency measure and a collocation test were administered to English majors at the University of Burundi. Results of the study suggest that receptive collocational competence develops alongside EFL learners’ linguistic proficiency; which lends empirical support to Gyllstad (2007, 2009 and Author (2011 among others, who reported similar findings. Furthermore, EFL learners’ collocations growth seems to be quantifiable wherein both linguistic proficiency level and word frequency occupy a crucial role. While more gains in terms of collocations that EFL learners could potentially add as a result of change in proficiency are found at lower levels of proficiency; collocations of words from more frequent word bands seem to be mastered first, and more gains are found at more frequent word bands. These results confirm earlier findings on the non-linearity nature of vocabulary growth (cf. Meara 1996 and the fundamental role played by frequency in word knowledge for vocabulary in general (Nation 1983, 1990, Nation and Beglar 2007, which are extended here to collocations knowledge.
This study investigated the relationship between receptive and productive vocabulary size. The experimental design expanded upon earlier methodologies by using equivalent receptive and productive test formats with different receptive and productive target words to provide more accurate results. Translation tests were scored at two levels of…
Cristiane Finger Costa
Full Text Available By inserting digital television in Brazil, the programming of open television becomes available in mobile and portable devices without any additional fares. The reception of contents anytime and anywhere is bound to provoke change in the relation between journalists and viewers. For this work, a survey was made in the field of reception to identify, in a qualitative way, the expectations and needs of senior/adult public when watching news in cell phones.
Tosca, Susana; Klastrup, Lisbeth
qualitative and quantitative studies. We argue that mapping user experience requires a sophisticated and holistic analytical approach - particularly, due to the popularity of social media platforms. We conclude the article by developing the concept of "networked reception" to characterize new kinds...... of transmedial world experience afforded by social media, which allow users to distribute and communicate not only the content of media texts but also their own experience and reception of transmedial world “texts”.......Building upon ten years of empirical work, this paper reflects on how to study increasingly complex user engagement with transmedial worlds. We examine our own analytical evolution from an initial aesthetic orientation to our current effort to incorporate the user´s own perspective through...
This paper draws on two reception studies. One focuses on an American medical drama which respondents perceived as entertainment but also as a reliable source of information from which they collected medical and social data by using emotional and ludic strategies. The second compares parallel illness narratives in a soap opera and a documentary. Soap operas were described by informants as good pedagogic tools because they attracted large audiences and promoted identification and repetition which enhance learning. On the other hand, they criticised the documentary for being incomplete and artificial. The conclusion argues that viewers are media-literate, astute and insightful. They produce sophisticated, subtle interpretations which cannot be predicted by content analyses of programmes alone. More reception research is therefore needed, particularly since television is increasingly omnipresent and provides a considerable portion of the public's medical knowledge.
Jasiewicz, Marcin; Powałka, Bartosz
This paper presents an issue of machining stability prediction of dynamic "lathe - workpiece" system evaluated using receptance coupling method. Dynamic properties of the lathe components (the spindle and the tailstock) are assumed to be constant and can be determined experimentally based on the results of the impact test. Hence, the variable of the system "machine tool - holder - workpiece" is the machined part, which can be easily modelled analytically. The method of receptance coupling enables a synthesis of experimental (spindle, tailstock) and analytical (machined part) models, so impact testing of the entire system becomes unnecessary. The paper presents methodology of analytical and experimental models synthesis, evaluation of the stability lobes and experimental validation procedure involving both the determination of the dynamic properties of the system and cutting tests. In the summary the experimental verification results would be presented and discussed.
Jensen, Frida Videbæk; Rozé, Caroline
This project is a reception analysis of how a target group receive online movie trailers. It utilized a focus group as means of research with participants from the dormitories Kollibrien and Korallen. We concluded that the group we investigated were not interested in online movie trailers as anything else than a preview of a movie. They preferred to experience movie trailers in the cinema. Their opinion of specific movie trailers were also determined by whether or not they identified with the...
This master’s degree thesis introduces the historical background of the Czech nation and the cultural contacts between Slovenes and Czechs. It outlines the development of the Czech young adult literature. In the thesis is qualitatively and quantitatively researched the reception of the Czech young adult literature. With a qualitative research it has been discovered how many young adult books have been translated from Czech into Slovene language, how many in different periods and which lit...
In my thesis I explore the potential of non-visual components of sculptural artworks. For that purpose I define reception and perception. I introduce senses and sculptural artworks of 20th century that address the specific sense. I examine reasons and consequences of favored treatment of vision and neglection of other senses, as well as the situation of people with blindness and visual impairement in today's visual culture. I committed my own artistic expression to create sculptural artwor...
Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold
The essay covers the critical reception of Mississippi-writer Lewis Nordan from his debut in 1983 to the boost in scholarly attention in the new millennium. The essay covers newspaper reviews but pays particular attention to the many academic essays that have placed Nordan as a writer...... in the southern literary tradition and have highlighted themes such as magical realism, the grotesque, race relations, music, and gender....
Carpenter, A; Macgill, S
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the charging systems for the use of port reception facilities for waste oil, and to examine the potential impact of the charging elements of the new (late 2000) EU Directive on port reception facilities for ship-generated waste and cargo residues. Experience to date with alternative models for charging is considered. Conclusions are drawn about the effectiveness of the EU Directive as a means of controlling pollution in the North Sea and producing a 'level playing field' between ports.
Loveall, Susan J; Channell, Marie Moore; Phillips, B Allyson; Abbeduto, Leonard; Conners, Frances A
The present study is an in-depth examination of receptive vocabulary in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) in comparison to control groups of individuals of similar nonverbal ability with typical development (TD) and non-specific etiology intellectual disability (ID). Verb knowledge was of particular interest, as it is known to be a predictor of later syntactic development. Fifty participants with DS, aged 10-21 years, 29 participants with ID, 10-21 years, and 29 participants with TD, 4-9 years, completed measures of receptive vocabulary (PPVT-4), nonverbal ability (Leiter-R), and phonological memory (Nonword Repetition subtest of the CTOPP). Groups were compared on percentage correct of noun, verb and attribute items on the PPVT-4. Results revealed that on verb items, the participants with ID performed significantly better than both participants with DS and TD, even when overall receptive vocabulary ability and phonological memory were held constant. Groups with DS and TD showed the same pattern of lexical knowledge, performing better on nouns than both verbs and attributes. In contrast, the group with ID performed similarly on nouns and verbs, but worse on attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mottershead, John E.; Kyprianou, Andreas; Ouyang, Huajiang
The inverse problem of assigning natural frequencies and antiresonances by a modification to the stiffness, mass and damping of a structure is addressed. Very simple modifications such as the addition of masses and grounded springs can be easily accommodated and require the measurement of translational receptances at the connection coordinates. Realistic modifications of practical usefulness, such as a modification by an added beam, require the measurement of rotational as well as translational receptances. Such data are difficult to obtain because of the practical problems of applying a pure moment. One method, the so-called 'T-block' approach, has received considerable attention in the literature, but the accompanying problem of ill-conditioning has not been fully addressed until now. The T-block is attached to the structure at the modification point, so that a force applied to the T-block generates a moment together with a force at the connection point between the T-block and the parent structure. Forces and linear displacements measured on the T-block, together with a mass and stiffness model of the T-block itself, allow the problem to be cast as a special case of excitation by multiple inputs. The resulting equations are generally ill-conditioned, but can be regularized by using a small number of independent measurements. The methodology and signal processing techniques required to estimate the rotational receptances are described. An experimental example is used to demonstrate the practical application of the method.
Mary-Anne Plaatjies van Huffel
Full Text Available This article attends to ecumenicity as the second reformation. The ecumenical organisations and agencies hugely influenced the theological praxis and reflection of the church during the past century. The First World Council of Churches (WCC Assembly in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, has been described as the most significant event in church history since the Reformation during the past decade. We saw the emergence of two initiatives that are going to influence ecumenical theology and practice in future, namely the Receptive Ecumenism and Catholic Learning research project, based in Durham, United Kingdom, and the International Theological Colloquium for Transformative Ecumenism of the WCC. Both initiatives constitute a fresh approach in methodology to ecumenical theology and practice. Attention will be given in this article to conciliar ecumenism, receptive ecumenism, transformative ecumenism and its implications for the development of an African transformative receptive ecumenism. In doing so, we should take cognisance of what Küng says about a confessionalist ghetto mentality: ‘We must avoid a confessionalistic ghetto mentality. Instead we should espouse an ecumenical vision that takes into consideration the world religions as well as contemporary ideologies: as much tolerance as possible toward those things outside the Church, toward the religious in general, and the human in general, and the development of that which is specifically Christian belong together!’
Zhang, Lei; An, Xiao-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Rui; Fu, Ming-Zhe; Han, Peng; Peng, Jia-Yin; Hou, Jing-Xing; Zhou, Zhan-Qin; Cao, Bin-Yun; Song, Yu-Xuan
Endometrium receptivity is essential for successful embryo implantation in mammals. However, the lack of genetic information remains an obstacle to understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of a receptive endometrium from the pre-receptive phase in dairy goats. In this study, more than 4 billion high-quality reads were generated and de novo assembled into 102,441 unigenes; these unigenes were annotated using published databases. A total of 3,255 unigenes that were differentially expressed (DEGs) between the PE and RE were discovered in this study (P-values < 0.05). In addition, 76,729-77,102 putative SNPs and 12,837 SSRs were discovered in this study. Bioinformatics analysis of the DEGs revealed a number of biological processes and pathways that are potentially involved in the establishment of the RE, notably including the GO terms proteolysis, apoptosis, and cell adhesion and the KEGG pathways Cell cycle and extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction. We speculated that ADCY8, VCAN, SPOCK1, THBS1, and THBS2 may play important roles in the development of endometrial receptivity. The de novo assembly provided a good starting point and will serve as a valuable resource for further investigations into endometrium receptivity in dairy goats and future studies on the genomes of goats and other related mammals.
in a wind-tunnel aerofoil rig. The aerofoil and its suspension were designed as part of the project. The advantage of the receptance method over...binary flutter in a wind-tunnel aerofoil rig. The aerofoil and its suspension were designed as part of the project. The advantage of the receptance...and determination of control gains. This report describes the theory of the method of receptances and its implementation on a wind- tunnel aerofoil
Guéguen, Nicolas; Fischer-Lokou, Jacques; Lamy, Lubomir
160 young women were solicited in the street to have a drink with a young male confederate. In the ingratiation condition, the solicitor complimented the woman regarding her physical appearance before making the request, while in the no-compliment condition, the confederate asked his request directly. Results showed that complimenting was associated with greater compliance to the request.
Full Text Available A multi-reception strategy with extended GRAPPA is proposed in this work to improve MR imaging performance at ultra-high field MR systems with limited receiver channels. In this method, coil elements are separated to two or more groups under appropriate grouping criteria. Those groups are enabled in sequence for imaging first, and then parallel acquisition is performed to compensate for the redundant scan time caused by the multiple receptions. To efficiently reconstruct the data acquired from elements of each group, a specific extended GRAPPA was developed. This approach was evaluated by using a 16-element head array on a 7 Tesla whole-body MRI scanner with 8 receive channels. The in-vivo experiments demonstrate that with the same scan time, the 16-element array with twice receptions and acceleration rate of 2 can achieve significant SNR gain in the periphery area of the brain and keep nearly the same SNR in the center area over an eight-element array, which indicates the proposed multi-reception strategy and extended GRAPPA are feasible to improve image quality for MRI systems with limited receive channels. This study also suggests that it is advantageous for a MR system with N receiver channels to utilize a coil array with more than N elements if an appropriate acquisition strategy is applied.
Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Sauter, Disa; Scott, Sophie; Rossor, Martin N.; Warren, Jason D.
Introduction Prosody has been little studied in the primary progressive aphasias (PPAs), a group of neurodegenerative disorders presenting with progressive language impairment. Methods Here we conducted a systematic investigation of different dimensions of prosody processing (acoustic, linguistic and emotional) in a cohort of 19 patients with nonfluent PPA syndromes (11 with progressive nonfluent aphasia, PNFA; five with progressive logopenic/phonological aphasia, LPA; three with progranulin-associated aphasia, GRN-PPA) compared with a group of healthy older controls. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to identify neuroanatomical associations of prosodic functions. Results Broadly comparable receptive prosodic deficits were exhibited by the PNFA, LPA and GRN-PPA subgroups, for acoustic, linguistic and affective dimensions of prosodic analysis. Discrimination of prosodic contours was significantly more impaired than discrimination of simple acoustic cues, and discrimination of intonation was significantly more impaired than discrimination of stress at phrasal level. Recognition of vocal emotions was more impaired than recognition of facial expressions for the PPA cohort, and recognition of certain emotions (in particular, disgust and fear) was relatively more impaired than others (sadness, surprise). VBM revealed atrophy associated with acoustic and linguistic prosody impairments in a distributed cortical network including areas likely to be involved in perceptual analysis of vocalisations (posterior temporal and inferior parietal cortices) and working memory (fronto-parietal circuitry). Grey matter associations of emotional prosody processing were identified for negative emotions (disgust, fear, sadness) in a broadly overlapping network of frontal, temporal, limbic and parietal areas. Conclusions Taken together, the findings show that receptive prosody is impaired in nonfluent PPA syndromes, and suggest a generic early perceptual deficit of prosodic signal
Buyl, Aafke; Housen, Alex
This study takes a new look at the topic of developmental stages in the second language (L2) acquisition of morphosyntax by analysing receptive learner data, a language mode that has hitherto received very little attention within this strand of research (for a recent and rare study, see Spinner, 2013). Looking at both the receptive and productive…
The present study explores academic vocabulary knowledge, operationalised through the Academic Word List, among first-year higher education students. Both receptive and productive knowledge and the proportion between the two are examined. Results show that while receptive knowledge is readily acquired by ...
Glick, Thomas F.
The subfield of Darwin studies devoted to comparative reception coalesced around 1971 with the planning of a conference on the subject, at the University of Texas at Austin held in April 1972. The original focus was western Europe, Russia and the United States. Subsequently a spate of studies on the Italian reception added to the Eurocentric…
Academic Word List (AWL)) and students from the same class, who are thus of comparable linguistic ... Language (EFL) students, which it complements by making estimates of the ratio between receptive and ... students' receptive vocabulary size provides teachers with a gauge as to whether those students will be able to ...
Nov 13, 2013 ... To provide theoretical basis for artificial pollination in Lagerstroemia indica L., pollen viability and stigma receptivity were tested and the morphological change of stigma was observed. Pollen viability tested by in vitro culture, stigma receptivity examined by benzidine-H2O2 testing and fruit set estimated.
The article examines two key concepts in research on policy borrowing and lending that are often used to explain why and how educational reforms travel across national boundaries: reception and translation. The studies on reception analyse the political, economic, and cultural reasons that account for the attractiveness of a reform from elsewhere.…
Lee, John Chi-Kin; Yin, Hong-Biao; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Jin, Yu-Le
This study explores the relationships between teacher empowerment, teacher receptivity toward, and perceived outcomes of, a system-wide curriculum change, particularly national curriculum reform in basic education in China. The results of a survey of 1,646 teachers from six provinces indicate that teachers were positive in their receptivity and…
Gall', L N; Gall', N R
A novel concept of intermolecular energy transfer and reception of the ultralow action in living systems is proposed. The concept is based on the methods of nonlinear mathematical physics used in description of energy movement along molecular chains and on quantum mechanical ideas concerning signal formation in anisotropic media. A concept of a molecular cell as an indivisible structural unit and a constituent of a biological (chemical) system has been put forward and substantiated, which manifests collective features of the unity of molecules, physical fields, and energetically strained bound water media in processes of energy transfer and reception. Both intermolecular energy transfer and amplification of the ultralow action has been shown to be the components of a unified energy process in a living system, and the physical basis of both processes is the unity of molecules and water-field media in a molecular cell.
Reijneveld, S.A.; de Boer, J.B.; Bean, T.; Korfker, D.G.
We assessed the effects of a stringent reception policy on the mental health of unaccompanied adolescent asylum seekers by comparing the mental health of adolescents in a restricted campus reception setting and in a setting offering more autonomy (numbers [response rates]: 69 [93%] and 53 [69%],
Pierce, John P; Sargent, James D; White, Martha M; Borek, Nicolette; Portnoy, David B; Green, Victoria R; Kaufman, Annette R; Stanton, Cassandra A; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Strong, David R; Pearson, Jennifer L; Coleman, Blair N; Leas, Eric; Noble, Madison L; Trinidad, Dennis R; Moran, Meghan B; Carusi, Charles; Hyland, Andrew; Messer, Karen
Non-cigarette tobacco marketing is less regulated and may promote cigarette smoking among adolescents. We quantified receptivity to advertising for multiple tobacco products and hypothesized associations with susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Wave 1 of the nationally representative PATH (Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health) study interviewed 10 751 adolescents who had never used tobacco. A stratified random selection of 5 advertisements for each of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, smokeless products, and cigars were shown from 959 recent tobacco advertisements. Aided recall was classified as low receptivity, and image-liking or favorite ad as higher receptivity. The main dependent variable was susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Among US youth, 41% of 12 to 13 year olds and half of older adolescents were receptive to at least 1 tobacco advertisement. Across each age group, receptivity to advertising was highest for e-cigarettes (28%-33%) followed by cigarettes (22%-25%), smokeless tobacco (15%-21%), and cigars (8%-13%). E-cigarette ads shown on television had the highest recall. Among cigarette-susceptible adolescents, receptivity to e-cigarette advertising (39.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 37.9%-41.6%) was higher than for cigarette advertising (31.7%; 95% CI: 29.9%-33.6%). Receptivity to advertising for each tobacco product was associated with increased susceptibility to cigarette smoking, with no significant difference across products (similar odds for both cigarette and e-cigarette advertising; adjusted odds ratio = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09-1.37). A large proportion of US adolescent never tobacco users are receptive to tobacco advertising, with television advertising for e-cigarettes having the highest recall. Receptivity to advertising for each non-cigarette tobacco product was associated with susceptibility to smoke cigarettes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Weber, Enrico; Masseroni, Daniele; Battista Bischetti, Gian; Gandolfi, Claudio
Stormwaters are the main cause of urban floods in many urbanized areas. Historically, stormwater management practices have been focused on building infrastructures that achieve runoff attenuation through the storage of water volumes in large detention basins. However, this approach has proven to be insufficient to resolve the problem as well as it is difficult to implement in areas with a dense urban fabric. Nowadays, around the world, water managers are increasingly embracing "soft path" approaches, that aim to manage the excess of urban runoff through Green Infrastructures, where detention capacities are provided by the retention proprieties of soil and vegetation elements. Along the line of these new sustainable stormwater management practices, the aim of this study is to promote a further paradigm-shift with respect to the traditional practices i.e. to investigate the possibility to use the already existing green infrastructures of the peri-urban rural areas as reception element of the surplus of urban runoff. Many territories in Northern Italy, for example. are characterized by a high density of irrigation canals and agricultural fields that, in some cases, are isolated or pent-up inside urbanized areas. Both these elements may represent storage volumes for accumulating stormwater from urban areas. In this work, we implemented a holistic framework, based on Self Organized Map technique (SOM), with the objective to produce a spatial map of the stormwater reception level that can be provided by the rural environment. We elaborated physiographic characteristics of irrigation canals and agricultural fields through the SOM algorithm obtaining as output a series of cluster groups with the same level of receptivity. This procedure was applied on an area of 1933 km2 around the city of Milan and a map of 250x250m resolution was obtained with three different levels of stormwater reception capacity. About 50% of rural environment has a good level of reception and only 30
Pae, Hye K.; Greenberg, Daphne
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between receptive and expressive language skills characterized by the performance of nonnative speakers (NNSs) of English in the academic context. Test scores of 585 adult NNSs were selected from Form 2 of the Pearson Test of English Academic's field-test database. A correlated…
Kazak Berument, Sibel; Güven, Ayşe Gül
A reliable, valid and original test to assess the receptive vocabulary skills of children in Turkey was not available. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to develop a receptive vocabulary test for Turkish children based on the Turkish language. For the Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale (TIFALDI-RT) 242 concrete and abstract words were chosen from word frequency lists and a comprehensive Turkish Dictionary. Pilot data were collected from 648 children aged 2 to 13 from Ankara, and norm data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 3755 children. Item analysis (item difficulty, discrimination and distractor) was carried out on the pilot data and based on the results, the total item number was reduced to 157. Further, three parameter item analyses (IRT) were carried out on the norm data by using BILOG-MG (SSI, 2002), and the results indicated that the TIFALDI Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale could be reduced to 104 items to assess 2 to 12 year-old children's receptive vocabulary. Test-retest and internal consistency reliabilities were calculated for the whole sample and age groups separately, and all the coefficients were high. For the validity, the relationship between the WISC-R and Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory (AGTE) and Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale were investigated. Once again, the TIFALDI Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale scores were found to be significantly related to WISC-R and AGTE scores. The TIFALDI Receptive Vocabulary Sub-Scale was developed on the basis of the Turkish Language and norm data were collected from a nationally representative sample. The TIFALDI-RT also had a high reliability and validity. Thus, the TIFALDI-RT can be used to assess 2 to 12 year-old children's receptive vocabulary skills.
Vazeille, Marie; Rosen, Leon; Mousson, Laurence; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Dengue hemorrhagic fever has been a major health problem in Asia since the 1950s. During this period, the former principal vector of dengue viruses in Asia, Aedes albopictus, was replaced by Aedes aegypti in most major cities of the area. Ae. aegypti is now considered the main vector of dengue viruses in Asia. Surprisingly, however, this mosquito has been described as having a relatively low oral receptivity for dengue viruses compared with Ae. albopictus. In the present study, we compared the relative oral receptivities of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus collected in southeast Asia from both sympatric and allopatric breeding sites. In all instances, the oral receptivity of Ae. aegypti to the dengue type 2 virus used was significantly higher than that of Ae. albopictus. We also compared the relative oral receptivity of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for two other low-passage strains of dengue 2. In all instances, Ae. aegypti was significantly more receptive than Ae. albopictus. It should be noted, however, that the difference was found only for Ae. albopictus recently collected from the field (Ta Promh strain, Cambodia, 2001) and not for an Ae. albopictus strain that had been colonized for many years (Oahu strain, Hawaii, 1971). We also observed a significant increase in the infection rate of Ae. albopictus of the Ta Promh strain with increasing generations in the laboratory. These observations demonstrate the importance of considering the colonization history of mosquitoes when assessing their susceptibility to infection with dengue viruses and, perhaps, other arboviruses.
This paper discusses the depiction of engravings taken from Vesalius's, Valverde de Hamusco's and Casserio 's treatises in portraits during the 16th and the 17th centuries to understand better the reception of the Fabrica in Spain and England.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Invocon proposes the Surface-borne Time-Of-Reception Measurements (STORM) system as a method to locate the position of lightning strikes on aerospace vehicles....
Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C.; Schleicher, Nina C.; Fortmann, Stephen P.
Purpose This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Methods Data were obtained from in-class surveys of 6th, 7th, and 8th graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n=1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. Results At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity) and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Conclusions Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents’ receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors’ marketing tactics. PMID:18155027
Denison, Marie F. C.
The reduction of drag and aerodynamic heating caused by boundary layer transition is of central interest for the development of hypersonic vehicles. Receptivity to flow perturbation in the form of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave growth often determines the first stage of the transition process, which can be delayed by depositing specific excitations into the boundary layer. Weakly ionized Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) actuators are being investigated as possible sources of such excitations, but little is known today about their interaction with high-speed flows. In this framework, the first part of the thesis is dedicated to a receptivity study of laminar compressible boundary layers over a flat plate by linear stability analysis following an adjoint operator formulation, under DBD representative excitations assumed independent of flow conditions. The second part of the work concentrates on the development of a coupled plasma-Navier and Stokes solver targeted at the study of supersonic flow and compressibility effects on DBD forcing and non-parallel receptivity. The linear receptivity study of quasi-parallel compressible flows reveals several interesting features such as a significant shift of the region of maximum receptivity deeper into the flow at high Mach number and strong wave amplitude reduction compared to incompressible flows. The response to DBD relevant excitation distributions and to variations of the base flow conditions and system length scales follows these trends. Observed absolute amplitude changes and relative sensitivity modifications between source types are related to the evolution of the offset between forcing peak profile and relevant adjoint mode maximum. The analysis highlights the crucial importance of designing and placing the actuator in a way that matches its force field to the position of maximum boundary layer receptivity for the specific flow conditions of interest. In order to address the broad time and length scale spectrum
Balakumar, P.; Chou, Amanda
Boundary-layer transition in hypersonic flows over a straight cone can be predicted using measured freestream spectra, receptivity, and threshold values for the wall pressure fluctuations at the transition onset points. Simulations are performed for hypersonic boundary-layer flows over a 7-degree half-angle straight cone with varying bluntness at a freestream Mach number of 10. The steady and the unsteady flow fields are obtained by solving the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in axisymmetric coordinates using a 5th-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for space discretization and using a third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. The calculated N-factors at the transition onset location increase gradually with increasing unit Reynolds numbers for flow over a sharp cone and remain almost the same for flow over a blunt cone. The receptivity coefficient increases slightly with increasing unit Reynolds numbers. They are on the order of 4 for a sharp cone and are on the order of 1 for a blunt cone. The location of transition onset predicted from the simulation including the freestream spectrum, receptivity, and the linear and the weakly nonlinear evolutions yields a solution close to the measured onset location for the sharp cone. The simulations over-predict transition onset by about twenty percent for the blunt cone.
Anatolii M. Malivskyi
Full Text Available Purpose. The article is aimed to figure out the features of Husserl's reception of anthropological Descartes rationalism. Its implementation requires a consistent solution of the following tasks: 1 schematically express a modern vision of the basic intentions of philosophizing as an anthropological rationalism; 2 highlight the main points of the Husserl's reception of Descartes’ rationalism as the deanthropologizing and analyze radicalization of its basic design as the reanthropologizing. Conclusions. When clarifying the question of the method of reception and completion of the philosophical Descartes’ project in the doctrine of Edmund Husserl, the author finds that the originality of his reception of anthropological Descartes’ rationalism appears as the paradoxical union of denying the existence of anthropology in the base project and the rediscovery of its key role in the radicalization of Descartes. Thinking of its way, he comes to the rediscovery some of the key ideas of the French philosopher, rooted in his anthropological rationalism. Among them is the basic intention of the ambivalence, the rejection of Descartes’ ideas of panrationalism, recognition irreducibility of philosophical method to the mathematical, constitutive of human presence in the new rationalism. Prospects for further research in understanding the author sees a meaningful relationship and continuity of the two great thinkers - namely, the personal nature of philosophizing and the ethical focus of their searching. Originality. Appeal to the reception of Husserl's Cartesian project confirms the thesis of an essential importance for the basic anthropological project of Descartes. The presented version of Husserl reception base project Descartes is a reproduction of the surface age stereotypes, which link the quest of the philosopher with the natural sciences and neglected anthropological measurements. The proposed version of the radicalization of Descartes’ project
Full Text Available The theoretical focus of this paper is the context of reception experienced by migrants in their new homeland. In particular we examine relations between established residents and newcomers or immigrants from Cuba, Haiti, and other Caribbean and Latin American nations in South Florida. Based upon long term fieldwork among late adolescents and young adults, we develop a framework and give ethnographic examples of established resident-newcomer relations that influence the contexts of reception for immigrants in South Florida. These contexts range from positive to negative, vary between national and local settings, and change over time. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0903156
Learning to relate with people in their own style is important in helping to understand why they react the way they do. The purpose of this study therefore was to determine the differences in the receptive learning styles of introverts, ambiverts and extroverts in Senior High Schools (SHS) in the Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis, ...
Benjamin R. Harris
Full Text Available The publication of educational standards inspires a variety of responses---from wholesale acceptance and deployment to criticism and blame. The author of this paper contends that the revision of the ACRL’s Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education must be accompanied by a critical, conscious, and conscientious reception by librarians and information literacy advocates.
Harris, Benjamin R.
The publication of educational standards inspires a variety of responses---from wholesale acceptance and deployment to criticism and blame. The author of this paper contends that the revision of the ACRL’s Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education must be accompanied by a critical, conscious, and conscientious reception by librarians and information literacy advocates.
The aim of this paper is to describe Dewey's reception in the Spanish-speaking countries that constitute the Hispanic world. Without any doubt, it can be said that in the past century Spain and the countries of South America have been a world apart, lagging far behind the mainstream Western world. It includes a number of names and facts about the…
Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Sutherland, Lisa A.; Longacre, Meghan R.; Beach, Michael L.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Gibson, Jennifer J.; Dalton, Madeline A.
Objective: This study examined the relationship between adolescent weight status and food advertisement receptivity. Design: Survey-based evaluation with data collected at baseline (initial and at 2 months), and at follow-up (11 months). Setting: New Hampshire and Vermont. Participants: Students (n = 2,281) aged 10-13 in 2002-2005. Main Outcome…
The purpose of the present study was to understand the reciprocal, bidirectional longitudinal relation between joint book reading and English receptive vocabulary. To address the research goals, a nationally representative sample of Head Start children, the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (2003 cohort), was used for analysis. The…
, they were willing/not willing to utilise the distance learning mode to access university education. The analysis and tests of hypotheses focused strictly on receptivity to distance learning in relation to age group, gender, marital status, number of ...
This article presents findings from an empirical survey conducted at the Nelson Mandela University Refugee Rights Centre based at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University in Port Elizabeth, to establish the perceptions and experiences of refugees/asylum seekers of the Refugee Reception Centre in Port Elizabeth in ...
Boyle, James; McCartney, Elspeth; O'Hare, Anne; Law, James
Studies indicate that language impairment that cannot be accounted for by factors such as below-average non-verbal ability, hearing impairment, behaviour or emotional problems, or neurological impairments affects some 6% of school-age children. Language impairment with a receptive language component is more resistant to intervention than specific…
Buitendag, M; Uys, I; Louw, B
This article focuses on the psychometric characteristics of "Die Afrikaanse Reseptiewe Woordeskattoets (ARW)". The psychometric analysis indicates the test forms (A and B) to be equivalent, reliable and valid and that the ARW can thus be used with confidence as a screening and re-evaluation device for the evaluation of receptive vocabulary as well as intelligence.
Batista, Roselene; Horst, Marlise
Researchers have developed several tests of receptive vocabulary knowledge suitable for use with learners of English, but options are few for learners of French. This situation motivated the authors to create a new vocabulary size measure for French, the "Test de la taille du vocabulaire" (TTV). The measure is closely modelled on…
and because it has been and still is considered peripheral and sectarian. This volume presents a critical edition of an anonymous Karaite commentary on the Book of Jeremiah presented in both the original Arabic and in English translation. The volume uses this text to examine the commonalities and differences...... between the Rabbinate and the Karaite reception and interpretation of the Hebrew Bible....
Heusinkveld, H.S.; Benders, J.G.J.M.
The business community is continuously confronted with allegedly new concepts. These are often temporarily intensely advocated, yet are at the same time likely to be portrayed as transitory or ‘faddish’ phenomena. To trace the reception of these concepts, this paper examines the Dutch discourse on
Nadal, Marcos; Vartanian, Oshin; Skov, Martin
We commend Menninghaus et al. for tackling the role of negative emotions in art reception. However, their model suffers from shortcomings that reduce its applicability to empirical studies of the arts: poor use of evidence, lack of integration with other models, and limited derivation of testable...
DESCRIPTION: The Karaites emerged as a school of thought within Middle Eastern Judaism in the 8th century. The Karaites were a “reading community” whose intellectual activity and daily lives were based around the divine scriptures. Over time Karaism became one of the two main competing schools of...... between the Rabbinate and the Karaite reception and interpretation of the Hebrew Bible....
Gasparini, Clelia; Andreatta, Gabriele; Pilastro, Andrea
The females of several internal fertilizers are able to store sperm for a long time, reducing the risk of sperm limitation. However, it also means that males can attempt to mate outside females' receptive period, potentially increasing the level of sperm competition and exacerbating sexual conflict over mating. The guppy ( Poecilia reticulata), an internally fertilizing fish, is a model system of such competition and conflict. Female guppies accept courtship and mate consensually only during receptive periods of the ovarian cycle but receive approximately one (mostly forced) mating attempt per minute both during and outside their sexually receptive phase. In addition, females can store viable sperm for months. We expected that guppy females would disfavour sperm received during their unreceptive period, possibly by modulating the quality and/or quantity of the components present in the ovarian fluid (OF) over the breeding cycle. Ovarian fluid has been shown to affect sperm velocity, a determinant of sperm competition success in this and other fishes. We found that in vitro sperm velocity is slower in OF collected from unreceptive females than in OF from receptive females. Visual stimulation with a potential partner prior to collection did not significantly affect in vitro sperm velocity. These results suggest that sperm received by unreceptive females may be disfavoured as sperm velocity likely affects the migration process and the number of sperm that reach storage sites.
Tumin, Anatoli; Edwards, Luke
Receptivity of high-speed boundary layers is considered within the framework of fluctuating hydrodynamics where stochastic forcing is introduced through fluctuating shear stress and heat flux stemming from kinetic fluctuations (thermal noise). The forcing generates unstable modes whose amplification downstream and may lead to transition. An example of high-enthalpy (16 . 53 MJ / kg) boundary layer at relatively low wall temperatures (Tw = 1000 K - 3000 K), free stream temperature (Te = 834 K), and low pressure (0 . 0433 atm) is considered. Dissociation at the chosen flow parameters is still insignificant. The stability and receptivity analyses are carried out using a solver for calorically perfect gas with effective Prandtl number and specific heats ratio. The receptivity phenomenon is unchanged by the inclusion of real gas effects in the mean flow profiles. This is attributed to the fact that the mechanism for receptivity to kinetic fluctuations is localized near the upper edge of the boundary layer. Amplitudes of the generated wave packets are larger downstream in the case including real gas effects. It was found that spectra in both cases include supersonic second Mack unstable modes despite the temperature ratio Tw /Te > 1 . Supported by AFOSR.
Garrido-Gómez, Tamara; Quiñonero, Alicia; Antúnez, Oreto; Díaz-Gimeno, Patricia; Bellver, Jose; Simón, Carlos; Domínguez, Francisco
Are there any proteomic differences between receptive (R) and non-receptive (NR) endometrial receptivity array (ERA)-diagnosed endometria obtained on the same day of a hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) treatment cycle? There is a different proteomic signature between R and NR ERA-diagnosed endometrium obtained on the same day of HRT cycles. The human endometrial transcriptome has been extensively investigated in the last decade resulting in the development of a new diagnostic test based on the transcriptomic signature of the window of implantation (WOI). Much less is known about the proteomics derived from the transcripts present during the WOI. This study was a basic proteomic analysis of human endometrial biopsies taken from twelve IVF patients. Human endometrial biopsies were collected during HRT cycles after 5 days of progesterone (P) administration, and diagnosed as receptive (R; n = 6) or non-receptive (NR; n = 6) by the ERA test. Endometrial proteins were extracted, labelled and separated using differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE). Proteins were identified using mass spectrometry, followed up by in silico analysis. Validation studies using western blots and immunolocalization were performed for the progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) and annexin A6 (ANXA6) proteins. DIGE analysis followed by protein identification by MALDI-MS and database searches revealed 24 differentially expressed proteins in R versus NR samples. In silico analysis showed two pathways which were significantly different between R and NR samples. Expression of PGRMC1 and ANXA6 was validated and localized by western blots and immunohistochemistry. These results highlight these proteins as key targets likely to be important in the comprehension of human endometrial receptivity. This was mainly a descriptive study with no functional studies on the proteins found. We also used a low number of human endometrial samples for the DIGE analysis. This study identified the
Brad K. Blitz
Full Text Available The arrival of more than one million migrants, many of them refugees, has proved a major test for the European Union. Although international relief and monitoring agencies have been critical of makeshift camps in Calais and Eidomeni where infectious disease and overcrowding present major health risks, few have examined the nature of the official reception system and its impact on health delivery. Drawing upon research findings from an Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC funded project, this article considers the physical and mental health of asylum–seekers in transit and analyses how the closure of borders has engendered health risks for populations in recognised reception centres in Sicily and in Greece. Data gathered by means of a survey administered in Greece (300 and in Sicily (400, and complemented by in-depth interviews with migrants (45 and key informants (50 including representatives of government offices, humanitarian and relief agencies, NGOs and activist organisations, are presented to offer an analysis of the reception systems in the two frontline states. We note that medical provision varies significantly from one centre to another and that centre managers play a critical role in the transmission of vital information. A key finding is that, given such disparity, the criteria used by the UNHCR to grade health services reception do not address the substantive issue that prevent refugees from accessing health services, even when provided on site. Health provision is not as recorded in UNHCR reporting but rather there are critical gaps between provision, awareness, and access for refugees in reception systems in Sicily and in Greece. This article concludes that there is a great need for more information campaigns to direct refugees to essential services.
Rahal, W. L.; Benabadji, N.; Belbachir, A. H.
In this paper, we present a novel, precise and efficient software tool (LAAR-TRACK) for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Satellites orbit determination. It's based on using orbital elements, which are given by the NORAD (North American Aerospace Defence) by taking into considerations orbital perturbations due to the atmospheric drag, the influence of the moon and the sun and the geopotential field. The LAAR-TRACK gives the azimuth and the elevation that must have the antenna for pointing in real time the LEO satellites. This software is loaded on a computer directly connected, via the parallel port, to the tracking interface that we have developed, and which will be detailed in this paper. By this way the antenna can be automatically directed for receiving NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) HRPT (High Resolution Picture Transmission) pictures.
Bollywood films are increasingly drawing scholarly attention for their global appeal and reception. Transnational studies have examined the reception of Bollywood in Australia, Britain, Scotland, South Africa, Russia, the United States of America, Bangladesh and Nepal. However, academic work on the Southeast Asian reception of these films is scarcer. This research seeks to fill this gap by looking at the reception of Bollywood in Malaysia from 1991-2012. The thesis adopts a...
Reviews various evidences on the relationship between age and the reception of major innovations in science. Examines the possibility that age patterning of reception may vary over time. Reports the potential importance of age on the reception of ideas while rejecting the presumption that advanced age leads to increased resistance. (YP)
Cornish, K. M.; Munir, F.
Receptive and expressive language skills were assessed in 13 British children (ages 4-14) with cri-du-chat syndrome. Results found a discrepancy between the children's chronological ages and their presumed language ages and a receptive-expressive discrepancy, with reduced expressive skills compared to receptive skills. Remediation that focuses on…
Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.
This article presents receptive and expressive American Sign Language skills of 85 students, 6 through 22 years of age at a residential school for the deaf using the American Sign Language Receptive Skills Test and the Ozcaliskan Motion Stimuli. Results are presented by ages and indicate that students' receptive skills increased with age and…
Almudena Fernández Fontecha
Full Text Available Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL is a widely researched approach to foreign language learning and teaching. One of the pillars of CLIL is the concept of motivation. Some studies have focused on exploring motivation within CLIL, however there has not been much discussion about the connection between motivation, or other affective factors, and each component of foreign language learning. Hence, given two groups of learners with the same hours of EFL instruction, the main objective of this research is to determine whether there exists any kind of interaction between the number of words learners know receptively and their motivation towards English as a Foreign Language (EFL. Most students in both groups were highly motivated. No relationship was identified between the receptive vocabulary knowledge and the general motivation for the secondary graders but a positive significant relationship was found for the primary CLIL graders. Several reasons will be adduced.
Glick, Thomas F.
The subfield of Darwin studies devoted to comparative reception coalesced around 1971 with the planning of a conference on the subject, at the University of Texas at Austin held in April 1972. The original focus was western Europe, Russia and the United States. Subsequently a spate of studies on the Italian reception added to the Eurocentric focus. The center of activity then switched to Latin America where a group of scholars coalesced in the mid 1990s, seemingly related to the maturation of the history of science as a discrete discipline there somewhat earlier. When interest in Europe revived during the last decade, the center of gravity had moved both eastward, to the former Society bloc countries (a reflection of the institutionalization of the history of science there), and north to Scandinavia. Recently, interest in the topic has emerged in the Islamic World. The subtext of the expansion of this topic is modernization.
Full Text Available The paper discusses the reception of the work of Jovan Cvijić in Slovenian ethnology. Cvijić is considered to be one of the founding fathers of Serbian ethnology, due in large part to his anthropogeographical orientation that strongly marked ethnological research in Serbia until the second half of the 20th century. In Slovenian ethnology, the so-called anthropogeographical school is virtually unknown; however, some of its tenets can be recognized or were actively applied in research of cultural areas, carried out by geographers and ethnographers before and after the Second World War when anthropogeography was considered to be a branch of geography and a discipline akin to ethnography/ethnology. The author aims to discuss when, for whom and in what way was Jovan Cvijić direct or indirect reference within the horizon of Slovenian ethnology. His reception is marked by acknowledging the powerful influence of his political views and engagement on his scholarship.
Li, Shu-Yun; Song, Zhuo; Song, Min-Jie; Qin, Jia-Wen; Zhao, Meng-Long; Yang, Zeng-Ming
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a complex endocrine disorder, is a leading cause of female infertility. An obvious reason for infertility in PCOS women is anovulation. However, success rate with high quality embryos selected by assisted reproduction techniques in PCOS patients still remain low with a high rate of early clinical pregnancy loss, suggesting a problem in uterine receptivity. Using a dehydroepiandrosterone-induced mouse model of PCOS, some potential causes of decreased fertility...
Kuga, Nobuhiro; Arai, H; Goto, N
This paper presents a notch-wire composite antenna for polarization diversity reception in an indoor base-station system, A three-notched disk antenna and a wire antenna are proposed as component antennas for the horizontal and the vertical polarization, respectively. These component antennas are unified as a single composite diversity antenna by mounting the wire antenna on the notched disk. Antenna characteristics are calculated using the method of moments (MoM) with wire grid models and ex...
Carter, B Elijah; Conn, Caitlin C; Wiles, Jason R
Due to a phenomenon known as the 'backfire effect', intuition-based opinions can be inadvertently strengthened by evidence-based counterarguments. Students' views on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be subject to this effect. We explored the impact of an empathetically accessible topic, world hunger, on receptivity to GMO technology as an alternative to direct evidence-based approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Interruptions have a profound impact on our attentional orientation in everyday life. Recent advances in mobile information technology increase the number of potentially disruptive notifications on mobile devices by an increasing availability of services. Understanding the contextual intricacies that make us receptive to these interruptions is paramount to devising technology that supports interruption management. This thesis makes a number of contributions to the methodology of studying ...
Full Text Available K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings. In the private sector, longtime fans have transitioned from participants to providers, and in the public sector, from observers to sponsors. Through in-depth interviews with event organizers, sponsors, and fans, this article offers an ethnographic study of the reception of K-pop in Europe that takes into consideration local interactions between fans and Korean sponsors, perspectives on the genre, patterns of social integration, and histories. As a case study, this research stresses the local situatedness of K-pop fan culture by arguing that local private and public sponsors and fans make the reception of K-pop different in each locality. By exploring local scenes of K-pop reception and fan culture, the article demonstrates the rapidly growing consumption of K-pop among Europeans and stresses multidirectional understandings of globalization.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of receptive music therapy in clinical practice. METHODS: Receptive music therapy was individually applied via musical auditions, including five stages: musical stimulation, sensation, situation, reflection, and behavioral alteration. Following anamnesis and obtainment of consent, patients answered a first questionnaire on health risk evaluation (Q1, and after participating in 16 weekly music therapy sessions, answered a second one (Q2. RESULTS: Two men and 8 women, aged above 18 years, referred to us due to symptoms of stress, emotional suffering, and the need to change lifestyles (health risk behavior were studied between August 1998 and December 1999. Comparison between answers to Q1 and Q2, showed a trend (P=0.059 for reduction of ingestion of cholesterol-rich foods and for increased prospects in life with a tendency towards improvement, and also of increased intake of fiber-rich food (55.6%, increased levels of personal satisfaction (44.5%, and decreased levels of stress (66.7%. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated decreased stress levels and increased personal satisfaction, higher consumption of fiber-rich food, lower cholesterol intake, and a better perspective on life, suggesting that receptive music therapy may be applied in clinical practice as an auxiliary therapeutic intervention for the treatment of behavioral health risks.
Rosslau, Ken; Steinwede, Daniel; Schröder, C; Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Dobel, Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart
There is a long tradition of investigating various disorders of musical abilities after stroke. These impairments, associated with acquired amusia, can be highly selective, affecting only music perception (i.e., receptive abilities/functions) or expression (music production abilities), and some patients report that these may dramatically influence their emotional state. The aim of this study was to systematically test both the melodic and rhythmic domains of music perception and expression in left- and right-sided stroke patients compared to healthy subjects. Music perception was assessed using rhythmic and melodic discrimination tasks, while tests of expressive function involved the vocal or instrumental reproduction of rhythms and melodies. Our approach revealed deficits in receptive and expressive functions in stroke patients, mediated by musical expertise. Those patients who had experienced a short period of musical training in childhood and adolescence performed better in the receptive and expressive subtests compared to those without any previous musical training. While discrimination of specific musical patterns was unimpaired after a left-sided stroke, patients with a right-sided stroke had worse results for fine melodic and rhythmic analysis. In terms of expressive testing, the most consistent results were obtained from a test that required patients to reproduce sung melodies. This implies that the means of investigating production abilities can impact the identification of deficits.
Full Text Available Reading is a process of aesthetically appreciative receptive to emphasize critical-creative reading activities. Metacognitively students understand, address any and explore the idea of the author in the text. Students responded, criticize, and evaluate the author's ideas in the text. At this stage, students can construct their post read text into other forms (new text. The aim of this strategy equips students to understand the meaning of the story, explore ideas, responding critically, and creatively pouring backstory idea. Reading strategies aesthetically-critical-creative receptive grabbed cognitive, effective, and psychomotor toward literacy critical reading and creative writing. Read appreciative included into the activities of reading comprehension. This activity involves the sensitivity and ability to process aesthetically-receptive reading and critical-creative. Readers imagination roam the author to obtain meaningful understanding and experience of reading. Some models of reading comprehension proposed experts covering the steps before reading, when reading, and after reading. At that stage to enable students after reading thinking abilities. Activities that can be done at this stage, for example, examine the back story, retell, make drawings, diagrams, or maps the concept of reading, as well as making a road map that describes the event. Other activities that can be done is to transform our student's text stories through reinforcement form illustrated stories into comic book form, for example (transliteration.
Epler, Amee J.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Loomis, Tiffany B.; O'Malley, Stephanie S.
Objective Heavy episodic drinking remains a significant problem on college campuses. Although most interventions for college students are behavioral, pharmacological treatments, such as naltrexone, could provide additional options. Participants The authors evaluated receptivity to various alcohol treatment options in a general population of college student drinkers (N = 2,084), assessed in 2005. Methods The authors asked participants to indicate which of 8 treatment options (ie, sell-help book, self-help computer program, self-help group, group therapy, individual therapy, monthly injection, targeted oral medication, or daily oral medication) they would be willing to consider if they were going to cut down on or stop drinking. Results Over 50% of drinkers expressed receptiveness to self-help options or psychotherapy options, and over 25% of drinkers expressed receptiveness to medication options. Conclusions Increasing treatment options for students interested in reducing or stopping drinking by offering pharmacological interventions such as naltrexone could provide an important unmet need among college students. PMID:19592350
Nalom, Ana Flávia de Oliveira; Soares, Aparecido José Couto; Cárnio, Maria Silvia
To characterize the performance of students from the 5th year of primary school, with and without indicatives of reading and writing disorders, in receptive vocabulary and reading comprehension of sentences and texts, and to verify possible correlations between both. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the institution (no. 098/13). Fifty-two students in the 5th year from primary school, with and without indicatives of reading and writing disorders, and from two public schools participated in this study. After signing the informed consent and having a speech therapy assessment for the application of inclusion criteria, the students were submitted to a specific test for standardized evaluation of receptive vocabulary and reading comprehension. The data were studied using statistical analysis through the Kruskal-Wallis test, analysis of variance techniques, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient with level of significance to be 0.05. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (was constructed in which reading comprehension was considered as gold standard. The students without indicatives of reading and writing disorders presented a better performance in all tests. No significant correlation was found between the tests that evaluated reading comprehension in either group. A correlation was found between reading comprehension of texts and receptive vocabulary in the group without indicatives. In the absence of indicatives of reading and writing disorders, the presence of a good range of vocabulary highly contributes to a proficient reading comprehension of texts.
Prime, Heather; Pauker, Sharon; Plamondon, André; Perlman, Michal; Jenkins, Jennifer
The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between sibship size and children's vocabulary as a function of quality of sibling interactions. It was hypothesized that coming from a larger sibship (ie, 3+ children) would be related to lower receptive vocabulary in children. However, we expected this association to be moderated by the level of cognitive sensitivity shown by children's next-in-age older siblings. Data on 385 children (mean age = 3.15 years) and their next-in-age older siblings (mean age = 5.57 years) were collected and included demographic questionnaires, direct testing of children's receptive vocabulary, and videos of mother-child and sibling interactions. Sibling dyads were taped engaging in a cooperative building task and tapes were coded for the amount of cognitive sensitivity the older sibling exhibited toward the younger sibling. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted and showed an interaction between sibship size and sibling cognitive sensitivity in the prediction of children's receptive vocabulary; children exposed to large sibships whose next-in-age older sibling exhibited higher levels of cognitive sensitivity were less likely to show low vocabulary skills when compared with those children exposed to large sibships whose siblings showed lower levels of cognitive sensitivity. Children who show sensitivity to the cognitive needs of their younger siblings provide a rich environment for language development. The negative impact of large sibships on language development is moderated by the presence of an older sibling who shows high cognitive sensitivity.
Full Text Available There is a long tradition of investigating various disorders of musical abilities after stroke. These impairments, associated with acquired amusia, can be highly selective, affecting only music perception (i.e., receptive abilities/functions or expression (music production abilities, and some patients report that these may dramatically influence their emotional state. The aim of this study was to systematically test both the melodic and rhythmic domains of music perception and expression in left- and right-sided stroke patients compared to healthy subjects. Music perception was assessed using rhythmic and melodic discrimination tasks, while tests of expressive function involved the vocal or instrumental reproduction of rhythms and melodies. Our approach revealed deficits in receptive and expressive functions in stroke patients, mediated by musical expertise. Those patients who had experienced a short period of musical training in childhood and adolescence performed better in the receptive and expressive subtests compared to those without any previous musical training. While discrimination of specific musical patterns was unimpaired after a right-sided stroke, patients with a left-sided stroke had worse results for fine melodic and rhythmic analysis. In terms of expressive testing, the most consistent results were obtained from a test that required patients to reproduce sung melodies. This implies that the means of investigating production abilities can impact the identification of deficits.
Full Text Available Among the most cited series of experiments in social and evolutionary psychology are those conducted by Clark and Hatfield (1989, 2003. In these studies, college students served as confederates in a simple field experiment. They approached fellow college students of another gender and asked one of three questions: (a “Would you go out with me tonight?” (b “Would you come over to my apartment tonight?” or (c “Would you go to bed with me tonight?” Men and women differed markedly in their receptivity to casual sexual offers. When asked: “Would you go out with me tonight?” both were equally receptive. Yet, when confederates asked, “Would you come over to my apartment” or “Would you go to bed with me?” gender differences were striking. In the following series of experiments we attempted to develop a pencil and paper method to mirror the procedure of the classic study. We think we succeeded. Although cultural and social considerations may have influenced participants’ tendency to accept or reject sexual offers, as predicted by evolutionary perspectives, in all three experiments men were more likely than women to accept sexual offers. The studies also explored some of the reasons men and women gave for refusing a date, apartment visit, or a sexual encounter. We close by itemizing some questions that, given this new set of research materials, may be worth asking.
Balakumar, P.; King, Rudolph A.; Chou, Amanda; Owens, Lewis R.; Kegerise, Michael A.
Supersonic boundary-layer receptivity to freestream acoustic disturbances is investigated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations for Mach 3.5 flow over a sharp flat plate and a 7-deg half-angle cone. The freestream disturbances are generated from a wavy wall placed at the nozzle wall. The freestream acoustic disturbances radiated by the wavy wall are obtained by solving the linearized Euler equations. The results for the flat plate show that instability modes are generated at all the incident angles ranging from zero to highly oblique. However, the receptivity coefficient decreases by about 20 times when the incident angle increases from zero to a highly oblique angle of 68 degrees. The results for the cone show that no instability modes are generated when the acoustic disturbances impinge the cone obliquely. The results show that the perturbations generated inside the boundary layer by the acoustic disturbances are the response of the boundary layer to the external forcing. The amplitude of the forced disturbances inside the boundary layer are about 2.5 times larger than the incoming field for zero azimuthal wavenumber and they are about 1.5 times for large azimuthal wavenumbers.
Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher; Leacox, Lindsey
The authors of this study described developmental trajectories and predicted kindergarten performance of Spanish and English receptive vocabulary acquisition of young Latino/a English language learners (ELLs) from socioeconomically disadvantaged migrant families. In addition, the authors examined the extent to which gender and individual initial performance in Spanish predict receptive vocabulary performance and growth rate. The authors used hierarchical linear modeling of 64 children's receptive vocabulary performance to generate growth trajectories, predict performance at school entry, and examine potential predictors of rate of growth. The timing of testing varied across children. The ELLs (prekindergarten to 2nd grade) participated in 2-5 testing sessions, each 6-12 months apart. The ELLs' average predicted standard score on an English receptive vocabulary at kindergarten was nearly 2 SDs below the mean for monolingual peers. Significant growth in the ELLs' receptive vocabulary was observed between preschool and 2nd grade, indicating that the ELLs were slowly closing the receptive vocabulary gap, although their average score remained below the standard score mean for age-matched monolingual peers. The ELLs demonstrated a significant decrease in Spanish receptive vocabulary standard scores over time. Initial Spanish receptive vocabulary was a significant predictor of growth in English receptive vocabulary. High initial Spanish receptive vocabulary was associated with greater growth in English receptive vocabulary and decelerated growth in Spanish receptive vocabulary. Gender was not a significant predictor of growth in either English or Spanish receptive vocabulary. ELLs from low socioeconomic backgrounds may be expected to perform lower in English compared with their monolingual English peers in kindergarten. Performance in Spanish at school entry may be useful in identifying children who require more intensive instructional support for English vocabulary
Skopal-Chase, Jessica L; Pixley, John S; Torabi, Alireza; Cenariu, Mihai C; Bhat, Anupama; Thain, David S; Frederick, Nicole M; Groza, Daria M; Zanjani, Esmail D
The biologic explanation for fetal receptivity to donor engraftment and subsequent long-term tolerance following transplantation early in gestation is not known. We investigated the role fetal immune ontogeny might play in fetal transplantation tolerance in sheep. Engraftment of allogeneic and xenogeneic HSC was determined 60 days following transplantation at different time points in sheep fetal gestation. Parallel analysis of surface differentiation antigen expression on cells from lymphoid organs of timed gestational age fetal sheep was determined by flow cytometry using available reagents. An engraftment window was identified after day 52 gestation lasting until day 71 (term gestation: 145 days). This period was associated with the expression of the leukocyte common antigen CD45 on all cells in the thymus. Double-positive and single-positive CD4 and CD8 cells began appearing in the thymus just prior (day 45 gestation) to the beginning of the engraftment window, while single-positive CD4 or CD8 cells do not begin appearing in peripheral organs until late in the engraftment period, suggesting deletional mechanisms may be operative. In concert, surface IgM-positive cells express CD45 in the thymus at day 45, with a comparable delay in the appearance of IgM/CD45 cells in the periphery until late in the engraftment window. These findings support a central role for the thymus in multilineage immune cell maturation during the period of fetal transplantation receptivity. Further, they suggest that fetal engraftment receptivity is due to gestational age-dependent deletional tolerance. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Paul E Micevych
Full Text Available Estradiol has profound actions on the structure and function of the nervous system. In addition to nuclear actions that directly modulate gene expression, the idea that estradiol can rapidly activate cell signaling by binding to membrane estrogen receptors (mERs has emerged. Even the regulation of sexual receptivity, an action previously thought to be completely regulated by nuclear ERs, has been shown to have a membrane-initiated estradiol signaling (MIES component. This highlighted the question of the nature of mERs. Several candidates have been proposed, ERα, ERβ, ER-X, GPR30 (G protein coupled estrogen receptor; GPER, and a receptor activated by a diphenylacrylamide compound, STX. Although each of these receptors has been shown to be active in specific assays, we present evidence for and against their participation in sexual receptivity by acting in the lordosis-regulating circuit. The initial MIES that activates the circuit is in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH. Using both activation of μ-opioid receptors (MOR in the medial preoptic nucleus and lordosis behavior, we document that both ERα and the STX receptor participate in the required MIES. ERα and the STX receptor activation of cell signaling are dependent on the transactivation of type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1a that augment progesterone synthesis in astrocytes and protein kinase C (PKC in ARH neurons. While estradiol-induced sexual receptivity does not depend on neuroprogesterone, proceptive behaviors do. Moreover, the ERα and the STX receptor activation of medial preoptic MORs and augmentation of lordosis were sensitive to mGluR1a blockade. These observations suggest a common mechanism through which mERs are coupled to intracellular signaling cascades, not just in regulating reproduction, but in actions throughout the neuraxis including the cortex, hippocampus, striatum and DRGs.
Jefferson Cleiton de Souza
The aim of this paper is to discuss how Hans Robert Jauss, the creator of the aesthetics of reception, has introduced the category of the reader into the literary studies especially when it comes to the importance of the reader to the understanding of the text, and to the history of a society and its literary system or, in other words to the way the formal elements of a literary work are organized and how they are related to aesthetic, ethic and moral evaluations. To do so, it is necessary to...
In this essay a mediated video game reception of the game Life Is Strange is made, with the purpose of examining the players' meaning-making processes from a gender perspective. The materials of this essay consist of videos from six different YouTube channels where each player film themselves whilst playing through Life Is Strange as a way to review and share the gaming experience. The results show how the meaning-making processes are littered with gender discourses and affects. The affects o...
This podcast is an overview of resources from the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Practical Tools for Radiation Emergency Preparedness. A specialist working with CDC's Radiation Studies Branch describes a web-based training tool known as a Virtual Community Reception Center (vCRC). Created: 2/28/2011 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Radiation Studies Branch and Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR). Date Released: 2/28/2011.
Montalvão, Diogo; Amafabia, Daerefa-a. Mitsheal
Modal Identification from Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) has been extensively investigated up to the point its research reached a stagnation state. Yet, a new approach to determine the modal damping factors from FRFs was recently proposed, showing that there still is scope for new findings in the field. Contrary to other modal identification methods which are based on the dynamic motion governing equations, the method used the dissipated energy per cycle of vibration as a starting point. For lightly damped systems with conveniently spaced modes, it produced quite accurate results, especially when compared to the well-known method of the inverse. The method used a plot of the sine of the phase of the receptance against its amplitude, whereby damping was determined from the slope of a linear fit to the resulting plot. In this paper, it is shown that this plot has other (perhaps more important) special properties that were not explored before. Near resonant frequencies, its shape is elliptical, whereby the real and imaginary parts of the modal constants can be determined from numerical curve-fitting. This finding allowed developing a new method which formulation is presented in this paper. The method is discussed through numerical and experimental examples. Although the intention is not to present a new modal identification method that is superior to other existing ones (like the method of the inverse or those based on the Nyquist plot), the authors believe that this new representation of the receptance and its properties may bring valuable insights for other researchers in the field.
Sloan, P R
The assimilation of Mendel's paper into Britain took place in an Edwardian social context. This paper concentrates on the interplay of empirical and philosophical issues in this reception. A feature of the British reception of mendelism, not duplicated elsewhere, was the role of phenomenalist philosophies of science as developed by the physicist-mathematician and scientific methodologist Karl Pearson from the philosophical positions of Austrian physicist Ernst Mach and British mathematician William Clifford. Pearson's philosophy of science forms the background to his subsequent collaboration with the zoologist W.F.R. Weldon. In this collaborative work, Pearson developed powerful statistical techniques for analyzing Weldon's empirical data on organic variation. Pearson's statistical analysis of causation and his rejection of hidden entities and causes in the explanation of evolutionary change formed the philosophical component of this program. The arguments of Pearson and Weldon were first brought to bear against the pre-Mendel 'discontinuist' analyses of variation of William Bateson. The introduction of Mendel's paper into these empirical and methodological debates consequently resulted in mathematically sophisticated attacks on Mendel's claims by Pearson and Weldon. This paper summarizes this history and argues for the creative importance of this biometrical resistance to Mendelism.
Full Text Available This paper reviews the public reception of the Research Assessment Exercise 1996 (RAE from its announcement in December 1996 to the decline of discussion at end May 1997. A model for diffusion of the RAE is established which distinguishes extra-communal (or exoteric from intra-communal (or esoteric media. The different characteristics of each medium and the changing nature of the discussion over time are considered. Different themes are distinguished in the public reception of the RAE: the spatial distribution of research; the organisation of universities; disciplinary differences in understanding; a perceived conflict between research and teaching; the development of a culture of accountability; and analogies with the organisation of professional football. In conclusion, it is suggested that the RAE and its effects can be more fully considered from the perspective of scholarly communication and understandings of the development of knowledge than it has been by previous contributions in information science, which have concentrated on the possibility of more efficient implementation of existing processes. A fundamental responsibility for funding councils is also identified: to promote the overall health of university education and research, while establishing meaningful differentiations between units.
Edwards, Luke; Tumin, Anatoli
The receptivity of high-speed compressible boundary layers to kinetic fluctuations (KF) is considered within the framework of fluctuating hydrodynamics. The formulation is based on the idea that KF-induced dissipative fluxes may lead to the generation of unstable modes in the boundary layer. Fedorov and Tumin solved the receptivity problem using an asymptotic matching approach which utilized a resonant inner solution in the vicinity of the generation point of the second Mack mode. Here we take a slightly more general approach based on a multiple scales WKB ansatz which requires fewer assumptions about the behavior of the stability spectrum. The approach is modeled after the one taken by Luchini to study low speed incompressible boundary layers over a swept wing. The new framework is used to study examples of high-enthalpy, flat plate boundary layers whose spectra exhibit nuanced behavior near the generation point, such as first mode instabilities and near-neutral evolution over moderate length scales. The configurations considered exhibit supersonic unstable second Mack modes despite the temperature ratio Tw /Te > 1 , contrary to prior expectations. Supported by AFOSR and ONR.
Baum, M J; Stockman, E R; Lundell, L A
The latencies of groups of gonadectomized male and female ferrets to approach and interact with a sexually active stimulus male were measured after administration of estradiol benzoate (EB; 0, 5, 10, or 15 micrograms/kg) in adulthood. Receptive responsiveness to stud males was also assessed in these same ferrets during additional tests. Control female ferrets gonadectomized on Postnatal Day 35 displayed a dose-dependent reduction in approach latencies to the stud male which did not occur in control males castrated on Day 35. The approach latencies of males castrated on Postnatal Day 20 or Day 5 were intermediate between these two extremes. Equivalent dose-dependent reductions in approach latencies were observed in groups of ferrets ovariectomized on Day 5 and implanted sc with Silastic capsules containing either no hormone or different doses of testosterone over Postnatal Days 5-20 or 20-35. Equivalent dose-dependent increments in acceptance quotients were obtained in all groups of male and female ferrets following EB treatment. These results suggest that the capacity to display the proceptive, or appetitive, components of feminine sexual behavior is normally reduced in male ferrets as a consequence of the perinatal action of testicular hormones whereas receptive behavioral capacity is retained in males of this species.
Losada Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Herrero Romero, María
Background and Aims Stigmatic receptivity plays a clear role in pollination dynamics; however, little is known about the factors that confer to a stigma the competence to be receptive for the germination of pollen grains. In this work, a developmental approach is used to evaluate the acquisition of stigmatic receptivity and its relationship with a possible change in arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs). Methods Flowers of the domestic apple, Malus × domestica, were assessed for their capacity ...
This project report focuses on planning the traditional wedding reception for a couple who are interested in having a western reception with an African traditional touch. That is a western African wedding reception. They are both Christians and have invited their church members as well as their family members to be part of their great celebration day. Since the couples and I are members of the same church, they heard of my established business through word of mouth and assign my wedding p...
Kover, Sara T.; McDuffie, Andrea S.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard
In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD (4–11 years) and 80 typically developing boys (2–11 years). Receptive vocabulary, assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, was a weakness for...
Wright, C. Wayne
A system that includes a Global Positioning System (GPS) antenna and associated apparatus for keeping the antenna aimed upward has been developed for use aboard a remote-sensing-survey airplane. The purpose served by the system is to enable minimum- cycle-slip reception of GPS signals used in precise computation of the trajectory of the airplane, without having to restrict the airplane to maneuvers that increase the flight time needed to perform a survey. Cycle slip signifies loss of continuous track of the phase of a signal. Minimum-cycle-slip reception is desirable because maintaining constant track of the phase of the carrier signal from each available GPS satellite is necessary for surveying to centimeter or subcentimeter precision. Even a loss of signal for as short a time as a nanosecond can cause cycle slip. Cycle slips degrade the quality and precision of survey data acquired during a flight. The two principal causes of cycle slip are weakness of signals and multipath propagation. Heretofore, it has been standard practice to mount a GPS antenna rigidly on top of an airplane, and the radiation pattern of the antenna is typically hemispherical, so that all GPS satellites above the horizon are viewed by the antenna during level flight. When the airplane must be banked for a turn or other maneuver, the reception hemisphere becomes correspondingly tilted; hence, the antenna no longer views satellites that may still be above the Earth horizon but are now below the equatorial plane of the tilted reception hemisphere. Moreover, part of the reception hemisphere (typically, on the inside of a turn) becomes pointed toward ground, with a consequent increase in received noise and, therefore, degradation of GPS measurements. To minimize the likelihood of loss of signal and cycle slip, bank angles of remote-sensing survey airplanes have generally been limited to 10 or less, resulting in skidding or slipping uncoordinated turns. An airplane must be banked in order to make
Ryan, Ashling; Gibbon, Fiona E; O'shea, Aoife
Evidence suggests that children present with receptive language skills that are equivalent to or more advanced than expressive language skills. This profile holds true for typical and delayed language development. This study aimed to determine if such a profile existed for preschool children from an area of social deprivation and to investigate if particular language skills influence any differences found between expressive and receptive skills. Data from 187 CELF P2 UK assessments conducted on preschool children from two socially disadvantaged areas in a city in southern Ireland. A significant difference was found between Receptive Language Index (RLI) and Expressive Language Index (ELI) scores with Receptive scores found to be lower than Expressive scores. The majority (78.6%) of participants had a lower Receptive Language than Expressive score (RLI ELI), with very few (3.2%) having the same Receptive and Expressive scores (RLI = ELI). Scores for the Concepts and Following Directions (receptive) sub-test were significantly lower than for the other receptive sub tests, while scores for the Expressive Vocabulary sub-test were significantly higher than for the other expressive sub tests. The finding of more advanced expressive than receptive language skills in socially deprived preschool children is previously unreported and clinically relevant for speech-language pathologists in identifying the needs of this population.
Favero-Longo, Sergio E; Borghi, Alessandro; Tretiach, Mauro; Piervittori, Rosanna
Sterile cultured isolates of lichen-forming aposymbionts have not yet been used to investigate lichen-rock interactions under controlled conditions. In this study mycobionts and photobiont of the endolithic lichens Bagliettoa baldensis and Bagliettoa marmorea were isolated and inoculated with coupons of one limestone and four marbles commonly employed in the Cultural Heritage framework. After one year of incubation, microscopic observations of polished cross-sections were performed to verify if the typical colonization patterns observed in the field may be reproduced in vitro and to evaluate the receptivity of the five lithotypes to endolithic lichens. The mycobionts of the two species developed both on the surface of and within all the lithotypes, showing different penetration pathways which depend on mineralogical and structural features and highlight different receptivity. By contrast, algae inoculated with the coupons did not penetrate them. Observations suggest that the hyphal penetration along intrinsic discontinuities of rocks is a relatively fast phenomenon when these organisms are generally considered as slow-growing. Samples from limestone outcrops and abandoned marble quarries, colonized by the same species or other representatives of Verrucariaceae, showed penetration pathways intriguingly similar to those reproduced in vitro and highlighted that lichen-driven erosion processes only increase the availability of hyphal passageways after a long-term colonization. These results show that in vitro incubation of sterile cultured lichen-forming ascomycetes with rock coupons is a practicable experimental system to investigate the lichen-rock interactions under controlled conditions and, together with analysis in situ, may support decisions on conservative treatments of historical and cultural significant stone substrata.
Liu, Hongmei; Chen, Yihan; Yan, Fei; Han, Xiaohua; Wu, Junru; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong
Purpose: Ultrasound (US) molecular imaging by examining the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) on uterus vascular endothelium was applied to evaluate the endometrial receptivity. Methods: VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound contrast agents (UCA) and the control UCA (without VEGFR2) were prepared and characterized. Adhesion experiment in vitro was performed with mouse microvascular endothelial cells (bEnd.3) and the ratio of the number of UCA to that of cells at the same field was compared. In vivo study, randomized boluses of targeted or control UCA were injected into the animals of non-pregnancy (D0), pregnancy on day 2 (D2) and day 4 (D4), respectively. Sonograms were acquired by an ultrasound equipment with a 40-MHz high-frequency transducer (Vevo 2100; VisualSonics, Toronto, Canada). The ultrasonic imaging signals were quantified as the video intensity amplitudes generated by the attachment of VEGFR2-targeted UCA. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays were used for confirmation of VEGFR2 expression. Results: Our results showed that VEGFR2-targeted UCA could bind to bEnd.3 cells with significantly higher affinity than the control UCA (9.8 ± 1.0 bubbles/cell versus 0.7 ± 0.3 bubbles/cell, P 0.05). Moreover, D4 mice showed the highest video intensity amplitude, indicating the highest VEGFR2 expression when compared with D2 and D0 mice (P < 0.01). This was further confirmed by our immunoblotting and immunofluorescence experiments. Conclusion: Ultrasound molecular imaging with VEGFR2-targeted UCA may be used for noninvasive evaluation of endometrial receptivity in murine models. PMID:25553109
Müller, Jens; Lückoff, Finn; Oberleithner, Kilian
The precessing vortex core (PVC) is a dominant coherent structure which occurs in swirling jets such as in swirl-stabilised gas turbine combustors. It stems from a global hydrodynamic instability caused by an internal feedback mechanism within the jet core. In this work, open-loop forcing is applied to a generic non-reacting swirling jet to investigate its receptivity to external actuation regarding lock-in behaviour of the PVC for different streamwise positions and Reynolds numbers. The forcing is periodically exerted by zero net mass flux synthetic jets which are introduced radially through slits inside the duct walls upstream of the swirling jet's exit plane. Time-resolved pressure measurements are conducted to identify the PVC frequency and stereo PIV combined with proper orthogonal decomposition in the duct and free field is used to extract the mean flow and the PVC mode. The data is used in a global linear stability framework to gain the adjoint of the PVC which reveals the regions of highest receptivity to periodic forcing based on mean flow input only. This theoretical receptivity model is compared with the experimentally obtained receptivity results and the validity and applicability of the adjoint model for the prediction of optimal forcing positions is discussed.
Hopkins, William D; Keebaugh, Alaine C; Reamer, Lisa A
Despite their genetic similarity to humans, our understanding of the role of genes on cognitive traits in chimpanzees remains virtually unexplored. Here, we examined the relationship between genetic variation in the arginine vasopressin V1a receptor gene (AVPR1A) and social cognition in chimpanze....... The collective findings show that AVPR1A polymorphisms are associated with individual differences in performance on a receptive joint attention task in chimpanzees.......Despite their genetic similarity to humans, our understanding of the role of genes on cognitive traits in chimpanzees remains virtually unexplored. Here, we examined the relationship between genetic variation in the arginine vasopressin V1a receptor gene (AVPR1A) and social cognition in chimpanzees...
Blunck, Henrik; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg
Positioning using GPS receivers is a primary sensing modality in many areas of pervasive computing. However, previous work has not considered how people’s body impacts the availability and accuracy of GPS positioning and for means to sense such impacts. We present results that the GPS performance...... signal statistics. To help both users as well as application systems in understanding and mitigating body and environment-induced effects, we propose a method for sensing the current sources of GPS reception impairment in terms of body, urban and indoor conditions. We present results that show...... degradation on modern smart phones for different hand grip styles and body placements can cause signal strength drops as high as 10-16 dB and double the positioning error. Furthermore, existing phone applications designed to help users identify sources of GPS performance impairment are restricted to show raw...
Full Text Available Calvino's works arrived in China surprisingly early. The first translated texts date back to the Fifties, when the writer, in his early thirties, was at the beginning of his career. The Chinese version is not a direct translation of the original texts of Calvino, but an indirect translation. This surprisingly early interest is followed by a long period of silence that goes from the second half of the Sixties until the end of the Seventies. The article will try to analyze the first translations of Calvino’s works published in China and to outline the reception of Calvino’s works in modern China in the last several decades. The contextual analysis is aimed to see the relationship between the translations and the historical and ideological context in which they were conceived.
One of the most common complaints of people with impaired hearing concerns their difficulty with understanding speech. Particularly in the presence of background noise, hearing-impaired people often encounter great difficulties with speech communication. In most cases, the problem persists even...... if reduced audibility has been compensated for by hearing aids. It has been hypothesized that part of the difficulty arises from changes in the perception of sounds that are well above hearing threshold, such as reduced frequency selectivity and deficits in the processing of temporal fine structure (TFS......) at the output of the inner-ear (cochlear) filters. The purpose of this work was to investigate these aspects in detail. One chapter studies relations between frequency selectivity, TFS processing, and speech reception in listeners with normal and impaired hearing, using behavioral listening experiments. While...
Enciso, M; Carrascosa, J P; Sarasa, J; Martínez-Ortiz, P A; Munné, S; Horcajadas, J A; Aizpurua, J
comparing LH + 2 and LH + 7 samples (paired t-test, P endometrial status (proliferative, pre-receptive, receptive and post-receptive) in both fertile and infertile groups. N/A. To evaluate the efficacy of this new tool to improve ART outcomes, further investigations such as non-selection studies and randomized controlled trials will also be required. A new comprehensive system for human endometrial receptivity evaluation based on gene expression analysis has been developed. The identification of the optimal time for embryo transfer is essential to maximize the effectiveness of ART. This study is a new step in the field of personalized medicine in human reproduction which may help in the management of endometrial preparation for embryo transfer, increasing the chances of pregnancy for many couples. The authors have no potential conflict of interest to declare. No external funding was obtained for this study.
Faraj, Avan Kamal Aziz
Vocabulary acquisition has been a main concern of EFL English teachers and learners. There have been tons of research to examine the student's level of receptive vocabulary and productive vocabulary, but no research has conducted on how turning receptive vocabulary into productive vocabulary. This study has reported the impact of the teaching…
Full Text Available The new Regulation regarding the reception of construction works and corresponding installations, approved by Government's Decision no. 347/2017 (“Regulation 2017” has general applicability for all construction works for which there is an obligation to obtain a building permit. Regulation 2017 brings significant changes and clarifications expected by the real estate sector regarding: (i the composition of the commissions involved in the reception procedure, (ii the role of the site supervisor who thus gains significant participation in the reception procedure, and (iii the participation of the public authorities' representatives at the reception, having the veto right on the decision of the reception commission upon the completion of the construction works. Another element of novelty brought by Regulation 2017 is the possibility to do the reception upon the completion of the construction works, respectively the final reception for parts / objectives / sectors of or from the building, if they are distinct/ independent from a physical and functional point of view. Thus, the new regulation facilitates the procedure of authorizing investment objectives and the costs of the process. The partial reception is another innovation brought by the Regulation 2017 in support of the investor, who can thus take over a part of the construction, at a certain stage, and obtain its registration with the Land Book.
Sanzol, Javier; Rallo, Pilar; Herrero, María
While stigma anatomy is well documented for a good number of species, little information is available on the acquisition and cessation of stigmatic receptivity. The aim of this work is to characterize the development of stigma receptivity, from anthesis to stigma degeneration, in the pentacarpellar pear (Pyrus communis) flower. Stigma development and stigmatic receptivity were monitored over two consecutive years, as the capacity of the stigmas to offer support for pollen germination and pollen tube growth. In an experiment where hand pollinations were delayed for specified times after anthesis, three different stigmatic developmental stages could be observed: (1) immature stigmas, which allow pollen adhesion but not hydration; (2) receptive stigmas, which allow proper pollen hydration and germination; and (3) degenerated stigmas, in which pollen hydrates and germinates properly, but pollen tube growth is impaired soon after germination. This developmental characterization showed that stigmas in different developmental stages coexist within a flower and that the acquisition and cessation of stigmatic receptivity by each carpel occur in a sequential manner. In this way, while the duration of stigmatic receptivity for each carpel is rather short, the flower has an expanded receptive period. This asynchronous period of receptivity for the different stigmas of a single flower is discussed as a strategy that could serve to maximize pollination resources under unreliable pollination conditions.
Shtarkov, Y. M.
Some possible criteria for estimating the effectiveness of correcting codes are presented, and the energy effectiveness of correcting codes is studied for symbol-by-symbol reception. Expressions for the energetic effectiveness of binary correcting codes for reception in the whole are produced. Asymptotic energetic effectiveness and finite signal/noise ratio cases are considered.
Wunderlich, Kara L.; Vollmer, Timothy R.
The current study compared the use of serial and concurrent methods to train multiple exemplars when teaching receptive language skills, providing a systematic replication of Wunderlich, Vollmer, Donaldson, and Phillips (2014). Five preschoolers diagnosed with developmental delays or autism spectrum disorders were taught to receptively identify…
Reijneveld, S.A.; Boer, J.B.de; Bean, T.; Korfker, D.G.
We assessed the effects of a stringent reception policy on the mental health of unaccompanied adolescent asylum seekers by comparing the mental health of adolescents in a restricted campus reception setting and in a setting offering more autonomy (numbers [response rates]: 69 [93%] and 53 [69%],
En kort undersøgelse af et problem i den tidligere reception af Aristoteles' Analytica Posteriora i forbindelse med de første latinske oversættelser.......En kort undersøgelse af et problem i den tidligere reception af Aristoteles' Analytica Posteriora i forbindelse med de første latinske oversættelser....
Leahy, Matthew M.; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Walters, Scott T.
This project examined the reliability and validity of a newly developed measure of college students' receptiveness to alcohol related information and advice. Participants were 116 college students who reported having consumed alcohol at some point in their lifetime. Participants completed a measure of receptiveness to alcohol-related…
Kover, Sara T.; McDuffie, Andrea S.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard
In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD…
Mohamed, Shafizan; Wok, Saodah; Lahabou, Mahaman
In 2011, a study was conducted to look at students' reception of IIUM.FM, a newly launched online campus radio. Using the Technological Acceptance Model (TAM), the study found that factors such as perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and attitude highly influenced audience reception of the online radio. In 2016, a corresponding study,…
Harlaar, Nicole; Meaburn, Emma L.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Docherty, Sophia; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Price, Thomas S.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert
Purpose: Researchers have previously shown that individual differences in measures of receptive language ability at age 12 are highly heritable. In the current study, the authors attempted to identify some of the genes responsible for the heritability of receptive language ability using a "genome-wide association" approach. Method: The…
Bao, Shimin; Sweatt, Kristin T; Lechago, Sarah A; Antal, Sarah
Many Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) curricula recommend teaching receptive responding before targeting expressive responding (Leaf & McEachin, 1999; Lovaas, 2003). However, a small literature base suggests that teaching expressive responses first may be more efficient when teaching children with ASD and other developmental disabilities (Petursdottir & Carr, 2011). The present study employed an alternating treatments design to compare the effects of three instructional sequences to teach feature, function, and class to three children diagnosed with ASD: (a) receptive-expressive, (b) expressive-receptive, and (c) mixed. The results suggested that expressive-receptive was the most efficient training sequence for all three participants. Additionally, greater emergent responding was observed with the expressive-receptive training sequence. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Choudhari, Meelan; Streett, Craig L.
The process by which the boundary layer internalizes the environmental disturbances in the form of instability waves is known as the boundary-layer receptivity. The paper discusses the importance of receptivity in transition research. The receptivity scenario for three-dimensional and high-speed boundary layers is examined. It is found that, while receptivity mechanisms present in the low-speed case are also operative in these complex flows, certain uniquely 'compressible' receptivity mechanisms may come into play as well. Both numerical, and where convenient, asymptotic procedures are utilized to develop quantitative predictions of the localized generation of a variety of instability types (Tollmien-Schlichting, inflectional, higher modes, crossflow vortices) in boundary layer flows relevant to the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP).
In his article "The Reception of Mao's 'Talks at the Yan'an Forum on Literature and Art' in English-language Scholarship" Qilin Fu examines the three waves of the reception of Mao Zedong's 1942 text...
Procko, Carl; Lu, Yun; Shaham, Shai
Neuronal receptive endings, such as dendritic spines and sensory protrusions, are structurally remodeled by experience. How receptive endings acquire their remodeled shapes is not well understood. In response to environmental stressors, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans enters a diapause state, termed dauer, which is accompanied by remodeling of sensory neuron receptive endings. Here, we demonstrate that sensory receptive endings of the AWC neurons in dauers remodel in the confines of a compartment defined by the amphid sheath (AMsh) glial cell that envelops these endings. AMsh glia remodel concomitantly with and independently of AWC receptive endings to delimit AWC receptive ending growth. Remodeling of AMsh glia requires the OTD/OTX transcription factor TTX-1, the fusogen AFF-1 and probably the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFR)-related protein VER-1, all acting within the glial cell. ver-1 expression requires direct binding of TTX-1 to ver-1 regulatory sequences, and is induced in dauers and at high temperatures. Our results demonstrate that stimulus-induced changes in glial compartment size provide spatial constraints on neuronal receptive ending growth.
Full Text Available This study explored receptive vocabulary size and early literacy skills (namely: letter naming, knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences and early writing in emergent bilingual Northern Sotho-English children. Two groups of Grade 1 learners were tested in both English and in Northern Sotho. Group 1 (N = 49 received their formal schooling in English, whilst group 2 (N = 50 received their formal schooling in Northern Sotho. Receptive vocabulary was tested using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Letter knowledge was assessed by asking learners to name letter cards, whilst knowledge of phoneme-grapheme correspondences was tested by asking children to match letter cards with spoken sounds. Early writing was assessed by asking children to write their names. Statistical analyses indicated that both English and Northern Sotho receptive vocabulary knowledge had a significant effect on early literacy skills, whilst no main effect was found for the language of instruction. Group 1 performed significantly better than Group 2 in English receptive vocabulary, in knowledge of phonemegrapheme correspondences and in early writing, but no group differences were found for Northern Sotho receptive vocabulary or for letter knowledge. English receptive vocabulary significantly predicted the outcome of all of the early literacy skills, whilst Northern Sotho receptive vocabulary significantly predicted phoneme-grapheme correspondences and early writing.
Li, Shu-Yun; Song, Zhuo; Song, Min-Jie; Qin, Jia-Wen; Zhao, Meng-Long; Yang, Zeng-Ming
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a complex endocrine disorder, is a leading cause of female infertility. An obvious reason for infertility in PCOS women is anovulation. However, success rate with high quality embryos selected by assisted reproduction techniques in PCOS patients still remain low with a high rate of early clinical pregnancy loss, suggesting a problem in uterine receptivity. Using a dehydroepiandrosterone-induced mouse model of PCOS, some potential causes of decreased fertility in PCOS patients were explored. In our study, ovulation problem also causes sterility in PCOS mice. After blastocysts from normal mice are transferred into uterine lumen of pseudopregnant PCOS mice, the rate of embryo implantation was reduced. In PCOS mouse uteri, the implantation-related genes are also dysregulated. Additionally, artificial decidualization is severely impaired in PCOS mice. The serum estrogen level is significantly higher in PCOS mice than vehicle control. The high level of estrogen and potentially impaired LIF-STAT3 pathway may lead to embryo implantation failure in PCOS mice. Although there are many studies about effects of PCOS on endometrium, both embryo transfer and artificial decidualization are applied to exclude the effects from ovulation and embryos in our study.
Hopkins, William D; Keebaugh, Alaine C; Reamer, Lisa A; Schaeffer, Jennifer; Schapiro, Steven J; Young, Larry J
Despite their genetic similarity to humans, our understanding of the role of genes on cognitive traits in chimpanzees remains virtually unexplored. Here, we examined the relationship between genetic variation in the arginine vasopressin V1a receptor gene (AVPR1A) and social cognition in chimpanzees. Studies have shown that chimpanzees are polymorphic for a deletion in a sequence in the 5' flanking region of the AVPR1A, DupB, which contains the variable RS3 repetitive element, which has been associated with variation in social behavior in humans. Results revealed that performance on the social cognition task was significantly heritable. Furthermore, males with one DupB(+) allele performed significantly better and were more responsive to socio-communicative cues than males homozygous for the DupB- deletion. Performance on a non-social cognition task was not associated with the AVPR1A genotype. The collective findings show that AVPR1A polymorphisms are associated with individual differences in performance on a receptive joint attention task in chimpanzees.
Sakurai, Akira; Koganezawa, Masayuki; Yasunaga, Kei-ichiro; Emoto, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Daisuke
Female Drosophila with the spinster mutation repel courting males and rarely mate. Here we show that the non-copulating phenotype can be recapitulated by the elimination of spinster functions from either spin-A or spin-D neuronal clusters, in the otherwise wild-type (spinster heterozygous) female brain. Spin-D corresponds to the olfactory projection neurons with dendrites in the antennal lobe VA1v glomerulus that is fruitless-positive, sexually dimorphic and responsive to fly odour. Spin-A is a novel local neuron cluster in the suboesophageal ganglion, which is known to process contact chemical pheromone information and copulation-related signals. A slight reduction in spinster expression to a level with a minimal effect is sufficient to shut off female sexual receptivity if the dominant-negative mechanistic target of rapamycin is simultaneously expressed, although the latter manipulation alone has only a marginal effect. We propose that spin-mediated mechanistic target of rapamycin signal transduction in these neurons is essential for females to accept the courting male.
In this paper I discuss the relationship between two different approaches to critical theory – the reflective and the receptive approaches. I show how it can be fruitful to discuss the relationship between Habermas and Foucault through this distinction. My point is that whereas Habermas focusses...... on critique as a reflexive activity, Foucault mainly focusses on the receptive conditions for critique to be possible. I argue further that Foucault focusses on the receptive aspects of critique, the quest for universality is not as pressing as it is in Habermas’ approach, because problematizing critique can...
O'Brien, Jennifer E; Li, Wen; Snyder, Susan M; Howard, Matthew O
This mixed methods study explores college students' readiness-to-change and receptivity to treatment for problem Internet overuse behaviors. Focus groups were conducted with 27 college students who self-identified as Internet over-users, and had experienced biopsychosocial problems related to Internet overuse. Participants completed standardized questionnaires assessing their Internet use and sociodemographic forms. Focus groups explored readiness to change problem Internet overuse behaviors and receptivity to treatment. Similar to college students with other addictive behaviors, students with problem Internet overuse fall along a continuum vis-à-vis readiness-to-change their behaviors. Over half of the participants were receptive to treatment for their problem Internet overuse behaviors.
Kover, Sara T; McDuffie, Andrea S; Hagerman, Randi J; Abbeduto, Leonard
In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD (4-11 years) and 80 typically developing boys (2-11 years). Receptive vocabulary, assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, was a weakness for boys with ASD relative to age and nonverbal cognition. Relative to expressive vocabulary, assessed with the Expressive Vocabulary Test, receptive vocabulary increased at a lower rate for boys with ASD. Vocabulary trajectories in ASD are distinguished from typical development; however, nonverbal cognition largely accounts for the patterns observed.
Discusses the complexities of director Clarence Brown's 1949 film "Intruder in the dust" concerning racial issues, the personal and social elements that contributed to its inception, and its reception...
McDuffie, Andrea S.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard
In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD (4–11 years) and 80 typically developing boys (2–11 years). Receptive vocabulary, assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, was a weakness for boys with ASD relative to age and nonverbal cognition. Relative to expressive vocabulary, assessed with the Expressive Vocabulary Test, receptive vocabulary increased at a lower rate for boys with ASD. Vocabulary trajectories in ASD are distinguished from typical development; however, nonverbal cognition largely accounts for the patterns observed. PMID:23588510
Fernando José Ferrari
Full Text Available In the present review we aim to outline the main conditions for the reception of Freud’s theory in Cordoba, Argentine. We will try to display the distinctive points that this process had and establish the differences occurred with the reception of Freud in the city of Buenos Aires. These cultural characteristics that frame the reception of the ideas of the Viennese physician are part of a fundamental and constitutive tension in Argen0tinian’s history. That is why our work introduces, as an interpretative axis, the interior-harbor dichotomy that accounts for such political and cultural tensions. We will expose the principal axes of the reception in Cordoba: 1 rejection and discussion of positivism 2 the existence of a traditional culture and conservative religious thought and 3 influence of Hispanic culture, and especially the Spanish vitalist philosophy implemented by Ortega y Gasset and Eugenio D’Ors.
Han, Dahai; Liu, Yile; Zhang, Kai; Luo, Pengfei; Zhang, Min
Diversity reception technology is introduced into ultraviolet communication area in this article with theory analysis and practical experiment. The idea of diversity reception was known as a critical effective method in wireless communication area that improves the Gain significantly especially for the multi-scattering channel. A theoretical modeling and simulation method are proposed to depict the principle and feasibility of diversity reception adopted in UV communication. Besides, an experimental test-bed using ultraviolet LED and dual receiver of photomultiplier tube is setup to characterize the effects of diversity receiving in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) ultraviolet communication system. The experiment results are compared with the theoretical ones to verify the accuracy of theoretical modeling and the effect of diversity reception. Equal gain combining (EGC) method was adopted as the diversity mechanism in this paper. The research results of theory and experiment provide insight into the channel characteristics and achievable capabilities of ultraviolet communication system with diversity receiving method.
Oller, D. Kimbrough; And Others
Results of a program using vibrotactile and electrocutaneous vocoder in speech reception and production training with 13 profoundly hearing impaired Ss (3-6 years old) showed progress in speech communication not seen prior to training with tactual vocoders. (CL)
Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between learners’ receptive vocabulary knowledge as measured by the Vocabulary Size Test (Nation and Beglar, 2007 and free productive vocabulary knowledge as demonstrated by the learners when writing a short story based on pictures. The focus is on three different areas of productive vocabulary use: lexical diversity (i.e. the proportion of different words in a text, lexical sophistication (i.e. the proportion of advanced words in a text and lexical density (i.e. the proportion of content words in a text. The results of a bivariate correlation analysis indicate that there is a moderate relationship between learners’ receptive vocabulary knowledge and lexical diversity of the texts they produce; there is a weak relationship between their receptive vocabulary knowledge and lexical sophistication in the texts; and there is no relationship between their receptive vocabulary knowledge and lexical density.
Nord, Johan Christian
Fremmedsproglig forskningsformidling af hovedpunkterne i artiklen "En Poet og en Religionsstifter, med hvem jeg er enig i næsten alle Ting" Indledende betragtninger over Johannes Jørgensens Schopenhauer-reception.......Fremmedsproglig forskningsformidling af hovedpunkterne i artiklen "En Poet og en Religionsstifter, med hvem jeg er enig i næsten alle Ting" Indledende betragtninger over Johannes Jørgensens Schopenhauer-reception....
Frederiksen, Hanne W; Krasnik, Allan; Nørredam, Marie
Quota refugees coming to Denmark are mandated refugee status offshore and approximately 500 quota refugees are resettled annually. Upon arrival to Denmark, quota refugees are received directly in the municipalities and municipal caseworkers therefore have the practical responsibility...... for their health-related reception. The aim of this study was to investigate the health-related reception of quota refugees in Denmark by focusing on the presence of municipal policies and practices, and to test for possible associations with these policies and practices....
Full Text Available The reception of the American TV show Game of Thrones (2011– by French and Spanish fans and nonfans is addressed via a qualitative methodology, the goal of which is to understand how European viewers perceive themselves as fans and what it means for them to be fans. Analysis of characteristics of a specifically European reception helps us learn what fan studies tell us about fans and what fans really think about fandoms.
Hammerton, P. W.; Kerschen, E. J.
An analysis is presented of the effects of airfoil thickness and mean aerodynamic loading on boundary-layer receptivity in the leading-edge region. The case of acoustic free-stream disturbances, incident on a thin cambered airfoil with a parabolic leading edge in a low Mach number flow, is considered. An asymptotic analysis based on large Reynolds number is developed, supplemented by numerical results. The airfoil thickness distribution enters the theory through a Strouhal number based on the nose radius of the airfoil, S = (omega)tau(sub n)/U, where omega is the frequency of the acoustic wave and U is the mean flow speed. The influence of mean aerodynamic loading enters through an effective angle-of-attack parameter ti, related to flow around the leading edge from the lower surface to the upper. The variation of the receptivity level is analyzed as a function of S, mu, and characteristics of the free-stream acoustic wave. For an unloaded leading edge, a finite nose radius dramatically reduces the receptivity level compared to that for a flat plate, the amplitude of the instability waves in the boundary layer being decreased by an order of magnitude when S = 0.3. Modest levels of aerodynamic loading are found to further decrease the receptivity level for the upper surface of the airfoil, while an increase in receptivity level occurs for the lower surface. For larger angles of attack close to the critical angle for boundary layer separation, a local rise in the receptivity level occurs for the upper surface, while for the lower surface the receptivity decreases. The effects of aerodynamic loading are more pronounced at larger values of S. Oblique acoustic waves produce much higher receptivity levels than acoustic waves propagating downstream parallel to the airfoil chord.
McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Li, Zhigang; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D
Advertisement of fast food on TV may contribute to youth obesity. The goal of the study was to use cued recall to determine whether TV fast-food advertising is associated with youth obesity. A national sample of 2541 U.S. youth, aged 15-23 years, were surveyed in 2010-2011; data were analyzed in 2012. Respondents viewed a random subset of 20 advertisement frames (with brand names removed) selected from national TV fast-food restaurant advertisements (n=535) aired in the previous year. Respondents were asked if they had seen the advertisement, if they liked it, and if they could name the brand. A TV fast-food advertising receptivity score (a measure of exposure and response) was assigned; a 1-point increase was equivalent to affirmative responses to all three queries for two separate advertisements. Adjusted odds of obesity (based on self-reported height and weight), given higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity, are reported. The prevalence of overweight and obesity, weighted to the U.S. population, was 20% and 16%, respectively. Obesity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, fast-food restaurant visit frequency, weekday TV time, and TV alcohol advertising receptivity were associated with higher TV fast-food advertising receptivity (median=3.3 [interquartile range: 2.2-4.2]). Only household income, TV time, and TV fast-food advertising receptivity retained multivariate associations with obesity. For every 1-point increase in TV fast-food advertising receptivity score, the odds of obesity increased by 19% (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.01, 1.40). There was no association between receptivity to televised alcohol advertisements or fast-food restaurant visit frequency and obesity. Using a cued-recall assessment, TV fast-food advertising receptivity was found to be associated with youth obesity. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
Losada, Juan M; Herrero, María
Stigmatic receptivity plays a clear role in pollination dynamics; however, little is known about the factors that confer to a stigma the competence to be receptive for the germination of pollen grains. In this work, a developmental approach is used to evaluate the acquisition of stigmatic receptivity and its relationship with a possible change in arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs). Flowers of the domestic apple, Malus × domestica, were assessed for their capacity to support pollen germination at different developmental stages. Stigmas from these same stages were characterized morphologically and different AGP epitopes detected by immunocytochemistry. Acquisition of stigmatic receptivity and the secretion of classical AGPs from stigmatic cells occurred concurrently and following the same spatial distribution. While in unpollinated stigmas AGPs appeared unaltered, in cross-pollinated stigmas AGPs epitopes vanished as pollen tubes passed by. The concurrent secretion of AGPs with the acquisition of stigmatic receptivity, together with the differential response in unpollinated and cross-pollinated pistils point out a role of AGPs in supporting pollen tube germination and strongly suggest that secretion of AGPs is associated with the acquisition of stigma receptivity.
Emory, Kristen T; Messer, Karen; Vera, Lisa; Ojeda, Norma; Elder, John P; Usita, Paula; Pierce, John P
Background Tobacco industry cigarette advertising is associated with increased adolescent smoking, while counter tobacco advertising is associated with reduced smoking. As these campaigns compete for influence, there is a need to understand their inter-relationship on youth smoking. Methods This study reports data from a national population of families (n=1036) with an oldest child aged 10–13 years, identified by random digit dialling. Parent and child dyads completed baseline questionnaires in 2003. Adolescents were resurveyed in 2007–2008 (response rate 74%). Adjusted logistic regression explores associations between receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. Results In 2007–2008, 57.9% of adolescents reported a favourite tobacco control advertisement and 43.3% reported being receptive to cigarette advertisements. Thirty per cent reported receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertisements. Among those receptive to cigarette advertising, having a favourite anti-smoking advertisement had a borderline significant association with a 30% lower smoking rate. Anti-industry tobacco control messages were three times more likely to be favourites of those who were receptive to cigarette advertising than other tobacco control advertising. Conclusions Receptivity to tobacco control advertising appeared to ameliorate the promotion of initiation from cigarette advertising. Anti-industry advertising appears to be the most effective counter for tobacco control and should be considered for wider use. A larger longitudinal study is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24503771
Martens, Heidi; Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Wouters, Kristien; De Bodt, Marc
Mapping adequacy of receptive prosodic abilities in speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria due to Parkinson's disease (PD) is useful, because therapy of disturbed production of prosody relies on adequate reception of prosody. There is evidence for a deficit of reception of emotional prosody in PD. The present study aims at presenting a comprehensive picture of the reception of various communicative functions of prosody in hypokinetic dysarthria due to PD. We assessed perception (using a discrimination task) and comprehension (using an identification task) of five communicative functions of Dutch prosody (lexical stress, boundary marking, focus, sentence mode, and emotional prosody) in a group of adults with hypokinetic dysarthria due to PD (n = 22) and a gender and age matched group of unimpaired adults (n = 22). We also investigated the relationship between age and global test score, and the effect of perception and comprehension subtest sequence on the global test score. Between groups, no significant differences in receptive prosodic abilities were found. Within both groups, the comprehension subtest was significantly more difficult than the perception subtest, and there was a significant negative correlation between age and global test score. No subtest sequence effect could be demonstrated. Considering that the older speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria due to PD had receptive prosodic skills inferior to those of the younger speakers, notwithstanding apparently intact cognition and hearing, the findings suggest that age is a factor to be reckoned with in prosody assessment and management in this population.
Andreev-Andrievskiy, Alexander; Lomonosov, Mikhail; Popova, Anfisa; Lagereva, Evgeniia; Clément, Pierre; Salimov, Ramiz; Golikov, Dmitriy
sexual desire. Andreev-Andrievskiy A, Lomonosov M, Popova A, et al. BP101 Peptide Promotes Female Sexual Receptivity in the Rat. J Sex Med 2017;14:336-346. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
M. Ben-Tov (Mor); I. Kopilevich (Ivgeny); O. Donchin (Opher); O. Ben-Shahar (Ohad); C. Giladi (Chen); R. Segev (Ronen)
textabstractThe archer fish is well known for its extreme visual behavior in shooting water jets at prey hanging on vegetation above water. This fish is a promising model in the study of visual system function because it can be trained to respond to artificial targets and thus to provide valuable
implicationO or othewVSii an ton40 eM the holder, de any other person or corporation6o a VeMission -to manifacture , use, or sel Oy patate# tvt WYbe related... additional data point from the same cell. The additional data point is the contrast at 24.6 cycles/ degree. Thus two contrasts were obtained at this
Jensen, Michael Brun
sensitive to detect abnormal spinal nociception in groups of pain patients but large interpersonal variance limits their clinical use. Variability comprises personal differences but may be exacerbated by the use of non-optimal assessment methodologies. In this Ph.D. project specific imperfections...
Brian J Fischer
Full Text Available A multiplicative combination of tuning to interaural time difference (ITD and interaural level difference (ILD contributes to the generation of spatially selective auditory neurons in the owl's midbrain. Previous analyses of multiplicative responses in the owl have not taken into consideration the frequency-dependence of ITD and ILD cues that occur under natural listening conditions. Here, we present a model for the responses of ITD- and ILD-sensitive neurons in the barn owl's inferior colliculus which satisfies constraints raised by experimental data on frequency convergence, multiplicative interaction of ITD and ILD, and response properties of afferent neurons. We propose that multiplication between ITD- and ILD-dependent signals occurs only within frequency channels and that frequency integration occurs using a linear-threshold mechanism. The model reproduces the experimentally observed nonlinear responses to ITD and ILD in the inferior colliculus, with greater accuracy than previous models. We show that linear-threshold frequency integration allows the system to represent multiple sound sources with natural sound localization cues, whereas multiplicative frequency integration does not. Nonlinear responses in the owl's inferior colliculus can thus be generated using a combination of cellular and network mechanisms, showing that multiple elements of previous theories can be combined in a single system.
Hateren, J.H. van
1. A theory is presented that utilizes the structure of natural images, and how they change in time, to produce spatiotemporal filters that maximize information flow through a noisy channel of limited dynamic range. For low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) the filter has low-pass, and for high SNRs
Biurrun Manresa, José Alberto; Finnerup, Nanna Susanne Brix; Johannesen, Inger Lauge
. Moreover, the topography of the RRF sensitivity and probability areas were significantly different in SCI volunteers compared to NI volunteers in terms of size and shape. CONCLUSIONS: SCI volunteers can develop central sensitization, despite adaptive/maladaptive changes in synaptic plasticity and lack...... of supraspinal control. SIGNIFICANCE: Protective plastic mechanisms may still be functional in SCI volunteers....
Xu, Lei; Liu, Chang-Li; Wang, Hui-Di; Chen, Ke-Li
To study the blooming habits, pollen viability and stigma receptivity of Chrysanthemum morifolium and provide theoretical basis for its breeding. Explored the blooming habits by dynamic observation on the process of blossom, evaluated the pollen viability by germination in vitro culture method and estimated stigma receptivity by benzidine-hydrogen peroxide method. About the pollen viability, there were no significant differences between the flowers which in the same round of the capitulum; Tubular flowers in the center of a capitulum were significantly higher than that on the edge; In the morning pollen vitality gradually raised, during 11: 00 - 14: 00 maintained the highest, and then gradually decreased; Tubular flower began to loose powder on the third day, during 4th - 6th day the pollen viability was highest, respectively was 35.12%, 39.89%, 38.12%, then gradually decreased, on the 15th day was only 7.41%, finally turned into wither. Regard to the stigma receptivity, the center of a capitulum were significantly higher than that on the edge, outer edge ligulate flower had no receptivity; Revealed the strongest during 13: 00 - 14:00 in one day; During the 5th - 7th day was the strongest after flowering. The regulation of the stigma secreted mucus existed great consistency with the stigma receptivity, namely the stigma receptivity usually was strong when it secreted large number mucus. Understand the blossom habits of Chrysanthemun morifolium, as well as the dynamic changes regulation of pollen viability and stigma receptivity during its blossom, which could be used to select the flowers in a capitulum which are on the more suitable period and position for artificial pollination and hybridization breeding research.
Li, Ming; Yu, Feng; Zhang, Ruiqiang; Li, Yan; Chen, Xiaodong; Yu, Daoyin
Embedded Ultrasonic Endoscope, based on embedded microprocessor and embedded real-time operating system, sends a micro ultrasonic probe into coelom through the biopsy channel of the Electronic Endoscope to get the fault histology features of digestive organs by rotary scanning, and acquires the pictures of the alimentary canal mucosal surface. At the same time, ultrasonic signals are processed by signal reception and processing system, forming images of the full histology of the digestive organs. Signal Reception and Processing System is an important component of Embedded Ultrasonic Endoscope. However, the traditional design, using multi-level amplifiers and special digital processing circuits to implement signal reception and processing, is no longer satisfying the standards of high-performance, miniaturization and low power requirements that embedded system requires, and as a result of the high noise that multi-level amplifier brought, the extraction of small signal becomes hard. Therefore, this paper presents a method of signal reception and processing based on double variable gain amplifier and FPGA, increasing the flexibility and dynamic range of the Signal Reception and Processing System, improving system noise level, and reducing power consumption. Finally, we set up the embedded experiment system, using a transducer with the center frequency of 8MHz to scan membrane samples, and display the image of ultrasonic echo reflected by each layer of membrane, with a frame rate of 5Hz, verifying the correctness of the system.
Full Text Available Understanding of the existence of various religious receptions in culture gives a great opportunity for the building and nurturance of harmony among religious followers and for the creating of solidarities in the society. This article uncovers receptions of religious aspects (ultimate truth aspect/god, cosmological aspect and religious ritual aspect in the cultural products of Radin Lambat, a folktale from Lampung. The article is based on the texts of Radin Lambat folktale, interviews, and other literary sources about Lampung cultures. Religious receptions as shown in Radin Lambat folktale indicate the preservation of past beliefs, coupled with the gentle addition and inclusion of Islamic teachings, to create harmonization between religion and tradition through folktale. This shows that Islam in the societies of Lampung is Islam that values cultures through the processes of gradual and varied receptions. This article is expected to add evidence to related sources about the concepts and practices of harmony among religious followers in Indonesia in local tradition, and the addition to the range of the rare religious-cultural reception studies of Lampung society
Luu, Thuy Mai; Vohr, Betty R; Allan, Walter; Schneider, Karen C; Ment, Laura R
Very preterm adolescents display persistent deficits in neuropsychological functions. To compare cognitive and language outcomes at 16 years and cognitive and receptive vocabulary trajectories throughout school years between very preterm and term children and to determine child and family factors associated with better developmental trajectories. At 8, 12, and 16 years, 322 very preterm children with birth weights of 1250 g or less and 41 term children had cognitive and language testing. Hierarchical growth-curve modeling was used to delineate the differences in cognitive and receptive vocabulary development between participants. Cluster analyses allowed for the characterization of very preterm children with different patterns of cognitive and receptive vocabulary development. At 16 years, very preterm adolescents had deficits in general cognition and higher-order language skills (phonological awareness and phonemic decoding) compared with term peers. Although the between-group difference in cognitive scores remained stable from 8 to 16 years, very preterm children demonstrated catch-up gains in receptive vocabulary during the same period. Moreover, subgroups of very preterm children displayed developmental trajectories in cognition similar to term children (55% on the vocabulary and 46% on the block-design subtests). These children had lower rates of neurosensory impairment and mothers with higher education and were from an ethnic nonminority. Significant catch-up in receptive vocabulary is observed by the age of 16 years among very preterm children compared to term peers. The absence of neurosensory impairment and residing in a favorable socioeconomic milieu are associated with the most optimal developmental trajectories.
Copley, Anna; Smith, Kathleen; Savill, Katelyn; Finch, Emma
To investigate if metacognitive strategy instruction (MSI) improves the receptive language skills of adults with cognitive-communication disorders secondary to acquired brain injury (ABI). An ABA intervention programme was implemented with eight adults with ABI, aged 25-70 years. The Measure of Cognitive-Linguistic Abilities (MCLA) was administered at baseline and following treatment. The treatment employed in this study involved three components: individual goal-based therapy, group remediation therapy using self-instruction and home practice. No receptive language sub-tests of the MCLA reached statistical significance. However, participants' raw score improvements in receptive language sub-tests indicated that MSI may be effective at remediating CCDs following ABI. Preliminary findings indicate that MSI may be effective in improving receptive language skills in adults with CCDs following ABI. Further research involving a more rigorous study, a larger sample size and a more reliable outcome measure is necessary and may provide statistically significant evidence for the effectiveness of MSI for remediating receptive language disorders.
Atiwannapat, Penchaya; Thaipisuttikul, Papan; Poopityastaporn, Patchawan; Katekaew, Wanwisa
To compare the effects of 1) active group music therapy and 2) receptive group music therapy to group counseling in treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). On top of standard care, 14 MDD outpatients were randomly assigned to receive 1) active group music therapy (n=5), 2) receptive group music therapy (n=5), or 3) group counseling (n=4). There were 12 one-hour weekly group sessions in each arm. Participants were assessed at baseline, 1 month (after 4 sessions), 3 months (end of interventions), and 6 months. Primary outcomes were depressive scores measured by Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) Thai version. Secondary outcomes were self-rated depression score and quality of life. At 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months, both therapy groups showed statistically non-significant reduction in MADRS Thai scores when compared with the control group (group counseling). The reduction was slightly greater in the active group than the receptive group. Although there were trend toward better outcomes on self-report depression and quality of life, the differences were not statistically significant. Group music therapy, either active or receptive, is an interesting adjunctive treatment option for outpatients with MDD. The receptive group may reach peak therapeutic effect faster, but the active group may have higher peak effect. Group music therapy deserves further comprehensive studies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Boundary-layer receptivity to two-dimensional acoustic and vortical disturbances for hypersonic flows over two-dimensional and axi-symmetric geometries were numerically investigated. The role of bluntness, wall cooling, and pressure gradients on the receptivity and stability were analyzed and compared with the sharp nose cases. It was found that for flows over sharp nose geometries in adiabatic wall conditions the instability waves are generated in the leading-edge region and that the boundary layer is much more receptive to slow acoustic waves as compared to the fast waves. The computations confirmed the stabilizing effect of nose bluntness and the role of the entropy layer in the delay of boundary layer transition. The receptivity coefficients in flows over blunt bodies are orders of magnitude smaller than that for the sharp cone cases. Wall cooling stabilizes the first mode strongly and destabilizes the second mode. However, the receptivity coefficients are also much smaller compared to the adiabatic case. The adverse pressure gradients increased the unstable second mode regions.
Bissmeyer, Susan R S; Goldsworthy, Raymond L
Hearing loss greatly reduces an individual's ability to comprehend speech in the presence of background noise. Over the past decades, numerous signal-processing algorithms have been developed to improve speech reception in these situations for cochlear implant and hearing aid users. One challenge is to reduce background noise while not introducing interaural distortion that would degrade binaural hearing. The present study evaluates a noise reduction algorithm, referred to as binaural Fennec, that was designed to improve speech reception in background noise while preserving binaural cues. Speech reception thresholds were measured for normal-hearing listeners in a simulated environment with target speech generated in front of the listener and background noise originating 90° to the right of the listener. Lateralization thresholds were also measured in the presence of background noise. These measures were conducted in anechoic and reverberant environments. Results indicate that the algorithm improved speech reception thresholds, even in highly reverberant environments. Results indicate that the algorithm also improved lateralization thresholds for the anechoic environment while not affecting lateralization thresholds for the reverberant environments. These results provide clear evidence that this algorithm can improve speech reception in background noise while preserving binaural cues used to lateralize sound.
(Department of Education, 1997), and in the Early Childhood Development. Policy Regulation ... children's needs are met should not be determined by the social-political systems and ... ges from the field of neuropsychology. Studies have ...
.... The importance of understanding brand reception and perception through the lens of the visually impaired is intended to increase business value for organizations, enhance information accessibility...
Tompkins, Laurie; Hall, Jeffrey C.
We have identified cells in the brain of Drosophila melanogaster that are required to be of female genotype for receptivity to copulation with males. To do this, we determined experimental conditions in which female flies virtually always copulate, then measured the minimum amount of male courtship that is required to stimulate females to indicate their receptivity to copulation. We then observed gynandromorphs with female genitalia to determine whether the sex mosaics elicited at least the minimum amount of courtship and, if so, whether they copulated. By analyzing these gynandromorphs, in which the genotype of external and internal tissues could be ascertained, we were able to identify a group of cells in the dorsal anterior brain that, when bilaterally female, is necessary and sufficient for receptivity to copulation. This group of cells is anatomically distinct from those that are required to be of male genotype for the performance of courtship behaviors. PMID:17246106
María del Pilar Agustín Llach
Full Text Available This paper tracks the increase in the overall word reception knowledge of 224 young pupils in their 4th, 5th and 6th grades of primary education and in their 1st year of secondary education 7th grade, who learn EFL in a formal context. The 2,000 word frequency band of The Vocabulary Levels Test (Schmitt, Schmitt and Clapham, 2001, version 2 is used to establish their word knowledge level. Results reveal that the development of these students’ receptive English vocabulary size is incremental and constant, and that it falls within the 1,000 frequency level. Learners increase their receptive vocabulary knowledge in a significant way from one grade to the next. The rate of the gain remains constant across grades.
Melchior Jacobsen, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar
Stationary collectors reading wireless, battery powered smart meters, often operate in harsh channel conditions to cut network installation cost to a minimum, challenging the individual link to each meter. The desired performance measure is reliable reception of at least some data from as many...... as possible meters, rather than maximizing the number of received packets from one meter. We consider a method for improving the reliable reception in a metering system that operates under the constraints of the popular Wireless M-Bus protocol. We develop a framework for reliable reception in which we use...... the deterministic protocol structure to obtain side information and group the packets from the same meter. We derive the probability of falsely pairing packets from different senders in the simple case of no channel errors, and show through simulation and data from an experimental deployment the probability...
the Nordic noir phenomenon. This article deals with reception of the series in three countries (Denmark, UK and Sweden), through analysis of the demographic profile of audiences and the discourses of reception of the series in selected newspapers and on social media. Such transnational intercultural......The Danish-Swedish crime series The Bridge (2011-) is not just a European co-production involving several national funding sources. It has also created quite an active response among transnational audiences, critics, journalists and creative industry people – further expanding and consolidating...... negotiations relate to universal dimensions of stories, but also initiate a cultural encounter between ‘us and them’. The reception shows a fascination of Nordic Noir as a genre, but the transnational cultural encounters with the series also involve social, political and cultural themes and exchange...
Vidyarthi SurendraK, Nayak RoopaP, GuptaSandeep K
Full Text Available Background: Lecturing is widely used teaching method in higher education. Instructors of large classes may have only option to deliver lecture to convey informations to large group students.Aims and Objectives: The present study was to evaluate the effectiveness/receptivity of interactive lecturing in a large group of MBBS second year students. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted in the well-equipped lecture theater of Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital (DSMCH, Tamil Nadu. A fully prepared interactive lecture on the specific topic was delivered by using power point presentation for second year MBBS students. Before start to deliver the lecture, instructor distributed multiple choice 10 questionnaires to attempt within 10 minutes. After 30 minutes of delivering lecture, again instructor distributed same 10 sets of multiple choice questionnaires to attempt in 10 minutes. The topic was never disclosed to the students before to deliver the lecture. Statistics: We analyzed the pre-lecture & post-lecture questions of each student by applying the paired t-test formula by using www.openepi.com version 3.01 online/offline software and by using Microsoft Excel Sheet Windows 2010. Results: The 31 male, 80 female including 111 students of average age 18.58 years baseline (pre-lecture receptivity mean % was 30.99 ± 14.64 and post-lecture receptivity mean % was increased upto 53.51± 19.52. The only 12 students out of 111 post-lecture receptivity values was less (mean % 25.8± 10.84 than the baseline (mean % 45± 9.05 receptive value and this reduction of receptivity was more towards negative side. Conclusion: In interactive lecture session with power point presentation students/learners can learn, even in large-class environments, but it should be active-learner centered.
Emory, Kristen T; Messer, Karen; Vera, Lisa; Ojeda, Norma; Elder, John P; Usita, Paula; Pierce, John P
Tobacco industry cigarette advertising is associated with increased adolescent smoking, while counter tobacco advertising is associated with reduced smoking. As these campaigns compete for influence, there is a need to understand their inter-relationship on youth smoking. This study reports data from a national population of families (n=1036) with an oldest child aged 10-13 years, identified by random digit dialling. Parent and child dyads completed baseline questionnaires in 2003. Adolescents were resurveyed in 2007-2008 (response rate 74%). Adjusted logistic regression explores associations between receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. In 2007-2008, 57.9% of adolescents reported a favourite tobacco control advertisement and 43.3% reported being receptive to cigarette advertisements. Thirty per cent reported receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertisements. Among those receptive to cigarette advertising, having a favourite anti-smoking advertisement had a borderline significant association with a 30% lower smoking rate. Anti-industry tobacco control messages were three times more likely to be favourites of those who were receptive to cigarette advertising than other tobacco control advertising. Receptivity to tobacco control advertising appeared to ameliorate the promotion of initiation from cigarette advertising. Anti-industry advertising appears to be the most effective counter for tobacco control and should be considered for wider use. A larger longitudinal study is needed to confirm these findings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available In this essay, we review the work of Wolfgang Iser, the major proponent of reception theory, and Mark Turner, the major proponent of cognitive criticism. The two theoretical lines advocated by Iser and Turner focus on the cognitive processes involved with reading literary texts. Unfortunately, bibliographic blind spots in both lines lead to the assumption that there is little overlap between reception theory and cognitive criticism. We put this assumption to rest by comparing and contrasting works by Iser and Turner in detail, starting with Iser’s work in the mid-1970s and ending with Turner’s work in the late 1990s.
Colzi, E.; Degaudenzi, R.; Elia, C.; Giannetti, F.; Viola, R.
Diversity reception for Synchronous CDMA (S-CDMA) is introduced and analyzed. A Gaussian co-channel synchronous and asynchronous interference approximation is derived to evaluate the effects on the system bit error rate. Numerical results are provided for a simple mobile communication system where the signals transmitted by two distinct satellites in visibility are coherently combined by a three fingers Rake receiver. A second example showing performance of an integrated ground/satellite single frequency network for digital audio broadcasting is presented. Results show the capacity advantage of utilizing S-CDMA in combination with diversity reception.
Zhen, Chong; Jiffri, Shakir; Li, Daochun; Xiang, Jinwu; Mottershead, John E.
New output feedback-linearisation theory is presented for the treatment of nonlinear vibration problems by a receptance-based approach. An important aspect is a new formulation for investigating the stability of the zero dynamics. The overall methodology possesses the usual benefits of the receptance method, namely that the system matrices (with associated assumptions and approximations) do not have to be known. In addition, it has the distinction of not requiring the form and parameter values of the nonlinearity when the input and output degrees of freedom are away from the nonlinearity itself. This represents a valuable advance over the conventional time-domain feedback linearisation approach.
O. A. Romanova
Full Text Available In this article author marks out the life phases of socio-economic systems from the point of view of theirs stability / instability, determines the correlation between life phase and receptivity degree of system to changes. They offer the order parameters of socio-economic system and assessment methods through which instability is conveyed. The suggested methods have been used for solving the problem of assessing the degree of receptivity of the regional economic systems to the currents global crisis and the following modernization process.
The aim for this bachelor's thesis was to produce a guide book for making a reservation to be used at the reception of Original Sokos Hotel Ilves. The need for such a guide book was introduced by the hotel itself as there was no guide book of this kind specifically designed for Original Sokos Hotel Ilves. There was only a very large and rather impractical chain-level guide book for the system used in the front desk computers which had not been in active use by the reception staff. The main el...
Full Text Available Sexual receptivity of rabbit does at insemination greatly influences fertility and is generally induced by hormones or techniques known as “biostimulation”. Searching for more sustainable farming systems, an original alternative would be to utilise the genetic pathway to increase the does’receptivity. The purpose of the present study was to identify genetic and non-genetic factors that influence rabbit doe sexual receptivity, in the context of a divergent selection experiment over 1 generation. The experiment spanned 2 generations: the founder generation (G0 consisting of 140 rabbit does, and the G1 generation comprising 2 divergently selected lines (L and H lines with 70 does each and 2 successive batches from each generation. The selection rate of the G0 females to form the G1 lines was 24/140. The selection tests consisted of 16 to 18 successive receptivity tests at the rate of 3 tests per week. On the basis of 4716 tests from 275 females, the average receptivity was 56.6±48.2%. A batch effect and a test operator effect were revealed. The contribution of females to the total variance was 20.0%, whereas that of bucks was only 1.1%. Throughout the experiment, 18.2% of does expressed a low receptivity (< 34%, 50.7% a medium one and 33.1% a high one (>66%. Some does were frequently receptive, whereas others were rarely receptive. The repeatability of sexual receptivity was approximately 20%. The results confirmed the high variability of sexual receptivity of non-lactating rabbit does maintained without any biostimulation or hormonal treatment. A lack of selection response on receptivity was observed. Accordingly, the heritability of receptivity was estimated at 0.01±0.02 from an animal model and at 0.02±0.03 from a sire and dam model. The heritability of the average receptivity of a doe was calculated as 0.04. In agreement with the low estimated heritability, the heritability determined was no different from zero
Haebig, Eileen; Sterling, Audra
Previous work has noted that some children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display weaknesses in receptive vocabulary relative to expressive vocabulary abilities. The current study extended previous work by examining the receptive-expressive vocabulary profile in boys with idiopathic ASD and boys with concomitant ASD and fragile X syndrome…
Altmäe, Signe; Koel, Mariann; Võsa, Urmo; Adler, Priit; Suhorutšenko, Marina; Laisk-Podar, Triin; Kukushkina, Viktorija; Saare, Merli; Velthut-Meikas, Agne; Krjutškov, Kaarel; Aghajanova, Lusine; Lalitkumar, Parameswaran G; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Giudice, Linda; Simón, Carlos; Salumets, Andres
Previous transcriptome studies of the human endometrium have revealed hundreds of simultaneously up- and down-regulated genes that are involved in endometrial receptivity. However, the overlap between the studies is relatively small, and we are still searching for potential diagnostic biomarkers. Here we perform a meta-analysis of endometrial-receptivity associated genes on 164 endometrial samples (76 from 'pre-receptive' and 88 from mid-secretory, 'receptive' phase endometria) using a robust rank aggregation (RRA) method, followed by enrichment analysis, and regulatory microRNA prediction. We identify a meta-signature of endometrial receptivity involving 57 mRNA genes as putative receptivity markers, where 39 of these we confirm experimentally using RNA-sequencing method in two separate datasets. The meta-signature genes highlight the importance of immune responses, the complement cascade pathway and the involvement of exosomes in mid-secretory endometrial functions. Bioinformatic prediction identifies 348 microRNAs that could regulate 30 endometrial-receptivity associated genes, and we confirm experimentally the decreased expression of 19 microRNAs with 11 corresponding up-regulated meta-signature genes in our validation experiments. The 57 identified meta-signature genes and involved pathways, together with their regulatory microRNAs could serve as promising and sought-after biomarkers of endometrial receptivity, fertility and infertility.
Xu, Bei; Geerts, Dirk; Bu, Zhiqin; Ai, Jihui; Jin, Lei; Li, Yufeng; Zhang, Hanwang; Zhu, Guijin
Are other HOX genes, in addition to HOXA10, involved in endometrial receptivity? The highly expressed HOXA9, HOXA11 and HOXD10 genes also appear to be involved in endometrial receptivity. Within the HOX family of homeobox transcription factor genes are the leading candidates for the regulation of
This article reports on the results of two studies on receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge of first-year English majors in an English-medium degree programme. The aim of the study is to answer these research questions: (1) to what extent do the receptive and productive vocabulary sizes of English majors increase after a year of…
Lin, Ivy Chuhui; Kawai, Goh
Seeking to identify and activate the Receptive Vocabulary (RV) of English Language Learners (ELLs), we designed (1) an online five category multiple-choice vocabulary survey that more quickly measures vocabulary knowledge, and (2) an online creative writing task where ELLs chose RV items identified in step (1). While RV items of highly proficient…
Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana; Kaushanskaya, Margarita
The authors examined the effects of conceptual scoring on the performance of simultaneous and sequential bilinguals on standardized receptive and expressive vocabulary measures in English and Spanish. Participants included 40 English-speaking monolingual children, 39 simultaneous Spanish-English bilingual children, and 19 sequential bilingual children, ages 5-7. The children completed standardized receptive and expressive vocabulary measures in English and also in Spanish for those who were bilingual. After the standardized administration, bilingual children were given the opportunity to respond to missed items in their other language to obtain a conceptual score. Controlling for group differences in socioeconomic status (SES), both simultaneous and sequential bilingual children scored significantly below monolingual children on single-language measures of English receptive and expressive vocabulary. Conceptual scoring removed the significant difference between monolingual and simultaneous bilingual children in the receptive modality but not in the expressive modality; differences remained between monolingual and sequential bilingual children in both modalities. However, in both bilingual groups, conceptual scoring increased the proportion of children with vocabulary scores within the average range. Conceptual scoring does not fully ameliorate the bias inherent in single-language standardized vocabulary measures for bilingual children, but the procedures employed here may assist in ruling out vocabulary deficits, particularly in typically developing simultaneous bilingual children.
Rink, F.A.; Kane, A.; Ellemers, N.; van der Vegt, G.S.
Reviews of research on newcomers mostly address socialization processes, focusing on individual adjustment. This article takes a different approach by examining the ways in which teams adapt to newcomers, indicating team receptivity. We review the empirical research published over the last five
Grossman, Ruth B.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen
We analyzed several studies of non-verbal communication (prosody and facial expressions) completed in our lab and conducted a secondary analysis to compare performance on receptive vs. expressive tasks by adolescents with ASD and their typically developing peers. Results show a significant between-group difference for the aggregate score of…
Strand, Paul S.; Pula, Kacy; Parks, Craig D.; Cerna, Sandra
The present study utilized a short-term longitudinal research design to model the relationship between shyness-anxiousness and receptive language skills. Hypotheses regarding the direction of the causal relationship, mediation, and moderation were evaluated. Subjects included 340 Head Start attendees from primarily English- and Spanish-speaking…
McDuffie, Andrea; Kover, Sara; Abbeduto, Leonard; Lewis, Pamela; Brown, Ted
The authors examined receptive and expressive language profiles for a group of verbal male children and adolescents who had fragile X syndrome along with varying degrees of autism symptoms. A categorical approach for assigning autism diagnostic classification, based on the combined use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview--Revised and the Autism…
Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana; Kaushanskaya, Margarita
Purpose This study examined the effects of conceptual scoring on the performance of simultaneous and sequential bilinguals on standardized receptive and expressive vocabulary measures in English and Spanish. Method Participants included 40 English-speaking monolingual children, 39 simultaneous Spanish-English bilingual children, and 19 sequential bilinguals, ages 5–7. The children completed standardized receptive and expressive vocabulary measures in English and also in Spanish for bilinguals. After the standardized administration, bilinguals were given the opportunity to respond to missed items in their other language to obtain a conceptual score. Results Controlling for group differences in socioeconomic status (SES), both simultaneous and sequential bilinguals scored significantly below monolinguals on single-language measures of English receptive and expressive vocabulary. Conceptual scoring removed the significant difference between monolinguals and simultaneous bilinguals in the receptive modality, but not in the expressive modality; differences remained between monolinguals and sequential bilinguals in both modalities. However, in both bilingual groups conceptual scoring increased the proportion of children with vocabulary scores within the average range. Conclusions Conceptual scoring does not fully ameliorate the bias inherent in single-language standardized vocabulary measures for bilinguals, but the procedures employed here may assist in ruling out vocabulary deficits, particularly in typically-developing simultaneous bilingual children. PMID:24811415
Deckers, Stijn R J M; Van Zaalen, Yvonne; Van Balkom, Hans; Verhoeven, Ludo
There is a lack of longitudinal data on predictors of vocabulary development in children with Down syndrome (DS). In typically developing children, many internal and external predictors of vocabulary development have been determined before. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of these variables in the receptive and expressive vocabulary development of children with DS. The present study used a longitudinal design in young children with DS to study the vocabulary development over a period of 1.6 years and investigated the possible predictive role of child-related and environmental variables. Receptive vocabulary development was best predicted by the adaptive level of functioning and early receptive vocabulary skills. Expressive vocabulary development was best predicted by the adaptive level of functioning, receptive vocabulary, maternal educational level, level of communicative intent of the child, attention skills and phonological/phonemic awareness. A wide range of internal and external predictors for vocabulary development of children with DS was found. Predictors resemble those predicting vocabulary development in peers with typical development between 1 and 6 years of age, as identified in other studies.
Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.
We identified leaders’ achievement goals and composition of creative input as important factors that can clarify when and why leaders are receptive to, and supportive of, subordinates’ creative input. As hypothesized, in two experimental studies, we found that relative to mastery goal leaders,
The current study attempted to investigate the development of Arabic academic vocabulary knowledge among middle-school Arabic native speakers, taking into account the socioeconomic status of the Arab population in Israel. For this purpose, Arabic academic word list was developed, mapping the required academic words that are needed for adequate coping with informational texts as appearing in the different content areas text-books. Six-hundred Arabic speaking middle school pupils from the different areas in Israel, representing the different Arab subgroups: general Arab community, Druze and Bedouins, have participated in the current study. Two academic vocabulary tests, including receptive and productive academic vocabulary evaluation tests, were administrated to the students across the different age groups (7th, 8th and 9th). The results pointed to no significant difference between 7th and 9th grade in academic vocabulary knowledge. In contrast, significant difference was encountered between the different Arab sub-groups where the lowest scores were noted among the Bedouin sub-group, characterized by the lowest SES. When comparing receptive and productive academic vocabulary knowledge between 7th and 9th grade, the results pointed to improvement in receptive academic knowledge towards the end of middle school but not on the productive knowledge level. In addition, within participants' comparison indicated a gap between the pupils' receptive and productive vocabulary. The results are discussed in relation to the existing scientific literature and to its implication of both research and practice in the domain of Arabic literacy development.
This thesis analyzes the role of individual mediators in the early reception of the works of the Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986). It focuses on a number of key mediators such as publishers, editors, translators, and critics in the translation and publication process and in criticism
Nguyen, Thi My Hang; Webb, Stuart
This study investigated Vietnamese EFL learners' knowledge of verb-noun and adjective-noun collocations at the first three 1,000 word frequency levels, and the extent to which five factors (node word frequency, collocation frequency, mutual information score, congruency, and part of speech) predicted receptive knowledge of collocation. Knowledge…
In 1999, a mandatory and interdisciplinary art course, Cultural and Artistic Education (Culturele en Kunstzinnige Vorming, or CKV), was introduced in the Dutch secondary school system. The course focuses on receptive, rather than active, art education. Cultural activities, such as visiting an art exhibition or a theatre performance, form the core…
CLIL keeps on gaining ground in the European educational context, one clear example is Spain, where the number of schools adopting this methodology has kept growing exponentially in recent years. The present study has a dual perspective looking at the motivation of students towards English and CLIL and showing students' receptive vocabulary…
Seeberg, Marie Louise; Bagge, Cecilie; Enger, Truls Andre
Drawing on empirical material from fieldwork among young children living with their families in two Norwegian reception centres for asylum-seekers, this article compares their realities to the norms and realities for other children in Norway. Children's spatial and social situations within the centres stand out in stark contrast to Norwegian…
subsequently compare this with the commentaries of Luther and Calvin. 1 I thank Prof. Dr. R.B. ter ... There are two references to this text in his works: one in his ..... theological thought and its reception will portray a more dynamic history of theology than the stated oppositions of traditional conflicts. BIBLIOGRAPHY. Ambrose.
Conclusion: The 3D-power Doppler ultrasound is a more comprehensive and sensitive method for evaluating endometrial receptivity. Endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, as well as VI in early pregnancy, can be considered as predictive factors for recurrent miscarriage.
Given existing gendered stereotypic assumptions regarding shyness and children's school competencies, this study explored relations among socioemotional competencies, self-perceptions, and receptive vocabulary in shy children. Ninety-one Canadian children (52 girls, 39 boys; 5-8 years) were classified as shy (n = 26) based on teachers' behavioural…
Gibson, Todd A.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.
The purpose of the current study was to explore the influence of language experience on the presence of the receptive-expressive gap. Each of 778 Spanish-English bilingual children screened pre-kindergarten in Utah and Texas were assigned to one of five language experience groups, ranging from functionally monolingual to balanced bilingual.…
Vedora, Joseph; Barry, Tiffany
The current study extended research on picture prompts by using them with a progressive prompt delay to teach receptive labeling of pictures to 2 teenagers with autism. The procedure differed from prior research because the auditory stimulus was not presented or was presented only once during the picture-prompt condition. The results indicated…
Cassotti, Mathieu; Moutier, Sylvain
Intuitive predictions and judgments under conditions of uncertainty are often mediated by judgment heuristics that sometimes lead to biases. Using the classical conjunction bias example, the present study examines the relationship between receptivity to metacognitive executive training and emotion-based learning ability indexed by Iowa Gambling…
de Wilde, M.
The article analyzes the Roman notion of des publica and its reception by Grotius and Locke. The Romans considered des publica a general standard of behavior for all those invested with state power. It was regarded as a legal norm with moral connotations, which applied especially, though not
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF COLLEGE FRESHMEN IN NEED OF, AND RECEPTIVE TO, COUNSELING WAS STUDIED WITH THE STRUCTURED-OBJECTIVE RORSCHACH TEST (SORT) TO--(1) MODIFY THE SORT, (2) CLASSIFY SUBJECTS INTO COUNSELING AND NON-COUNSELING GROUPS, (3) DETERMINE IF THE SORT COULD DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN COUNSELING AND NON-COUNSELING SUBJECTS, AND (4) CONSTRUCT…
... any commercial non-broadcast communications signals transmitted via wireless technology to and/or from... Transmit Fixed Wireless Communications Signals § 1.4000 Restrictions impairing reception of television... broadcast signals, direct broadcast satellite services or multichannel multipoint distribution services. 1...
Hajilou, Y.; Yazdani, H.; Shokrpour, N.
This study aimed to determine the relationship between creativity on one hand and lexical reception and production knowledge of Iranian EFL students on the other hand. The data were collected using three tests: a creativity test (Torrance, 1990), the Vocabulary Levels Test (Schmitt, Schmitt, & Clapham, 2001), and the Productive Version of the…
It is well established that extensive reading promotes the incidental learning of L1 and L2 receptive vocabulary; however, little is known about its effectiveness on productive gains in vocabulary knowledge. This paper investigates the extent to which extensive reading combined with writing tasks promotes productive vocabulary growth of Japanese…
Haug, Tobias; Herman, Rosalind; Woll, Bencie
This paper presents the features of an online test framework for a receptive skills test that has been adapted, based on a British template, into different sign languages. The online test includes features that meet the needs of the different sign language versions. Features such as usability of the test, automatic saving of scores, and score…
Meyer, Meinert A.; Rakhkochkine, Anatoli
We take the reception of Wolfgang Klafki's didactics in Russia as our example for the difficult relations between knowledge transfer and knowledge transformation. We start with a description, analysis and evaluation of Klafki's two didactical models, categorical didactics and critical-constructive didactics, and then describe and evaluate their…
In fertile women, expression of molecular marker of endometrial receptivity, HOXA11, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and basic transcriptional element binding protein 1 (BTEB1), rises during the luteal phase with the peak occurring during the implantation window. We evaluated the transcript levels of HOXA-11, LIF and ...
This paper explores the significance of the concept of power/knowledge in educational theory. The argument proceeds in two main parts. In the first, I consider aspects of Stephen J. Ball's highly influential work in educational theory. I examine his reception of Foucault's concept of power/knowledge and suggest that there are problems in his…
Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.
This article presents results of a longitudinal study of receptive American Sign Language (ASL) skills for a large portion of the student body at a residential school for the deaf across four consecutive years. Scores were analyzed by age, gender, parental hearing status, years attending the residential school, and presence of a disability (i.e.,…
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection to reception of TV channel 6. 73.825... channel 6. (a) LPFM stations will be authorized on Channels 201 through 220 only if the pertinent minimum separation distances in the following table are met with respect to all full power TV Channel 6 stations. FM...
Keygnaert, I.; Dias, S.F.; Degomme, O.; Devillé, W.; Kennedy, P.; Kovats, A.; Meyer, S. de; Vettenburg, N.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.
Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and
Keygnaert, I.; Dias, S.F.; Degomme, O.; Devillé, W.; Kennedy, P.; Kováts, A.; De Meyer, S.; Vettenburg, N.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.
Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and
Keygnaert, Ines; Dias, Sonia F.; Degomme, Olivier; Devillé, Walter|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/217201490; Kennedy, Patricia; Kováts, András; De Meyer, Sara; Vettenburg, Nicole; Roelens, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen
Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and
Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg; Aguilar, Gabriella
Receptive identification is usually taught in matching-to-sample format, which entails the presentation of an auditory sample stimulus and several visual comparison stimuli in each trial. Conflicting recommendations exist regarding the order of stimulus presentation in matching-to-sample trials. The purpose of this study was to compare acquisition…
Aizawa, Kazumi; Iso, Tatsuo; Nadasdy, Paul
Testing learners' English proficiency is central to university English classes in Japan. This study developed and implemented a set of parallel online receptive aural and visual vocabulary tests that would predict learners' English proficiency. The tests shared the same target words and choices--the main difference was the presentation of the…
Hüttel, Hans; Garm Nielsen, Johannes; Finderup, Peter
The notion of receptiveness arises in the pi-calculus as a guarantee of determinacy in the behaviour of callable entities and was first investigated by Sangiorgi. The DpiF process calculus, introduced by Francalanza and Hennessy, extends the pi-calculus with located processes and location and link...
Facon, Bruno; Nuchadee, Marie-Laure; Bollengier, Therese
This study aimed to discover whether general receptive vocabulary is qualitatively phenotypical in Down syndrome. Sixty-two participants with Down syndrome (M age = 16.74 years, SD = 3.28) were individually matched on general vocabulary raw total score with 62 participants with intellectual disability of undifferentiated etiology (M age = 16.20…
In 1999, a mandatory and interdisciplinary art course, Cultural and Artistic Education (Culturele en Kunstzinnige Vorming, or CKV), was introduced in the Dutch secondary school system. The course focuses on receptive, rather than active, art education. Cultural activities, such as visiting an art
This article explores the reception of Galatians 2:20 in the Patristic period, and in the Reformation by Luther and Calvin. As it turns out, the interpretation of the verse does not fit into popular notions of their theological traditions. Authors from traditions as different as the Alexandrians and the Antiochians, or Eastern and.
Sanjuan, Ana; Avila, Cesar [Universitat Jaume I, Departamento de Psicologia Basica, Clinica y Psicobiologia, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Hospital La Fe, Unidad de Epilepsia, Servicio de Neurologia, Valencia (Spain); Forn, Cristina; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Rodriguez-Pujadas, Aina; Garcia-Porcar, Maria [Universitat Jaume I, Departamento de Psicologia Basica, Clinica y Psicobiologia, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Belloch, Vicente [Hospital La Fe, Eresa, Servicio de Radiologia, Valencia (Spain); Villanueva, Vicente [Hospital La Fe, Unidad de Epilepsia, Servicio de Neurologia, Valencia (Spain)
To test the capacity of a sentence verification (SV) task to reliably activate receptive language areas. Presurgical evaluation of language is useful in predicting postsurgical deficits in patients who are candidates for neurosurgery. Productive language tasks have been successfully elaborated, but more conflicting results have been found in receptive language mapping. Twenty-two right-handed healthy controls made true-false semantic judgements of brief sentences presented auditorily. Group maps showed reliable functional activations in the frontal and temporoparietal language areas. At the individual level, the SV task showed activation located in receptive language areas in 100% of the participants with strong left-sided distributions (mean lateralisation index of 69.27). The SV task can be considered a useful tool in evaluating receptive language function in individual subjects. This study is a first step towards designing the fMRI task which may serve to presurgically map receptive language functions. (orig.)
Full Text Available MHC class II molecules (MHC II play a pivotal role in the cell-surface presentation of antigens for surveillance by T cells. Antigen loading takes place inside the cell in endosomal compartments and loss of the peptide ligand rapidly leads to the formation of a non-receptive state of the MHC molecule. Non-receptiveness hinders the efficient loading of new antigens onto the empty MHC II. However, the mechanisms driving the formation of the peptide inaccessible state are not well understood. Here, a combined approach of experimental site-directed mutagenesis and computational modeling is used to reveal structural features underlying "non-receptiveness." Molecular dynamics simulations of the human MHC II HLA-DR1 suggest a straightening of the α-helix of the β1 domain during the transition from the open to the non-receptive state. The movement is mostly confined to a hinge region conserved in all known MHC molecules. This shift causes a narrowing of the two helices flanking the binding site and results in a closure, which is further stabilized by the formation of a critical hydrogen bond between residues αQ9 and βN82. Mutagenesis experiments confirmed that replacement of either one of the two residues by alanine renders the protein highly susceptible. Notably, loading enhancement was also observed when the mutated MHC II molecules were expressed on the surface of fibroblast cells. Altogether, structural features underlying the non-receptive state of empty HLA-DR1 identified by theoretical means and experiments revealed highly conserved residues critically involved in the receptiveness of MHC II. The atomic details of rearrangements of the peptide-binding groove upon peptide loss provide insight into structure and dynamics of empty MHC II molecules and may foster rational approaches to interfere with non-receptiveness. Manipulation of peptide loading efficiency for improved peptide vaccination strategies could be one of the applications profiting
A system is provided for conversion of a first electromagnetic field into a desired second electromagnetic field, for example for coupling modes between waveguides or into microstructured waveguides. The system comprises a complex spatial electromagnetic field converter that is positioned...... for reception of at least a part of the first electromagnetic field and that is adapted for conversion of the received field into the desired electromagnetic field, and wherein at least one of the first and second fields matches a mode of a microstructured waveguide. It is an important advantage of the present...
Taylor, Catherine L; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R
Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental outcomes
Taylor, Catherine L.; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R.
Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4–8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4–8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental
Catherine L Taylor
Full Text Available Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC. Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB, low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children
Seegers, Valerie; Touchette, Evelyne; Dionne, Ginette; Petit, Dominique; Seguin, Jean R; Montplaisir, Jacques; Vitaro, Frank; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E
The aim of this study was to examine whether short sleep duration is associated with poor receptive vocabulary at age 10 years. In the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, parents reported their children's nocturnal sleep duration annually from ages 2.5 to 10 years, and children were assessed for receptive vocabulary using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) at ages 4 and 10 years. Groups with distinct nocturnal sleep duration trajectories were identified and the relationships between sleep trajectories and poor PPVT-R performance were characterized. In all, 1192 children with available sleep duration and PPVT-R data participated in this epidemiological study. We identified four longitudinal nocturnal sleep trajectories: short persistent sleepers (n = 72, 6.0%), short increasing sleepers (n = 47, 3.9%), 10-h sleepers (n = 628, 52.7%) and 11-h sleepers (n = 445, 37.3%). In all, 14.8% of the children showed poor PPVT-R performance at age 10 years. Nocturnal sleep trajectories and poor PPVT-R performance at age 10 were associated significantly (P = 0.003). After adjusting for baseline receptive vocabulary performance at age 4 and other potential confounding variables, logistic regression analyses suggest that, compared to 11-h sleepers, the odds ratio of presenting poor receptive vocabulary at age 10 was 2.67 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24-5.74, P = 0.012] for short persistent sleepers and 1.66 (95% CI: 1.06-2.59, P = 0.026) for 10-h sleepers. These results corroborate previous findings in early childhood, and indicate that short sleep duration is associated with poor receptive vocabulary during middle childhood. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.
Zanozin, A S; Demura, T A; Kolosovsky, D Yu; Faizullina, N M; Kogan, E A
The concurrence of undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia (uCTD) and hereditary thrombophilia (HT) often accompanies female infertility, in the pathogenesis of which impaired endometrial receptivity plays an important role. to investigate endometrial morphological and immunophenotypic features in patients with primary infertility in the presence of uCTD and HT. The pipelle endometrial biopsy specimens taken in the implantation window were examined in 81 patients, including 13 women with a clinical diagnosis of uCTD, 40 with HT, 19 with uCTD concurrent with HT, and in a control group of 9 heathy surrogate mothers. Morphological, immunohistochemical, and morphometric examinations were done to study the paraffin-embedded endometrial biopsy sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, pikrofuksin by van Gieson, and with toluidine blue. Immunohistochemical tests were carried out using primary antibodies against ER, PgR, LIF, PAI-1, VEGF, Collagen I, Collagen III, fibronectin, laminin, MMP-2, and MMP-9. The uCTD, HT, and uCTD + HT groups were found to have signs of decreased endometrial receptivity as dramatically lower counts of mature pinopodes, slower endometrial maturation, reduced expression of the receptivity marker LIF, and deviations of the stromal progesterone-estrogen index from the normal value. Sclerotic foci with type III collagen accumulation were detected in the endometrial stroma. uCTD and HT and especially their concurrence are commonly a concomitant disease and risk factors for infertility in women due to impaired endometrial receptivity. In uCTD, connective tissue remodeling processes are substantially retarded, which ultimately leads to increased processes of endometrial stromal sclerosis, reduced endometrial receptivity, and infertility. The most pronounced morphological and immunophenotypical changes have been ascertained to develop in the uCTD + NT group. The findings may be used to predict and devise new infertility treatments in patients
Hald, Gert Martin; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik
This study investigated the primary conclusion from Clark and Hatfield's often cited field experiment ``Consent to Sex with a Stranger'' that men agree to sexual invitations from moderately attractive strangers of the opposite gender more readily than women do. In addition, this study investigated...... whether rates of consent are influenced by a subject's age, relationship status, rating of confederate attractiveness, and type of sexual invitation. A number of moderately attractive confederates of the opposite gender individually approached 173 men and 216 women. After a standard introduction...... than women consented to a sexual invitation. Specifically, significantly more men than women consented to the ``come to my place'' and ``go to bed with me'' conditions. For female subjects, higher ratings of confederate attractiveness were found to significantly increase the odds of consenting...
Full Text Available Given the formation of the history of art and the anthropology of material culture in the late nineteenth century, this paper focuses on the scholarly field of study which has come to consist of the interrelationship of ornament, design, craft, and decorative art. After addressing the historiography of this emerging field with special attention to non-European cultures and areas, the paper will inscribe women authors and gender into the narrative and interpretation of craft, design, decorative art, and ornament through their personal observations of small-scale societies. Examples will address Ceylon, ‘the savage woman’, Brazil, Japan, Indonesian peoples, and African peoples. Contrary to object-oriented scholarly histories of the time, women’s reflections are linked to subject-personal experiences and imply a gendered appropriation of first-hand reception. Women’s writings also offer a gendering of geography in history writing where scholarly overviews by male authors created a western historical ‘landscape’ and women’s reception of non-European cultures positioned realms beyond it.
Park, Eunjin; Shin, Changsoo
The controlled directional reception (CDR) method is a velocity analysis method using ray-tracing. It is one of the tomographic methods that use slope (or ray parameter), so it is often called the "slope tomography method". It does not require a pre-picking operation like traveltime tomography does. Auto-picked information from the local slant stack is regarded as more reliable than reflection traveltime picked directly from the seismic data. The method also provides more detailed information about the moveout than the imaging operator in migration-based velocity analysis (MVA). Therefore, we constructed a velocity macro-model using this strip-off CDR velocity analysis. When compared to the conventional CDR method, it increased the resolution of common receiver gathers (CRG) data and reduced computer storage space dramatically. Additionally, it improved the accuracy of the velocity model by using the migrated image as a background panel during the velocity analysis. The results obtained by this method were applied to full waveform inversion (FWI) as the initial velocity model. In FWI, an exact initial model is important because it reduces instability and increases the probability of convergence to the global minimum. It is significant that the CDR model is first applied as the initial model of FWI. We confirmed good inverted results from two realistic synthetic data tests by comparison with the results obtained using the conventional initial models. In particular, the CDR macro-model has great value on its high accuracy. It is expected to provide good results with difficult data, such as seismic data with a weathered zone or short offset, and so increase the accuracy compared with the conventional method. Furthermore, it is possible to apply to multi-parameter inversion. In summary, the macro-model obtained from strip-off CDR velocity analysis is suitable for frequency domain FWI. Three-dimensional exploration and exploration in complex terrains are being conducted
and global media are still shaped by the particular conditions of everyday-life. In my paper, which is based on field research in Lusaka in October/November 2004, I will present some of the findings of my interview-based and observational investigation into the media uses of Lusaka...... Since 1990 Zambia has witnessed a dramatic enlargement of its media landscape. The emergence of cable and satellite television, private radio stations and an independent national press have been cornerstones in this development. Paralleled by a boom in information and communication technologies...... youth. A special focus will be on: (1) Isidingo, the most popular TV serial (of South African origin) offered by the national broadcaster ZNBC, and one of the few terrestrial TV programs which attract a substantial audience amongst local youth; (2) the Pentecostal Trinity Broadcasting Network, which...
Full Text Available In a variety of animal species, females hold a leading position in evaluating potential mating partners. The decision of virgin females to accept or reject a courting male is one of the most critical steps for mating success. In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, however, the molecular and neuronal mechanisms underlying female receptivity are still poorly understood, particularly for virgin females. The Drosophila painless (pain gene encodes a transient receptor potential (TRP ion channel. We previously demonstrated that mutations in pain significantly enhance the sexual receptivity of virgin females and that pain expression in pain(GAL4 -positive neurons is necessary and sufficient for pain-mediated regulation of the virgin receptivity. Among the pain(GAL4 -positive neurons in the adult female brain, here we have found that insulin-producing cells (IPCs, a neuronal subset in the pars intercerebralis, are essential in virgin females for the regulation of sexual receptivity through Pain TRP channels. IPC-specific knockdown of pain expression or IPC ablation strongly enhanced female sexual receptivity as was observed in pain mutant females. When pain expression or neuronal activity was conditionally suppressed in adult IPCs, female sexual receptivity was similarly enhanced. Furthermore, both pain mutations and the conditional knockdown of pain expression in IPCs depressed female rejection behaviors toward courting males. Taken together, our results indicate that the Pain TRP channel in IPCs plays an important role in controlling the sexual receptivity of Drosophila virgin females by positively regulating female rejection behaviors during courtship.
Full Text Available The impact of a premature elevation of serum progesterone level, the day of hCG administration in patients under controlled ovarian stimulation during IVF procedure, on human endometrial receptivity is still debated. In the present study, we investigated the endometrial gene expression profile shifts during the prereceptive and receptive secretory stage in patients with normal and elevated serum progesterone level on the day of hCG administration in fifteen patients under stimulated cycles. Then, specific biomarkers of endometrial receptivity in these two groups of patients were tested. Endometrial biopsies were performed on oocyte retrieval day and on day 3 of embryo transfer, respectively, for each patient. Samples were analysed using DNA microarrays and qRT-PCR. The endometrial gene expression shift from the prereceptive to the receptive stage was altered in patients with high serum progesterone level (>1.5 ng/mL on hCG day, suggesting accelerated endometrial maturation during the periovulation period. This was confirmed by the functional annotation of the differentially expressed genes as it showed downregulation of cell cycle-related genes. Conversely, the profile of endometrial receptivity was comparable in both groups. Premature progesterone rise alters the endometrial gene expression shift between the prereceptive and the receptive stage but does not affect endometrial receptivity.
Renucci, M; Strambi, A; Augier, R
During the 32 hr following the imaginal moult, all female Acheta domesticus actively or passively refuse male courtship; they are unreceptive. As of 32 hr, the most precocious females become receptive and accept mating. At this time, juvenile hormone (JH III) synthesized by corpora allata (CA) is already detectable in hemolymph, while ecdysteroids (synthesized by ovaries) begin increasing at 48 hr. JH III and ecdysteroid levels in hemolymph were measured by RIA. After allatectomy and/or ovariectomy, all females became receptive, thus showing that CA and/or ovaries are not essential to the onset of receptivity. However, male courtship is longer for allatectomized females; in ovariectomized females, mating is delayed.
Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Kehl, Lisa; Herzog, Thaddeus A.
Objective To test whether exposure and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing are associated with recent e-cigarette use among young adults through increased beliefs that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Methods Data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students; approximately equal proportions of current, never, and former cigarette smokers [mean age = 23.5 (SD = 5.5); 65% female]. Results Higher receptivity to e-cigarette marketing was associated with perceptions that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, which in turn, were associated with higher recent e-cigarette use. Conclusions The findings provide preliminary support to the proposition that marketing of e-cigarettes as safer alternatives to cigarettes or cessation aids is associated with increased e-cigarette use among young adults. The findings have implications for development of e-cigarette regulations. PMID:25290604
Armstrong, Rebecca; Scott, James; Copland, David; McMahon, Katie; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Najman, Jake M; Alati, Rosa; Arnott, Wendy
This study examined the parental and early childhood risk factors of different receptive vocabulary developmental profiles from childhood to adulthood. The sample (n=1914), comprised of monolingual English speaking participants, from the Mater University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP). Receptive vocabulary was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) at the 5 and 21-year follow ups. Four vocabulary profiles were evident: persistently typical, persistently impaired, later onset of difficulties, and resolved delays. The presence of internalising behaviours at 5 years, lower paternal educational attainment, and maternal smoking during pregnancy were associated with later onset vocabulary impairment. These findings have clinical and educational implications for identifying children 'at risk' of later deterioration in language skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Building upon ten years of empirical work, this paper reflects on how to study increasingly complex user engagement with transmedial worlds. We examine our own analytical evolution from an initial aesthetic orientation to our current effort to incorporate the user´s own perspective through qualitative and quantitative studies. We argue that mapping user experience requires a sophisticated and holistic analytical approach - particularly, due to the popularity of social media platforms. We conclude the article by developing the concept of "networked reception" to characterize new kinds of transmedial world experience afforded by social media, which allow users to distribute and communicate not only the content of media texts but also their own experience and reception of transmedial world “texts”.
DeGaudenzi, Riccardo; Giannetti, Filippo
The downlink of a satellite-mobile personal communication system employing power-controlled Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) and exploiting satellite-diversity is analyzed and its performance compared with a more traditional communication system utilizing single satellite reception. The analytical model developed has been thoroughly validated by means of extensive Monte Carlo computer simulations. It is shown how the capacity gain provided by diversity reception shrinks considerably in the presence of increasing traffic or in the case of light shadowing conditions. Moreover, the quantitative results tend to indicate that to combat system capacity reduction due to intra-system interference, no more than two satellites shall be active over the same region. To achieve higher system capacity, differently from terrestrial cellular systems, Multi-User Detection (MUD) techniques are likely to be required in the mobile user terminal, thus considerably increasing its complexity.
Far from being a remnant of the past, reception analysis must continue to set the question of meaning as a central issue in media studies, an issue that appears to be missing from current understandings of social media in which audiences are often reduced to a single reality or simply ignored...... as empirical reality. This paper argues for the continued relevance of reception analysis, inspite of the mismatch of the label, and develops this argument by applying one of its most fundamental insights, namely its investigation of the relationship between media and audience —or between text and context......: 1) gatekeeping, 2) remix and 3) positioning. Resulting from this framework, three agendas are suggested for the study of audiences of social media: 1) the relationship between old and new media, 2) the “audiencification” of the text, and 3) the war between audiences....
Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Kehl, Lisa; Herzog, Thaddeus A
To test whether exposure and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing are associated with recent e-cigarette use among young adults through increased beliefs that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students; approximately equal proportions of current, never, and former cigarette smokers [mean age = 23.5 (SD = 5.5); 65% female]. Higher receptivity to e-cigarette marketing was associated with perceptions that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, which in turn, were associated with higher recent e-cigarette use. The findings provide preliminary support to the proposition that marketing of e-cigarettes as safer alternatives to cigarettes or cessation aids is associated with increased e-cigarette use among young adults. The findings have implications for development of e-cigarette regulations.
Full Text Available Reception staff loyalty is much influenced by several factors, one of them is job satisfaction. Employee job satisfaction plays important role in creating employee loyalty. For hoteliers who serve as provider of accommodation services, the demand for the creation of quality human resources is maximum achievement. One of the important section in the front office is receptionist. Today, hoteliers pay very close attention because the employee turnover will certainly affect the consistency of services offered by the hotel. Therefore, the hotel is getting active in increasing the satisfaction of its staff in order to minimize employee turnover especially in a very important role such the receptionist. Although the validity of the relationship between job satisfaction and reception staff loyalty is still an exciting debate, the result of the research conducted in the Hotel X is expected to help increase employee satisfaction in order to create quality of life that will improve labor productivity.
Facon, Bruno; Nuchadee, Marie-Laure; Bollengier, Thérèse
This study aimed to discover whether general receptive vocabulary is qualitatively phenotypical in Down syndrome. Sixty-two participants with Down syndrome (M age=16.74 years, SD=3.28) were individually matched on general vocabulary raw total score with 62 participants with intellectual disability of undifferentiated etiology (M age=16.20 years, SD=3.08) and 62 typical children (M age=5.32 years, SD=0.82). Item analyses using the transformed item difficulties method to detect differential item functioning across groups showed that the groups' rank orders of item difficulty were highly similar. It was concluded that the general receptive vocabulary of older children and adolescents with Down syndrome is not qualitatively distinguished when its overall size is held constant. Methodological and theoretical implications of this finding are discussed.
Frederiksen, Hanne W; Kamper-Jørgensen, Zaza; Agyemang, Charles
address the existing health inequities, nor determining factors of migrant health, including barriers to access health services’.1 Two recent Danish documents highlight these aspects in relation to the health-reception of migrants. A report from the Ministry of Social Affairs and Integration concludes...... that present health initiatives offered to newly arrived long-term documented migrants are not systematically harmonized and updated and do not cover all relevant migrant groups.2 This is likely to be the case in many other settings across Europe. Subsequently, a new Danish bill sets out to reform the current...... Danish health-reception model, using a more systematic approach based on a close cooperation between social and health sectors.3 With this development, we wish to initiate a European public health debate about how to assess and meet the health needs of newly arrived long-term documented migrants...
Gibbs, B M; Cookson, R; Qi, N
This paper considers a practical structure-borne sound source characterization for mechanical installations, which are connected to plate-like structures. It describes a laboratory-based measurement procedure, which will yield single values of source strength in a form transferable to a prediction of the structure-borne sound power generated in the installed condition. It is confirmed that two source quantities are required, corresponding to the source activity and mobility. For the source activity, a high-mobility reception plate method is proposed which yields a single value in the form of the sum of the squared free velocities, over the contact points. A low-mobility reception plate method also is proposed which, in conjunction with the above, yields the source mobility in the form of the average magnitude of the effective mobility, again over the contact points. Experimental case studies are described and the applicability of the laboratory data for prediction and limitations of the approach are discussed.
Bertrand, E; Lévy, R; Boyeldieu, D
Following an ABO accident after transfusion of red blood cells, an a priori risk analysis study is being performed in a hospital. The scope of this analysis covers from the reception of the blood product in the medical unit to its administration. The risk analysis enables to identify the potentially dangerous situations and the evaluation of the risks in order to propose corrective measures (precautionary or protective) and bring the system back to an acceptable risk level. The innovative concept of an a priori risk analysis in the medical field allows the extension of the analysis of this transfusion risk to other hospitals. In addition, it allows the extension of the use of this approach to other medical fields. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
The regulation and reception of anime in Britain has, historically, been fraught with difficulty. In 1992, the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) rejected the first instalment of Urotsukidoji, a controversial series of erotic anime, on the grounds of its sexually explicit content; this decision set a precedent for the way in which they would continue to censor anime for the following two decades. Nearly twenty years later, in 2009, the Coroners and Justice Act, also known as the ‘Dan...
The purpose is to contribute to the theory and practice of listening reception as one of the four language arts in Swedish as a school subject. The object of inquiry is The Art of Listening (Adelmann 2009) as a Swedish example from a Scandinavian context, compared to mainstream listening research in the USA. The problem explored is: How can we, as researchers and teachers, handle some of the problems within international listening research and adapt listening research to a Scandinavian contex...
Ramírez Meléndez, Luz Angélica; Gallego Jaramillo, Sindy Catalina
This is a research paper resulting from the macro-research “Interaction between ictand bilingual teaching as a functional learning alternative”, that was developed from the second semester 2010 to the first semester 2012, in the Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Bucaramanga. Noting the difficulties of children in listening and reading, we have based our approach in the development of receptive skills on second grade students (2-2) of the Escuela Normal Superior de Bucaramanga in order to c...
Gorter, Jenke A.; Samyukta Jagadeesh; Christoph Gahr; Boonekamp, Jelle J.; Levine, Joel D.; Jean-Christophe Billeter
Food and sex often go hand in hand because of the nutritional cost of reproduction. For Drosophila melanogaster females, this relationship is especially intimate because their offspring develop on food. Since yeast and sugars are important nutritional pillars for Drosophila, availability of these foods should inform female reproductive behaviours. Yet mechanisms coupling food and sex are poorly understood. Here we show that yeast increases female sexual receptivity through interaction between...
Soto-Sanfiel, M.T. (María T.); Aymerich-Franch, L. (Laura); Romero, E. (Estrella)
In this study, we explore how users’ personalities affect their responses to interactive narratives. In particular, we analyze the relationship between personality traits and relevant variables in narrative reception: identification with characters, enjoyment, self-perceived physiological sensations, emotional experience and content. Experimental participants (N=310) answered the NEO- FFI personality questionnaire and watched a movie in one of four experimental conditions that combined modali...
Soto Sanfiel, María Teresa
In this study, we explore how users’ personalities affect their responses to interactive narratives. In particular, we analyze the relationship between personality traits and relevant variables in narrative reception: identification with characters, enjoyment, self-perceived physiological sensations, emotional experience and content. Experimental participants (N=310) answered the NEO-FFI personality questionnaire and watched a movie in one of four experimental conditions that combined modalit...
Through a case study of Pixar Animation Studios, McCulloch offers an exploration of the relationship between screen narratives, branded production cultures, and cultural value. \\ud \\ud The chapter analyses the representation and mediation of the company’s Emeryville campus across a range of paratextual materials (primarily journalistic exposés and DVD bonus features), before comparing this to the critical reception of its films. McCulloch discusses the legitimating implications of ‘behind the...
with disturbances that are difficult to characterize, such as those created by jets11 and speakers .12 The few high-speed studies of the receptivity to...laser to a small region in the freestream of a wind tunnel. This creates a laser-induced breakdown plasma in the freestream. This plasma quickly...continuous light source. In this case, the light source used was a xenon arc lamp. Variations in the light intensity and in the room temperature are accounted
Izdihar Khalisha, Annisa; Dwiningtyas, S.Sos, MA, Dr. Hapsari
This research envisages information about how the construction of masculinty showed on @LMEN's Instagram influences male's perspective in case of the ideal appearance of masculinity. The purposes of this research are to analyze how @LMEN's Instagram constructs the male's masculinity and how the man interprets those of masculinity concepts. Critical paradigm is used to analyze this research, furthurmore, this research also uses reception analysis method written by Ien Ang. Muscular Male Body I...
Bernstein, Joshua G. W.; Danielsson, Henrik; H?llgren, Mathias; Stenfelt, Stefan; R?nnberg, Jerker; Lunner, Thomas
The audiogram predicts amp;lt;30% of the variance in speech-reception thresholds (SRTs) for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners fitted with individualized frequency-dependent gain. The remaining variance could reflect suprathreshold distortion in the auditory pathways or nonauditory factors such as cognitive processing. The relationship between a measure of suprathreshold auditory function-spectrotemporal modulation (STM) sensitivity-and SRTs in noise was examined for 154 HI listeners fitted with...
Okalidou, Areti; Syrika, Asimina; Beckman, Mary E; Edwards, Jan R
Receptive vocabulary is an important measure for language evaluations. Therefore, norm-referenced receptive vocabulary tests are widely used in several languages. However, a receptive vocabulary test has not yet been normed for Modern Greek. To adapt an American English vocabulary test, the Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test-II (ROWPVT-II), for Modern Greek for use with Greek-speaking preschool children. The list of 170 English words on ROWPVT-II was adapted by (1) developing two lists (A and B) of Greek words that would match either the target English word or another concept corresponding to one of the pictured objects in the four-picture array; and (2) determining a developmental order for the chosen Greek words for preschool-aged children. For the first task, adult word frequency measures were used to select the words for the Greek wordlist. For the second task, 427 children, 225 boys and 202 girls, ranging in age from 2;0 years to 5;11 years, were recruited from urban and suburban areas of Greece. A pilot study of the two word lists was performed with the aim of comparing an equal number of list A and list B responses for each age group and deriving a new developmental list order. The relative difficulty of each Greek word item, that is, its accuracy score, was calculated by taking the average proportion of correct responses across ages for that word. Subsequently, the word accuracy scores in the two lists were compared via regression analysis, which yielded a highly significant relationship (R(2) = 0.97; p vocabulary test for Greek preschool-aged children. Further steps need to be taken when testing larger numbers of 2;0 to 5;11-year-old children on the revised word list for determination of norms. This effort will facilitate early identification and remediation of language disorders in Modern Greek-speaking children. © 2010 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.
N. Mandagi, Natasya; Lailiyah, S.Sos, M.I.Kom, Nuriyatul
The emergence of reality show programs on various television stations became a unique phenomenon to the community. Trans TV station became one of the famous private television that has many programs in television reality show, one of which is Janji Suci Raffi & Gigi. The program presents stories about the private lives of households Raffi Ahmad and Nagita Slavina, as well as the story of the people around them. The purpose of this study is to determine audience reception of the private sp...
Full Text Available The intended aim of this article is to present approximation results of the exemplary measurements of EMERGENCY signal reception probability. The probability is under-stood as a distance function between the aircraft and a ground-based system under established conditions. The measurements were approximated using the properties of logistic functions. This probability, as a distance function, enables to determine the range of the EMERGENCY signal for a pre-set confidence level.
Full Text Available Pollen tube (PT reception in flowering plants describes the crosstalk between the male and female gametophytes upon PT arrival at the synergid cells of the ovule. It leads to PT growth arrest, rupture, and sperm cell release, and is thus essential to ensure double fertilization. Here, we describe TURAN (TUN and EVAN (EVN, two novel members of the PT reception pathway that is mediated by the FERONIA (FER receptor-like kinase (RLK. Like fer, mutations in these two genes lead to PT overgrowth inside the female gametophyte (FG without PT rupture. Mapping by next-generation sequencing, cytological analysis of reporter genes, and biochemical assays of glycoproteins in RNAi knockdown mutants revealed both genes to be involved in protein N-glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. TUN encodes a uridine diphosphate (UDP-glycosyltransferase superfamily protein and EVN a dolichol kinase. In addition to their common role during PT reception in the synergids, both genes have distinct functions in the pollen: whereas EVN is essential for pollen development, TUN is required for PT growth and integrity by affecting the stability of the pollen-specific FER homologs ANXUR1 (ANX1 and ANX2. ANX1- and ANX2-YFP reporters are not expressed in tun pollen grains, but ANX1-YFP is degraded via the ER-associated degradation (ERAD pathway, likely underlying the anx1/2-like premature PT rupture phenotype of tun mutants. Thus, as in animal sperm-egg interactions, protein glycosylation is essential for the interaction between the female and male gametophytes during PT reception to ensure fertilization and successful reproduction.
Elliott, Taffeta M; Kelley, Darcy B.
In murky, crowded ponds in South Africa, female clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis (Daudin), vocalize to signal reproductive state. Female calls consist of acoustically similar clicks delivered in trains with characteristic rates. The rapping call of a sexually receptive female has a more rapid click rate [81 ms mean interclick interval (ICI)] than the ticking call of an unreceptive female (219 ms ICI). Rapping stimulates male advertisement calling, whereas ticking suppresses an already calling mal...
Ankara : The Department of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2010. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2010. Includes bibliographical references leaves 99-104. This study investigated the effect of proficiency level on the rate of receptive and productive vocabulary acquisition, in conjunction with an examination of materials and instruction. The study was conducted with the participation of 68 beginner and elementary level students, and their ...
Ford, J J; Christenson, R K
Sexual receptivity was evaluated in female and male pigs that had experienced varying periods of exposure to testosterone pre- and postnatally. For prenatal exposure, pregnant sows were treated with testosterone propionate (TP) from Day 29-35 or Day 39-45 of gestation at a dosage that caused virilization of the external genitalia of their female offspring. Eighty-three percent of the females that received TP prenatally had regular estrous cycles, but reached puberty later than control females. Only 26% of the females that received TP both pre- and postnatally (4-6 mo of age) were observed in estrus by 10 mo of age. After ovariectomy and acute treatment with estradiol benzoate (EB), the proportion of females that showed the immobilization response (receptivity) was similar for all groups of females independent of pre- or postnatal TP treatment. Females treated prenatally from Day 39-45 showed the immobilization response for fewer days after treatment with a high dosage of EB than did controls. On the basis of these observations, we conclude that receptivity in female pigs is not affected greatly by testosterone treatment at the stages of development that were investigated. Males castrated at birth and treated with a single injection of EB after 9.5 mo showed the immobilization response. In contrast, few males castrated at 8 mo or castrated at birth and treated with TP from 3 to 6 mo showed the immobilization response after EB treatment. These observations provide direct evidence for a postnatal component of testosterone-dependent defeminization of receptivity in male pigs.
Gallego, Melania Terrazas; Llach, Maria del Pilar Agustin
This paper tracks the increase in the overall word reception knowledge of 224 young pupils in their 4th, 5th and 6th grades of primary education and in their 1st year of secondary education (7th grade), who learn EFL in a formal context. The 2,000 word frequency band of The Vocabulary Levels Test (Schmitt, Schmitt and Clapham, 2001, version 2) is…
Walls, Laura; Kelley, Jeremy
This study explores the reflections of 27 native and high-proficiency English-speaking students in two sections of a six-week U.S. college undergraduate content/writing course, to determine what factors influence student receptivity to peer feedback. Reflections stemmed from weekly writing journals designed to enhance process writing skill development, and assessed how amenable students were to peer feedback. Subsequent qualitative analyses resulted in four significant student-generated orien...
Marchman, Virginia A; Adams, Katherine A; Loi, Elizabeth C; Fernald, Anne; Feldman, Heidi M
As rates of prematurity continue to rise, identifying which preterm children are at increased risk for learning disabilities is a public health imperative. Identifying continuities between early and later skills in this vulnerable population can also illuminate fundamental neuropsychological processes that support learning in all children. At 18 months adjusted age, we used socioeconomic status (SES), medical variables, parent-reported vocabulary, scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (third edition) language composite, and children's lexical processing speed in the looking-while-listening (LWL) task as predictor variables in a sample of 30 preterm children. Receptive vocabulary as measured by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (fourth edition) at 36 months was the outcome. Receptive vocabulary was correlated with SES, but uncorrelated with degree of prematurity or a composite of medical risk. Importantly, lexical processing speed was the strongest predictor of receptive vocabulary (r = -.81), accounting for 30% unique variance. Individual differences in lexical processing efficiency may be able to serve as a marker for information processing skills that are critical for language learning.
Maier, Michelle F.; Bohlmann, Natalie L.; Palacios, Natalia A.
The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's (N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages. PMID:26807002
Full Text Available Background: Primary care (PC is an emerging practice setting for occupational therapy; however, few occupational therapists currently practice in this setting due to barriers, including uncertainty about reimbursement and the role of occupational therapists. This pilot study aimed to determine if PC providers and occupational therapists are receptive to occupational therapists as integrated interprofessional PC team members if barriers to inclusion are addressed. Method: After a brief educational paragraph explaining potential occupational therapy contributions to PC teams, the participants accessed a link to survey questions regarding their personal level of receptiveness to occupational therapy in PC. The questions comprised Likert scale and open-ended answers. Results: Of the Likert scale responses, 94%-99% provided by occupational therapists and 82%-97% provided by PC providers indicated possibly or yes to the inclusion of occupational therapists on the PC team. The descriptive responses were primarily supportive. Discussion: The majority of the occupational therapists and PC providers surveyed indicated support for including occupational therapists in primary care. This indicates that when barriers are addressed, occupational therapists and PC providers are receptive to the inclusion of occupational therapists as members of the interprofessional PC team.
Pataraia, E; Billingsley-Marshall, R L; Castillo, E M; Breier, J I; Simos, P G; Sarkari, S; Fitzgerald, M; Clear, T; Papanicolaou, A C
To examine brain activation associated with receptive language in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) before and after an anterior temporal lobectomy using magnetoencephalography (MEG), and to evaluate which patients were most likely to show a change in the lateralization and localization of the mechanisms supporting receptive language and if such changes were associated with neuropsychological function. Twelve patients with left TLE underwent preoperative Wada testing, and pre- and postoperative neuropsychological testing and MEG language mapping. The anatomic location of receptive language-related activity sources observed with MEG was determined by coregistering MEG data with structural MRI scans. Language laterality indices were calculated based on the number of reproducible activity sources in each hemisphere. The proximity of language-specific activity sources to Wernicke's area was also examined. Although the small sample size precluded formal statistical analyses, patients with atypical (bilateral) hemispheric dominance preoperatively were more likely than patients with typical (left-hemisphere) dominance to show evidence of increased right hemisphere participation in language functions after surgery. Patients with left hemispheric dominance preoperatively were more likely to show intrahemispheric changes involving a slight inferior shift of the putative location of Wernicke's area. Patients with bilateral representation tended to perform worse on neuropsychological test measures obtained both pre- and postoperatively. Interhemispheric functional reorganization of language-specific areas may occur in patients undergoing left anterior temporal lobectomy. Intrahemispheric reorganization may take place even when the resection does not directly impinge upon Wernicke's area.
Fabrício César Aguiar
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the 8th poem Num meio dia de fim de primavera written by Alberto Caeiro. The analysis proposed will be based on some of the Reception Aesthetics concepts mainly focusing on enriching the sensory aspects of the text, especially the visual one. For that purpose, the poetic devices used in the construction of the text as well as its reception by the readers will be highlighted. The analysis will be based on the concepts theorized by Wolfgang Iser. Such concepts are: a the interaction between text and reader and the position of the latter at the time of the former reception; b the blank places; c the negation and negativity structures; and d it will also consider the approach to reading as an act in which the reader is responsible for achieving the meaning for the text and for creating an “aesthetic pleasure” through it. This last concept is grounded in Hans Robert Jauss theory.
Full Text Available The acquisition of lexical knowledge in a second/foreign language is often investigated by means of vocabulary size tests which assess two aspects of the learners' competence: reception and production. Estimates of these two dimensions, as well as the (potential gap between them, have important pedagogical implications in that they indicate the degree to which the learners can comprehend or use the language autonomously. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore the vocabulary size of three generations of B2-level L2 learners (CEFR, first-year students majoring in English at the Faculty of Philology and Arts in Kragujevac, Serbia, by means of Vocabulary Levels Tests (Laufer & Nation, 1999; Nation, 1990. The results of the statistical analyses show that the receptive vocabulary of Serbian L2 learners is much more developed than their productive vocabulary, and that the gap between lexical production and reception changes depending on the frequency of the lexemes and the proficiency level of L2 learners. The findings imply that, at the primary and secondary level of education, more attention should be paid to the development of productive lexical knowledge which is crucial not only for success in English degree courses but communication in English in general.
Cettner, Annicka; Ashley, Richard; Hedström, Annelie; Viklander, Maria
Individual and organisational receptivity for change towards the use of sustainable stormwater management systems has been previously examined, but the significance of the different contexts for achieving this has been largely unexplored. This paper examines the significance of contexts associated to the actions to bring this about by proposing and evaluating an emerging framework based on two related receptivity theories: the individual or organisational approach and the contextual approach. Results from a Swedish national questionnaire with professionals in stormwater management have been used, together with a limited number of interviews to develop and understand the validity of the framework. The analysis has indicated that the respondents were professionally prepared for change (action) but not practically prepared due to inadequate supportive contexts. In response, a number of potential contexts associated to the necessary actions were identified. The framework was found to provide new insights into the influence of receptive contexts for a change in water management practice. These insights can be used by policy makers and others to better support the realization of professional openness for change and thus accelerate the process of change to sustainable stormwater practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maier, Michelle F; Bohlmann, Natalie L; Palacios, Natalia A
The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's (N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages.
Lee, Youngmee; Yim, Dongsun; Sim, Hyunsub
The purposes of this study were to investigate phonological processing skills for children with cochlear implants (CIs) in comparison with children with normal hearing (NH), and to assess whether phonological processing skills can explain variance in receptive vocabulary scores in children with CIs. Twenty-five deaf children who received a CI before 2 years of age were included in this study, and they ranged from 4 years to 6 years 11 months. Twenty-five children with NH as a control group were matched to children with CIs on the basis of chronological age with 3 months. Phonological processing skills were measured by the phonological awareness (PA), nonword repetition (NWR), and rapid automatized naming (RAN) tasks. Receptive vocabulary skills were also tested by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Korean version. Children with CIs performed significantly lower than children with NH on PA (p.05). Among phonological processing skills, PA contributed significant amount to receptive vocabulary skills in children with CIs (pvocabulary skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Lei; Liu, XiaoRui; Liu, JunZe; Ma, Li; Zhou, ZhanQin; Song, YuXuan; Cao, BinYun
Under natural conditions, some embryos cannot implant successfully because of the dysfunction of receptive endometrium (RE). Thus, it is imperative for us to study the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of the RE from pre-receptive endometrium (PE). In this study, the endometrium from gestational day 5 (D5, PE) and gestational day 15 (D15, RE) dairy goats were selected to systematically analyze the transcriptome using strand-specific Ribo-Zero RNA-Seq, >120 million high-quality paired-end reads were generated and 47,616 transcripts were identified in the endometrium of dairy goats. A total of 810 mRNAs were differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the RE and PE meeting the criteria of P-values<0.05. Bioinformatics analysis of the DEGs revealed that a number of biological processes and pathways were potentially involved in the establishment of the RE, notably energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism. Furthermore, we speculated that CXCL14, IGFBP3, and LGALS15 potentially participated in the development of endometrium. What's more, putative SNPs, InDels and AS events were identified and analyzed in the endometrium. In a word, this resulting view of the transcriptome greatly enhances the comprehensive transcript catalog and uncovers the global trends in gene expression during the formation of receptive endometrium in dairy goats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hudry, Kristelle; Leadbitter, Kathy; Temple, Kathryn; Slonims, Vicky; McConachie, Helen; Aldred, Catherine; Howlin, Patricia; Charman, Tony
In early typical language development, children understand words before they are able to use them in speech. Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) generally show impairments in both the comprehension and the production of language. However, the relative degree of delay or impairment in each of these sub-domains may also be atypical and remains less well-understood. Relative delay in receptive and expressive language skills was examined within a large sample of preschoolers with autism. Children's language abilities varied from pre-verbal to fluent speech. Scores on one direct clinician assessment and two parent-report measures of language were obtained for 152 preschoolers with core autism. As expected, on average, the language ability of the children with autism was lower than typical age norms, albeit with substantial individual variability. On all three language measures, receptive ability was relatively more impaired than expressive ability. Higher non-verbal ability was associated with such an atypical language profile. Recognition of the marked receptive language impairment relative to expressive language, found to affect at least one-third of preschoolers with autism in this sample, has important implications for interacting with these children and for informing appropriate targets in language and communication intervention.
Full Text Available Abstract: In the present research a picture card-based vocabulary study method was used to determine the pace of learner acquisition in terms of both receptive and productive knowledge. Fifty-eight first-year Japanese university students in two classes were used in the study. The subjects were placed into a single experimental group and both classes were taught by the researcher. During the treatment sessions the subjects studied fifteen vocabulary items chosen from the course textbook (Fifty-Fifty: A speaking and listening course, Book One, W. Wilson and R. Barnard, 2007, Hong Kong: Pearson Longman using self-produced picture cards. The same post-treatment test was given to the subjects following each treatment session and the results were analyzed using Paired Samples T-tests supported by non-parametric Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks tests by comparing one session’s data with the data of the previous session. The post-treatment data showed a significant difference between the pre-treatment and first sessions in terms of receptive knowledge, and between all sessions except the eighth and ninth in terms of productive knowledge. Keywords: Vocabulary learning; receptive knowledge; productive knowledge; processing time; memory threshold
Laws, Glynis; Briscoe, Josie; Ang, Su-Yin; Brown, Heather; Hermena, Ehab; Kapikian, Anna
Receptive vocabulary and associated semantic knowledge were compared within and between groups of children with specific language impairment (SLI), children with Down syndrome (DS), and typically developing children. To overcome the potential confounding effects of speech or language difficulties on verbal tests of semantic knowledge, a novel task was devised based on picture-based semantic association tests used to assess adult patients with semantic dementia. Receptive vocabulary, measured by word-picture matching, of children with SLI was weak relative to chronological age and to nonverbal mental age but their semantic knowledge, probed across the same lexical items, did not differ significantly from that of vocabulary-matched typically developing children. By contrast, although receptive vocabulary of children with DS was a relative strength compared to nonverbal cognitive abilities (p knowledge (p vocabulary and depth of semantic knowledge. Overall, these data challenge the integrity of semantic-conceptual development in DS and imply that contemporary theories of semantic cognition should also seek to incorporate evidence from atypical conceptual development.
Delporte, Fabienne; Jacquemin, Jean-Marie; Masson, Patrick; Watillon, Bernard
... receptivity to transgenesis are common to plant and animal cells and highlight the principle of the unity of life. Transgenesis provides an important investigative instrument in plant physiology and is regarded as a valuable tool for crop improvement...
This paper is concerned with the error performance analysis of binary differential phase shift keying with differential detection over the nonselective, Rayleigh fading channel with combining diversity reception. Space antenna diversity reception is assumed. The diversity branches are independent, but have nonidentically distributed statistics. The fading process in each branch is assumed to have an arbitrary Doppler spectrum with arbitrary Doppler bandwidth. Both optimum diversity reception and suboptimum diversity reception are considered. Results available previously apply only to the case of first and second-order diversity. Our results are more general in that the order of diversity is arbitrary. Moreover, the bit error probability (BEP) result is obtained in an exact, closed-form expression which shows the behavior of the BEP as an explict function of the one-bit-interval fading correlation coefficient at the matched filter output, the mean signal-to-noise ratio per bit per branch and the order of diver...
Mugijatna; Sri Kusumo Habsari; Yunita Ariani Putri
This research studies Percy Jackson and the Lightning Thief by Rick Riordan. The objectives are to describe the Greek mythology presented in the novel, the intention of Rick Riordan, and the reception of the readers...
,, Mugijatna; Habsari, Sri Kusumo; Putri, Yunita Ariani
This research studies Percy Jackson and the Lightning Thief by Rick Riordan. The objectives are to describe the Greek mythology presented in the novel, the intention of Rick Riordan, and the reception of the readers...
Zhao, Huaqiao; Gao, Huotao; Cao, Ting; Li, Boya
In this work, the collection of solar energy by a broad-band nanospiral antenna is investigated in order to solve the low efficiency of the solar rectenna based on conventional nanoantennas. The antenna impedance, radiation, polarization and effective area are all considered in the efficiency calculation using the finite integral technique. The wavelength range investigated is 300-3000 nm, which corresponds to more than 98% of the solar radiation energy. It's found that the nanospiral has stronger field enhancement in the gap than a nanodipole counterpart. And a maximum harvesting efficiency about 80% is possible in principle for the nanospiral coupled to a rectifier resistance of 200 Ω, while about 10% for the nanodipole under the same conditions. Moreover, the nanospiral could be coupled to a rectifier diode of high resistance more easily than the nanodipole. These results indicate that the efficient full-spectrum utilization, reception and conversion of solar energy can be achieved by the nanospiral antenna, which is expected to promote the solar rectenna to be a promising technology in the clean, renewable energy application.
Balakumar, P.; King, Rudolph A.; Eppink, Jenna L.
The effects of forward- and backward-facing steps on the receptivity and stability of three-dimensional supersonic boundary layers over a swept wing with a blunt leading edge are numerically investigated for a freestream Mach number of 3 and a sweep angle of 30 degrees. The flow fields are obtained by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations. The evolution of instability waves generated by surface roughness is simulated with and without the forward- and backward-facing steps. The separation bubble lengths are about 5-10 step heights for the forward-facing step and are about 10 for the backward-facing step. The linear stability calculations show very strong instability in the separated region with a large frequency domain. The simulation results show that the presence of backward-facing steps decreases the amplitude of the stationary crossflow vortices with longer spanwise wavelengths by about fifty percent and the presence of forward-facing steps does not modify the amplitudes noticeably across the steps. The waves with the shorter wavelengths grow substantially downstream of the step in agreement with the linear stability prediction.
Morozov, A N; Turchin, I V [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)
The method of optical coherence tomography with the scheme of parallel reception of the interference signal (P-OCT) is developed on the basis of spatial paralleling of the reference wave by means of a phase diffraction grating producing the appropriate time delay in the Mach–Zehnder interferometer. The absence of mechanical variation of the optical path difference in the interferometer essentially reduces the time required for 2D imaging of the object internal structure, as compared to the classical OCT that uses the time-domain method of the image construction, the sensitivity and the dynamic range being comparable in both approaches. For the resulting field of the interfering object and reference waves an analytical expression is derived that allows the calculation of the autocorrelation function in the plane of photodetectors. For the first time a method of linear phase modulation by 2π is proposed for P-OCT systems, which allows the use of compact high-frequency (a few hundred kHz) piezoelectric cell-based modulators. For the demonstration of the P-OCT method an experimental setup was created, using which the images of the inner structure of biological objects at the depth up to 1 mm with the axial spatial resolution of 12 μm were obtained. (optical coherence tomography)
Facio, Beatriz Castanheira; Marski, Bruna de Souza Lima; Higarashi, Ieda Harumi; Misko, Maira Deguer; Silveira, Aline Oliveira; Wernet, Monika
To analyze the influence of health professionals' receptiveness on parental care of children with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A qualitative study developed under the theoretical framework of Symbolic Interactionism and using a narrative research methodology. Six women and three men, being parents of children with retinopathy of prematurity were individually interviewed in depth. From the scope of information, emotions and their rights, the parents experienced receptiveness from some professionals and unreceptiveness from others. The predominance of unreceptive attitudes in the parental narratives originated the following analysis themes: Informational (un)receptiveness, Emotional (un)receptiveness, and (Un)receptiveness of rights. The study supports human and comprehensive healthcare in the context of retinopathy of prematurity by pointing out the interactive process with health professionals as a potential stressor of parental care. The results signal a nuclear of attitudinal changes and reinforce challenges to the child and family-centered approach. Analisar a influência do acolhimento do profissional de saúde no cuidado parental junto ao filho com retinopatia da prematuridade. Estudo qualitativo desenvolvido sob o referencial teórico do Interacionismo Simbólico e metodológico da pesquisa de narrativas. Foram entrevistados em profundidade e individualmente seis mulheres e três homens, pais de crianças com retinopatia da prematuridade. Os pais vivenciam, nos âmbitos informacional, emocional e de direitos, acolhimento com alguns profissionais e destrato com outros. A predominância da postura de desacolhimento nas narrativas parentais deu origem aos temas de análise: (Des)acolhimento informacional, (Des)acolhimento emocional, e (Des)acolhimento de direitos. O estudo oferece subsídios ao cuidado humano e integral em saúde no contexto da retinopatia da prematuridade ao apontar o processo interativo com os profissionais de saúde enquanto potencial
Strong, David R; Messer, Karen; Hartman, Sheri J; Nodora, Jesse; Vera, Lisa; White, Martha M; Leas, Eric; Pharris-Ciurej, Nikolas; Borek, Nicolette; Pierce, John P
This study extends research on receptivity to tobacco marketing over a key developmental period for cigarette smoking experimentation. The purpose of this study was to understand the effect of receptivity to tobacco marketing and exposure to friends who smoke on smoking experimentation. Participants were 10 to 13 years old who had never tried cigarettes (n = 878), interviewed six times at 8-month intervals. At baseline, 25% percent of the 10 and 11 years old in the sample of never smokers were receptive to tobacco marketing, while less than 5% had friends who smoked. Having a friend who smoked at study baseline and acquiring such friends for the first time during the study were the strongest predictors of smoking experimentation. Initial receptivity to tobacco marketing increased the risk of smoking experimentation independently of having friends who smoke at baseline or acquiring friends who smoke throughout the study period. The high level of receptivity observed even among 10 and 11 years old and its robust relationship with cigarette smoking experimentation independent of the significant risk associated with having friends who smoke suggests that successful prevention of receptivity may require intervention at an early age.
Mohr, Philip; Quinn, Sinéad; Morell, Matthew; Topping, David
To investigate community engagement with the health benefits of dietary fibre (DF) and its potential as a framework for the promotion of increased consumption of resistant starch (RS). A nationwide postal Food and Health Survey conducted in Australia by CSIRO Human Nutrition. Adults aged 18 years and above, selected at random from the Australian Electoral Roll (n 849). A cross-sectional design was employed to analyse ratings of (i) the importance of various RS health and functional claims and (ii) receptiveness to different foods as RS delivery vehicles, according to the respondents' level of fibre engagement as classified under the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM) of Health Behaviour. There was a high level of recognition (89·5 %) of DF as being important for health. Significant gender differences were found for ratings of RS attributes and RS delivery options. Women were both more fibre-engaged than men and more receptive than men to RS and its potential benefits. Ratings of the acceptability of several foods as means of delivering RS revealed a general preference for healthy staples over indulgences, with the margin between acceptability of staples and indulgences increasing markedly with increased fibre engagement. Application of the PAPM to awareness of DF reveals a ready-made target group for health messages about RS and pockets of differential potential receptiveness. The findings support the promotion of RS as providing health benefits of DF with the added reduction of risk of serious disease, its delivery through healthy staples and the targeting of messages at both fibre-engaged individuals and women in general.
Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Ullman, Michael T; Lum, Jarrad A G
What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing (TD) children and children with specific language impairment (SLI)? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which procedural, declarative, and working memory abilities predict receptive grammar in 45 primary school aged children with SLI (30 males, 15 females) and 46 TD children (30 males, 16 females), both on average 9;10 years of age. Regression analyses probed measures of all three memory systems simultaneously as potential predictors of receptive grammar. The model was significant, explaining 51.6% of the variance. There was a significant main effect of learning in procedural memory and a significant group × procedural learning interaction. Further investigation of the interaction revealed that procedural learning predicted grammar in TD but not in children with SLI. Indeed, procedural learning was the only predictor of grammar in TD. In contrast, only learning in declarative memory significantly predicted grammar in SLI. Thus, different memory systems are associated with receptive grammar abilities in children with SLI and their TD peers. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a significant group by memory system interaction in predicting grammar in children with SLI and their TD peers. In line with Ullman's Declarative/Procedural model of language and procedural deficit hypothesis of SLI, variability in understanding sentences of varying grammatical complexity appears to be associated with variability in procedural memory abilities in TD children, but with declarative memory, as an apparent compensatory mechanism, in children with SLI.
Gremillion, Monica L; Martel, Michelle M
Children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) often seem to have poorer language skills compared to same-age peers; however, language as an early risk factor for DBD has received little empirical attention. The present study provides an empirical examination of associations between normal language variation and DBD by investigating receptive, expressive, and pragmatic language skills and preschool DBD symptoms. The sample consisted of 109 preschoolers ages 3 to 6 (M = 4.77 years, SD = 1.10, 59% boys; 73% with DBD, including oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]) along with their primary caregivers, who completed a clinician-administered interview, symptom questionnaires, and a questionnaire measure of pragmatic language, and teacher and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires. Children completed objective tests of receptive and expressive vocabulary. Preschoolers with DBD showed poorer receptive, expressive, and pragmatic skills compared to preschoolers without DBD. Preschoolers with ADHD-only or ADHD+ODD exhibited poorer language skills, compared to ODD and non-DBD groups. Specificity analyses suggested that parent-rated hyperactivity-impulsivity were particularly associated with poorer language skills. Thus, preschoolers with DBD exhibited poorer language skills compared to preschoolers without DBD, and preschoolers with increased hyperactivity-impulsivity exhibited particular problems with language skills. This work suggests the need for early assessment of language in preschoolers, particularly those with ADHD, as well as the possible utility of tailored interventions focused on improving language skills, particularly for those with high hyperactivity-impulsivity.
Full Text Available What memory systems underlie grammar in children, and do these differ between typically developing children and children with specific language impairment (SLI? Whilst there is substantial evidence linking certain memory deficits to the language problems in children with SLI, few studies have investigated multiple memory systems simultaneously, examining not only possible memory deficits but also memory abilities that may play a compensatory role. This study examined the extent to which procedural, declarative, and working memory abilities predict receptive grammar in 45 primary school aged children with SLI (30 males, 15 females and 46 typically developing (TD children (30 males, 16 females, both on average 9;10 years of age. Regression analyses probed measures of all three memory systems simultaneously as potential predictors of receptive grammar. The model was significant, explaining 51.6% of the variance. There was a significant main effect of learning in procedural memory and a significant group x procedural learning interaction. Further investigation of the interaction revealed that procedural learning predicted grammar in TD but not in children with SLI. Indeed, procedural learning was the only predictor of grammar in TD. In contrast, only learning in declarative memory significantly predicted grammar in SLI. Thus, different memory systems are associated with receptive grammar abilities in children with SLI and their TD peers. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a significant group by memory system interaction in predicting grammar in children with SLI and their TD peers. In line with Ullman’s Declarative/Procedural model of language and Procedural Deficit Hypothesis of SLI, variability in understanding sentences of varying grammatical complexity appears to be associated with variability in procedural memory abilities in TD children, but with declarative memory, as an apparent compensatory mechanism, in children
Luat, Aimee F; Chugani, Harry T; Asano, Eishi; Juhász, Csaba; Trock, Gary; Rothermel, Robert
We report a four-year-old boy with Landau-Kleffner Syndrome (LKS) characterized by episodic receptive aphasia lasting for few weeks followed by gradual recovery of baseline language functions. Neuropsychological evaluation during an episode showed severe impairment in verbal skills and comprehension, but relative preservation of non-verbal skills. Although he could carry on a conversation during remission, neuropsychological evaluation demonstrated findings reflective of receptive language deficits. Prolonged EEG disclosed frequent sharp-wave activity in the left and right temporal regions but no electrographic seizures. Glucose metabolism PET scan during the fourth episode of aphasia revealed intense hypermetabolism in the left temporal neocortex. Awake EEG during the PET tracer uptake period showed 6.0 spikes/min in the left temporal region and 4.0 spikes/min in the right. A repeat PET scan during remission showed hypometabolism in the left temporal cortex. Awake EEG during the FDG uptake period showed 16.0 spikes/min in the right temporal region and 0.3 spikes/min in the left. During his fifth aphasic episode, EEG (without PET) showed 0.16 spikes/min in the right temporal region and none in the left. Intermittent short episodes of predominantly receptive aphasia with near-total recovery between episodes can be one of the clinical presentations of LKS. This case illustrates the dynamic changes of glucose metabolism in the temporal lobe during episodes of aphasia and remission in a case with LKS. The clinical course of our patient with transient EEG and PET findings suggest that glucose metabolism in LKS cannot be attributed solely to interictal epileptiform activities on scalp EEG.
Chen, Cairong; Yan, Qiuxia; Liu, Kunping; Zhou, Xiuqin; Xian, Yingjie; Liang, Dali; Zhao, Xiaoying; Guo, Xiaoyan; Quan, Song
Ovulation induction therapy with clomiphene citrate can suppress endometrial receptivity. Raloxifene may be an alternative therapeutic for women with ovulatory disorders. This study aimed to compare the expression of endometrial receptivity markers, including homeobox gene 10 (HOXA10), integrin β3, and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), as well as pinopode production during the implantation window in mice stimulated with raloxifene and clomiphene citrate and natural cycles. Thirty-six 8-week-old female Kunming mice were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 12) and administered daily raloxifene (22 mg/kg), clomiphene citrate (18 mg/kg), and normal saline (1 mL), respectively, by gavage. Two days later, mice were injected with 5 IU human chorionic gonadotropin and mated. Successfully mated female animals were identified with vaginal plugs designated gestation day 1. At day 4.5, pregnant donor mice were euthanized, and uterus samples were collected for immunohistochemistry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Homeobox gene 10, integrin β3, and LIF messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels were significantly higher in the raloxifene-treated animals compared with the clomiphene citrate group (all P raloxifene and saline groups; however, in the clomiphene citrate-treated mice, fewer and poorly developed pinopodes were obtained. In mice, raloxifene had no effect on HOXA10, integrin β3, and LIF expression as well as pinopode production, suggesting it has no adverse effects on endometrial receptivity. Raloxifene may provide a viable alternative oral ovulation induction agent to clomiphene citrate. © The Author(s) 2015.
Gianina Daniela SABAU
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide a brief outlook on Graham Greene’s reception inFrance in order to analyze the author’s worth as a major European literary figure. Accordingly, wehave proceeded to the examination of some of the French critical studies centered on the Britishauthor’s work namely Victor de Pange’s monograph as well as some of the works of the Frenchscholar Francois Gallix. Our study manages to show Graham Greene’s writings fit into a specificFrench literary pattern.
Ludmila E. Kryshtop
Full Text Available The article concerns the reception of practical philosophy of Kant in general and the doctrine of the postulates of the practical reason in particular in Russia in the 18th and the first half of the 19th century. Author analyzes the views on Kant’s philosophy of the most representative Russian thinkers and attempts to answer the question why the way practical philosophy of Kant and his postulates of the existence of God and immortality of soul were interpreted in Russia was rather negative and hostile.
Smith, Stephen F [Loudon, TN; Moore, James A [Powell, TN
Systems and methods are described for carrier phase synchronization for improved AM and TV broadcast reception. A method includes synchronizing the phase of a carrier frequency of a broadcast signal with the phase of a remote reference frequency. An apparatus includes a receiver to detect the phase of a reference signal; a phase comparator coupled to the reference signal-phase receiver; a voltage controlled oscillator coupled to the phase comparator; and a phase-controlled radio frequency output coupled to the voltage controlled oscillator.
Smith, Stephen F [Loudon, TN; Moore, James A [Powell, TN
Systems and methods are described for carrier phase synchronization for improved AM and TV broadcast reception. A method includes synchronizing the phase of a carrier frequency of a broadcast signal with the phase of a remote reference frequency. An apparatus includes a receiver to detect the phase of a reference signal; a phase comparator coupled to the reference signal-phase receiver; a voltage controlled oscillator coupled to the phase comparator; and a phase-controlled radio frequency output coupled to the voltage controlled oscillator.
Vedora, Joseph; Grandelski, Katrina
The use of a simple-conditional discrimination training procedure, in which stimuli are initially taught in isolation with no other comparison stimuli, is common in early intensive behavioral intervention programs. Researchers have suggested that this procedure may encourage the development of faulty stimulus control during training. The current study replicated previous work that compared the simple-conditional and the conditional-only methods to teach receptive labeling of pictures to young children with autism spectrum disorder. Both methods were effective, but the conditional-only method required fewer sessions to mastery. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to analyze various types of the reception of Vygotsky’s theory in the international academic communities. The paper develops a critical analysis of three widespread theoretical frameworks of interpretation of Vygotsky’s theory: cognitivism, culturalism, cultural-historical activity theory. It is argues that fragmented readings of particular ideas of Vygotsky, without enough understanding of the theoretical programme in which these ideas have been included dominates in North-Atlantic research. The paper proposes the reconstruction of the theoretical programme of cultural-historical psychology in the social and scientific context of its formation.
This article draws on over 60 years of British medical journals and psychiatry textbooks to indicate the chronological stages of the reception of Eugen Bleuler in British psychiatry. Bleuler was already well known in Britain before his schizophrenia book appeared, with the journals containing numerous references, mainly positive, to his work. The psychiatry textbooks, however, were slower to integrate his contribution. This paper argues that this was not due to Bleuler\\'s placing Freud on a par with Kraepelin, but because of the early negative reaction to Kraepelin\\'s dementia praecox concept, despite Bleuler\\'s wider and less ominous conception of the illness.
Le Vigouroux, Philippe; Gohau, Gabriel
At the beginning of the XXth century, Wegener proposed a theory – that of the roaming drift of the continents – unifying the rival theories of the Europeans and the Americans. As the work of a non-specialist who didn’t trouble himself with specific details, it raised numerous criticisms from specialists in various disciplines though others welcomed and supported it. Some even understood that despite its flaws, it started a new research program. Paradoxically, as regards its simplicity, nonspecialists – engineers, popularizers, secondary school teachers and even believers in para-sciences – gave it a favorable reception. Being amateurs, they continued to endorse it when specialists abandoned it.
Willoughby, Andrew C.; Kumimoto, Emily L.
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants requires communication between synergid cells and a tip-elongating pollen tube (PT) for the successful delivery of sperm cells to the embryo sac. The reception of the PT relies on signaling within the synergid cell that ultimately leads to the degeneration of the receptive synergid and PT rupture, releasing the sperm cells for double fertilization. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), NORTIA, a member of the MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O (MLO) family of proteins, plays a critical role in the communication processes regulating PT reception. In this study, we determined that MLO function in PT reception is dependent on MLO protein localization into a Golgi-associated compartment before PT arrival, indicating that PT-triggered regulation of the synergid secretory system is important for synergid function during pollination. Additionally, a structure-function analysis revealed that MLO homooligomerization, mediated by the amino-terminal region of the protein, and carboxyl-terminal tail identity both contribute to MLO activity during PT reception. PMID:28724621
Kibby, Michelle Y; Pavawalla, Shital P; Fancher, Jill B; Naillon, Angela J; Hynd, George W
Because poor comprehension has been associated with small cerebral volume and there is a high comorbidity between developmental dyslexia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and specific language impairment, the goal of this study was to determine whether cerebral volume is reduced in dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in general, as some suggest, or whether the reduction in volume corresponds to poor receptive language functioning, regardless of the diagnosis. Participants included 46 children with and without dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, aged 8 to 12 years. Our results indicated that cerebral volume was comparable between those with and without dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder overall. However, when groups were further divided into those with and without receptive language difficulties, children with poor receptive language had smaller volumes bilaterally as hypothesized. Nonetheless, the relationship between cerebral volume and receptive language was not linear; rather, our results suggest that small volume is associated with poor receptive language only in those with the smallest volumes in both dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Bissonnette, Laurence; Drissennek, Loubna; Antoine, Yannick; Tiers, Laurent; Hirtz, Christophe; Lehmann, Sylvain; Perrochia, Hélène; Bissonnette, François; Kadoch, Isaac-Jacques; Haouzi, Delphine; Hamamah, Samir
In assisted reproduction, about 30% of embryo implantation failures are related to inadequate endometrial receptivity. To identify molecules involved in endometrial receptivity acquisition, we investigated, using a SELDI-TOF approach, the protein expression profile of early-secretory and mid-secretory endometrium samples. Among the proteins upregulated in mid-secretory endometrium, we investigated the function of S100A10 in endometrial receptivity and implantation process. S100A10 was expressed in epithelial and stromal cells of the endometrium of fertile patients during the implantation windows. Conversely, it was downregulated in the mid-secretory endometrium of infertile patients diagnosed as non-receptive. Transcriptome analysis of human endometrial epithelial and stromal cells where S100A10 was silenced by shRNA revealed the deregulation of 37 and 256 genes, respectively, related to components of the extracellular matrix and intercellular connections. Functional annotations of these deregulated genes highlighted alterations of the leukocyte extravasation signaling and angiogenesis pathways that play a crucial role during implantation. S100A10 silencing also affected the migration of primary endometrial epithelial and stromal cells, decidualization and secretory transformation of primary endometrial stromal cells and epithelial cells respectively, and promoted apoptosis in serum-starved endometrial epithelial cells. Our findings identify S100A10 as a player in endometrial receptivity acquisition.
Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Vincent, L.
Reception of partially correlated fields by two closely coupled electrical dipoles is discussed as a function of load impedances and open-circuit correlations. Two local maxima of the power may be achieved for two different load impedances, but in those cases the output correlations are high...
Wagner, Valentin; Klein, Julian; Hanich, Julian; Shah, Mira; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobsen, Thomas
We investigated cognitive “art schema” effects—as resulting from framing a situation as one of art reception—on the enjoyability of negative emotions by means of an elaborate disguised anger induction in the field. Because situations of both art reception and participation in lab experiments are
Dietz, Anthony; Sheehan, Daniel; Davis, Sanford (Technical Monitor)
The receptivity of a laminar boundary layer to an isolated three-dimensional convected disturbance is investigated in a low-speed wind tunnel experiment. The disturbance is created by the short-duration pulsed displacement of a small low-aspect-ratio wing located upstream of a flat plate. The height of the wing is set so that the convected disturbance grazes the edge of the flat-plate boundary layer. A receptivity site is provided by a two-dimensional roughness strip on the surface of the plate. The different propagation speeds of acoustic, convected and instability waves cause the various wave packets from the pulsed displacement to arrive at a downstream measurement station at different times, separating the phenomena and allowing them to be studied independently. Ensemble- averaged measurements are made with and without roughness on the plate. Preliminary analysis of the measurements suggest the presence of a two-dimensional T-S wave packet arising from an interaction between an acoustic wave and the roughness, and a three-dimensional T-S wave packet arising from an interaction between the localized convected disturbance and the roughness strip. The growth rates and spatial characteristics of the disturbances and the instability wave packets are measured as they propagate downstream.
McGee, G G; Krantz, P J; Mason, D; McClannahan, L E
A modified incidental-teaching procedure was used to increase the receptive language skills of autistic youth who had previously experienced lengthy institutionalization. At the time of the study, the two severely language-delayed children had recently been transitioned to a community-based group home. Receptive-labeling skills were taught for four sets of objects typically used in school lunch preparation. The percentage of correct, unprompted object identifications displayed by Youth 1 increased when the incidental-teaching package (gestural prompts, behavior-specific praise, and contingent access to lunch-making supplies) was sequentially introduced in a multiple-baseline design across sets of objects. These results were replicated with Youth 2. The youths' newly acquired language skills also generalized to a different setting (the dining room of the group home) and to a different activity occurring later in the day (a traditional sit-down, discrete-trial session). This research indicates that the linguistic skills of severely developmentally delayed autistic children can be accelerated by incidental instruction that is provided in the course of shaping other home-living skills.
Full Text Available Seed set is usually low and differs for different crosses of flower lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.. The reasons remain unknown, and this has a negative impact on lotus breeding. To determine the causes, we carried out two crosses of flower lotus, that is, “Jinsenianhua” × “Qinhuaihuadeng” and “Qinhuaihuadeng” × “Jinsenianhua” and pollen viability, pistil receptivity, and embryo development were investigated. The pollen grains collected at 05:00-06:00 hrs had the highest viability, and the viabilities of “Jinsenianhua” and “Qinhuaihuadeng” were 20.6 and 15.7%, respectively. At 4 h after artificial pollination, the number of pollen grains germinating on each stigma reached a peak: 63.0 and 17.2 per stigma in “Jinsenianhua” × “Qinhuaihuadeng” and “Qinhuaihuadeng” × “Jinsenianhua”, respectively. At 1 d after artificial pollination, the percentages of normal embryos in the two crosses were 55.0 and 21.9%, respectively; however, at 11 d after pollination, the corresponding percentages were 20.8 and 11.2%. Seed sets of the two crosses were 17.9 and 8.0%, respectively. The results suggested that low pistil receptivity and embryo abortion caused low seed set in “Qinhuaihuadeng” × “Jinsenianhua”, whereas low fecundity of “Jinsenianhua” × “Qinhuaihuadeng” was mainly attributable to embryo abortion.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of singing paired with signing on receptive vocabulary skills of elementary English as a Second Language (ESL) students. Eighty children attended language sessions in one of the following rehearsal conditions: sung text paired with signs, spoken text paired with signs, sung text, and a control group of spoken text only. Pretest and posttest data were analyzed to determine gains in receptive vocabulary identification. Results from this study indicate that all four groups made significant pretest to posttest gains. Children in the sung text paired with sign and the spoken text paired with sign conditions, however, made significantly greater gains in vocabulary recognition than those in the control condition of spoken text only. These findings suggest the benefits of integrating signs into second language rehearsal to provide visual cues and to engage students in meaningful physical participation. The condition yielding the highest mean gain score was that in which signing was paired with singing, indicating there may be advantages to using a combination of the two for language acquisition.
The paper examines the social, cultural and disciplinary factors that influenced the reception and appropriation of Darwinism by China's first generation paleontologists. Darwinism was mixed with Social Darwinism when first introduced to China, and the co-option of Darwinian phrases for nationalistic awakening obscured the scientific essence of Darwin's evolutionary theory. First generation Chinese paleontologists started their training in 1910s-1920s. They quickly asserted their professional identity by successfully focusing on morphology, taxonomy and biostratigraphy. Surrounded by Western paleontologists with Lamarckian or orthogenetic leanings, early Chinese paleontologists enthusiastically embraced evolution and used fossils as factual evidence; yet not enough attention was given to mechanistic evolutionary studies. The 1940s saw the beginning of a new trend for early Chinese paleontologists to incorporate more biological and biogeographical components in their work, but external events such as the dominance of Lysenkoism in the 1950s made the Modern Synthesis pass by without being publicly noticed in Chinese paleontology. Characterized by the larger goal of using science for nation building and by the utilitarian approach favoring local sciences, the reception and appropriation of Darwinism by first generation Chinese paleontologists raise important questions for studying the indigenizing efforts of early Chinese scientists to appropriate Western scientific theories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cranford, Ted W; Krysl, Petr; Hildebrand, John A
The finite element modeling (FEM) space reported here contains the head of a simulated whale based on CT data sets as well as physical measurements of sound-propagation characteristics of actual tissue samples. Simulated sound sources placed inside and outside of an adult male Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) reveal likely sound propagation pathways into and out of the head. Two separate virtual sound sources that were located at the left and right phonic lips produced beams that converged just outside the head. This result supports the notion that dual sound sources can interfere constructively to form a biologically useful and, in fact, excellent sonar beam in front of the animal. The most intriguing FEM results concern pathways by which sounds reach the ears. The simulations reveal a previously undescribed 'gular pathway' for sound reception in Ziphius. Propagated sound pressure waves enter the head from below and between the lower jaws, pass through an opening created by the absence of the medial bony wall of the posterior mandibles, and continue toward the bony ear complexes through the internal mandibular fat bodies. This new pathway has implications for understanding the evolution of underwater hearing in odontocetes. Our model also provides evidence for receive beam directionality, off-axis acoustic shadowing and a plausible mechanism for the long-standing orthodox sound reception pathway in odontocetes. The techniques developed for this study can be used to study acoustic perturbation in a wide variety of marine organisms.
Benerink, N H; Bootsma, R J; Zaal, F T J M
In many sports, successfully intercepting a ball requires players to move both their body and their arms. Yet, studies of interception typically focus on one or the other. We performed an analysis of the moments of first foot and arm movements of elite-level volleyball players during serve reception. Video footage of five international matches of the Netherlands men's national volleyball team allowed the systematic coding and analysis of 347 different serve reception events. For each event, we identified the time of serve (TS) and time of contact (TC). Ball flight time (from TS to TC) varied between and within types of serve (power jump serves, n = 193, and jumping float serves, n = 154). Correlation analyses revealed that foot movement was initiated with respect to time from TS, while arm movement was initiated with respect to time until TC. These results suggest that whole-body and arm movements rely on different control processes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lu, Xiaopan; Wong, Lena L-N; Wong, Anita M-Y; Xi, Xin
Cochlear implants (CIs) provide children with profound hearing loss access to sounds and speech. Research on the effects of CI on speech and language development in mainland China is scarce due to the lack of standardized tests. This study aims at developing a vocabulary measure, the Mandarin Expressive and Receptive Vocabulary Test (MERVT), for pre-school children with CIs. Using responses from 102 normal-hearing preschool children, the initial vocabulary set was subjected to analyses to identify items with appropriate levels of difficulty and discrimination. Norms on 245 normal-hearing children aged 1;6 to 3;11 were later collected based on the final set of the items. Evaluation of the test's psychometric properties revealed good internal consistency. Significant correlations between the total MERVT scores and the Gesell Developmental Scale scores, between the MERVT expressive and receptive subtest scores and the total scores, and the gradual increase in MERVT scores with age, provided evidence of construct validity. Results from 29 children with CIs were also examined for evidence of the MERVT's construct validity. There was a significant correlation between these children's MERVT scores and their scores from an intelligence test. The MERVT scores increased with an increase in the duration of CI use and in chronological age. With good reliability and strong validity, the test is recommended for use in the monitoring of language development in children with CI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We investigate the use of application layer FEC protection in DVB-T (Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial networks for the provision of mobile services. Mobile reception is characterized by variations of the received signal caused by fast fading and shadowing. DVB-T was originally designed for fixed and portable reception, and generally does not provide enough quality in mobile environments. The link layer protection mechanism MPE-FEC (Multi Protocol Encapsulation-Forward Error Correction was standardized in DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcasting-Handheld for the protection of mobile TV services. Although DVB-T itself does not incorporate any link or application layer protection mechanism, AL-FEC (Application layer Forward Error Correction protection can be introduced in DVB-T in a backwards compatible way. By means of AL-FEC, it is possible to improve the robustness of DVB-T services for the provision of mobile TV. In this paper, we explain the concept of AL-FEC protection in DVB-T and evaluate its performance by means of laboratory measurements and dynamic simulations with shadowing. We study different configurations of AL-FEC and compare its performance with MPE-FEC. In this paper, we discuss some implementation aspects of AL-FEC in real scenarios and propose an implementation based on Raptor codes and hash sequences. We also present results obtained by a first AL-FEC prototype for DVB-T that demonstrates the feasibility of the approach.
Manea, Viorel; Puşcoci, Sorin; Stoichescu, Dan Alexandru
FSO systems are becoming more and more used taking under consideration the ease of installation and exploitation under the conditions of the supply of a major fraction of optical fiber bandwidth at reasonable cost. Choosing elements for manufacturing FSO transceivers must keep into account their destination. FSO transceivers can be made using LED or LASER devices at the transmission side, the reception side could be equipped with PIN or APD diodes. This paper makes an analysis of the behavior of semiconductor LASER and LED sources, as well as semiconductor devices PIN and APD for reception side, in various attenuation scenarios, with the aim of achieving an optimization of FSO transceiver, corresponding to different geographical areas, taking into account the specific area and attenuation induced by atmospheric factors, in order to obtain an optimal functioning/price ratio. In this paper it is calculated the bit error rate versus transmission distance for various combinations of sources/receivers, using the Matlab and Optiwave modeling environment, for point to point optical system communication.
New hours for visitors Monday to FridayReception: 8:00 a.m. to 5:45 p.m.Microcosm: 8:15 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.Shop: 9:00 a.m. to 5:45 p.m. Globe: 2:00 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. (on days the Globe is open)SaturdayReception: 8:30 a.m. to 5:15 p.m. Microcosm: 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Shop: 9:00 a.m. to 5:15 p.m. Globe: 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. (on days the Globe is open) The new opening hours will be displayed on both sides of the entrance to Building 33. People working at CERN should note the modified closing times: Access times for CERN staff Monday to Friday:\tThe foyer in Building 33 opens at 8:00 a.m. and closes at 5:45 p.m. Saturday:\tThe foyer in Building 33 opens at 8:30 a.m. and closes at 5:15 p.m. Outside these hours, CERN staff must use the small entrance that opens directly onto the car park.
Full Text Available In this article a broad overview of the reception of Scottish hymnody in translation is given. Considering the pivotal role the metrical Psalms used to play in the Scottish churches, they are considered first. Only one metrical Psalm made it to be translated widely and to be included in hymnals over the world. It is the metrical setting of Psalm 23, The Lord’s my Shepherd, paired to the tune of Scottish origin, CRIMOND. It is argued that the metrical psalm owes much of its popularity to the tune. A hymn with a text from the Scottish Paraphrases, paired to a Scottish tune, DUNDEE, and for long the only hymn in the Afrikaans churches with a Scottish connection, is discussed with regard to its reception in these churches. It serves as an example of how a hymn could be translated and relocated and function in a new context. In an overview of Scottish hymns translated and included in the newest hymnals in other countries, such as the Netherlands and Norway, it is shown that primarily hymns and songs of the Iona Community are translated and included in the newest hymnals, with John Lamberton Bell being the main exponent as text, hymn and song writer.
Zhuang, Jie; Johnson, Micah A; Madden, David J; Burke, Deborah M; Diaz, Michele T
Receptive language (e.g., reading) is largely preserved in the aging brain, and semantic processes in particular may continue to develop throughout the lifespan. We investigated the neural underpinnings of phonological and semantic retrieval in older and younger adults during receptive language tasks (rhyme and semantic similarity judgments). In particular, we were interested in the role of competition on language retrieval and varied the similarities between a cue, target, and distractor that were hypothesized to affect the mental process of competition. Behaviorally, all participants responded faster and more accurately during the rhyme task compared to the semantic task. Moreover, older adults demonstrated higher response accuracy than younger adults during the semantic task. Although there were no overall age-related differences in the neuroimaging results, an Age×Task interaction was found in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), with older adults producing greater activation than younger adults during the semantic condition. These results suggest that at lower levels of task difficulty, older and younger adults engaged similar neural networks that benefited behavioral performance. As task difficulty increased during the semantic task, older adults relied more heavily on largely left hemisphere language regions, as well as regions involved in perception and internal monitoring. Our results are consistent with the stability of language comprehension across the adult lifespan and illustrate how the preservation of semantic representations with aging may influence performance under conditions of increased task difficulty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Julio Cesar Dias Chaves
Full Text Available The Nag Hammadi Codices have been calling the attention of scholars of early Christianity and religions in the Roman Empire almost since their discovery in 1945. These codices, generally associated with the so-called Gnosticism, are not only an example of the religious diversity of Christianity in the Roman Empire, but also a peculiar illustration of the transmission and reception of Christian texts in Late-antiquity. The texts copied in the codices in question were probably composed in Greek somewhere between the second and third centuries, in many different locations in the Empire, but what we have today are Coptic translations compiled in Egypt, in the second half of fourth century. The natural preference for the oldest and for the so-called Gnostic conjecture, lead scholars to prioritize the study of the original context of composition of these texts. However, the last decades saw a growing interest for the study of the context of compilation of these texts in Coptic. This article intends to suggest a new approach and methodology to this kind of study in light of the theory of reception. The goal is to provide scholars with a method that may help us to understand how these texts may have been interpreted by Coptic readers in Late-antique Egypt
Ratković Dragana M.
Full Text Available In this paper, we present and analyze the creativity of Aleksandar Petrov, and the reception of his work in the country and abroad. In the first part, Petrov's literary and scientific work and its reception in Serbia and the world are described, and in the second-we give Petrov's view on poetry and prose, and we write about its reception in Poland. The subject of the analysis in the second part consists of the following: the poetry published in the January issue of the magazine Creativity (Twórczosc in 1987, the collection of peoms Gold in fire (Ztoto w ogniu from 2005, Alexandria with Ithaca in mind (Aleksandria z Itakq wpamiqci from 2013, and an excerpt from Turkish Vienna (2000 called 'October again' (Znów pazdziernik, published in the no. 1-3 of the magazine Tygiel kultury of tódž in 2007.
Perryman, Twyla Y; Carter, Alice S; Messinger, Daniel S; Stone, Wendy L; Ivanescu, Andrada E; Yoder, Paul J
Facilitative linguistic input directly connected to children's interest and focus of attention has become a recommended component of interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This longitudinal correlational study used two assessment time points and examined the association between parental undemanding topic-continuing talk related to the child's attentional focus (i.e., follow-in comments) and later receptive language for 37 parent-child dyads with their young (mean = 21 months, range 15-24 months) children with autism symptomology. The frequency of parental follow-in comments positively predicted later receptive language after considering children's joint attention skills and previous receptive language abilities.
Ahmad Nizan Mat Noor
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to scrutinize the impact of employees’ perceptions of their organization’s human resource diversity management (HRDM practices on their organizational citizenship behavior (OCB level. The influence of diversity receptiveness as a mediator in the proposed relationship is also examined. Survey data were gathered from operational employees attached to large hotel in Malaysia. 430 usable questionnaires were used in statistical analyses. The results indicated that the hypothesized linkage between HRDM practices and diversity receptiveness as well as between HRDM practices and OCB were partially supported. The mediating role of diversity receptiveness in the relationship was also partially supported. Implications and limitations of the findings are specified. Finally, directions for future research are suggested.
Assari, Shervin; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Rezazade, Majid
Although needle and syringe sharing is one of the main routs of transmission of HIV in several countries in the middle east, very little is known about how socio-economic status of injecting drug users (IDUs) is linked to the receptive syringe sharing behaviors in these countries. To study socio-economic correlates of receptive needle and syringe sharing among IDUs in Iran. The study used data from the Unhide Risk Study, a national survey of IDUs. This study sampled 636 IDUs (91% male) via snowball sampling from eight provinces in Iran in 2009. Socio-demographic and drug use characteristics were collected. We used a logistic regression to determine factors associated with receptive needle and syringe sharing during the past 6 months. From 636 IDUs enrolled in this study, 68% (n = 434) reported receptive needle and syringe sharing behaviors in the past 6 months. Odds of receptive needle and syringe sharing in the past 6 months was lower among IDUs who were male [odds ratios (OR) = 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.12-0.70], had higher education (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.64-0.86) but higher among those who were unemployed (OR = 4.05, 95% CI = 1.50-10.94), and were single (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.02-2.11). This study presented factors associated with risk of receptive needle and syringe sharing among Iranian IDUs. This information may be used for HIV prevention and harm reduction purposes. Socio-economic status of Iranian IDUs may be closely linked to high-risk injecting behaviors among them.
Bermejo, Alfonso; Iglesias, Carlos; Ruiz-Alonso, María; Blesa, David; Simón, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio; García-Velasco, Juan
Does the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) change endometrial gene expression when used for cycle programming? COCP used for scheduling purposes does not have a significant impact on endometrial gene expression related to endometrial receptivity. Controversy exists around COCP pretreatment for IVF cycle programming, as some authors claim that it might be detrimental to the live birth rate. Microarray technology applied to the study of tissue gene expression has previously revealed the behavior of genes related to endometrial receptivity under different conditions. Proof-of-concept study of 10 young healthy oocyte donors undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) recruited between June 2012 and February 2013. Microarray data were obtained from endometrial biopsies from 10 young healthy oocyte donors undergoing COS with GnRH antagonists and recombinant FSH. In group A (n = 5), COCP pretreatment was used for 12-16 days, and stimulation began after a 5-day pill-free interval. Stimulation in group B (n = 5) was initiated on cycle day 3 after a spontaneous menses. Endometrial biopsies were collected 7 days after triggering with hCG. No individual genes exhibited increased or decreased expression (fold change (FC) >2) in patients with prior COCP treatment (group A) compared with controls (group B). However, the results of the functional analysis showed a total of 11 biological processes that were significantly enriched in group A compared with group B (non-COCP). The Endometrial Receptivity Array (ERA) has only been validated on endometrial samples obtained in natural cycles and after hormonal replacement treatment (HRT). Therefore, it was not possible in this study to classify the endometrial samples as receptive or non-receptive. We used the ERA to focus on 238 genes that are intimately related to endometrial receptivity, thus simplifying the analysis and understanding of the data. Cycle scheduling is common in IVF units and is used to avoid weekend
Full Text Available An E-field probe has been developed for EMC immunity tests performed in closed space. The leads are flexible resistive transmission lines. Their influence on the field distribution is negligible. The probe has an isotropic reception from 100 MHz to 18 GHz; the sensitivity is in the 3 V/m–10 V/m range. The device is an accessory of the EMC test chamber. The readout of the field magnitude is carried out by personal computer, which fulfils also the required corrections of the raw data.
McIntyre, Laureen J; Hellsten, Laurie-Ann M; Bidonde, Julia; Boden, Catherine; Doi, Carolyn
The majority of a child's language development occurs in the first 5 years of life when brain development is most rapid. There are significant long-term benefits to supporting all children's language and literacy development such as maximizing their developmental potential (i.e., cognitive, linguistic, social-emotional), when children are experiencing a critical period of development (i.e., early childhood to 9 years of age). A variety of people play a significant role in supporting children's language development, including parents, guardians, family members, educators, and/or speech-language pathologists. Speech-language pathologists and educators are the professionals who predominantly support children's language development in order for them to become effective communicators and lay the foundation for later developing literacy skills (i.e., reading and writing skills). Therefore, these professionals need formal and informal assessments that provide them information on a child's understanding and/or use of the increasingly complex aspects of language in order to identify and support the receptive and expressive language learning needs of diverse children during their early learning experiences (i.e., aged 1.5 to 9 years). However, evidence on what methods and tools are being used is lacking. The authors will carry out a scoping review of the literature to identify studies and map the receptive and expressive English language assessment methods and tools that have been published and used since 1980. Arksey and O'Malley's (2005) six-stage approach to conducting a scoping review was drawn upon to design the protocol for this investigation: (1) identifying the research question; (2) identifying relevant studies; (3) study selection; (4) charting the data; (5) collating, summarizing, and reporting the results; and (6) consultation. This information will help these professionals identify and select appropriate assessment methods or tools that can be used to support
Law, J; Campbell, C; Roulstone, S; Adams, C; Boyle, J
Receptive language impairment (RLI) is one of the most significant indicators of negative sequelae for children with speech and language disorders. Despite this, relatively little is known about the most effective treatments for these children in the primary school period. To explore the relationship between the reported practice of speech and language practitioners and the underlying rationales for the therapy that they provide. A phenomenological approach was adopted, drawing on the experiences of speech and language practitioners. Practitioners completed a questionnaire relating to their practice for a single child with receptive language impairment within the 5-11 age range, providing details and rationales for three recent therapy activities. The responses of 56 participants were coded. All the children described experienced marked receptive language impairments, in the main associated with expressive language difficulties and/or social communication problems. The relative homogeneity of the presenting symptoms in terms of test performance was not reflected in the highly differentiated descriptions of intervention. One of the key determinants of how therapists described their practice was the child's age. As the child develops the therapists appeared to shift from a 'skills acquisition' orientation to a 'meta-cognitive' orientation, that is they move away from teaching specific linguistic behaviours towards teaching children strategies for thinking and using their language. A third of rationales refer to explicit theories but only half of these refer to the work of specific authors. Many of these were theories of practice rather than theories of deficit, and of those that do cite specific theories, no less than 29 different authors were cited many of whom might best be described as translators of existing theories rather than generators of novel theories. While theories of the deficit dominate the literature they appear to play a relatively small part in the
The circulars of 1992, 1993 and more recently of 10th November 1999, illustrate the significant progress of schools in the reception of sick children and the help in execution of the medical regulations. The National Education physician is a privileged interlocutor of families, the treating physician and the education authority to make the link between the caregivers and the school. Application of the 1999 circular, which has the objective of taking into account the food allergies in the 1993 plan of action, raises difficulties of three types: Difficulties of a medical type raised by the frequent confusion between the Protocol for urgent intervention and the individualised reception plan. The Protocol for urgent intervention, of which the National Education physician is the recipient, must be accompanied by a letter from the allergy physician that takes into consideration simple immunological sensitization and true allergy and to appreciate the risks that concern food disparities that are not always the same. The almost systematic prescription of adrenaline in protocols for urgent intervention, without argument and in the absence of commercialisation of an auto-injectable pen at the time of distribution of the circular, was a source of resistance by education authorities to catering services. Difficulties of a human type concerning the creation of fear in families, in the education authorities, in the catering services and the time-lag between some families and their careful vigilance with regard to the dietary observance and the conduct to be taken in the case of acute symptoms. Difficulties of administrative or legal types knowing that the scholars catering is a service which does not have the obligatory character of the teaching plan, and which accepts the sole competence of the authorities for 1st degree education. In total the teaching plan and pupil catering for children with a food allergy needs making the parents aware of the responsibility between the
Darnell, Dean; Truong, Trong-Kha; Song, Allen W
Integrated parallel reception, excitation, and shimming (iPRES) coil arrays allow radio-frequency currents and direct currents to flow in the same coils, which enables excitation/reception and localized B 0 shimming with a single coil array. The purpose of this work was to improve their shimming performance by adding the capability to shim higher-order local B 0 inhomogeneities that are smaller than the radio-frequency coil elements. A novel design was proposed in which each radio-frequency/shim coil element is divided into multiple direct current loops, each using an independent direct current current, to increase the number of magnetic fields available for shimming while maintaining the signal-to-noise ratio of the coil. This new design is termed iPRES(N), where N represents the number of direct current loops per radio-frequency coil element. Proof-of-concept phantom and human experiments were performed with an 8-channel body coil array to demonstrate its advantages over the original iPRES(1) design. The average B 0 homogeneity in various organs before shimming and after shimming with the iPRES(1) or iPRES(3) coil arrays was 0.24, 0.11, and 0.05 ppm, respectively. iPRES(3) thus reduced the B 0 inhomogeneity by 53% and further reduced distortions in echo-planar images of the abdomen when compared with iPRES(1). iPRES(N) can correct for localized B 0 inhomogeneities more effectively than iPRES(1) with no signal-to-noise ratio loss, resulting in a significant improvement in image quality. Magn Reson Med 77:2077-2086, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
With Beyond the Pleasure Principle, Freud attempted 'to describe and to account for the facts of daily observation in our field of study' (1920, p. 7), in particular concerning destructive clinical phenomena that confront us in the analytic situation: traumatic neuroses, melancholic states, negative-therapeutic reactions, masochism, repetition compulsion and so on. The author demonstrates in the first section how Freud's own resistance - later self-diagnosed - to recognizing these unwelcome facts was expressed in the terminological and conceptual ambiguities of the death drive hypothesis then introduced, ambiguities that to some extent continue to impede the reception of its clinical usefulness to this day. As soon as Freud had demonstrated the connection with clinical practice more directly in The Ego and the Id (1923), some contemporaries adopted it as a helpful clinical concept, while others believed that they could (and must) refute it. The second part outlines its reception in the 1920s and 1930s, which was part of an international discussion that was, of course, initially conducted mainly in German. The beginnings of an important further development of the death drive hypothesis are described in a separate section because it originated from Melanie Klein's earliest experiences in analysing children in Berlin in the early to mid-1920s. She referred at that time to an 'evil principle', and in 1932 published her view of the death drive hypothesis, which was further developed in subsequent decades by her and her followers in London. In this period, conditions changed dramatically: in Germany Freud's books (among others) were burnt, crimes against humanity were instigated and psychoanalysis ceased to exist in this country. Almost all the analysts who published on the death drive had to emigrate. From then on, entirely different discourses took place in the various regions. In Germany, the death drive hypothesis was (largely) disregarded or rejected for decades
Eudes Maria Stiehl-Alves
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a receptividade de estigmas de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. em 20 árvores da Área de Produção de Sementes (APS da Fazenda Locatelli, da empresa SETA S.A., no município de Butiá (RS e comparar os períodos de receptividade de estigmas e de viabilidade polínica em diversas fases da abertura floral. Foi utilizado como método de colorimetria o reagente de Baker para indicar a receptividade e a viabilidade. As análises foram conduzidas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e a estatística χ2 foi utilizada para verificar a significância dos eventos estudados. Foi observada receptividade no início da abertura floral (71%, alcançando a total receptividade (100% em plena antese. A viabilidade polínica foi detectada no início da antese (77% e em total abertura floral (88%. Na fase de senescência foram observados estigmas receptivos (50% e políades viáveis (23%. Há sobreposição da fase de viabilidade masculina e de receptividade feminina, aumentando as chances de autopolinização. Na maioria das árvores analisadas (85% foi observada a total receptividade (100% nos estigmas amostrados. Em três árvores (15% observou-se uma média inferior a 95% de estigmas receptivos. Não foi observada diferença significativa pelo teste do χ2 na receptividade dos estigmas no germoplasma analisado, sugerindo que o genótipo não interfere diretamente para a receptividade dos estigmas.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stigma receptivity of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. in 20 trees of the Seed Production Area on the Fazenda Locatelli of the company SETA S.A., in the county of Butiá, state of Rio Grande do Sul, and to compare the periods of stigma receptivity and pollen viability at different stages of flower opening. The colorimetry method of the Baker reagent was used to determine receptivity and viability. The analyses were evaluated in a completely randomized design and the χ2 statistics were used to
Although it is commonly assumed that Paulo Freire was widely influential in the field of education in the United States immediately upon publication of his classic work, "Pedagogy of the Oppressed", in 1970, the historical evidence indicates otherwise. In fact, Freire's work only began to gain wide reception in the field in the mid- and late…
Arthur M Jacobs
Full Text Available A long tradition of research including classical rhetoric, aesthetics and poetics theory, formalism and structuralism, as well as current perspectives in (neurocognitive poetics has investigated structural and functional aspects of literature reception. Despite a wealth of literature published in specialised journals like Poetics, however, still little is known about how the brain processes and creates literary and poetic texts. Still, such stimulus material might be suited better than other genres for demonstrating the complexities with which our brain constructs the world in and around us, because it unifies thought and language, music and imagery in a clear, manageable way, most often with play, pleasure, and emotion (Schrott & Jacobs, 2011. In this paper, I discuss methods and models for investigating the neuronal and cognitive-affective bases of literary reading together with pertinent results from studies on poetics, text processing, emotion, or neuroaesthetics, and outline current challenges and future perspectives.
Costa, Paula C Da; Francischetti-Garcia, Ana P Rigon; Pellegrino-Toledo, Vanessa
To know the expectations of Brazilians nurses in relation to the reception held for them at the Primary Health Care. Method: This is a qualitative study based on the social phenomenology by Alfred Schutz. The nurses report that the host is something far from their reality, dependent on policy, management, population and physical structure of the workplace. The findings of this study showed that the reality of care performed by nurses in primary health care is characterized by calls for the evaluation of acute complaints, and that the solution to the host be ideal, providing changes in the relationship between him and the user they require far capabilities of its reality, which was called in this study magic output. It was evident that for nurses the reorganization of the host and their work process depends only on external factors to their actions, forgetting its commitment to provide a humanized care and based on the application of its relational competence.
Full Text Available Given existing gendered stereotypic assumptions regarding shyness and children’s school competencies, this study explored relations among socioemotional competencies, self-perceptions, and receptive vocabulary in shy children. Ninety-one Canadian children (52 girls, 39 boys; 5-8 years were classified as shy (n = 26 based on teachers’ behavioural ratings (n = 8, and completed selfperception and vocabulary measures. Compared to their non-shy peers, shy children reported lower levels of self-worth, and were rated by their teachers as more aggressive. Shy girls scored the lowest on the vocabulary task, and received the highest teacher emotional competence ratings. Shy boys scored the highest on the vocabulary task, and received the lowest emotionally competence ratings. Gender-role stereotypes and shyness and their educational implications are discussed.
Full Text Available The paper is concerned with reception strategies where interdisciplinary competencies are connected to musical expectations towards a text, which – i.a. because of metatextual suggestions – needs a musical explanation – “musical supplement”. The objective of the article is the musical and literary dialog, which belongs to intermediality (definition by W. Wolf, and intertextuality in the large sense as well. Although the penetration of musical and literary correspondence does not threaten “scientist hysteria”, it also does not promise fruitful strategies and satisfactory conclusions. The paper includes terminological proposals which are an attempt at universal, semiotic transposition into musical and literary borderland, which in the practice of interpretation has too eclectic, and mostly one-time solutions.
Full Text Available The pollen–stigma interaction plays an important role in reproductive process and has been continuously studied in many interspecific and intergeneric crossing experiments. The aim of this study was to investigate stigma receptivity (SR of willow in order to determine the most suitable period for its pollination with poplar pollen and improve the effectiveness of Salix × Populus crosses. Tissue samples were examined histologically using light, epifluorescent, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Willow SR was determined by stigma morphological traits, test of pollen germination rate, Peroxtesmo test of peroxidase and esterase activity on stigma surface as well as papilla ultrastructure at anthesis. We have ascertained that the SR duration in willow is short, lasting from 1 to 2 DA. The poplar pollen germination rate on willow stigmas on 1 DA ranged from 26.3 to 11.2%.
Nishino, Y; Schunck, M
This research examines young unmarried women's ways of talking about AIDS, AIDS prevention, and its relationship to mass media AIDS messages in Thailand. Data were derived from a survey conducted in four districts of Kanchanaburi province. Three hundred ninety-seven unmarried women were extracted from the approximately 1,800 original subjects for this analysis. Respondents were asked about the subjects and extent of their conversations about AIDS, the choice of discussion partners, considerations of social appropriateness in talking about the disease, as well as their risk perception. Important findings were that (a) women tend to talk about AIDS primarily with friends and siblings, (b) their reception level of mass media messages is related to the number of topics discussed and frequency of talks by the subjects, and (c) socioeconomic status and age are related to the variety and frequency of talking about AIDS. Implications for AIDS education are discussed.
Mat Rahim Ainurliza
Full Text Available In the context of multi-ethnic Britain, the major concern lies in the diversity and complexity of Muslims living in the West, which somehow is misrepresented in the western media as a frozen, static population, fixed in time and space. This misrepresentation dominates mainstream media through the hegemony of western superiority. The operation and role of Muslim media organisations are still underresearched yet potentially constitute an integral part of accommodating the minority population within the wider society. This paper discusses on the reception of images published in two British Muslim magazines by taking views from Muslims and non-Muslims into account. The results show that both groups recognize the identities of British Muslims via visual representations in the Muslim media and that the representations challenge the mainstream images of Muslims.
Full Text Available This paper presents the circumstances surrounding the publication of the Romanian translations of C. S. Lewis’s best known works. In the first part, the author gives information about the Romanian authors who were acquainted with Lewis’s writings during Communism, when the translation and printing of books on religious topics was under the tight control of a totalitarian government. In spite of that control, two Lewis titles-The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and Mere Christianity-which were translated in the US, were smuggled into Romania. The second part of this paper deals with the remarkably changed situation after the emergence of a new regime in 1990. Since then Lewis’s books have been published, often in multiple print runs, by secular as well as Christian publishers, with a total of 12 fiction and 13 non-fiction titles, indicating a wide popular reception of his work.
Full Text Available Given existing gendered stereotypic assumptions regarding shyness and children’s schoolcompetencies, this study explored relations among socioemotional competencies, self-perceptions,and receptive vocabulary in shy children. Ninety-one Canadian children (52 girls, 39 boys; 5-8 yearswere classified as shy (n = 26 based on teachers’ behavioural ratings (n = 8, and completed selfperceptionand vocabulary measures. Compared to their non-shy peers, shy children reported lowerlevels of self-worth, and were rated by their teachers as more aggressive. Shy girls scored the loweston the vocabulary task, and received the highest teacher emotional competence ratings. Shy boysscored the highest on the vocabulary task, and received the lowest emotionally competence ratings.Gender-role stereotypes and shyness and their educational implications are discussed.
Full Text Available A place and role of conditional duels is certain in the system of training in kickboxing as a methodical reception of perfection to technical tactical preparedness of sportsmen. The analysis is conducted on 24 literary sources. The alternative variant of classification of conditional duels is offered, in which for basis of distributing limitation of volume is chosen battle technical tactical actions and them sets. It is suggested to group conditional duels for duels with one-sided a task and multilateral tasks. Also for duels with the narrowly limited actions of partners and duels with wide technical tactical by tasks. The use of alternative classification is given by possibility. It is recommended to utillize in training narrow limitation of actions of one of partners and considerable expansion technical tactical tasks other. Offered to recommendation on artificial limitation of battle facilities in conditional duels and forming of individual manner of embay.
Sonia Caridad Ruiz-Quesada
Full Text Available A prospective diagnosis of the cruise reception services in Santiago de Cuba will be made in this paper. To conduct this diagnosis, the methodology followed is the one established by the French2 Prospective School. This study will allow determining the key variables of the analyzed system, the actors involved and their role, and also the possible future scenarios. A key factor is the work with experts, who will provide the information needed for the study. Scientific methods such as MICMAC, MACTOR and SMIC-PROB-EXPERT are used, supported by professional software. As a result of this diagnosis, are estimated profits for the destine under scenario $ 74 361 024,00 USD. The decision-makers of the region will be able to set the objectives and strategies aimed at reaching the desired optimal scenario.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to undertand how the receptor might be affected in the consumption of contemporary cultural products, speciﬁcally, those works of art and design generated from digital media. Thus, the reading strategies previously proposed on the conﬁguration of the objects studied were investigated, in order to understand how the different receptive practices were structured, considering the horizons of expectation which circumscribe the objects created from the use of mobile devices and decoding technology markers. First, you will see a discussion about these mobile media, and, second, a Peircean approach to rating and taking into account the forms of presentation of the objects studied. The paper classiﬁes and rates these objects, assuming the dominance of interaction inherent to the poetic-technological proposals adopted.
Full Text Available The main challenge confronting African postcolonial societies is the failure of political, social, and cultural transformation to confront and transcend the limitations imposed by historical and contemporary contingencies. Hence the task of postcolonial theorists is to develop conceptual resources for a more sustained evaluation and analysis of the challenge. In this article, I recast Sembène's film, Moolaade, in a new relief to foreground the core issue of the postcolonial condition. I proceed to reappropriate Kompridis's concepts of ‘reflective disclosure’ and ‘receptivity’, which he develops from Heidegger's ‘world disclosure’, to devise what I term ‘postcolonial receptivity’. I then argue that postcolonial receptivity is an important concept that lends more intelligibility and coherence to the African quest to transform social and political forms of life.
Rundblad, Gabriella; Annaz, Dagmara
Figurative language, such as metaphor and metonymy are common in our daily communication. This is one of the first studies to investigate metaphor and metonymy comprehension using a developmental approach. Forty-five typically developing individuals participated in a metaphor-metonymy verbal comprehension task incorporating 20 short picture-stories. Cross-sectional trajectory analyses linking task performance to either chronological age or receptive vocabulary (mental age, MA) were used to compare the development of metaphor and metonymy. Results showed that development of metaphor and metonymy comprehension is strongly linked with chronological and MA, but metaphor comprehension develops at a slower rate compared to metonymy. It was also found that participants, across all ages, consistently showed around 21% better performance on metonymy. The relationship between metaphor and metonymy comprehension is discussed in terms of linguistic and cognitive models of figurative language comprehension arguing that metonymy is cognitively more basic than metaphor.
A comprehensive coal handling system, installed at CRE for receiving, storing and supplying coal to a test boilerhouse, has shown itself generally reliable and environmentally attractive. The system comprises coal reception by means of a 22 tonne tipping hopper and storage within two silos, one of flat-bottomed concrete stave (250 tonnes) construction and the other of glassed steel (160 tonnes) construction with a hopper bottom. Transfer of coal between these components and boiler feed hoppers is provided by a dense-phase pneumatic conveying system. In addition to the tipping hopper two further reception systems, containerisation and a wide belt vehicle unloader, have been investigated. Facilities developed to receive, unload and tip standard 20 tonne capacity ISO containers have been installed at a customer trial site. Tests with a 200 mm diameter suction nozzle have demonstrated that coal conveying rates of up to 61 tonne/hr can be achieved. The consequence of long term storage of smalls coal has been investigated during a storage period of 12 months within the concrete stave silo at CRE. During this period, the carbon monoxide concentrations in the silo headspace underwent considerable daily variation. This was found to be dependent upon atmospheric temperature, pressure and windspeed. Based on the principles derived from a test unit, a hydraulic ash sluicing system has been installed to transport oversize ash extracted from the bed of a 9 MWt fluidised bed furnace at an industrial site. A low-cost, submerged, rubber belt wet ash extraction system has been installed on a modular boilerhouse which was on test at CRE. This unit has undergone long-term evaluation trials and has been operated successfully during a nine-month trial period. The unit, together with the modular boilerhouse, is to be moved to a customer site and a second unit has been placed on order. 13 refs., 48 figs., 5 tabs.
Full Text Available Romantic approach to William Shakespeare’s dramatic works, as well as the notions and questions so vital for the consciousness of the epoch concerning the capacity and function of destiny, unrecognizability of existence, interference of supernatural powers in the world that can be grasped with human mind and common sense, are all intriguingly transparent in Giuseppe Verdi’s Macbeth. The Italian composer, who knew the Romantic reception of Shakespeare’s dramatic plays well (e.g. the Italian translations of the lectures given by August W. Schlegel, embarked upon the issue of the ambiguity of the scene with the witches that appear to Macbeth, posed a question on the cognitive value in the dreamy apparition (in the brilliantly constructed Lady Macbeth’s sleepwalking scene, and, finally, emphasized the aspect of hybridity of the world that inseparably combines the grandeur and the grotesque (the point highlighted in Victor Hugo’s considerations on Shakespeare. The two versions of the operatic Macbeth — the one produced in Florence in 1847, the other, 1865 revised version produced for Paris — relate well with the long sequence of changeable conventions in the nineteenth century theatre, taking into consideration its requirements (the need for a spectacular character of staging, the introduction of multiple Ake a Romantic implant in the operetta world of farcical braggadocio dominant on the Parisian stage at the time of the Second Empire, testifies to the enormous influence of the Romantic reception of Shakespeare exerted at the time and defining for a considerable period of time the concept of adaptation of the works of the Stradford master to meet the needs of the operatic stage.
Full Text Available Spoken English may sometimes cause us to face a peculiar problem in respect of the reception and the decoding of auditive signals, which might lead to mishearings. Risen from erroneous perception, from a lack in understanding the communication and an involuntary mental replacement of a certain element or structure by a more familiar one, these mistakes are most frequently encountered in the case of listening to songs, where the melodic line can facilitate the development of confusion by its somewhat altered intonation, which produces the so called mondegreens. Still, instances can be met in all domains of verbal communication, as proven in several examples noticed during classes of English as a foreign language (EFL taught to non-philological subjects. Production and perceptions of language depend on a series of elements that influence the encoding and the decoding of the message. These filters belong to both psychological and semantic categories which can either interfere with the accuracy of emission and reception. Poor understanding of a notion or concept combined with a more familiar relation with a similarly sounding one will result in unconsciously picking the structure which is better known. This means ‘hearing’ something else than it had been said, something closer to the receiver’s preoccupations and baggage of knowledge than the original structure or word. Some mishearings become particularly relevant as they concern teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP. Such are those encountered during classes of Business English or in English for Law. Though not very likely to occur too often, given an intuitively felt inaccuracy - as the terms are known by the users to need to be more specialised -, such examples are still not ignorable. Thus, we consider they deserve a higher degree of attention, as they might become quite relevant in the global context of an increasing work force migration and a spread of multinational companies.
Sayaheen, Bilal Najeh
The current study aims to investigate the reception of Arabic language works translated into English and published in the U.S. before and after September 11 as reflected in paratexts. This study seeks to explicitly answer these questions: 1) What are the socio-cultural factors that shaped the production and reception of Arabic language works…
The plant hormone ethylene is important to many plant processes from germination through senescence, including responses to in vitro growth and plant regeneration. Knowledge of the number of genes, and of their function, that are involved in ethylene biosynthesis and reception is necessary to determ...
Ray-Subramanian, Corey E.; Ellis Weismer, Susan
This study examined whether language skills and nonverbal cognitive skills were associated with clinician-observed restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in a sample of 115 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) at ages 2 and 3. By age 3, RRBs were significantly negatively correlated with receptive and expressive language, as well as…
This article discusses transformation of passive knowledge receptivity into experiences of deep learning in a lecture-based music theory course at the second-year undergraduate level through implementation of collaborative projects that evoke natural critical learning environments. It presents an example of such a project, addresses key features…
Previous work in the area of choosing channel quantization levels for a additive white Gaussian noise channel composed of one receiver-demodulator is reviewed, and how this applies to the Deep Space Network composed of several receiver-demodulators (space diversity reception) is shown. Viterbi decoding for the resulting quantized channel is discussed.
Conclusion: Our study reported the preponderance of benign lesions than malignant lesions in the sample population. Comparatively, MT exhibited the best dye-tissue receptivity in both benign and malignant lesions than the baseline dye (H&E and remains a valuable tool for the diagnosis of gynecological lesions.
Full Text Available The leaves and stems of Perilla frutescens var. acuta Kudo (PF have been used to prevent threatened abortion in traditional medicine in the East Asian countries. Because reduced receptivity of endometrium is a cause of abortion, we analyzed the action of PF on the endometrial receptivity. PF increased the level of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, a major cytokine regulating endometrial receptivity, and LIF receptor in human endometrial Ishikawa cells. The PF-induced LIF expression was mediated by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and p38 pathways. Adhesion between Ishikawa cells and trophoblastic JAr cells stimulated by PF treatment was abolished by knock down of LIF expression or antagonism of LIFR. In addition, the expressions of integrin β3 and β5 were increased by PF treatment in Ishikawa cells. The PF-induced expression of integrin β3 and β5 was reduced with an LIFR antagonist. Neutralization of both integrins successfully blocked PF-stimulated adhesion of JAr cells and Ishikawa cells. These results suggest that PF enhanced the adhesion between Ishikawa cells and JAr cells by increasing the expression of integrin β3 and β5 via an LIF-dependent pathway. Given the importance of endometrial receptivity in successful pregnancy, PF can be a novel and effective candidate for improving pregnancy rate.
Agustin Llach, Maria Pilar
The present paper explores and compares the receptive vocabulary sizes of two groups of learners of different native languages. One of the most widely used vocabulary size tests is the Vocabulary Levels Test designed by Nation. Some reservations have been raised in relation to the adequacy of the Vocabulary Levels Test to estimate the vocabulary…
This study assessed the fast mapping performance of children with specific language impairment (SLI) across the preschool to kindergarten age span in relation to their phonological memory and vocabulary development. Fifty-three children diagnosed with SLI and 53 children with normal language (NL) matched for age and gender (30 three-year-olds, 18 four-year-olds, 28 five-year-olds, and 30 six-year-olds) participated. Children's phonological memory was assessed using nonword repetition and digit span tasks. Receptive vocabulary was assessed using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III. Children learned the names for 8 objects during 2 fast mapping tasks. Overall, the NL group demonstrated significantly better performance on phonological memory and vocabulary measures across the age span; however, performance on the fast mapping task differed significantly only at age 5. Phonological memory and existing receptive vocabulary did not predict fast mapping ability. The phonological memory skills of preschoolers with NL and SLI followed a similar developmental pattern, but the SLI group consistently scored significantly lower than the NL group. Overall, the NL group showed significantly better receptive vocabulary, with evidence that between-group differences increased at age 6. Neither short-term phonological memory nor receptive vocabulary predicted fast mapping comprehension or production performance, even though both have been shown to correlate with later stages of word learning.
Smith, Teresa; Smith, Billy L.; Eichler, Joan B.; Pollard, Amy Gilbert
Investigates construct, predictive, and differential validity for the Comprehensive Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary Test (CREVT). Adequate construct validity for the CREVT was documented, using the Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children-III as a criterion. Also, the CREVT effectively differentiated between students with disabilities. These…
Celik, Onder; Acet, Mustafa; Celik, Sudenaz; Sahin, Levent; Koc, Onder; Celik, Nilufer
As with other organs endometrial functions are altered with the advancing age. Age related decrease in reproductive functions leads to decline in the number of oocytes retrieved and the synthesis of endometrial receptivity molecules. Despite the significant improvement in assisted reproductive technologies we do not have so many options to enhance endometrial receptivity. Due to lack of drugs having endometrium receptivity enhancement properties, oocyte donation seems to be the only solution for women with implantation failure. The euploid oocytes come from young and healthy donors may overcome age associated endometrial receptivity defect. Nevertheless, many reasons restrict us from using oocyte donation in women with implantation failure. We, therefore, hypothesized that by mimicking a young blastocyst's effect on endometrium, the transfer of genuine embryos and implantation-promoting compounds together might be the new treatment option for infertile women with recurrent implantation failure. Artificial beads, MI or GV oocytes, and empty zona can be used as a container for intrauterine replacement of implantation-promoting compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Lei; Liu, Xiaorui; Liu, Junze; Zhou, Zhanqin; Song, Yuxuan; Cao, Binyun; An, Xiaopeng
Increasing evidence has shown that miRNAs play important roles in endometrium development during the menstrual cycle in humans and many other animals. Our previous data indicated that miR-182 levels increase 15.55-fold and pleiotrophin (PTN) levels decrease 20.97-fold in the receptive endometrium (RE, D15) compared with the pre-receptive endometrium (PE, D5) in dairy goats. The present study shows that miR-182 is widely expressed in different tissues of dairy goats and that its expression levels are regulated by E2 and P4 in endometrial epithelium cells (EECs). We confirmed that PTN is a target of miR-182 and that miR-182 regulates the protein levels of AKT, Bcl-2, FAS, MAPK, Caspase-3 and SP1 in EECs. Furthermore, miR-182 up-regulates or maintains the expression levels of osteopontin (OPN), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prolactin receptor (PRLR) in EECs, suggesting that miR-182 is an important regulatory factor in the construction of endometrial receptivity in dairy goats. In conclusion, miR-182 participates in the development of endometrial receptivity by down-regulating PTN and affecting the expression of select apoptosis-related genes and increasing or maintaining the expression levels of OPN, COX-2 and PRLR in the EECs of dairy goats.
Lwin, May O.; Vijaykumar, Santosh; Foo, Schubert; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton; Lim, Gentatsu; Panchapakesan, Chitra; Wimalaratne, Prasad
This article focuses on a novel social media-based system that addresses dengue prevention through an integration of three components: predictive surveillance, civic engagement and health education. The aim was to conduct a potential receptivity assessment of this system among smartphone users in the city of Colombo, the epicenter of the dengue…
Hazenberg, S.; Hulstijn, J.H.
This study aimed to answer the question of how many words of the Dutch language, and which words, an adult non-native speaker needs to know receptively in order to be able to understand first-year university reading materials. In the first part of this study, an assessment was made of the
Ebbels, Susan H.; Maric, Nataša; Murphy, Aoife; Turner, Gail
Background: Little evidence exists for the effectiveness of therapy for children with receptive language difficulties, particularly those whose difficulties are severe and persistent. Aims: To establish the effectiveness of explicit speech and language therapy with visual support for secondary school-aged children with language impairments…
The reception of Roman law should be understood as a renewed and, in principle, subsidiary application of the Justinian's Codification as defined by methods of medieval and later on, modern legal science. The concept of continuity is, on the contrary, based on the notion that despite the fall of the
Valentin-Silva, Adriano; Coelho, Victor Peçanha de Miranda; Ventrella, Marília Contin; Vieira, Milene Faria
Dichogamy is a common characteristic among angiosperms, including Piper species. In this genus, the tiny flowers are morphologically similar and have an asynchronous stamen development. However, there is no information on the duration of stigma receptivity and whether it overlaps with pollen release. To better understand mechanisms of floral function in Piper vicosanum, we provide a detailed characterization of the timing of pollen release from the four stamens and the period of stigma receptivity and exposure mode of the receptive areas. We investigated plants of a natural population in a semideciduous seasonal forest (Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil), based on chemical tests, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Incomplete protogyny-a mechanism that favors outcrossing-was recorded. The period of stigma receptivity was long (14 d), and the sequential exposure and senescence of stigmatic papillae occurred gradually and in a basipetal direction. Pollen release began 2-6 d after the beginning of the pistillate phase, with an average pollen viability of 87.7%, during the bisexual flower phase. Pollen was released for up to 6 d and occurred in one stamen at a time. The fruit set observed in tests of self-pollination indicated self-compatibility. The gradual and sequential exposure of stigmatic papillae in P. vicosanum flowers is described here as the mechanism for the long duration of receptivity. Anther development and pollen release were also sequential. These findings are yet unreported reproductive characteristics of the genus and offer new perspectives for future studies on the floral biology of other Piper species. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.
Müzeyyen Nazlı Demirbaş
Full Text Available Problem Statement: This study investigates whether the freshmen’s education at the preparatory school makes a meaningful difference in the freshmen’s performances who attend the preparatory programme and those who are exempt from this programme. Thus, it will lead to analyze the fact that whether the foreign language instruction that is offered at the preparatory school make learners more successful when they start their education in the department, and in what skills the preparatory school helps learners develop more. In doing so, the efficiency of the preparatory school will become clearer, and both teachers and learners will be aware of their level of achievement.Purpose of the Study: This study mainly aims to find out whether there are performance differences among ELT freshmen who attended and who did not attend the Gazi University preparatory school in 2009 – 2010 academic year in terms of receptive and productive skills. In addition, the aforementioned research question will be analyzed in three dimensions; a in terms of their attendance at the preparatory school b in terms of gender c in terms of programme type.Method: This research employs quantitative design. The data related to freshmen’s gender, programme type and the information whether they attended the preparatory programme or not was gathered. Participants are 260 freshmen in total, 210 of whom are females, while 50 of them are males. While 122 of these freshmen are enrolled in the day programme, 138 of them are enrolled in the evening programme. They took Gazi University English Language Proficiency Exam one year before the time of this study. Their mid-term and final scores were gathered separately in addition to their gender, programme type and the fact that whether they attended preparatory school or not. 40% of their mid-term exams and 60% of their final exams were calculated for each skill course in both terms as it is stated in Gazi University Registrar’s Office
Full Text Available The important role of collocation in learners’ language proficiency has been acknowledged widely. In Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL, collocation is known as one prominent member of the super-ordinate lexical cohesion, which contributes significantly to the textual coherence, together with grammatical cohesion and structural cohesion (Halliday & Hasan, 1985. Collocation is also viewed as the hallmark of truly advanced English learners since the higher the learners’ proficiency is, the more they tend to use collocation (Bazzaz & Samad, 2011; Hsu, 2007; Zhang, 1993. Further, knowledge of collocation is regarded as part of the native speakers’ communicative competence (Bazzaz & Samad, 2011; and lack of the knowledge is the most important sign of foreignness among foreign language learners (McArthur, 1992; McCarthy, 1990. Taking the importance of collocation into account, this study is aimed to shed light on Indonesian EFL learners’ levels of collocational competence. In the study, the collocational competence is restricted to v+n and adj+n of collocation but broken down into productive and receptive competence, about which little work has been done (Henriksen, 2013. For this purpose, 49 second-year students of an English department in a state polytechnic were chosen as the subjects. Two sets of tests (filling in the blanks and multiple-choice were administered to obtain the data of the subjects’ levels of productive and receptive competence and to gain information of which type was more problematic for the learners. The test instruments were designed by referring to Brashi’s (2006 test model, and Koya’s (2003. In the analysis of the data, interpretive-qualitative method was used primarily to obtain broad explanatory information. The data analysis showed that the scores of productive competence were lower than those of receptive competence in both v+n and adj+n collocation. The analysis also revealed that the scores of productive
Christensen, Daniel; Zubrick, Stephen R; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Taylor, Catherine L
Receptive vocabulary development is a component of the human language system that emerges in the first year of life and is characterised by onward expansion throughout life. Beginning in infancy, children's receptive vocabulary knowledge builds the foundation for oral language and reading skills. The foundations for success at school are built early, hence the public health policy focus on reducing developmental inequalities before children start formal school. The underlying assumption is that children's development is stable, and therefore predictable, over time. This study investigated this assumption in relation to children's receptive vocabulary ability. We investigated the extent to which low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years was associated with low receptive vocabulary ability at 8 years, and the predictive utility of a multivariate model that included child, maternal and family risk factors measured at 4 years. The study sample comprised 3,847 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate risks for low receptive vocabulary ability from 4-8 years and sensitivity-specificity analysis was used to examine the predictive utility of the multivariate model. In the multivariate model, substantial risk factors for receptive vocabulary delay from 4-8 years, in order of descending magnitude, were low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years, low maternal education, and low school readiness. Moderate risk factors, in order of descending magnitude, were low maternal parenting consistency, socio-economic area disadvantage, low temperamental persistence, and NESB status. The following risk factors were not significant: One or more siblings, low family income, not reading to the child, high maternal work hours, and Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander ethnicity. The results of the sensitivity-specificity analysis showed that a well-fitted multivariate model
Full Text Available Receptive vocabulary development is a component of the human language system that emerges in the first year of life and is characterised by onward expansion throughout life. Beginning in infancy, children's receptive vocabulary knowledge builds the foundation for oral language and reading skills. The foundations for success at school are built early, hence the public health policy focus on reducing developmental inequalities before children start formal school. The underlying assumption is that children's development is stable, and therefore predictable, over time. This study investigated this assumption in relation to children's receptive vocabulary ability. We investigated the extent to which low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years was associated with low receptive vocabulary ability at 8 years, and the predictive utility of a multivariate model that included child, maternal and family risk factors measured at 4 years. The study sample comprised 3,847 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate risks for low receptive vocabulary ability from 4-8 years and sensitivity-specificity analysis was used to examine the predictive utility of the multivariate model. In the multivariate model, substantial risk factors for receptive vocabulary delay from 4-8 years, in order of descending magnitude, were low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years, low maternal education, and low school readiness. Moderate risk factors, in order of descending magnitude, were low maternal parenting consistency, socio-economic area disadvantage, low temperamental persistence, and NESB status. The following risk factors were not significant: One or more siblings, low family income, not reading to the child, high maternal work hours, and Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander ethnicity. The results of the sensitivity-specificity analysis showed that a well
Roma, Elisa; Benoit, Natalie; Buckley, Chris; Bell, Sarah
Population growth, climatic changes and over-exploitation of natural resources are at the basis of the world's food crisis, which counts almost one million people without sufficient food sustenance. These changes require novel environmental practices which are based on nutrient recovery and management in agriculture. This contribution analyses and discusses users' perceptions on re-use of urine as fertilizer through the lenses of the Receptivity model. A search was performed on Scopus (as well as other web search engines) using the keywords: urine, nutrient recovery and sanitation. Results shows how questions related to awareness, association, acquisition and application of the environmental change can represent hurdles to novel models of nutrient recovery and the use of urine in agriculture. Examples of hurdles identified from the literature relate to poor understanding of potential for urine reuse, social stigma attached to using dry sanitation and applying urine in agriculture and poor operational knowledge of application of urine in agriculture. Conclusion relates to the illustration of implications of such challenges on the design of environmental interventions.
Barrow, Mark V
Rachel Carson's Silent Spring generated a firestorm of controversy following its publication in 1962. While numerous scholars have relied on written sources to gage how industry representatives, scientists, government officials, and the public responded to this bestselling book, they have paid much less attention to how visual sources might further our understanding of the context in which Carson wrote, the message she sought to convey, and the impact of her work. This article analyzes sixteen editorial cartoons that appeared in the wake of Carson's book, images that reveal an emerging set of shared understandings about how modern technology presented potential dangers to both humans and the natural world. Using culturally resonant words and images, the cartoonists who editorialized about Carson and her book demonstrate the extent to which her frightening vision of bodily and ecological vulnerability began to permeate society, spawning a counternarrative to the still dominant discourse that linked technological progress, economic development, and the common good. These cartoons thus provide a useful window onto the reception of Silent Spring, the times in which it was published, and the birth of the modern environmental movement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gfeller, Kate; Turner, Christopher; Oleson, Jacob; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Driscoll, Virginia
Objectives This study (a) examined speech recognition abilities of cochlear implant (CI) recipients in the spectrally complex listening condition of three contrasting types of background music, and (b) compared performance based upon listener groups: CI recipients using conventional long-electrode (LE) devices, Hybrid CI recipients (acoustic plus electric stimulation), and normal-hearing (NH) adults. Methods We tested 154 LE CI recipients using varied devices and strategies, 21 Hybrid CI recipients, and 49 NH adults on closed-set recognition of spondees presented in three contrasting forms of background music (piano solo, large symphony orchestra, vocal solo with small combo accompaniment) in an adaptive test. Outcomes Signal-to-noise thresholds for speech in music (SRTM) were examined in relation to measures of speech recognition in background noise and multi-talker babble, pitch perception, and music experience. Results SRTM thresholds varied as a function of category of background music, group membership (LE, Hybrid, NH), and age. Thresholds for speech in background music were significantly correlated with measures of pitch perception and speech in background noise thresholds; auditory status was an important predictor. Conclusions Evidence suggests that speech reception thresholds in background music change as a function of listener age (with more advanced age being detrimental), structural characteristics of different types of music, and hearing status (residual hearing). These findings have implications for everyday listening conditions such as communicating in social or commercial situations in which there is background music. PMID:23342550
Gfeller, Kate; Turner, Christopher; Oleson, Jacob; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Driscoll, Virginia
This study examined speech recognition abilities of cochlear implant (CI) recipients in the spectrally complex listening condition of 3 contrasting types of background music, and compared performance based upon listener groups: CI recipients using conventional long-electrode devices, Hybrid CI recipients (acoustic plus electric stimulation), and normal-hearing adults. We tested 154 long-electrode CI recipients using varied devices and strategies, 21 Hybrid CI recipients, and 49 normal-hearing adults on closed-set recognition of spondees presented in 3 contrasting forms of background music (piano solo, large symphony orchestra, vocal solo with small combo accompaniment) in an adaptive test. Signal-to-noise ratio thresholds for speech in music were examined in relation to measures of speech recognition in background noise and multitalker babble, pitch perception, and music experience. The signal-to-noise ratio thresholds for speech in music varied as a function of category of background music, group membership (long-electrode, Hybrid, normal-hearing), and age. The thresholds for speech in background music were significantly correlated with measures of pitch perception and thresholds for speech in background noise; auditory status was an important predictor. Evidence suggests that speech reception thresholds in background music change as a function of listener age (with more advanced age being detrimental), structural characteristics of different types of music, and hearing status (residual hearing). These findings have implications for everyday listening conditions such as communicating in social or commercial situations in which there is background music.
Full Text Available This research is about whether or not Indonesian female youth Moslem are easily accepting religious values packaged with popular icons in a Moslem magazine. In this magazine, teenagers do not have to wear long, loose dark colored clothes, but they may wear light colored, tight and trendy dresses known as modern hijab. The main goal of this research is understanding female youths’ reception over Muslimah magazine applying Stuart Hall’s encoding and decoding approach. Primary data were collected by in-depth interview toward selected readers. The results are: (1 the ability of parents to control their teenagers’ religious behavior affect teenagers’ reading over Muslimah. (2 Informants who live with their parents younger than 20 years old, and have strong connection with religious peer group—tend to build negotiated readings. (3 Informants who do not depend on their parents—older than 20 years old, and have professional jobs—tend to rely more on mass media for seeking religious information more than their peer group or parents. Therefore, they tend to agree with Muslimah coverage which emphasized more on modern Moslem youth lifestyle than on its syariah (religious values.
Kreibich, Heidi; Müller, Meike; Schröter, Kai; Thieken, Annegret H.
Flood damage can be mitigated if the parties at risk are reached by flood warnings and if they know how to react appropriately. To gain more knowledge about warning reception and emergency response of private households and companies, surveys were undertaken after the August 2002 and the June 2013 floods in Germany. Despite pronounced regional differences, the results show a clear overall picture: in 2002, early warnings did not work well; e.g. many households (27 %) and companies (45 %) stated that they had not received any flood warnings. Additionally, the preparedness of private households and companies was low in 2002, mainly due to a lack of flood experience. After the 2002 flood, many initiatives were launched and investments undertaken to improve flood risk management, including early warnings and an emergency response in Germany. In 2013, only a small share of the affected households (5 %) and companies (3 %) were not reached by any warnings. Additionally, private households and companies were better prepared. For instance, the share of companies which have an emergency plan in place has increased from 10 % in 2002 to 34 % in 2013. However, there is still room for improvement, which needs to be triggered mainly by effective risk and emergency communication. The challenge is to continuously maintain and advance an integrated early warning and emergency response system even without the occurrence of extreme floods.
Zhao, Xiaoquan; Alexander, Tesfa N; Hoffman, Leah; Jones, Chaunetta; Delahanty, Janine; Walker, Matthew; Berger, Amanda T; Talbert, Emily
In February 2014, the Food and Drug Administration launched The Real Cost, a national youth tobacco prevention campaign. This article examines youth receptivity to potential campaign ads using data from 3 message pretesting studies featuring the same design and consistent instrumentation. A total of 3,258 adolescents ages 13-17 were randomized to either an ad-viewing condition or a no-exposure control condition. Perceived ad effectiveness, smoking-related beliefs, and attitudes were measured as outcome variables. The sample consisted of both experimental smokers (58%) and current nonsmokers at risk for cigarette initiation (42%). A total of 14 ads were tested across the three studies. Participants who viewed the ads generally considered them to be effective (with a mean perceived ad effectiveness score of 3.66 on a scale from 1 to 5). Compared to those in the control condition, participants in the ad-viewing condition reported stronger beliefs about the health risks of smoking (p < .001), a greater likelihood that smoking would lead to loss of control in life (p < .001), and more negative attitudes toward smoking (p < .001). Responses to campaign ads were largely consistent between experimenters and at-risk nonsmokers. Implications of the findings for the campaign are discussed.
Enns, Charlotte J; Herman, Rosalind C
Signed languages continue to be a key element of deaf education programs that incorporate a bilingual approach to teaching and learning. In order to monitor the success of bilingual deaf education programs, and in particular to monitor the progress of children acquiring signed language, it is essential to develop an assessment tool of signed language skills. Although researchers have developed some checklists and experimental tests related to American Sign Language (ASL) assessment, at this time a standardized measure of ASL does not exist. There have been tests developed in other signed languages, for example, British Sign Language, that can serve as models in this area. The purpose of this study was to adapt the Assessing British Sign Language Development: Receptive Skills Test for use in ASL in order to begin the process of developing a standardized measure of ASL skills. The results suggest that collaboration between researchers in different signed languages can provide a valuable contribution toward filling the gap in the area of signed language assessment. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Walsh, Edward J.; Wang, Lily M.; Armstrong, Douglas L.; Curro, Thomas; Simmons, Lee G.; McGee, Joann
Acoustic communication represents a primary mode of interaction within the sub-species of Panthera tigris and it is commonly known that their vocal repertoire consists of a relatively wide range of utterances that include roars, growls, grunts, hisses and chuffling, vocalizations that are in some cases produced with extraordinary power. P. tigris vocalizations are known to contain significant amounts of acoustic energy over a wide spectral range, with peak output occurring in a low frequency bandwidth in the case of roars. von Muggenthaler (2000) has also shown that roars and other vocal productions uttered by P. tigris contain energy in the infrasonic range. While it is reasonable to assume that low and infrasonic acoustic cues are used as communication signals among conspecifics in the wild, it is clearly necessary to demonstrate that members of the P. tigris sub-species are responsive to low and infrasonic acoustic signals. The auditory brainstem response has proven to be an effective tool in the characterization of auditory performance among tigers and the results of an ongoing study of both the acoustical properties of P. tigris vocalizations and their auditory receptivity support the supposition that tigers are not only responsive to low frequency stimulation, but exquisitely so.
Pisoni, David B.
This study investigated receptive vocabulary delay in deaf children with cochlear implants. Participants were 23 children with profound hearing loss, ages 6–14 years, who received a cochlear implant between ages 1.4 and 6 years. Duration of cochlear implant use ranged from 3.7 to 11.8 years. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Third Edition (PPVT-III) data were analyzed first by examining children’s errors for evidence of difficulty in specific lexical content areas, and second by calculating standard scores with reference to hearing age (HA) (i.e., chronological age [CA] − age at implantation) rather than CA. Participants showed evidence of vocabulary understanding across all PPVT-III content categories with no strong evidence of disproportionate numbers of errors in any specific content area despite below-average mean standard scores. However, whereas mean standard scores were below the test mean established for hearing children when based on CA, they were within the average range for hearing children when calculated based on HA. Thus, children’s vocabulary knowledge was commensurate with years of cochlear implant experience, providing support for the role of spoken language experience in vocabulary acquisition. PMID:20130017
Carlos Eduardo de Abreu Boucault
Full Text Available This article aims to examine the reception of « Pure theory of Law », of Hans Kelsen in some South-American countries, throughout institutional approaches and also the diffusion of this theory as well its acceptance by cultural agents who represented academic and professional law environment, in Uruguay, Colombia, Argentina and Brazil. The historical period of this study concerns the early times of 40 till our days. Although the reference of Kelsen’s thought about theory of law may appear as a constant feature on South-American jurists, mainly till the decade of 1980, actually we can identify real problems that claim for a falsehood about the guidelines of the pure theory of law and ambiguities in connection to theoretical issues within positivist traditions in face of authoritarian governments in Latin America.
Mooney, T Aran; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Yu, Hsin-Yi; Ketten, Darlene R; Jen, I-Fan
While odontocetes do not have an external pinna that guides sound to the middle ear, they are considered to receive sound through specialized regions of the head and lower jaw. Yet odontocetes differ in the shape of the lower jaw suggesting that hearing pathways may vary between species, potentially influencing hearing directionality and noise impacts. This work measured the audiogram and received sensitivity of a Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) in an effort to comparatively examine how this species receives sound. Jaw hearing thresholds were lowest (most sensitive) at two locations along the anterior, midline region of the lower jaw (the lower jaw tip and anterior part of the throat). Responses were similarly low along a more posterior region of the lower mandible, considered the area of best hearing in bottlenose dolphins. Left- and right-side differences were also noted suggesting possible left-right asymmetries in sound reception or differences in ear sensitivities. The results indicate best hearing pathways may vary between the Risso's dolphin and other odontocetes measured. This animal received sound well, supporting a proposed throat pathway. For Risso's dolphins in particular, good ventral hearing would support their acoustic ecology by facilitating echo-detection from their proposed downward oriented echolocation beam.
Camilleri, Bernard; Botting, Nicola
Children's low scores on vocabulary tests are often erroneously interpreted as reflecting poor cognitive and/or language skills. It may be necessary to incorporate the measurement of word-learning ability in estimating children's lexical abilities. To explore the reliability and validity of the Dynamic Assessment of Word Learning (DAWL), a new dynamic assessment of receptive vocabulary. A dynamic assessment (DA) of word learning ability was developed and adopted within a nursery school setting with 15 children aged between 3;07 and 4;03, ten of whom had been referred to speech and language therapy. A number of quantitative measures were derived from the DA procedure, including measures of children's ability to identify the targeted items and to generalize to a second exemplar, as well as measures of children's ability to retain the targeted items. Internal, inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the DAWL was established as well as correlational measures of concurrent and predictive validity. The DAWL was found to provide both quantitative and qualitative information which could be used to improve the accuracy of differential diagnosis and the understanding of processes underlying the child's performance. The latter can be used for the purpose of designing more individualized interventions. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Traoré, Leila Thérèse; Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Lütken, Henrik Vlk
Several members of the Kalanchoë genus are popular as ornamental plants. Cross-breeding and wide hybridisation are essential to continuously introduce novel traits into cultivated plant material. This study aimed to identify the major factors related to the stigma affecting cross-pollination in t......Several members of the Kalanchoë genus are popular as ornamental plants. Cross-breeding and wide hybridisation are essential to continuously introduce novel traits into cultivated plant material. This study aimed to identify the major factors related to the stigma affecting cross......-pollination in the Kalanchoë blossfeldiana. Pollen tube growth after pollination of K. blossfeldiana 'Jackie' and 'Reese' was examined at different stigma developmental stages. Five distinct developmental stages were identified based on changes in morphology and activity of stigmatic peroxidase. After reciprocal pollination...... at the five stigma developmental stages, fluorescence microscopy was used to estimate the number of pollen tubes in situ. Both cultivars had receptive stigmas from stage I to IV, which concurred with the continuous expansion of the stigma covered with exudates. No pollen tube growth was observed at stage V...
Magri, Luca; Wang, Qiqi
We present and compare three methods to calculate the stability and sensitivity of linear, periodic and chaotic time-delayed thermoacoustic systems. First, eigenvalue analysis calculates the stability of a fixed point. The stability is governed by the Jacobian operator. Secondly, Floquet analysis calculates the stability of a nonlinear periodic solution. The stability is governed by the monodromy matrix, which is the linearized Poincare' map built on the periodic attractor found by continuation. Thirdly, Lyapunov analysis calculates the stability of a chaotic solution. The stability is governed by the tangent operator, which is the linearized operator built on the unsteady chaotic solution. The three methods are then applied to the adjoint operator, which provides information on the system's receptivity to physical sources. Finally, the direct and adjoint Floquet and Lyapunov analyses are combined to calculate the thermoacoustic system's sensitivity to feedback mechanisms. The application of adjoint Floquet and Lyapunov sensitivity analyses to thermoacoustic systems opens up new possibilities for the passive control of thermo-acoustic oscillations by providing gradient information that can be combined with constrained optimization algorithms to reduce the instability. Royal Academy of Engineering Research Fellowships.
Piechowski-Jozwiak, Bartlomiej; Boller, François; Bogousslavsky, Julien
Art is defined as expression or application of human creative skill and imagination producing works to be appreciated primarily for their aesthetic value or emotional power. This definition encompasses two very important elements-the creation and reception of art-and by doing so it establishes a link, a dialogue between the artist and spectator. From the evolutionary biological perspective, activities need to have an immediate or remote effect on the population through improving survival, gene selection, and environmental adjustment, and this includes art. It may serve as a universal means of communication bypassing time, cultural, ethnic, and social differences. The neurological mechanisms of both art production and appreciation are researched by neuroscientists and discussed both in terms of healthy brain biology and complex neuronal networking perspectives. In this paper, we describe folk art and the issue of symbolic archetypes in psychoanalytic thought as well as offer neuronal mechanisms for art by emphasizing mirror/neurons and the role they play in it.
Tan, Eric J; Yelland, Gregory W; Rossell, Susan L
Language dysfunction is proposed to relate to the speech disturbances in schizophrenia, which are more commonly referred to as formal thought disorder (FTD). Presently, language production deficits in schizophrenia are better characterised than language comprehension difficulties. This study thus aimed to examine three aspects of language comprehension in schizophrenia: (1) the role of lexical processing, (2) meaning attribution for words and sentences, and (3) the relationship between comprehension and production. Fifty-seven schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder patients and 48 healthy controls completed a clinical assessment and three language tasks assessing word recognition, synonym identification, and sentence comprehension. Poorer patient performance was expected on the latter two tasks. Recognition of word form was not impaired in schizophrenia, indicating intact lexical processing. Whereas single-word synonym identification was not significantly impaired, there was a tendency to attribute word meanings based on phonological similarity with increasing FTD severity. Importantly, there was a significant sentence comprehension deficit for processing deep structure, which correlated with FTD severity. These findings established a receptive language deficit in schizophrenia at the syntactic level. There was also evidence for a relationship between some aspects of language comprehension and speech production/FTD. Apart from indicating language as another mechanism in FTD aetiology, the data also suggest that remediating language comprehension problems may be an avenue to pursue in alleviating FTD symptomatology.
Ulbrich, Susanne E; Groebner, Anna E; Bauersachs, Stefan
The development of a fertilized oocyte into a differentiated multi-cellular organism is a major challenge with regard to the orchestration of the expression of the mammalian genome. Highly complex networks of genes are temporally and spatially regulated during cellular differentiation to generate specific cell types. Embryonic development is critically influenced by external impacts in the female reproductive tract. A most critical phase of pregnancy in mammals is the pre- and peri-implantation period, during which the uterine environment plays a crucial role in supporting the development of the conceptus. The analytical description of the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome of the embryo-maternal interface is a prerequisite for the understanding of the complex regulatory processes taking place during this time. This review lines out potentials and limitations of different approaches to unravel the determinants of endometrial receptivity in cattle, the pig and the horse. Suitable in vivo and in vitro models, which have been used to elucidate factors participating in the embryo-maternal dialog are discussed. Taken together, transcriptome analyses and specified selective candidate gene driven approaches contribute to the understanding of endometrial function. The endometrium as sensor and driver of fertility may indicate the qualitative and quantitative nature of signaling molecules sent by the early embryo and in turn, accordingly impact on embryonic development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rousset, Alexandra; Dowell, Richard; Leigh, Jaime
This study investigated outcomes and predictive factors, specifically language skills, for a group of prelingually hearing-impaired adults who received a cochlear implant. Speech perception data, demographic information, and other related variables such as communication mode, residual hearing, and receptive language abilities were explored. Pre- and post-implant speech perception scores were compared and multiple regression analysis was used to identify significant predictive relationships. The study included 43 adults with a prelingual onset of hearing loss, who proceeded with cochlear implantation at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital in Melbourne, Australia. The majority of patients experienced benefit from their cochlear implants, with 88% demonstrating significant improvement in speech perception performance. Volunteers achieved better post-operative speech perception scores if they had a shorter duration of severe-to-profound hearing loss, better language skills, and used an exclusively oral communication mode. Although post-operative speech perception performance is significantly poorer for prelingually hearing-impaired adults compared to postlingually hearing-impaired patients, the study group demonstrated significant benefit from their cochlear implants. The variability in post-operative outcomes can be predicted to some extent from the hearing history and language abilities of the individual patient.
Robinson H.; Mage, M.; Dolan, M.; Wang, R.; Boyd, L.; Revilleza, M.; Natarajan, K.; Myers, N.; Hansen, T.; Margulies, D.
MHC class I (MHC-I) proteins of the adaptive immune system require antigenic peptides for maintenance of mature conformation and immune function via specific recognition by MHC-I-restricted CD8(+) T lymphocytes. New MHC-I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum are held by chaperones in a peptide-receptive (PR) transition state pending release by tightly binding peptides. In this study, we show, by crystallographic, docking, and molecular dynamics methods, dramatic movement of a hinged unit containing a conserved 3(10) helix that flips from an exposed 'open' position in the PR transition state to a 'closed' position with buried hydrophobic side chains in the peptide-loaded mature molecule. Crystallography of hinged unit residues 46-53 of murine H-2L(d) MHC-I H chain, complexed with mAb 64-3-7, demonstrates solvent exposure of these residues in the PR conformation. Docking and molecular dynamics predict how this segment moves to help form the A and B pockets crucial for the tight peptide binding needed for stability of the mature peptide-loaded conformation, chaperone dissociation, and Ag presentation.
Fagan, Mary K; Pisoni, David B
This study investigated receptive vocabulary delay in deaf children with cochlear implants. Participants were 23 children with profound hearing loss, ages 6-14 years, who received a cochlear implant between ages 1.4 and 6 years. Duration of cochlear implant use ranged from 3.7 to 11.8 years. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Third Edition (PPVT-III) data were analyzed first by examining children's errors for evidence of difficulty in specific lexical content areas, and second by calculating standard scores with reference to hearing age (HA) (i.e., chronological age [CA]--age at implantation) rather than CA. Participants showed evidence of vocabulary understanding across all PPVT-III content categories with no strong evidence of disproportionate numbers of errors in any specific content area despite below-average mean standard scores. However, whereas mean standard scores were below the test mean established for hearing children when based on CA, they were within the average range for hearing children when calculated based on HA. Thus, children's vocabulary knowledge was commensurate with years of cochlear implant experience, providing support for the role of spoken language experience in vocabulary acquisition.
Full Text Available Harold Pinter started his career with a conspicuous lack of success. He faced negative critical reviews of his early works, but his typical style eventually opened doors to new worlds in modern drama. On Slovene stages, Pinter’s plays also received a similarly modest welcome. The audience as well as the reviewers found his long pauses, silences and incoherent dialogue insufficiently engaging. One of the main reasons for this could have been their unfamiliarity with Pinter’s style, which eventually acquired its own adjective – ‘Pinteresque’. With time, Pinter’s popularity increased more rapidly on the world stages than in Slovenia, and today this playwright is not a stranger to the Slovene theatre. This article deals with Pinter on Slovene stages as well as the popular and critical reception of his plays. The period before 1999 was thoroughly analysed by Darja Hribar, while this study is the first to focus on the decade and a half following.
Jensen de López, Kristine M.; Knüppel, Ane
The following study presents results from the pilot as well as the final version of the Danish adaptation of Dorothy Bishop's Test for Reception of Grammar 2 (TROG-2). The original British test was modified according to Danish grammar. It was the piloted, re-modified and finally standardized...... study were tested on the adapted Danish versionof the relative clause comprehension test developed bu Friedmann (1998). The results from the children's performance on the two receptive grammar tests correlated need for further modifications of the test in order to attain a valid Danish verion of TROG-2...... of TROG-2 was validated against a standardized Danish vocubulary comprihenseion test The Viborg Test (Pedersen & Skyrum Kjøge, 2005) and results show that the language measures correlate strongly (r=0,80, p=.001). As a whole we can conclude that the Danis version of TROG-2 seems a reliable and valid test...
Fukunari, Masafumi; Wongsuryrat, Nat; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Nakamura, Yusuke; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Koizumi, Hiroyuki
This study examined the performance of a developed taper-tube concentrator for 94-GHz millimeter-wave beam reception during wireless power transfer. The received energy is converted into kinetic energy of a working gas in the tube to drive an engine or thruster. The concentrator, which is assumed to have mirror reflection of millimeter waves in it, is designed to be shorter than conventional tapered waveguides of millimeter waves. A dimensionless design law of a concentrator is proposed based on geometric optics theory. Because the applicability of geometric optics theory is unclear, the ratio of its bore diameter to its wavelength was set as small compared to those in other possible applications. Then, the discrepancy between the designed and measured power reception was examined. Results show that the maximum discrepancy was as low as 7 % for the bore-to-wavelength ratio of 20 at the narrow end of the concentrator.
During the eighteenth century, several towns located in what is known today as the Suisse romande were extremely receptive toward scientific culture, and most notably Newtonianism. In this paper I deal with a nine-volume publication of Newton's Opera Omnia that was planned in Geneva and Lausanne during the late 1730s and 1740s. This publication has not received the attention it deserves. To the best of my knowledge, even an awareness of its existence is lacking in the literature devoted to the reception of Newtonianism. This paper examines the circumstances of the publication of a complete set of all of Newton's works known at the time, and the motivations of the editors, mathematicians, and publishers who were involved in this editorial enterprise.
Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina
Language profiles of children with autistic disorder and intellectual disability (n = 36) were significantly different from the comparison groups of children with intellectual disability (n = 26) and typically developing children (n = 34). The group low-functioning children with autistic disorder obtained a higher mean score on expressive than on receptive language, whereas both comparison groups showed the reverse pattern. Nonverbal mental age, joint attention, and symbolic understanding of pictures were analyzed in relation to concurrent receptive and expressive language abilities. In the group with autistic disorder and intellectual disability, symbol understanding and joint attention were most strongly related to language abilities. Nonverbal mental age was the most important predictor of language abilities in the comparison groups.
Kosinov, A. D.; Panina, A. V.; Semionov, N. V.; Yermolaev, Yu. G.
Experiments on the influence of flat isolated square and diamond shaped roughness elements on the mean and pulsation characteristics of the boundary layer on a flat plate and a swept wing of comparable size are conducted. The shape of stickers has almost no effect on the mass flow pulsation amplitude in the trace of roughness. The relative "receptivity" of the three-dimensional (3D) boundary layer to stationary perturbations is approximately 1.5 times greater than the "receptivity" of the twodimensional (2D) boundary layer. The presence of roughness on the disturbance source line changes the pulsation spectra in 2D/3D boundary layer compared to the spectra in boundary layer on smooth surface.
Garcia-Velasco, J A; Nikas, G; Remohí, J; Pellicer, A; Simón, C
To assess endometrial receptivity in terms of pinopode expression in women with endometriosis. Prospective, observational study. Oocyte donation program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. Twelve women with endometriosis as the only cause of infertility. Pinopode expression pattern analysis by scanning electron microscopy in two sequential endometrial biopsies obtained in the same cycle of each patient. Pinopode pattern and pregnancy rates. Pinopode expression in women with endometriosis did not differ from that of patients without endometriosis undergoing artificial cycles. Similarly, the clinical outcome in these women was comparable to that of the general population included in the oocyte donation program. The pregnancy rate per transfer was 46.7%. These results show that in women with endometriosis undergoing oocyte donation under hormone replacement therapy, pinopode expression is not altered, suggesting that endometrial receptivity in women with this disease remains unaltered.
Silva, L A C; Pagliarini, M S; Santos, S A; Valle, C B
Mesosetum chaseae Luces, known regionally as "grama-do-cerrado", is abundant in the Pantanal region in Brazil and contributes significantly to livestock and environmental conservation. This species is under basic studies at Embrapa Pantanal (Nhecolândia subregion, Pantanal, Corumbá, MS, Brazil). In this study, we present data about stigma receptivity, mode of reproduction, and mating system for 10 accessions collected in Nhecolândia subregion (Pantanal). Stigma receptivity was optimal, producing innumerous oxygen bubbles upon testing with hydrogen peroxidase. Clarified ovaries analyzed under interference microscopy showed an embryo sac of the Polygonum type, typical of sexual species. The mating system, tested in protected flowers, indicated allogamy. These data are important for subsidizing future breeding programs for this species.
Jalindre, Swaraj Sunil
Ink absorption performance in inkjet receptive coatings containing synthetic zeolite pigments was studied. Coating pigment pore and particle size distribution are the key parameters that influence in modifying media surface properties, thus affecting the rate of ink penetration and drying time (Scholkopf, et al. 2004). The primary objective of this study was: (1) to investigate the synthetic zeolite pigment effects on inkjet ink absorption, dynamic contact angle and printability, and (2) to evaluate these novel synthetic zeolite pigments in replacing the fumed silica pigments in conventional inkjet receptive coatings. In this research study, single pigment coating formulations (in equal P:B ratio) were prepared using microporous synthetic zeolite pigments (5A, Organophilic and 13X) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) binder. The laboratory-coated samples were characterized for absorption, air permeance, roughness, drying time, wettability and print fidelity. Based on the rheological data, it was found that the synthetic zeolite formulated coatings depicted a Newtonian flow behavior at low shear; while the industry accepted fumed silica based coatings displayed a characteristically high pseudoplastic flow behavior. Our coated samples generated using microporous synthetic zeolite pigments produced low absorption, reduced wettability and accelerated ink drying characteristics. These characteristics were caused due to the synthetic zeolite pigments, which resulted in relatively closed surface structure coated samples. The research suggested that no single selected synthetic zeolite coating performed better than the conventional fumed silica based coatings. Experimental data also showed that there was no apparent relationship between synthetic zeolite pigment pore sizes and inkjet ink absorption. For future research, above coated samples should be evaluated for pore size distribution using Mercury Porosimeter, which quantifies surface porosity of coated samples. This presented
Seol, Kyeong In; Song, Seung Ha; Kim, Ka Lim; Oh, Seung Taek; Kim, Young Tae; Im, Woo Young; Song, Dong Ho; Cheon, Keun-Ah
It is well known that expressive language impairment is commonly less severe than receptive language impairment in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, this result is based on experiments in Western countries with Western language scales. This study tries to find whether the result above is applicable for toddlers in a non-Western country; more specifically, in Korea with non-Western language scales. The participants were 166 toddlers aged between 20 months and 50 months who visited the clinic from December 2010 to January 2013. The number of toddlers diagnosed as ASD and developmental language delay (DLD) was 103 and 63, respectively. Language development level was assessed using Sequenced Language Scale for Infants (SELSI), a Korean language scale. Using SELSI, each group was divided into 3 sub-groups. Moreover, the group difference by age was observed by dividing them into three age groups. Chi-square test and linear-by-linear association was used for analysis. Receptive language ability of the DLD group was superior to that of the ASD group in all age groups. However, expressive language ability in both groups showed no difference in all age groups. A greater proportion of expressive dominant type was found in ASD. The 20-29 months group in ASD showed the largest proportion of expressive language dominant type in the three age groups, suggesting that the younger the ASD toddler is, the more severe the receptive language impairment is. These findings suggest that receptive-expressive language characteristics in ASD at earlier age could be useful in the early detection of ASD.
This essay provides a broad narrative of how the screens designed by architect and designer George Gilbert Scott and made by metalworker Francis Skidmore for the cathedrals of Hereford, Lichfield, and Salisbury, have been regarded since they were produced. It examines debates surrounding removal, retention and rescue, and the twists and turns in the reception history of the Hereford Screen in particular. The article quotes lesser-known voices who influenced the fate of the Hereford Screen, an...
Mona Junger Aghababaie
DOI: 10.12957/periferia.2015.18838Social posters and visual communication regarding concepts such as " public health", " civil responsibility", "responsible action" and practices connected to the reception of non commercial advertising images are the focus point of this article. Designers conceptualize and produce designs hoping that these become integrated into the cultural and social practices of their receivers. In the case of posters on food waste, our questioning is as follows: How does ...
Maryam Hojjati; Maryam Khalilkhaneh
Background: Autism as part of the category called Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is caused by disorders in brain and nervous network and characterized by defect in social behavior, language and cognition. This study aimed to investigate receptive and expressive language performance and the severity of the disorder in 30 children with autism aged 2-8 years who speak in Persian language. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study 30 children with autism were selected using random sam...