WorldWideScience

Sample records for center water distribution

  1. Distribution center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Distribution center is a logistics link fulfill physical distribution as its main functionGenerally speaking, it's a large and hiahly automated center destined to receive goods from various plants and suppliers,take orders,fill them efficiently,and deliver goods to customers as quickly as possible.

  2. International Water Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The urban district of Nancy and the Town of Nancy, France, have taken the initiative of creating an International Center of Water (Centre International de l'Eau à Nancy—NAN.C.I.E.) in association with two universities, six engineering colleges, the Research Centers of Nancy, the Rhine-Meuse Basin Agency, and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The aim of this center is to promote research and technology transfer in the areas of water and sanitation. In 1985 it will initiate a research program drawing on the experience of 350 researchers and engineers of various disciplines who have already been assigned to research in these fields. The research themes, the majority of which will be multidisciplinary, concern aspects of hygiene and health, the engineering of industrial processes, water resources, and the environment and agriculture. A specialist training program offering five types of training aimed at university graduates, graduates of engineering colleges, or experts, will start in October 1984.

  3. Water Distribution Lines, Published in 2001, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, North Georgia Regional Development Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Distribution Lines dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2001. Data by this...

  4. Monitoring of THMs Concentration in Isfahan Water Distribution System and Zoning by GIS, a Case Study in the Center of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trihalomethanes (THMs formation in treated water is a consequence of a reaction between the chlorine used for water disinfection and some natural organic matters. The objectives of the present study were monitoring of THMs concentration in Isfahan (A metropolis city in center of Iran water distribution network (IWDN, evaluation factors that affect the THMs formation potential and identification of critical points by using geographical information system (GIS. The study was performed in summer months of 2014. For sampling point's selection, city divided into 30 zones and water quality parameters such as pH, Electric Conductivity (EC, residual Chlorine, Total Organic Carbon (TOC and THMs of IWDN measured. Multi regression analysis was used to estimate the correlation between THMs formation and these variables. While the statistical analysis with Spearman non-parametric correlation coefficients showed a positive correlation between distance from treatment plant and THMs concentration(r=0.45, P =0.01 and negative strong correlation(r=-0.95, p>0.001 between THMs and TOC concentrations, there was no strong significant relationship between THMs formation in IWDN and some variables including pH, temperature and residual Chlorine. The results reveal that the average value of the THMs at sampling points for summer attained 42.56 ppb which was lower than the EPA and WHO standards. It is recommended that the distance from the treatment plant was used as an effective parameter for estimation of THMs formation potential.

  5. Kansas Water Science Center bookmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2017-03-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey Kansas Water Science Center has collected and interpreted hydrologic information in Kansas since 1895. Data collected include streamflow and gage height, reservoir content, water quality and water quantity, suspended sediment, and groundwater levels. Interpretative hydrologic studies are completed on national, regional, statewide, and local levels and cooperatively funded through more than 40 partnerships with these agencies. The U.S. Geological Survey provides impartial scientific information to describe and understand the health of our ecosystems and environment; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life. These collected data are in the National Water Information System https://waterdata.usgs.gov/ks/nwis/rt, and all results are documented in reports that also are online at https://ks.water.usgs.gov/. Follow the USGS Kansas Water Science Center on Twitter for the most recent updates and other information: https://twitter.com/USGS_KS.

  6. Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

  7. USGS Colorado Water Science Center bookmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2016-12-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey Colorado Water Science Center conducts its water-resources activities primarily in Colorado in cooperation with more than 125 different entities. These activities include extensive data-collection efforts and studies of streamflow, water quality, and groundwater to address many specific issues of concern to Colorado water-management entities and citizens. The collected data are provided in the National Water Information System, and study results are documented in reports and information served on the Internet.

  8. Modeled ground water age distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  9. Microbiological contamination of a hemodialysis center water distribution system Contaminação microbiológica no sistema de distribuição de água de um centro de hemodiálise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Bueno Montanari

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological monitoring of the water used for hemodialysis is extremely important, especially because of the debilitated immune system of patients suffering from chronic renal insufficiency. To investigate the occurrence and species diversity of bacteria in waters, water samples were collected monthly from a hemodialysis center in upstate São Paulo and tap water samples at the terminal sites of the distribution system was sampled repeatedly (22 times at each of five points in the distribution system; a further 36 samples were taken from cannulae in 19 hemodialysis machines that were ready for the next patient, four samples from the reuse system and 13 from the water storage system. To identify bacteria, samples were filtered through 0.22 µm-pore membranes; for mycobacteria, 0.45 µm pores were used. Conventional microbiological and molecular methods were used in the analysis. Bacteria were isolated from the distribution system (128 isolates, kidney machine water (43 and reuse system (3. Among these isolates, 32 were Gram-positive rods, 120 Gram-negative rods, 20 Gram-positive cocci and 11 mycobacteria. We propose the continual monitoring of the water supplies in hemodialysis centers and the adoption of effective prophylactic measures that minimize the exposure of these immunodeficient patients to contaminated sources of water.O monitoramento microbiológico da água utilizada no procedimento de hemodiálise é de extrema importância, principalmente devido à imunodebilidade dos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica. Nosso objetivo foi verificar qualitativa e quantitativamente a presença de bactérias na água de um centro de hemodiálise do interior do Estado de São Paulo. Foram realizadas 22 coletas de cada um dos cinco pontos do sistema de distribuição; 36 amostras de 19 máquinas de hemodiálise, prontas para utilização; quatro amostras do sistema de reuso e 13 amostras do sistema de armazenamento de água, empregando

  10. Logistics Distribution Center Location Optimizatio Model An Example Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lingling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes and investigates the situation of the today’s site of distribution centers .Then taking SF Express for an example ,In the light of minimize the total expense ,the location models for single distribution centers is established with the corresponding resolutions given .After that ,The location of the single distribution center of SF Express ,the starting point of which is Zhengzhou Railway Station ,can be determined with the help of distance-testing function of 360 map to conclude its coordinate and then determine its exact service spot .This paper will test the feasibility of above models by the chosen cases with the application of LINGO software.

  11. Water Distribution and Removal Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Deng; N. Chipman; E.L. Hardin

    2005-08-26

    The design of the Yucca Mountain high level radioactive waste repository depends on the performance of the engineered barrier system (EBS). To support the total system performance assessment (TSPA), the Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is developed to describe the thermal, mechanical, chemical, hydrological, biological, and radionuclide transport processes within the emplacement drifts, which includes the following major analysis/model reports (AMRs): (1) EBS Water Distribution and Removal (WD&R) Model; (2) EBS Physical and Chemical Environment (P&CE) Model; (3) EBS Radionuclide Transport (EBS RNT) Model; and (4) EBS Multiscale Thermohydrologic (TH) Model. Technical information, including data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documents will be provided to defend the applicability of these models for their intended purpose of evaluating the postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain repository system. The WD&R model ARM is important to the site recommendation. Water distribution and removal represents one component of the overall EBS. Under some conditions, liquid water will seep into emplacement drifts through fractures in the host rock and move generally downward, potentially contacting waste packages. After waste packages are breached by corrosion, some of this seepage water will contact the waste, dissolve or suspend radionuclides, and ultimately carry radionuclides through the EBS to the near-field host rock. Lateral diversion of liquid water within the drift will occur at the inner drift surface, and more significantly from the operation of engineered structures such as drip shields and the outer surface of waste packages. If most of the seepage flux can be diverted laterally and removed from the drifts before contacting the wastes, the release of radionuclides from the EBS can be controlled, resulting in a proportional reduction in dose release at the accessible environment. The purposes

  12. Location optimization of multiple distribution centers under fuzzy environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong WANG; Xiao-lei MA; Yin-hai WANG; Hai-jun MAO; Yong ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    Locating distribution centers optimally is a crucial and systematic task for decision-makers.Optimally located distribution centers can significantly improve the logistics system's efficiency and reduce its operational costs.However,it is not an easy task to optimize distribution center locations and previous studies focused primarily on location optimization of a single distribution center.With growing logistics demands,multiple distribution centers become necessary to meet customers' requirements,but few studies have tackled the multiple distribution center locations (MDCLs) problem.This paper presents a comprehensive algorithm to address the MDCLs problem.Fuzzy integration and clustering approach using the improved axiomatic fuzzy set (AFS) theory is developed for location clustering based on multiple hierarchical evaluation criteria.Then,technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) is applied for evaluating and selecting the best candidate for each cluster.Sensitivity analysis is also conducted to assess the influence of each criterion in the location planning decision procedure.Results from a case study in Guiyang,China,reveals that the proposed approach developed in this study outperforms other similar algorithms for MDCLs selection.This new method may easily be extended to address location planning of other types of facilities,including hospitals,fire stations and schools.

  13. The Water Footprint of Data Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora Ristic

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The internet and associated Information and Communications Technologies (ICT are diffusing at an astounding pace. As data centers (DCs proliferate to accommodate this rising demand, their environmental impacts grow too. While the energy efficiency of DCs has been researched extensively, their water footprint (WF has so far received little to no attention. This article conducts a preliminary WF accounting for cooling and energy consumption in DCs. The WF of DCs is estimated to be between 1047 and 151,061 m3/TJ. Outbound DC data traffic generates a WF of 1–205 liters per gigabyte (roughly equal to the WF of 1 kg of tomatos at the higher end. It is found that, typically, energy consumption constitues by far the greatest share of DC WF, but the level of uncertainty associated with the WF of different energy sources used by DCs makes a comprehensive assessment of DCs’ water use efficiency very challenging. Much better understanding of DC WF is urgently needed if a meaningful evaluation of this rapidly spreading service technology is to be gleaned and response measures are to be put into effect.

  14. Assessment on reliability of water quality in water distribution systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍悦滨; 田海; 王龙岩

    2004-01-01

    Water leaving the treatment works is usually of a high quality but its properties change during the transportation stage. Increasing awareness of the quality of the service provided within the water industry today and assessing the reliability of the water quality in a distribution system has become a major significance for decision on system operation based on water quality in distribution networks. Using together a water age model, a chlorine decay model and a model of acceptable maximum water age can assess the reliability of the water quality in a distribution system. First, the nodal water age values in a certain complex distribution system can be calculated by the water age model. Then, the acceptable maximum water age value in the distribution system is obtained based on the chlorine decay model. The nodes at which the water age values are below the maximum value are regarded as reliable nodes. Finally, the reliability index on the percentile weighted by the nodal demands reflects the reliability of the water quality in the distribution system. The approach has been applied in a real water distribution network. The contour plot based on the water age values determines a surface of the reliability of the water quality. At any time, this surface is used to locate high water age but poor reliability areas, which identify parts of the network that may be of poor water quality. As a result, the contour water age provides a valuable aid for a straight insight into the water quality in the distribution system.

  15. STANDARDIZED COSTS FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presented within the report are cost data for construction and operation/maintenance of domestic water distribution and transmission pipelines, domestic water pumping stations, and domestic water storage reservoirs. To allow comparison of new construction with rehabilitation of e...

  16. Logistics distribution centers location problem and algorithm under fuzzy environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lixing; Ji, Xiaoyu; Gao, Ziyou; Li, Keping

    2007-11-01

    Distribution centers location problem is concerned with how to select distribution centers from the potential set so that the total relevant cost is minimized. This paper mainly investigates this problem under fuzzy environment. Consequentially, chance-constrained programming model for the problem is designed and some properties of the model are investigated. Tabu search algorithm, genetic algorithm and fuzzy simulation algorithm are integrated to seek the approximate best solution of the model. A numerical example is also given to show the application of the algorithm.

  17. A Distributed Weighted Voting Approach for Accurate Eye Center Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Singh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel approach for accurate estimation of eye center in face images. A distributed voting based approach in which every pixel votes is adopted for potential eye center candidates. The votes are distributed over a subset of pixels which lie in a direction which is opposite to gradient direction and the weightage of votes is distributed according to a novel mechanism.  First, image is normalized to eliminate illumination variations and its edge map is generated using Canny edge detector. Distributed voting is applied on the edge image to generate different eye center candidates. Morphological closing and local maxima search are used to reduce the number of candidates. A classifier based on spatial and intensity information is used to choose the correct candidates for the locations of eye center. The proposed approach was tested on BioID face database and resulted in better Iris detection rate than the state-of-the-art. The proposed approach is robust against illumination variation, small pose variations, presence of eye glasses and partial occlusion of eyes.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(3, pp.292-297, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.2763

  18. Simulation of distribution of radiation energy density in water balls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Shi-Biao; MA Qing-Li; YIN Ze-Jie; TANG Yu; HUANG Huan; RAO Nan-Xia; ZHU Da-Ming

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of energy deposition density in radiate region and its surrounding areas from γ-rays was simulated and analyzed for a water-ball model with Geant4 package ( Geant4.7.0,2005 ) developed by CERN (the Center of European Research of Nucleus). The results show that the distribution depends strongly on the collimating condition of radiation beam. A well-collimated beam would reduce radiation effects on surrounding areas.

  19. Human-centered design of a distributed knowledge management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkus, Susan; Walji, Muhammad; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A; Malin, Jane T; Turley, James P; Smith, Jack W; Zhang, Jiajie

    2005-02-01

    Many healthcare technology projects fail due to the lack of consideration of human issues, such as workflow, organizational change, and usability, during the design and implementation stages of a project's development process. Even when human issues are considered, the consideration is typically on designing better user interfaces. We argue that human-centered computing goes beyond a better user interface: it should include considerations of users, functions and tasks that are fundamental to human-centered computing. From this perspective, we integrated a previously developed human-centered methodology with a Project Design Lifecycle, and we applied this integration in the design of a complex distributed knowledge management system for the Biomedical Engineer (BME) domain in the Mission Control Center at NASA Johnson Space Center. We analyzed this complex system, identified its problems, generated systems requirements, and provided specifications of a replacement prototype for effective organizational memory and knowledge management. We demonstrated the value provided by our human-centered approach and described the unique properties, structures, and processes discovered using this methodology and how they contributed in the design of the prototype.

  20. Study on Multi-objective Location of Distribution Center Based on Covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QU Hui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution center is an important part of modern logistics system. In the process of designing distribution center, running expense can be greatly reduced by selecting appropriate location of distribution center. In this paper, the covering method was used twice to choose the distribution center and minimize the total cost. At last, a case was given to test the model.

  1. An Improved Genetic Algorithm for Allocation Optimization of Distribution Centers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晶; 庞小红; 吴智铭

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduced an integrated allocation model for distribution centers (DCs). The facility cost, inventory cost, transportation cost and service quality were considered in the model. An improved genetic algorithm (IGA) was proposed to solve the problem. The improvement of IGA is based on the idea of adjusting crossover probability and mutation probability. The IGA is supplied by heuristic rules too. The simulation results show that the IGA is better than the standard GA(SGA) in search efficiency and equality.

  2. Mercury in waters, soils, and sediments of the New Jersey Coastal Plain: A comparison of regional distribution and mobility with the mercury contamination at the William J. Hughes Technical Center, Atlantic County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Julia L.; Szabo, Zoltan; Reilly, Pamela A.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury in soils, surface water, and groundwater at the William J. Hughes Technical Center , Atlantic County, New Jersey, has been found at levels that exceed established background concentrations in Coastal Plain waters, and, in some cases, New Jersey State standards for mercury in various media. As of 2012, it is not known whether this mercury is part of regional mercury contamination or whether it is related to former military activities. Regionally, groundwater supplying about 700 domestic wells in the New Jersey Coastal Plain is contaminated with mercury that appears to be derived from anthropogenic inputs, such as agricultural pesticide use and atmospheric deposition. High levels of mercury occasionally are found in Coastal Plain soils, but disturbance during residential development on former agricultural land is thought to have mobilized any mercury applied during farming, a hypothesis borne out by experiments leaching mercury from soils. In the unsewered residential areas with mercury-contaminated groundwater, septic-system effluent is believed to create reducing conditions in which mercury sorbed to subsoils is mobilized to groundwater. In comparing the levels of mercury found in soils, sediments, streamwater, and groundwater at the William J. Hughes Technical Center site with those found regionally, mercury concentrations in groundwater in the region are, in some cases, substantially higher than those found in groundwater at the William J. Hughes Technical Center site. Nevertheless, concentrations of mercury in streamwater at the site are, in some instances, higher than most found regionally. The mercury contents in soils and sediment at the William J. Hughes Technical Center site are substantially higher than those found to date (2012) in the region, indicating that a source other than regional sources may be present at the site.

  3. The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golon, Danielle K.

    2016-10-03

    The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) operates as a partnership with the U.S. Geological Survey and is 1 of 12 DAACs within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). The LP DAAC ingests, archives, processes, and distributes NASA Earth science remote sensing data. These data are provided to the public at no charge. Data distributed by the LP DAAC provide information about Earth’s surface from daily to yearly intervals and at 15 to 5,600 meter spatial resolution. Data provided by the LP DAAC can be used to study changes in agriculture, vegetation, ecosystems, elevation, and much more. The LP DAAC provides several ways to access, process, and interact with these data. In addition, the LP DAAC is actively archiving new datasets to provide users with a variety of data to study the Earth.

  4. District cool water distribution; Reseau urbain et distribution d`eau glacee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schabaillie, D. [Ste Climespace (France)

    1997-12-31

    The city of Paris has developed several district cool water distribution networks (Climespace) for air conditioning purposes, one in the Halles district (central Paris) linked with the Louvre museum, one in the Opera district (with large department stores) and one in the east of paris (Bercy). Each of these networks has a cool water production plant, the one at the Halles producing also hot water and safety electric power. The characteristics of the equipment (heat pumps, refrigerating machinery, storage...) are described. The pipes are laid in the city sewage network, and the cool carrier is water. The various networks are centrally supervised at the Halles center

  5. Optimal irrigation water allocation for a center pivot using remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Esfahani, L.; McKee, M.

    2013-12-01

    Efficient irrigation can help avoid crop water stress, undesirable leaching of nutrients, and yield reduction due to water shortage, and runoff and soil erosion due to over irrigation. Gains in water use efficiency can be achieved when water application is precisely matched to the spatially distributed crop water demand. This is important to produce high quality crops and otherwise conserve water for greatest efficiency of use. Irrigation efficiency is a term which defines irrigation performance based on indicators such as irrigation uniformity, crop production, economic return and water resources sustainability. The present paper introduces a modeling approach for optimal water allocation to a center pivot irrigation unit in consideration of these types of indicators. Landsat images, weather data and field measurements were used to develop a soil water balance model using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The model includes two main modules, one for soil water forecasting and one for optimization of water allocation. The optimization module uses Genetic Algorithms (GA) to identify optimal crop water application rates based on the crop type, growing stage and sensitivity to water stress. The forecasting module allocates water through time across the area covered by the center pivot considering the results from the previous period of irrigation and the operational limitations of the center pivot irrigation system. The model was tested for a farm equipped with a modern sprinkler irrigation system in Scipio, Utah. The solution obtained from the model used up to 30 percent less water without reducing the benefits realized by the irrigator than traditional operating procedures.

  6. Land processes distributed active archive center product lifecycle plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daucsavage, John C.; Bennett, Stacie D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Data System Program worked together to establish, develop, and operate the Land Processes (LP) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) to provide stewardship for NASA’s land processes science data. These data are critical science assets that serve the land processes science community with potential value beyond any immediate research use, and therefore need to be accounted for and properly managed throughout their lifecycle. A fundamental LP DAAC objective is to enable permanent preservation of these data and information products. The LP DAAC accomplishes this by bridging data producers and permanent archival resources while providing intermediate archive services for data and information products.

  7. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murray, Regan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  8. Distribution of water in fresh cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Rinnan, A.

    2002-01-01

    Low-field (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation was used to measure water mobility and distribution of water in fresh cod fillets. The NMR relaxations were analysed with the so-called SLICING method giving uni-exponential profiles from which the transverse relaxation time (T(2...

  9. 76 FR 2711 - Cinram Distribution, LLC, a Subsidiary of Cinram International, Simi Valley Distribution Center...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... Remedy Staffing Services, Simi Valley, CA; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for... Cinram International, Simi Valley Distribution Center, include on-site leased workers from Labor Ready Southwest, Inc., and Select Remedy Staffing Services, Simi Valley, California. The notice was published...

  10. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Fujun

    2014-01-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Lyman alpha photons, since the Lyman alpha line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more ...

  11. Water losses dynamic modelling in water distribution networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puleo, Valeria; Milici, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    In the last decades, one of the main concerns of the water system managers have been the minimisation of water losses, that frequently reach values of 30% or even 70% of the volume supplying the water distribution network. The economic and social costs associated with water losses in modern water supply systems are rapidly rising to unacceptably high levels. Furthermore, the problem of the water losses assumes more and more importance mainly when periods of water scarcity occur or when not sufficient water supply takes part in areas with fast growth. In the present analysis, a dynamic model was used for estimating real and apparent losses of a real case study. A specific nodal demand model reflecting the user's tank installation and a specific apparent losses module were implemented. The results from the dynamic model were compared with the modelling estimation based on a steady-state approach.

  12. Characteristics of Trihalomethanes in Water Distribution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ming; ZHANG Jie; ZHANG Xin-yu; ZHENG Shuang-ying; LI Xin

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in an actual water distribution system using the raw water with high bromide ion concentration, the composition and concentration of trihalomethanes (THMs) formed by chlorination of the water in the presence of bromide ion were measured in a city water distribution system during one year. The results show that brominated THMs contributed a great part (83%89%) to the index for additive toxicity (ATI) and resulted in the ATI of most of the samples exceeding WHO guideline standard for total THMs (TTHMs), especially during the summer (rainy season). This indicates that the chlorination of water in the presence of bromide ion leaded to high ratios of brominated THMs to TTHMs. However, a visible increase in the concentration of THMs with increasing residence time in the distribution system was not observed. Additionally, based on alternatives analysis, packed tower aeration method is proposed to reduce THMs level of the finished water leaving the treatment plant.

  13. Sustainable Water Distribution Strategy with Smart Water Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongjoon Byeon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many problems that are encountered in regards to water balance and resources management are related to challenges of economic development under limited resources and tough competition among various water uses. The development of major infrastructure like airports in remote areas that have limited water resources is becoming a common problem. In order to overcome these difficulties, water management has to articulate and combine several resources in order to respond to various demands while preserving the ecological quality of the environment. The paper discusses the interest in implementing the Smart Water Grid concept on Yeongjongdo Island, which is the location of Korea’s main airport. This new concept is based on the connection of various water resources and their optimized management with new information technology solutions. The proposed system integrates water generated through rainfall, external water resources (i.e., metropolitan water distribution system, gray water and other types of alternative water resources. The paper analyses the feasibility of this approach and explores interest in the Smart Water Grid concept.

  14. Energy optimization of water distribution system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    In order to analyze pump operating scenarios for the system with the computer model, information on existing pumping equipment and the distribution system was collected. The information includes the following: component description and design criteria for line booster stations, booster stations with reservoirs, and high lift pumps at the water treatment plants; daily operations data for 1988; annual reports from fiscal year 1987/1988 to fiscal year 1991/1992; and a 1985 calibrated KYPIPE computer model of DWSD`s water distribution system which included input data for the maximum hour and average day demands on the system for that year. This information has been used to produce the inventory database of the system and will be used to develop the computer program to analyze the system.

  15. Water distribution and water use assessment in rice cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Bockari-Gevao

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to analyze the ways of water distribution in a rice growing area during the pre-saturation and normal irrigation supply periods and to assess water use (WU. The analyses were conducted using field data collected at the Besut rice irrigation scheme located in the state of Terengganu, Malaysia. The scheme comprises two sub-schemes, which are further subdivided into compartments and blocks. Based on field water requirements during the pre-saturation and normal irrigation supply periods and available flows at the intake structures, canal simulation was performed using the CanalMan Model. Results have shown that pre-saturation should not be done continuously unless flow rates are 9.00 m3/sec and 3.00 m3/sec for the Besut and Angga Barrages, respectively. If the respective flow rates fall below these values, then pre-saturation should be done in two phases. However, when the flow rate is between 5.00 and 5.50 m3/sec at Besut Barrage, pre-saturation is recommended to be carried out over three phases. During normal irrigation supply period, flow rates of 5.00 m3/sec and 1.50 m3/sec for the Besut and Angga Barrages respectively, are to be maintained for the whole irrigation scheme. In irrigation block-wise, two WU-based performance indices, namely, adequacy (AI and water productivity (WPI were computed. The average water productivity was 0.31 kg/m3 and 0.25 kg/m3 during the main season and off-season, respectively. Two WU indices, WPI and AI, ranked the performance of the blocks and identified those having problems in water allocation and utilization. These indices revealed that the blocks using more water performed poorly in terms of water productivity. These indices could be used to rectify uneven distribution of water in the scheme.

  16. CLIPS based decision support system for Water Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kulshrestha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Water Distribution Networks (WDN are managed by experts, who, over the years of their association and responsibility, acquire an empirical knowledge of the system and, characteristically, this knowledge remains largely confined to their respective personal domains. In the event of any new information and/or emergence of a new problem, these experts apply simple heuristics to design corrective measures and cognitively seek to predict network performance. The human interference leads to inefficient utilization of resources and unfair distribution. Researchers over the past, have tried to address to the problem and they have applied Artificial Intelligence (AI tool to automate the decision process and encode the heuristic rules. The application of AI tool in the field of WDN management is meager. This paper describes a component of an ongoing research initiative to investigate the potential application of artificial intelligence package CLIPS (short for C Language Integrated Production System, developed at NASA/Johnson Space Center in the development of an expert decision support system for management of a water distribution network. The system aims to meet several concerns of modern water utility managers as it attempts to formalize operational and management experiences, and provides a frame work for assisting water utility managers even in the absence of expert personnel.

  17. 基于CFLP模型的物流配送中心选址问题研究——以石河子XX纯净水公司为例%Study on the Logistics Distribution Center Location Based on the CFLP Model --Take Shihezi XX Pure Water Co., Ltd as A Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马雪鸿; 李光明

    2012-01-01

    如何建立一个有效的纯净水商业流通系统,是众多中小型饮用纯净水公司未来发展的关键,而配送中心的选址及网点建设又是其重点之一。新疆的桶装饮用纯净水市场在近几年已得到快速发展,但产品同质化严重、行业整体利润较低。纯净水公司应运用科学合理的方法构建选址模型,建立合适有效的配送网点,完善公司配送网点的建设工作,提高配送效率,促进纯净水公司自身发展,从而增加企业的经济收益。%How to establish an effective commercial circulation system for pure water is the key to the future development of many small and medium-sized drinking pure water enterprises, while the site selection of distribution center and net construction is the key point among them. The market of barreled pure drinking water has developed rapidly recent years in Xinjiang, but products homogeneity is serious and whole industry is in a low profit. The Pure Water Enterprises should use scientific and reasonable methods to build the site selection model and establish effective and appropriate distribution network, so as to perfect the construction of distribution network, to improve the distribution efficiency, to promote the company's development, thereby to increase the economic benefits of the enterprise.

  18. Cyber Graph Queries for Geographically Distributed Data Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonathan W. [Mail Stop, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Collins, Michael [Christopher Newport Univ., VA (United States); Kearns, Aaron [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Phillips, Cynthia A. [Mail Stop, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Saia, Jared [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    We present new algorithms for a distributed model for graph computations motivated by limited information sharing we first discussed in [20]. Two or more independent entities have collected large social graphs. They wish to compute the result of running graph algorithms on the entire set of relationships. Because the information is sensitive or economically valuable, they do not wish to simply combine the information in a single location. We consider two models for computing the solution to graph algorithms in this setting: 1) limited-sharing: the two entities can share only a polylogarithmic size subgraph; 2) low-trust: the entities must not reveal any information beyond the query answer, assuming they are all honest but curious. We believe this model captures realistic constraints on cooperating autonomous data centers. We have algorithms in both setting for s - t connectivity in both models. We also give an algorithm in the low-communication model for finding a planted clique. This is an anomaly- detection problem, finding a subgraph that is larger and denser than expected. For both the low- communication algorithms, we exploit structural properties of social networks to prove perfor- mance bounds better than what is possible for general graphs. For s - t connectivity, we use known properties. For planted clique, we propose a new property: bounded number of triangles per node. This property is based upon evidence from the social science literature. We found that classic examples of social networks do not have the bounded-triangles property. This is because many social networks contain elements that are non-human, such as accounts for a business, or other automated accounts. We describe some initial attempts to distinguish human nodes from automated nodes in social networks based only on topological properties.

  19. SWAG: Survey of Water and Ammonia in the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Ott, Jürgen; Krieger, Nico; Rickert, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    SWAG ("Survey of Water and Ammonia in the Galactic Center") is a multi-line interferometric survey toward the Center of the Milky Way conducted with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The survey region spans the entire ~400pc Central Molecular Zone and comprises ~42 spectral lines at pc spatial and sub-km/s spectral resolution. In addition, we deeply map continuum intensity, spectral index, and polarization at the frequencies where synchrotron, free-free, and thermal dust sources emit. The observed spectral lines include many transitions of ammonia, which we use to construct maps of molecular gas temperature, opacity and gas formation temperature (see poster by Nico Krieger et al., this volume). Water masers pinpoint the sites of active star formation and other lines are good tracers for density, radiation field, shocks, and ionization. This extremely rich survey forms a perfect basis to construct maps of the physical parameters of the gas in this extreme environment.

  20. Distribution of Water Vapor in Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Melnick, Gary J; Snell, Ronald L; Bergin, Edwin A; Hollenbach, David J; Kaufman, Michael J; Li, Di; Neufeld, David A

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of a large-area study of water vapor along the Orion Molecular Cloud ridge, the purpose of which was to determine the depth-dependent distribution of gas-phase water in dense molecular clouds. We find that the water vapor measured toward 77 spatial positions along the face-on Orion ridge, excluding positions surrounding the outflow associated with BN/KL and IRc2, display integrated intensities that correlate strongly with known cloud surface tracers such as CN, C2H, 13CO J =5-4, and HCN, and less well with the volume tracer N2H+. Moreover, at total column densities corresponding to Av < 15 mag., the ratio of H2O to C18O integrated intensities shows a clear rise approaching the cloud surface. We show that this behavior cannot be accounted for by either optical depth or excitation effects, but suggests that gas-phase water abundances fall at large Av. These results are important as they affect measures of the true water-vapor abundance in molecular clouds by highlighting the limitations...

  1. Manganese deposition in drinking water distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Tammie L., E-mail: Tammie.Gerke@miamioh.edu [Department of Geology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0013 (United States); Little, Brenda J., E-mail: brenda.little@nrlssc.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529 (United States); Barry Maynard, J., E-mail: maynarjb@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Geology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0013 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This study provides a physicochemical assessment of manganese deposits on brass and lead components from two fully operational drinking water distributions systems. One of the systems was maintained with chlorine; the other, with secondary chloramine disinfection. Synchrotron-based in-situ micro X-ray adsorption near edge structure was used to assess the mineralogy. In-situ micro X-ray fluorescence mapping was used to demonstrate the spatial relationships between manganese and potentially toxic adsorbed metal ions. The Mn deposits ranged in thickness from 0.01 to 400 μm. They were composed primarily of Mn oxides/oxhydroxides, birnessite (Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+}) and hollandite (Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 4+}), and a Mn silicate, braunite (Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 4+}), in varying proportions. Iron, chromium, and strontium, in addition to the alloying elements lead and copper, were co-located within manganese deposits. With the exception of iron, all are related to specific health issues and are of concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The specific properties of Mn deposits, i.e., adsorption of metals ions, oxidation of metal ions and resuspension are discussed with respect to their influence on drinking water quality. - Highlights: • Oxidation and deposition of Mn deposits in drinking water distribution pipes • In-situ synchrotron-based μ-XANES and μ-XRF mapping • Toxic metal sorption in Mn deposits.

  2. Hydrology and tree-distribution patterns of karst wetlands at Arnold Engineering Development Center, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    Flooding regimes, ground-water interactions, and tree distribution patterns were determined in seasonally flooded sinkhole wetlands at Arnold Engineering Development Center near Manchester, Tennessee. The wetlands are ecologically significant because they support coastal-plain plants and animals far from their typical ranges. Surface-water stage, ground-water levels, rainfall, and streamflow were monitored at or near five wetland sites. Sinking Pond, Willow Oak Swamp, and Westall Swamp are compound sinks with depths greater than 2.5 meters, visible internal drains, and complex bottom topography dominated by coalesced sinkholes and connecting channels. Tupelo Swamp and Goose Pond are karst pans with depths less than 1.5 meters, flat bottoms, and without visible internal drains. Stage rose and fell abruptly in the compound sinks. Maximum water depths ranged from 2.6 meters in Westall Swamp to 3.5 meters in Sinking Pond. Water levels in wells adjacent to Sinking Pond and Westall Swamp rose and fell abruptly, corresponding closely to surface-water stage throughout periods of high water. The two karst pans filled and drained more gradually, but remained flooded longer than the compound sinks. The maximum recorded water depths were 1.1 meters in Tupelo Swamp and 0.7 meter in Goose Pond. Water levels in nearby wells remained lower than the stage in the pans throughout the study period. Tree species were identified and the elevations and diameters of individual trees were measured along 10 transects. Two transects crossed Sinking Pond, two crossed Tupelo Swamp, and one crossed Willow Oak Swamp. The remaining five transects crossed intermittent drainageways that carry flow into or out of Sinking Pond. Transects through ponds had fewer trees but more basal area per unit area of land surface than did transects through channels. Water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica L.) dominated the interior of Tupelo Swamp and had minimal overlap in terms of elevation and flooding duration with other

  3. Evaluation of potential human health risk and investigation of drinking water quality in Isparta city center (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Simge; Davraz, Aysen

    2016-06-01

    Isparta city center is selected as a work area in this study because the public believes that the tap water is dirty and harmful. In this study, the city's drinking water in the distribution system and other spring waters which are used as drinking water in this region were investigated from the point of water quality and health risk assessment. Water samples were collected from major drinking water springs, tap waters, treatment plants and dam pond in the Isparta province center. Ca-Mg-HCO3, Mg-Ca-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3, Ca-HCO3, Ca-HCO3-SO4 and Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 are dominant water types. When compared to drinking water guidelines established by World Health Organization and Turkey, much greater attention should be paid to As, Br, Fe, F, NH4, PO4 through varied chemicals above the critical values. The increases of As, Fe, F, NH4 and PO4 are related to water-rock interaction. In tap waters, the increases of As and Fe are due to corrosion of pipes in drinking water distribution systems. The major toxic and carcinogenic chemicals within drinking water are As and Br for both tap water and spring water. Also, F is the non-carcinogenic chemical for only spring waters in the study area.

  4. Corroded scale analysis from water distribution pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaković-Ognjanović Vladana N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study was the steel pipes that are part of Belgrade's drinking water supply network. In order to investigate the mutual effects of corrosion and water quality, the corrosion scales on the pipes were analyzed. The idea was to improve control of corrosion processes and prevent impact of corrosion on water quality degradation. The instrumental methods for corrosion scales characterization used were: scanning electron microscopy (SEM, for the investigation of corrosion scales of the analyzed samples surfaces, X-ray diffraction (XRD, for the analysis of the presence of solid forms inside scales, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, for the microstructural analysis of the corroded scales, and BET adsorption isotherm for the surface area determination. Depending on the composition of water next to the pipe surface, corrosion of iron results in the formation of different compounds and solid phases. The composition and structure of the iron scales in the drinking water distribution pipes depends on the type of the metal and the composition of the aqueous phase. Their formation is probably governed by several factors that include water quality parameters such as pH, alkalinity, buffer intensity, natural organic matter (NOM concentration, and dissolved oxygen (DO concentration. Factors such as water flow patterns, seasonal fluctuations in temperature, and microbiological activity as well as water treatment practices such as application of corrosion inhibitors can also influence corrosion scale formation and growth. Therefore, the corrosion scales found in iron and steel pipes are expected to have unique features for each site. Compounds that are found in iron corrosion scales often include goethite, lepidocrocite, magnetite, hematite, ferrous oxide, siderite, ferrous hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, ferrihydrite, calcium carbonate and green rusts. Iron scales have characteristic features that include: corroded floor, porous core that contains

  5. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... resistant materials. The containers shall be marked with the words “Drinking Water.” ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in...

  6. Analysis of Bullwhip Effect for Two-level Supply Chain with Multi-distributed Centers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LirongCui

    2004-01-01

    The bullwhip effect is studied for two-level supply chain with multi-distributed centers. First the model for two-level supply chain with multi-distributed centers is established under some assumptions, then the mathematical description is given for it. Finally a simple example is showed to illustrate the results obtained in the paper.

  7. Data flows and water woes: The Utah Data Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mél Hogan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a new materialist line of questioning that looks at the agential potentialities of water and its entanglements with Big Data and surveillance, this article explores how the recent Snowden revelations about the National Security Agency (NSA have reignited media scholars to engage with the infrastructures that enable intercepting, hosting, and processing immeasurable amounts of data. Focusing on the expansive architecture, location, and resource dependence of the NSA’s Utah Data Center, I demonstrate how surveillance and privacy can never be disconnected from the material infrastructures that allow and render natural the epistemological state of mass surveillance. Specifically, I explore the NSA’s infrastructure and the million of gallons of water it requires daily to cool its servers, while located in one of the driest states in the US. Complicating surveillance beyond the NSA, as also already imbricated with various social media companies, this article questions the emplacement and impact of corporate data centers more generally, and the changes they are causing to the landscape and local economies. I look at how water is an intriguing and politically relevant part of the surveillance infrastructure and how it has been constructed as the main tool for activism in this case, and how it may eventually help transform the public’s conceptualization of Big Data, as deeply material.

  8. [Third World cities: points of accumulation, centers of distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, W R; Mcgee, T G

    1985-01-01

    Attention was called over 3 decades ago to the very rapid growth of Third World cities and the significance of the differences between their patterns of urbanization and those of industrialized countries. Their demographic growth occurred much faster and depended much more heavily on high fertility, their economies were geared more to export of raw materials than to manufacturing and were unable to create massive numbers of jobs to absorb the growing labor force except in the unproductive tertiary sector, and it appeared unlikely that they would be able to produce entrepreneurial classes of their own. Several economic developments during the 1970s affected the world economy and the patterns of urbanization of the Third World: the decline of the principal capitalist economies and the multiple increases in the price of oil, the floating exchange rate, the considerable increase in consumer goods, and the increasing costs of labor in industrialized countries, among others, created new conditions. World economic interdependence, international control of investment and exchange, and volume and mobility of capital increased at a time of rapid economic growth in some Third World countries, especially those whose governments took an aggressive role in promoting growth and investment. Some Third World cities now seem to be developing according to a more western model, but the same cannot be said of all Third World countries, and international economic evolution appears to have led to increasing polarization between countries as well as within them. The 1 domain where a certain convergence has occurred is consumption, beginning with the privileged classes and filtering to the lower income groups. Consumption of collective and individual consumer goods, which is concentrated in the largest cities, increases dependence on imports, technology, knowledge, and usually debt. The modern productive sector and its distribution activities become implanted in the cities to such a degree

  9. Assessment of water resources for nuclear energy centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuels, G.

    1976-09-01

    Maps of the conterminous United States showing the rivers with sufficient flow to be of interest as potential sites for nuclear energy centers are presented. These maps show the rivers with (1) mean annual flows greater than 3000 cfs, with the flow rates identified for ranges of 3000 to 6000, 6000 to 12,000, 12,000 to 24,000, and greater than 24,000 cfs; (2) monthly, 20-year low flows greater than 1500 cfs, with the flow rates identified for ranges of 1500 to 3000, 3000 to 6000, 6000 to 12,000, and greater than 12,000 cfs; and (3) annual, 20-year low flows greater than 1500 cfs, with the flow rates identified for ranges of 1500 to 3000, 3000 to 6000, 6000 to 12,000, and greater than 12,000 cfs. Criteria relating river flow rates required for various size generating stations both for sites located on reservoirs and for sites without local storage of cooling water are discussed. These criteria are used in conjunction with plant water consumption rates (based on both instantaneous peak and annual average usage rates) to estimate the installed generating capacity that may be located at one site or within a river basin. Projections of future power capacity requirements, future demand for water (both withdrawals and consumption), and regions of expected water shortages are also presented. Regional maps of water availability, based on annual, 20-year low flows, are also shown. The feasibility of locating large energy centers in these regions is discussed.

  10. Global resilience analysis of water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Kegong; Sweetapple, Chris; Farmani, Raziyeh; Fu, Guangtao; Ward, Sarah; Butler, David

    2016-12-01

    Evaluating and enhancing resilience in water infrastructure is a crucial step towards more sustainable urban water management. As a prerequisite to enhancing resilience, a detailed understanding is required of the inherent resilience of the underlying system. Differing from traditional risk analysis, here we propose a global resilience analysis (GRA) approach that shifts the objective from analysing multiple and unknown threats to analysing the more identifiable and measurable system responses to extreme conditions, i.e. potential failure modes. GRA aims to evaluate a system's resilience to a possible failure mode regardless of the causal threat(s) (known or unknown, external or internal). The method is applied to test the resilience of four water distribution systems (WDSs) with various features to three typical failure modes (pipe failure, excess demand, and substance intrusion). The study reveals GRA provides an overview of a water system's resilience to various failure modes. For each failure mode, it identifies the range of corresponding failure impacts and reveals extreme scenarios (e.g. the complete loss of water supply with only 5% pipe failure, or still meeting 80% of demand despite over 70% of pipes failing). GRA also reveals that increased resilience to one failure mode may decrease resilience to another and increasing system capacity may delay the system's recovery in some situations. It is also shown that selecting an appropriate level of detail for hydraulic models is of great importance in resilience analysis. The method can be used as a comprehensive diagnostic framework to evaluate a range of interventions for improving system resilience in future studies.

  11. Water content distribution in the surface layer of Maoping slope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuewu; CHEN Huixin; LIU Qingquan; GONG Xin; ZHANG Dawei; LI Lianxiang

    2005-01-01

    The water content distribution in the surface layer of Maoping slope has been studied by testing the water content at 31 control sites. The water content profiles at these sites have also been determined. The water content distributions at different segments have been obtained by using the Kriging method of geostatistics. By comparing the water content distributions with the landform of the slope, it was shown that the water content is closely dependent on the landform of the slope. The water content distribution in the surface layer provided a fundamental basis for landslide predication and treatment.

  12. Advanced feed water distributing system for WWER 440 steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O.; Klinga, J. [Energovyzkum Ltd, Brno (Switzerland); Grazl, K. [Vitkovice s.c., Ostrava (Switzerland); Tischler, J.; Mihalik, M. [SEP Atomove Elektrarne Bohunice (Slovakia)

    1995-12-31

    The original designed feed water distributing system was replaced by an advanced one. The characteristics of both feed water distributing systems have been measured and evaluated. The paper deals with the problems of measurement and evaluation of both feed water distributing system characteristics and comparison of statistical data obtained. (orig.). 3 refs.

  13. Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PO.DAAC is an element of the Earth Observing System Data Information System (EOSDIS). PO.DAAC's primary responsibility is to provide distribution and archive support...

  14. Telecommunications Services Required by Distributed and Interconnected Office Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-20

    by the Defense Communications Engineering Center (DCEC R720). Released by Under authority of H. Wong, Head H.D. Smith, Head Shore Systems Division ...the end of 1979 twelve divisions were ucing WP systems, six more divisions were awaiting equipment delivery and twenty other divisions were under...The development of a " celular system" is an advanced form of multi-channel trunking which will permit expanded and more efficient use of mobile radio

  15. EQUITY EVALUATION OF PADDY IRRIGATION WATER DISTRIBUTION BY SOCIETY-JUSTICE-WATER DISTRIBUTION RULE HYPOTHESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanji, Hajime; Kiri, Hirohide; Kobayashi, Shintaro

    When total supply is smaller than total demand, it is difficult to apply the paddy irrigation water distribution rule. The gap must be narrowed by decreasing demand. Historically, the upstream served rule, rotation schedule, or central schedule weight to irrigated area was adopted. This paper proposes the hypothesis that these rules are dependent on social justice, a hypothesis called the "Society-Justice-Water Distribution Rule Hypothesis". Justice, which means a balance of efficiency and equity of distribution, is discussed under the political philosophy of utilitarianism, liberalism (Rawls), libertarianism, and communitarianism. The upstream served rule can be derived from libertarianism. The rotation schedule and central schedule can be derived from communitarianism. Liberalism can provide arranged schedule to adjust supply and demand based on "the Difference Principle". The authors conclude that to achieve efficiency and equity, liberalism may provide the best solution after modernization.

  16. Study on hydrodynamics associated with quality of water in water distribution system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣; 顾大明; 赵洪宾; 袁一星

    2002-01-01

    The quality of water in water distribution system may vary with both location and time. Water quality models were used to predict spatial and temporal variation of water quality throughout the water system. Before analyzing the variations of water quality, it is necessary to determine the hydrodynamics in water distribution system. Analytical methods for the flow path from water sources to the observed point and water age of every observed node are proposed. This paper makes a further study on water supply route of multi-sources water supply network system. These studies have been applied to an actual water distribution system.

  17. Guidelines for transient analysis in water transmission and distribution systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pothof, Ivo; Karney, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    All water systems leak, and many supply systems do so considerably, with water losses typically of approximately 20% of the water production. The IWA Water Loss Task Force aims for a significant reduction of annual water losses by drafting documents to assist practitioners and others to prevent, monitor and mitigate water losses in water transmission and distribution systems. One of the causes of water losses are transient phenomena, caused by normal and accidental pump and valve operations. ...

  18. Manganese deposition in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tammie L; Little, Brenda J; Barry Maynard, J

    2016-01-15

    This study provides a physicochemical assessment of manganese deposits on brass and lead components from two fully operational drinking water distributions systems. One of the systems was maintained with chlorine; the other, with secondary chloramine disinfection. Synchrotron-based in-situ micro X-ray adsorption near edge structure was used to assess the mineralogy. In-situ micro X-ray fluorescence mapping was used to demonstrate the spatial relationships between manganese and potentially toxic adsorbed metal ions. The Mn deposits ranged in thickness from 0.01 to 400 μm. They were composed primarily of Mn oxides/oxhydroxides, birnessite (Mn(3+) and Mn(4+)) and hollandite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), and a Mn silicate, braunite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), in varying proportions. Iron, chromium, and strontium, in addition to the alloying elements lead and copper, were co-located within manganese deposits. With the exception of iron, all are related to specific health issues and are of concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The specific properties of Mn deposits, i.e., adsorption of metals ions, oxidation of metal ions and resuspension are discussed with respect to their influence on drinking water quality.

  19. Statistical distribution of nonlinear random wave height in shallow water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Here we present a statistical model of random wave,using Stokes wave theory of water wave dynamics,as well as a new nonlinear probability distribution function of wave height in shallow water.It is more physically logical to use the wave steepness of shallow water and the factor of shallow water as the parameters in the wave height distribution.The results indicate that the two parameters not only could be parameters of the distribution function of wave height but also could reflect the degree of wave height distribution deviation from the Rayleigh distribution.The new wave height distribution overcomes the problem of Rayleigh distribution that the prediction of big wave is overestimated and the general wave is underestimated.The prediction of small probability wave height value of new distribution is also smaller than that of Rayleigh distribution.The effect of wave steepness in shallow water is similar to that in deep water;but the factor of shallow water lowers the wave height distribution of the general wave with the reduced factor of wave steepness.It also makes the wave height distribution of shallow water more centralized.The results indicate that the new distribution fits the in situ measurements much better than other distributions.

  20. Self-Powered WSN for Distributed Data Center Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Davide; Passerone, Roberto; Rizzon, Luca; Rossi, Maurizio; Sartori, Davide

    2016-01-02

    Monitoring environmental parameters in data centers is gathering nowadays increasing attention from industry, due to the need of high energy efficiency of cloud services. We present the design and the characterization of an energy neutral embedded wireless system, prototyped to monitor perpetually environmental parameters in servers and racks. It is powered by an energy harvesting module based on Thermoelectric Generators, which converts the heat dissipation from the servers. Starting from the empirical characterization of the energy harvester, we present a power conditioning circuit optimized for the specific application. The whole system has been enhanced with several sensors. An ultra-low-power micro-controller stacked over the energy harvesting provides an efficient power management. Performance have been assessed and compared with the analytical model for validation.

  1. Self-Powered WSN for Distributed Data Center Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Brunelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring environmental parameters in data centers is gathering nowadays increasing attention from industry, due to the need of high energy efficiency of cloud services. We present the design and the characterization of an energy neutral embedded wireless system, prototyped to monitor perpetually environmental parameters in servers and racks. It is powered by an energy harvesting module based on Thermoelectric Generators, which converts the heat dissipation from the servers. Starting from the empirical characterization of the energy harvester, we present a power conditioning circuit optimized for the specific application. The whole system has been enhanced with several sensors. An ultra-low-power micro-controller stacked over the energy harvesting provides an efficient power management. Performance have been assessed and compared with the analytical model for validation.

  2. Self-Powered WSN for Distributed Data Center Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Davide; Passerone, Roberto; Rizzon, Luca; Rossi, Maurizio; Sartori, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring environmental parameters in data centers is gathering nowadays increasing attention from industry, due to the need of high energy efficiency of cloud services. We present the design and the characterization of an energy neutral embedded wireless system, prototyped to monitor perpetually environmental parameters in servers and racks. It is powered by an energy harvesting module based on Thermoelectric Generators, which converts the heat dissipation from the servers. Starting from the empirical characterization of the energy harvester, we present a power conditioning circuit optimized for the specific application. The whole system has been enhanced with several sensors. An ultra-low-power micro-controller stacked over the energy harvesting provides an efficient power management. Performance have been assessed and compared with the analytical model for validation. PMID:26729135

  3. Rack Distribution Effects on MPLM Center of Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, John T.

    2005-01-01

    This research was in support of exploring the need for more flexible "center of gravity (CG) specifications than those currently established by NASA for the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM). The MPLM is the cargo carrier for International Space Station (ISS) missions. The MPLM provides locations for 16 standard racks, as shown in Figure 1; not all positions need to be filled in any given flight. The MPLM coordinate system (X(sub M), Y(sub M), Z(sub M)) is illustrated as well. For this project, the primary missions of interest were those which supply the ISS and remove excess materials on the return flights. These flights use a predominate number of "Resupply Stowage Racks" (RSR) and "Resupply Stowage Platforms" (RSP). In these two types of racks, various smaller items are stowed. Hence, these racks will exhibit a considerable range of mass values as well as a range as to where their individual CG are located.

  4. Biological stability in drinking water distribution systems: A novel approach for systematic microbial water quality monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prest, E.I.E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to achieve biological stability in drinking water distribution systems Drinking water is distributed from the treatment facility to consumers through extended man-made piping systems. The World Health Organization drinking water guidelines (2006) stated that “Water entering the distribut

  5. Science center capabilities to monitor and investigate Michigan’s water resources, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Julia A.; Givens, Carrie E.

    2016-09-06

    Michigan faces many challenges related to water resources, including flooding, drought, water-quality degradation and impairment, varying water availability, watershed-management issues, stormwater management, aquatic-ecosystem impairment, and invasive species. Michigan’s water resources include approximately 36,000 miles of streams, over 11,000 inland lakes, 3,000 miles of shoreline along the Great Lakes (MDEQ, 2016), and groundwater aquifers throughout the State.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) works in cooperation with local, State, and other Federal agencies, as well as tribes and universities, to provide scientific information used to manage the water resources of Michigan. To effectively assess water resources, the USGS uses standardized methods to operate streamgages, water-quality stations, and groundwater stations. The USGS also monitors water quality in lakes and reservoirs, makes periodic measurements along rivers and streams, and maintains all monitoring data in a national, quality-assured, hydrologic database.The USGS in Michigan investigates the occurrence, distribution, quantity, movement, and chemical and biological quality of surface water and groundwater statewide. Water-resource monitoring and scientific investigations are conducted statewide by USGS hydrologists, hydrologic technicians, biologists, and microbiologists who have expertise in data collection as well as various scientific specialties. A support staff consisting of computer-operations and administrative personnel provides the USGS the functionality to move science forward. Funding for USGS activities in Michigan comes from local and State agencies, other Federal agencies, direct Federal appropriations, and through the USGS Cooperative Matching Funds, which allows the USGS to partially match funding provided by local and State partners.This fact sheet provides an overview of the USGS current (2016) capabilities to monitor and study Michigan’s vast water resources. More

  6. Spatial distribution of the radon concentration in soil and subterranean water in the Nuclear Center of Mexico and its surrounding using a geographical information system; Distribucion espacial de la concentracion de radon en suelo y agua subterranea en el Centro Nuclear de Mexico y sus alrededores utilizando un sistema de informacion geografica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, S.; Pena, P.; Lopez, M.B.E.; Balcazar, M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Madrigal, D. [UAEM, Facultad de Geografia, 50000 Toluca, estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The radon concentration in soil of the Nuclear Center of Mexico using solid detectors of nuclear traces (LR 115, type ll) and in water of two aquifers of the Asuncion Tepexoyuca, by means of the liquid scintillation technique it was determined; both places located in the Ocoyoacac municipality, Estado de Mexico. The analysis of spatial distribution it was supported by means of a Geographic Information System. The results of the radon concentration in soil, they registered an average of 2. 64 kBq m{sup -3} in the study area, the more high average value it was of 5. 25 kBq m{sup -3} in the station 12-ZM (Military Area) and the minimum value was of 0. 54 kBq m{sup -3} in the point 7-CO (Dining room). In the radon concentration in water of La Perita it was observed an average value 0.52 Bq L{sup -1} and in El Tunel it was of 0.7 Bq L{sup -1}. (Author)

  7. Humidity distribution affected by freely exposed water surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Popok, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Accurate models for the water vapor flux at a water-air interface are required in various scientific, reliability and civil engineering aspects. Here, a study of humidity distribution in a container with air and freely exposed water is presented. A model predicting a spatial distribution and time...

  8. Distributed Monitoring and Control System of Bearing Test and Inspection Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Distributed bearing test center monitoring and controlsystem based on CAN bus is designed in this paper. It canmonitor bearing test process, collect test data, analyze vibrationsignals, extract features of bearing failure and diagnose bearingfaults. The system has been used in a bearing test and inspec-tion center of a bearing plant successfully.

  9. Based on Intelligent Robot of E-business Distribution Center Operation Mode Research

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    According to E-business distribution center operation mode in domestic and advanced experience drawing lessons at home and abroad, this paper based on intelligent robot researches E-business distribution center operation mode. And it proposes the innovation logistics storage in E-business and sorting integration system, and elaborates its principle, characteristics, as well as studies its business mode and logistics process, and its parameters and working mode of AGV equipment.

  10. INTRA URBAN AIR TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTIONS IN HISTORIC URBAN CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira Jamei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the urban heat island effect in Malaysian historic town Malacca through seven mobile traverses, as carried out on 10 December 2011. It aims to identify the intra-urban air temperature differences between heritage core zone, new development area and outskirts of the city. Air temperature variations were also analyzed across three different zones; namely the outskirts, the heritage site and the city center district. Heat index values were then calculated based on air temperature and relative humidity to gauge the level of outdoor thermal comfort within the study area. Based on the indications, one may conclude that the heritage place’s core zone is currently threatened by escalating temperatures and that its current temperature range falls within the “caution” and “extreme caution” categories. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed between the peak temperatures of the old city quarters and newer areas; despite the disparities in their urban forms. Therefore, it is hoped that the study, with its implications, will be able to influence future environmental consideration in heritage city of Melaka.

  11. NASA Langley Research Center's distributed mass storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Juliet Z.; Humes, D. Creig

    1993-01-01

    There is a trend in institutions with high performance computing and data management requirements to explore mass storage systems with peripherals directly attached to a high speed network. The Distributed Mass Storage System (DMSS) Project at NASA LaRC is building such a system and expects to put it into production use by the end of 1993. This paper presents the design of the DMSS, some experiences in its development and use, and a performance analysis of its capabilities. The special features of this system are: (1) workstation class file servers running UniTree software; (2) third party I/O; (3) HIPPI network; (4) HIPPI/IPI3 disk array systems; (5) Storage Technology Corporation (STK) ACS 4400 automatic cartridge system; (6) CRAY Research Incorporated (CRI) CRAY Y-MP and CRAY-2 clients; (7) file server redundancy provision; and (8) a transition mechanism from the existent mass storage system to the DMSS.

  12. DISTRIBUTION OF CONGENITAL HEART DISEASES AT TERTIARY CARE CENTER: SINGLE CENTER EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The current study was undertaken at a tertiary care center, Bhopal, MP, India, with the objective of establishing frequency of occurrence of congenital heart diseases by echocardiography. MATERIALS AND METHOD 10,000 consecutive cases undergoing Echo Color Doppler in the Cardiology Department Hamidia Hospital, Bhopal, between 1st Jan 2009 and July 2011 were analysed. Echo CD was performed by consultant cardiologist using Acuson Aspen Color Doppler machine following the ASE guidelines. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS In the present study out of 10,000consecutive cases undergoing echo 648 were identified to having congenital heart diseases. Isolated VSD (30.5%, isolated ASD (23.6% PDA (9% and TOF (8.3% were commonest defect observed. Most common congenital heart disease found in the present study is VSD and is most prevalent in males and is highest among 0-5 yrs.

  13. Planned Distribution Center for Cerdo Real Meat Products in District IV-Batangas Province, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aile T. Amorado

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the optimal location for BUKLOD-UNLAD Multi-purpose Cooperative (BUKLOD’s CERDO Real Meat products distribution centers and to identify the market condition once the optimal location was identified. The said cooperative from Dagatan, a barangay of Taysan, Batangas, Philippines identified the need to create distribution center specifically in District IV of Batangas Province due to the growing demand for their real meat products in the area. Hence to address this need, a study to identify for its optimal location was requested by BUKLOD from the researchers. First, interviews with the management and members of the cooperative were done by the researchers to identify the requirements in establishing a distribution center. In the same way, consultations with the 7 municipalities of District IV were piloted to inform them accordingly about the said project. Moreover the researchers also referred to the Comprehensive Land Used Plan 2012-2022 of each municipality provided by the Provincial Planning and Development Office along with geographical maps gathered from the Provincial Engineers Office to acquire specific data on locations of the involved municipalities. Through various facility planning tools such as Factor Rating Method, Analytical Hierarchy Process and Center of Gravity, the researchers identified Rosario, Batangas as the best location for establishing the distribution center. After a market study was conducted, the researchers further proved the viability of establishing BUKLOD’s CERDO’s products’ distribution center in the area.

  14. The function of the earth observing system - Data information system Distributed Active Archive Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    The functionality of the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) which are significant elements of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is discussed. Each DAAC encompasses the information management system, the data archival and distribution system, and the product generation system. The EOSDIS DAACs are expected to improve the access to earth science data set needed for global change research.

  15. Measurements and predictions of the air distribution systems in high compute density (Internet) data centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jinkyun [HIMEC (Hanil Mechanical Electrical Consultants) Ltd., Seoul 150-103 (Korea); Department of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea); Lim, Taesub; Kim, Byungseon Sean [Department of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea)

    2009-10-15

    When equipment power density increases, a critical goal of a data center cooling system is to separate the equipment exhaust air from the equipment intake air in order to prevent the IT server from overheating. Cooling systems for data centers are primarily differentiated according to the way they distribute air. The six combinations of flooded and locally ducted air distribution make up the vast majority of all installations, except fully ducted air distribution methods. Once the air distribution system (ADS) is selected, there are other elements that must be integrated into the system design. In this research, the design parameters and IT environmental aspects of the cooling system were studied with a high heat density data center. CFD simulation analysis was carried out in order to compare the heat removal efficiencies of various air distribution systems. The IT environment of an actual operating data center is measured to validate a model for predicting the effect of different air distribution systems. A method for planning and design of the appropriate air distribution system is described. IT professionals versed in precision air distribution mechanisms, components, and configurations can work more effectively with mechanical engineers to ensure the specification and design of optimized cooling solutions. (author)

  16. Simulation of water temperature distribution in Fenhe Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-fang FAN; Min-quan FENG; Zhao LIU

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate the need of controlling the temperature of water discharged from the Fenhe Reservoir, the reservoir water temperature distribution was examined. A three-dimensional mathematical model was used to simulate the in-plane and vertical distribution of water temperature. The parameters of the model were calibrated with field data of the temperature distribution in the Fenhe Reservoir. The simulated temperature of discharged water is consistent with the measured data. The difference in temperature between the discharged water and the natural river channel is less than 3℃ under the current operating conditions. This will not significantly impact the environment of downstream areas.

  17. IMPLEMENTATION OF DISTRIBUTION CENTERS AS LOGISTICS COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE: STUDY ON OIL COMPANY DISTRIBUTOR IN SOUTHEAST BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Albernaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to present how distribution centers implementation in organization is able to provide a competitive advantage over its competitors. The qualitative research was based on multiple case studies. Thus, these cases were focused on lubricants segment national distribution company. It was intended to introduce improvements recognizing distribution centers (DCs importance as competitive advantage. DC Macaé-RJ and Piracicaba-SP were chosen to represent this scenario. Therefore, as results it was found increased sales and operating leverage of results within the market in which it operates.

  18. Optimizing Mexico’s Water Distribution Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    Programa de Agua Potable y Alcantarillado en Zonas Urbanas (APAZU), the federal government also advises and assists municipalities and water...of Health establishes potable water quality standards.12 The Secreteria de Hacienda y Credito Puliico (SHCP) manages water usage fee collection and

  19. Evaluation of water distribution under pivot irrigation systems using remote sensing imagery in eastern Nile delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Farg

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods for center pivot evaluation depend on the water depth distribution along the pivot arm. Estimation and mapping the water depth under pivot irrigation systems using remote sensing data is essential for calculating the coefficient of uniformity (CU of water distribution. This study focuses on estimating and mapping water depth using Landsat OLI 8 satellite data integrated with Heerman and Hein (1968 modified equation for center pivot evaluation. Landsat OLI 8 image was geometrically and radiometrically corrected to calculate the vegetation and water indices (NDVI and NDWI in addition to land surface temperature. Results of the statistical analysis showed that the collected water depth in catchment cans is also highly correlated negatively with NDVI. On the other hand water, depth was positively correlated with NDWI and LST. Multi-linear regression analysis using stepwise selection method was applied to estimate and map the water depth distribution. The results showed R2 and adjusted R2 0.93 and 0.88 respectively. Study area or field level verification was applied for estimation equation with correlation 0.93 between the collected water depth and estimated values.

  20. Modeling of residual chlorine in water distribution system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Water quality within water distribution system may vary with both location and time. Water quality models are used to predict the spatial and temporal variation of water quality throughout water system. A model of residual chlorine decay in water pipe has been developed,given the consumption of chlorine in reactions with chemicals in bulk water, bio-films on pipe wall, in corrosion process, and the mass transport of chlorine from bulk water to pipe wall. Analytical methods of the flow path from water sources to the observed point and the water age of every observed node were proposed. Model is used to predict the decay of residual chlorine in an actual distribution system. Good agreement between calculated and measured values was obtained.

  1. EBO feed water distribution system, experience gained from operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O. [Energovyzkum, Brno (Switzerland); Schmidt, S.; Mihalik, M. [Atomove Elektrarne Bohunice, Jaslovske Bohunice (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Advanced feed water distribution systems of the EBO design have been installed into steam generators at Units 3 and 4 of the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (VVER 440). Experiences gained from the operation of steam generators with the advanced feed water distribution systems are discussed in the paper. (orig.). 4 refs.

  2. Effect of the Distribution System on Drinking Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grünwald

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this paper is to characterise the main aspects of water quality deterioration in a distribution system. The effect of residence time on chlorine uptake and the formation and evolution of disinfection by-products in distributed drinking water are discussed.

  3. Vertical Distribution of Water at Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamppari, L. K.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    Phoenix results, combined with coordinated observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter of the Phoenix lander site, indicate that the water vapor is nonuniform (i.e., not well mixed) up to a calculated cloud condensation level. It is important to understand the mixing profile of water vapor because (a) the assumption of a well-mixed atmosphere up to a cloud condensation level is common in retrievals of column water abundances which are in turn used to understand the seasonal and interannual behavior of water, (b) there is a long history of observations and modeling that conclude both that water vapor is and is not well-mixed, and some studies indicate that the water vapor vertical mixing profile may, in fact, change with season and location, (c) the water vapor in the lowest part of the atmosphere is the reservoir that can exchange with the regolith and higher amounts may have an impact on the surface chemistry, and (d) greater water vapor abundances close to the surface may enhance surface exchange thereby reducing regional transport, which in turn has implications to the net transport of water vapor over seasonal and annual timescales.

  4. Optimal operation of water distribution networks under local pipe failures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yi-mei; G.Y.FU; CHI Hai-yan; LIU Ye

    2007-01-01

    The optimal operation of water distribution networks under local pipe failures, such as water main breaks, was proposed.Based on a hydraulic analysis and a simulation of water distribution networks, a macroscopic model for a network under a local pipe failure was established by the statistical regression. After the operation objectives under a local pipe failure were determined, the optimal operation model was developed and solved by the genetic algorithm. The program was developed and examined by a city distribution network. The optimal operation alternative shows that the electricity cost is saved approximately 11%, the income of the water corporation is increased approximately 5%, and the pressure in the water distribution network is distributed evenly to ensure the network safe operation. Therefore, the proposed method for optimal operation under local pipe failure is feasible and cost-effective.

  5. The Multi-zonal Balance Model of Temperature Distribution in Data Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-wei Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available For better characterizing the heat distribution of data centers, Multi-zone Model are considered in this paper, modularizing the cold and hot aisle space of a data center into several regular modules. Upon studying the thermal transmission between every two modules, the heat distribution of all cold and hot aisles in a data center was figured out. Firstly, while considering the thermal transmission, Multi-zone Heat-mass Balanced Model, a model improved from a traditional one, was established. Three modules, which are wall flow module, thermal plume module and thermal transmission module, consists the model. The model characterizes the thermal transmission in both vertical and horizontal direction by integrating the heat conduction of walls, wall convective heat exchange and convective heat exchange among sub-regions. Then, Multi-zone Heat Distribution Model were built by combining the established modules, wall flow module, thermal plume module and thermal transmission module, with Heat-mass Balanced Model. The new model makes the contribution to a detailed characterization of cold-and-hot-aisle-space heat distribution in a data center. Finally, the heat distribution model, combined with data in a case, was numerically simulated. Comparing the simulation results with data in the case, conclusion can be made that the Multi-zone Heat Distribution Model enjoys well consistency and robustness.

  6. Online location of seismic damage to a water distribution system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁建文

    2003-01-01

    As one of the most important urban lifeline systems, a water distribution system can be damaged under a strong earthquake, and the damage cannot easily be located, especially immediately after the event. This often causes tremendous difficulties to post-earthquake emergency response and recovery activities. This paper proposes a methodology to locate seismic damage to a water distribution system by monitoring watcr head online at some nodes in the water distribution system. An artificial neural network-based inverse analysis method is developed to estimate the water head variations at all nodes that are not monitored based on the water head variations at the nodes that are monitored. The methodology provides a quick, effective, and practical way to locate seismic damage to a water distribution system.

  7. TRANSPORTATION ISSUES FOR DECIDING WHEN TO DIPLOID A NEW DISTRIBUTION CENTER

    OpenAIRE

    MARCOS SINGER; PATRICIO DONOSO

    2000-01-01

    This work analyses the problem of defining when to diploid a new distribution center. The decision model considers the usual logistic cost drivers such as shipping, inventory, infrastructure and administration, focusing in the first one. The shipping cost driver is determined by the client coverage of the centers, which is calculated using a first order condition heuristic that takes into account the facilies' internal congestion. The model is applied to a company that operating in Santiago d...

  8. National Space Transportation System telemetry distribution and processing, NASA-JFK Space Center/Cape Canaveral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, George

    Prelaunch, launch, mission, and landing distribution of RF and hardline uplink/downlink information between Space Shuttle Orbiter/cargo elements, tracking antennas, and control centers at JSC, KSC, MSFC, GSFC, ESMC/RCC, and Sunnyvale are presented as functional block diagrams. Typical mismatch problems encountered during spacecraft-to-project control center telemetry transmissions are listed along with new items for future support enhancement.

  9. Microflora of drinking water distributed through decentralized supply systems (Tomsk)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvaschevskaya, A. A.; Nalivaiko, N. G.; Shestakova, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The paper considers microbiological quality of waters from decentralized water supply systems in Tomsk. It has been proved that there are numerous microbial contaminants of different types. The authors claim that the water distributed through decentralized supply systems is not safe to drink without preliminary treatment.

  10. ANIMATION AND VISUALIZATION OF WATER QUALITY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water may undergo a number of changes in the distribution system, making the quality of the water at the customer's tap different from the quality of the water that leaves the treatment plant. Such changes in quality may be caused by chemical or biological variations or by a loss...

  11. Research on Site Selection Model of Distribution Center of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the light of the practical situation of logistics distribution of agricultural products,we primarily select transportation factor,economic factor,environment factor,and other factors,to establish evaluation index system of site selection of distribution center of agricultural products.And then we adopt the analytic hierarchy process method to calculate weight of site selection of distribution center of agricultural products.Under the circumstance that the evaluation information is interval number,we use uncertain and multiple attribute decision making method to establish site selection model of distribution center of agricultural products.Finally,taking one city as an example,we discuss the application of this model in site selection of distribution center of agricultural products.The results of empirical analysis show that the model we established fully considers the randomness and uncertainty in the process of evaluation,so as to make the results of evaluation more objective,in line with reality.So the effect of evaluation is better as against the former real number evaluation calibration.

  12. Data and spatial studies of the USGS Texas Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrologists, geographers, geophysicists, and geologists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center (TXWSC) work in the USGS Water Mission Area on a diverse range of projects built on a foundation of spatial data. The TXWSC has developed sophisticated data and spatial-studies-related capabilities that are an integral part of the projects undertaken by the Center.

  13. Distribution of {sup 129}I in terrestrial surface water environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xuegao [State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Gong, Meng [College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Yi, Peng, E-mail: pengyi1915@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Aldahan, Ala [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Geology, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Yu, Zhongbo [State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Possnert, Göran [Tandem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Chen, Li [State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China)

    2015-10-15

    The global distribution of the radioactive isotope iodine-129 in surface waters (lakes and rivers) is presented here and compared with the atmospheric deposition and distribution in surface marine waters. The results indicate relatively high concentrations in surface water systems in close vicinity of the anthropogenic release sources as well as in parts of Western Europe, North America and Central Asia. {sup 129}I level is generally higher in the terrestrial surface water of the Northern hemisphere compared to the southern hemisphere. The highest values of {sup 129}I appear around 50°N and 40°S in the northern and southern hemisphere, separately. Direct gaseous and marine atmospheric emissions are the most likely avenues for the transport of {sup 129}I from the sources to the terrestrial surface waters. To apply iodine-129 as process tracer in terrestrial surface water environment, more data are needed on {sup 129}I distribution patterns both locally and globally.

  14. Seismic Fragility of the LANL Fire Water Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mertz

    2007-03-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a site-wide system fragility assessment. This assessment focuses solely on the performance of the water distribution systems that supply Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR), Weapons Engineering and Tritium Facility (WETF), Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), Waste Characterization, Reduction, Repackaging Facility (WCRRF), and Transuranic Waste Inspectable Storage Project (TWISP). The analysis methodology is based on the American Lifelines Alliance seismic fragility formulations for water systems. System fragilities are convolved with the 1995 LANL seismic hazards to develop failure frequencies. Acceptance is determined by comparing the failure frequencies to the DOE-1020 Performance Goals. This study concludes that: (1) If a significant number of existing isolation valves in the water distribution system are closed to dedicate the entire water system to fighting fires in specific nuclear facilities; (2) Then, the water distribution systems for WETF, RLWTF, WCRRF, and TWISP meet the PC-2 performance goal and the water distribution system for CMR is capable of surviving a 0.06g earthquake. A parametric study of the WETF water distribution system demonstrates that: (1) If a significant number of valves in the water distribution system are NOT closed to dedicate the entire water system to fighting fires in WETF; (2) Then, the water distribution system for WETF has an annual probability of failure on the order of 4 x 10{sup -3} that does not meet the PC-2 performance goal. Similar conclusions are expected for CMR, RLWTF, WCRRF, and TWISP. It is important to note that some of the assumptions made in deriving the results should be verified by personnel in the safety-basis office and may need to be incorporated in technical surveillance requirements in the existing authorization basis documentation if credit for availability of fire protection water is taken at the PC-2 level earthquake levels

  15. SOME ASPECTS REGARING CHLORINE DECAY IN WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANA IOANA VUŢĂ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A major objective of drinking water treatment is to provide microbiologically safe drinking water. The combination of conventional drinking water treatment and disinfection has proved to be one of the major public health advances in modern times. The quality of drinking water delivered to the customer’s tap is influenced by a number of processes; namely water treatment, disinfection and changes during transport of treated water via the distribution system. All natural waters and even treated drinking water exerts disinfectant demand due to the reactions with NOM and other constituents in water. Therefore, the applied disinfectant dose must be sufficient to meet the inherent demand in the treated water, to provide sufficient protection against microbial infection. Thus, controlling free residual chlorine properly is definitely important to ensure meeting regulatory requirements and satisfying customer needs.This paper presents the main aspects regarding chlorine decay in drinking-water distribution networks and, also a free chlorine decay simulation with EPANET2 on Ramnicu Valcea water distribution system.

  16. Designing a knowledge management system for distributed activities: a human centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkus, Susan; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A; Zhang, Jiajie

    2003-01-01

    In this study we use the principles of distributed cognition and the methodology of human-centered distributed information design to analyze a complex distributed human-computer system, identify its problems, and generate design requirements and implementation specifications of a replacement prototype for effective organizational memory and knowledge management. We argue that a distributed human-computer information system has unique properties, structures and processes that are best described in the language of distributed cognition. Distributed cognition provides researchers a richer theoretical understanding of human-computer interactions and enables re-searchers to capture the phenomenon that emerges in social interactions as well as the interactions between people and structures in their environment.

  17. The CUAHSI Water Data Center: Empowering scientists to discover, use, store, and share water data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, A. L.; Hooper, R. P.; Arrigo, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    The proposed CUAHSI Water Data Center (WDC) will provide production-quality water data resources based upon the successful large-scale data services prototype developed by the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) project. The WDC, using the HIS technology, concentrates on providing time series data collected at fixed points or on moving platforms from sensors primarily (but not exclusively) in the medium of water. The WDC's missions include providing simple and effective data discovery tools useful to researchers in a variety of water-related disciplines, and providing simple and cost-effective data publication mechanisms for projects that do not desire to run their own data servers. The WDC's activities will include: 1. Rigorous curation of the water data catalog already assembled during the CUAHSI HIS project, to ensure accuracy of records and existence of declared sources. 2. Data backup and failover services for "at risk" data sources. 3. Creation and support for ubiquitously accessible data discovery and access, web-based search and smartphone applications. 4. Partnerships with researchers to extend the state of the art in water data use. 5. Partnerships with industry to create plug-and-play data publishing from sensors, and to create domain-specific tools. The WDC will serve as a knowledge resource for researchers of water-related issues, and will interface with other data centers to make their data more accessible to water researchers. The WDC will serve as a vehicle for addressing some of the grand challenges of accessing and using water data, including: a. Cross-domain data discovery: different scientific domains refer to the same kind of water data using different terminologies, making discovery of data difficult for researchers outside the data provider's domain. b. Cross-validation of data sources: much water data comes from sources lacking rigorous quality control procedures; such sources can be compared against others with rigorous quality

  18. A Novel Statistical Model for Water Age Estimation in Water Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-ping Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The water retention time in the water distribution network is an important indicator for water quality. The water age fluctuates with the system demand. The residual chlorine concentration varies with the water age. In general, the concentration of residual chlorine is linearly dependent on the water demand. A novel statistical model using monitoring data of residual chlorine to estimate the nodal water age in water distribution networks is put forward in the present paper. A simplified two-step procedure is proposed to solve this statistical model. It is verified by two virtual systems and a practical application to analyze the water distribution system of Hangzhou city, China. The results agree well with that from EPANET. The model provides a low-cost and reliable solution to evaluate the water retention time.

  19. Location Model and Optimization of Seaborne Petroleum Logistics Distribution Center Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Liangyong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The network of Chinese Waterborne Petroleum Logistics (CWPL is so complex that reasonably disposing and choosing Chinese Waterborne Petroleum Logistics Distribution Center (CWPLDC take on the important theory value and the practical significance. In the study, the network construct of CWPL distribution is provided and the corresponding mathematical model for locating CWPLDC is established, which is a nonlinear mixed interger model. In view of the nonlinerar programming characteristic of model, the genetic algorithm as the solution strategy is put forward here, the strategies of hybrid coding, constraint elimination , fitness function and genetic operator are given followed the algorithm. The result indicates that this model is effective and reliable. This method could also be applicable for other types of large-scale logistics distribution center optimization.

  20. Efficient workload management in geographically distributed data centers leveraging autoregressive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomare, Albino; Cesario, Eugenio; Mastroianni, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    The opportunity of using Cloud resources on a pay-as-you-go basis and the availability of powerful data centers and high bandwidth connections are speeding up the success and popularity of Cloud systems, which is making on-demand computing a common practice for enterprises and scientific communities. The reasons for this success include natural business distribution, the need for high availability and disaster tolerance, the sheer size of their computational infrastructure, and/or the desire to provide uniform access times to the infrastructure from widely distributed client sites. Nevertheless, the expansion of large data centers is resulting in a huge rise of electrical power consumed by hardware facilities and cooling systems. The geographical distribution of data centers is becoming an opportunity: the variability of electricity prices, environmental conditions and client requests, both from site to site and with time, makes it possible to intelligently and dynamically (re)distribute the computational workload and achieve as diverse business goals as: the reduction of costs, energy consumption and carbon emissions, the satisfaction of performance constraints, the adherence to Service Level Agreement established with users, etc. This paper proposes an approach that helps to achieve the business goals established by the data center administrators. The workload distribution is driven by a fitness function, evaluated for each data center, which weighs some key parameters related to business objectives, among which, the price of electricity, the carbon emission rate, the balance of load among the data centers etc. For example, the energy costs can be reduced by using a "follow the moon" approach, e.g. by migrating the workload to data centers where the price of electricity is lower at that time. Our approach uses data about historical usage of the data centers and data about environmental conditions to predict, with the help of regressive models, the values of the

  1. Application of GIS in water distribution system assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargaonkar, Aabha; Islam, Raisul

    2009-10-01

    Water distribution system (WDS) is the most important component of water supply chain--supplying water from source to consumer. When supply system is poorly maintained, contaminants enter into the supply pipes through cracks and this leads to significant public health risk. Being underground, pipe condition assessment is a difficult task. In this paper, a case study is presented for assessment of pipe condition in a water distribution network of Moinbagh area in Hyderabad (India). The mathematical model-Pipe Condition Assessment (PCA) Model was used, which utilizes GIS based maps of water distribution network, sewer network, drains and soil as input in addition to data on physical properties of the network as well as operational parameters. The application of PCA identified that only 3% pipes in the network were in bad condition.

  2. Hot Water Distribution System Model Enhancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This project involves enhancement of the HWSIM distribution system model to more accurately model pipe heat transfer. Recent laboratory testing efforts have indicated that the modeling of radiant heat transfer effects is needed to accurately characterize piping heat loss. An analytical methodology for integrating radiant heat transfer was implemented with HWSIM. Laboratory test data collected in another project was then used to validate the model for a variety of uninsulated and insulated pipe cases (copper, PEX, and CPVC). Results appear favorable, with typical deviations from lab results less than 8%.

  3. A Power Load Distribution Algorithm to Optimize Data Center Electrical Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Maciel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption is a matter of common concern in the world today. Research demonstrates that as a consequence of the constantly evolving and expanding field of information technology, data centers are now major consumers of electrical energy. Such high electrical energy consumption emphasizes the issues of sustainability and cost. Against this background, the present paper proposes a power load distribution algorithm (PLDA to optimize energy distribution of data center power infrastructures. The PLDA, which is based on the Ford-Fulkerson algorithm, is supported by an environment called ASTRO, capable of performing the integrated evaluation of dependability, cost and sustainability. More specifically, the PLDA optimizes the flow distribution of the energy flow model (EFM. EFMs are responsible for estimating sustainability and cost issues of data center infrastructures without crossing the restrictions of the power capacity that each device can provide (power system or extract (cooling system. Additionally, a case study is presented that analyzed seven data center power architectures. Significant results were observed, achieving a reduction in power consumption of up to 15.5%.

  4. DEPENDENCE OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF ACTIVE CENTERS ON MONOMER IN SUPPORTED ZIEGLER-NATTA CATALYSTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Le-tian Zhang; Zhi-qiang Fan; Zhi-sheng Fu

    2008-01-01

    Distribution of active centers(ACD)of ethylene or 1-hexene homopolymerization and ethylene-1-hexene copolymerization with a MgCl2/TiCl4 type Z-N catalyst were studied by deconvolution of the polymer molecular weight distribution into multiple Flory components.Each Flory component is thought to be formed by a certain type of active center.ACD of ethylene-1-hexene copolymer with very low 1-hexene incorporation was compared with that of ethylene homopolymer to see the effect of introducing a-olefin on ethylene polymerization.On the other hand.ACD of ethylene-1-hexene copolymer with very low ethylene incorporation was compared with that of 1-hexene homopolymer.Adding small amount of 1-hexene in ethylene polymerization caused marked activation of all the Flory components of the polymer.in which the low molecular weight components are activated more than the high molecular weight components.In 1-hexene polymerization system,the activity can also be greatly enhanced by introducing small amount of ethylene.but the different Flory components(or active centers) are activated with similar extent,except a newly emerged active center producing polymer with the lowest molecular weight.The total number of active centers is markedly increased by adding small amount of ethylene in 1-hexene polymerization,but the average catalysis efficiency of the active centers decreased.The broad composition distribution of the ethylene-1-hexene copolymer Can be well understood from the ACD of catalyst and is dependence on the monomer.

  5. The International Center for Integrated Water Resources Management (ICIWaRM): The United States' Contribution to UNESCO IHP's Global Network of Water Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of a "category 2 center"—i.e., one that is closely affiliated with UNESCO, but not legally part of UNESCO—dates back many decades. However, only in the last decade has the concept been fully developed. Within UNESCO, the International Hydrological Programme (IHP) has led the way in creating a network of regional and global water-related centers.ICIWaRM—the International Center for Integrated Water Resources Management—is one member of this network. Approved by UNESCO's General Conference, the center has been operating since 2009. It was designed to fill a niche in the system for a center that was backed by an institution with on-the-ground water management experience, but that also had strong connections to academia, NGOs and other governmental agencies. Thus, ICIWaRM is hosted by the US Army Corps of Engineers' Institute for Water Resources (IWR), but established with an internal network of partner institutions. Three main factors have contributed to any success that ICIWaRM has achieved in its global work: A focus on practical science and technology which can be readily transferred. This includes the Corps' own methodologies and models for planning and water management, and those of our university and government partners. Collaboration with other UNESCO Centers on joint applied research, capacity-building and training. A network of centers needs to function as a network, and ICIWaRM has worked together with UNESCO-affiliated centers in Chile, Brazil, Paraguay, the Dominican Republic, Japan, China, and elsewhere. Partnering with and supporting existing UNESCO-IHP programs. ICIWaRM serves as the Global Technical Secretariat for IHP's Global Network on Water and Development Information in Arid Lands (G-WADI). In addition to directly supporting IHP, work through G-WADI helps the center to frame, prioritize and integrate its activities. With the recent release of the United Nation's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, it is clear that

  6. Condition Assessment Technologies for Water Transmission and Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program, this research was conducted to identify and characterize the state of the technology for structural condition assessment of drinking water transmission and distribution syst...

  7. Condition Assessment of Drinking Water Transmission and Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condition assessment of water transmission and distribution mains is the collection of data and information through direct and/or indirect methods, followed by analysis of the data and information, to make a determination of the current and/or future structural, water quality, an...

  8. Heat Losses Evaluation for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Mateescu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In sanitary systems assembly, domestic hot water distribution supply networks represent an important weight for energetically balance.par This paper presents, in an analytical and graphical manner, the computational tools needed for domestic hot water piping system behavior characterization in different functional and structural assumptions.

  9. Distribution and transportation of nitrogen in Miyun reservoir waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xiujuan; XIAO Changlai; YANG Tianxing; WANG Jing; LIU Xiaoduan

    2005-01-01

    The Miyun reservoir is an important water supply for Beijing city. The distribution laws of nitrogen in the Miyun reservoir waters and the transportation factors have been systematically analyzed in space and time by using water monitoring data sampled in the high-water and low-flow periods in 2001 and 2002. The nitrogen in east and west reservoir waters is distributed differently in space. It shows the change characteristics in high-water and low-flow periods and is affected by the source of nitrogen, runoff conditions, hydrodynamic conditions, precipitation and the control of bed mud, of which the source of nitrogen controls the change of concentration of nitrogen, the peripheral runoff controls the distribution law of nitrogen, bed mud controls the vertical distribution of nitrogen, and the contents of nitrogen and its change in the surrounding environment directly cause the change of concentration of total nitrogen in the waters. The improvement and protection of the waters in the Miyun reservoir basically rests with the amelioration of the peripheral environment.

  10. Description of the surface water filtration and ozone treatment system at the Northeast Fishery Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    A water filtration and ozone disinfection system was installed at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Northeast Fishery Center in Lamar, Pennsylvania to treat a surface water supply that is used to culture sensitive and endangered fish. The treatment system first passes the surface water through dr...

  11. Performance Monitoring of Residential Hot Water Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Anna; Lanzisera, Steven; Lutz, Jim; Fitting, Christian; Kloss, Margarita; Stiles, Christopher

    2014-08-11

    Current water distribution systems are designed such that users need to run the water for some time to achieve the desired temperature, wasting energy and water in the process. We developed a wireless sensor network for large-scale, long time-series monitoring of residential water end use. Our system consists of flow meters connected to wireless motes transmitting data to a central manager mote, which in turn posts data to our server via the internet. This project also demonstrates a reliable and flexible data collection system that could be configured for various other forms of end use metering in buildings. The purpose of this study was to determine water and energy use and waste in hot water distribution systems in California residences. We installed meters at every end use point and the water heater in 20 homes and collected 1s flow and temperature data over an 8 month period. For a typical shower and dishwasher events, approximately half the energy is wasted. This relatively low efficiency highlights the importance of further examining the energy and water waste in hot water distribution systems.

  12. Optimization and capacity expansion of a water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Cheng, Wei-Chen; Cheng, Wen-Ming; Wei, Chih-Chiang; Yeh, William W.-G.

    2008-05-01

    This paper develops an iterative procedure for capacity expansion studies for water distribution systems. We propose a methodology to analyze an existing water distribution system and identify the potential bottlenecks in the system. Based on the results, capacity expansion alternatives are proposed and evaluated for improving the efficiency of water supply. The methodology includes a network flow based optimization model, four evaluation indices, and a series of evaluation steps. We first use a directed graph to configure the water distribution system into a network. The network flow based model optimizes the water distribution in the system so that different expansion alternatives can be evaluated on a comparable basis. This model lends itself to linear programming (LP) and can be easily solved by a standard LP code. The results from the evaluation tool help to identify the bottlenecks in the water distribution system and provide capacity expansion alternatives. A useful complementary tool for decision making is composed of a series of evaluation steps with the bottleneck findings, capacity expansion alternatives, and the evaluation of results. We apply the proposed methodology to the Tou-Qian River Basin, located in the northern region of Taiwan, to demonstrate its applicability in optimization and capacity expansion studies.

  13. Distribution of Fullerene Nanoparticles between Water and Solid Supported Lipid Membranes: Thermodynamics and Effects of Membrane Composition on Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yeonjeong; Katz, Lynn E; Liljestrand, Howard M

    2015-12-15

    The distribution coefficient (Klipw) of fullerene between solid supported lipid membranes (SSLMs) and water was examined using different lipid membrane compositions. Klipw of fullerene was significantly higher with a cationic lipid membrane compared to that with a zwitterionic or anionic lipid membrane, potentially due to the strong interactions between negative fullerene dispersions and positive lipid head groups. The higher Klipw for fullerene distribution to ternary lipid mixture membranes was attributed to an increase in the interfacial surface area of the lipid membrane resulting from phase separation. These results imply that lipid composition can be a critical factor that affects bioconcentration of fullerene. Distribution of fullerene into zwitterionic unsaturated lipid membranes was dominated by the entropy contribution (ΔS) and the process was endothermic (ΔH > 0). This result contrasts the partitioning thermodynamics of highly and moderately hydrophobic chemicals indicating that the lipid-water distribution mechanism of fullerene may be different from that of molecular level chemicals. Potential mechanisms for the distribution of fullerene that may explain these differences include adsorption on the lipid membrane surfaces and partitioning into the center of lipid membranes (i.e., absorption).

  14. Factors Affecting Bacterial Growth in Drinking Water Distribution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI LU; XIAO-JIAN ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Objective To define the influence of some parameters, including assimilable organic carbon (AOC), chloramine residual, etc. on the bacterial growth in drinking water distribution systems. Methods Three typical water treatment plants in a northern city (City T) of China and their corresponding distribution systems were investigated. Some parameters of the water samples, such as heterotrophic plate content (HPC), AOC, CODMn, TOC, and phosphate were measured. Results The AOC in most water samples were more than 100 μg/L, or even more than 200 μg/L in some cases. The HPC in distribution systems increased significantly with the decrease of residual chlorine. When the residual chlorine was less than 0.1 mg/L, the magnitude order of HPC was 104 CFU/mL; when it was 0.5-0.7 mg/L, the HPC was about 500 CFU/mL. Conclusion For controlling the biostability of drinking water, the controlling of AOC and residual chlorine should be considered simultaneously. The influence of phosphors on the AOC tests of water is not significant. Phosphors may not be the limiting nutrient in the water distribution systems.

  15. Global distribution of outbreaks of water-associated infectious diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Water plays an important role in the transmission of many infectious diseases, which pose a great burden on global public health. However, the global distribution of these water-associated infectious diseases and underlying factors remain largely unexplored. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Based on the Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network (GIDEON, a global database including water-associated pathogens and diseases was developed. In this study, reported outbreak events associated with corresponding water-associated infectious diseases from 1991 to 2008 were extracted from the database. The location of each reported outbreak event was identified and geocoded into a GIS database. Also collected in the GIS database included geo-referenced socio-environmental information including population density (2000, annual accumulated temperature, surface water area, and average annual precipitation. Poisson models with Bayesian inference were developed to explore the association between these socio-environmental factors and distribution of the reported outbreak events. Based on model predictions a global relative risk map was generated. A total of 1,428 reported outbreak events were retrieved from the database. The analysis suggested that outbreaks of water-associated diseases are significantly correlated with socio-environmental factors. Population density is a significant risk factor for all categories of reported outbreaks of water-associated diseases; water-related diseases (e.g., vector-borne diseases are associated with accumulated temperature; water-washed diseases (e.g., conjunctivitis are inversely related to surface water area; both water-borne and water-related diseases are inversely related to average annual rainfall. Based on the model predictions, "hotspots" of risks for all categories of water-associated diseases were explored. CONCLUSIONS: At the global scale, water-associated infectious diseases are significantly correlated

  16. Biological instability in a chlorinated drinking water distribution network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nescerecka, Alina; Rubulis, Janis; Vital, Marius; Juhna, Talis; Hammes, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of a drinking water distribution system is to deliver drinking water to the consumer, preferably with the same quality as when it left the treatment plant. In this context, the maintenance of good microbiological quality is often referred to as biological stability, and the addition of sufficient chlorine residuals is regarded as one way to achieve this. The full-scale drinking water distribution system of Riga (Latvia) was investigated with respect to biological stability in chlorinated drinking water. Flow cytometric (FCM) intact cell concentrations, intracellular adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), heterotrophic plate counts and residual chlorine measurements were performed to evaluate the drinking water quality and stability at 49 sampling points throughout the distribution network. Cell viability methods were compared and the importance of extracellular ATP measurements was examined as well. FCM intact cell concentrations varied from 5×10(3) cells mL(-1) to 4.66×10(5) cells mL(-1) in the network. While this parameter did not exceed 2.1×10(4) cells mL(-1) in the effluent from any water treatment plant, 50% of all the network samples contained more than 1.06×10(5) cells mL(-1). This indisputably demonstrates biological instability in this particular drinking water distribution system, which was ascribed to a loss of disinfectant residuals and concomitant bacterial growth. The study highlights the potential of using cultivation-independent methods for the assessment of chlorinated water samples. In addition, it underlines the complexity of full-scale drinking water distribution systems, and the resulting challenges to establish the causes of biological instability.

  17. Biological instability in a chlorinated drinking water distribution network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Nescerecka

    Full Text Available The purpose of a drinking water distribution system is to deliver drinking water to the consumer, preferably with the same quality as when it left the treatment plant. In this context, the maintenance of good microbiological quality is often referred to as biological stability, and the addition of sufficient chlorine residuals is regarded as one way to achieve this. The full-scale drinking water distribution system of Riga (Latvia was investigated with respect to biological stability in chlorinated drinking water. Flow cytometric (FCM intact cell concentrations, intracellular adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP, heterotrophic plate counts and residual chlorine measurements were performed to evaluate the drinking water quality and stability at 49 sampling points throughout the distribution network. Cell viability methods were compared and the importance of extracellular ATP measurements was examined as well. FCM intact cell concentrations varied from 5×10(3 cells mL(-1 to 4.66×10(5 cells mL(-1 in the network. While this parameter did not exceed 2.1×10(4 cells mL(-1 in the effluent from any water treatment plant, 50% of all the network samples contained more than 1.06×10(5 cells mL(-1. This indisputably demonstrates biological instability in this particular drinking water distribution system, which was ascribed to a loss of disinfectant residuals and concomitant bacterial growth. The study highlights the potential of using cultivation-independent methods for the assessment of chlorinated water samples. In addition, it underlines the complexity of full-scale drinking water distribution systems, and the resulting challenges to establish the causes of biological instability.

  18. Design and implementation of urban logistics distribution center location optimization system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng GUO

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of urban logistics distribution center location selection, and to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional method based on human aided calculation, the online map is used to obtain the path distance information. Considering the practical construction and operation situation of the logistics distribution center, the cost related impact factors are determined and the location optimization frame is described. Then the mathematical formulation is proposed for minimizing the total cost, and the genetic algorithm based on integer code is designed to solve the problem under consideration. The corresponding system is implemented by C# language. The system is tested based on the practical data, and the computational results demonstrate that the proposed system can automatically obtain the distance information between various nodes and perform the location optimization. Finally the optimal feasible location scheme is delivered by the proposed system.

  19. Developing a DEMATEL method to prioritize distribution centers in supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghsud Amiri

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, there have been significant numbers of studies focusing on supply chain management for evaluating important factors on the success of a supply chain program. In this paper, we present a method to prioritize the locations of distribution centers in a supply chain. The proposed model of this paper uses balanced scorecard (BSC to categorize the most important attributes affecting the location of distribution centers and the attributes are ranked based on decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL method. The implementation of the proposed model of this paper is also applied for a real-world case study of oil company and the results are analyzed under different scenarios.

  20. Quality-assurance and data-management plan for water-quality activities in the Kansas Water Science Center, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Foster, Guy M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Putnam, James E.

    2014-01-01

    As the Nation’s largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey is relied on to collect high-quality data, and produce factual and impartial interpretive reports. This quality-assurance and data-management plan provides guidance for water-quality activities conducted by the Kansas Water Science Center. Policies and procedures are documented for activities related to planning, collecting, storing, documenting, tracking, verifying, approving, archiving, and disseminating water-quality data. The policies and procedures described in this plan complement quality-assurance plans for continuous water-quality monitoring, surface-water, and groundwater activities in Kansas.

  1. 41 CFR 102-41.230 - May SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers? 102-41.230 Section 102-41.230 Public... SASPs pick up or store donated drug paraphernalia in their distribution centers? No, you must...

  2. Risk classification and uncertainty propagation for virtual water distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Jacob M. [Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)], E-mail: jato@jhu.edu; Brumbelow, Kelly [Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Guikema, Seth D. [Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    While the secrecy of real water distribution system data is crucial, it poses difficulty for research as results cannot be publicized. This data includes topological layouts of pipe networks, pump operation schedules, and water demands. Therefore, a library of virtual water distribution systems can be an important research tool for comparative development of analytical methods. A virtual city, 'Micropolis', has been developed, including a comprehensive water distribution system, as a first entry into such a library. This virtual city of 5000 residents is fully described in both geographic information systems (GIS) and EPANet hydraulic model frameworks. A risk classification scheme and Monte Carlo analysis are employed for an attempted water supply contamination attack. Model inputs to be considered include uncertainties in: daily water demand, seasonal demand, initial storage tank levels, the time of day a contamination event is initiated, duration of contamination event, and contaminant quantity. Findings show that reasonable uncertainties in model inputs produce high variability in exposure levels. It is also shown that exposure level distributions experience noticeable sensitivities to population clusters within the contaminant spread area. High uncertainties in exposure patterns lead to greater resources needed for more effective mitigation strategies.

  3. Water Quality Modeling in the Dead End Sections of Drinking Water Distribution Networks -journal article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dead-end sections of drinking water distribution networks are known to be problematic zones in terms of water quality degradation. Extended residence time due to water stagnation leads to rapid reduction of disinfectant residuals allowing the regrowth of microbial pathogens. Wate...

  4. Water Hyacinth in the Rift Valley Water Bodies of Ethiopia: Its Distribution, Socioeconomic Importance and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firehun, Y.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Taye, T.

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted in the Rift Valley water bodies of Ethiopia from 2009 to 2011 to (i) determine the prevalence, agro-ecological distribution and sources of infestation of water hyacinth, (ii) investigate the socio-economic impact of water hyacinth, and (iii) assess changes in its agro-ecologic

  5. Distribution of Complex Chemicals in Oil-Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad

    life. Furthermore distribution of chemicals is important information for downstream processing of oil and gas. The purpose of this project is the experimental measurement and the thermodynamic modeling of distribution of these complex chemicals in oil-water systems. Traditionally distribution...... and limited information about the molecular structure of production chemicals the correlation could only be obtained for few families like alcohols, glycols and alkanolamines with varying degree of reliability. In order to develop a thermodynamic model for the distribution of chemicals in oil-water systems......The deepwater energy sector represents one of the major growth areas of the oil and gas industry today. In order to meet the challenges of hydrate formation, corrosion, scaling and foaming the oil and gas industry uses many chemicals and their use has increased significantly over the years...

  6. Optimizing intermittent water supply in urban pipe distribution networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lieb, Anna M; Wilkening, Jon

    2015-01-01

    In many urban areas of the developing world, piped water is supplied only intermittently, as valves direct water to different parts of the water distribution system at different times. The flow is transient, and may transition between free-surface and pressurized, resulting in complex dynamical features with important consequences for water suppliers and users. Here, we develop a computational model of transition, transient pipe flow in a network, accounting for a wide variety of realistic boundary conditions. We validate the model against several published data sets, and demonstrate its use on a real pipe network. The model is extended to consider several optimization problems motivated by realistic scenarios. We demonstrate how to infer water flow in a small pipe network from a single pressure sensor, and show how to control water inflow to minimize damaging pressure gradients.

  7. Quantitative morphology and water distribution of bronchial biopsy samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, D. R.; Wise, R.; Andrews, J. M.; HONEYBOURNE, D

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An approach to the study of the pharmacokinetics of drugs in the lung is to measure their concentrations in bronchial biopsy specimens. The main criticism of this technique is that bronchial biopsy specimens consist of more than one tissue type and that drugs are often not distributed evenly. The morphology of bronchial biopsy specimens and the distribution of water between the extracellular and the intracellular compartments is therefore important. METHODS: Fifteen subjects under...

  8. Modelling of Data Warehouse on Food Distribution Center and Reserves in The Ministry of Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Purnomo Putra S.Kom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to perform databases planning that supports Prototype Modeling Data Warehouse in the Ministry of Agriculture, especially in the Distribution Center and Reserves in the field of distribution, reserve and price. With the prototype of Data Warehouse, the process of data analysis and decision-making process by the top management will be easier and more accurate. Researchs method used was data collection and design method. Data warehouses design method was done by using Kimballs nine steps methodology. Database design was done by using the ERD (Entity Relationship Diagram and activity diagram. The data used for the analysis was obtained from an interview with the head of Distribution, Reserve and Food Price. The results obtained through the analysis incorporated into the Data Warehouse Prototype have been designed to support decision-making. To conclude, Prototype Data Warehouse facilitates the analysis of data, the searching of history data and decision-making by the top management.

  9. Integrating water by plant roots over spatially distributed soil salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homaee, Mehdi; Schmidhalter, Urs

    2010-05-01

    In numerical simulation models dealing with water movement and solute transport in vadose zone, the water budget largely depends on uptake patterns by plant roots. In real field conditions, the uptake pattern largely changes in time and space. When dealing with soil and water salinity, most saline soils demonstrate spatially distributed osmotic head over the root zone. In order to quantify such processes, the major difficulty stems from lacking a sink term function that adequately accounts for the extraction term especially under variable soil water osmotic heads. The question of how plants integrate such space variable over its rooting depth remains as interesting issue for investigators. To move one step forward towards countering this concern, a well equipped experiment was conducted under heterogeneously distributed salinity over the root zone with alfalfa. The extraction rates of soil increments were calculated with the one dimensional form of Richards equation. The results indicated that the plant uptake rate under different mean soil salinities preliminary reacts to soil salinity, whereas at given water content and salinity the "evaporative demand" and "root activity" become more important to control the uptake patterns. Further analysis revealed that root activity is inconstant when imposed to variable soil salinity. It can be concluded that under heterogeneously distributed salinity, most water is taken from the less saline increment while the extraction from other root zone increments with higher salinities never stops.

  10. Better understanding of water quality evolution in water distribution networks using data clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Pierre; Maurel, Marie; Chenu, Damien

    2015-12-15

    The complexity of water distribution networks raises challenges in managing, monitoring and understanding their behavior. This article proposes a novel methodology applying data clustering to the results of hydraulic simulation to define quality zones, i.e. zones with the same dynamic water origin. The methodology is presented on an existing Water Distribution Network; a large dataset of conductivity measurements measured by 32 probes validates the definition of the quality zones. The results show how quality zones help better understanding the network operation and how they can be used to analyze water quality events. Moreover, a statistical comparison with 158,230 conductivity measurements validates the definition of the quality zones.

  11. An empirical study on the spatial distribution of the population, economy and water resources in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Conglin; Liu, Yu; Qiao, Haijuan

    The relationship among the population, economy and water resources is complex, and the contradictions and conflicts will appear and aggravate with the rapid development of economy and society in Northeast China. Based on the statistical analysis of the available data, this paper depicted the static distribution characteristics of the population, economy and water resources of Northeast China in 2011. It was found that the spatial distribution of the population, economy and water resources was unbalanced in Northeast China. The water resources mismatched with the population and economy. The population and economy were relatively dense and developed in the southwestern part of Northeast China respectively, while the water resources was relatively scarce. However, the situations in the northern part of Northeast China were opposite to those in the southwestern part. The population-economy inconsistence indexes of the cities in northern part of Northeast China showed a significant trend of spatial aggregation and heterogeneity. The cities with lower (1) inconsistence indexes all faced the problem of water resources shortage. Applying geometric gravity center method and grey correlation model, the result indicated that there was relatively high spatial relevance and the relative deviation among the spatial dynamic distributions of the population, economy and water resources was large. The gravity centers of economy and per capita average annual total water resources moved westward, while the gravity center of population gravity center moved eastward in the period of 1997-2011 in Northeast China. It must be noted that, the migration trend of the economy gravity center was more significant than those of the population and water resources.

  12. Pattern Recognition for Reliability Assessment of Water Distribution Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifunović, N.

    2012-01-01

    The study presented in this manuscript investigates the patterns that describe reliability of water distribution networks focusing to the node connectivity, energy balance, and economics of construction, operation and maintenance. A number of measures to evaluate the network resilience has been deve

  13. Metagenomic Analysis of Water Distribution System Bacterial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial quality of drinking water is assessed using culture-based methods that are highly selective and that tend to underestimate the densities and diversity of microbial populations inhabiting distribution systems. In order to better understand the effect of different dis...

  14. The Distribution of Water Emission in M17SW

    CERN Document Server

    Snell, R L; Ashby, M L N; Bergin, E A; Chin, G; Erickson, N R; Goldsmith, P F; Harwit, M; Kleiner, S C; Koch, D G; Neufeld, D A; Patten, B M; Plume, R; Schieder, R; Stauffer, J R; Tolls, V; Wang, Z; Winnewisser, G; Zhang, Y F; Melnick, G J

    2000-01-01

    We present a 17-point map of the M17SW cloud core in the 1_{10}-1_{01} transition of ortho-water at 557 GHz obtained with the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite. Water emission was detected in 11 of the 17 observed positions. The line widths of the water emission vary between 4 and 9 km s^{-1}, and are similar to other emission lines that arise in the M17SW core. A direct comparison is made between the spatial extent of the water emission and the ^{13}CO J = 5\\to4 emission; the good agreement suggests that the water emission arises in the same warm, dense gas as the ^{13}CO emission. A spectrum of the H_2^{18}O line was also obtained at the center position of the cloud core, but no emission was detected. We estimate that the average abundance of ortho-water relative to H_2 within the M17 dense core is approximately 1x10^{-9}, 30 times smaller than the average for the Orion core. Toward the H II region/molecular cloud interface in M17SW the ortho-water abundance may be about 5 times larger than in the dens...

  15. Performance characteristics of single effect lithium bromide/ water absorption chiller for small data centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysore, Abhishek Arun Babu

    A medium data center consists of servers performing operations such as file sharing, collaboration and email. There are a large number of small and medium data centers across the world which consume more energy and are less efficient when compared to large data center facilities of companies such as GOOGLE, APPLE and FACEBOOK. Such companies are making their data center facilities more environmental friendly by employing renewable energy solutions such as wind and solar to power the data center or in data center cooling. This not only reduces the carbon footprint significantly but also decreases the costs incurred over a period of time. Cooling of data center play a vital role in proper functioning of the servers. It is found that cooling consumes about 50% of the total power consumed by the data center. Traditional method of cooling includes the use of mechanical compression chillers which consume lot of power and is not desirable. In order to eliminate the use of mechanical compressor chillers renewable energy resources such as solar and wind should be employed. One such technology is solar thermal cooling by means of absorption chiller which is powered by solar energy. The absorption chiller unit can be coupled with either flat plate or evacuated tube collectors in order to achieve the required inlet temperature for the generator of the absorption chiller unit. In this study a modular data center is considered having a cooling load requirement of 23kw. The performance characteristics of a single stage Lithium Bromide/ water refrigeration is presented in this study considering the cooling load of 23kw. Performance characteristics of each of the 4 heat exchangers within the unit is discussed which helps in customizing the unit according to the users' specific needs. This analysis helps in studying the importance of different properties such as the effect of inlet temperatures of hot water for generator, inlet temperatures of cooling water for absorber and

  16. Light saturation curves show competence of the water splitting complex in inactive Photosystem II reaction centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedbal, L; Gibas, C; Whitmarsh, J

    1991-12-01

    Photosystem II complexes of higher plants are structurally and functionally heterogeneous. While the only clearly defined structural difference is that Photosystem II reaction centers are served by two distinct antenna sizes, several types of functional heterogeneity have been demonstrated. Among these is the observation that in dark-adapted leaves of spinach and pea, over 30% of the Photosystem II reaction centers are unable to reduce plastoquinone to plastoquinol at physiologically meaningful rates. Several lines of evidence show that the impaired reaction centers are effectively inactive, because the rate of oxidation of the primary quinone acceptor, QA, is 1000 times slower than in normally active reaction centers. However, there are conflicting opinions and data over whether inactive Photosystem II complexes are capable of oxidizing water in the presence of certain artificial electron acceptors. In the present study we investigated whether inactive Photosystem II complexes have a functional water oxidizing system in spinach thylakoid membranes by measuring the flash yield of water oxidation products as a function of flash intensity. At low flash energies (less that 10% saturation), selected to minimize double turnovers of reaction centers, we found that in the presence of the artificial quinone acceptor, dichlorobenzoquinone (DCBQ), the yield of proton release was enhanced 20±2% over that observed in the presence of dimethylbenzoquinone (DMBQ). We argue that the extra proton release is from the normally inactive Photosystem II reaction centers that have been activated in the presence of DCBQ, demonstrating their capacity to oxidize water in repetitive flashes, as concluded by Graan and Ort (Biochim Biophys Acta (1986) 852: 320-330). The light saturation curves indicate that the effective antenna size of inactive reaction centers is 55±12% the size of active Photosystem II centers. Comparison of the light saturation dependence of steady state oxygen evolution

  17. Optimal Design Of Existng Water Distribution Network Using Genetics Algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Saminu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study EPANET, a widely used water distribution package was linked to OptiGa, a Visual Basic ActiveX control for implementation of genetic algorithm, through Visual Basic programming technique, to modify the computer software called OptiNetwork. OptiNetwork in its modifications, introduced means of selecting options for advanced genetic algorithm parameters (Top mate; Roulette cost; Random; Tournament methods; and one point crossover; two points crossover; uniform crossover methods and random seed number. Using Badarawa/Malali existing water distribution network consisting of 96 pipes of different materials, 75junctions, two tanks, and one overhead reservoir, and a source reservoir (i.e treatment plant from which water is pumped through a pumping main to the overhead reservoir and later distributed to the network by gravity .The modified software optiNetwork was applied to Badarawa / Malali networks distribution designs. The results obtained were compared with those obtained using commercial software package (OptiDesigner, The modified software has been able to obtained almost equal result with OptiDesigner software for the first optimization i.e before the application of advance GA, after the application of Advance GA It was observed that the least-cost design of $195,200.00 that satisfies the constraints requirements was obtained using optiNetwork, which is much lower than $435,118.00 obtained from OptiDesigner software. The results obtained show that the introduction of the advanced genetic parameters of OptiNetwork is justified. This is because, it has been able to improve the search method in terms of achieving the “least-cost” designed water distribution system that will supply sufficient water quantities at adequate pressure to the consumers.

  18. A radial distribution function-based open boundary force model for multi-centered molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp

    2014-06-01

    We derive an expression for radial distribution function (RDF)-based open boundary forcing for molecules with multiple interaction sites. Due to the high-dimensionality of the molecule configuration space and missing rotational invariance, a computationally cheap, 1D approximation of the arising integral expressions as in the single-centered case is not possible anymore. We propose a simple, yet accurate model invoking standard molecule- and site-based RDFs to approximate the respective integral equation. The new open boundary force model is validated for ethane in different scenarios and shows very good agreement with data from periodic simulations. © World Scientific Publishing Company.

  19. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow in the Irwin Basin Aquifer System, Fort Irwin National Training Center, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Jill N.

    2003-01-01

    Ground-water pumping in the Irwin Basin at Fort Irwin National Training Center, California resulted in water-level declines of about 30 feet from 1941 to 1996. Since 1992, artificial recharge from wastewater-effluent infiltration and irrigation-return flow has stabilized water levels, but there is concern that future water demands associated with expansion of the base may cause a resumption of water-level declines. To address these concerns, a ground-water flow model of the Irwin Basin was developed to help better understand the aquifer system, assess the long-term availability and quality of ground water, and evaluate ground-water conditions owing to current pumping and to plan for future water needs at the base. Historical data show that ground-water-level declines in the Irwin Basin between 1941 and 1996, caused the formation of a pumping depression near the pumped wells, and that recharge from the wastewater-treatment facility and disposal area caused the formation of a recharge mound. There have been two periods of water-level recovery in the Irwin Basin since the development of ground water in this basin; these periods coincide with a period of decreased pumpage from the basin and a period of increased recharge of water imported from the Bicycle Basin beginning in 1967 and from the Langford Basin beginning in 1992. Since 1992, artificial recharge has exceeded pumpage in the Irwin Basin and has stabilized water-level declines. A two-layer ground-water flow model was developed to help better understand the aquifer system, assess the long-term availability and quality of ground water, and evaluate ground-water conditions owing to current pumping and to plan for future water needs at the base. Boundary conditions, hydraulic conductivity, altitude of the bottom of the layers, vertical conductance, storage coefficient, recharge, and discharge were determined using existing geohydrologic data. Rates and distribution of recharge and discharge were determined from

  20. Water Distribution in the Continental and Oceanic Upper Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.

    2015-01-01

    Nominally anhydrous minerals such as olivine, pyroxene and garnet can accommodate tens to hundreds of ppm H2O in the form of hydrogen bonded to structural oxygen in lattice defects. Although in seemingly small amounts, this water can significantly alter chemical and physical properties of the minerals and rocks. Water in particular can modify their rheological properties and its distribution in the mantle derives from melting and metasomatic processes and lithology repartition (pyroxenite vs peridotite). These effects will be examined here using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) water analyses on minerals from mantle xenoliths from cratons, plume-influenced cratons and oceanic settings. In particular, our results on xenoliths from three different cratons will be compared. Each craton has a different water distribution and only the mantle root of Kaapvaal has evidence for dry olivine at its base. This challenges the link between olivine water content and survival of Archean cratonic mantle, and questions whether xenoliths are representative of the whole cratonic mantle. We will also present our latest data on Hawaii and Tanzanian craton xenoliths which both suggest the intriguing result that mantle lithosphere is not enriched in water when it interacts with melts from deep mantle upwellings (plumes).

  1. Distribution and Origin of Underground Water Chemical Fields in Songliao Continental Oil—Bearing Sedimentary Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼章华; 张秉坚; 等

    1999-01-01

    There are many factors affecting ungerground water chemistry of an oil-bearing sedimentary basin.The properties of underground water show variations in the vertical direction, giving rise to a vertical zonation with respect to underground water chemistry,Five zones could be divided downwards,including 1)The freshening zone due to meteoric water leaching (A):2)the evaporation-concentration zone near the surface(B);3) the freshening zone due to stratum compaction-released water(C1)-infiltration-concentration zone during the mudstone compaction and water releasing(C2);4) the freshening zone for clay mineral dehydration(D);and 5)the seepage-concentration zone(E).The hydrodynamic fields in the Songliao Basin are obviously asymmetrical,with the characteristics of gravity-induced centripetal flow recharged by meteoric water along the edge to the inner part of the basin mainly in its northern and eastern regions,centrifugal flow and crossformational flow in the center of the basin,as well as the cross-formation flow-evaporation discharge area in its southern area.Hydrodynamics controls the planar distribution of underground-water chemical fields;1)the freshening area due to penetrating meteoric water generally at the basin edges;2)the freshening area for mudstone compaction-released water at the center of the basin;3) the cross-formational area as the transitional aqrea;and 4)the concentration area by cross-formational flow and evaporation.The mineralization degree and the concentrations of Na+ and Cl- and their salinity coefficeents tend to increase,while the concentrations of(CO32-+HCO3-) and SO42- and the metamorphism and desulfuration coefficients tend to decrease along the centrifugal flow direction caused by mudstone compaction in the depression area.But all of them tend to increase along the gravity-induced centripetal flow direction.

  2. Predicting the Distribution of Yellowfin Tuna in Philippine Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, G. J. P.; Leonardo, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Philippines is considered as a major tuna producer in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, both for domestic consumption and on industrial scale. However, with the ever-increasing demand of growing population, it has always been a challenge to achieve sustainable fishing. The creation of satellite-derived potential fishing zone maps is a technology that has been adopted by advanced countries for almost three decades already and has led to reduction in search times by up to 40%. In this study, a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) is developed to predict the distribution of the Yellowfin tuna species in seas surrounding the Philippines based on the Catch-Per-Unit-Effort (CPUE) index. Level 3 gridded chlorophyll-a and sea surface temperature from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua satellite of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are the main input parameters of the model. Chlorophyll-a is linked with the presence of phytoplankton, which indicates primary productivity and suggests potential regions of fish aggregation. Fish also prefers to stay in regions where the temperature is stable, thus the sea surface temperature fronts serve as a guide to locate concentrations of fish school. Historical monthly tuna catch data from Western and Central Pacific Commissions (WCPFC) is used to train the model. The resulting predictions are converted to potential fishing zone maps and are evaluated within and beyond the historical time range of the training data used. Diagnostic tests involving adjusted R2 value, GAM residual plots and root mean square error value are used to assess the accuracy of the model. The generated maps were able to confirm locations of known tuna fishing grounds in Mindanao and other parts of the country, as well us detect their seasonality and interannual variability. To improve the performance of the model, ancillary data such as surface winds reanalysis from National Centers for

  3. Benefits of the implementation and use of a warehouse management system in a distribution center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsander Machado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to describe how the deployment and use of a Warehouse Management System (WMS can help increase productivity, reduce errors and speed up the flow of information in a distribution center. The research method was the case study. We had chosen a distributor of goods, located in Vale do Rio dos Sinos, RS, which sells and distributes for companies throughout Brazil products for business use. The main research technique was participant observation. In order to highlight the observed results, we collected two indicators, productivity and errors for the separation of items into applications. After four months of observation, both showed significant improvement, strengthening the hypothesis that selection and implementation of management system was beneficial for the company.

  4. Analysis of the access patterns at GSFC distributed active archive center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Theodore; Bedet, Jean-Jacques

    1996-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has been operational for more than two years. Its mission is to support existing and pre Earth Observing System (EOS) Earth science datasets, facilitate the scientific research, and test Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) concepts. Over 550,000 files and documents have been archived, and more than six Terabytes have been distributed to the scientific community. Information about user request and file access patterns, and their impact on system loading, is needed to optimize current operations and to plan for future archives. To facilitate the management of daily activities, the GSFC DAAC has developed a data base system to track correspondence, requests, ingestion and distribution. In addition, several log files which record transactions on Unitree are maintained and periodically examined. This study identifies some of the users' requests and file access patterns at the GSFC DAAC during 1995. The analysis is limited to the subset of orders for which the data files are under the control of the Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) Unitree. The results show that most of the data volume ordered was for two data products. The volume was also mostly made up of level 3 and 4 data and most of the volume was distributed on 8 mm and 4 mm tapes. In addition, most of the volume ordered was for deliveries in North America although there was a significant world-wide use. There was a wide range of request sizes in terms of volume and number of files ordered. On an average 78.6 files were ordered per request. Using the data managed by Unitree, several caching algorithms have been evaluated for both hit rate and the overhead ('cost') associated with the movement of data from near-line devices to disks. The algorithm called LRU/2 bin was found to be the best for this workload, but the STbin algorithm also worked well.

  5. Modeling of heterotrophic bacteria counts in a water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisque, Alex; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Sadiq, Rehan; Proulx, François

    2009-03-01

    Heterotrophic plate count (HPC) constitutes a common indicator for monitoring of microbiological water quality in distribution systems (DS). This paper aims to identify factors explaining the spatiotemporal distribution of heterotrophic bacteria and model their occurrence in the distribution system. The case under study is the DS of Quebec City, Canada. The study is based on a robust database resulting from a sampling campaign carried out in about 50 DS locations, monitored bi-weekly over a three-year period. Models for explaining and predicting HPC levels were based on both one-level and multi-level Poisson regression techniques. The latter take into account the nested structure of data, the possible spatiotemporal correlation among HPC observations and the fact that sampling points, months and/or distribution sub-systems may represent clusters. Models show that the best predictors for spatiotemporal occurrence of HPC in the DS are: free residual chlorine that has an inverse relation with the HPC levels, water temperature and water ultraviolet absorbance, both having a positive impact on HPC levels. A sensitivity analysis based on the best performing model (two-level model) allowed for the identification of seasonal-based strategies to reduce HPC levels.

  6. Occurrence of Mycobacteria in Water Treatment Lines and in Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dantec, Corinne; Duguet, Jean-Pierre; Montiel, Antoine; Dumoutier, Nadine; Dubrou, Sylvie; Vincent, Véronique

    2002-01-01

    The frequency of recovery of atypical mycobacteria was estimated in two treatment plants providing drinking water to Paris, France, at some intermediate stages of treatment. The two plants use two different filtration processes, rapid and slow sand filtration. Our results suggest that slow sand filtration is more efficient for removing mycobacteria than rapid sand filtration. In addition, our results show that mycobacteria can colonize and grow on granular activated carbon and are able to enter distribution systems. We also investigated the frequency of recovery of mycobacteria in the water distribution system of Paris (outside buildings). The mycobacterial species isolated from the Paris drinking water distribution system are different from those isolated from the water leaving the treatment plants. Saprophytic mycobacteria (present in 41.3% of positive samples), potentially pathogenic mycobacteria (16.3%), and unidentifiable mycobacteria (54.8%) were isolated from 12 sites within the Paris water distribution system. Mycobacterium gordonae was preferentially recovered from treated surface water, whereas Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum was preferentially recovered from groundwater. No significant correlations were found among the presence of mycobacteria, the origin of water, and water temperature. PMID:12406720

  7. Productivity growth and price regulation of Slovenian water distribution utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zorić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the price regulation method and performance of thewater industry in Slovenia. A stochastic cost frontier model is employed to estimate and decompose the total factor productivity (TFP growth of water distribution utilities in the 1997-2003 period. The main goal is to find out whether the lack of proper incentives to improve performance has resulted in the low TFP growth of Slovenian water distribution utilities. The evidence suggests that cost inefficiencies are present in water utilities, which indicates considerable cost saving potential in the analysed industry. Technical change is found to have positively affected the TFP growth over time, while cost inefficiency levels remained essentially unchanged. Overall, the average annual TFP growth in the analysed period is estimated to be only slightly above zero, which is a relatively poor result. This can largely be contributed to the present institutional and regulatory setting that does not stimulate utilities to improve productivity. Therefore, the introduction of an independent regulatory agency and an incentive-based price regulation scheme should be seriously considered in order to enhance the performance of Slovenian water distribution utilities.

  8. Transmission of specific groups of bacteria through water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabińska-Łoniewska, Anna; Wardzyńska, Grazyna; Pajor, Elzbieta; Korsak, Dorota; Boryń, Krystyna

    2007-01-01

    Microbial contamination of a water distribution system was examined. The number and the taxonomy of non-pigmented and pigmented heterotrophic bacteria (HB), number of bacteria (Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus sp., Campylobacter sp., Yersinia sp., representatives of the Enterobacteriaceae, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and C. pefringens) in the bulk water phase, biomass of zoogloeal aggregates of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa and rotifers (ZABFAPR) (separated from the above on 5 microm pore size filters) and in pipe sediments was determined. An increased number of HB occurred at the sampling sites situated as close as 4.2 km to the Water Treatment Plant (WTP), and was especially significant at 10.3 km. It was shown that the main reservoir of hygienically relevant bacteria did not occur in the water phase which is monitored in routine control analyses carried out by the WTP laboratories, but in the ZABFAPR biomass not monitored so far.

  9. Soil Water Distribution and Irrigation Uniformity Under Alternative Furrow Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Ying-hua; KANG Shao-zhong; DU Tai-sheng; YANG Xiu-ying

    2003-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to investigate the spatial-temporal distribution and the uni-formity of soil water under alternative furrow irrigation in spring maize field in Gansu Province. Resultsshowed that during the crop growing season, alternative drying and wetting furrows could incur crops to en-dure a water stress, thus the adsorptive ability of root system could be enhanced. As there was no zero fluxplane between irrigated furrows and non-irrigated furrows under alternative furrow irrigation, lateral infiltra-tion of water was obviously increased, thus decreasing the deep percolation. Compared with the conventionalirrigation, although the water consumption in alternative furrow irrigation was reduced, the uniformity of soilwater was not obviously affected.

  10. The distribution of the electric energy consumed in the World Trade Center building; La distribucion de la energia electrica consumida en el edificio World Trade Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona de la Fuente, Alvaro; Carrillo Borja, Angel [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document describes the distribution of the electric energy in the World Trade Center building. Also called the Business International Capital, it is a modern international concept that integrates under the same roof services and supports required by the foreign commerce, with a great 50 stories high building, information network, a business center, a commercial center, an international center for exhibits and conventions and a luxury hotel. It is a modern building equipped with a numberless technological advancements an a total installed electrical load of 35000 kVA. The distribution structures utilized for high buildings are described, the structure that was decided to adopt in the World Trade Center, the requirement for the execution of the distribution electric work, the Luz y Fuerza installations in the buildings conglomerate, the operation and maintenance of the distribution network of this building and the basic needs for new installations of this type of buildings [Espanol] En el presente documento se describe la distribucion de la energia electrica del edificio World Trade Center de la ciudad de Mexico. Llamado tambien la capital internacional de los negocios es un moderno concepto internacional que integra bajo un mismo techo servicios y apoyos que se requieren para el comercio exterior contando con una gran torre de 50 pisos, red de informacion, un centro de negocios, un centro comercial, un centro internacional de exposiciones y convenciones y un hotel de lujo. Es un edificio moderno equipado con un sinnumero de adelantos tecnologicos y con una carga total instalada de 35000 kVA. Se describen las estructuras de distribucion utilizadas en edificios altos, la estructura que se decidio implantar en el World Trade Center, los requerimientos para la ejecucion de la obra electrica de distribucion, las instalaciones de Luz y Fuerza en el conjunto de dicho edificio, la operacion y mantenimiento de la red de distribucion de este edificio, y las necesidades

  11. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Piparo, Nicoló; Razavi, Mohsen; Munro, William J.

    2017-02-01

    Memory-assisted measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MA-MDI-QKD) has recently been proposed as a possible intermediate step towards the realization of quantum repeaters. Despite its relaxing some of the requirements on quantum memories, the choice of memory in relation to the layout of the setup and the protocol has a stark effect on our ability to beat existing no-memory systems. Here, we investigate the suitability of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers, as quantum memories, in MA-MDI-QKD. We particularly show that moderate cavity enhancement is required for NV centers if we want to outperform no-memory QKD systems. Using system parameters mostly achievable by today's state of the art, we then anticipate some total key rate advantage in the distance range between 300 and 500 km for cavity-enhanced NV centers. Our analysis accounts for major sources of error including the dark current, the channel loss, and the decoherence of the quantum memories.

  12. Heterotrophic bacteria in drinking water distribution system: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat

    2012-10-01

    The microbiological quality of drinking water in municipal water distribution systems (WDS) depends on several factors. Free residual chlorine and/or chloramines are typically used to minimize bacterial recontamination and/or regrowth in WDS. Despite such preventive measures, regrowth of heterotrophic (HPC) and opportunistic bacteria in bulk water and biofilms has yet to be controlled completely. No approach has shown complete success in eliminating biofilms or HPC bacteria from bulk water and pipe surfaces. Biofilms can provide shelter for pathogenic bacteria and protect these bacteria from disinfectants. Some HPC bacteria may be associated with aesthetic and non-life threatening diseases. Research to date has achieved important success in understanding occurrence and regrowth of bacteria in bulk water and biofilms in WDS. To achieve comprehensive understanding and to provide efficient control against bacteria regrowth, future research on bacteria regrowth dynamics and their implications is warranted. In this study, a review was performed on the literature published in this area. The findings and limitations of these papers are summarized. Occurrences of bacteria in WDS, factors affecting bacteria regrowth in bulk water and biofilms, bacteria control strategies, sources of nutrients, human health risks from bacterial exposure, modelling of bacteria regrowth and methods of bacteria sampling and detection and quantification are investigated. Advances to date are noted, and future research needs are identified. Finally, research directions are proposed to effectively control HPC and opportunistic bacteria in bulk water and biofilms in WDS.

  13. The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real

  14. Heat flux distribution on circulating fluidized bed boiler water wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The future of circulating fluidized bed (CFB)combustion technology is in raising the steam parameters to supercritical levels.Understanding the heat flux distribution on the water wall is one of the most important issues in the design and operation of supercritical pressure CFB boilers.In the present paper,the finite element analysis (FEA) method is adopted to predict the heat transfer coefficient as well as the heat flux of the membrane wall and the results are validated by direct measurement of the temperature around the tube.Studies on the horizontal heat flux distribution were conducted in three CFB boilers with different furnace size,tube dimension and water temperature.The results are useful in supercritical pressure CFB boiler design.

  15. Seismic reliability analysis of urban water distribution network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jie; Wei Shulin; Liu Wei

    2006-01-01

    An approach to analyze the seismic reliability of water distribution networks by combining a hydraulic analysis with a first-order reliability method (FORM), is proposed in this paper.The hydraulic analysis method for normal conditions is modified to accommodate the special conditions necessary to perform a seismic hydraulic analysis. In order to calculate the leakage area and leaking flow of the pipelines in the hydraulic analysis method, a new leakage model established from the seismic response analysis of buried pipelines is presented. To validate the proposed approach, a network with 17 nodes and 24 pipelines is investigated in detail. The approach is also applied to an actual project consisting of 463 nodes and 767pipelines. Thee results show that the proposed approach achieves satisfactory results in analyzing the seismic reliability of large-scale water distribution networks.

  16. Design Considerations for Hydropower Development In a Water Distribution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DavidP.Chamberlain; EdStewart; Fei-FanYeh; MichaelT.Stift

    2004-01-01

    Installation of a hydraulic turbine in a water distribution system involving long pipeline reaches requires several unique design considerations. For a fixed speed unit, the selection of design points for head and flow needs to be optimized to provide an operating envelope that would maximize the return on the investment given the widely varied flow and pressure conditions imposed by the water distribution system. The selection of a turbine design speed is essential in facilitating runner design, which must minimize the hydraulic pressure transients on turbine runaway that may result in overstressing the existing pipelines. Method and approach to evaluate these considerations are outlined. Relevant results for the selected design are presented using the 4.3 MW Rancho Penasquitos Pressure Control/Hydroelectric Facility as an illustrative example. Licensing requirements for small inline hydroelectric facilities are also briefly discussed.

  17. Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System Networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hern, Timothy J.; Hammond, Glenn Edward; Orear, Leslie ,; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.; Paul Molina; Ross Johnson

    2005-10-01

    Threats to water distribution systems include release of contaminants and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. A better understanding, and validated computational models, of the flow in water distribution systems would enable determination of sensor placement in real water distribution networks, allow source identification, and guide mitigation/minimization efforts. Validation data are needed to evaluate numerical models of network operations. Some data can be acquired in real-world tests, but these are limited by 1) unknown demand, 2) lack of repeatability, 3) too many sources of uncertainty (demand, friction factors, etc.), and 4) expense. In addition, real-world tests have limited numbers of network access points. A scale-model water distribution system was fabricated, and validation data were acquired over a range of flow (demand) conditions. Standard operating variables included system layout, demand at various nodes in the system, and pressure drop across various pipe sections. In addition, the location of contaminant (salt or dye) introduction was varied. Measurements of pressure, flowrate, and concentration at a large number of points, and overall visualization of dye transport through the flow network were completed. Scale-up issues that that were incorporated in the experiment design include Reynolds number, pressure drop across nodes, and pipe friction and roughness. The scale was chosen to be 20:1, so the 10 inch main was modeled with a 0.5 inch pipe in the physical model. Controlled validation tracer tests were run to provide validation to flow and transport models, especially of the degree of mixing at pipe junctions. Results of the pipe mixing experiments showed large deviations from predicted behavior and these have a large impact on standard network operations models.3

  18. Cross Entropy multiobjective optimization for water distribution systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Lina; Ostfeld, Avi; Salomons, Elad

    2008-09-01

    A methodology extending the Cross Entropy combinatorial optimization method originating from an adaptive algorithm for rare events simulation estimation, to multiobjective optimization of water distribution systems design is developed and demonstrated. The single objective optimal design problem of a water distribution system is commonly to find the water distribution system component characteristics that minimize the system capital and operational costs such that the system hydraulics is maintained and constraints on quantities and pressures at the consumer nodes are fulfilled. The multiobjective design goals considered herein are the minimization of the network capital and operational costs versus the minimization of the maximum pressure deficit of the network demand nodes. The proposed methodology is demonstrated using two sample applications from the research literature and is compared to the NSGA-II multiobjective scheme. The method was found to be robust in that it produced very similar Pareto fronts in almost all runs. The suggested methodology provided improved results in all trails compared to the NSGA-II algorithm.

  19. COMPUTER MODELING OF SELECTED WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Kruszyński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of computer modeling of flowsand the age of the water in two rural communi-ties province Podlasie - Rutka and Jeleniewo. The model is made using Epanet. In the study, a series of variants of models simulating the behavior of existing distribution systems and water analyzes were performed century. Analysis of the age of the water in water works modeled showed areas where standing water is aging, not having the estuary and not giving way to fresh. Age of water in the pipes is an important indicator of its quality and shelf life. The longer standing water in the aqueduct, the more likely that it will develop dangerous bacteria and produce deposits which remain on the walls of the ducts.

  20. Monitoring water distribution systems: understanding and managing sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Ediriweera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks are currently being trialed by the water distribution industry for monitoring complex distribution infrastructure. The paper presents an investigation in to the architecture and performance of a sensor system deployed for monitoring such a distribution network. The study reveals lapses in systems design and management, resulting in a fifth of the data being either missing or erroneous. Findings identify the importance of undertaking in-depth consideration of all aspects of a large sensor system with access to either expertise on every detail, or to reference manuals capable of transferring the knowledge to non-specialists. First steps towards defining a set of such guidelines are presented here, with supporting evidence.

  1. Quality-assurance plan for groundwater activities, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; Kahle, Sue C.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the standard procedures, policies, and field methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Washington Water Science Center staff for activities related to the collection, processing, analysis, storage, and publication of groundwater data. This groundwater quality-assurance plan changes through time to accommodate new methods and requirements developed by the Washington Water Science Center and the USGS Office of Groundwater. The plan is based largely on requirements and guidelines provided by the USGS Office of Groundwater, or the USGS Water Mission Area. Regular updates to this plan represent an integral part of the quality-assurance process. Because numerous policy memoranda have been issued by the Office of Groundwater since the previous groundwater quality assurance plan was written, this report is a substantial revision of the previous report, supplants it, and contains significant additional policies not covered in the previous report. This updated plan includes information related to the organization and responsibilities of USGS Washington Water Science Center staff, training, safety, project proposal development, project review procedures, data collection activities, data processing activities, report review procedures, and archiving of field data and interpretative information pertaining to groundwater flow models, borehole aquifer tests, and aquifer tests. Important updates from the previous groundwater quality assurance plan include: (1) procedures for documenting and archiving of groundwater flow models; (2) revisions to procedures and policies for the creation of sites in the Groundwater Site Inventory database; (3) adoption of new water-level forms to be used within the USGS Washington Water Science Center; (4) procedures for future creation of borehole geophysics, surface geophysics, and aquifer-test archives; and (5) use of the USGS Multi Optional Network Key Entry System software for entry of routine water-level data

  2. Corrosion behaviour and biocorrosion of galvanized steel water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaunois, F; Tosar, F; Vitry, V

    2014-06-01

    Galvanized steel tubes are a popular mean for water distribution systems but suffer from corrosion despite their zinc or zinc alloy coatings. First, the quality of hot-dip galvanized (HDG) coatings was studied. Their microstructure, defects, and common types of corrosion were observed. It was shown that many manufactured tubes do not reach European standard (NBN EN 10240), which is the cause of several corrosion problems. The average thickness of zinc layer was found at 41μm against 55μm prescribed by the European standard. However, lack of quality, together with the usual corrosion types known for HDG steel tubes was not sufficient to explain the high corrosion rate (reaching 20μm per year versus 10μm/y for common corrosion types). Electrochemical tests were also performed to understand the corrosion behaviours occurring in galvanized steel tubes. Results have shown that the limiting step was oxygen diffusion, favouring the growth of anaerobic bacteria in steel tubes. EDS analysis was carried out on corroded coatings and has shown the presence of sulphur inside deposits, suggesting the likely bacterial activity. Therefore biocorrosion effects have been investigated. Actually sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) can reduce sulphate contained in water to hydrogen sulphide (H2S), causing the formation of metal sulphides. Although microbial corrosion is well-known in sea water, it is less investigated in supply water. Thus, an experimental water main was kept in operation for 6months. SRB were detected by BART tests in the test water main.

  3. Development of Distributed Research Center for monitoring and projecting regional climatic and environmental changes: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, Evgeny; Shiklomanov, Alexander; Okladinikov, Igor; Prusevich, Alex; Titov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Description and first results of the cooperative project "Development of Distributed Research Center for monitoring and projecting of regional climatic and environmental changes" recently started by SCERT IMCES and ESRC UNH are reported. The project is aimed at development of hardware and software platform prototype of Distributed Research Center (DRC) for monitoring and projecting regional climatic and environmental changes over the areas of mutual interest and demonstration the benefits of such collaboration that complements skills and regional knowledge across the northern extratropics. In the framework of the project, innovative approaches of "cloud" processing and analysis of large geospatial datasets will be developed on the technical platforms of two U.S. and Russian leading institutions involved in research of climate change and its consequences. Anticipated results will create a pathway for development and deployment of thematic international virtual research centers focused on interdisciplinary environmental studies by international research teams. DRC under development will comprise best features and functionality of earlier developed by the cooperating teams' information-computational systems RIMS (http://rims.unh.edu) and CLIMATE(http://climate.scert.ru/), which are widely used in Northern Eurasia environment studies. The project includes several major directions of research (Tasks) listed below. 1. Development of architecture and defining major hardware and software components of DRC for monitoring and projecting of regional environmental changes. 2. Development of an information database and computing software suite for distributed processing and analysis of large geospatial data hosted at ESRC and IMCES SB RAS. 3. Development of geoportal, thematic web client and web services providing international research teams with an access to "cloud" computing resources at DRC; two options will be executed: access through a basic graphical web browser and

  4. Condensation driven water hammer studies for feedwater distribution pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, S.; Katajala, S.; Elsing, B.; Nurkkala, P.; Hoikkanen, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Pullinen, J. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd., Vantaa (Finland); Logvinov, S.A.; Trunov, N.B.; Sitnik, J.K. [EDO Gidropress (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Imatran Voima Oy, IVO, operates two VVER 440 reactors. Unit 1 has been operating since 1977 and unit 2 since 1981. First damages of the feed water distribution (FWD) pipes were observed in 1989. In closer examinations FWD-pipe T-connection turned out to suffer from severe erosion corrosion damages. Similar damages have been found also in other VVER 440 type NPPs. In 1994 the first new FWD-pipe was replaced and in 1996 extensive water hammer experiments were carried out together with EDO Gidropress in Podolsk. After the first phase of the experiments some fundamental changes were made to the construction of the FWD-pipe. The object of this paper is to give short insight to the design of the new FWD-pipe concentrating on water hammer experiments. (orig.).

  5. Microbial Analysis of Drinking Water and Water Distribution System in New Urban Peshawar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohul-Amin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution due to chemicals and microbes is one of the serious environmental problems, which has greatly impacted human health. Recorded history of contaminated drinking water supply has witnessed various viral, bacterial and protozoan diseases, globally. It is estimated that >250 million cases of waterborne diseases are reported worldwide and over 25 million deaths are blamed due to waterborne-diseases. Pakistan has been facing the same problem due to improper water management, obsolete distribution infrastructure, bad sanitary condition and poor drinking water quality. An estimated 70% Pakistani population living in rural areas have no access to potable water distribution system, whereas in urban areas, between 40-60% urban population has access to safe and clean drinking water. In Pakistan, water filtration before distribution is almost non-existence and furthermore, WHO standards or NEQs are not followed for physiochemical and bacteriological analysis of drinking water. This study was conducted for physiochemical and bacteriological analysis of drinking water of new urban areas of Peshawar and compared the old historical areas of the city. Ten areas for drinking water samples were selected and samples were collected from water supply, distribution system and storage tanks. Physio-chemical (pH, turbidity and Total Suspended Solids (TSS and microbial analyses (Total and fecal coli form and E. coli were conducted (APHA, 2005. According to the results, there was a variation of the analyzed physio-chemical parameter in the water sample between old & new urban areas and was found as: pH (6.65-7.91, turbidity (3-9NTU and TSS (2-6 mg/L. The pH of the all samples was within the permissible limit of WHO guidelines. TSS of the 5 samples was above the permissible limits and turbidity of only 4 samples was within permissible limits. In bacteriological analysis, except one sample collected from the tube well, most samples were Total coliform positive

  6. RELIABILITY BASED OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORK FOR MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Malleswararao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of water supply and distribution is as old as the history of civilization. In the present society, water supply system has become an important and necessary element. It also gives an indication of level of advancement of society. Water Distribution Network (WDN is an important component of water supply system which contributes to nearly 70% of the total cost. Optimal design of water distribution network is the aim of any agency dealing with water supply distribution. Consideration of reliability in water istribution networks has been received increasing attention over the past few years. In the present research work, the main focus is onto develop a new parameter for assessing the overall network reliability using fuzzy logic concepts based on the excess pressures available at the demand nodes and to be incorporated in the optimal design and to incorporate this parameter in a two objective optimization model for design of water distribution network using the combination of Genetic Algorithms and EPANET tool kit in the MATLABenvironment.The best range of excess of minimum residual pressures is considered in the present study in such a way that the reliability of the network is maximum. The proposed methodology is applied on a two loop gravity network which is referred by most of the researchers. 54optimal solutions are identified for the network. The Network Reliability Parameter (NRP, Cost Reliability Ration (CRR and Cost per Unit Reliability and Unit Length (CURUL parameters are used to compare the results with the previous researchers. It is found that the present study shows better results of when comparing withthe results of the previous researchers.

  7. Surface-water quality-assurance plan for the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    This Surface-Water Quality-Assurance Plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center (WAWSC) for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of surface-water data. This plan serves as a guide to all WAWSC personnel involved in surface-water data activities, and changes as the needs and requirements of the WAWSC change. Regular updates to this plan represent an integral part of the quality-assurance process. In the WAWSC, direct oversight and responsibility by the hydrographer(s) assigned to a surface-water station, combined with team approaches in all work efforts, assure high-quality data, analyses, reviews, and reports for cooperating agencies and the public.

  8. The level of endotoxins in hemodialysis water and dialysate in Lithuanian hemodialysis centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarupskienė, Inga; Bumblytė, Inga Arūnė; Tamošaitis, Donatas; Venterienė, Jūratė; Kuzminskis, Vytautas

    2010-01-01

    The composition and quality of the dialysis fluid play an important role in the modulation of dialysis-related complications. During hemodialysis, patient's blood has a contact with dialysate through a semipermeable membrane. Bacterial endotoxins can pass through the membrane pores into the patient's blood and cause a silent chronic microinflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the level of endotoxins in hemodialysis water and dialysate in Lithuanian hemodialysis centers. Dialysis water (n=50) and dialysate (n=50) were collected from 91% (n=50) of all hemodialysis centers. The presence of bacterial endotoxins was evaluated using a sensitive Limulus amebocyte lysate test, which detects intact lipopolysaccharides. The level of endotoxins was lower than 0.25 EU/mL in 43 (86%) dialysis water samples and in 46 (92%) dialysate samples, and complied with the recommendations of the European Pharmacopoeia and the European Best Practice Guidelines for pure dialysis fluid. The dialysate of 39 (78%) Lithuanian hemodialysis centers complied with the definition of an ultrapure dialysis fluid. The water and dialysate were of insufficient quality in 14% and in 8% of Lithuanian hemodialysis centers, respectively, and this could be improved by the establishment of routine investigation of endotoxins.

  9. From Policy to Practice: Implementation of Water Policies in Child Care Centers in Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Ann E.; Henderson, Kathryn E.; Schwartz, Marlene B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Child care policies may contribute to healthy beverage consumption patterns. This study documented availability and accessibility of water and correspondence with state and federal policy and accreditation standards in child care centers. Design: One-day observations were conducted in a random sample of 40 Child and Adult Care Food…

  10. Distributed Scheduling Architecture for Multi-Center Time-Based Metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Steven; Farley, Todd; Foster, John; Green, Steve; Hoang, Ty; Wong, Gregory L.

    2003-01-01

    The Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) is an air traffic control automation system currently in use in seven Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCCs) to enable time based metering to busy airports within their airspace. However, this system is limited to operation within a single ARTCC, within about a 200 nautical mile radius of the airport, and on relatively simple streams of traffic. The need for coordinated metering within a greater (300+ nautical mile) radius of an airport, on streams of traffic with significant branching, and across ARTCC boundaries, has been identified. Early tests revealed that TMA could not simply be scaled up to handle such a problem. Instead, a loosely coupled hierarchy of schedules, in which constraints from downstream schedules are passed upstream, is required. Such an architecture reduces the reliance on distant projections of arrival times, making schedules robust to changes in sequence and to additions of aircraft (such as aircraft departing inside the system s scheduling horizon). This architecture is also scaleable, easily reconfigurable, and can be networked together. As such, it can be adapted for use in any size or configuration of airspace and with any number of airports delivering restrictions. An implementation of this distributed scheduling architecture is currently undergoing testing in the TMA-Multi Center system. This paper describes the architecture and its motivation.

  11. Development of Distributed Research Center for analysis of regional climatic and environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, E.; Shiklomanov, A.; Okladnikov, I.; Prusevich, A.; Titov, A.

    2016-11-01

    We present an approach and first results of a collaborative project being carried out by a joint team of researchers from the Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems, Russia and Earth Systems Research Center UNH, USA. Its main objective is development of a hardware and software platform prototype of a Distributed Research Center (DRC) for monitoring and projecting of regional climatic and environmental changes in the Northern extratropical areas. The DRC should provide the specialists working in climate related sciences and decision-makers with accurate and detailed climatic characteristics for the selected area and reliable and affordable tools for their in-depth statistical analysis and studies of the effects of climate change. Within the framework of the project, new approaches to cloud processing and analysis of large geospatial datasets (big geospatial data) inherent to climate change studies are developed and deployed on technical platforms of both institutions. We discuss here the state of the art in this domain, describe web based information-computational systems developed by the partners, justify the methods chosen to reach the project goal, and briefly list the results obtained so far.

  12. Global Distribution and Prevalence of Arcobacter in Food and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, T-T D; Lee, J

    2015-12-01

    The emerging foodborne and waterborne pathogen, Arcobacter, has been linked to various gastrointestinal diseases. Currently, 19 species are established or proposed; consequently, there has been an increase in the number of publications regarding Arcobacter since it was first introduced in 1991. To better understand the potential public health risks posed by Arcobacter, this review summarizes the current knowledge concerning the global distribution and the prevalence of Arcobacter in food and water. Arcobacter spp. were identified in food animals, food-processing environments and a variety of foods, including vegetables, poultry, beef, dairy products, seafood, pork, lamb and rabbit. A wide range of waterbodies has been reported to be contaminated with Arcobacter spp., such as wastewater, seawater, lake and river water, drinking water, groundwater and recreational water. In addition, Arcobacter has also been isolated from pets, domestic birds, wildlife, zoo and farm animals. It is expected that advancements in molecular techniques will facilitate better detection worldwide and aid in understanding the pathogenicity of Arcobacter. However, more extensive and rigorous surveillance systems are needed to better understand the occurrence of Arcobacter in food and water in various regions of the world, as well as uncover other potential public health risks, that is antibiotic resistance and disinfection efficiency, to reduce the possibility of foodborne and waterborne infections.

  13. Geometry-dependent distributed polarizability models for the water molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loboda, Oleksandr; Ingrosso, Francesca; Ruiz-López, Manuel F.; Millot, Claude [Université de Lorraine, SRSMC UMR 7565, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy F-54506 (France); CNRS, SRSMC UMR 7565, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy F-54506 (France); Szalewicz, Krzysztof [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2016-01-21

    Geometry-dependent distributed polarizability models have been constructed by fits to ab initio calculations at the coupled cluster level of theory with up to noniterative triple excitations in an augmented triple-zeta quality basis set for the water molecule in the field of a point charge. The investigated models include (i) charge-flow polarizabilities between chemically bonded atoms, (ii) isotropic or anisotropic dipolar polarizabilities on oxygen atom or on all atoms, and (iii) combinations of models (i) and (ii). For each model, the polarizability parameters have been optimized to reproduce the induction energy of a water molecule polarized by a point charge successively occupying a grid of points surrounding the molecule. The quality of the models is ascertained by examining their ability to reproduce these induction energies as well as the molecular dipolar and quadrupolar polarizabilities. The geometry dependence of the distributed polarizability models has been explored by changing bond lengths and HOH angle to generate 125 molecular structures (reduced to 75 symmetry-unique ones). For each considered model, the distributed polarizability components have been fitted as a function of the geometry by a Taylor expansion in monomer coordinate displacements up to the sum of powers equal to 4.

  14. Model for determining logistic distribution center: case study of Mount Merapi eruption disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, T. J.; Wigati, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    As one of the most active volcano in the earth, Mount Merapi is periodically erupted and it is considered as a natural disaster for the surrounding area. Kabupaten Sleman as one of the nearest location to this mount has to be always prepared to this disaster. The local government already set three different groups of region, in which potentially affected by Mount Merapi eruption, called KRB I, KRB II, and KRB III. Region KRB III is the closest area to the mount crater and most often affected by the eruption disaster. Whenever KRB III is affected, people live in that area usually being transfer to the next region set that is KRB II. The case presented in this paper is located at the KRB II region, which is the second closest region to the mount crater. A humanitarian distribution system has to be set in this region, since usually this region is became the location of shelters for KRB III population whenever a ‘big’ eruption is happened. A mathematical model is proposed in this paper, for determining the location of distribution center, vehicle route, and the amount of goods delivered to each customer. Some numerical illustration are presented in order to know the behavior of the proposed model.

  15. Distribution of binding energies of a water molecule in the water liquid-vapor interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chempath, Shaji [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pratt, Lawrence R [TULANE UNIV

    2008-01-01

    Distributions of binding energies of a water molecule in the water liquid-vapor interface are obtained on the basis of molecular simulation with the SPC/E model of water. These binding energies together with the observed interfacial density profile are used to test a minimally conditioned Gaussian quasi-chemical statistical thermodynamic theory. Binding energy distributions for water molecules in that interfacial region clearly exhibit a composite structure. A minimally conditioned Gaussian quasi-chemical model that is accurate for the free energy of bulk liquid water breaks down for water molecules in the liquid-vapor interfacial region. This breakdown is associated with the fact that this minimally conditioned Gaussian model would be inaccurate for the statistical thermodynamics of a dilute gas. Aggressive conditioning greatly improves the performance of that Gaussian quasi-chemical model. The analogy between the Gaussian quasi-chemical model and dielectric models of hydration free energies suggests that naive dielectric models without the conditioning features of quasi-chemical theory will be unreliable for these interfacial problems. Multi-Gaussian models that address the composite nature of the binding energy distributions observed in the interfacial region might provide a mechanism for correcting dielectric models for practical applications.

  16. Modelling water quality in drinking water distribution networks from real-time direction data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nazarovs

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Modelling of contamination spread and location of contamination source in a water distribution network is an important task. The paper considers applicability of real-time flow direction data based model for contaminant transport for a distribution network of a city. Simulations of several contamination scenarios are made to evaluate necessary number of flow direction sensors. It is found that for a model, containing major pipes of Riga distribution system, sensor number decrease from 927 to 207 results in average 20% increase of simulated contaminated length of pipes. Simulation data suggest that optimal number of sensors for Riga model is around 200.

  17. Low-delay center-bridged and distributed combining schemes for multipoint videoconferencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting-Chung; Wang, Wen-deh

    1994-09-01

    Multipoint videoconferencing is a natural evolution of two-point videoconferencing and can increase its value to users. Currently, ITU-T's SG8 and SG15 are working on multipoint control related issues; ANSI's T1A1.5 is also working in this area. The video coding and related communication standards of the upcoming MPEG4 and H.26P will all include multipoint communication capability. This paper investigates transport structures and the associated combining schemes that can be used to support multipoint videoconferencing. Since low delay is a major issue for multipoint interactive communications, a distributed structure which renders the lowest delay with many other system advantages is especially investigated. We first analyze the insertion delay of a QCIF combiner bridge which have been proposing for multipoint videoconferencing. Partial input-output pipelining has been used to reduce the delay. To reduce the insertion delay caused by unevenly distributed inputs, a parallel parsing scheme is proposed. This parallel parsing scheme allows low complexity inputs not to be held up by high complexity inputs and can reduce insertion delay significantly. An efficient delay- reduction algorithm using intraslice coding was also cited in a previous proposal. As a comparison, we describe low delay pel-domain transcoding schemes which have similar delay performance with coded-domain combining but have much higher complexities. We also describe a recent proposal which eliminates most of the insertion delay but which require major changes to existing standards and encoder and decoder implementations. The performance of a distributed transport structure in providing multipoint video services is then investigated. Using the face that bandwidth usage is an important factor in estimating network complexity, it is shown that a distributed transport structure saves 40 to 62.5% bandwidth for a 4-point conferencing and also renders the shortest delay when compared with other center

  18. Kinetics of Chlorine Decay in Water Distribution Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建华; 薛罡; 赵洪宾; 汪永辉; 郭美芳

    2004-01-01

    A combined first and second-order model, which includes bulk decay and wall decay, was developed to describe chlorine decay in water distribution systems. In the model the bulk decay has complex relationships with total organic carbon (TOC), the initial chlorine concentration and the temperature. Except for the initial stages they can be simplified into a linear increase with TOC, a linear decrease with initial chlorine concentration and an exponential relationship with the temperature. The model also explains why chlorine decays rapidly in the initial stages. The parameters of model are determined by deriving the best fitness with experimental data. And the accuracy of model has been verified by using the experimental data and the monitoring data in a distribution system.

  19. On the Complexities of the Design of Water Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Izquierdo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply is one of the most recognizable and important public services contributing to quality of life. Water distribution networks (WDNs are extremely complex assets. A number of complex tasks, such as design, planning, operation, maintenance, and management, are inherently associated with such networks. In this paper, we focus on the design of a WDN, which is a wide and open problem in hydraulic engineering. This problem is a large-scale combinatorial, nonlinear, nonconvex, multiobjective optimization problem, involving various types of decision variables and many complex implicit constraints. To handle this problem, we provide a synergetic association between swarm intelligence and multiagent systems where human interaction is also enabled. This results in a powerful collaborative system for finding solutions to such a complex hydraulic engineering problem. All the ingredients have been integrated into a software tool that has also been shown to efficiently solve problems from other engineering fields.

  20. Tritium distribution modeling in a Light Water New Production Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeckle, J.W.

    1989-05-01

    The tritium distribution and tritium release pathways in a new light water production reactor were examined. A computer model was developed to track the tritium as it makes its way through the various plant systems and ends up either as a release to the atmosphere, the cooling tower blowdown or to the solid waste system. The model was designed to predict the integrated yearly tritium releases and provide estimated airborne tritium concentrations in various locations within the plant. WNP-1 was used as a representative model for a Light Water New Production Reactor (LWNPR). The Tritium Distribution Model solves for the time dependent tritium concentration in a system of nodes. These nodes are connected to one another via a set of internodal flow paths and to various sources and sinks. For example, plant systems such as the primary system are the nodes, piping and leaks are the internodal flow paths, make-up water is a source, and release to the atmosphere is a sink. The expected water mass of each node; the flow rates between nodes, sources, and sinks; and tritium source rates are provided as input. The code will solve for the time dependent tritium concentration in each node and the amount of tritium ''released'' to the sinks. Preliminary calculations have been performed using WNP-1 plant specific information obtained primarily from the WNP-1 FSAR. Further work is currently in progress to refine the model and provide a more realistic set of input values which will better represent an operating LWNPR. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Calculation method and operation optimization of water supply and distribution systems equipped with water wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Y. Pobereznichenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, there has been proposed a method of hydraulic and feasibility studies for water systems equipped with water wells which allows determining the optimal set of system structures and the most efficient regimes of their joint performance during operation. Some of the most difficult for hydraulic and feasibility calculations are water supply and distribution systems (hereinafter - SPRV, which contain water wells with borehole pumps. When designing new systems, setting up newly built ones and reconstructing the existing systems, it is necessary to choose the optimal set of structures, their optimal sizes and the most efficient regime of their joint performance. Currently, such systems are the most common for the underground water intake, and the complexity of the optimization calculations of their interacting structures joint performance, is accounted for with the need to specify the characteristics of all wells, their mutual interdependence, and the changes of their characteristics during operation.

  2. Effects of Water Age Blind Spots on the Water Quality in the Water Distribution Systems with the Use of EPANET Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Shamsaei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The increase in water age may be due to the distance travelled and the residence time in the water distribution. The water age of the blind spots in water distribution system causes deterioration in water quality systems. In general, blind spots have been causing increased water age in the water distribution network. Water age has more value in distribution systems with Lang transmission lines. For blind spots (dead end point, there has been an analysis of the primary distribution system. The goal of this study is to improve the water age and water quality as well as minimizing incidences of dead end points in the water distribution systems with the use of EPANET model software. Considering the above results this study for minimizing incidences of dead end points in the water distribution systems will be water age, smaller water and removal of the blind spots are required and need for the design of a pipe diameter that would effectively accommodate blind spots by ensuring appropriate sizes at appropriate points along the system network, so Pressure must be maintained in the distribution network system. Finally, the amount water age and generation of blind spots in the system and distribution network will be due to inaccuracies in network design and distribution systems or inability to consider some important factors when designing the distribution network system.

  3. Signatures of present and past melt distribution along fast and intermediate spreading centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Milena

    The work presented in this dissertation depicts past and present signatures of melt distribution at fast and intermediate spreading centers. The primary goal of the studies included in this thesis is to provide better understanding of melt distribution and variation in melt physical properties within and at the base of oceanic crust formed at these spreading centers. Furthermore, this work examines effects that melt presence might have on formation and structural characteristics of oceanic crust. To explore the above we use geophysical data collected during two expeditions conducted along the Juan de Fuca Ridge (intermediate) and the East Pacific Rise (fast). The major part of the thesis is based on the work conducted on high resolution reflection seismic data that investigate present day intracrustal melt distribution along the East Pacific Rise (EPR) axis extending between 8°20' and 10°10'N. Here, the character of the melt reservoir is examined from different aspects and by using different seismic data analysis methods. By systematic analysis of the seismic reflection data, we show that the axial melt lens (AML) is segmented at different segment scales. Locations of the mapped disruptions in the AML correspond to previously identified tectonic discontinuities well expressed in the seafloor bathymetry. The above result corroborates genetic relationship between tectonic and magmatic segmentation. To examine melt distribution along the EPR, here for the first time we use amplitude variation with angle of incidence (AVA) crossplotting technique that was developed by oil and gas industry experts to look for presence of hydrocarbons. Further data examination for the first time for the mid-ocean ridges show presence of deeper lenses (lenses that are present below the AML). Presence of gaps in these sub-events and their collocation with what is believed to be the location of origin of the last documented eruption occurred in 2005--06, may shed light on the mechanisms

  4. Modelling income distribution impacts of water sector projects in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, C S; Jones, S

    1991-09-01

    Dynamic analysis was conducted to assess the long-term impacts of water sector projects on agricultural income distribution, and sensitivity analysis was conducted to check the robustness of the 5 assumptions in this study of income distribution and water sector projects in Bangladesh. 7 transitions are analyzed for mutually exclusive irrigation and flooding projects: Nonirrigation to 1) LLP irrigation, 2) STW irrigation, 3) DTW irrigation, 4) major gravity irrigation, and manually operated shallow tubewell irrigation (MOSTI) and Flood Control Projects (FCD) of 6) medium flooded to shallow flooded, and 7) deeply flooded to shallow flooded. 5 analytical stages are involved: 1) farm budgets are derived with and without project cropping patterns for each transition. 2) Estimates are generated for value added/hectare from each transition. 3) Assumptions are made about the number of social classes, distribution of land ownership between classes, extent of tenancy for each social class, term of tenancy contracts, and extent of hiring of labor for each social class. 4) Annual value added/hectare is distributed among social classes. 5) Using Gini coefficients and simple ratios, the distribution of income between classes is estimated for with and without transition. Assumption I is that there are 4 social classes defined by land acreage: large farmers (5 acres), medium farmers (1.5-5.0), small farmers, (.01-1.49), and landless. Assumption II is that land distribution follows the 1978 Land Occupancy Survey (LOS). Biases, if any, are indicated. Assumption III is that large farmers sharecrop out 15% of land to small farmers. Assumption IV is that landlords provide nonirrigated crop land and take 50% of the crop, and, under irrigation, provide 50% of the fertilizer, pesticide, and irrigation costs and take 50% of the crop. Assumption V is that hired and family labor is assumed to be 40% for small farmers, 60% for medium farmers, and 80% for large farmers. It is understood that

  5. A Visual Insight into the Degradation of Metals Used in Drinking Water Distribution Systems Using AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating the fundamental corrosion and passivation of metallic copper used in drinking water distribution materials is important in understanding the overall mechanism of the corrosion process. Copper pipes are widely used for drinking water distribution systems and although it...

  6. Maturity analysis method of storage process in distribution centers from Fortaleza-CE’s supermarkets: a multicase study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piter Anderson Severino de Jesus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Logistics and processes, especially storage, are presented as one of the ways the company has to reduce costs and add value to stakeholders. This article aims to develop a method for analyzing maturity to evaluate the storage process at Distribution Centers (DC in Fortaleza / CE. Maturity is defined as how involved the DC is in a particular area or process. Through this analysis, the distribution center can leverage strengths and resolve or mitigate weaknesses. To this end, attributes, dimensions and practices for infrastructure organization, people and technology, as well as internal and external interfaces were established. The instrument was also developed for diagnosing the DC. For elaborating the method, library research and validation were performed with professional logistics. The tool was applied to distribution centers and the heterogeneity of the maturity of Fortaleza DCs was observed.

  7. Using ant colony optimization on the quadratic assignment problem to achieve low energy cost in geo-distributed data centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Richard

    There are many problems associated with operating a data center. Some of these problems include data security, system performance, increasing infrastructure complexity, increasing storage utilization, keeping up with data growth, and increasing energy costs. Energy cost differs by location, and at most locations fluctuates over time. The rising cost of energy makes it harder for data centers to function properly and provide a good quality of service. With reduced energy cost, data centers will have longer lasting servers/equipment, higher availability of resources, better quality of service, a greener environment, and reduced service and software costs for consumers. Some of the ways that data centers have tried to using to reduce energy costs include dynamically switching on and off servers based on the number of users and some predefined conditions, the use of environmental monitoring sensors, and the use of dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS), which enables processors to run at different combinations of frequencies with voltages to reduce energy cost. This thesis presents another method by which energy cost at data centers could be reduced. This method involves the use of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) on a Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) in assigning user request to servers in geo-distributed data centers. In this paper, an effort to reduce data center energy cost involves the use of front portals, which handle users' requests, were used as ants to find cost effective ways to assign users requests to a server in heterogeneous geo-distributed data centers. The simulation results indicate that the ACO for Optimal Server Activation and Task Placement algorithm reduces energy cost on a small and large number of users' requests in a geo-distributed data center and its performance increases as the input data grows. In a simulation with 3 geo-distributed data centers, and user's resource request ranging from 25,000 to 25,000,000, the ACO algorithm was able

  8. Seasonal distribution and relationship of water mass and suspended load in North Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhen; BAO Xianwen; WANG Yongzhi; LI Na; QIAO Lulu

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of suspended load can be determined by its linear relationship to turbidity. Our results present the basic distribution of suspended load in North Yellow Sea. In summer, the suspended load concentration is high along the coast and low in the center of the sea. There are four regions of high concentration in the surface layer: Penglai and Chengshantou along the north of the Shandong Peninsula, and the coastal areas of Lüshun and Changshan Islands. There is a 2 mg/L contour at 124°E that separates the North Yellow Sea from regions of lower concentrations in the open sea to the west. And there is a 2 mg/L contour at 124°E that separates the North Yellow Sea from regions of lower concentrations in the open sea to the west. The distribution features in the 10 m and bottom layer are similar to the surface layer, however, the suspended load concentration declines in the 10 m layer while it increases in the bottom layer. And in the bottom layer there is a low suspended load concentration water mass at the region south of 38°N and east of 123°E extending to the southeast. In general, the lowest suspended load concentration in a vertical profile is at a depth of 10 to 20 m, the highest suspended load concentration is in the bottom near Chengshantou area. In winter, the distribution of suspended load is similar to summer, but the average concentrations are three times higher. There are two tongue-shaped high suspended load concentration belt, one occurring from surface to seafloor, extends to the north near Chengshantou and the other invades north to south along the east margin of Dalian Bay. They separate the low suspended load concentration water masses in the center of North Yellow Sea into east and west parts. Vertical distribution is quite uniform in the whole North Yellow Sea because of the cooling effect and strong northeast winds. The distribution of suspended load has a very close relationship to the current circulation and wind-induced waves

  9. Web Services Implementations at Land Process and Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, M.; Bambacus, M.; Lynnes, C.; Sauer, B.; Falke, S.; Yang, W.

    2007-12-01

    NASA's vast array of scientific data within its Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) is especially valuable to both traditional research scientists as well as the emerging market of Earth Science Information Partners. For example, the air quality science and management communities are increasingly using satellite derived observations in their analyses and decision making. The Air Quality Cluster in the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) uses web infrastructures of interoperability, or Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), to extend data exploration, use, and analysis and provides a user environment for DAAC products. In an effort to continually offer these NASA data to the broadest research community audience, and reusing emerging technologies, both NASA's Goddard Earth Science (GES) and Land Process (LP) DAACs have engaged in a web services pilot project. Through these projects both GES and LP have exposed data through the Open Geospatial Consortiums (OGC) Web Services standards. Reusing several different existing applications and implementation techniques, GES and LP successfully exposed a variety data, through distributed systems to be ingested into multiple end-user systems. The results of this project will enable researchers world wide to access some of NASA's GES & LP DAAC data through OGC protocols. This functionality encourages inter-disciplinary research while increasing data use through advanced technologies. This paper will concentrate on the implementation and use of OGC Web Services, specifically Web Map and Web Coverage Services (WMS, WCS) at GES and LP DAACs, and the value of these services within scientific applications, including integration with the DataFed air quality web infrastructure and in the development of data analysis web applications.

  10. Strategic plan for science-U.S. Geological Survey, Ohio Water Science Center, 2010-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    This Science Plan identifies specific scientific and technical programmatic issues of current importance to Ohio and the Nation. An examination of those issues yielded a set of five major focus areas with associated science goals and strategies that the Ohio Water Science Center will emphasize in its program during 2010-15. A primary goal of the Science Plan is to establish a relevant multidisciplinary scientific and technical program that generates high-quality products that meet or exceed the expectations of our partners while supporting the goals and initiatives of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Science Plan will be used to set the direction of new and existing programs and will influence future training and hiring decisions by the Ohio Water Science Center.

  11. Maintenance and broadening of the ocean’s salinity distribution by the water cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Zika, Jan D.; Skliris, Nikolaos; Nurser, A. J. George; Josey, Simon A; Mudryk, Lawrence; Laliberté, Frédéric; Marsh, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The global water cycle leaves an imprint on ocean salinity through evaporation and precipitation. It has been proposed that observed changes in salinity can be used to infer changes in the water cycle. Here salinity is characterized by the distribution of water masses in salinity coordinates. Only mixing and sources and sinks of freshwater and salt can modify this distribution. Mixing acts to collapse the distribution, making saline waters fresher and fresh waters more saline. Hence, in stead...

  12. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center, Juneau, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); LoVullo, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kandt, Alicen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-21

    This report summarizes results from the energy efficiency, water efficiency, and renewable energy site assessment of the Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center and site in Juneau, Alaska. The assessment is an American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Level 2 audit and meets Energy Independence and Security Act requirements. A team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted the assessment with U.S. Forest Service personnel August 19-20, 2015, as part of ongoing efforts by USFS to reduce energy and water use.

  13. Electron impact ionization of liquid and gaseous water: a single-center partial-wave approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champion, C [Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions, ICPMB (FR CNRS 2843), Institut de Physique, 1 bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: champion@univ-metz.fr

    2010-01-07

    In this work, we report a unified methodology to express the molecular wavefunctions of water in both vapor and liquid phases by means of a single-center approach. These latter are then used as input data in a theoretical treatment-previously published and successfully tested-for describing the water ionization process in the first Born approximation (Champion et al 2006 Phys. Rev. A 73 012717). The multi-differential and total cross sections also obtained are reported for the two thermodynamical phases investigated and compared to the rare existing experimental and theoretical data.

  14. Thermal-hydraulic Optimization of Water-cooled Center Conductor Post for Spherical Tokamaks Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯严; 吴宜灿; 黄群英; 郑善良

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual structure of segmental water-cooled Center Con ductor Post (CCP) to be flexible in installment and replacement. Thermal-hydraulic optimization and sensitivity analysis of key parameters are performed based on a reference fusion transmutation system with 100 MW fusion power. Numerical simulation by using a commercial code PHOEN]CS has been carried out to be close to the thermal-hydraulic analytical results of the CCP mid-part.

  15. Water-Cooled Data Center Packs More Power Per Rack | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard and Ken Michaels, Staff Writers Behind each tall, black computer rack in the data center at the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) is something both strangely familiar and oddly out of place: It looks like a radiator. The back door of each cabinet is gridded with the coils of the Liebert cooling system, which circulates chilled water to remove heat generated by the high-speed, high-capacity, fault-tolerant equipment.

  16. "Ice cubes" in the center of the Milky Way - Water ice and hydrocarbons in the central parsec

    CERN Document Server

    Moultaka, Jihane; Muzic, Koralka

    2015-01-01

    The close environment of the central supermassive black hole of our Galaxy is studied thoroughly since decades in order to shed light on the behavior of the central regions of galaxies in general and of active galaxies in particular. The Galactic Center has shown a wealth of structures on different scales with a complicated mixture of early- and late-type stars, ionized and molecular gas, dust and winds. Here we aim at studying the distribution of water ices and hydrocarbons in the central parsec as well as along the line of sight. This study is made possible thanks to L-band spectroscopy. This spectral band, from 2.8 to 4.2$\\mu m$, hosts important signatures of the circumstellar medium and interstellar dense and diffuse media among which deep absorption features are attributed to water ices and hydrocarbons. We observed the Galactic Center in the L-band of ISAAC spectrograph located on UT1/VLT ESO telescope. By mapping the central half parsec using 27 slit positions, we were able to build the first data cube...

  17. Topological clustering as a tool for planning water quality monitoring in water distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirstein, Jonas Kjeld; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Rygaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    ) identify steady clusters for a part of the network where an actual contamination has occurred; (2) analyze this event by the use of mesh diagrams; and (3) analyze the use of mesh diagrams as a decision support tool for planning water quality monitoring. Initially, the network model was divided...... into strongly and weakly connected clusters for selected time periods and mesh diagrams were used for analysing cluster connections in the Nørrebro district. Here, areas of particular interest for water quality monitoring were identified by including user-information about consumption rates and consumers...... particular sensitive towards water quality deterioration. The analysis revealed sampling locations within steady clusters, which increased samples' comparability over time. Furthermore, the method provided a simplified overview of water movement in complex distribution networks, and could assist...

  18. Distribution of available soil water capacity in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUWenzuo; LIUGaohuan; PANJianjun; FENGXianfeng

    2005-01-01

    The available soil water capacity (ASWC) is important for studying crop production, agro-ecological zoning, irrigation planning, and land cover changes. Laboratory determined data of ASWC are often not available for most of soil profiles and the nationwide ASWC largely remains lacking in relevant soil data in China. This work was to estimate ASWC based on physical and chemical properties and analyze the spatial distribution of ASWC in China. The pedo-transfer functions (PTFs), derived from 220 survey data of ASWC, and the empirical data of ASWC based on soil texture were applied to quantify the ASWC. GIS technology was used to develop a spatial file of ASWC in China and the spatial distribution of ASWC was also analyzed. The results showed the value of ASWC ranges from 15×10-2 cm3·cm-3 to 22×10-2 cm3·cm-3 for most soil types, and few soil types are lower than 15×10-2 cm3·cm-3 or higher than 22×10-2 cm3·cm-3, The ASWC is different according to the complex soil types and their distribution, It is higher in the east than that in the west, and the values reduce from south to north except the northeastern part of China. The “high” values of ASWC appear in southeast, northeastern mountain regions and Northeast China Plain. The relatively “high” values of ASWC appear in Sichuan basin, Huang-Huai-Hai plain and the east of Inner Mongolia. The relatively “low” values are distributed in the west and the Loess Plateau of China. The “very low” value regions are the northern Tibetan Plateau and the desertified areas in northern China. In some regions, the ASWC changes according to the complex topography and different types of soils. Though there remains precision limitation, the spatial data of ASWC derived from this study are improved on current data files of soil water retention properties for Chinese soils. This study presents basic data and analysis methods for estimation and evaluation of ASWC in China.

  19. Photochemical control of the distribution of Venusian water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Christopher D.; Gao, Peter; Esposito, Larry; Yung, Yuk; Bougher, Stephen; Hirtzig, Mathieu

    2015-08-01

    We use the JPL/Caltech 1-D photochemical model to solve continuity diffusion equation for atmospheric constituent abundances and total number density as a function of radial distance from the planet Venus. Photochemistry of the Venus atmosphere from 58 to 112 km is modeled using an updated and expanded chemical scheme (Zhang et al., 2010, 2012), guided by the results of recent observations and we mainly follow these references in our choice of boundary conditions for 40 species. We model water between 10 and 35 ppm at our 58 km lower boundary using an SO2 mixing ratio of 25 ppm as our nominal reference value. We then vary the SO2 mixing ratio at the lower boundary between 5 and 75 ppm holding water mixing ratio of 18 ppm at the lower boundary and finding that it can control the water distribution at higher altitudes. SO2 and H2O can regulate each other via formation of H2SO4. In regions of high mixing ratios of SO2 there exists a "runaway effect" such that SO2 gets oxidized to SO3, which quickly soaks up H2O causing a major depletion of water between 70 and 100 km. Eddy diffusion sensitivity studies performed characterizing variability due to mixing that show less of an effect than varying the lower boundary mixing ratio value. However, calculations using our nominal eddy diffusion profile multiplied and divided by a factor of four can give an order of magnitude maximum difference in the SO2 mixing ratio and a factor of a few difference in the H2O mixing ratio when compared with the respective nominal mixing ratio for these two species. In addition to explaining some of the observed variability in SO2 and H2O on Venus, our work also sheds light on the observations of dark and bright contrasts at the Venus cloud tops observed in an ultraviolet spectrum. Our calculations produce results in agreement with the SOIR Venus Express results of 1 ppm at 70-90 km (Bertaux et al., 2007) by using an SO2 mixing ratio of 25 ppm SO2 and 18 ppm water as our nominal reference

  20. Determination of oil/water and octanol/water distribution coefficients from aqueous solutions from four fossil fuels. [MS thesis; in oil-water and octanol-water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, B.L.

    1984-07-01

    Liquid fossil fuels, both petroleum and synthetically derived oils, are exceedingly complex mixtures of thousands of components. The effect of many of these energy-related components on the environment is largely unknown. Octanol/water distribution coefficients relate both to toxicity and to the bioaccumulation potential of chemical components. Use of these partition data in conjunction with component concentrations in the oils in environmental models provides important information on the fate of fossil fuel components when released to the environment. Octanol/water distribution data are not available for many energy-related organic compounds, and those data that are available have been determined for individual components in simple, one-component octanol/water equilibrium mixtures. In this study, methods for determining many octanol/water distribution coefficients from aqueous extracts of oil products were developed. Sample aqueous mixtures were made by equilibrating liquid fossil fuels with distilled water. This approach has the advantage of detecting interactions between components of interest and other sample components. Compound types studied included phenols, nitrogen bases, hydrocarbons, sulfur heterocyclic compounds, and carboxylic acids. Octanol/water distribution coefficients that were determined in this study ranged from 9.12 for aniline to 67,600 for 1,2-dimethylnaphthalene. Within a compound type, distribution coefficients increased logarithmically with increasing alkyl substitution and molecular weight. Additionally, oil/water distribution data were determined for oil components. These data are useful in predicting maximum environmental concentrations in water columns. 96 references, 26 figures, and 40 tables.

  1. Transients of Water Distribution and Transport in PEM Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hussaini, Irfan S.

    2009-01-01

    The response of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells to a step change in load is investigated experimentally in this work. Voltage undershoot, a characteristic feature of transient response following a step increase in current, is due to transients of water distribution in the membrane and ionomers occurring at subsecond time scales. The use of humidified reactants as a means to control the magnitude of voltage undershoot is demonstrated. Further, the response under a step decrease in current density is explored to determine the existence of hysteresis. Under sufficiently humidified conditions, the responses under forward and reverse step changes are symmetric, but under low relative humidity conditions, voltage undershoot is twice as large as the overshoot. © 2009 The Electrochemical Society.

  2. Transients of Water Distribution and Transport in PEFCs

    KAUST Repository

    Hussaini, Irfan

    2008-01-01

    Response of PEM fuel cells to a step-change in load is investigated experimentally in this work. Voltage undershoot, a characteristic feature of such transient response, is shown to be due to transients of water distribution in membrane phase occurring at sub-second time scales. Use of humidified reactants as a means to control magnitude of voltage undershoot has been demonstrated. Constant stoichiometry operation under certain current-step conditions is found to result in reactant starvation, potentially leading to cell shut down. Further, response under step decrease in current density has been explored to determine existence of hysteresis. Under sufficiently humidified conditions, response under forward and reverse step changes are found to be symmetric, but under low RH conditions, voltage undershoot is found to be twice as large as the overshoot. © The Electrochemical Society.

  3. Joint physical and numerical modeling of water distribution networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, Adam; O' Hern, Timothy John; Orear, Leslie Jr.; Kajder, Karen C.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Cappelle, Malynda A.; Khalsa, Siri Sahib; Wright, Jerome L.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Chwirka, J. Benjamin; Hartenberger, Joel David; McKenna, Sean Andrew; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; McGrath, Lucas K.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the experimental and modeling effort undertaken to understand solute mixing in a water distribution network conducted during the last year of a 3-year project. The experimental effort involves measurement of extent of mixing within different configurations of pipe networks, measurement of dynamic mixing in a single mixing tank, and measurement of dynamic solute mixing in a combined network-tank configuration. High resolution analysis of turbulence mixing is carried out via high speed photography as well as 3D finite-volume based Large Eddy Simulation turbulence models. Macroscopic mixing rules based on flow momentum balance are also explored, and in some cases, implemented in EPANET. A new version EPANET code was developed to yield better mixing predictions. The impact of a storage tank on pipe mixing in a combined pipe-tank network during diurnal fill-and-drain cycles is assessed. Preliminary comparison between dynamic pilot data and EPANET-BAM is also reported.

  4. Business Activity Monitoring: Real-Time Group Goals and Feedback Using an Overhead Scoreboard in a Distribution Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goomas, David T.; Smith, Stuart M.; Ludwig, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    Companies operating large industrial settings often find delivering timely and accurate feedback to employees to be one of the toughest challenges they face in implementing performance management programs. In this report, an overhead scoreboard at a retailer's distribution center informed teams of order selectors as to how many tasks were…

  5. Water distribution systems design optimisation using metaheuristics and hyperheuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DN Raad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The topic of multi-objective water distribution systems (WDS design optimisation using metaheuristics is investigated, comparing numerous modern metaheuristics, including sev- eral multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, an estimation of distribution algorithm and a recent hyperheuristic named AMALGAM (an evolutionary framework for the simultaneous incorporation of multiple metaheuristics, in order to determine which approach is most capa- ble with respect to WDS design optimisation. Novel metaheuristics and variants of existing algorithms are developed, for a total of twenty-three algorithms examined. Testing with re- spect to eight small-to-large-sized WDS benchmarks from the literature reveal that the four top-performing algorithms are mutually non-dominated with respect to the various perfor- mance metrics used. These algorithms are NSGA-II, TAMALGAMJndu , TAMALGAMndu and AMALGAMSndp (the last three being novel variants of AMALGAM. However, when these four algorithms are applied to the design of a very large real-world benchmark, the AMALGAM paradigm outperforms NSGA-II convincingly, with AMALGAMSndp exhibiting the best performance overall.

  6. Software-defined optical network for metro-scale geographically distributed data centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Payman; Wen, Ke; Xu, Junjie; Bergman, Keren

    2016-05-30

    The emergence of cloud computing and big data has rapidly increased the deployment of small and mid-sized data centers. Enterprises and cloud providers require an agile network among these data centers to empower application reliability and flexible scalability. We present a software-defined inter data center network to enable on-demand scale out of data centers on a metro-scale optical network. The architecture consists of a combined space/wavelength switching platform and a Software-Defined Networking (SDN) control plane equipped with a wavelength and routing assignment module. It enables establishing transparent and bandwidth-selective connections from L2/L3 switches, on-demand. The architecture is evaluated in a testbed consisting of 3 data centers, 5-25 km apart. We successfully demonstrated end-to-end bulk data transfer and Virtual Machine (VM) migrations across data centers with less than 100 ms connection setup time and close to full link capacity utilization.

  7. Influence of water quality on nitrifier regrowth in two full-scale drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel B; Van Dyke, Michele I; Anderson, William B; Huck, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    The potential for regrowth of nitrifying microorganisms was monitored in 2 full-scale chloraminated drinking water distribution systems in Ontario, Canada, over a 9-month period. Quantitative PCR was used to measure amoA genes from ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), and these values were compared with water quality parameters that can influence nitrifier survival and growth, including total chlorine, ammonia, temperature, pH, and organic carbon. Although there were no severe nitrification episodes, AOB and AOA were frequently detected at low concentrations in samples collected from both distribution systems. A culture-based presence-absence test confirmed the presence of viable nitrifiers. AOB were usually present in similar or greater numbers than AOA in both systems. As well, AOB showed higher regrowth potential compared with AOA in both systems. Statistically significant correlations were measured between several water quality parameters of relevance to nitrification. Total chlorine was negatively correlated with both nitrifiers and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria, and ammonia levels were positively correlated with nitrifiers. Of particular importance was the strong correlation between HPC and AOB, which reinforced the usefulness of HPC as an operational parameter to measure general microbiological conditions in distribution systems.

  8. CO2 Data Distribution and Support from the Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES-DISC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearty, Thomas; Savtchenko, Andrey; Vollmer, Bruce; Albayrak, Arif; Theobald, Mike; Esfandiari, Ed; Wei, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This talk will describe the support and distribution of CO2 data products from OCO-2, AIRS, and ACOS, that are archived and distributed from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center. We will provide a brief summary of the current online archive and distribution metrics for the OCO-2 Level 1 products and plans for the Level 2 products. We will also describe collaborative data sets and services (e.g., matchups with other sensors) and solicit feedback for potential future services.

  9. Partial Least Squares Regression Model to Predict Water Quality in Urban Water Distribution Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Bijun; ZHAO Yuan; CHEN Kai; ZHAO Xinhua

    2009-01-01

    The water distribution system of one residential district in Tianjin is taken as an example to analyze the changes of water quality. Partial least squares (PLS) regression model, in which the turbidity and Fe are regarded as con-trol objectives, is used to establish the statistical model. The experimental results indicate that the PLS regression model has good predicted results of water quality compared with the monitored data. The percentages of absolute relative error (below 15%, 20%, 30%) are 44.4%, 66.7%, 100% (turbidity) and 33.3%, 44.4%, 77.8% (Fe) on the 4th sampling point; 77.8%, 88.9%, 88.9% (turbidity) and 44.4%, 55.6%, 66.7% (Fe) on the 5th sampling point.

  10. Implications of organic carbon in the deterioration of water quality in reclaimed water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, Lauren A; Jjemba, Patrick K; Giraldo, Eugenio; LeChevallier, Mark W

    2010-10-01

    Changes in water quality in reclaimed water distribution systems are a major concern especially when considering the potential for growth of pathogenic microbes. A survey of 21 wastewater process configurations confirmed the high quality effluent produced using membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology, but suggests that other technologies can be operated to produce similar quality. Data from an intensive twelve-month sampling campaign in four reclaimed water utilities revealed the important trends for various organic carbon parameters including total organic carbon (TOC), biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC), and assimilable organic carbon (AOC). Of the four utilities, two were conventional wastewater treatment with open reservoir storage and two employed MBR technology with additional treatment including UV, ozone, and/or chlorine disinfection. Very high BDOC concentrations occurred in conventional systems, accounting for up to 50% of the TOC loading into the system. BDOC concentrations in two conventional plants averaged 1.4 and 6.3 mg/L and MBR plants averaged less than 0.6 mg/L BDOC. Although AOC showed wide variations, ranging from 100 to 2000 μg/L, the AOC concentrations in the conventional plants were typically 3-10 times higher than in the MBR systems. Pipe-loop studies designed to understand the impact of disinfection on the microbiology of reclaimed water in the distribution system revealed that chlorination will increase the level of biodegradable organic matter, thereby increasing the potential for microbial growth in the pipe network. This study concludes that biodegradable organic carbon is an important factor in the microbial quality and stability of reclaimed water and could impact the public health risk of reclaimed water at the point of use.

  11. Distributed scheduling to support a call center: A cooperative multiagent approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Jonker, C.M.; Jüngen, F.J.; Treur, J.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a multiagent system architecture to increase the value of 24-hour-a day call center service. This system supports call centers in making appointments with clients on the basis ofknowledge ofemployees and their schedules. Relevant activities are scheduled for employees in prepa

  12. JobCenter: an open source, cross-platform, and distributed job queue management system optimized for scalability and versatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaschob Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laboratories engaged in computational biology or bioinformatics frequently need to run lengthy, multistep, and user-driven computational jobs. Each job can tie up a computer for a few minutes to several days, and many laboratories lack the expertise or resources to build and maintain a dedicated computer cluster. Results JobCenter is a client–server application and framework for job management and distributed job execution. The client and server components are both written in Java and are cross-platform and relatively easy to install. All communication with the server is client-driven, which allows worker nodes to run anywhere (even behind external firewalls or “in the cloud” and provides inherent load balancing. Adding a worker node to the worker pool is as simple as dropping the JobCenter client files onto any computer and performing basic configuration, which provides tremendous ease-of-use, flexibility, and limitless horizontal scalability. Each worker installation may be independently configured, including the types of jobs it is able to run. Executed jobs may be written in any language and may include multistep workflows. Conclusions JobCenter is a versatile and scalable distributed job management system that allows laboratories to very efficiently distribute all computational work among available resources. JobCenter is freely available at http://code.google.com/p/jobcenter/.

  13. Guidelines for transient analysis in water transmission and distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pothof, I.W.M.; Karney, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    All water systems leak, and many supply systems do so considerably, with water losses typically of approximately 20% of the water production. The IWA Water Loss Task Force aims for a significant reduction of annual water losses by drafting documents to assist practitioners and others to prevent, mon

  14. Pollutant intrusion modeling in water distribution networks using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raj Mohan; Rahul, Akhouri Ishan

    2011-07-01

    The development and implementation of water quality models for water distribution systems have been growing interest for both environment and hydraulic researchers. It is imperative that the system is able to distribute disinfectants and/or chemicals efficiently for specified quality standards and recover the actual quality of water in case of intrusion of a pollutant into the distribution network. The present work presents hydraulic and quality analysis in a typical water distribution system to obtain the concentration at the sources (pumping station or tanks) affected by typical pollutants utilizing water quality at monitoring points as inputs to artificial neural network (ANN) model. The universal function approximation property of the ANN architecture is being employed for inverse mapping to predict the water quality at the source using the water quality at arbitrary monitoring locations in the distribution system. The optimal monitoring points are identified by water age analysis. The performance evaluation results are encouraging and demonstrate the potential applicability of the methodology.

  15. Biofilm bacterial communities in urban drinking water distribution systems transporting waters with different purification strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huiting; Zhang, Jingxu; Mi, Zilong; Xie, Shuguang; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2015-02-01

    Biofilm formation in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) has many adverse consequences. Knowledge of microbial community structure of DWDS biofilm can aid in the design of an effective control strategy. However, biofilm bacterial community in real DWDS and the impact of drinking water purification strategy remain unclear. The present study investigated the composition and diversity of biofilm bacterial community in real DWDSs transporting waters with different purification strategies (conventional treatment and integrated treatment). High-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis illustrated a large shift in the diversity and structure of biofilm bacterial community in real DWDS. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae, and Cyanobacteria were the major components of biofilm bacterial community. Proteobacteria (mainly Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria) predominated in each DWDS biofilm, but the compositions of the dominant proteobacterial classes and genera and their proportions varied among biofilm samples. Drinking water purification strategy could shape DWDS biofilm bacterial community. Moreover, Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that Actinobacteria was positively correlated with the levels of total alkalinity and dissolved organic carbon in tap water, while Firmicutes had a significant positive correlation with nitrite nitrogen.

  16. Assessing microbiological water quality in drinking water distribution systems with disinfectant residual using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Simon; Lipphaus, Patrick; Green, James; Parsons, Simon; Weir, Paul; Juskowiak, Kes; Jefferson, Bruce; Jarvis, Peter; Nocker, Andreas

    2014-11-15

    Flow cytometry (FCM) as a diagnostic tool for enumeration and characterization of microorganisms is rapidly gaining popularity and is increasingly applied in the water industry. In this study we applied the method to obtain a better understanding of total and intact cell concentrations in three different drinking water distribution systems (one using chlorine and two using chloramines as secondary disinfectants). Chloramine tended to result in lower proportions of intact cells than chlorine over a wider residual range, in agreement with existing knowledge that chloramine suppresses regrowth more efficiently. For chlorinated systems, free chlorine concentrations above 0.5 mg L(-1) were found to be associated with relatively low proportions of intact cells, whereas lower disinfectant levels could result in substantially higher percentages of intact cells. The threshold for chlorinated systems is in good agreement with guidelines from the World Health Organization. The fact that the vast majority of samples failing the regulatory coliform standard also showed elevated proportions of intact cells suggests that this parameter might be useful for evaluating risk of failure. Another interesting parameter for judging the microbiological status of water, the biological regrowth potential, greatly varied among different finished waters providing potential help for investment decisions. For its measurement, a simple method was introduced that can easily be performed by water utilities with FCM capability.

  17. Soil, Groundwater, Surface Water, and Sediments of Kennedy Space Center, Florida: Background Chemical and Physical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Mota, Mario; Hall, Carlton R.; Dunlevy, Colleen A.

    2000-01-01

    This study documented background chemical composition of soils, groundwater, surface; water, and sediments of Kennedy Space Center. Two hundred soil samples were collected, 20 each in 10 soil classes. Fifty-one groundwater wells were installed in 4 subaquifers of the Surficial Aquifer and sampled; there were 24 shallow, 16 intermediate, and 11 deep wells. Forty surface water and sediment samples were collected in major watershed basins. All samples were away from sites of known contamination. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, aroclors, chlorinated herbicides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total metals, and other parameters. All aroclors (6) were below detection in all media. Some organochlorine pesticides were detected at very low frequencies in soil, sediment, and surface water. Chlorinated herbicides were detected at very low frequencies in soil and sediments. PAH occurred in low frequencies in soiL, shallow groundwater, surface water, and sediments. Concentrations of some metals differed among soil classes, with subaquifers and depths, and among watershed basins for surface water but not sediments. Most of the variation in metal concentrations was natural, but agriculture had increased Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn.

  18. Water exchange in plant tissue studied by proton NMR in the presence of paramagnetic centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacić, G; Ratković, S

    1984-04-01

    The proton NMR relaxation of water in maize roots in the presence of paramagnetic centers, Mn2+, Mn- EDTA2 -, and dextran-magnetite was measured. It was shown that the NMR method of Conlon and Outhred (1972, Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 288:354-361) can be applied to a heterogenous multicellular system, and the water exchange time between cortical cells and the extracellular space can be calculated. The water exchange is presumably controlled by the intracellular unstirred layers. The Mn- EDTA2 - complex is a suitable paramagnetic compound for complex tissue, while the application of dextran-magnetite is probably restricted to studies of water exchange in cell suspensions. The water free space of the root and viscosity of the cells cytoplasm was estimated with the use of Mn- EDTA2 -. The convenience of proton NMR for studying the multiphase uptake of paramagnetic ions by plant root as well as their transport to leaves is demonstrated. A simple and rapid NMR technique (spin-echo recovery) for continuous measurement of the uptake process is presented.

  19. Role of water quality assessments in hospital infection control: Experience from a new oncology center in eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkrishna Bhalchandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality assessment and timely intervention are essential for health. Microbiology, total dissolved solids (TDS and free residual chlorine were measured for water quality maintenance in an oncology center in India. Impact of these interventions over a period of 22 months has been demonstrated with four cardinal events. Pseudomonas in hospital water was controlled by adequate chlorination, whereas high TDS in the central sterile supply department water was corrected by the installation of electro-deionization plant. Contaminated bottled water was replaced using quality controlled hospital supply. Timely detection and correction of water-related issues, including reverse osmosis plant was possible through multi-faceted approach to water quality.

  20. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma: Frequency and distribution in a tertiary referral center in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak K Burad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Peripheral T/NK-cell lymphomas are uncommon types of non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL with a higher frequency in Far East countries as compared to the West. This study was undertaken to ascertain the frequency and distribution pattern of peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs diagnosed in a tertiary care center in South India. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was carried out in Department of General Pathology, Christian Medical College, Vellore. The time period was for 2 years from 1 st January 2008 till 31st December 2009. All PTCLs were reviewed and classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO 2008 classification. Results: Of a total of 1032 cases of NHL, 180 cases were PTCL, which accounted for 17.4% cases of all the NHLs. Of these, PTCL, not otherwise specified (PTCL, NOS was the most common subtype (48 cases, 26.1%, followed by anaplastic large cell lymphoma (41 cases, 22.8%, mycosis fungoides (21 cases, 11.7%, angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (16 cases, 8.9%, subcutaneous panniculitis like T-cell lymphoma (15 cases, 8.4%, extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (12 cases, 6.7%, and hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (10 cases, 5.6%. The most common primary site of presentation was nodal accounting for 42% followed by cutaneous (34%, upper aerodigestive sites (8.9%, spleen (6.7%, and gastrointestinal tract (GIT; 3.3%. Conclusions: This is the largest single study on PTCLs in India and we document that its frequency is higher than that reported in Western literature and previous Indian studies and almost similar to that reported in some Far East studies. The frequency of mycosis fungoides, subcutaneous panniculitis like T-cell lymphoma, and hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma was higher than that reported in the World literature and previous Indian studies. The frequency of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma was much lower than that reported in the Far East literature.

  1. Temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of water resources in Guangdong Province based on a cloud model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With a focus on the difficulty of quantitatively describing the degree of nonuniformity of temporal and spatial distributions of water resources, quantitative research was carried out on the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of water resources in Guangdong Province from 1956 to 2000 based on a cloud model. The spatial variation of the temporal distribution characteristics and the temporal variation of the spatial distribution characteristics were both analyzed. In addition, the relationships between the numerical characteristics of the cloud model of temporal and spatial distributions of water resources and precipitation were also studied. The results show that, using a cloud model, it is possible to intuitively describe the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of water resources in cloud images. Water resources in Guangdong Province and their temporal and spatial distribution characteristics are differentiated by their geographic locations. Downstream and coastal areas have a larger amount of water resources with greater uniformity and stronger stability in terms of temporal distribution. Regions with more precipitation possess larger amounts of water resources, and years with more precipitation show greater nonuniformity in the spatial distribution of water resources. The correlation between the nonuniformity of the temporal distribution and local precipitation is small, and no correlation is found between the stability of the nonuniformity of the temporal and spatial distributions of water resources and precipitation. The amount of water resources in Guangdong Province shows an increasing trend from 1956 to 2000, the nonuniformity of the spatial distribution of water resources declines, and the stability of the nonuniformity of the spatial distribution of water resources is enhanced.

  2. Distribution of intermediate water masses in the subtropical northeast Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bashmachnikov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the quantitative study of climatological distributions of mid-depth Source Water Types in the NE Atlantic by the Optimum Multiparameter analysis (OMP, merging a~number of regional results from particular synoptic sections. The cores of the Mediterranean Water (MW, the modified Antarctic Intermediate Water (mAAIW and the Subarctic Intermediate Water (SAIW are detected and spatial variations of their depth/density are obtained: as expected, spreading of the source water types is predominantly isopycnic and follows the major mid-depth circulation patterns. In some areas the turbulent transport should also be considered. The MW in the Atlantic spreads as 3 cores of different density: the upper MW core (northwest of the first transition line between 28° W, 35° N and 14° W, 44° N is found in the neutral density range of 27.65–27.70 kg m−3 and depths of 900–1000 m; the main MW core (northwest of the second transition line between 35° W, 28° N and 10° W, 37° N has neutral density around 27.75 kg m−3 and is found at 1000–1100 m; the lower MW core (southeast of the second transition has neutral density around 27.80 kg m−3 and is found at 1250–1350 m. The upper MW core has comparatively low MW contents (below 30% and is speculated to be transported by the mean flow from the northern Iberian Peninsula and the Bay of Biscay to the northern Azores. The main MW core contains the most of the MW. It primarily originates from the MUC between Cape St. Vincent and Estremadura Promontory, where the strongest local decrease of the topographic β-effect is detected and is transported west by a flow at around 39° N. The lower MW core originates in the Gulf of Cadiz and is translated southwestwards by dominating flows. The SAIW (the core between 27.70 and 27.75 kg m−3 is found to spread south along both slopes of the MAR. The SAIW east of the MAR mixes with the upper and the main MW cores and re-circulates in a cyclonic gyre

  3. Assessing variable speed pump efficiency in water distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy savings and greenhouse gas emission reductions are increasingly becoming important design targets in many industrial systems where fossil fuel based electrical energy is heavily utilised. In water distribution systems (WDSs a significant portion of operational cost is related to pumping. Recent studies have considered variable speed pumps (VSPs which aim to vary the operating point of the pump to match demand to pumping rate. Depending on the system characteristics, this approach can lead to considerable savings in operational costs. In particular, cost reductions can take advantage of the demand variability and can decrease energy consumption significantly. One of the issues in using variable speed pumping systems, however, is the total efficiency of the electric motor/pump arrangement under a given operating condition. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive discussion about the components of WDS that incorporate variable speed pumps (including electric motors, inverters and the pumps themselves to provide an insight of ways of increasing the system efficiency and hence to reduce energy consumption. In addition, specific attention is given to selection of motor types, sizing, duty cycle of pump (ratio of on-time and time period, losses due to installation and motor faults. All these factors affect the efficiency of motor drive/pump system.

  4. Feed water distribution pipe replacement at Loviisa NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, S.; Elsing, B. [Imatran Voima Loviisa NPP (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Imatran Voima Oy operates two WWER-440 reactors. Unit 1 has been operating since 1977 and unit 2 since 1981. First damages of feed water distribution (FWD) pipe were observed in 1989. The FWD-pipe T-connection had suffered from severe erosion corrosion damages. Similar damages have been been found also in other WWER-440 type NPPs. In 1989 the nozzles of the steam generator YB11 were inspected. No signs of the damages or signs of erosion were detected. The first damaged nozzles were found in 1992 in steam generators of both units. In 1992 it was started studying different possibilities to either repair or replace the damaged FWD-pipes. Due to the difficult conditions for repairing the damaged nozzles it was decided to study different FWD-pipe constructions. In 1991 two new feedwater distributors had been implemented at Dukovany NPP designed by Vitckovice company. Additionally OKB Gidropress had presented their design for new collector. In spring 1994 all the six steam generators of Rovno NPP unit 1 were replaced with FWD-pipes designed by OKB Gidropress. After the implementation an experimental program with the new systems was carried out. Due to the successful experiments at Rovno NPP Unit 1 it was decided to implement `Gidropress solution` during 1994 refueling outage into the steam generator YB52 at Loviisa 2. The object of this paper is to discuss the new FWD-pipe and its effects on the plant safety during normal and accident conditions. (orig.).

  5. Assessing variable speed pump efficiency in water distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy savings and greenhouse gas emission reductions are increasingly becoming important design targets in many industrial systems where fossil fuel based electrical energy is heavily utilised. In water distribution systems (WDSs a significant portion of operational cost is related to pumping. Recent studies have considered variable speed pumps (VSPs which aim to vary the operating point of the pump to match demand to pumping rate. Depending on the system characteristics, this approach can lead to considerable savings in operational costs. In particular, cost reductions can take advantage of the demand variability and can decrease energy consumption significantly. One of the issues in using variable speed pumping systems, however, is the total efficiency of the electric motor/pump arrangement under a given operating condition. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive discussion about the components of WDS that incorporate variable speed pumps (including electric motors, variable frequency drives and the pumps themselves to provide an insight of ways of increasing the system efficiency and hence to reduce energy consumption. In addition, specific attention is given to selection of motor types, sizing, duty cycle of pump (ratio of on-time and time period, losses due to installation and motor faults. All these factors affect the efficiency of motor drive/pump system.

  6. Particle Swarm Optimization for Hydraulic Analysis of Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Moosavian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of flow in water-distribution networks with several pumps by the Content Model may be turned into a non-convex optimization uncertain problem with multiple solutions. Newton-based methods such as GGA are not able to capture a global optimum in these situations. On the other hand, evolutionary methods designed to use the population of individuals may find a global solution even for such an uncertain problem. In the present paper, the Content Model is minimized using the particle-swarm optimization (PSO technique. This is a population-based iterative evolutionary algorithm, applied for non-linear and non-convex optimization problems. The penalty-function method is used to convert the constrained problem into an unconstrained one. Both the PSO and GGA algorithms are applied to analyse two sample examples. It is revealed that while GGA demonstrates better performance in convex problems, PSO is more successful in non-convex networks. By increasing the penalty-function coefficient the accuracy of the solution may be improved considerably.

  7. Water masses and property distribution in the EEZ of Mauritius

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; Singbal, S.Y.S.; George, M.D

    Water masses and their properties have been studied in the Mauritian during September-October, 1987. Surface water is characterizEd. by two water masses: 1) a warm (temp. 27 degrees C) and relatively saline water (salinity 35.3 x 10 sup(-3)) which...

  8. Water security: continuous monitoring of water distribution systems for chemical agents by SERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan; Sengupta, Atanu; Farquharson, Stuart

    2007-04-01

    Ensuring safe water supplies requires continuous monitoring for potential poisons and portable analyzers to map distribution in the event of an attack. In the case of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) analyzers are needed that have sufficient sensitivity (part-per-billion), selectivity (differentiate the CWA from its hydrolysis products), and speed (less than 10 minutes) to be of value. We have been investigating the ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to meet these requirements by detecting CWAs and their hydrolysis products in water. The expected success of SERS is based on reported detection of single molecules, the one-to-one relationship between a chemical and its Raman spectrum, and the minimal sample preparation requirements. Recently, we have developed a simple sampling device designed to optimize the interaction of the target molecules with the SERS-active material with the goal of increasing sensitivity and decreasing sampling times. This sampling device employs a syringe to draw the water sample containing the analyte into a capillary filled with the SERS-active material. Recently we used such SERS-active capillaries to measure 1 ppb cyanide in water. Here we extend these measurements to nerve agent hydrolysis products using a portable Raman analyzer.

  9. Distribution of water on Mars: Implications from SNC meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    There has been much speculation about the abundance of water and other volatiles on Mars. Attempts to calculate abundances of water on Mars indicate that Mars contains approx. 10-100 m of water. Numerous models have been put forth to determine the amount of water on Mars more closely. Some researchers infer that Chassigny parent magma contained greater than 1.5 percent water by weight and that the Martian mantle contained greater than 1000 parts per million water. This is too much water for a depleted region. Perhaps some of the water in Chassigny was assimilated at shallow depths, either in a crustal magma chamber or by interaction with superficial permafrost. Either is possible and provides an alternative to the dilemma of water-rich to depleted regions.

  10. Zoolankton distribution in neuston and water column along west coast of India from Goa to Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Padmavati, G.; Goswami, S.C.

    Zooplankton distribution and abundance in neuston layer and water column at 4 stansects between Goa to Gujarat during January-February, 1988 were studied. The ambient water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen at surface layer ranged between...

  11. Identifying and Remediating High Water Production Problems in Basin-Centered Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Billingsley

    2005-12-01

    Through geochemical analyses of produced waters, petrophysics, and reservoir simulation we developed concepts and approaches for mitigating unwanted water production in tight gas reservoirs and for increasing recovery of gas resources presently considered noncommercial. Only new completion research (outside the scope of this study) will validate our hypothesis. The first task was assembling and interpreting a robust regional database of historical produced-water analyses to address the production of excessive water in basin-centered tight gas fields in the Greater Green (GGRB ) and Wind River basins (WRB), Wyoming. The database is supplemented with a sampling program in currently active areas. Interpretation of the regional water chemistry data indicates most produced waters reflect their original depositional environments and helps identify local anomalies related to basement faulting. After the assembly and evaluation phases of this project, we generated a working model of tight formation reservoir development, based on the regional nature and occurrence of the formation waters. Through an integrative approach to numerous existing reservoir concepts, we synthesized a generalized development scheme organized around reservoir confining stress cycles. This single overarching scheme accommodates a spectrum of outcomes from the GGRB and Wind River basins. Burial and tectonic processes destroy much of the depositional intergranular fabric of the reservoir, generate gas, and create a rock volume marked by extremely low permeabilities to gas and fluids. Stress release associated with uplift regenerates reservoir permeability through the development of a penetrative grain bounding natural fracture fabric. Reservoir mineral composition, magnitude of the stress cycle and local tectonics govern the degree, scale and exact mechanism of permeability development. We applied the reservoir working model to an area of perceived anomalous water production. Detailed water analyses

  12. Distributed Spectrum Sensing with Sequential Ordered Transmissions to a Cognitive Fusion Center

    CERN Document Server

    Hesham, Laila; Nafie, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative spectrum sensing is a robust strategy that enhances the detection probability of primary licensed users. However, a large number of detectors reporting to a fusion center for a final decision causes significant delay and also presumes the availability of unreasonable communication resources at the disposal of a network searching for spectral opportunities. In this work, we employ the idea of sequential detection to obtain a quick, yet reliable, decision regarding primary activity. Local detectors take measurements, and only a few of them transmit the log likelihood ratios (LLR) to a fusion center in descending order of LLR magnitude. The fusion center runs a sequential test with a maximum imposed on the number of sensors that can report their LLR measurements. We calculate the detection thresholds using two methods. The first achieves the same probability of error as the optimal block detector. In the second, an objective function is constructed and decision thresholds are obtained via backward in...

  13. From honeybees to Internet servers: biomimicry for distributed management of Internet hosting centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakrani, Sunil; Tovey, Craig

    2007-12-01

    An Internet hosting center hosts services on its server ensemble. The center must allocate servers dynamically amongst services to maximize revenue earned from hosting fees. The finite server ensemble, unpredictable request arrival behavior and server reallocation cost make server allocation optimization difficult. Server allocation closely resembles honeybee forager allocation amongst flower patches to optimize nectar influx. The resemblance inspires a honeybee biomimetic algorithm. This paper describes details of the honeybee self-organizing model in terms of information flow and feedback, analyzes the homology between the two problems and derives the resulting biomimetic algorithm for hosting centers. The algorithm is assessed for effectiveness and adaptiveness by comparative testing against benchmark and conventional algorithms. Computational results indicate that the new algorithm is highly adaptive to widely varying external environments and quite competitive against benchmark assessment algorithms. Other swarm intelligence applications are briefly surveyed, and some general speculations are offered regarding their various degrees of success.

  14. Elimination of Naegleria fowleri from bulk water and biofilm in an operational drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Haylea C; Morgan, Matthew J; Wylie, Jason T; Kaksonen, Anna H; Sutton, David; Braun, Kalan; Puzon, Geoffrey J

    2017-03-01

    Global incidence of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis cases associated with domestic drinking water is increasing. The need for understanding disinfectant regimes capable of eliminating the causative microorganism, Naegleria fowleri, from bulk water and pipe wall biofilms is critical. This field study demonstrated the successful elimination of N. fowleri from the bulk water and pipe wall biofilm of a persistently colonised operational drinking water distribution system (DWDS), and the prevention of further re-colonisation. A new chlorination unit was installed along the pipe line to boost the free chlorine residual to combat the persistence of N. fowleri. Biofilm and bulk water were monitored prior to and after re-chlorination (RCl), pre-rechlorination (pre-RCl) and post-rechlorination (post-RCl), respectively, for one year. A constant free chlorine concentration of > 1 mg/L resulted in the elimination of N. fowleri from both the bulk water and biofilm at the post-RCl site. Other amoeba species were detected during the first two months of chlorination, but all amoebae were eliminated from both the bulk water and biofilm at post-RCl after 60 days of chlorination with free chlorine concentrations > 1 mg/L. In addition, a dynamic change in the biofilm community composition and a four log reduction in biofilm cell density occurred post-RCl. The pre-RCl site continued to be seasonally colonised by N. fowleri, but the constant free chlorine residual of > 1 mg/L prevented N. fowleri from recolonising the bulk and pipe wall biofilm at the post-RCl site. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate successful removal of N. fowleri from both the bulk and pipe wall biofilm and prevention of re-colonisation of N. fowleri in an operational DWDS. The findings of this study are of importance to water utilities in addressing the presence of N. fowleri and other amoeba in susceptible DWDSs.

  15. CLIPS based decision support system for water distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sandeep

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty in knowledge representation of a water distribution network (WDN problem has contributed to the limited use of artificial intelligence (AI based expert systems (ES in the management of these networks. This paper presents a design of a Decision Support System (DSS that facilitates "on-demand'' knowledge generation by utilizing results of simulation runs of a suitably calibrated and validated hydraulic model of an existing aged WDN corresponding to emergent or even hypothetical but likely scenarios. The DSS augments the capability of a conventional expert system by integrating together the hydraulic modelling features with heuristics based knowledge of experts under a common, rules based, expert shell named CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System. In contrast to previous ES, the knowledge base of the DSS has been designed to be dynamic by superimposing CLIPS on Structured Query Language (SQL. The proposed ES has an inbuilt calibration module that enables calibration of an existing (aged WDN for the unknown, and unobservable, Hazen-Williams C-values. In addition, the daily run and simulation modules of the proposed ES further enable the CLIPS inference engine to evaluate the network performance for any emergent or suggested test scenarios. An additional feature of the proposed design is that the DSS integrates computational platforms such as MATLAB, open source Geographical Information System (GIS, and a relational database management system (RDBMS working under the umbrella of the Microsoft Visual Studio based common user interface. The paper also discusses implementation of the proposed framework on a case study and clearly demonstrates the utility of the application as an able aide for effective management of the study network.

  16. The relationship between phytoplankton distribution and water column characteristics in North West European shelf sea waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehling, Johanna; Davidson, Keith; Bolch, Christopher J S; Brand, Tim D; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E

    2012-01-01

    Phytoplankton underpin the marine food web in shelf seas, with some species having properties that are harmful to human health and coastal aquaculture. Pressures such as climate change and anthropogenic nutrient input are hypothesized to influence phytoplankton community composition and distribution. Yet the primary environmental drivers in shelf seas are poorly understood. To begin to address this in North Western European waters, the phytoplankton community composition was assessed in light of measured physical and chemical drivers during the "Ellett Line" cruise of autumn 2001 across the Scottish Continental shelf and into adjacent open Atlantic waters. Spatial variability existed in both phytoplankton and environmental conditions, with clear differences not only between on and off shelf stations but also between different on shelf locations. Temperature/salinity plots demonstrated different water masses existed in the region. In turn, principal component analysis (PCA), of the measured environmental conditions (temperature, salinity, water density and inorganic nutrient concentrations) clearly discriminated between shelf and oceanic stations on the basis of DIN:DSi ratio that was correlated with both salinity and temperature. Discrimination between shelf stations was also related to this ratio, but also the concentration of DIN and DSi. The phytoplankton community was diatom dominated, with multidimensional scaling (MDS) demonstrating spatial variability in its composition. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to investigate the link between environment and the phytoplankton community. This demonstrated a significant relationship between community composition and water mass as indexed by salinity (whole community), and both salinity and DIN:DSi (diatoms alone). Diatoms of the Pseudo-nitzschia seriata group occurred at densities potentially harmful to shellfish aquaculture, with the potential for toxicity being elevated by the likelihood of DSi limitation of

  17. 24 CFR 3280.609 - Water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the water supply line on the discharge side of a water closet flushometer valve or manually operated... opened, shall have a cross-sectional area of the smallest orifice or opening, through which the...

  18. Identification of water-bearing fractures by the use of geophysical logs, May to July 1998, former Naval Air Warfare Center, Bucks County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Randall W.; Bird, Philip H.

    1999-01-01

    Between May and July 1998, 10 monitor wells were drilled near the site of the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), Warminster, Bucks County, Pa., to monitor water levels and sample ground water in shallow and intermediate water-bearing fractures. The sampling will determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known or suspected sources. Three boreholes were drilled on the property at 960 Jacksonville Road, at the northwestern side of NAWC, along strike from Area A; seven boreholes were drilled in Area B in the southeastern corner of NAWC. Depths range from 40.5 to 150 feet below land surface. Borehole geophysical logging and video surveys were used to identify water-bearing fractures so that appropriate intervals could be screened in each monitor well. Geophysical logs were obtained at the 10 monitor wells. Video surveys were obtained at three monitor wells in the southeastern corner of the NAWC property. Caliper logs and video surveys were used to locate fractures. Inflections on fluid-temperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video surveys, and driller?s logs, all wells were screened such that water-level fluctuations could be monitored and water samples collected from discrete water-bearing fractures in each monitor well.

  19. Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Transmission and Distribution Mains

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project seeks to improve the capability to characterize the condition of water infrastructure. The integrity of buried drinking water mains is critical, as it influences water quality, losses, pressure and cost. This research complements the U.S. Environmental Protection A...

  20. The EGI-Engage EPOS Competence Center - Interoperating heterogeneous AAI mechanisms and Orchestrating distributed computational resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailo, Daniele; Scardaci, Diego; Spinuso, Alessandro; Sterzel, Mariusz; Schwichtenberg, Horst; Gemuend, Andre

    2016-04-01

    The mission of EGI-Engage project [1] is to accelerate the implementation of the Open Science Commons vision, where researchers from all disciplines have easy and open access to the innovative digital services, data, knowledge and expertise they need for collaborative and excellent research. The Open Science Commons is grounded on three pillars: the e-Infrastructure Commons, an ecosystem of services that constitute the foundation layer of distributed infrastructures; the Open Data Commons, where observations, results and applications are increasingly available for scientific research and for anyone to use and reuse; and the Knowledge Commons, in which communities have shared ownership of knowledge, participate in the co-development of software and are technically supported to exploit state-of-the-art digital services. To develop the Knowledge Commons, EGI-Engage is supporting the work of a set of community-specific Competence Centres, with participants from user communities (scientific institutes), National Grid Initiatives (NGIs), technology and service providers. Competence Centres collect and analyse requirements, integrate community-specific applications into state-of-the-art services, foster interoperability across e-Infrastructures, and evolve services through a user-centric development model. One of these Competence Centres is focussed on the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) [2] as representative of the solid earth science communities. EPOS is a pan-European long-term plan to integrate data, software and services from the distributed (and already existing) Research Infrastructures all over Europe, in the domain of the solid earth science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. EPOS will improve our ability to better

  1. Unifying Water Data Sources: How the CUAHSI Water Data Center is Enabling and Improving Access to a Growing Catalog of over 100 Data Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, J.; Berry, K.; Couch, A.; Arrigo, J.; Hooper, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific data about water are collected and distributed by numerous sources which can differ tremendously in scale. As competition for water resources increases, increasing access to and understanding of information about water will be critical. The mission of the new CUAHSI Water Data Center (WDC) is to provide those researchers who collect data a medium to publish their datasets and give those wanting to discover data the proper tools to efficiently find the data that they seek. These tools include standards-based data publication, data discovery tools based upon faceted and telescoping search, and a data analysis tool HydroDesktop that downloads and unifies data in standardized formats. The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) is a community developed and open source system for sharing water data. As a federated, web service oriented system it enables data publication for a diverse user population including scientific investigators (Research Coordination Networks, Critical Zone Observatories), government agencies (USGS, NASA, EPA), and citizen scientists (watershed associations). HydroDesktop is an end user application for data consumption in this system that the WDC supports. This application can be used for finding, downloading, and analyzing data from the HIS. It provides a GIS interface that allows users to incorporate spatial data that are not accessible via HIS, simple analysis tools to facilitate graphing and visualization, tools to export data to common file types, and provides an extensible architecture that developers can build upon. HydroDesktop, however, is just one example of a data access client for HIS. The web service oriented architecture enables data access by an unlimited number of clients provided they can consume the web services used in HIS. One such example developed at the WDC is the 'Faceted Search Client', which capitalizes upon exploratory search concepts to improve accuracy and precision during search. We highlight such

  2. STady on the Distribution Center Location problem%基于配送中心合理选址问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢鹏

    2012-01-01

    物流配送中心选址是否合理,对物流中心的功能发挥与整体的经营效益会带来很大的影响。在从配送中心整体规划设计的基础上,对配送中心的选址问题进行深入的研究。首先阐述配送中心的作用及重要性引出配送中心合理选址的关键:其次从配送中心选址的方法着手进一步分析选址要求;最后根据当今经济的发展阐述配送中心选址的发展趋势。%Logistics distribution center location is reasonable, the logistics center function and overall operating efficiency will have a great impact. In this paper from the distribution center on the basis of overall planning and design, the distribution center location problem indepth study. First elaborated the distribution center and the importance of the role of lead distribution center site selection key; secondly, from the impact of location factors, location and the procedure of distribution center location method to proceed further analysis location request; according to the cun'ent economic development of distribution center location development trend.

  3. Fluorine distribution in waters of Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamohana Rao, N. V.; Rao, N.; Surya Prakash Rao, K.; Schuiling, R. D.

    1993-04-01

    Geochemical and hydrochemical studies were conducted in Nalgonda District (A.P.), to explore the causes of high fluorine in waters, causing a widespread incidence of fluorosis in the local population. Samples of granitic rocks, soils, stream sediments, and waters were analyzed for F and other salient chemical parameters. Samples from the area of Hyderabad city were analyzed for comparison. The F content of waters in areas with endemic fluorosis ranges from 0.4 to 20 mg/l. The low calcium content of rocks and soils, and the presence of high levels of sodium bicarbonate in soils and waters are important factors favoring high levels of F in waters.

  4. The CUAHSI Water Data Center: Enabling Data Publication, Discovery and Re-use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seul, M.; Pollak, J.

    2014-12-01

    The CUAHSI Water Data Center (WDC) supports a standards-based, services-oriented architecture for time-series data and provides a separate service to publish spatial data layers as shape files. Two new services that the WDC offers are a cloud-based server (Cloud HydroServer) for publishing data and a web-based client for data discovery. The Cloud HydroServer greatly simplifies data publication by eliminating the need for scientists to set up an SQL-server data base, a requirement that has proven to be a significant barrier, and ensures greater reliability and continuity of service. Uploaders have been developed to simplify the metadata documentation process. The web-based data client eliminates the need for installing a program to be used as a client and works across all computer operating systems. The services provided by the WDC is a foundation for big data use, re-use, and meta-analyses. Using data transmission standards enables far more effective data sharing and discovery; standards used by the WDC are part of a global set of standards that should enable scientists to access unprecedented amount of data to address larger-scale research questions than was previously possible. A central mission of the WDC is to ensure these services meet the needs of the water science community and are effective at advancing water science.

  5. A distributed model: redefining a robust research subject advocacy program at the Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Sabune J; Cagliero, Enrico; Witte, Elizabeth; Bierer, Barbara E

    2014-08-01

    The Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center ("Harvard Catalyst") Research Subject Advocacy (RSA) Program has reengineered subject advocacy, distributing the delivery of advocacy functions through a multi-institutional, central platform rather than vesting these roles and responsibilities in a single individual functioning as a subject advocate. The program is process-oriented and output-driven, drawing on the strengths of participating institutions to engage local stakeholders both in the protection of research subjects and in advocacy for subjects' rights. The program engages stakeholder communities in the collaborative development and distributed delivery of accessible and applicable educational programming and resources. The Harvard Catalyst RSA Program identifies, develops, and supports the sharing and distribution of expertise, education, and resources for the benefit of all institutions, with a particular focus on the frontline: research subjects, researchers, research coordinators, and research nurses.

  6. Final Report: Phase II Nevada Water Resources Data, Modeling, and Visualization (DMV) Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackman, Thomas [Desert Research Institute; Minor, Timothy [Desert Research Institute; Pohll, Gregory [Desert Research Institute

    2013-07-22

    Water is unquestionably a critical resource throughout the United States. In the semi-arid west -- an area stressed by increase in human population and sprawl of the built environment -- water is the most important limiting resource. Crucially, science must understand factors that affect availability and distribution of water. To sustain growing consumptive demand, science needs to translate understanding into reliable and robust predictions of availability under weather conditions that could be average but might be extreme. These predictions are needed to support current and long-term planning. Similar to the role of weather forecast and climate prediction, water prediction over short and long temporal scales can contribute to resource strategy, governmental policy and municipal infrastructure decisions, which are arguably tied to the natural variability and unnatural change to climate. Change in seasonal and annual temperature, precipitation, snowmelt, and runoff affect the distribution of water over large temporal and spatial scales, which impact the risk of flooding and the groundwater recharge. Anthropogenic influences and impacts increase the complexity and urgency of the challenge. The goal of this project has been to develop a decision support framework of data acquisition, digital modeling, and 3D visualization. This integrated framework consists of tools for compiling, discovering and projecting our understanding of processes that control the availability and distribution of water. The framework is intended to support the analysis of the complex interactions between processes that affect water supply, from controlled availability to either scarcity or deluge. The developed framework enables DRI to promote excellence in water resource management, particularly within the Lake Tahoe basin. In principle, this framework could be replicated for other watersheds throughout the United States. Phase II of this project builds upon the research conducted during

  7. Detection of contamination of municipal water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.

    2012-01-17

    A system for the detection of contaminates of a fluid in a conduit. The conduit is part of a fluid distribution system. A chemical or biological sensor array is connected to the conduit. The sensor array produces an acoustic signal burst in the fluid upon detection of contaminates in the fluid. A supervisory control system connected to the fluid and operatively connected to the fluid distribution system signals the fluid distribution system upon detection of contaminates in the fluid.

  8. The Brief Introduction to the Sino-US Joint Centers for Soil and Water Conservation and Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; LI Rui; ZHENG Fen-li

    2004-01-01

    Erosion and transport of soil has worldwide implications for agriculture, landscape stability, climate, natural hazards, and clean, renewable resources of water and air. Assured access to clean water and a healthy and safe environment requires an ethic of conservation and protection. The minimum scale in which these principles apply successfully is basin wide. These are the fundamental concerns of the Sino-US Centers for Soil and Water Conservation and Environmental Protection.

  9. “ICE CUBES” IN THE CENTER OF THE MILKY WAY: WATER-ICE AND HYDROCARBONS IN THE CENTRAL PARSEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moultaka, J. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse, CNRS, IRAP, 14, avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Eckart, A. [I Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Muzic, K., E-mail: jihane.moultaka@irap.omp.eu, E-mail: eckart@ph1.uni-koeln.de [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19, Santiago, 19001 (Chile)

    2015-06-20

    The close environment of the central supermassive black hole of our Galaxy has been studied thoroughly for decades in order to shed light on the behavior of the central regions of galaxies in general and of active galaxies in particular. The Galactic center (GC) has shown a wealth of structures on different scales with a complicated mixture of early- and late-type stars, ionized and molecular gas, dust, and winds. Here we aim to study the distribution of water-ices and hydrocarbons in the central parsec, as well as along the line of sight. This study is made possible thanks to L-band spectroscopy. This spectral band, from 2.8 to 4.2 μm, hosts important signatures of the circumstellar medium and interstellar dense and diffuse media among which deep absorption features are attributed to water-ices and hydrocarbons. We observed the GC in the L band of the ISAAC spectrograph located on the UT1/VLT ESO telescope. By mapping the central half parsec using 27 slit positions, we were able to build the first data cube of the region in this wavelength domain. Thanks to a calibrator spectrum of the foreground extinction in the L band derived in a previous paper, we corrected our data cube for the line-of-sight extinction and validated our calibrator spectrum. The data show that a residual absorption due to water-ices and hydrocarbons is present in the corrected data cube. This suggests that the features are produced in the local environment of the GC, implying very low temperatures well below 80 K. This is in agreement with our finding of local CO ices in the central parsec described in Moultaka et al.

  10. Hot Water Distribution System Program Documentation and Comparison to Experimental Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskin, Evelyn [GE Infrastructure Energy; Craddick, William G [ORNL; Lenarduzzi, Roberto [ORNL; Wendt, Robert L [ORNL; Woodbury, Professor Keith A. [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

    2007-09-01

    In 2003, the California Energy Commission s (CEC s) Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program funded Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to create a computer program to analyze hot water distribution systems for single family residences, and to perform such analyses for a selection of houses. This effort and its results were documented in a report provided to CEC in March, 2004 [1]. The principal objective of effort was to compare the water and energy wasted between various possible hot water distribution systems for various different house designs. It was presumed that water being provided to a user would be considered suitably warm when it reached 105 F. Therefore, what was needed was a tool which could compute the time it takes for water reaching the draw point to reach 105 F, and the energy wasted during this wait. The computer program used to perform the analyses was a combination of a calculational core, produced by Dr. Keith A. Woodbury, Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Director, Alabama Industrial Assessment Center, University of Alabama, and a user interface based on LabVIEW, created by Dr. Roberto Lenarduzzi of ORNL. At that time, the computer program was in a relatively rough and undocumented form adequate to perform the contracted work but not in a condition where it could be readily used by those not involved in its generation. Subsequently, the CEC provided funding through Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to improve the program s documentation and user interface to facilitate use by others, and to compare the program s results to experimental data generated by Dr. Carl Hiller. This report describes the program and provides user guidance. It also summarizes the comparisons made to experimental data, along with options built into the program specifically to allow these comparisons. These options were necessitated by the fact that some of the experimental data required options and features not originally included in the program

  11. Cost of Water Distribution System Infrastructure Rehabilitation, Repair, and Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Piping for Water and Other Liquids," ANSI/AWWA C105-77, Denver, Colo. __--_ 1983. "Standard for Cement-Mortar Lining of Water Pipelines In-Place," AWWA...cathodic protection for eliminating pipeline leaks has been documented by Westerback (1982), who showed that the number of ’ leaks from several water ... pipelines in California was dramatically reduced by * . installing cathodic protection. 95. A special method of corrosion control for bare pipelines is re

  12. Water Distribution System Operation and Maintenance. A Field Study Training Program. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerri, Kenneth D.; And Others

    Proper installation, inspection, operation, maintenance, repair and management of water distribution systems have a significant impact on the operation and maintenance cost and effectiveness of the systems. The objective of this manual is to provide water distribution system operators with the knowledge and skills required to operate and maintain…

  13. CHANGES IN BACTERIAL COMPOSITION OF BIOFILM IN A METROPOLITAN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the development of bacterial biofilms within a metropolitan distribution system. The distribution system is fed with different source water (i.e., groundwater, GW and surface water, SW) and undergoes different treatment processes in separate facilities. The b...

  14. Pilot Field Demonstration of Alternative Fuels in Force Projection Petroleum and Water Distribution Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-04

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED PILOT FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS IN FORCE PROJECTION PETROLEUM AND WATER DISTRIBUTION EQUIPMENT...Fort Belvoir, Virginia 22060- 6218. Disposition Instructions Destroy this report when no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator ...UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED PILOT FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS IN FORCE PROJECTION PETROLEUM AND WATER DISTRIBUTION EQUIPMENT

  15. Water Distribution Lines, water mtr, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Distribution Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as...

  16. Water Distribution Lines, water mh, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Distribution Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as...

  17. Water Distribution Lines, water ln, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Distribution Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as...

  18. Water Distribution Lines, water dist 10, Published in 2003, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Distribution Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2003. It is described as...

  19. Welfare and distribution effects of water pricing policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.J.W.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, distribution and welfare effects of changes in block price systems are evaluated. A method is discussed to determine, for a Marshallian demand function, equivalent variation in case of a block price system. The method is applied to analyze welfare and distribution effects of changing

  20. [Investigation of the distribution of water clusters in vegetables, fruits, and natural waters by flicker noise spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubov, A V; Zubov, K V; Zubov, V A

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of water clusters in fresh rain water and in rain water that was aged for 30 days (North Germany, 53 degrees 33' N, 12 degrees 47' E, 293 K, rain on 25.06.06) as well as in fresh vegetables and fruits was studied by flicker noise spectroscopy. In addition, the development of water clusters in apples and potatoes during ripening in 2006 was investigated. A different distribution of water clusters in irrigation water (river and rain) and in the biomatrix of vegetables (potatoes, onions, tomatoes, red beets) and fruits (apples, bananas) was observed. It was concluded that the cluster structure of irrigation water differs from that of water of the biomatrix of vegetables and fruits and depends on drought and the biomatrix nature. Water clusters in plants are more stable and reproducible than water clusters in natural water. The main characteristics of cluster formation in materials studied were given. The oscillation frequencies of water clusters in plants (biofield) are given at which they interact with water clusters of the Earth hydrosphere. A model of series of clusters 16(H2O)100 4(H2O)402 2(H2O)903 (H2O)1889 in the biomatrix of vegetables and fruits was discussed.

  1. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options With Validated Analysis Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. A full distribution system developed in TRNSYS has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. This study builds upon previous analysis modelling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. Of the configurations evaluated, distribution losses account for 13-29% of the total water heating energy use and water use efficiency ranges from 11-22%. The base case, an uninsulated trunk and branch system sees the most improvement in energy consumption by insulating and locating the water heater central to all fixtures. Demand recirculation systems are not projected to provide significant energy savings and in some cases increase energy consumption. Water use is most efficient with demand recirculation systems, followed by the insulated trunk and branch system with a central water heater. Compact plumbing practices and insulation have the most impact on energy consumption (2-6% for insulation and 3-4% per 10 gallons of enclosed volume reduced). The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  2. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options with Validated Analysis Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. Transient System Simulation Tool (TRNSYS) is a full distribution system developed that has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. In this study, the Building America team built upon previous analysis modeling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall, 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  3. Providing International Research Experiences in Water Resources Through a Distributed REU Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, J.; Sahrawat, K.; Mylavarapu, R.

    2012-12-01

    Research experiences for undergraduates offer training in problem solving and critical thinking via hands-on projects. The goal of the distributed Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Program in the Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department (ABE) at the University of Florida (UF) is to provide undergraduate students a unique opportunity to conduct research in water resources using interdisciplinary approaches, integrating research and extension, while the cohort is not co-located. The eight-week REU Program utilizes the extensive infrastructure of UF - Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) through the Research and Education Centers (RECs). To provide international research and extension experience, two students were located at the International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), in India. Prior to the beginning of the Program, the students worked closely with their research mentors at University of Florida and ICRISAT to develop a project plan for understanding the water quality issues in two watersheds. The students were co-located during the Orientation week at the University of Florida. During the Program, they achieved an enriching cohort experience through social networking, daily blogs, and weekly video conferences to share their research and other REU experiences. The group meetings and guest lectures are conducted via synchronously through video conferencing. The students who were distributed across Florida benefited from the research experiences of the students who were located in India, as their project progressed. They described their challenges and achievements during the group meetings and in the blogs. This model of providing integrated research and extension opportunities in hydrology where not all the REU participants are physically co-located, is unique and can be extended to other disciplines.

  4. Realizing the potential of the CUAHSI Water Data Center to advance Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, R. P.; Seul, M.; Pollak, J.; Couch, A.

    2015-12-01

    The CUAHSI Water Data Center has developed a cloud-based system for data publication, discovery and access. Key features of this system are a semantically enabled catalog to discover data across more than 100 different services and delivery of data and metadata in a standard format. While this represents a significant technical achievement, the purpose of this system is to support data reanalysis for advancing science. A new web-based client, HydroClient, improves access to the data from previous clients. This client is envisioned as the first step in a workflow that can involve visualization and analysis using web-processing services, followed by download to local computers for further analysis. The release of the WaterML library in the R package CRAN repository is an initial attempt at linking the WDC services in a larger analysis workflow. We are seeking community input on other resources required to make the WDC services more valuable in scientific research and education.

  5. Distributed H2 Supply for Fuel Cell Utility Vehicles Year 6 - Activity 3.5 - Development fo a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almlie, Jay

    2012-04-15

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed a high-pressure hydrogen production system that reforms a liquid organic feedstock and water at operating pressures up to 800 bar (~12,000 psig). The advantages of this system include the elimination of energy-intensive hydrogen compression, a smaller process footprint, and the elimination of gaseous or liquid hydrogen transport. This system could also potentially enable distributed hydrogen production from centralized coal. Processes have been investigated to gasify coal and then convert the syngas into alcohol or alkanes. These alcohols and alkanes could then be easily transported in bulk to distributed high-pressure water-reforming (HPWR)-based systems to deliver hydrogen economically. The intent of this activity was to utilize the EERC’s existing HPWR hydrogen production process, previously designed and constructed in a prior project phase, as a basis to improve operational and production performance of an existing demonstration unit. Parameters to be pursued included higher hydrogen delivery pressure, higher hydrogen production rates, and the ability to refill within a 5-minute time frame.

  6. Predictive analytics for truck arrival time estimation: a field study at a European distribution center

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoel, van der Sjoerd; Amrit, Chintan; Hillegersberg, van Jos

    2015-01-01

    Distribution centres (DCs) are the hubs connecting transport streams in the supply chain. The synchronisation of coming and going cargo at a DC requires reliable arrival times. To achieve this, a reliable method to predict arrival times is needed. A literature review was performed to find the factor

  7. Practical Optimal Control of Large-scale Water Distribution Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lv Mou(吕谋); Song Shuang

    2004-01-01

    According to the network characteristics and actual state of the water supply system in China, the implicit model, which can be solved by the hierarchical optimization method, was established. In special, based on the analyses of the water supply system containing variable-speed pumps, a software has been developed successfully. The application of this model to the city of Hangzhou (China) was compared to experiential strategy. The results of this study showed that the developed model is a promising optimization method to control the large-scale water supply systems.

  8. Luminescence and color center distributions in K3YB6O12:Ce3+ phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Wan, Yingpeng; Weng, Honggen; Huang, Yanlin; Chen, Cuili; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2016-08-01

    Polycrystalline Ce3+-doped K3YB6O12 (1-14 mol%) phosphors were prepared by facile chemical sol-gel synthesis. The phase formation of the phosphors was confirmed by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis. The photoluminescence excitation spectra (PLE), emission spectra (PL) and the luminescence decay curves were tested. Under the near-UV light, the phosphors present the emission from blue color to yellowish green due to the allowed 4f -5d transitions of Ce3+ ions. The absolute quantum efficiency (QE) of K3YB6O12:Ce3+ can reach 53% under the excitation of near-UV light. The luminescence thermal quenching of the phosphor was investigated by the temperature-dependent spectra. The crystallographic site of Ce3+ ions in the lattice was identified and discussed on the basis of luminescence characteristics and structural data. There is only one isolated Ce3+ center occupying the Y(II) sites in the lightly doped samples presenting a typical doublet emission profile. While the Ce3+ multi-centers could be created with the enhancement of the doping levels, which could induce the distinct red-shift of the spectra due to the dipole-dipole interactions. The result in this work could be useful for the further investigation of other rare earth ions in this host.

  9. The Composition and Distribution of Dust Along the Line of Sight Towards the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Chiar, J E; Whittet, D C B; Schütte, W A; Boogert, A C A; Lutz, D; Van Dishoeck, E F; Bernstein, M P

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the composition of dust and ice along the line of sight to theGalactic Center (GC) based on analysis of mid-infrared spectra (2.4-13 micron)from the Short Wavelength Spectrometer on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO).We have analyzed dust absorption features arising in the molecular cloudmaterial and the diffuse interstellar medium along the lines of sight towardSagittarius A* and the Quintuplet sources, GCS3 and GCS4. It is evident fromthe depth of the 3.0 micron H2O and the 4.27 micron CO2 ice features that thereis more molecular cloud material along the line of sight toward Sgr A* thanGCS3 and 4. In fact, Sgr A* has a rich infrared ice spectrum with evidence forthe presence of solid CH4, NH3, and possibly HCOOH. Hydrocarbon dust in the diffuse interstellar medium along the line of sightto the GC is characterized by absorption features centered at 3.4, 6.85, and7.25 micron. Ground-based studies have identified the 3.4 micron feature withaliphatic hydrocarbons, and ISO has given us the first mea...

  10. Flow cytometry total cell counts: a field study assessing microbiological water quality and growth in unchlorinated drinking water distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, G.; Van der Mark, E.J.; Verberk, J.Q.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    e objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A one-ye

  11. Application of DVC-FISH method in tracking Escherichia coli in drinking water distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mezule

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic detection of live (viable Escherichia coli in drinking water and biofilm with molecular methods but not with standard plate counts has raised concerns about the reliability of this indicator in the surveillance of drinking water safety. The aim of this study was to determine spatial distribution of different viability forms of E. coli in a drinking water distribution system which complies with European Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC. For two years coupons (two week old and pre-concentrated (100 times with ultrafilters water samples were collected after treatment plants and from four sites in the distribution network at several distances. The samples were analyzed for total, viable (able to divide as DVC-FISH positive and cultivable E. coli. The results showed that low numbers of E. coli enters the distribution sytem from the treatment plants and tend to accumulate in the biofilm of water distribution system. Almost all of the samples contained metabolically active E. coli in the range of 1 to 50 cells per litre or cm2 which represented approximately 53% of all E. coli detected. The amount of viable E. coli significantly increased into the network irrespective of the season. The study has shown that DVC-FISH method in combination with water pre-concentration and biofilm sampling allows to better understand the behaviour of E. coli in water distribution networks, thus, it provides new evidences for water safety control.

  12. Final Report: Phase II Nevada Water Resources Data, Modeling, and Visualization (DMV) Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackman, Thomas [Desert Research Institute; Minor, Timothy [Desert Research Institute; Pohll, Gregory [Desert Research Institute

    2013-07-22

    Water is unquestionably a critical resource throughout the United States. In the semi-arid west -- an area stressed by increase in human population and sprawl of the built environment -- water is the most important limiting resource. Crucially, science must understand factors that affect availability and distribution of water. To sustain growing consumptive demand, science needs to translate understanding into reliable and robust predictions of availability under weather conditions that could be average but might be extreme. These predictions are needed to support current and long-term planning. Similar to the role of weather forecast and climate prediction, water prediction over short and long temporal scales can contribute to resource strategy, governmental policy and municipal infrastructure decisions, which are arguably tied to the natural variability and unnatural change to climate. Change in seasonal and annual temperature, precipitation, snowmelt, and runoff affect the distribution of water over large temporal and spatial scales, which impact the risk of flooding and the groundwater recharge. Anthropogenic influences and impacts increase the complexity and urgency of the challenge. The goal of this project has been to develop a decision support framework of data acquisition, digital modeling, and 3D visualization. This integrated framework consists of tools for compiling, discovering and projecting our understanding of processes that control the availability and distribution of water. The framework is intended to support the analysis of the complex interactions between processes that affect water supply, from controlled availability to either scarcity or deluge. The developed framework enables DRI to promote excellence in water resource management, particularly within the Lake Tahoe basin. In principle, this framework could be replicated for other watersheds throughout the United States. Phase II of this project builds upon the research conducted during

  13. Water Purification, Distribution and Sewage Disposal. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979

    This document, designed to serve as a training manual for technical instructors and as a field resource reference for Peace Corps volunteers, consists of nine units. Unit topics focus on: (1) water supply sources; (2) water treatment; (3) planning water distribution systems; (4) characteristics of an adequate system; (5) construction techniques;…

  14. Diversity of free-living amoebae in a dual distribution (potable and recycled) water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-living amoebae are known to facilitate the growth of water associated pathogens. This study, for the first time, explored the diversity of free-living amoebae in a dual distribution (potable and recycled) water system in Rouse Hill NSW, Australia. Water and biofilm samples w...

  15. Data documenting the potential distribution of Aedes aegypti in the center of Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Contreras, Israel; Sandoval-Ruiz, César A; Mendoza-Palmero, Fredy S; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Equihua, Miguel; Benítez, Griselda

    2017-02-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Establishment of Aedes aegypti (L.) in mountainous regions in Mexico: Increasing number of population at risk of mosquito-borne disease and future climate conditions" (M. Equihua, S. Ibáñez-Bernal, G. Benítez, I. Estrada-Contreras, C.A. Sandoval-Ruiz, F.S. Mendoza-Palmero, 2016) [1]. This article provides presence records in shapefile format used to generate maps of potential distribution of Aedes aegypti with different climate change scenarios as well as each of the maps obtained in raster format. In addition, tables with values of potential distribution of the vector as well as the average values of probability of presence including data of the mosquito incidence along the altitudinal range.

  16. A new thermoluminescence mixed order model for continuous and uniform distribution of trapping centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zahedifar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A mixed order model is proposed for describing thermoluminescence (TL glow peaks with continuous and uniform distribution of trapping states. It is shown that the presented function reduces to the simple known models at the limiting cases. The function for TL intensity has been introduced in terms of intensity and temperature of the peak maximum. These parameters can easily be estimated from the shape of the glow peak as initial guesstimate for the curve fitting procedure. Considering the direct relation between the parameters entered in the proposed model and the physics of TL phenomenon, it is deduced that it is more appropriate for describing TL peaks with continuous distribution of trapping states.

  17. Data documenting the potential distribution of Aedes aegypti in the center of Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Estrada-Contreras

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Establishment of Aedes aegypti (L. in mountainous regions in Mexico: Increasing number of population at risk of mosquito-borne disease and future climate conditions” (M. Equihua, S. Ibáñez-Bernal, G. Benítez, I. Estrada-Contreras, C.A. Sandoval-Ruiz, F.S. Mendoza-Palmero, 2016 [1]. This article provides presence records in shapefile format used to generate maps of potential distribution of Aedes aegypti with different climate change scenarios as well as each of the maps obtained in raster format. In addition, tables with values of potential distribution of the vector as well as the average values of probability of presence including data of the mosquito incidence along the altitudinal range.

  18. Thermosyphon Cooler Hybrid System for Water Savings in an Energy-Efficient HPC Data Center: Modeling and Installation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Thomas; Liu, Zan; Sickinger, David; Regimbal, Kevin; Martinez, David

    2017-02-01

    The Thermosyphon Cooler Hybrid System (TCHS) integrates the control of a dry heat rejection device, the thermosyphon cooler (TSC), with an open cooling tower. A combination of equipment and controls, this new heat rejection system embraces the 'smart use of water,' using evaporative cooling when it is most advantageous and then saving water and modulating toward increased dry sensible cooling as system operations and ambient weather conditions permit. Innovative fan control strategies ensure the most economical balance between water savings and parasitic fan energy. The unique low-pressure-drop design of the TSC allows water to be cooled directly by the TSC evaporator without risk of bursting tubes in subfreezing ambient conditions. Johnson Controls partnered with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories to deploy the TSC as a test bed at NREL's high-performance computing (HPC) data center in the first half of 2016. Located in NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF), this HPC data center has achieved an annualized average power usage effectiveness rating of 1.06 or better since 2012. Warm-water liquid cooling is used to capture heat generated by computer systems direct to water; that waste heat is either reused as the primary heat source in the ESIF building or rejected using evaporative cooling. This data center is the single largest source of water and power demand on the NREL campus, using about 7,600 m3 (2.0 million gal) of water during the past year with an hourly average IT load of nearly 1 MW (3.4 million Btu/h) -- so dramatically reducing water use while continuing efficient data center operations is of significant interest. Because Sandia's climate is similar to NREL's, this new heat rejection system being deployed at NREL has gained interest at Sandia. Sandia's data centers utilize an hourly average of 8.5 MW (29 million Btu/h) and are also one of the largest consumers of

  19. Experimental study on pressure and temperature distributions for low mass flux steam jet in subcooled water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN JunJie; WU XinZhuang; CHONG DaoTong

    2009-01-01

    A low mass flux steam jet in subcooled water was experimentally investigated. The transition of flow pattern from stable jet to condensation oscillation was observed at relatively high water temperature. The axial total pressures, the axial and radial temperature distributions were measured in the jet region. The results indicated that the pressure and temperature distributions were mainly influenced by the water temperature. The correlations corrected with water temperature were given to predict the dimen-sionless axial pressure peak distance and axial temperature distributions in the jet region, the results showed s good agreement between the predictions and experiments. Moreover, the self-similarity property of the radial temperature was obtained, which agreed well with Gauss distribution. In present work, all the dimensionless properties were mainly dependent on the water temperature but weakly on the nozzle size under a certain steam mass flux.

  20. Temporal and spatial variations of water qualities and fish fauna distributions in the Kaname river, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, K.; Kitano, T.; Kutsumi, M.; Shimizu, K.

    2011-12-01

    Fish fauna distributions had been studied at many places and they indicated that the fish distributions were dramatically different depending on fish species and local environment such as water temperature, current, sediment parameters. But the relationships between water qualities and fish fauna distribution have not been understood well. In order to find physical and chemical environment factors which relate to the fish fauna distribution, we investigated the temporal and spatial change of water qualities and fish distributions in Kaname river, Japan. We measured both of physical (temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Chl-a and turbidity) and chemical (nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, orthophosphoric and suspended solids) water parameters and surveyed the fish distribution. The field observations were conducted seasonally and check the season differences. Observation results showed that Gobiidae and Cyprinidae fishes live in the Kaname river and the distribution was clearly classified with the species. And also chemical water qualities were dramatically different by location. Especially the effects of sewage farms on water qualities were detected. This study will be contributory to reveal the relationships between fish fauna distribution and environmental parameters and it will lead to the ecological preservation.

  1. Evaluation of biological stability and corrosion potential in drinking water distribution systems: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, C C; Kao, C M; Chen, C W; Dong, C D; Chien, H Y

    2009-06-01

    The appearance of assimilable organic carbon (AOC), microbial regrowth, disinfection by-products (DBPs), and pipe corrosion in drinking water distribution systems are among those major safe drinking water issues in many countries. The water distribution system of Cheng-Ching Lake Water Treatment Plant (CCLWTP) was selected in this study to evaluate the: (1) fate and transport of AOC, DBPs [e.g., trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs)], and other organic carbon indicators in the selected distribution system, (2) correlations between AOC (or DBPs) and major water quality parameters [e.g. dissolved oxygen (DO), free residual chlorine, and bacteria, and (3) causes and significance of corrosion problems of the water pipes in this system. In this study, seasonal water samples were collected from 13 representative locations in the distribution system for analyses of AOC, DBPs, and other water quality indicators. Results indicate that residual free chlorine concentrations in the distribution system met the drinking water standards (0.2 to 1 mg l(-1)) established by Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA). Results show that AOC measurements correlated positively with total organic carbon (TOC) and UV-254 (an organic indicator) values in this system. Moreover, AOC concentrations at some locations were higher than the 50 microg acetate-C l(-1) standard established by Taiwan Water Company. This indicates that the microbial regrowth might be a potential water quality problem in this system. Higher DO measurements (>5.7 mg l(-1)) might cause the aerobic biodegradation of THMs and HAAs in the system, and thus, low THMs (water distribution system for maintaining a safe drinking water quality.

  2. Core Flow Distribution from Coupled Supercritical Water Reactor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an extended code package PARCS/RELAP5 to analyze steady state of SCWR US reference design. An 8 × 8 quarter core model in PARCS and a reactor core model in RELAP5 are used to study the core flow distribution under various steady state conditions. The possibility of moderator flow reversal is found in some hot moderator channels. Different moderator flow orifice strategies, both uniform across the core and nonuniform based on the power distribution, are explored with the goal of preventing the reversal.

  3. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lead Poisoning Prevention Training Center (HHLPPTC) Training Tracks Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For information about lead in water in Flint, MI, please visit http://www.phe. ...

  4. Locating distribution/service centers based on multi objective decision making using set covering and proximity to stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazyar Dabibi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present competitive world, facility location is an important aspect of the supply chain (sc optimization. It involves selecting specific locations for facility construction and allocation of the distribution channel among different SC levels. In fact, it is a strategic issue which directly affects many operational/tactical decisions. Besides the accessibility, which results in customer satisfaction, the present paper optimizes the establishment costs of a number of distribution channels by considering their proximity to the stock market of the goods they distribute, and proposes mathematical models for two objective functions using the set covering problem. Then, two objective functions are proposed into one through the ε-constraint method and solved by the metaheuristic Genetic Algorithm (GA. To test the resulted model, a smaller scale problem is solved. Results from running the algorithm with different ε-values show that, on average, a 10% increase in ε, which increases the value of the second objective function - distance covered by customers will cause a 2% decrease in the value of the first objective function including the costs of establishing distribution centers. The repeatability and solution convergence of the two-objective model presented by the GA are other results obtained in this study.

  5. Distribution of tritium in precipitation and surface water in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Patrick A.; Visser, Ate; Moran, Jean E.; Esser, Brad K.

    2016-03-01

    The tritium concentration in the surface hydrosphere throughout California was characterized to examine the reasons for spatial variability and to enhance the applicability of tritium in hydrological investigations. Eighteen precipitation samples were analyzed and 148 samples were collected from surface waters across California in the Summer and Fall of 2013, with repeat samples from some locations collected in Winter and Spring of 2014 to examine seasonal variation. The concentration of tritium in present day precipitation varied from 4.0 pCi/L near the California coast to 17.8 pCi/L in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Concentrations in precipitation increase in spring due to the 'Spring Leak' phenomenon. The average coastal concentration (6.3 ± 1.2 pCi/L) in precipitation matches estimated pre-nuclear levels. Surface water samples show a trend of increasing tritium with inland distance. Superimposed on that trend, elevated tritium concentrations are found in the San Francisco Bay area compared to other coastal areas, resulting from municipal water imported from inland mountain sources and local anthropogenic sources. Tritium concentrations in most surface waters decreased between Summer/Fall 2013 and Winter/Spring 2014 likely due to an increased groundwater signal as a result of drought conditions in 2014. A relationship between tritium and electrical conductivity in surface water was found to be indicative of water provenance and anthropogenic influences such as agricultural runoff. Despite low initial concentrations in precipitation, tritium continues to be a valuable tracer in a post nuclear bomb pulse world.

  6. Transformation of Bisphenol A in Water Distribution Systems, A Pilot-scale Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halogenations of bisphenol A (BPA) in a pilot-scale water distribution system (WDS) of cement-lined ductile cast iron pipe were investigated under the condition: pH 7.3±0.3, water flow velocity of 1.0 m/s, and 25 °C ± 1 °C in water temperature. The testing water was chlorinated f...

  7. Archiving and Distributing Seismic Data at the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, V. L.

    2002-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) archives and provides public access to earthquake parametric and waveform data gathered by the Southern California Seismic Network and since January 1, 2001, the TriNet seismic network, southern California's earthquake monitoring network. The parametric data in the archive includes earthquake locations, magnitudes, moment-tensor solutions and phase picks. The SCEDC waveform archive prior to TriNet consists primarily of short-period, 100-samples-per-second waveforms from the SCSN. The addition of the TriNet array added continuous recordings of 155 broadband stations (20 samples per second or less), and triggered seismograms from 200 accelerometers and 200 short-period instruments. Since the Data Center and TriNet use the same Oracle database system, new earthquake data are available to the seismological community in near real-time. Primary access to the database and waveforms is through the Seismogram Transfer Program (STP) interface. The interface enables users to search the database for earthquake information, phase picks, and continuous and triggered waveform data. Output is available in SAC, miniSEED, and other formats. Both the raw counts format (V0) and the gain-corrected format (V1) of COSMOS (Consortium of Organizations for Strong-Motion Observation Systems) are now supported by STP. EQQuest is an interface to prepackaged waveform data sets for select earthquakes in Southern California stored at the SCEDC. Waveform data for large-magnitude events have been prepared and new data sets will be available for download in near real-time following major events. The parametric data from 1981 to present has been loaded into the Oracle 9.2.0.1 database system and the waveforms for that time period have been converted to mSEED format and are accessible through the STP interface. The DISC optical-disk system (the "jukebox") that currently serves as the mass-storage for the SCEDC is in the process of being replaced

  8. Welfare and distribution effects of water pricing policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.J.W.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, distribution and welfare effects of changes in block price systems are evaluated. A method is discussed to determine, for a Marshallian demand function, equivalent variation in case of a block price system. The method is applied to compare, for the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, al

  9. The Temperature Distribution of Dense Molecular Gas in the Center of NGC 253

    CERN Document Server

    Ott, J; Henkel, C; Walter, F; Ott, Juergen; Weiss, Axel; Henkel, Christian; Walter, Fabian

    2005-01-01

    [abridged] We present interferometric maps of ammonia (NH3) of the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253 [star formation rate: ~2.8 Mo yr^(-1)]. The observations have been taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array and include the para-NH3 (1,1), (2,2), and the ortho-NH3 (3,3) and (6,6) inversion lines. Six major complexes of dense ammonia are identified, three of them on either side of the starburst center, out to projected galactocentric radii of \\~250 pc. [...] The application of radiative transfer large velocity gradient models reveals that the bulk of the ammonia molecules is embedded in a one-temperature gas phase. Kinetic temperatures of this gas are ~200 and 140 K toward the south-west and north-east [of the nucleus of NGC 253], respectively. The temperatures under which ammonia was formed in the past are with >~30 K also warmer toward the south-west than toward the north-east (~15-20 K). This is indicated by the ortho-to-para ammonia ratio which is ~1 and 1.5-2.5 toward the south-west and north-east,...

  10. Analysis of the temperature distribution of a water wall in the furnace of a supercritical steam power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Norihide; Yagi, Nobuyoshi; Shibayama, Motoaki; Hayasaka, Hiroshi

    1988-07-25

    It is one of the important subjects for maintenance and management of modern boilers to establish the technology for estimating the residual life of a water wall tube composing a boiler furnace for a thermal power plant. Various studies on the residual life of material itself for a boiler water-wall tube have so far been in progress, but concerning a temperature of a water wall tube at a particular place inside a boiler furnace, the development of a practical method of analysis estimating the amount of the radiant heat transfer has not so far been progressed. Accordingly, in this report, a practical method for obtaining the temperature distribution of a water wall tube was examined and an idea that the radiant heat ray method was used for the analysis of radiant heat transfer and at the same time, the actual result of the operation was used for steam flow rate, etc. was elaborated and brought into operation. As a result, the following was revealed inter alia: (1) The heat flux became the maximum around the uppermost stages of the burners of the front and rear walls. (2) The temperature of a tube wall became the maximum around the uppermost stages of the burners in the center of the wall. (3) Deviation of the flow distribution affected the wall tube temperature considerably. The above is considered to suggest the adequacy of this analytical method. (12 figs, 9 refs)

  11. Research of the path optimization in agricultural water-saving irrigation and canal system water distribution in Ant colony algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Lei Lei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize the management and control of the water-saving irrigation of the path pipeline distribution in field plots, get the terrain information through remote sensing technology and analyze the path and the amount of the water in the field plots by the ant colony algorithm according to the matter of the low generality in most parts in China. The result shows that the rules were put forward with shorter path, smaller cost and the most utilization of water eventually. It can be widely used in most areas which is lack of water and scientific technology.

  12. Virus contamination from operation and maintenance events in small drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, Elisabetta; Spencer, Susan K; Kieke, Burney A; Loge, Frank J; Borchardt, Mark A

    2011-12-01

    We tested the association of common events in drinking water distribution systems with contamination of household tap water with human enteric viruses. Viruses were enumerated by qPCR in the tap water of 14 municipal systems that use non-disinfected groundwater. Ultraviolet disinfection was installed at all active wellheads to reduce virus contributions from groundwater to the distribution systems. As no residual disinfectant was added to the water, any increase in virus levels measured downstream at household taps would be indicative of distribution system intrusions. Utility operators reported events through written questionnaires. Virus outcome measures were related to distribution system events using binomial and gamma regression. Virus concentrations were elevated in the wells, reduced or eliminated by ultraviolet disinfection, and elevated again in distribution systems, showing that viruses were, indeed, directly entering the systems. Pipe installation was significantly associated with higher virus levels, whereas hydrant flushing was significantly associated with lower virus levels. Weak positive associations were observed for water tower maintenance, valve exercising, and cutting open a water main. Coliform bacteria detections from routine monitoring were not associated with viruses. Understanding when distribution systems are most vulnerable to virus contamination, and taking precautionary measures, will ensure delivery of safe drinking water.

  13. MANAGEMENT OF DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS IN MARKETING AND LOGISTICS CENTERS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A CLUSTERING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga DURSUN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing world trade along with globalization increases logistic activities and thus the importance of the logistics sector.After the introduction of the concept of logistics village it has been observed that they disseminated rapidly mainly because of many advantages they provided Today, in Europe, more than 80 logistics vilalges are in operation at national or international scale; many more are being planned or being constructed.This study provides information about the properties of logistics villages,distribution channels, about existing logistics villages in Europe, and planned logistics villages in Turkey.The study also investigates the properties of locations and qualities of such villages.Logistic clustering criteria are determined for higher efficiencies.

  14. Operations research techniques applied to service center logistics in power distribution users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresinha Arns Steiner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the optimization for the logistics regarding services demanded byusers of power distribution lines, served by the Portão office, located in Curitiba, PR, Brazil,and operated by COPEL (Paranaense Power Company. Through the use of OperationsResearch techniques, an Integer Programming Mathematical model and Floyd Algorithm, amethod was defined to determine in an optimized way, the number of teams needed by theselected office, as well as, the optimized assignment for the teams to the sites in need, inorder to offer efficient services to the users and, besides that, the immediate execution onemergencies and, as to the other services, accordingly to parameters set by the NationalPower Agency together with COPEL. The methodology hereby presented is generic, so thatit could be applied to any power network (or any of its lines, and it has presented verysatisfactory results to the case in analysis.

  15. TWO-DIMENSIONAL PLANE WATER FLOW AND WATER QUALITY DISTRIBUTION IN BOSTEN LAKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Min-quan; Zhou Xiao-de; Zheng Bang-min; Min Tao; Zhao Ke-yu

    2003-01-01

    The two-dimensional plane water flow and water quality was developed by using the techniques of coordinate transformation, alternating directions, staggered grid, linear recurrence, and implicit scheme in the study of large water body in lakes. The model was proved to be suitable for treating the irregular boundary and predicting quickly water flow and water quality. The application of the model to the Bosten Lake in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China shows that it is reasonable and practicable.

  16. Assessing soil water storage distribution under sprinkler irrigation by coupling 3D simulations and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Uday; Shabeeb, Ahmed; dragonetti, giovanna; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Coppola, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    This work analyzed the variability of sprinkler irrigation application over a bare soil, both in terms of water application efficiency and uniformity, by integrating and comparing the information on the irrigation depth data (ID), as measured by catch cans, soil water storage in the upper root zone, as measured by TDR probes, and a 3D simulations of water flow in soils. Three irrigation tests were performed at three different pressures (2, 3 and 4 bar). A lateral water redistribution was observed and simulated after each irrigation event by comparing spatial distributions of site-specific water application efficiency (AEs), as well as ratios of site-specific actual water storage increase (SWEs) and irrigation depth (IDs) to the water content before irrigation. Because of soil water redistribution processes, distribution uniformity based on soil storages was systematically higher than the catch can uniformity. The obvious consequence of lateral water redistribution processes was that the soil smoothing action on non-uniformity observed at the surface increased both with depth and over time. At a given depth the uniformity of soil water storages always attained the same value, whatever the pressure considered and the catch can-based uniformity coefficient. It was concluded that, for the case of random distribution of ID, the uniformity of water storages is driven by the soil behavior rather than by the irrigation system.

  17. GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION, REDOX ZONATION, AND CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTION AT A GROUNDWATER/SURFACE WATER INTERFACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three transects along a groundwater/surface water interface were characterized for spatial distributions of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons and geochemical conditions to evaluate the natural bioremediation potential of this environmental system. Partly on the basis of ground p...

  18. Body water distribution and risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a healthy population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikoline Nygård; Kjærulff, Thora Majlund; Ward, Leigh Cordwin;

    2014-01-01

    Early alterations in the cardiovascular structure and function may change normal body water distribution. The resulting fluid shifts may thus serve as an early marker for cardiovascular disease. However, studies examining this in healthy populations are absent....

  19. The spatial distribution of pollutants in pipe-scale of large-diameter pipelines in a drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingqing; Chen, Huanyu; Yao, Lingdan; Wei, Zongyuan; Lou, Liping; Shan, Yonggui; Endalkachew, Sahle-Demessie; Mallikarjuna, Nadagouda; Hu, Baolan; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2016-11-05

    In large-diameter drinking water pipelines, spatial differences in hydraulic and physiochemical conditions may also result in spatial variations in pipe corrosion, biofilm growth and pollutant accumulation. In this article, the spatial distributions of various metals and organic contaminants in two 19-year-old grey cast iron pipes which had an internal diameter of 600mm (DN600), were investigated and analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, X-ray Diffraction, etc. The spatial distribution of heavy metals varied significantly across the pipe section, and iron, manganese, lead, copper, and chromium were highest in concentration in the upper portion pipe-scales. However, the highest aluminum and zinc content was detected in the lower portion pipe-scales. Apart from some common types of hydrocarbons formed by microbial metabolites, there were also some microalgae metabolites and exogenous contaminants accumulated in pipe-scale, which also exhibited high diversity between different spatial locations. The spatial distributions of the physical and chemical properties of pipe-scale and contaminants were quite different in large-diameter pipes. The finding put forward higher requirements on the research method about drinking water distribution system chemical safety. And the scientific community need understand trend and dynamics of drinking water pipe systems better.

  20. Evaluation of Waterloss Impacts on Water Distribution and Accessibility in Akure, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olotu Yahaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Safe drinking water is a necessity for life. Providing quality drinking water is a critical service that generates revenues for water utilities to sustain their operations. Population growth put an additional strain on the limited resources. The annual volume of water lost is an important indicator of water distribution efficiency, both in individual years, and as a trend over a period of years. Application of deterministic simulation model on public water supply variables reveals the volume of nonrevenue water (NRW and its cost effects have further created a complex system for the availability, distribution and affordability of the utility. Gradual annual increase in public water supply (AWS from 9.0 *106m 3 to 14.4 * 106m 3 had negative effect on annual water accessed (AWA with R 2 = 0.096; and highly significant with annual water loss (AWL with R 2 = 0.99. This development indicates that water loss mainly through leakages and bursts is a function of public water supply. Hence, estimated volume and cost annual revenue water (NRW in Akure is 6 million m3 and 15.6 million USD respectively. Critical analysis shows that the lost annual revenue could be used to provide education and health services for a period of 6-month in the region.

  1. A STUDY OF LEAKAGE OF TRACE METALS FROM CORROSION OF THE MUNICIPAL DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R SHA MANSOURI

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A high portion of lead and copper concentration in municipal drinking water is related to the metallic structure of the distribution system and facets. The corrosive water in pipes and facets cause dissolution of the metals such as Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn, Fe and Mn into the water. Due to the lack of research work in this area, a study of the trace metals were performed in the drinking water distribution system in Zarin Shahr and Mobareke of Isfahan province. Methods: Based on the united states Environmental protection Agency (USEPA for the cities over than 50,000 population such as Zarin Shahr and Mobareke, 30 water samples from home facets with the minimum 6 hours retention time of water in pipes, were collected. Lead and cadmium concentration were determined using flameless Atomic Absorption. Cupper, Zinc, Iron and Manganese were determined using Atomic Absorption. Results: The average concentration of Pb, Cd, Zn, Fe and Mn in water distribution system fo Zarin Shahr were 5.7, 0.1, 80, 3042, 23065 and in Mobareke were 7.83, 0.8,210,3100, 253, 17µg respectively. The cocentration of Pb, Cd and Zn were zero at the beginning of the water samples from the municipal drinking water distribution system for both cities. Conclusion: The study showed that the corrosion by products (such as Pb, Cd and Zn was the results of dissolution of the galvanized pipes and brass facets. Lead concentration in over that 10 percent of the water samples in zarin shahr exceeded the drinking water standard level, which emphasize the evaluation and control of corrosion in drinking water distribution systems.

  2. AIDA – Seismic data acquisition, processing, storage and distribution at the National Earthquake Center, INGV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Mazza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available On May 4, 2012, a new system, known as the AIDA (Advanced Information and Data Acquisition system for seismology, became operational as the primary tool to monitor, analyze, store and distribute seismograms from the Italian National Seismic Network. Only 16 days later, on May 20, 2012, northern Italy was struck by a Ml 5.9 earthquake that caused seven casualties. This was followed by numerous small to moderate earthquakes, with some over Ml 5. Then, on May 29, 2012, a Ml 5.8 earthquake resulted in 17 more victims and left about 14,000 people homeless. This sequence produced more than 2,100 events over 40 days, and it was still active at the end of June 2012, with minor earthquakes at a rate of about 20 events per day. The new AIDA data management system was designed and implemented, among other things, to exploit the recent huge upgrade of the Italian Seismic Network (in terms of the number and quality of stations and to overcome the limitations of the previous system.

  3. Bacterial regrowth in water reclamation and distribution systems revealed by viable bacterial detection assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-wen; Li, Dan; Gu, April Z; Zeng, Si-yu; He, Miao

    2016-02-01

    Microbial regrowth needs to be managed during water reclamation and distribution. The aim of present study was to investigate the removal and regrowth of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella in water reclamation and distribution system by using membrane integrity assay (PMA-qPCR), reverse transcriptional activity assay (Q-RT-PCR) and culture-based assay, and also to evaluate the relationships among bacterial regrowth, and environmental factors in the distribution system. The results showed that most of the water reclamation processes potentially induced bacteria into VBNC state. The culturable E. coli and Salmonella regrew 1.8 and 0.7 log10 in distribution system, which included reactivation of bacteria in the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state and reproduction of culturable bacteria. The regrowth of culturable E. coli and Salmonella in the distribution system mainly depended on the residual chlorine levels, with correlations (R(2)) of -0.598 and -0.660. The abundances of membrane integrity and reverse transcriptional activity bacteria in reclamation effluents had significant correlations with the culturable bacteria at the end point of the distribution system, demonstrating that PMA-qPCR and Q-RT-PCR are sensitive and accurate tools to determine and predict bacterial regrowth in water distribution systems. This study has improved our understanding of microbial removal and regrowth in reclaimed water treatment and distribution systems. And the results also recommended that more processes should be equipped to remove viable bacteria in water reclamation plants for the sake of inhibition microbial regrowth during water distribution and usages.

  4. Water Distribution Lines, Water System Water Mains, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, CITY OF PORTAGE.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Distribution Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2011. It is described...

  5. Spatial distribution of stable water isotopes in alpine snow cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dietermann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse and predict the mean stable water isotopic composition of the snow cover at specific geographic locations and altitudes. In addition, the dependence of the isotopic composition of the entire snow cover on altitude was analysed. Snow in four Swiss catchments was sampled at the end of the accumulation period in April 2010 and a second time during snowmelt in May 2010 and analysed for stable isotope composition of 2H and 18O. The sampling was conducted at both south-facing and north-facing slopes at elevation differences of 100 m, for a total altitude difference of approximately 1000 m. The observed variability of isotopic composition of the snow cover was analysed with stepwise multiple linear regression models. The analysis indicated that there is only a limited altitude effect on the isotopic composition when considering all samples. This is due to the high variability of the isotopic composition of the precipitation during the winter months and, in particular in the case of south-facing slopes, an enrichment of heavy isotopes due to intermittent melting processes. This enrichment effect could clearly be observed in the samples which were taken later in the year. A small altitudinal gradient of the isotopic composition could only be observed at some north-facing slopes. However, the dependence of snow depth and the day of the year were significant predictor variables in all models. This study indicates the necessity to further study the variability of water isotopes in the snow cover to increase prediction for isotopic composition of snowmelt and hence increase model performance of residence time models for alpine areas in order to better understand the accumulation processes and the sources of water in the snow cover of high mountains.

  6. Water distribution from medium-size sprinkler in solid set sprinkler systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani do Prado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study aimed to evaluate the water distribution from a medium-size sprinkler working in solid set sprinkler systems. Water distribution radial curves from the sprinkler operating under four nozzle diameter combinations (4.0 x 4.6; 5.0 x 4.6; 6.2 x 4.6 and; 7.1 x 4.6 mm and four working pressures (196; 245; 294 and 343 kPa were evaluated on the sprinkler test bench of the State University of Maringá, in Cidade Gaúcha, Paraná, Brazil. The sixteen water distribution curves were normalized and subjected to clustering analysis (K-Means algorithm, identifying the occurrence of normalized distribution curves with three different geometric shapes. A computer algorithm, in Visual Basic for Applications in Excel spreadsheet, was developed to simulate the water application uniformity (Christiansen's Coefficient - CU from the sprinklers working with rectangular and triangular layouts in solid set sprinkler systems. For the three geometric shapes of the normalized water distribution curves, digital simulation results of water distribution uniformity for the sprinklers on mainline and lateral line spaced between 10 to 100% of wetted diameter indicated that sprinkler spacings around 50% of the wetted diameter provide acceptable CU values.

  7. Water distribution system and diarrheal disease transmission: a case study in Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenza, J C; Roberts, L; Henderson, A; Bogan, J; Rubin, C H

    1998-12-01

    Deteriorating water treatment facilities and distribution systems pose a significant public health threat, particularly in republics of the former Soviet Union. Interventions to decrease the disease burden associated with these water systems range from upgrading distribution networks to installing reverse osmosis technology. To provide insight into this decision process, we conducted a randomized intervention study to provide epidemiologic data for water policy decisions in Nukus, Uzbekistan, where drinking water quality is suboptimal. We interviewed residents of 240 households, 120 with and 120 without access to municipal piped water. Residents of 62 households without piped water were trained to chlorinate their drinking water at home in a narrow-necked water container with a spout. All study subjects (1583 individuals) were monitored biweekly for self-reported diarrheal illness over a period of 9.5 weeks. The home chlorination intervention group had the lowest diarrheal rate (28.8/1,000 subjects/month) despite lack of access to piped water in their homes. Compared with the two groups that did not receive the intervention this rate was one-sixth that of the group with no piped water (179.2/1,000 subjects/month) and one-third that of the households with piped water (75.5/1,000 subjects/month). More than 30% of the households with piped water lacked detectable levels of chlorine residues in their drinking water, despite two-stage chlorination of the source water, and were at increased risk of diarrhea. Forty-two percent of these municipal users reported that water pressure had been intermittent within the previous two days. The dramatic reduction in diarrheal rates in the home-chlorination intervention group indicates that a large proportion of diarrheal diseases in Nukus are water-borne. The home-chlorination group had less diarrhea than the group with piped water, implicating the distribution system as a source of disease transmission. Taken together, these

  8. Multi criteria decision making methods for location selection of distribution centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romita Chakraborty

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, major challenges such as, increase in inflexible consumer demands and to improve the competitive advantage, it has become necessary for various industrial organizations all over the world to focus on strategies that will help them achieve cost reduction, continual quality improvement, increased customer satisfaction and on time delivery performance. As a result, selection of the most suitable and optimal facility location for a new organization or expansion of an existing location is one of the most important strategic issues, required to fulfill all of these above mentioned objectives. In order to sustain in the global competitive market of 21st century, many industrial organizations have begun to concentrate on the proper selection of the plant site or best facility location. The best location is that which results in higher economic benefits through increased productivity and good distribution network. When a choice is to be made from among several alternative facility locations, it is necessary to compare their performance characteristics in a decisive way. As the facility location selection problem involves multiple conflicting criteria and a finite set of potential candidate alternatives, different multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM methods can be effectively applied to solve such type of problem. In this paper, four well known MCDM methods have been applied on a facility location selection problem and their relative ranking performances are compared. Because of disagreement in the ranks obtained by the four different MCDM methods a final ranking method based on REGIME has been proposed by the authors to facilitate the decision making process.

  9. Distribution and partition of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in water of the Zhujiang River Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO XiaoJun; YU Mei; MAI BiXian; CHEN ShenJun

    2008-01-01

    The spatial, temporal, and vertical distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in water columns from the Zhujiang River Estuary were examined, and the partition behavior of PBDEs between particle and dissolved phases was investigated in the present study. The results show that the distributions of PBDEs concentrations in the water varied with the sampling seasons. The PBDEs concentrations in water samples were lower in May 2005, when the brackish water was dominant in the estuary, than in October 2005, when fresh water from river runoff dominated the estuary. The spatial distribution of PBDEs in October 2005 indicated that the river runoff was the major mode to input PBDEs to the estuary, and the concentration of PBDEs in water might be dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dependence. The spatial and vertical distributions of PBDEs in May 2005 were relatively homogeneous, and SPM was the major factor on controlling the levels of PBDEs in this sampling time. Both DOC and POC could play certain roles in determining the distribution and partition of PBDEs between particle and dissolved phases, but their effects varied with the water properties.

  10. Establishment of a Practical Approach for Characterizing the Source of Particulates in Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Ha Chae

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Water quality complaints related to particulate matter and discolored water can be troublesome for water utilities in terms of follow-up investigations and implementation of appropriate actions because particulate matter can enter from a variety of sources; moreover, physicochemical processes can affect the water quality during the purification and transportation processes. The origin of particulates can be attributed to sources such as background organic/inorganic materials from water sources, water treatment plants, water distribution pipelines that have deteriorated, and rehabilitation activities in the water distribution systems. In this study, a practical method is proposed for tracing particulate sources. The method entails collecting information related to hydraulic, water quality, and structural conditions, employing a network flow-path model, and establishing a database of physicochemical properties for tubercles and slimes. The proposed method was implemented within two city water distribution systems that were located in Korea. These applications were conducted to demonstrate the practical applicability of the method for providing solutions to customer complaints. The results of the field studies indicated that the proposed method would be feasible for investigating the sources of particulates and for preparing appropriate action plans for complaints related to particulate matter.

  11. Water consumption and soil moisture distribution in melon crop with mulching and in a protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Câmara Monteiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mulching has become an important technique for land cover, but there are some technical procedures which should be adjusted for these new modified conditions to establish optimum total water depth. It is also important to observe the soil-water relations as soil water distribution and wetted volume dimensions. The objective of the present study was to estimate melon evapotranspiration under mulching in a protected environment and to verify the water spatial distribution around the melon root system in two soil classes. Mulching provided 27 mm water saving by reducing water evaporation. In terms of volume each plant received, on average, the amount of 175.2 L of water in 84 days of cultivation without mulching, while when was used mulching the water requirement was 160.2 L per plant. The use of mulching reduced the soil moisture variability throughout the crop cycle and allowed a greater distribution of soil water that was more intense in the clay soil. The clayey soil provided on average 43 mm more water depth retention in 0.50 m soil deep relative to the sandy loam soil, and reduced 5.6 mm the crop cycle soil moisture variation compared to sandy loam soil.

  12. Condition Assessment of Ferrous Water Transmission and Distribution Systems State of Technology Review Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This White Paper was developed to serve as the basis for discussion at a Technology Forum on Condition Assessment of Water Transmission and Distribution Systems that was held on September 9 and 10, 2008, at Edison, NJ. It was distributed to the Forum participants for review in a...

  13. MIXING IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STORAGE TANKS: ITS EFFECT ON WATER QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly all distribution systems in the US include storage tanks and reservoirs. They are the most visible components of a wate distribution system but are generally the least understood in terms of their impact on water quality. Long residence times in storage tanks can have nega...

  14. Application of Normal Distribution Model to Estimate Root Water Uptake Profile by an Isotopic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, T.; Matsuo, D.; Hirota, M.

    2008-12-01

    To confirm usefulness of a diagnostic model for estimating root water uptake profile by an isotopic approach, isotopic measurements of plant xylem water, soil water and groundwater were conducted at seven Japanese red pine forest sites and then the model was applied to the measured results. The model assumes that depth profile of relative uptake rate can be approximated by the normal distribution function, and xylem water isotopic composition is computed from interpolated depth profile of isotopic composition of subsurface waters. The peak depth and distribution range of water uptake zone for a given species at a given site are inversely determined by direct search method (assuming depth interval of 5 cm up to 2 m) so as to minimize root mean square error throughout observation period. Estimated water uptake profiles showed that in six sites the uptake zone of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) ranged from 5 to 60 cm depth, while it was changed to deeper depths in the other site where Quercus myrsinaefolia and Pleioblastus chino coexist. On the other hand, Populus sieboldi and Malus sieboldii take up water from depths deeper than those for Pinus densiflora within a community, although the two species are usually considered as shallow rooted plants. These results indicate water source partitioning under inter-species competition, and we conclude that the present model is capable of making clear the plant water use strategy. Estimated water uptake zone also provides useful information for improving/calibrating prognostic, physical models of root water uptake.

  15. Clonal distribution and associated characteristics of Escherichia coli clinical and surveillance isolates from a military medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manges, Amee R; Mende, Katrin; Murray, Clinton K; Johnston, Brian D; Sokurenko, Evgeni V; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Johnson, James R

    2017-04-01

    Antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli are a concern for military health services. We studied 100 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and non-producing E. coli clinical and surveillance isolates from military personnel and civilians at Brooke Army Medical Center (2007-2011). Major E. coli lineages, most prominently ST10 (24%), ST131 (16%), and ST648 (8%), were distributed much as reported for other North American populations. ST131, represented mainly by its resistance-associated ST131-H30 clonal subset, was uniquely associated with a clinical origin, regardless of ESBL status. Thus, clonal background predicted resistance phenotype and clinical versus surveillance origin, and these findings could assist military clinicians and epidemiologists.

  16. Production of Astatine-211 at the Duke University Medical Center for its regional distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalutsky, Michael [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Systemic targeted radiation therapy and radioimmunotherapy continue to be important tools in the treatment of certain cancers. Because of their high energy and short path length, alpha particle emitters such as 211At are more effective than either external beam x- ray or in vivo beta radiation in delivering potentially curative doses of radiation. The limited clinical trials that have been conducted to date have yielded encouraging responses in some patients, e.g., malignant brain tumors. In order to escalate the additional necessary research and development in radiochemistry, radiobiology and efficacy evaluation of alpha particle radiotherapeutics, it is universally agreed that access to an affordable, reliable supply of 211At is warranted. In conjunction with the Department of Energy's intent to enhance stable and radioactive isotope availability for research applications, it is the primary objective of this project to improve 211At production and purification capabilities at Duke so that this radionuclide can be supplied to researchers at other institutions throughout the US.The most widely used 211At production method involves the α,2n reaction on Bismuth using a cyclotron with beams ≤ 28 MeV. Yields can be enhanced with use of an internal target that allows for a higher alpha fluence plus efficient heat dissipation in the target. Both of these items are in place at Duke; however, in order to support production for multi-institutional use, irradiation campaigns in excess of 50 µAp and four hours duration will be needed. Further, post-irradiation processing equipment is lacking that will enable the distribution process. Financial support is sought for i) a shielded, ventilated processing/containment hood; ii) development of a post-irradiation target retrieval system; iii) fabrication of a 211At distillation and recovery module and iv) a performance review and, where needed, an enhancement of seven

  17. Effects of charge distribution on water filling process in carbon nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG LingYi; LI QiKai; SHUAI ZhiGang

    2009-01-01

    Using umbrella sampling technique with molecular dynamics simulation, we investigated the nanoflu-idic transport of water in carbon nanotube (CNT). The simulations showed that a positive charge modi-fication to the carbon nanotube can slow down the water column growth process, while the negative charge modification to the carbon nanotube will, on the other hand, quicken the water column growth process. The free energy curves were obtained through the statistical process of water column growth under different charge distributions, and the results indicated that these free energy curves can be employed to explain the dynamical process of water column growth in the nanosized channels.

  18. Effects of charge distribution on water filling process in carbon nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Using umbrella sampling technique with molecular dynamics simulation,we investigated the nanoflu-idic transport of water in carbon nanotube(CNT).The simulations showed that a positive charge modi-fication to the carbon nanotube can slow down the water column growth process,while the negative charge modification to the carbon nanotube will,on the other hand,quicken the water column growth process.The free energy curves were obtained through the statistical process of water column growth under different charge distributions,and the results indicated that these free energy curves can be employed to explain the dynamical process of water column growth in the nanosized channels.

  19. Second-Order Chlorine Decay and Trihalomethanes Formation in a Pilot-Scale Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well known that model-building of chlorine decay in real water distribution systems is difficult because chlorine decay is influenced by many factors (e.g., bulk water demand, pipe-wall demand, piping material, flow velocity, and residence time). In this paper, experiments ...

  20. A Comprehensive Investigation of Copper Pitting Corrosion in a Drinking Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper pipe pitting is a complicated corrosion process for which exact causes and solutions are uncertain. This paper presents the findings of a comprehensive investigation of a cold water copper pitting corrosion problem in a drinking water distribution system, including a refi...

  1. Vertical distribution patterns of zooplanktivorous fish in a shallow, eutrophic lake, mediated by water transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mous, P.J.; Densen, van W.L.T.; Machiels, M.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The vertical distribution pattern (VDP) of fish at shallow sites in eutrophic lake - Lake IJssel, the Netherlands - as affected by water transparency, was examined. The pattern was assessed by pair trawling at three depths and by hydroacoustics from June to August. Water transparency was estimated b

  2. Evaluation of Select Sensors for Real-Time Monitoring of Escherichia coli in Water Distribution Systems▿

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, Syreeta L.; Sinclair, Ryan G.; Riley, Mark R; Pepper, Ian L

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated real-time sensing of Escherichia coli as a microbial contaminant in water distribution systems. Most sensors responded to increased E. coli concentrations, showing that select sensors can detect microbial water quality changes and be utilized as part of a contaminant warning system.

  3. Strongyloides spp Distribution on Orangutans in Tanjung Putting National Park, Care Center in Pangkalanbun, and Sebangau National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisnu Nurcahyo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides spp is a parasitic nematode in livestock, primate and human which is  considered asa danger zoonotic disease. Therefore, study about parasite distribution is very important in order to find outgenetic diversity among orangutan in quarantine, zoo and nature, as an effort to explore infection patternand life cycle of Strongyloides spp on orangutan. Amount of 326 orangutan feces were taken from threedifferent habitat of orangutan in Central Borneo, Tanjung Puting National Park, Orangutan Care Centerand Sebangau National Park. Samples which were collected from Tanjung Puting, Care Center and Sebangauwere 75, 80 and 171 respectively. Those samples were transported to the Parasitology laboratory in Facultyof Veterinary Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta for examination and detection.  Prevalence ofstrongyloides in Tanjung Putting, Sebangau and Orangutan Care Center were 24%, 14,6% and 13,3%respectively. Among positive samples of Strongyloides, 62,5% were from male orangutans, while 37,5% werefrom female orangutans. Strongyloides in pre adult and baby orangutan were 91,6% and 4,2% respectively.Meanwhile, Strongyloides in adult orangutan were very rare. Orangutan habitat in Sebangau National Parkis an ideal habitat for orangutan, supported by the watery condition of peat land, so that Strongyloides re-infection become difficult. Some factors may have important role in Strongyloidoses, such as behavior,physical condition, nutrition, age, body weight, sex, immunity and social status of orangutan.

  4. Root Growth and Water distribution in living walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars

    walls; the vertical orientation of the growing medium, plants are growing vertically above or below each other in a limited rooting volume; there is an increased exposure to weather and the plants can react differently to water conditions and competition from other plants. Plant growth is the core......Living walls is a way of bringing plants and green areas into cities, and offer both positive environmental and aesthetical effects. A prerequisite for optimal performance of a living wall is that the plant cover is properly established why the individual plant should have optimal conditions...... for root growth. This thesis investigates the correlations between the growing media and root and shoots growth, and studies root growth patterns of different plant species and effects of planting position and root interactions of plants growing in living walls. There are a number of challenges with living...

  5. Optimum distribution of water-wall thickness in a transwall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhya, M.; Tiwari, G.N. (Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India)); Rai, S.N. (Physics Dept., M.M.H. Coll., Ghaziabad (India))

    1991-01-01

    In this communication, a transient analysis of a transwall for an air-conditioned room is presented. An analytical expression for the thermal flux entering the air-conditioned room through direct and indirect gain is derived in terms of the physical properties of the transwell as well as the climatic parameters. The water temperatures and the flux entering the room are computed on an hourly basis for a number of days for the typical cold climate conditions of Srinagar. On the basis of the numerical results, it is observed that: (i) steady-state, conditions are achieved after the third day; and (ii) the maximum flux is achieved for {delta}L = {delta}L{sub w1}/{delta}L{sub w}=1. (orig.).

  6. Pump as Turbine (PAT) Design in Water Distribution Network by System Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Oreste Fecarotta; Helena M. Ramos; Giuseppe Del Giudice; Armando Carravetta

    2013-01-01

    Water distribution networks face several problems related to leakages, where the pressure control strategy is a common practice for water loss management. Small-scale hydropower schemes, where pumps as turbines replace pressure reducing valves, can be considered an interesting technical solution, which ensures both economic convenience and system flexibility. Due to the water networks’ variable operating conditions, a new methodology to model the effectiveness of pumps as turbines was develop...

  7. [Distribution of perfluorinated compounds in surface water of Shenzhen reservoir groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Xuan; Zhang, Hong; He, Long; Shen, Jin-Can; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yan-Ping

    2014-06-01

    In order to study the concentrations of 14 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in 25 surface water samples collected from 12 Shenzhen reservoirs in November of 2012 and January of 2013, high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was combined with solid phase extraction enrichment in this research. The results indicated that perfluorohexane sulfonate and long-chain (C > or = 11) PFCs were below the detection limit in all samples and perfluorooctane acid was the primary species. No significant difference in concentration was found between samples from the center of the reservoir and the outlet. Heavy precipitations diluted PFCs concentrations in surface water, but also led to PFOA input. PFCs concentrations in surface water of the reservoir were mainly affected by water inlet, source environment and geography. Although the water temperature had positive correlations with sigma PFCs concentration, the influence of heavy precipitations was stronger than that of water temperature.

  8. Final Technical Report: Hawaii Hydrogen Center for Development and Deployment of Distributed Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocheleau, Richard E.

    2008-09-30

    -efficiency CIGS and a-Si:H with operating features compatible with high-efficiency photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting. The objective of one activity under the hydrogen production from biomass task was to conduct parametric testing of the Pearson gasifier and to determine the effects of gasifier operating conditions on the gas yields and quality. The hydrogen yield from this gasifier was evaluated in a parametric test series over a range of residence times from 0.8 to 2.2 seconds. H2 concentrations as high as 55% (volume) were measured in the product gas at the longer residence times and this corresponds to a hydrogen yield of 90 kg per tonne of bagasse without gas upgrading. The objective of another activity was to develop hot gas clean-up capabilities for the HNEI gasifier test facility to support hydrogen-from-biomass research. The product gas stream at the outlet of the hot gas filter was characterized for concentrations of permanent gas species and contaminants. Biomass feedstock processing activity included a preliminary investigation into methods for processing sugar cane trash at the Puunene Sugar Factory on the island of Maui, Hawaii. The objective of the investigation was to explore treatment methods that would enable the successful use of cane trash as fuel for the production of hydrogen via gasification. Analyses were completed for the technical and economic feasibility of producing biofuel from photosynthetic marine microbes on a commercial scale. Results included estimates for total costs, energy efficiency, and return on investment. The biohydrogen team undertook a comprehensive review of the field and came to what is considered a realistic conclusion. To summarize, continued research is recommended in the fundamentals of the science related to genetic engineering and specific topics to cover knowledge gaps. In the meantime, the team also advocates continued development of related processes which can be linked to pollution control and other real world

  9. Effects of site characteristics on cumulative frequency distribution of water table depth in peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Michel; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Frahm, Enrico; Roßkopf, Niko

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies demonstrated strong dependency of vegetation development and GHG emissions from peatlands on annual mean water table depth. It is also proposed that the duration of ponding and low water level periods are important indicators for CH4 emissions and the presence of specific plant species. Better understanding of the annual water table dynamics and the influence of site characteristics helps to explain variability of vegetation and emissions at the plot scale. It also provides essential information for a nation-wide upscaling of local gas flux measurements and for estimating the impact of regional adaption strategies. In this study, we analyze the influence of site characteristics on the cumulative frequency distribution of water table depth in a peatland. On the basis of data from about 100 sites we evaluate how distribution functions, e.g. the beta distribution function, are a tool for the systematic analysis of the site-specific frequency distribution of water table depth. Our analysis shows that it is possible to differentiate different shape types of frequency distributions, in particular left-skewed (bias towards the water table minimum), right-skewed (bias towards the water table maximum), and 'S'-shaped distributions (bias towards the mid of min and max). The shape is primarily dependent on the annual mean water table depth, but also shows dependencies on land use, peatland type, catchment size and soil properties. Forest soils are for example all characterized by a 'S'-shaped distribution. Preliminary results indicate that data sets that do not show a beta distribution are mostly from observation wells that are located close to drainage courses and/or are from sites characterized by strong water management (e.g. abruptly changing weir levels). The beta distribution might thus be a tool to identify sites with a 'non-natural' frequency distribution or erroneous data sets. Because the parameters of the beta distribution show a dependency on site

  10. The temperature and size distribution of large water clusters from a non-equilibrium model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimelshein, N. [Gimel, Inc., San Jose, California 95124 (United States); Gimelshein, S., E-mail: gimelshe@usc.edu [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Pradzynski, C. C.; Zeuch, T., E-mail: tzeuch1@gwdg.de [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Universität Göttingen, Tammanstr. 6, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Buck, U., E-mail: ubuck@gwdg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Dynamik und Selbstorganisation, Am Faßberg 17, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2015-06-28

    A hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian approach is used to examine the properties of water clusters formed in neon-water vapor mixtures expanding through microscale conical nozzles. Experimental size distributions were reliably determined by the sodium doping technique in a molecular beam machine. The comparison of computed size distributions and experimental data shows satisfactory agreement, especially for (H{sub 2}O){sub n} clusters with n larger than 50. Thus validated simulations provide size selected cluster temperature profiles in and outside the nozzle. This information is used for an in-depth analysis of the crystallization and water cluster aggregation dynamics of recently reported supersonic jet expansion experiments.

  11. Hydraulic model analysis of water distribution system, Rockwell International, Rocky Flats, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perstein, J.; Castellano, J.A. [Hughes Associates, Inc., Wheaton, MD (United States)

    1989-01-20

    Rockwell International requested an analysis of the existing plant site water supply distribution system at Rocky Flats, Colorado, to determine its adequacy. On September 26--29, 1988, Hughes Associates, Inc., Fire Protection Engineers, accompanied by Rocky Flats Fire Department engineers and suppression personnel, conducted water flow tests at the Rocky Flats plant site. Thirty-seven flows from various points throughout the plant site were taken on the existing domestic supply/fire main installation to assure comprehensive and thorough representation of the Rocky Flats water distribution system capability. The analysis was completed in four phases which are described, together with a summary of general conclusions and recommendations.

  12. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the ARBI team validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. In addition to completing validation activities, this project looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. Based on these datasets, we conclude that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws. This has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  13. Validation of a Hot Water Distribution Model Using Laboratory and Field Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the performance of hot water distribution systems is a critical step in developing best practice guidelines for the design and installation of high performance hot water systems. Developing and validating simulation models is critical to this effort, as well as collecting accurate input data to drive the models. In this project, the Building America research team ARBI validated the newly developed TRNSYS Type 604 pipe model against both detailed laboratory and field distribution system performance data. Validation efforts indicate that the model performs very well in handling different pipe materials, insulation cases, and varying hot water load conditions. Limitations of the model include the complexity of setting up the input file and long simulation run times. This project also looked at recent field hot water studies to better understand use patterns and potential behavioral changes as homeowners convert from conventional storage water heaters to gas tankless units. The team concluded that the current Energy Factor test procedure overestimates typical use and underestimates the number of hot water draws, which has implications for both equipment and distribution system performance. Gas tankless water heaters were found to impact how people use hot water, but the data does not necessarily suggest an increase in usage. Further study in hot water usage and patterns is needed to better define these characteristics in different climates and home vintages.

  14. Final Technical Report: Hawaii Hydrogen Center for Development and Deployment of Distributed Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocheleau, Richard E.

    2008-09-30

    -efficiency CIGS and a-Si:H with operating features compatible with high-efficiency photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting. The objective of one activity under the hydrogen production from biomass task was to conduct parametric testing of the Pearson gasifier and to determine the effects of gasifier operating conditions on the gas yields and quality. The hydrogen yield from this gasifier was evaluated in a parametric test series over a range of residence times from 0.8 to 2.2 seconds. H2 concentrations as high as 55% (volume) were measured in the product gas at the longer residence times and this corresponds to a hydrogen yield of 90 kg per tonne of bagasse without gas upgrading. The objective of another activity was to develop hot gas clean-up capabilities for the HNEI gasifier test facility to support hydrogen-from-biomass research. The product gas stream at the outlet of the hot gas filter was characterized for concentrations of permanent gas species and contaminants. Biomass feedstock processing activity included a preliminary investigation into methods for processing sugar cane trash at the Puunene Sugar Factory on the island of Maui, Hawaii. The objective of the investigation was to explore treatment methods that would enable the successful use of cane trash as fuel for the production of hydrogen via gasification. Analyses were completed for the technical and economic feasibility of producing biofuel from photosynthetic marine microbes on a commercial scale. Results included estimates for total costs, energy efficiency, and return on investment. The biohydrogen team undertook a comprehensive review of the field and came to what is considered a realistic conclusion. To summarize, continued research is recommended in the fundamentals of the science related to genetic engineering and specific topics to cover knowledge gaps. In the meantime, the team also advocates continued development of related processes which can be linked to pollution control and other real world

  15. Multi-objective Optimisation Design of Water Distribution Systems:Comparison of Two Evolutionary Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haixing Liu,Jing Lu,Ming Zhao∗; Yixing Yuan

    2016-01-01

    In order to compare two advanced multi⁃objective evolutionary algorithms, a multi⁃objective water distribution problem is formulated in this paper. The multi⁃objective optimization has received more attention in the water distribution system design. On the one hand the cost of water distribution system including capital, operational, and maintenance cost is mostly concerned issue by the utilities all the time; on the other hand improving the performance of water distribution systems is of equivalent importance, which is often conflicting with the previous goal. Many performance metrics of water networks are developed in recent years, including total or maximum pressure deficit, resilience, inequity, probabilistic robustness, and risk measure. In this paper, a new resilience metric based on the energy analysis of water distribution systems is proposed. Two optimization objectives are comprised of capital cost and the new resilience index. A heuristic algorithm, speed⁃constrained multi⁃objective particle swarm optimization ( SMPSO) extended on the basis of the multi⁃objective particle swarm algorithm, is introduced to compare with another state⁃of⁃the⁃art heuristic algorithm, NSGA⁃II. The solutions are evaluated by two metrics, namely spread and hypervolume. To illustrate the capability of SMPSO to efficiently identify good designs, two benchmark problems ( two⁃loop network and Hanoi network) are employed. From several aspects the results demonstrate that SMPSO is a competitive and potential tool to tackle with the optimization problem of complex systems.

  16. CMS Software Distribution and Installation Systems:Concepts,Practical Solutions and Experience at Fermilab as a CMS Tier 1 Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NataliaM.Ratnikova; GregoryE.Graham

    2001-01-01

    The CMS Collaboration of 2000 scientists involves 150 institutions from 31 nations spread all over the world.CMS software system integration and release management is performed at CERN.Code management is based on CVS,with read or write access to the repository via a CVS server,Software configuration,release management tools(SCRAM) are being developed at CERN.Software releases are then distributed to regional centers,where the software is used by a local community for a wide variety of tasks,such as software development detector simulation and reconstruction and physics analysis.Depending on specific application,the system environment and local hardware requirements,different approaches and tools are used for the CMS software installation at different places.This presentation describes concepts and reactial solutions for a variety of ways of software distribution,with an emphasis on the CMS experience at Fermilab,Installation and usage of different models used for the production farm,for code development and for physics analysis are described.

  17. Energy Saving in Water Distribution Network through Pump as Turbine Generators: Economic and Environmental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro De Marchis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems of water distribution networks (WDS are used to supply water to users. WDSs are systems where a lot of distributed energy is available. Historically, this energy is artificially dissipated by pressure reduction valves (PRVs, thanks to which water utilities manage the pressure level in selected nodes of the network. The present study explores the use of economic hydraulic machines, pumps as turbines (PATs to produce energy in a small network located in a town close to Palermo (Italy. The main idea is to avoid dissipation in favor of renewable energy production. The proposed study is applied to a WDN typical of the Mediterranean countries, where the users, to collect water during the period of water scarcity conditions, install private tanks. The presence of private tanks deeply modifies the network from its designed condition. In the proposed analysis, the economic benefit of PATs application in water distribution networks has been investigated, accounting for the presence of users’ private tanks. The analysis, carried out by mean of a mathematical model able to dynamically simulate the water distribution network with PATs, shows the advantage of their installation in terms of renewable energy recovery, even though the energy production of PATs is strictly conditioned by their installation position.

  18. Release of accumulated arsenic from distribution pipes into tap water after arsenic treatment of source water- presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxic arsenic (As) is known to incorporate from source well water onto the scales of distribution system pipes such as iron, copper, galvanized steel and even plastic containing internal buildup of iron coatings (Lytle et al., 2010, 2004; Schock, 2015; Reiber and Dostal, 2000). W...

  19. Comparison of Particle-Associated Bacteria from a Drinking Water Treatment Plant and Distribution Reservoirs with Different Water Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G.; Ling, F. Q.; van der Mark, E. J.; Zhang, X. D.; Knezev, A.; Verberk, J. Q. J. C.; van der Meer, W. G. J.; Medema, G. J.; Liu, W. T.; van Dijk, J. C.

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed the characteristics of and changes in the suspended particles and the associated bacteria in an unchlorinated drinking water distribution system and its reservoirs with different water sources. The results show that particle-associated bacteria (PAB) were present at a level of 0.8-4.5 × 103 cells ml-1 with a biological activity of 0.01-0.04 ng l-1 ATP. Different PAB communities in the waters produced from different sources were revealed by a 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing analysis. The quantified biomass underestimation due to the multiple cells attached per particle was ≥ 85%. The distribution of the biologically stable water increased the number of cells per particle (from 48 to 90) but had minor effects on the PAB community. Significant changes were observed at the mixing reservoir. Our results show the characteristics of and changes in suspended PAB during distribution, and highlight the significance of suspended PAB in the distribution system, because suspended PAB can lead to a considerable underestimation of biomass, and because they exist as biofilm, which has a greater mobility than pipe-wall biofilm and therefore presents a greater risk, given the higher probability that it will reach the customers’ taps and be ingested.

  20. Reconstructing the role of landuse change on water yield at the Maya urban center Tikal, Guatemala [700-800 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, L.; Duffy, C.; French, K. D.; Murtha, T., Jr.; Garcia-Gonzalez, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years scientists have been debating the role of climate on the trajectory of Maya culture in the Late Classic period, 600-900 AD. Paleo-climatologists have reconstructed realizations of climate [Haug 2003; Medina-Elizalde 2012; Hodell 1995] that offer evidence for reduced precipitation in the Late Classic period. Recently French et al [2014] proposed that landuse change may also play an important role in the available water supply at Tikal, with the removal of tropical forest and conversion to maize-agriculture and urban landuse leading to extensive development of sophisticated water storage systems and rainfall harvesting for water supply and irrigation. Rapid population growth is a concurrent and compounding factor [Scarborough 2012; Shaw 2003] where landuse impacts the distribution and availability of water storage in the surrounding watershed. Although proposed climate scenarios for the Late Classic offer a quantitative scenario for possible atmospheric conditions at Tikal, the impact of land use change on the distribution and availability of water supply has not been evaluated. In this research we reconstruct the plausible vulnerability of the water supply at Tikal under the combined forces of climatic and land use change. The Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM) [Qu and Duffy 2007] is used to simulate the daily-to-seasonal space and time distribution of soil moisture, groundwater and surface water storage for the period 700-800 AD, the peak of Tikal's population history. The analysis includes a quantitative assessment of the likely changes in available water storage as tropical forest is converted to maize agriculture and urban land. In particular we examine the important control that reduced canopy interception plays in the seasonal availability of water. Preliminary simulations suggest that removing tropical forest increases runoff and available water storage, which may serve to moderate seasonal and long-term drought conditions.

  1. Simulation of Deposition the Corrosion Waste in a Water Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peráčková Jana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In water distribution systems can be found particles of rust and other mechanical contaminants. The particles are deposited in locations where the low velocity of water flow. Where a can cause the pitting corrosion. Is a concern in the systems made of galvanized steel pipes. The contribution deals with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of water flow and particles deposition in water distribution system. CFD Simulations were compared with the corrosive deposits in real pipeline. Corrosion is a spontaneous process of destruction of metal material due to electrochemical reactions of metal with the aggressive surrounding. Electrochemical corrosion is caused by the thermodynamic instability of metal and therefore can not be completely suppress, it can only influence the speed of corrosion. The requirement is to keep metal properties during the whole its lifetime. Requested service lifetime the water pipe according to EN 806-2 is 50 years.

  2. A Numerical Study of Water Loss Rate Distributions in MDCT-Based Human Airway Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Tawhai, Merryn H; Hoffman, Eric A; Lin, Ching-Long

    2015-11-01

    Both three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) computational fluid dynamics methods are applied to study regional water loss in three multi-detector row computed-tomography-based human airway models at the minute ventilations of 6, 15 and 30 L/min. The overall water losses predicted by both 3D and 1D models in the entire respiratory tract agree with available experimental measurements. However, 3D and 1D models reveal different regional water loss rate distributions due to the 3D secondary flows formed at bifurcations. The secondary flows cause local skewed temperature and humidity distributions on inspiration acting to elevate the local water loss rate; and the secondary flow at the carina tends to distribute more cold air to the lower lobes. As a result, the 3D model predicts that the water loss rate first increases with increasing airway generation, and then decreases as the air approaches saturation, while the 1D model predicts a monotonic decrease of water loss rate with increasing airway generation. Moreover, the 3D (or 1D) model predicts relatively higher water loss rates in lower (or upper) lobes. The regional water loss rate can be related to the non-dimensional wall shear stress (τ (*)) by the non-dimensional mass transfer coefficient (h 0 (*) ) as [Formula: see text].

  3. Assessing HYDRUS-2D model to estimate soil water contents and olive tree transpiration fluxes under different water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autovino, Dario; Negm, Amro; Rallo, Giovanni; Provenzano, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In Mediterranean countries characterized by limited water resources for agricultural and societal sectors, irrigation management plays a major role to improve water use efficiency at farm scale, mainly where irrigation systems are correctly designed to guarantee a suitable application efficiency and the uniform water distribution throughout the field. In the last two decades, physically-based agro-hydrological models have been developed to simulate mass and energy exchange processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere (SPA) system. Mechanistic models like HYDRUS 2D/3D (Šimunek et al., 2011) have been proposed to simulate all the components of water balance, including actual crop transpiration fluxes estimated according to a soil potential-dependent sink term. Even though the suitability of these models to simulate the temporal dynamics of soil and crop water status has been reported in the literature for different horticultural crops, a few researches have been considering arboreal crops where the higher gradients of root water uptake are the combination between the localized irrigation supply and the three dimensional root system distribution. The main objective of the paper was to assess the performance of HYDRUS-2D model to evaluate soil water contents and transpiration fluxes of an olive orchard irrigated with two different water distribution systems. Experiments were carried out in Castelvetrano (Sicily) during irrigation seasons 2011 and 2012, in a commercial farm specialized in the production of table olives (Olea europaea L., var. Nocellara del Belice), representing the typical variety of the surrounding area. During the first season, irrigation water was provided by a single lateral placed along the plant row with four emitters per plant (ordinary irrigation), whereas during the second season a grid of emitters laid on the soil was installed in order to irrigate the whole soil surface around the selected trees. The model performance was assessed based on the

  4. Core-satellite populations and seasonality of water meter biofilms in a metropolitan drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Fangqiong; Hwang, Chiachi; LeChevallier, Mark W; Andersen, Gary L; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-03-01

    Drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) harbor the microorganisms in biofilms and suspended communities, yet the diversity and spatiotemporal distribution have been studied mainly in the suspended communities. This study examined the diversity of biofilms in an urban DWDS, its relationship with suspended communities and its dynamics. The studied DWDS in Urbana, Illinois received conventionally treated and disinfected water sourced from the groundwater. Over a 2-year span, biomass were sampled from household water meters (n=213) and tap water (n=20) to represent biofilm and suspended communities, respectively. A positive correlation between operational taxonomic unit (OTU) abundance and occupancy was observed. Examined under a 'core-satellite' model, the biofilm community comprised 31 core populations that encompassed 76.7% of total 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequences. The biofilm communities shared with the suspended community highly abundant and prevalent OTUs, which related to methano-/methylotrophs (i.e., Methylophilaceae and Methylococcaceae) and aerobic heterotrophs (Sphingomonadaceae and Comamonadaceae), yet differed by specific core populations and lower diversity and evenness. Multivariate tests indicated seasonality as the main contributor to community structure variation. This pattern was resilient to annual change and correlated to the cyclic fluctuations of core populations. The findings of a distinctive biofilm community assemblage and methano-/methyltrophic primary production provide critical insights for developing more targeted water quality monitoring programs and treatment strategies for groundwater-sourced drinking water systems.

  5. Remote Estimation of Leaf and Canopy Water Content in Winter Wheat with Different Vertical Distribution of Water-Related Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishi Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the vertical distribution of gravimetric water content (GWC, relative water content (RWC, and equivalent water thickness (EWT in winter wheat during heading and early ripening stages, and evaluated the position of leaf number at which Vegetation Indexes (VIs can best retrieve canopy water-related properties of winter wheat. Results demonstrated that the vertical distribution of these properties followed a near-bell-shaped curve with the highest values at the intermediate leaf position. GWC of the top three or four leaves during the heading stage and the top two or three leaves during the early ripening stage can represent the GWC of the whole canopy, but the RWC and EWT of the whole canopy should be calculated based on the top four leaves. At leaf level, the analysis demonstrated strong relationships between EWT and VIs for the top leaf layer, but for GWCD, GWCF, and RWC, the strongest relationships with VIs were found in the intermediate leaf layers. At canopy level, VIs provided the most accurate estimation of GWCfor the top three or four leaves. Water absorption-based VIs could estimate canopy EWT of winter wheat for the top four leaves, but the suitable bands sensitive to water absorptions should be carefully selected for the studied species.

  6. Research of Distribution of Elements in Natural Waters of the Selenga River Pool

    CERN Document Server

    Ganbold, G; Gerbish, S; Dalhsuren, B; Bayarmaa, Z; Maslov, O D; Sevastiyanov, D V

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of heavy metals in natural waters of the Selenga river pool was investigated. The contents of elements were determined using X-ray analysis with complete external reflection (XRACER). The zones with excess of the average contents of elements in comparison with reference samples were found out, that specifies their pollution by metals. It is offered in these zones to organize the regular water quality monitoring for supervision over the condition of the water ecosystems and to carry out actions on decrease of anthropogenous load and pollution of natural waters.

  7. Dynamics of bacterial communities before and after distribution in a full-scale drinking water network

    KAUST Repository

    El Chakhtoura, Joline

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the biological stability of drinking water distribution systems is imperative in the framework of process control and risk management. The objective of this research was to examine the dynamics of the bacterial community during drinking water distribution at high temporal resolution. Water samples (156 in total) were collected over short time-scales (minutes/hours/days) from the outlet of a treatment plant and a location in its corresponding distribution network. The drinking water is treated by biofiltration and disinfectant residuals are absent during distribution. The community was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and flow cytometry as well as conventional, culture-based methods. Despite a random dramatic event (detected with pyrosequencing and flow cytometry but not with plate counts), the bacterial community profile at the two locations did not vary significantly over time. A diverse core microbiome was shared between the two locations (58-65% of the taxa and 86-91% of the sequences) and found to be dependent on the treatment strategy. The bacterial community structure changed during distribution, with greater richness detected in the network and phyla such as Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes becoming abundant. The rare taxa displayed the highest dynamicity, causing the major change during water distribution. This change did not have hygienic implications and is contingent on the sensitivity of the applied methods. The concept of biological stability therefore needs to be revised. Biostability is generally desired in drinking water guidelines but may be difficult to achieve in large-scale complex distribution systems that are inherently dynamic.

  8. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: Seneca Rocks Discovery Center, Seneca Rocks, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, Kosol [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Salasovich, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kandt, Alicen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-22

    As part of ongoing efforts by the U.S. Forest Service to reduce energy use and incorporate renewable energy technologies into its facilities, the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory performed an energy efficiency and renewable energy site assessment of the Seneca Rocks Discovery Center in Seneca Rocks, West Virginia. This report documents the findings of this assessment, and provides site-specific information for the implementation of energy and water conservation measures, and renewable energy measures.

  9. Study on the distribution of active centers in novel low Ti-loading MgCl2-supported Ziegler-Natta catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑峰; 王立; 赵振荣; 王文钦; 陈涛

    2004-01-01

    Novel MgCl2-supported Ziegler-Natta (Z-N) catalysts prepared using a new one-pot ball milling method can effectively control the amounts of Ti-loading in the catalysts. Complex GPC data on polypropylene synthesized by these novel catalysts were analyzed using the method of fitting the molecular weight distribution (MWD) curves with a multiple Flory-Schulz function. It was found that multiple active centers exist in these novel catalysts. Detailed study of the effects of the Ti-loadings in the catalysts on the distribution of the active centers showed that the Ti-loadings in the novel MgCl2-supported Z-N catalysts might affect the proportion of each type of active centers; and might be the main factor responsible for the effect of the Ti-loadings on the microstructure, the molecular weight and molecular weight distribution width of the resultant polymer, the catalytic activity and polymerization kinetics.

  10. Distribution of nanoflagellates in five water masses of the East China Sea in autumn and winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiquan; Huang, Lingfeng; Zhu, Zhisheng; Xiong, Yuan; Lu, Jiachang

    2016-02-01

    The variations of abundance, biomass and trophic structure of nanoflagellates (NF) among five typical water masses in the East China Sea were investigated in autumn (November 19-December 23, 2006) and winter (February 22-March 11, 2007). It was found that water mass had a significant impact on the distribution of NF. Either in autumn or in winter, the highest abundance and biomass of NF were recorded in the East China Sea Shelf Mixing Water (ECSSMW), and the lowest in the Kuroshio Subsurface Water (KSSW). While in the East China Sea Coastal Water (ECSCW), the abundance and biomass of both heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) and pigmented phototrophic nanoflagellates (PNF) were only slightly higher than that in Taiwan Strait Water (TSW) and Kuroshio Surface Water (KSW). In respect to the seasonal variation, the abundance and biomass of NF in TSW declined in winter, while in other 4 water masses, they showed an increasing trend from autumn to winter, mainly due to the decrease (in TSW) or increase (in ECSCW, ECSSMW, KSW and KSSW) of HNF. The distribution pattern of abundance- or biomass-based PNF/HNF ratio was found to be correlated to the nutrient level of the water mass. Results of Pearson correlation analysis and principle component analysis indicated that PNF was mainly constrained by nutrient supply, and HNF was controlled by food availability in the East China Sea.

  11. Frequency of legionella contamination in conditional & water distribution systems of Tehran hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davod Esmaieli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Legionella species are ubiquitous in natural aquatic environments, capable of existing in waters with varied temperatures, PH levels, and nutrient and oxygen contents. Of 49 known legionella species, 20 species have been linked to pneumonia in humans. Contamination by legionella has occurred in the distribution systems of many hospitals. Aerosol-generating systems such as faucets, showerheads, cooling towers, and nebulizers are responsible for their transmission from water to air. Methods: A total of 113 water samples were gathered from different wards of 32 hospitals in different geographical regions of Tehran city. These samples were concentrated by filtration, treated with the acid and temperature buffers, and isolated on a BCYE agar culture medium. Results: A total of 22 hospitals out of 33 (26.5% were contaminated by legionella species, and 30 samples (26.5% out of 113 were positive. Chlorine concentration and pH level of the water samples were 0.18-2.2 mg/l and 6.6-7.6, respectively. Conclusion: The high rate of waste water contamination in Tehran hospitals with Legionella indicates the resistance of this microorganism to chlorine and other disinfectants, or inadequate disinfection process, representing the insufficiency of the current decontamination of hospital water distribution system. Thus identifying legionella species and their controlling in water distribution system of hospitals is of great importance.

  12. Particulate distribution of plutonium and americium in surface waters from the Spanish Mediterranean coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molero, J.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.; Merino, J.; Vidal-Quadras, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Vives Batlle, J.; Mitchell, P.I. [University Coll., Dublin (Ireland)

    1995-12-31

    Measurements of the particulate distribution of plutonium and americium in Spanish Mediterranean coastal waters have been carried out. Plutonium-239,340 and {sup 241}Am concentrations have been measured in suspended particulate matter by filtering (< 0.22 {mu}m) large volume (200-300 litres) sea water samples. Results indicate that particulate plutonium constitutes on average 11 {+-} 4% of the total concentration in sea water. In the case of americium this percentage rises to 45 {+-} 14%. From the {sup 241}Am/{sup 239,240}Pu activity ratios it is clear that suspended particulate matter is enriched in {sup 241}Am relative to {sup 239,240}Pu by a factor 8 {+-} 4. Plutonium and americium in surface Mediterranean coastal waters appear to be fractionated as they present a different transfer rate to the particles. Our measurements allowed us to estimate sediment-water distribution coefficients (K{sub d}), which are a key parameter to interpret differences between the behaviour of plutonium and americium in sea water. Distribution coefficients K{sub d} have been estimated to be (1.4 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 5} litres kg{sup -1} for plutonium and (0.9 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 6} litres kg{sup -1} for americium in surface Mediterranean coastal waters. (author).

  13. Does water chemistry limit the distribution of New Zealand mud snails in Redwood National Park?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Ryan; Ward, Darren M.; Sepulveda, Adam

    2016-01-01

    New Zealand mud snails (NZMS) are exotic mollusks present in many waterways of the western United States. In 2009, NZMS were detected in Redwood Creek in Redwood National Park, CA. Although NZMS are noted for their ability to rapidly increase in abundance and colonize new areas, after more than 5 years in Redwood Creek, their distribution remains limited to a ca. 300 m reach. Recent literature suggests that low specific conductivity and environmental calcium can limit NZMS distribution. We conducted laboratory experiments, exposing NZMS collected from Redwood Creek to both natural waters and artificial treatment solutions, to determine if low conductivity and calcium concentration limit the distribution of NZMS in Redwood National Park. For natural water exposures, we held NZMS in water from their source location (conductivity 135 μS/cm, calcium 13 mg/L) or water from four other locations in the Redwood Creek watershed encompassing a range of conductivity (77–158 μS/cm) and calcium concentration (4 months) in the lowest conductivity waters from Redwood Creek and all but the lowest-conductivity treatment solutions, regardless of calcium concentration. However, reproductive output was very low in all natural waters and all low-calcium treatment solutions. Our results suggest that water chemistry may inhibit the spread of NZMS in Redwood National Park by reducing their reproductive output.

  14. Porosity and distribution of water in perlite from the island of Milos, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufhold, Stephan; Reese, Anke; Schwiebacher, Werner; Dohrmann, Reiner; Grathoff, Georg H; Warr, Laurence N; Halisch, Matthias; Müller, Cornelia; Schwarz-Schampera, Ulrich; Ufer, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    A perlite sample representative of an operating mine in Milos was investigated with respect to the type and spatial distribution of water. A set of different methods was used which finally provided a consistent view on the water at least in this perlite. Infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of different water species (molecular water and hydroxyl groups / strongly bound water). The presence of more than 0.5 mass% smectite, however, could be excluded considering the cation exchange capacity results. The dehydration measured by thermal analysis occurred over a wide range of temperatures hence confirming the infrared spectroscopical results. Both methods point to the existence of a continuous spectrum of water binding energies. The spatial distribution of water and/or pores was investigated using different methods (CT: computer tomography, FIB: scanning electron microscopy including focused ion beam technology, IRM: infrared microscopy). Computer tomography (CT) showed large macropores (20 - 100 μm) and additionally revealed a mottled microstructure of the silicate matrix with low density areas up to a few μm in diameter. Scanning electron microscopy (FIB) confirmed the presence of μm sized pores and IRM showed the filling of these pores with water. In summary, two types of pores were found. Airfilled 20 - 100 μm pores and μm-sized pores disseminated in the glass matrix containing at least some water. Porosity measurements indicate a total porosity of 26 Vol%, 11 Vol% corresponding to the μm-sized pores. It remains unsolved wether the water in the μm-sized pores entered after or throughout perlite formation. However, the pores are sealed and no indications of cracks were found which indicated a primary source of the water, i.e. water was probably entrapped by quenching of the lava. The water in these pores may be the main reason for the thermal expandability which results in the extraordinarily porous expanded perlite building materials.

  15. Sediment–water distribution of contaminants of emerging concern in a mixed use watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, David J., E-mail: david.fairbairn@state.mn.us [University of Minnesota, Water Resources Center, 1985 Buford Ave., St Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Karpuzcu, M. Ekrem [University of Minnesota, Water Resources Center, 1985 Buford Ave., St Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Arnold, William A. [University of Minnesota, Civil, Environmental, and Geo-Engineering, 500 Pillsbury Drive SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Barber, Brian L. [University of Minnesota, Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, 1902 Dudley Ave, Saint Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Kaufenberg, Elizabeth F. [University of Minnesota, Water Resources Center, 1985 Buford Ave., St Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Koskinen, William C. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Novak, Paige J. [University of Minnesota, Civil, Environmental, and Geo-Engineering, 500 Pillsbury Drive SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Rice, Pamela J. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Swackhamer, Deborah L. [University of Minnesota, Water Resources Center, 1985 Buford Ave., St Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated the occurrence and distribution of 15 contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in stream water and sediments in the Zumbro River watershed in Minnesota and compared these with sub-watershed land uses. Sixty pairs of sediment and water samples were collected across all seasons from four stream sites for over two years and analyzed for selected personal care products, pesticides, human and veterinary medications, and phytoestrogens. Spatial and temporal analyses indicate that pharmaceuticals and personal care products (urban/residential CECs) are significantly elevated in water and/or sediment at sites with greater population density (> 100 people/km{sup 2}) and percentage of developed land use (> 8% of subwatershed area) than those with less population density and land area under development. Significant spatial variations of agricultural pesticides in water and sediment were detectable, even though all sites had a high percentage of agricultural land use. Seasonality in CEC concentration was observed in water but not in sediment, although sediment concentrations of three CECs did vary between years. Average measured non-equilibrium distribution coefficients exceeded equilibrium hydrophobic partitioning-based predictions for 5 of the 7 detected CECs by at least an order of magnitude. Agreement of measured and predicted distribution coefficients improved with increasing hydrophobicity and in-stream persistence. The more polar and degradable CECs showed greater variability in measured distributions across different sampling events. Our results confirm that CECs are present in urban and agricultural stream sediments, including those CECs that would typically be thought of as non-sorptive based on their log K{sub ow} values. These results and the observed patterns of sediment and water distributions augment existing information to improve prediction of CEC fate and transport, leading to more accurate assessments of exposure and risk to surface water

  16. Optimal reconstruction of historical water supply to a distribution system: A. Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, M M; Guan, J; Maslia, M L; Sautner, J B; Gillig, R E; Reyes, J J; Williams, R C

    2004-09-01

    The New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services (NJDHSS), with support from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) conducted an epidemiological study of childhood leukaemia and nervous system cancers that occurred in the period 1979 through 1996 in Dover Township, Ocean County, New Jersey. The epidemiological study explored a wide variety of possible risk factors, including environmental exposures. ATSDR and NJDHSS determined that completed human exposure pathways to groundwater contaminants occurred in the past through private and community water supplies (i.e. the water distribution system serving the area). To investigate this exposure, a model of the water distribution system was developed and calibrated through an extensive field investigation. The components of this water distribution system, such as number of pipes, number of tanks, and number of supply wells in the network, changed significantly over a 35-year period (1962--1996), the time frame established for the epidemiological study. Data on the historical management of this system was limited. Thus, it was necessary to investigate alternative ways to reconstruct the operation of the system and test the sensitivity of the system to various alternative operations. Manual reconstruction of the historical water supply to the system in order to provide this sensitivity analysis was time-consuming and labour intensive, given the complexity of the system and the time constraints imposed on the study. To address these issues, the problem was formulated as an optimization problem, where it was assumed that the water distribution system was operated in an optimum manner at all times to satisfy the constraints in the system. The solution to the optimization problem provided the historical water supply strategy in a consistent manner for each month of the study period. The non-uniqueness of the selected historical water supply strategy was addressed by the formulation of a second

  17. The Influence of Canal Water Releases on the Distribution of Methylmercury in Everglades National Park: Implications for Ecosystem Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Aiken, G.; Orem, W.; Tate, M. T.; Kline, J.; Castro, J.

    2010-12-01

    Elevated levels of mercury (Hg) in the food web of the Florida Everglades have been well recognized for about two decades. Researchers have revealed the vexing complexity of ecosystem-scale factors that control Hg bioaccumulation across the Everglades, including: land use, elevated levels of atmospheric Hg deposition, water use and management, and disturbances (e.g., fire and droughts). Many of these factors directly interface with the Everglades Restoration Program; a fifteen year effort to return this unique ecosystem to a condition more closely resembling the historical uninterrupted flow way from Lake Okeechobee to Florida Bay. However, some activities of the Everglades restoration plan may result in exacerbated methylmercury (MeHg) production due to chemical and hydrologic effects on methylation. Specifically, planned increasing amounts of canal water releases, rich in sulfate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), to the southern most part of the Everglades (Everglades National Park, ENP). In addition, with a more “natural” flow regime, regions of the ENP may also experience more frequent wetting and drying cycles, a phenomenon known to stimulate MeHg production in the Everglades and elsewhere. In the past two years, the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service have been undertaking annual surveys of surface water and forage fish from about 70 sites across the ENP. The project is designed to assess the distribution and occurrence of MeHg across the ENP, and relate it to the major factors that affect Hg methylation discussed above. Results from the analysis of fish and water samples clearly show that canal water travels through ENP along the Shark River Slough, the historical center of flow through the Everglades. Several chemical makers of the canal water are evident, including sulfate, chloride and fluoride. Also evident in the data is a significant increase in the abundance of MeHg along the Shark River Slough, and direct result of sulfate

  18. Measuring experimental cyclohexane-water distribution coefficients for the SAMPL5 challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustenburg, Ariën S.; Dancer, Justin; Lin, Baiwei; Feng, Jianwen A.; Ortwine, Daniel F.; Mobley, David L.; Chodera, John D.

    2016-11-01

    Small molecule distribution coefficients between immiscible nonaqueuous and aqueous phases—such as cyclohexane and water—measure the degree to which small molecules prefer one phase over another at a given pH. As distribution coefficients capture both thermodynamic effects (the free energy of transfer between phases) and chemical effects (protonation state and tautomer effects in aqueous solution), they provide an exacting test of the thermodynamic and chemical accuracy of physical models without the long correlation times inherent to the prediction of more complex properties of relevance to drug discovery, such as protein-ligand binding affinities. For the SAMPL5 challenge, we carried out a blind prediction exercise in which participants were tasked with the prediction of distribution coefficients to assess its potential as a new route for the evaluation and systematic improvement of predictive physical models. These measurements are typically performed for octanol-water, but we opted to utilize cyclohexane for the nonpolar phase. Cyclohexane was suggested to avoid issues with the high water content and persistent heterogeneous structure of water-saturated octanol phases, since it has greatly reduced water content and a homogeneous liquid structure. Using a modified shake-flask LC-MS/MS protocol, we collected cyclohexane/water distribution coefficients for a set of 53 druglike compounds at pH 7.4. These measurements were used as the basis for the SAMPL5 Distribution Coefficient Challenge, where 18 research groups predicted these measurements before the experimental values reported here were released. In this work, we describe the experimental protocol we utilized for measurement of cyclohexane-water distribution coefficients, report the measured data, propose a new bootstrap-based data analysis procedure to incorporate multiple sources of experimental error, and provide insights to help guide future iterations of this valuable exercise in predictive modeling.

  19. Hydrogeologic and water-quality data for the explosive experimental area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site, Dahlgren, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, E.C.; Bell, C.F.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogeologic and water-quality data were collected at the Explosive Experimental Area, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Site at Dahlgren, Virginia, as part of a hydrogeologic assessment of the shallow aquifer system begun in 1993. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted this study to provide the U.S. Navy with hydrogeologic data to aid in the evaluation of the effects from remediation of contaminated sites and to protect against additional contamination. This report describes the ground-water observation- well network, hydrogeologic, and water-quality data collected between October 1993 and April 1995. The report includes a description of the locations and construction of 28 observation wells on the Explosive Experimental Area. Hydrogeologic data include lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and vertical hydraulic conductivity measurements of selected core intervals. Hydrologic data include synoptic and hourly measurements of ground-water levels, and observation-well slug tests to determine horizontal hydraulic conductivity. Water-quality data include analyses of major dissolved constituents in ground water and surface water.

  20. Proton momentum distributions in water: A path integral molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Varadharajan; Morrone, Joseph A.; Sebastiani, Daniel; Car, Roberto

    2007-03-01

    Recent neutron Compton scattering experiments have detected the proton momentum distributions of water. This density in momentum space is a quantum mechanical property of the proton, due to the confining anharmonic potential from covalent and hydrogen bonds. The theoretical calculation of this property can be carried out via ``open'' path integral expressions. In this work, we present an extension of the staging path integral molecular dynamics method, which is then employed to calculate the proton momentum distributions of water in the solid, liquid, and supercritical phases. We utilize the SPC/F2 empirical force field to model the system's interactions. The calculated momentum distributions depict both agreement and discrepancies with experiment. The differences may be explained by the deviation of the force field from the true interactions. These distributions provide an abundance of information about the environment and interactions surrounding the proton.

  1. Proton momentum distribution in water: an open path integral molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrone, Joseph A.; Srinivasan, Varadharajan; Sebastiani, Daniel; Car, Roberto

    2007-06-01

    Recent neutron Compton scattering experiments have detected the proton momentum distribution in water. The theoretical calculation of this property can be carried out via "open" path integral expressions. In this work, present an extension of the staging path integral molecular dynamics method, which is then employed to calculate the proton momentum distributions of water in the solid, liquid, and supercritical phases. We utilize a flexible, single point charge empirical force field to model the system's interactions. The calculated momentum distributions depict both agreement and discrepancies with experiment. The differences may be explained by the deviation of the force field from the true interactions. These distributions provide an abundance of information about the environment and interactions surrounding the proton.

  2. Management of complex multi-reservoir water distribution systems using advanced control theoretic tools and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Chmielowski, Wojciech Z

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses issues of optimal water management in a complex distribution system. The main elements of the water-management system under consideration are retention reservoirs, among which water transfers are possible, and a network of connections between these reservoirs and water treatment plants (WTPs). System operation optimisation involves determining the proper water transport routes and their flow volumes from the retention reservoirs to the WTPs, and the volumes of possible transfers among the reservoirs, taking into account transport-related delays for inflows, outflows and water transfers in the system. Total system operation costs defined by an assumed quality coefficient should be minimal. An analytical solution of the optimisation task so formulated has been obtained as a result of using Pontriagin’s maximum principle with reference to the quality coefficient assumed. Stable start and end conditions in reservoir state trajectories have been assumed. The researchers have taken into accou...

  3. Towards a global water scarcity risk assessment framework: using scenarios and risk distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Ted; Wada, Yoshihide; Aerts, Jeroen; Ward, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decades, changing hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions have led to increased water scarcity problems. A large number of studies have shown that these water scarcity conditions will worsen in the near future. Despite numerous calls for risk-based assessments of water scarcity, a framework that includes UNISDR's definition of risk does not yet exist at the global scale. This study provides a first step towards such a risk-based assessment, applying a Gamma distribution to estimate water scarcity conditions at the global scale under historic and future conditions, using multiple climate change projections and socioeconomic scenarios. Our study highlights that water scarcity risk increases given all future scenarios, up to >56.2% of the global population in 2080. Looking at the drivers of risk, we find that population growth outweigh the impacts of climate change at global and regional scales. Using a risk-based method to assess water scarcity in terms of Expected Annual Exposed Population, we show the results to be less sensitive than traditional water scarcity assessments to the use of fixed threshold to represent different levels of water scarcity. This becomes especially important when moving from global to local scales, whereby deviations increase up to 50% of estimated risk levels. Covering hazard, exposure, and vulnerability, risk-based methods are well-suited to assess water scarcity adaptation. Completing the presented risk framework therefore offers water managers a promising perspective to increase water security in a well-informed and adaptive manner.

  4. 3D modeling of gas/water distribution in water-bearing carbonate gas reservoirs: the Longwangmiao gas field, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Chenghua; Li, ChaoChun; Ma, Zhonggao

    2016-10-01

    A water-bearing carbonate gas reservoir is an important natural gas resource being developed worldwide. Due to the long-term water/rock/gas interaction during geological evolution, complex gas/water distribution has formed under the superposed effect of sedimentary facies, reservoir space facies and gravity difference of fluid facies. In view of these challenges, on the basis of the conventional three-stage modeling method, this paper presents a modelling method controlled by four-stage facies to develop 3D model of a water-bearing carbonate gas reservoir. Key to this method is the reservoir property modelling controlled by two-stage facies, and the fluid property modelling controlled by another two-stage facies. The prerequisite of this method is a reliable database obtained from solid geological investigation. On the basis of illustrating the principles of the modelling method controlled by four-stage facies, this paper further implements systematically modeling of the heterogeneous gas/water distribution of the Longwangmiao carbonate formation in the Moxi-Gaoshiti area, Sichuan basin, China.

  5. Long-Term Bacterial Dynamics in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, E. I.

    2016-10-28

    Large seasonal variations in microbial drinking water quality can occur in distribution networks, but are often not taken into account when evaluating results from short-term water sampling campaigns. Temporal dynamics in bacterial community characteristics were investigated during a two-year drinking water monitoring campaign in a full-scale distribution system operating without detectable disinfectant residual. A total of 368 water samples were collected on a biweekly basis at the water treatment plant (WTP) effluent and at one fixed location in the drinking water distribution network (NET). The samples were analysed for heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), Aeromonas plate counts, adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) concentrations, and flow cytometric (FCM) total and intact cell counts (TCC, ICC), water temperature, pH, conductivity, total organic carbon (TOC) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC). Multivariate analysis of the large dataset was performed to explore correlative trends between microbial and environmental parameters. The WTP effluent displayed considerable seasonal variations in TCC (from 90 × 103 cells mL-1 in winter time up to 455 × 103 cells mL-1 in summer time) and in bacterial ATP concentrations (<1–3.6 ng L-1), which were congruent with water temperature variations. These fluctuations were not detected with HPC and Aeromonas counts. The water in the network was predominantly influenced by the characteristics of the WTP effluent. The increase in ICC between the WTP effluent and the network sampling location was small (34 × 103 cells mL-1 on average) compared to seasonal fluctuations in ICC in the WTP effluent. Interestingly, the extent of bacterial growth in the NET was inversely correlated to AOC concentrations in the WTP effluent (Pearson’s correlation factor r = -0.35), and positively correlated with water temperature (r = 0.49). Collecting a large dataset at high frequency over a two year period enabled the characterization of previously

  6. Long-Term Bacterial Dynamics in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, E I; Weissbrodt, D G; Hammes, F; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2016-01-01

    Large seasonal variations in microbial drinking water quality can occur in distribution networks, but are often not taken into account when evaluating results from short-term water sampling campaigns. Temporal dynamics in bacterial community characteristics were investigated during a two-year drinking water monitoring campaign in a full-scale distribution system operating without detectable disinfectant residual. A total of 368 water samples were collected on a biweekly basis at the water treatment plant (WTP) effluent and at one fixed location in the drinking water distribution network (NET). The samples were analysed for heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), Aeromonas plate counts, adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) concentrations, and flow cytometric (FCM) total and intact cell counts (TCC, ICC), water temperature, pH, conductivity, total organic carbon (TOC) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC). Multivariate analysis of the large dataset was performed to explore correlative trends between microbial and environmental parameters. The WTP effluent displayed considerable seasonal variations in TCC (from 90 × 103 cells mL-1 in winter time up to 455 × 103 cells mL-1 in summer time) and in bacterial ATP concentrations (water temperature variations. These fluctuations were not detected with HPC and Aeromonas counts. The water in the network was predominantly influenced by the characteristics of the WTP effluent. The increase in ICC between the WTP effluent and the network sampling location was small (34 × 103 cells mL-1 on average) compared to seasonal fluctuations in ICC in the WTP effluent. Interestingly, the extent of bacterial growth in the NET was inversely correlated to AOC concentrations in the WTP effluent (Pearson's correlation factor r = -0.35), and positively correlated with water temperature (r = 0.49). Collecting a large dataset at high frequency over a two year period enabled the characterization of previously undocumented seasonal dynamics in the distribution

  7. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria and microbial populations in drinking water distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Briancesco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on the occurrence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM, in parallel with those obtained for bacterial indicators and amoebae, are presented with the aim to collect information on the spread of NTM in drinking water distribution systems in Italy. Samples were collected from taps of hospitals and households in Central and Southern Italy. The concentration values obtained for the more traditional microbial parameters complied with the mandatory requirements for drinking water. Conversely, moderate-to-high microbial loads (till 300 CFU/L were observed for the NTM. Positive samples were obtained from 62% of the investigated water samples. Analogous results were observed for amoebae showing a higher percentage of positive samples (76%. In terms of public health, the presence of mycobacteria in water distribution systems may represent a potential risk especially for vulnerable people such as children, the elderly or immunocompromised individuals.

  8. Substrate turnover at low carbon concentrations in a model drinking water distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik;

    2002-01-01

    utilisation and bacterial growth at low nutrient conditions in a model distribution system. The model system consisted of two loops in series, where flow rate and retention time were controlled independently. Spiking the drinking water of the model system with two different environmentally realistic......Water quality changes caused by microbial activity in the distribution network can cause serious problems. Reducing the amount of microbial available substrate may be an effective way to control bacterial aftergrowth. The purpose of the present study was to study the kinetics of substrate...

  9. Occurrence of contaminant accumulation in lead pipe scales from domestic drinking-water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Michael R; Hyland, Robert N; Welch, Meghan M

    2008-06-15

    Previously, contaminants, such as AI, As, and Ra, have been shown to accumulate in drinking-water distribution system solids. Accumulated contaminants could be periodically released back into the water supply causing elevated levels at consumers taps, going undetected by most current regulatory monitoring practices and consequently constituting a hidden risk. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of over 40 major scale constituents, regulated metals, and other potential metallic inorganic contaminants in drinking-water distribution system Pb (lead) or Pb-lined service lines. The primary method of analysis was inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, following complete decomposition of scale material. Contaminants and scale constituents were categorized by their average concentrations, and many metals of potential health concern were found to occur at levels sufficient to result in elevated levels at the consumer's taps if they were to be mobilized. The data indicate distinctly nonconservative behavior for many inorganic contaminants in drinking-water distribution systems. This finding suggests an imminent need for further research into the transport and fate of contaminants throughout drinking-water distribution system pipes, as well as a re-evaluation of monitoring protocols in order to more accurately determine the scope and levels of potential consumer exposure.

  10. Improved Cost-Base Design of Water Distribution Networks using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh Azar, Foad; Abghari, Hirad; Taghi Alami, Mohammad; Weijs, Steven

    2010-05-01

    Population growth and progressive extension of urbanization in different places of Iran cause an increasing demand for primary needs. The water, this vital liquid is the most important natural need for human life. Providing this natural need is requires the design and construction of water distribution networks, that incur enormous costs on the country's budget. Any reduction in these costs enable more people from society to access extreme profit least cost. Therefore, investment of Municipal councils need to maximize benefits or minimize expenditures. To achieve this purpose, the engineering design depends on the cost optimization techniques. This paper, presents optimization models based on genetic algorithm(GA) to find out the minimum design cost Mahabad City's (North West, Iran) water distribution network. By designing two models and comparing the resulting costs, the abilities of GA were determined. the GA based model could find optimum pipe diameters to reduce the design costs of network. Results show that the water distribution network design using Genetic Algorithm could lead to reduction of at least 7% in project costs in comparison to the classic model. Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Optimum Design of Water Distribution Network, Mahabad City, Iran.

  11. A multi-objective model for locating distribution centers in a supply chain network considering risk and inventory decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gharegozloo Hamedani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multi-objective location problem in a three level supply chain network under uncertain environment considering inventory decisions. The proposed model of this paper considers uncertainty for different parameters including procurement, transportation costs, supply, demand and the capacity of various facilities. The proposed model presents a robust optimization model, which specifies locations of distribution centers to be opened, inventory control parameters (r, Q, and allocation of supply chain components, concurrently. The resulted mixed-integer nonlinear programming minimizes the expected total cost of such a supply chain network comprising location, procurement, transportation, holding, ordering, and shortage costs. The model also minimizes the variability of the total cost of relief chain and minimizes the financial risk or the probability of not meeting a certain budget. We use the ε-constraint method, which is a multi-objective technique with implicit trade-off information given, to solve the problem and using a couple of numerical instances, we examine the performance of the proposed approach.

  12. A location-inventory model for distribution centers in a three-level supply chain under uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bozorgi-Amiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a location-inventory problem in a three level supply chain network under uncertainty, which leads to risk. The (r,Q inventory control policy is applied for this problem. Besides, uncertainty exists in different parameters such as procurement, transportation costs, supply, demand and the capacity of different facilities (due to disaster, man-made events and etc. We present a robust optimization model, which concurrently specifies: locations of distribution centers to be opened, inventory control parameters (r,Q, and allocation of supply chain components. The model is formulated as a multi-objective mixed-integer nonlinear programming in order to minimize the expected total cost of such a supply chain network comprising location, procurement, transportation, holding, ordering, and shortage costs. Moreover, we develop an effective solution approach on the basis of multi-objective particle swarm optimization for solving the proposed model. Eventually, computational results of different examples of the problem and sensitivity analysis are exhibited to show the model and algorithm's feasibility and efficiency.

  13. A multi-objective possibilistic programming approach for locating distribution centers and allocating customers demands in supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Yazdian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a multi-objective possibilistic programming model to locate distribution centers (DCs and allocate customers' demands in a supply chain network design (SCND problem. The SCND problem deals with determining locations of facilities (DCs and/or plants, and also shipment quantities between each two consecutive tier of the supply chain. The primary objective of this study is to consider different risk factors which are involved in both locating DCs and shipping products as an objective function. The risk consists of various components: the risks related to each potential DC location, the risk associated with each arc connecting a plant to a DC and the risk of shipment from a DC to a customer. The proposed method of this paper considers the risk phenomenon in fuzzy forms to handle the uncertainties inherent in these factors. A possibilistic programming approach is proposed to solve the resulted multi-objective problem and a numerical example for three levels of possibility is conducted to analyze the model.

  14. Polycyclic Musks in the Air and Water of the Lower Great Lakes: Spatial Distribution and Volatilization from Surface Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Carrie A; Helm, Paul A; Muir, Derek; Puggioni, Gavino; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-11-01

    Polycyclic musks (PCMs) are synthetic fragrance compounds used in personal care products and household cleaners. Previous studies have indicated that PCMs are introduced to aquatic environments via wastewater and river discharge. Polyethylene passive samplers (PEs) were deployed in air and water during winter 2011 and summer 2012 to investigate the role of population centers as sources of these contaminants to the Great Lakes and determine whether the lakes were acting as sources of PCMs via volatilization. Average gaseous Σ5PCM ranged from below detection limits (Lake Erie in Toledo. Average dissolved Σ5PCM ranged from Lake Ontario near the mouth of the Oswego River. Significant correlations were observed between population density and Σ5PCM in both air and water, with strongest correlations within a 25 and 40 km radius, respectively. At sites where HHCB was detected it was generally volatilizing, while the direction of AHTN air-water exchange was variable. Volatilization fluxes of HHCB ranged from 11 ± 6 to 341 ± 127 ng/m(2)/day, while air-water exchange fluxes of AHTN ranged from -3 ± 2 to 28 ± 10 ng/m(2)/day. Extrapolation of average air-water exchange flux values over the surface area of the lakes' coastal boundary zone suggested volatilization may be responsible for the loss of 64-213 kg/year of dissolved Σ5PCM from the lakes.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation of nanoscale distribution and mobility of water and dimethylmethylphosphonate in sulfonated polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V

    2008-11-27

    The interest in a better understanding of the specific interactions of phosphor-organic compounds and water with sulfonated polystyrene (sPS) is motivated by the use of block copolymers as protective membranes against chemical warfare agents. Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, we explored the nanoscale segregation and diffusion of water and nerve gas simulant dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP) in sPS neutralized with calcium counterions at different sulfonation and hydration levels. The water content was varied from 15 to 54% of dry polymer weight, and the DMMP content was varied from 0 to 100 wt %. We found that, in the 40% sulfonated polystyrene, water forms well defined aggregates, which grow in size as the hydration increases, reaching approximately 20 A at the maximum water content. In the 100% sulfonated polystyrene, the overall structure of hydrated polymer is more uniform with smaller water aggregates. Diffusion of water at the same number of water molecules per sulfonate group is faster at a lower sulfonation level. The solvation of sPS in water-DMMP binary mixtures was found to differ substantially from Nafion, where DMMP forms a layer between the hydropholic and hydrophobic subphases. In sPS with divalent Ca(2+) counterions, DMMP and water compete for the solvation of the sulfonate group. At high water and DMMP contents, the diffusion of DMMP turned out to be rather fast with a diffusion coefficient of ca. 30% of that of water. At the same time, water diffusion slows down as the DMMP concentration increases. This observation suggests that although sPS is permeable for both solvents, water and DMMP are partially segregated on the scale of 1-2 nm and have different pathways through the system. The nonuniform nanoscale distribution of water and DMMP in sPS is confirmed by analyses of different pair correlation functions. This feature may significantly affect the perm-selective properties of sPS-contained block copolymer membranes.

  16. Impact of geographic variations of the convective and dehydration center on stratospheric water vapor over the Asian monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Fu, Rong; Wang, Tao; Liu, Yimin

    2016-06-01

    The Asian monsoon region is the most prominent moisture center of water vapor in the lower stratosphere (LS) during boreal summer. Previous studies have suggested that the transport of water vapor to the Asian monsoon LS is controlled by dehydration temperatures and convection mainly over the Bay of Bengal and Southeast Asia. However, there is a clear geographic variation of convection associated with the seasonal and intra-seasonal variations of the Asian monsoon circulation, and the relative influence of such a geographic variation of convection vs. the variation of local dehydration temperatures on water vapor transport is still not clear. Using satellite observations from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and a domain-filling forward trajectory model, we show that almost half of the seasonal water vapor increase in the Asian monsoon LS are attributable to geographic variations of convection and resultant variations of the dehydration center, of which the influence is comparable to the influence of the local dehydration temperature increase. In particular, dehydration temperatures are coldest over the southeast and warmest over the northwest Asian monsoon region. Although the convective center is located over Southeast Asia, an anomalous increase of convection over the northwest Asia monsoon region increases local diabatic heating in the tropopause layer and air masses entering the LS are dehydrated at relatively warmer temperatures. Due to warmer dehydration temperatures, anomalously moist air enters the LS and moves eastward along the northern flank of the monsoon anticyclonic flow, leading to wet anomalies in the LS over the Asian monsoon region. Likewise, when convection increases over the Southeast Asia monsoon region, dry anomalies appear in the LS. On a seasonal scale, this feature is associated with the monsoon circulation, convection and diabatic heating marching towards the northwest Asia monsoon region from June to August. The march of convection

  17. Benchmark calculations of excess electrons in water cluster cavities: balancing the addition of atom-centered diffuse functions versus floating diffuse functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changzhe; Bu, Yuxiang

    2016-09-14

    Diffuse functions have been proved to be especially crucial for the accurate characterization of excess electrons which are usually bound weakly in intermolecular zones far away from the nuclei. To examine the effects of diffuse functions on the nature of the cavity-shaped excess electrons in water cluster surroundings, both the HOMO and LUMO distributions, vertical detachment energies (VDEs) and visible absorption spectra of two selected (H2O)24(-) isomers are investigated in the present work. Two main types of diffuse functions are considered in calculations including the Pople-style atom-centered diffuse functions and the ghost-atom-based floating diffuse functions. It is found that augmentation of atom-centered diffuse functions contributes to a better description of the HOMO (corresponding to the VDE convergence), in agreement with previous studies, but also leads to unreasonable diffuse characters of the LUMO with significant red-shifts in the visible spectra, which is against the conventional point of view that the more the diffuse functions, the better the results. The issue of designing extra floating functions for excess electrons has also been systematically discussed, which indicates that the floating diffuse functions are necessary not only for reducing the computational cost but also for improving both the HOMO and LUMO accuracy. Thus, the basis sets with a combination of partial atom-centered diffuse functions and floating diffuse functions are recommended for a reliable description of the weakly bound electrons. This work presents an efficient way for characterizing the electronic properties of weakly bound electrons accurately by balancing the addition of atom-centered diffuse functions and floating diffuse functions and also by balancing the computational cost and accuracy of the calculated results, and thus is very useful in the relevant calculations of various solvated electron systems and weakly bound anionic systems.

  18. Distribution and fluxes of suspended sediments in the offshore waters of the Changjiang (Yangtze) Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Xinning; LI Jiufa; SHEN Huanting

    2009-01-01

    The offshore waters of the Changjiang Estuary are the transitional areas where river-supplied water and sediment are transported to the sea, and material exchanges occur with the neighbored Hangzhou Bay and the Jiangsu waters. Field observations of currents and sediment properties were conducted to study temporal and spatial distributions of suspended sediments under various dynamical conditions. The high sediment concentrations were found to occur in the western and southern waters of the offshore, and the low concentrations occurred in the eastern and northern waters. This pattern of the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) distribution is obviously influenced by the runoff and tidal current. The significant difference of along-estuary SSC distribution indicates that the SSC is reduced gradually from the west to the east, and that in the spring tide is obviously higher than in the neap tide. The methods of mechanism analysis and equal-area grids were used to calculate the suspended sediment fluxes at the typical cross sections. It was found that 44 percent of total suspended sediments from the Changjiang River were deposited in the submarine delta, and more than 27 percent of sediments were transported southernly into the Hangzhou Bay, and only 9 percent of sediments was supplied and exchanged with the northern Jiangsu waters, and about 20 percent of sediments was delivered offshore to the sea.

  19. Modeling water balance distribution in a natural semiarid region of central Mexico using a SVAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastachi-Loza, C. A.; Braud, I.; Gonzalez-Sosa, E.; Centro de Investigaciones Del Agua de Querétaro

    2010-12-01

    Around the world water is becoming insufficient, especially in the semiarid regions where there is a high inter-annual variability in the amount and distribution of the rainfall. Studies on this kind of environments would allow us to understand the mechanisms that determine the spatial and temporal distribution of the water balance components. The study was carried out from October 2005 to October 2008 in two semiarid sites located in the south of the Mexican Plateau: El Carmen in Guanajuato State and Cadereyta in Queretaro State. The work aim was to provide a better understanding of the hydrological processes that occur in semiarid ecosystems, quantifying and modeling the water balance in order to define the distribution of the water and energy balance components in El Carmen and Cadereyta. For this purpose, the SiSPAT (Simple Soil Plant Atmosphere Transfer) model was used based on a parameterization of the soil, plants and atmosphere components. It was found that, using SiSPAT, the water balance components were particularly sensitive to parameters associated with the soil and the leaf area index. The model results showed that during the studied period, the annual evapotranspiration in Cadereyta was less than PG (-10 and -5%) and above PG for El Carmen (10 y 30%). Runoff and percolation at 5m were null. Finally in both sites there was a simulated loss of water stored in the soil.

  20. Reduced Efficiency of Chlorine Disinfection of Naegleria fowleri in a Drinking Water Distribution Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Haylea C; Wylie, Jason; Dejean, Guillaume; Kaksonen, Anna H; Sutton, David; Braun, Kalan; Puzon, Geoffrey J

    2015-09-15

    Naegleria fowleri associated with biofilm and biological demand water (organic matter suspended in water that consumes disinfectants) sourced from operational drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) had significantly increased resistance to chlorine disinfection. N. fowleri survived intermittent chlorine dosing of 0.6 mg/L for 7 days in a mixed biofilm from field and laboratory-cultured Escherichia coli strains. However, N. fowleri associated with an attached drinking water distribution biofilm survived more than 30 times (20 mg/L for 3 h) the recommended concentration of chlorine for drinking water. N. fowleri showed considerably more resistance to chlorine when associated with a real field biofilm compared to the mixed laboratory biofilm. This increased resistance is likely due to not only the consumption of disinfectants by the biofilm and the reduced disinfectant penetration into the biofilm but also the composition and microbial community of the biofilm itself. The increased diversity of the field biofilm community likely increased N. fowleri's resistance to chlorine disinfection compared to that of the laboratory-cultured biofilm. Previous research has been conducted in only laboratory scale models of DWDSs and laboratory-cultured biofilms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating how N. fowleri can persist in a field drinking water distribution biofilm despite chlorination.

  1. [Assessment of Cyto- and Genotoxicity of Underground Waters from the Far Eastern Center on Radioactive Waste Treatment Site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudalova, A A; Pyatkova, S V; Geras'kin, S A; Kiselev, S M; Akhromeev, S V

    2016-01-01

    This study has been completed in the frames of activities on the environment assessment in the vicinity of the Far Eastern center (FEC) on radioactive waste treatment (a branch of Fokino, Sysoev Bay). Underground waters collected at the FEC technical site were surveyed both with instrumental techniques and bioassays. Concentrations of some chemicals (ranged to the third hazard category) in the samples collected are over the permitted limits. Activities of 137Cs and 90Sr in waters amount up to 3.8 and 16.2 Bq/l, correspondingly. The integral pollution index is over 1 in all the samples and could amount up to 165. The Allium-test application allows the detection of the sample points where underground waters have an enhanced mutagenic potential. Dependencies between biological effects and pollution levels are analyzed. The findings obtained could be used for the monitoring optimized and decision making on rehabilitation measures to decrease negative influence of the enterprise on the environment.

  2. Effect of hot-water consumption on temperature distribution in a horizontal solar water storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helwa, N.H.; El-Ghetany, H.H. [National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Solar Energy; Mobarak, A.M.; El-Sallak, M.S. [Cairo Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-12-31

    This experimental investigation assesses the behaviour of a solar water heater provided with a liquid heat exchanger in a horizontal storage tank. The factors that affect the stratification inside the storage tank are considered. The performance of the system is studied in the light of the daily consumption of hot water of an Egyptian family. The results obtained show that in the places where it is necessary to use a horizontal tank it must be supplied with an auxiliary electric heater to meet the required load at the required temperature, especially in winter. (author)

  3. THE STRENGTH OF THE DISSOLVED OXYGEN MAXIMUM IN THE VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF N ANSHA ISLANDS WATERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林洪瑛; 程赛伟; 韩舞鹰

    2002-01-01

    Observation data from a cruise in the Nansha Islands, in May to June 1990, Decem ber, 1993, September to October 1994, and July, 1999, respectively, were used to develop the method presented here to indicate the existing strength of the diss ol ved oxygen maximum in the vertical distribution of Nansha Islands waters. Its se asonal variation and regional distribution are discussed in this paper. Analysis results showed that the distribution of the strength of dissolved oxygen maximum (Domax-Dosur) was closely related to the upper layer circulation and the bioactivity of Nansha Islands seawater.

  4. Looking at the spatial and temporal distribution of global water availability and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, Peter; Satoh, Yusuke; Wada, Yoshihide; Floerke, Martina; Eisner, Stefanie; Hanasaki, Naota; Wiberg, David

    2016-04-01

    The human water demand for agriculture, industry, energy and domestic is less than ten per cent of the global freshwater production of around 54,000 km3 per year. Water is distributed unequally in time and space. Not a new insight, but when we zoom in and look at country and regional level and monthly time scale the global picture is dispatching into areas and periods of water abundance and water scarcity, which we can quantify. This study uses the multi-model approach of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) to build up a consistent set of global water scenarios based on Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) for the IIASA Water Futures and Solutions Initiative (WFaS). The WFaS "fast-track" assessment applies three water scenarios based on feasible combinations of two different RCPs and three SSPs, then five different hydrological models are used to estimate water availability and three water use models to estimate water demand from different sectors. Results are shown as indicators for e.g. water stress and water dependency between countries for present time and for future projections up to 2050. The alterations to previous studies are the multi-model approach and the finer temporal monthly scale, showing the temporal and spatial diversity of water demand and availability. One example scenario is based on the combination of SSP2 and RCP6.0. While in 2010 17 countries out of 249 facing severe water stress on an annual basis, the number is likely to increase up to 26 countries by 2050. Looking at the monthly time dimension 51 countries with altogether 3.8 billion people are under severe water stress in at least one month in 2010. This will rise up to 57 countries and 4.9 billion people by 2050. Main driver of this development will be the rising water demand of a growing population and to a lesser extend the changing distribution of water availability. Model biases are inevitable in

  5. High-throughput profiling of antibiotic resistance genes in drinking water treatment plants and distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Like; Ouyang, Weiying; Qian, Yanyun; Su, Chao; Su, Jianqiang; Chen, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are present in surface water and often cannot be completely eliminated by drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). Improper elimination of the ARG-harboring microorganisms contaminates the water supply and would lead to animal and human disease. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to determine the most effective ways by which DWTPs can eliminate ARGs. Here, we tested water samples from two DWTPs and distribution systems and detected the presence of 285 ARGs, 8 transposases, and intI-1 by utilizing high-throughput qPCR. The prevalence of ARGs differed in the two DWTPs, one of which employed conventional water treatments while the other had advanced treatment processes. The relative abundance of ARGs increased significantly after the treatment with biological activated carbon (BAC), raising the number of detected ARGs from 76 to 150. Furthermore, the final chlorination step enhanced the relative abundance of ARGs in the finished water generated from both DWTPs. The total enrichment of ARGs varied from 6.4-to 109.2-fold in tap water compared to finished water, among which beta-lactam resistance genes displayed the highest enrichment. Six transposase genes were detected in tap water samples, with the transposase gene TnpA-04 showing the greatest enrichment (up to 124.9-fold). We observed significant positive correlations between ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) during the distribution systems, indicating that transposases and intI-1 may contribute to antibiotic resistance in drinking water. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the diversity and abundance of ARGs in drinking water treatment systems utilizing high-throughput qPCR techniques in China.

  6. CONCENTRATION OF TRIHALOMETHANES (THM AND PRECURSORS IN DRINKING WATER WITHIN DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORNELIA DIANA ROMAN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Concentration of trihalomethanes (THM and precursors in drinking water within distribution networks. Water chlorination is the disinfection method most widely used, having however the disadvantage of producing trihalomethanes (THM as secondary compounds, which are included in the list of priority hazardous substances in water. THM formation is influenced by the raw water composition and chlorine from the disinfection process. This paper intends to highlight the individual values of the chemical compounds precursors of THM in the water network in order to correlate them with the evolution of THM concentration. The cities of Targu Mures and Zalau were chosen as the study area having surface waters with different degrees of contamination as the water source. Pre-treatment with potassium permanganate is used at the water treatment plant in Targu Mures, while pre-chlorination is used at the water treatment plant in Zalau. Water sampling was performed weekly between March-May, 2011 in three sampling points of each city, maintained during the period of study. Total THM and their compounds as well as THM precursors (oxidability, ammonium content, nitrites and nitrates were measured. The water supplied in the distribution network corresponded integrally to the quality standards in terms of the analyzed indicators, including THM concentrations. The higher average THM concentrations in Zalau (52.01±14 μg/L compared to Targu Mures (36.43±9.14 μg/L were expected as a result of precursors concentration. In terms of THM compounds, they had similar proportions in the two localities, chloroform being clearly predominant, followed by dichlorobromoform and dibromochloroform, while bromoform was not identified. Statistical data analysis showed that the presence of THM precursors is correlated with the THM levels but not sufficient for their generation, even if they can be considered in general the basis of a valid prediction.

  7. What can flux tracking teach us about water age distributions and their temporal dynamics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hrachowitz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The complex interactions of runoff generation processes underlying the hydrological response of streams remain incompletely understood at the catchment scale. Extensive research has demonstrated the utility of tracers for both inferring flow paths distributions and constraining model parameterizations. While useful, the common use of linearity assumptions, i.e. time-invariance and complete mixing, in these studies provides only partial understanding of actual process dynamics. Here we use long term (< 20 yr precipitation, flow and tracer (chloride data of three contrasting upland catchments in the Scottish Highlands to inform integrated conceptual models investigating different mixing assumptions. Using the models as diagnostic tools in a functional comparison, water and tracer fluxes were tracked with the objective of characterizing water age distributions in the three catchments and establishing the wetness-dependent temporal dynamics of these distributions.

    The results highlight the potential importance of partial mixing which is dependent on the hydrological functioning of a catchment. Further, tracking tracer fluxes showed that the various components of a model can be characterized by fundamentally different water age distributions which may be highly sensitive to catchment wetness, available storage, mixing mechanisms, flow path connectivity and the relative importance of the different hydrological processes involved. Flux tracking also revealed that, although negligible for simulating the runoff response, the omission of processes such as interception evaporation can result in considerably biased water age distributions. Finally, the modeling indicated that water age distributions in the three study catchments do have long, power-law tails, which are generated by the interplay of flow path connectivity, the relative importance of different flow paths as well as by the mixing mechanisms involved. In general this study highlights

  8. Heavy metal distribution and water quality characterization of water bodies in Louisiana's Lake Pontchartrain Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zengqiang; Wang, Jim J; Ali, Amjad; DeLaune, Ronald D

    2016-11-01

    The seasonal variation in physico-chemical properties, anions, and the heavy metal (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentration was evaluated in water from nine different rivers in Lake Pontchartrain Basin, Louisiana, USA. The water quality parameters were compared with toxicity reference values (TRV), US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking/aquatic life protection, and WHO standards. Among physico-chemical properties, pH, DO, and turbidity were high during spring, while, EC, temperature, and DOC were high during summer and vice versa. The anion study revealed that the concentrations of F(-), Cl(-), and NO3(-) were higher during summer and Br(-) and SO4(-) were higher during spring. Our research findings showed anion concentration decreased in the order of Cl(-) > SO4(-) > NO3(-) > Br(-) > F(-), in accordance with the global mean anion concentration. The dissolved heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb) except Zn were higher during spring than summer. None of the rivers showed any Cd pollution for both seasons. Co showed higher concentrations in Amite River, Mississippi River, Industrial Canal, and Lacombe Bayou during summer. The Cr concentration was higher than WHO drinking water standards, implicating water unsuitability for drinking purposes in all the rivers associated with the Lake Pontchartrain Basin. Cu showed no pollution risk for the study area. Mn and Co were similar to concentration in Lacombe Bayou, Liberty Bayou, Blind River, and Industrial Canal. Mn levels were greater than WHO standards for the Tickfaw River, Tangipahoa River, and Blind River in both seasons. Blind River, Tangipahoa River, Tickfaw River, and Amite River will require more monitoring for determining possible Mn pollution. Ni content in river water during both seasons showed low pollution risk. Liberty Bayou and Industrial Canal concentrations were closer to the WHO regulatory standards, indicating possible risk of Pb pollution in these water bodies. The Zn

  9. Flow Forecasting in Urban Drainage Systems using Deterministic Updating of Water Levels in Distributed Hydraulic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lisbeth S.; Borup, Morten; Møller, A.;

    2011-01-01

    the performance of the updating procedure for flow forecasting. Measured water levels in combination with rain gauge input are used as basis for the evaluation. When compared to simulations without updating, the results show that it is possible to obtain an improvement in the 20 minute forecast of the water level...... to eliminate some of the unavoidable discrepancies between model and reality. The latter can partly be achieved by using the commercial tool MOUSE UPDATE, which is capable of inserting measured water levels from the system into the distributed, physically based MOUSE model. This study evaluates and documents...

  10. Study of distribution and characteristics of the time average of pressure of a water cushion pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y. H.; Fu, J. F.

    2016-08-01

    When a dam discharges flood water, the plunging flow with greater kinetic energy, will scour the riverbed, resulting in erosion damage. In order to improve the anti-erosion capacity of a riverbed, the cushion pool created. This paper is based on turbulent jet theoryto deduce the semi-empirical formula of the time average of pressure in the impinging portion of the cushion pool. Additionally, MATLAB numerical is used to conduct a simulation analysis according to turbulent jet energy and watercushion depth when water floods into the water cushion pool, to determine the regularities of distribution and related characteristics.

  11. Controllability analysis as a pre-selection method for sensor placement in water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Kegong; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2013-10-15

    Detection of contamination events in water distribution systems is a crucial task for maintaining water security. Online monitoring is considered as the most cost-effective technology to protect against the impacts of contaminant intrusions. Optimization methods for sensor placement enable automated sensor layout design based on hydraulic and water quality simulation. However, this approach results in an excessive computational burden. In this paper we outline the application of controllability analysis as preprocessing method for sensor placement. Based on case studies we demonstrate that the method decreases the number of decision variables for subsequent optimization dramatically to app. 30 to 40 percent.

  12. Hydrogen bonding and spin density distribution in the Qb semiquinone of bacterial reaction centers and comparison with the Qa site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Erik; Samoilova, Rimma I; Narasimhulu, Kupala V; Lin, Tzu-Jen; O'Malley, Patrick J; Wraight, Colin A; Dikanov, Sergei A

    2011-04-13

    In the photosynthetic reaction center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, the primary (Q(A)) and secondary (Q(B)) electron acceptors are both ubiquinone-10, but with very different properties and functions. To investigate the protein environment that imparts these functional differences, we have applied X-band HYSCORE, a 2D pulsed EPR technique, to characterize the exchangeable protons around the semiquinone (SQ) in the Q(A) and Q(B) sites, using samples of (15)N-labeled reaction centers, with the native high spin Fe(2+) exchanged for diamagnetic Zn(2+), prepared in (1)H(2)O and (2)H(2)O solvent. The powder HYSCORE method is first validated against the orientation-selected Q-band ENDOR study of the Q(A) SQ by Flores et al. (Biophys. J.2007, 92, 671-682), with good agreement for two exchangeable protons with anisotropic hyperfine tensor components, T, both in the range 4.6-5.4 MHz. HYSCORE was then applied to the Q(B) SQ where we found proton lines corresponding to T ≈ 5.2, 3.7 MHz and T ≈ 1.9 MHz. Density functional-based quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations, employing a model of the Q(B) site, were used to assign the observed couplings to specific hydrogen bonding interactions with the Q(B) SQ. These calculations allow us to assign the T = 5.2 MHz proton to the His-L190 N(δ)H···O(4) (carbonyl) hydrogen bonding interaction. The T = 3.7 MHz spectral feature most likely results from hydrogen bonding interactions of O1 (carbonyl) with both Gly-L225 peptide NH and Ser-L223 hydroxyl OH, which possess calculated couplings very close to this value. The smaller 1.9 MHz coupling is assigned to a weakly bound peptide NH proton of Ile-L224. The calculations performed with this structural model of the Q(B) site show less asymmetric distribution of unpaired spin density over the SQ than seen for the Q(A) site, consistent with available experimental data for (13)C and (17)O carbonyl hyperfine couplings. The implications of these interactions for Q

  13. Hydrogen bonding and spin density distribution in the QB semiquinone of bacterial reaction centers and comparison with the QA site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Erik; Samoilova, Rimma I.; Narasimhulu, Kupala V.; Lin, Tzu-Jen; O’Malley, Patrick J.; Wraight, Colin A.; Dikanov, Sergei A.

    2011-01-01

    In the photosynthetic reaction center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, the primary (QA) and secondary (QB) electron acceptors are both ubiquinone-10, but with very different properties and functions. To investigate the protein environment that imparts these functional differences, we have applied X-band HYSCORE, a 2D pulsed EPR technique, to characterize the exchangeable protons around the semiquinone (SQ) in the QA and QB sites, using samples of 15N-labeled reaction centers, with the native high spin Fe2+ exchanged for diamagnetic Zn2+, prepared in 1H2O and 2H2O solvent. The powder HYSCORE method is first validated against the orientation-selected Q-band ENDOR study of the QA SQ by Flores et al. (Biophys. J. 2007, 92, 671–682), with good agreement for two exchangeable protons with anisotropic hyperfine tensor components, T, both in the range 4.6–5.4 MHz. HYSCORE was then applied to the QB SQ where we found proton lines corresponding to T~5.2, 3.7 MHz and T~1.9 MHz. Density functional-based quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations, employing a model of the QB site, were used to assign the observed couplings to specific hydrogen bonding interactions with the QB SQ. These calculations allow us to assign the T=5.2 MHz proton to the His-L190 NδH…O4 (carbonyl) hydrogen bonding interaction. The T =3.7 MHz spectral feature most likely results from hydrogen bonding interactions of O1 (carbonyl) with both Gly-L225 peptide NH and Ser-L223 hydroxyl OH, which possess calculated couplings very close to this value. The smaller 1.9 MHz coupling is assigned to a weakly bound peptide NH proton of Ile-L224. The calculations performed with this structural model of the QB site show less asymmetric distribution of unpaired spin density over the SQ than seen for the QA site, consistent with available experimental data for 13C and 17O carbonyl hyperfine couplings. The implications of these interactions for QB function and comparisons with the QA site are discussed

  14. Gravimetric water distribution assessment from geoelectrical methods (ERT and EMI) in municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Gaël; Pilawski, Tamara; Dzaomuho-Lenieregue, Phidias; Hiligsmann, Serge; Delvigne, Frank; Thonart, Philippe; Robert, Tanguy; Nguyen, Frédéric; Hermans, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The gravimetric water content of the waste material is a key parameter in waste biodegradation. Previous studies suggest a correlation between changes in water content and modification of electrical resistivity. This study, based on field work in Mont-Saint-Guibert landfill (Belgium), aimed, on one hand, at characterizing the relationship between gravimetric water content and electrical resistivity and on the other hand, at assessing geoelectrical methods as tools to characterize the gravimetric water distribution in a landfill. Using excavated waste samples obtained after drilling, we investigated the influences of the temperature, the liquid phase conductivity, the compaction and the water content on the electrical resistivity. Our results demonstrate that Archie's law and Campbell's law accurately describe these relationships in municipal solid waste (MSW). Next, we conducted a geophysical survey in situ using two techniques: borehole electromagnetics (EM) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). First, in order to validate the use of EM, EM values obtained in situ were compared to electrical resistivity of excavated waste samples from corresponding depths. The petrophysical laws were used to account for the change of environmental parameters (temperature and compaction). A rather good correlation was obtained between direct measurement on waste samples and borehole electromagnetic data. Second, ERT and EM were used to acquire a spatial distribution of the electrical resistivity. Then, using the petrophysical laws, this information was used to estimate the water content distribution. In summary, our results demonstrate that geoelectrical methods represent a pertinent approach to characterize spatial distribution of water content in municipal landfills when properly interpreted using ground truth data. These methods might therefore prove to be valuable tools in waste biodegradation optimization projects.

  15. Bacterial community radial-spatial distribution in biofilms along pipe wall in chlorinated drinking water distribution system of East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingqing; Ren, Hongxing; Ye, Xianbei; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yan; Lou, Liping; Cheng, Dongqing; He, Xiaofang; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Qiu, Shangde; Fu, Liusong; Hu, Baolan

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms in the pipe wall may lead to water quality deterioration and biological instability in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs). In this study, bacterial community radial-spatial distribution in biofilms along the pipe wall in a chlorinated DWDS of East China was investigated. Three pipes of large diameter (300, 600, and 600 mm) were sampled in this DWDS, including a ductile cast iron pipe (DCIP) with pipe age of 11 years and two gray cast iron pipes (GCIP) with pipe ages of 17 and 19 years, and biofilms in the upper, middle, and lower parts of each pipe wall were collected. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and culture-based method were used to quantify bacteria. 454 pyrosequencing was used for bacterial community analysis. The results showed that the biofilm density and total solid (TS) and volatile solid (VS) contents increased gradually from the top to the bottom along the pipe wall. Microorganisms were concentrated in the upper and lower parts of the pipe wall, together accounting for more than 80 % of the total biomass in the biofilms. The bacterial communities in biofilms were significantly different in different areas of the pipe wall and had no strong interaction. Compared with the upper and lower parts of the pipe wall, the bacterial community in the middle of the pipe wall was distributed evenly and had the highest diversity. The 16S rRNA genes of various possible pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella enterica, were detected in the biofilms, and the abundances of these possible pathogens were highest in the middle of the pipe wall among three areas. The detachment of the biofilms is the main reason for the deterioration of the water quality in DWDSs. The results of this study suggest that the biofilms in the middle of the pipe wall have highly potential risk for drinking water safety, which provides new ideas for the study of the microbial ecology in

  16. Design of multifamily solar domestic hot water systems using recirculating distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a study designed to quantify the effect of daily domestic hot water loads and system design on the performance of solar domestic hot water systems employing a recirculating distribution system. A solar domestic hot water system judged representative of the systems funded by the HUD Solar Demonstration Program, along with a modification to this system, was modeled using the TRNSYS simulation computer program. Results of simulations over a representative climatic period show that daily domestic hot water usage significantly affects solar system performance. Notable improvement in system performance can be obtained by the use of a recirculation return to solar storage system configuration within a specific range of daily domestic hot water loads. An optimum system was developed from parametric variations of system design and modeled on an annual basis. Comparison is made to modeled system performance of the original design.

  17. Egg and larval distributions of seven fish species in north-east Atlantic waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibaibarriaga, L.; Irigoien, X.; Santos, M.; Eltink, A.T.G.W.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of egg and larvae of mackerel, horse mackerel, sardine, hake, megrim, blue whiting and anchovy along the European Atlantic waters (south Portugal to Scotland) during 1998 is described. Time of the year, sea surface temperature and bottom depth are used to define the spawning habitat

  18. Bacterial Composition of Biofilms Collected From Two Service Areas in a Metropolitan Drinking Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development and succession of bacteria were examined by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries generated from various biofilms within a metropolitan water distribution system. Biofilms were obtained from off-line devices using polycarbonate coupons from annular reactors incubated for ...

  19. Unified Framework for Deriving Simultaneous Equation Algorithms for Water Distribution Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The known formulations for steady state hydraulics within looped water distribution networks are re-derived in terms of linear and non-linear transformations of the original set of partly linear and partly non-linear equations that express conservation of mass and energy. All of ...

  20. In situ examination of microbial populations in a model drinking water distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Adam Camillo; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard; Arvin, Erik

    2002-01-01

    A flow cell set-up was used as a model drinking water distribution system to analyze the in situ microbial population. Biofilm growth was followed by transmission light microscopy for 81 days and showed a biofilm consisting of microcolonies separated by a monolayer of cells. Protozoans (ciliates...

  1. On the waterfront: water distribution, technology and agrarian change in a south India canal irrigation system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollinga, P.P.

    1998-01-01

    This book discusses water distribution in the Tungabhadra Left Bank Canal irrigation system in Raichur district, Karnataka, India. The system is located in interior South India, where rainfall is limited (approximately 600 mm annually) and extremely variable. The region suffered from failed harvests

  2. Detection of Legionella, L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC along Potable Water Distribution Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation of potable water presents a potential route of exposure to opportunistic pathogens and hence warrants significant public health concern. This study used qPCR to detect opportunistic pathogens Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and MAC at multiple points along two potable water distribution pipelines. One used chlorine disinfection and the other chloramine disinfection. Samples were collected four times over the year to provide seasonal variation and the chlorine or chloramine residual was measured during collection. Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and MAC were detected in both distribution systems throughout the year and were all detected at a maximum concentration of 103 copies/mL in the chlorine disinfected system and 106, 103 and 104 copies/mL respectively in the chloramine disinfected system. The concentrations of these opportunistic pathogens were primarily controlled throughout the distribution network through the maintenance of disinfection residuals. At a dead-end and when the disinfection residual was not maintained significant (p < 0.05 increases in concentration were observed when compared to the concentration measured closest to the processing plant in the same pipeline and sampling period. Total coliforms were not present in any water sample collected. This study demonstrates the ability of Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and MAC to survive the potable water disinfection process and highlights the need for greater measures to control these organisms along the distribution pipeline and at point of use.

  3. Using aerial surveys to estimate density and distribution of harbour porpoises in Dutch waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheidat, M.; Verdaat, J.P.; Aarts, G.M.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate harbour porpoise density and distribution in Dutch waters, dedicated line transect distance sampling aerial surveys were conducted from May 2008 to March 2010. In total 10,557 km were covered on survey effort during 16 survey days in February to May, August, November and December. Usi

  4. Ground-water quality, water year 1995, and statistical analysis of ground-water-quality data, water years 1994-95, at the Chromic Acid Pit site, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Roybal, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    The Chromic Acid Pit site is an inactive waste disposal site that is regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The 2.2-cubic-yard cement-lined pit was operated from 1980 to 1983 by a contractor to the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss. The pit, located on the Fort Bliss military reservation in El Paso, Texas, was used for disposal and evaporation of chromic acid waste generated from chrome plating operations. The site was closed in 1989, and the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission issued permit number HW-50296 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency number TX4213720101), which approved and implemented post-closure care for the Chromic Acid Pit site. In accordance with an approved post-closure plan, the U.S. Geological Survey is cooperating with the U.S. Army in monitoring and evaluating ground-water quality at the site. One upgradient ground-water monitoring well (MW1) and two downgradient ground-water monitoring wells (MW2 and MW3), installed adjacent to the chromic acid pit, are monitored on a quarterly basis. Ground-water sampling of these wells by the U.S. Geological Survey began in December 1993. The ground-water level, measured in a production well located approximately 1,700 feet southeast of the Chromic Acid Pit site, has declined about 29.43 feet from 1982 to 1995. Depth to water at the Chromic Acid Pit site in September 1995 was 284.2 to 286.5 feet below land surface; ground-water flow at the water table is assumed to be toward the southeast. Ground-water samples collected from monitoring wells at the Chromic Acid Pit site during water year 1995 contained dissolved- solids concentrations of 481 to 516 milligrams per liter. Total chromium concentrations detected above the laboratory reporting limit ranged from 0.0061 to 0.030 milligram per liter; dissolved chromium concentrations ranged from 0.0040 to 0.010 milligram per liter. Nitrate as nitrogen concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 2.8 milligrams per

  5. Core-satellite populations and seasonality of water meter biofilms in a metropolitan drinking water distribution system

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Fangqiong

    2015-08-07

    © 2015 International Society for Microbial Ecology Drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) harbor the microorganisms in biofilms and suspended communities, yet the diversity and spatiotemporal distribution have been studied mainly in the suspended communities. This study examined the diversity of biofilms in an urban DWDS, its relationship with suspended communities and its dynamics. The studied DWDS in Urbana, Illinois received conventionally treated and disinfected water sourced from the groundwater. Over a 2-year span, biomass were sampled from household water meters (n=213) and tap water (n=20) to represent biofilm and suspended communities, respectively. A positive correlation between operational taxonomic unit (OTU) abundance and occupancy was observed. Examined under a ‘core-satellite’ model, the biofilm community comprised 31 core populations that encompassed 76.7% of total 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequences. The biofilm communities shared with the suspended community highly abundant and prevalent OTUs, which related to methano-/methylotrophs (i.e., Methylophilaceae and Methylococcaceae) and aerobic heterotrophs (Sphingomonadaceae and Comamonadaceae), yet differed by specific core populations and lower diversity and evenness. Multivariate tests indicated seasonality as the main contributor to community structure variation. This pattern was resilient to annual change and correlated to the cyclic fluctuations of core populations. The findings of a distinctive biofilm community assemblage and methano-/methyltrophic primary production provide critical insights for developing more targeted water quality monitoring programs and treatment strategies for groundwater-sourced drinking water systems.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 7 August 2015; doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.136.

  6. On the Global Water Productivity Distribution for Major Cereal Crops: some First Results from Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaanssen, W. G.; Verstegen, J. A.; Steduto, P.; Goudriaan, R.; Wada, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Feeding the world requires 70 percent more food for an additional 2.3 billion people by 2050. The increasing competition for water resources prompts the modern consumer society to become more efficient with scarce water resources. The water footprint of agriculture is hundred times more than the footprint for domestic water use, yet we do not fully know how much water is used in relation to the amount of food being produced. Water Productivity describes the crop yield per unit of water consumed and is the ultimate indicator for the efficiency of water use in agriculture. Our basic understanding of actual and benchmark values for Water Productivity is limited, partially because operational measurements and guidelines for Water Productivity do not currently exist. Remote sensing algorithms have been developed over the last 20 years to compute crop yield Y and evapotranspiration ET, often in an independent manner. The new WatPro and GlobWat algorithms are based on directly solving the Y/ET ratio. Several biophysical parameter and processes such as solar radiation, Leaf Area Index, stomatal aperture and soil moisture affect biomass production and crop transpiration simultaneously, and this enabled us to simplify the schematization of a Y/ET model. Global maps of wheat, rice and maize were prepared from various open-access data sources, and Y/ET was computed across a period of 10 years. The global distribution demonstrates that 66 percent of the world's agricultural land cultivated with wheat, rice and corn performs below average. Furthermore, Water Productivity in most countries exhibits a significant spatial variability. Therefore, there is significant scope to produce the same food - or more food - from less water resources if packages with good practices are locally implemented. The global maps of water productivity will be demonstrated, along with some country examples.

  7. Artificial regulation of water level and its effect on aquatic macrophyte distribution in Taihu Lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehua Zhao

    Full Text Available Management of water levels for flood control, water quality, and water safety purposes has become a priority for many lakes worldwide. However, the effects of water level management on the distribution and composition of aquatic vegetation has received little attention. Relevant studies have used either limited short-term or discrete long-term data and thus are either narrowly applicable or easily confounded by the effects of other environmental factors. We developed classification tree models using ground surveys combined with 52 remotely sensed images (15-30 m resolution to map the distributions of two groups of aquatic vegetation in Taihu Lake, China from 1989-2010. Type 1 vegetation included emergent, floating, and floating-leaf plants, whereas Type 2 consisted of submerged vegetation. We sought to identify both inter- and intra-annual dynamics of water level and corresponding dynamics in the aquatic vegetation. Water levels in the ten-year period from 2000-2010 were 0.06-0.21 m lower from July to September (wet season and 0.22-0.27 m higher from December to March (dry season than in the 1989-1999 period. Average intra-annual variation (CV(a decreased from 10.21% in 1989-1999 to 5.41% in 2000-2010. The areas of both Type 1 and Type 2 vegetation increased substantially in 2000-2010 relative to 1989-1999. Neither annual average water level nor CV(a influenced aquatic vegetation area, but water level from January to March had significant positive and negative correlations, respectively, with areas of Type 1 and Type 2 vegetation. Our findings revealed problems with the current management of water levels in Taihu Lake. To restore Taihu Lake to its original state of submerged vegetation dominance, water levels in the dry season should be lowered to better approximate natural conditions and reinstate the high variability (i.e., greater extremes that was present historically.

  8. A QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF THE WATER DISTRIBUTION IN A SOIL SAMPLE USING NEUTRON IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Šácha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical method by Kang et al. recently proposed for correcting two-dimensional neutron radiography for water quantification in soil. The method was tested on data from neutron imaging of the water infiltration in a soil sample. The raw data were affected by neutron scattering and by beam hardening artefacts. Two strategies for identifying the correction parameters are proposed in this paper. The method has been further developed for the case of three-dimensional neutron tomography. In a related experiment, neutron imaging is used to record ponded-infiltration experiments in two artificial soil samples. Radiograms, i.e., two-dimensional projections of the sample, were acquired during infiltration. A calculation was made of the amount of water and its distribution within the radiograms, in the form of two-dimensional water thickness maps. Tomograms were reconstructed from the corrected and uncorrected water thickness maps to obtain the 3D spatial distribution of the water content within the sample. Without the correction, the beam hardening and the scattering effects overestimated the water content values close to the perimeter of the sample, and at the same time underestimated the values close to the centre of the sample. The total water content of the entire sample was the same in both cases. The empirical correction method presented in this study is a relatively accurate, rapid and simple way to obtain the quantitatively determined water content from two-dimensional and three-dimensional neutron images. However, an independent method for measuring the total water volume in the sample is needed in order to identify the correction parameters.

  9. Geohydrology and distribution of volatile organic compounds in ground water in the Casey Village area, Bucks County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Conger, Randall W.; Grazul, Kevin E.

    1998-01-01

    Casey Village and the adjoining part of the U.S. Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) are underlain by the Late Triassic-age Stockton Formation, which consists of a dipping series of siltstones and sandstones. The direction of vertical ground-water gradients in the Stockton Formation varies among well locations and sometimes with time. Vertical gradients can be substantial; the difference in water levels at one well pair (two wells screened at different depths) was 7.1 ft (feet) over a 32-ft vertical section of the aquifer. Potentiometric-surface maps show a groundwater divide that bisects the Casey Village area. For wells screened between 18 and 64 ft below land surface (bls), the general ground-water gradient is to the east and northeast on the east side of the divide and to the south and southwest on the west side of the divide. For wells screened between 48 and 106 ft bls, the general ground-water gradient is to the northeast on the east side of the divide and to the southwest and northwest on the west side of the divide. An aquifer test at one well in Casey Village caused drawdown in wells on the opposite side of the ground-water divide on the NAWC and shifted the ground-water divide in the deeper potentiometric surface to the west. Drawdowns formed an elliptical pattern, which indicates anisotropy; however, anisotropy is not aligned with strike or dip. Hydraulic stress caused by pumping crosses stratigraphic boundaries. Between 1993 and 1996, the trichloroethylene (TCE) concentration in water samples collected from wells in Casey Village decreased. The highest concentration of TCE measured in water from one well decreased from 1,200 mg/L (micrograms per liter) in 1993 when domestic wells were pumped in Casey Village to 140 mg/L in 1996, 3 years after the installation of public water and the cessation of domestic pumping. This suggests that pumping of domestic wells may have contributed to TCE migration. Between 1993 and 1996, the tetrachloroethylene (PCE

  10. Water quality in a rural river environment: distribution of metals among water and sediment compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, A.; Parker, A.; Alencoao, A.

    2009-04-01

    Sediments have a significant influence on water quality, owing to their role both as a sink and a potential source of pollutants. In fluvial environments from mountainous catchments, the dynamics of sediment particles and particle-bound contaminants are still poorly understood. As stated by Symader et al. (2007), bottom sediments of small rivers in mountainous areas behave like a transport system of its own and show high temporal variation in their chemical composition. The transport of significant sedimentary loads, as suspended matter, in short periods of time, mainly in winter, poses some issues concerning monitoring and modelling approaches of the transport and fate of micro-pollutants at the catchment scale. On one hand, high stream-flow velocity peaks make it difficult or impossible to maintain suspended sediment samplers fixed in the river channel. On the other hand, the cycle of deposition and re-suspension of finer material, throughout the hydrological year, leads to temporal changes of sediment properties. Our contribution reports some results of an investigation on the water quality in a mountainous rural meso-scale catchment, located in the NE of Portugal. The study integrates the examination of metal contents in the sediments and the water body. The river-bottom sediments and water were simply collected in a planned sampling network, in two different periods of the hydrological year (high and low flow). The finer and most recently deposited sediment was preferentially sampled, and the Bierl R.; Kurtenbach, A.; Krein, A. (2007). Transport Indicators. In: Sediment Dynamics and Pollutant Mobility in Rivers (eds Westrich, B. & Forstner, U.), pp. 269-304, Springer.

  11. NMR Study of Water Distribution inside Tomato Cells: Effects of Water Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Musse, M.; Cambert, M.; Mariette, F.

    2010-01-01

    Tomato pericarp tissue was studied by low-field nuclear magnetic res-onance (NMR) relaxometry. Two kinds of experiments were performed to inves-tigate the correlation between multi-exponential NMR relaxation and the subcellular compartments. The longitudinal (T 1 ) versus transverse (T 2 ) relaxation times were first measured on fresh samples and then the transverse relaxation time was measured on samples exposed to water stress. Four signal components were found in all experiments. The resul...

  12. Operation of remote mobile sensors for security of drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, By Lina; Ostfeld, Avi

    2013-09-01

    The deployment of fixed online water quality sensors in water distribution systems has been recognized as one of the key components of contamination warning systems for securing public health. This study proposes to explore how the inclusion of mobile sensors for inline monitoring of various water quality parameters (e.g., residual chlorine, pH) can enhance water distribution system security. Mobile sensors equipped with sampling, sensing, data acquisition, wireless transmission and power generation systems are being designed, fabricated, and tested, and prototypes are expected to be released in the very near future. This study initiates the development of a theoretical framework for modeling mobile sensor movement in water distribution systems and integrating the sensory data collected from stationary and non-stationary sensor nodes to increase system security. The methodology is applied and demonstrated on two benchmark networks. Performance of different sensor network designs are compared for fixed and combined fixed and mobile sensor networks. Results indicate that complementing online sensor networks with inline monitoring can increase detection likelihood and decrease mean time to detection.

  13. Enteric virus infection risk from intrusion of sewage into a drinking water distribution network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunis, P F M; Xu, M; Fleming, K K; Yang, J; Moe, C L; Lechevallier, M W

    2010-11-15

    Contaminants from the soil surrounding drinking water distribution systems are thought to not enter the drinking water when sufficient internal pressure is maintained. Pressure transients may cause short intervals of negative pressure, and the soil near drinking water pipes often contains fecal material due to the proximity of sewage lines, so that a pressure event may cause intrusion of pathogens. This paper presents a risk model for predicting intrusion and dilution of viruses and their transport to consumers. Random entry and dilution of virus was simulated by embedding the hydraulic model into a Monte Carlo simulation. Special attention was given to adjusting for the coincidence of virus presence and use of tap water, as independently occurring short-term events within the longer interval that the virus is predicted to travel in any branch of the distribution system. The probability that a consumer drinks water contaminated with virus is small, but when this happens the virus concentration tends to be high and the risk of infection may be considerable. The spatial distribution of infection risk is highly heterogeneous. The presence of a chlorine residual reduces the infection risk.

  14. Second-order chlorine decay and trihalomethanes formation in a pilot-scale water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Yu, Jieze; Zhang, Tu-qiao; Mao, Xinwei; Shao, Weiyun

    2012-08-01

    It is well known that model-building of chlorine decay in real water distribution systems is difficult because chlorine decay is influenced by many factors (e.g., bulk water demand, pipe-wall demand, piping material, flow velocity, and residence time). In this paper, experiments were run to investigate the kinetic model of chlorine decay and the formation model of trihalomethanes (THMs) in pilot-scale water distribution systems. Experimental results show that the rate constants of chlorine decay, including wall decay and bulk decay, increasing with temperature. Moreover, the kinetic model of chlorine decay and the formation model of THMs describe experiment data of pilot-scale water distribution systems. The effect of different piping material on chlorine decay and THMs formation were also investigated. The rate constants of chlorine decay are ranked in order: stainless steel pipe, ductile iron pipe, and last, polyethelene pipe because wall decay is the largest in stainless steel pipe than that in other piping material. Correspondingly, the rate of THMs formation follows the order of stainless steel pipe, ductile iron pipe, and last, polyethelene pipe because of less chlorine in bulk water reacting with the trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP).

  15. Phthalate esters in main source water and drinking water of Zhejiang Province (China): Distribution and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Nianhua; Ding, Gangqiang; Chen, Zhijian; Xu, Peiwei; Wu, Lizhi; Cai, Jianmin; Han, Jianlong; Qiu, Xueting

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the distributions and health risks of phthalate esters in the main source water and corresponding drinking water of Zhejiang Province, the concentrations of 16 phthalate esters in water samples from 19 sites were measured from samples taken in the dry season and wet season. The concentration of the total phthalate ester congeners in source water ranged from 1.07 μg/L to 7.12 μg/L in the wet season, from 0.01 μg/L to 1.58 μg/L in the dry season, from 1.18 μg/L to 15.28 μg/L from drinking water in the wet season, and from 0.16 μg/L to 1.86 μg/L from drinking water in the dry season. Of the 16 phthalate esters, dimethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate, di-iso-butyl phthalate, bis-2-n-butoxyethyl phthalate, and dicyclohexyl phthalate were present in the samples analyzed, dominated by di-iso-butyl phthalate and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate. The concentrations of phthalate esters in the wet season were all relatively higher than those in the dry season, and the drinking water had higher concentrations of phthalate esters than source water. The phthalate ester congeners studied pose little health risk to nearby citizens. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:2205-2212. © 2015 SETAC.

  16. Heat transfer enhancement in a natural draft dry cooling tower under crosswind operation with heterogeneous water distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Mohsen; Amooie, Hossein [Bu-Ali Sina Univ., Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2016-04-15

    Crosswind significantly decreases cooling efficiency of a natural draft dry cooling tower. The possibility of improving cooling efficiency with heterogeneous water distribution within the cooling tower radiators under crosswind condition is analysed. A CFD approach was used to model the flow field and heat transfer phenomena within the cooling tower and airflow surrounding the cooling tower. A mathematical model was developed from various CFD results. Having used a trained Genetic Algorithm with the result of mathematical model, the best water distribution was found among the others. Remodeling the best water distribution with the CFD approach showed that the highest enhancement of the heat transfer compared to the usual uniform water distribution.

  17. Reclaimed water as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes: distribution system and irrigation implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Fahrenfeld

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Treated wastewater is increasingly being reused to achieve sustainable water management in arid regions. The objective of this study was to quantify the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs in recycled water, particularly after it has passed through the distribution system, and to consider point-of-use implications for soil irrigation. Three separate reclaimed wastewater distribution systems in the western U.S. were examined. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was used to quantify ARGs corresponding to resistance to sulfonamides (sul1, sul2, macrolides (ermF, tetracycline (tet(A, tet(O, glycopeptides (vanA, and methicillin (mecA, in addition to genes present in waterborne pathogens Legionella pneumophila (Lmip, Escherichia coli (gadAB, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ecfx, gyrB. In a parallel lab study, the effect of irrigating an agricultural soil with secondary, chlorinated, or dechlorinated wastewater effluent was examined in batch microcosms. A broader range of ARGs were detected after the reclaimed water passed through the distribution systems, highlighting the importance of considering bacterial re-growth and the overall water quality at the point of use. Screening for pathogens with qPCR indicated presence of Lmip and gadAB genes, but not ecfx or gyrB. In the lab study, chlorination was observed to reduce 16S rRNA and sul2 gene copies in the wastewater effluent, while dechlorination had no apparent effect. ARGs levels did not change with time in soil slurries incubated after a single irrigation event with any of the effluents. However, when irrigated repeatedly with secondary wastewater effluent (not chlorinated or dechlorinated, elevated levels of sul1 and sul2 were observed. This study suggests that reclaimed water may be an important reservoir of ARGs, especially at the point of use, and that attention should be directed towards the fate of ARGs in irrigation water and the implications for human health.

  18. Asellus aquaticus as a Potential Carrier of Escherichia coli and Other Coliform Bacteria into Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hans-Jørgen Albrechtsen; Erik Arvin; Erling Nissen; Sarah C.B. Christensen

    2013-01-01

    Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. We analysed populations of surface water A. aquaticus from two ponds for associated faecal indicator bacteria and assessed the risk of A. aquaticus transporting bacteria into distribution systems. Concentrations of up to two E. coli and five total coliforms·mL−1 were measured in the water and 200 E. coli and >240 total colifor...

  19. Study on the Effects of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on the Content and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Shibao; Wang, Jianhua; Pei, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Reclaimed water is an important resource for irrigation, and exploration in making full use of it is an important way to alleviate water shortage. This paper analyzes the effects of irrigation with reclaimed water through field trials on the content and distribution of heavy metals in both tomatoes and the soil. By exploring the effects of reclaimed water after secondary treatment on the content and distribution characteristics of heavy metals in tomatoes and the heavy metal balance in the so...

  20. Development of an automation system for a distribution operation center; Desenvolvimento de um sistema de automacao para um Centro de Operacao da Distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surur, Paulo Sergio Miguel

    1996-07-01

    The great problems caused by a deficient electric energy supply, mainly referring to quality in the distribution system are widely known. The automation of the feeder and of the Distribution Operational Center, contributes to improving quality mainly concerning the restoring time of the lines during cut-outs decreasing the non-supplied energy. This paper presents an automation system of COD - Distribution Operation Center and tests performed to evaluate the system performance in a substation and in the primary network manoeuvre switch. Considerations on the hardware, software and man machine interface developed for the operator were taken aiming at justifying the adopted choice for this project. Software and hardware modules available in the Brazilian market were applied in this work. Tests of the system were done at a substation and in a laboratory. The results were satisfactory. (author)

  1. Faecal contamination of a municipal drinking water distribution system in association with Campylobacter jejuni infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Tarja; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Nakari, Ulla-Maija; Takkinen, Johanna; Nieminen, Kalle; Siitonen, Anja; Kuusi, Markku; Holopainen, Arja; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2008-09-01

    After heavy rains Campylobacter jejuni together with high counts of Escherichia coli, other coliforms and intestinal enterococci were detected from drinking water of a municipal distribution system in eastern Finland in August 2004. Three patients with a positive C. jejuni finding, who had drunk the contaminated water, were identified and interviewed. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotypes from the patient samples were identical to some of the genotypes isolated from the water of the suspected contamination source. In addition, repetitive DNA element analysis (rep-PCR) revealed identical patterns of E. coli and other coliform isolates along the distribution line. Further on-site technical investigations revealed that one of the two rainwater gutters on the roof of the water storage tower had been in an incorrect position and rainwater had flushed a large amount of faecal material from wild birds into the drinking water. The findings required close co-operation between civil authorities, and application of cultivation and genotyping techniques strongly suggested that the municipal drinking water was the source of the infections. The faecal contamination associated with failures in cleaning and technical management stress the importance of instructions for waterworks personnel to perform maintenance work properly.

  2. Growth kinetics of coliform bacteria under conditions relevant to drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camper, A K; McFeters, G A; Characklis, W G; Jones, W L

    1991-08-01

    The growth of environmental and clinical coliform bacteria under conditions typical of drinking water distribution systems was examined. Four coliforms (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter cloacae) were isolated from an operating drinking water system for study; an enterotoxigenic E. coli strain and clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae and E. coli were also used. All but one of the coliforms tested were capable of growth in unsupplemented mineral salts medium; the environmental isolates had greater specific growth rates than did the clinical isolates. This trend was maintained when the organisms were grown with low levels (less than 1 mg liter-1) of yeast extract. The environmental K. pneumoniae isolate had a greater yield, higher specific growth rates, and a lower Ks value than the other organisms. The environmental E. coli and the enterotoxigenic E. coli strains had comparable yield, growth rate, and Ks values to those of the environmental K. pneumoniae strain, and all three showed significantly more successful growth than the clinical isolates. The environmental coliforms also grew well at low temperatures on low concentrations of yeast extract. Unsupplemented distribution water from the collaborating utility supported the growth of the environmental isolates. Growth of the K. pneumoniae water isolate was stimulated by the addition of autoclaved biofilm but not by tubercle material. These findings indicate that growth of environmental coliforms is possible under the conditions found in operating municipal drinking water systems and that these bacteria could be used in tests to determine assimilable organic carbon in potable water.

  3. Relation between Water Balance and Climatic Variables Associated with the Geographical Distribution of Anurans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braz Titon

    Full Text Available Amphibian species richness increases toward the equator, particularly in humid tropical forests. This relation between amphibian species richness and environmental water availability has been proposed to be a consequence of their high rates of evaporative water loss. In this way, traits that estimate water balance are expected to covary with climate and constrain a species' geographic distribution. Furthermore, we predicted that coexisting species of anurans would have traits that are adapted to local hydric conditions. We compared the traits that describe water balance in 17 species of anurans that occur in the mesic Atlantic Forest and xeric Cerrado (savannah habitats of Brazil. We predicted that species found in the warmer and dryer areas would show a lower sensitivity of locomotor performance to dehydration (SLPD, increased resistance to evaporative water loss (REWL and higher rates of water uptake (RWU than species restricted to the more mesic areas. We estimated the allometric relations between the hydric traits and body mass using phylogenetic generalized least squares. These regressions showed that REWL scaled negatively with body mass, whereas RWU scaled positively with body mass. Additionally, species inhabiting areas characterized by higher and more seasonally uniform temperatures, and lower and more seasonally concentrated precipitation, such as the Cerrado, had higher RWU and SLPD than species with geographical distributions more restricted to mesic environments, such as the Atlantic Forest. These results support the hypothesis that the interspecific variation of physiological traits shows an adaptation pattern to abiotic environmental traits.

  4. Combination of drainage, water supply and environmental protection as well as rational distribution of water resource in Zhengzhou mining district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qiang; LI Duo; DI Zhiqiang; MIAO Ying; ZHAO Suqi; GUO Qiwen

    2005-01-01

    The geological condition of coalfield is much complex in China. With increasing in mining depth and drainage amount, the contradiction of drainage, water supply and environmental protection is becoming more and more serious. However, the contradiction can be solved by the scientific management of optimizing combination of drainage, water supply and environmental protection. The Philip multiple objectives simplex method used in this article has searched for a possible solution at the first step, and then it goes on searching to find out whether there is a weight number that can lead the solution to the biggest. It can reduce the randomness and difficulty of traditional weight method which determine the weight number artificially. Some beneficial coefficients are vague and the number is larger in the model of water resource dispatch. So the vague layer analysis method can consider these vague factors fully, combining the qualitative and quantitative analysis together. Especially, this method can quantify the experiential judgement of policy decider, and it will turn to be more suitable if the structure of objective factors is complex or the necessary data are absent. In the paper, the two methods above are used to solve the plans of drainage, water supply and optimizing distribution of water resource in the Zhengzhou mining district.

  5. Silica-supported (nBuCp)2ZrCl2: Effect of catalyst active center distribution on ethylene-1-hexene copolymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Atiqullah, Muhammad

    2013-08-12

    Metallocenes are a modern innovation in polyolefin catalysis research. Therefore, two supported metallocene catalysts-silica/MAO/(nBuCp)2ZrCl2 (Catalyst 1) and silica/nBuSnCl3/MAO/(nBuCp)2ZrCl2 (Catalyst 2), where MAO is methylaluminoxane-were synthesized, and subsequently used to prepare, without separate feeding of MAO, ethylene-1-hexene Copolymer 1 and Copolymer 2, respectively. Fouling-free copolymerization, catalyst kinetic stability and production of free-flowing polymer particles (replicating the catalyst particle size distribution) confirmed the occurrence of heterogeneous catalysis. The catalyst active center distribution was modeled by deconvoluting the measured molecular weight distribution and copolymer composition distribution. Five different active center types were predicted for each catalyst, which was corroborated by successive self-nucleation and annealing experiments, as well as by an extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy report published in the literature. Hence, metallocenes impregnated particularly on an MAO-pretreated support may be rightly envisioned to comprise an ensemble of isolated single sites that have varying coordination environments. This study shows how the active center distribution and the design of supported MAO anions affect copolymerization activity, polymerization mechanism and the resulting polymer microstructures. Catalyst 2 showed less copolymerization activity than Catalyst 1. Strong chain transfer and positive co-monomer effect-both by 1-hexene-were common. Each copolymer demonstrated vinyl, vinylidene and trans-vinylene end groups, and compositional heterogeneity. All these findings were explained, as appropriate, considering the modeled active center distribution, MAO cage structure repeat units, proposed catalyst surface chemistry, segregation effects and the literature that concerns and supports this study. While doing so, new insights were obtained. Additionally, future research, along the direction

  6. Distribution and ventilation of water masses in the western Ross Sea inferred from CFC measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivaro, Paola; Ianni, Carmela; Magi, Emanuele; Massolo, Serena; Budillon, Giorgio; Smethie, William M.

    2015-03-01

    During the CLIMA Project (R.V. Italica cruise PNRA XVI, January-February 2001), hydrographic and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) observations were obtained, particularly in the western Ross Sea. Their distribution demonstrated water mass structure and ventilation processes in the investigated areas. In the surface waters (AASW) the CFC saturation levels varied spatially: CFCs were undersaturated in all the areas (range from 80 to 90%), with the exception of few stations sampled near Ross Island. In particular, the Terra Nova Bay polynya, where high salinity shelf water (HSSW) is produced, was a low-saturated surface area (74%) with respect to CFCs. Throughout most of the shelf area, the presence of modified circumpolar deep water (MCDW) was reflected in a mid-depth CFC concentration minima. Beneath the MCDW, CFC concentrations generally increased in the shelf waters towards the seafloor. We estimated that the corresponding CFCs saturation level in the source water region for HSSW was about 68-70%. Waters with high CFC concentrations were detected in the western Ross Sea on the down slope side of the Drygalski Trough, indicating that AABW was being supplied to the deep Antarctic Basin. Estimates of ventilation ages depend strongly on the saturation levels. We calculated ventilation ages using the saturation level calibrated tracer ratio, CFC11/CFC12. We deduced a mean residence time of the shelf waters of about 6-7 years between the western Ross Sea source and the shelf break.

  7. Modeling complexity in engineered infrastructure system: Water distribution network as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fang; Li, Xiang; Li, Ke

    2017-02-01

    The complex topology and adaptive behavior of infrastructure systems are driven by both self-organization of the demand and rigid engineering solutions. Therefore, engineering complex systems requires a method balancing holism and reductionism. To model the growth of water distribution networks, a complex network model was developed following the combination of local optimization rules and engineering considerations. The demand node generation is dynamic and follows the scaling law of urban growth. The proposed model can generate a water distribution network (WDN) similar to reported real-world WDNs on some structural properties. Comparison with different modeling approaches indicates that a realistic demand node distribution and co-evolvement of demand node and network are important for the simulation of real complex networks. The simulation results indicate that the efficiency of water distribution networks is exponentially affected by the urban growth pattern. On the contrary, the improvement of efficiency by engineering optimization is limited and relatively insignificant. The redundancy and robustness, on another aspect, can be significantly improved through engineering methods.

  8. Optimization of pressure gauge locations for water distribution systems using entropy theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Do Guen; Chang, Dong Eil; Jun, Hwandon; Kim, Joong Hoon

    2012-12-01

    It is essential to select the optimal pressure gauge location for effective management and maintenance of water distribution systems. This study proposes an objective and quantified standard for selecting the optimal pressure gauge location by defining the pressure change at other nodes as a result of demand change at a specific node using entropy theory. Two cases are considered in terms of demand change: that in which demand at all nodes shows peak load by using a peak factor and that comprising the demand change of the normal distribution whose average is the base demand. The actual pressure change pattern is determined by using the emitter function of EPANET to reflect the pressure that changes practically at each node. The optimal pressure gauge location is determined by prioritizing the node that processes the largest amount of information it gives to (giving entropy) and receives from (receiving entropy) the whole system according to the entropy standard. The suggested model is applied to one virtual and one real pipe network, and the optimal pressure gauge location combination is calculated by implementing the sensitivity analysis based on the study results. These analysis results support the following two conclusions. Firstly, the installation priority of the pressure gauge in water distribution networks can be determined with a more objective standard through the entropy theory. Secondly, the model can be used as an efficient decision-making guide for gauge installation in water distribution systems.

  9. Temperature distributions in trapezoidal built in storage solar water heaters with/without phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarhan, Sefa; Yardim, M. Hakan [Department of Farm Machinery, Faculty of Agriculture, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tasliciftlik Yerleskesi, 60240 Tokat (Turkey); Sari, Ahmet [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tasliciftlik Yerleskesi, 60240 Tokat (Turkey)

    2006-09-15

    Built in storage solar water heaters (BSSWHs) have been recognized for their more compact constructions and faster solar gain than conventional solar water heaters, however, their water temperatures quickly go down during the cooling period. A trapezoidal BSSWH without PCM storage unit was used as the control heater (reference) to investigate the effect of two differently configured PCM storage units on the temperature distributions in water tanks. In the first design, myristic acid was filled into the PCM storage tank, which also served as an absorbing plate. In the second design, lauric acid was filled into the PCM storage tank, which also served as a baffle plate. The water temperature changes were followed by five thermocouples placed evenly and longitudinally into each of the three BSSWHs. The effects of the PCMs on the water temperature distributions depended on the configuration of the PCM storage unit and the longitudinal position in the water tanks. The use of lauric acid lowered the values of the peak temperatures by 15% compared to the control heater at the upper portion of the water tanks because of the low melting temperature of lauric acid, but it did not have any consistent effect on the retention of the water temperatures during the cooling period. The ability of the myristic acid storage unit to retain the water temperatures got more remarkable, especially at the middle portion of the water tank. The myristic acid storage increased the dip temperatures by approximately 8.8% compared to the control heater. In conclusion, lauric acid storage can be used to stabilize the water temperature during the day time, while the myristic acid storage unit can be used as a thermal barrier against heat loss during the night time because of its relatively high melting temperature and low heat conduction coefficient in its solid phase. The experimental results have also indicated that the thermal characteristics of the PCM and the configuration of the PCM storage

  10. Principles for scaling of distributed direct potable water reuse systems: a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tianjiao; Englehardt, James D

    2015-05-15

    Scaling of direct potable water reuse (DPR) systems involves tradeoffs of treatment facility economy-of-scale, versus cost and energy of conveyance including energy for upgradient distribution of treated water, and retention of wastewater thermal energy. In this study, a generalized model of the cost of DPR as a function of treatment plant scale, assuming futuristic, optimized conveyance networks, was constructed for purposes of developing design principles. Fractal landscapes representing flat, hilly, and mountainous topographies were simulated, with urban, suburban, and rural housing distributions placed by modified preferential growth algorithm. Treatment plants were allocated by agglomerative hierarchical clustering, networked to buildings by minimum spanning tree. Simulations assume advanced oxidation-based DPR system design, with 20-year design life and capability to mineralize chemical oxygen demand below normal detection limits, allowing implementation in regions where disposal of concentrate containing hormones and antiscalants is not practical. Results indicate that total DPR capital and O&M costs in rural areas, where systems that return nutrients to the land may be more appropriate, are high. However, costs in urban/suburban areas are competitive with current water/wastewater service costs at scales of ca. one plant per 10,000 residences. This size is relatively small, and costs do not increase significantly until plant service areas fall below 100 to 1000 homes. Based on these results, distributed DPR systems are recommended for consideration for urban/suburban water and wastewater system capacity expansion projects.

  11. The diversity and distribution of Holothuroidea in shallow waters of Baluran National Park, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARIF MOHAMMAD SIDDIQ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Siddiq AM, Atmowidi T, Qayim I. 2015. The diversity and distribution of Holothuroidea in shallow waters of Baluran National Park, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 17: 55-60. A study of the diversity and distribution of sea cucumber (Holothuroidea in shallow waters at Baluran National Park, East Java, Indonesia was carried out from July until September 2015. The method used in this study was systematic transect in low tide condition. Samples were collected by hands at intertidal sites. Identification of sea cucumber species based on morphological ossicles. Twenty one species of Holothuroidea belonging two orders and four families were found in this study. The most dominant family found was Holothuriidae (16 species, followed by Stichopodidae (2 species, Synaptidae (2 species, and Chiridotidae (1 spesies. Four species (Holothuria olivacea, H. verrucosa, Labidodemas rugosum, and Chiridota smirnovi are new record for Java waters and one species (H. papillifera is a new record for Indonesian waters. Two morphospecies (H. aff. macroperona and Stichopus cf. monotuberculatus need reconfirmation to species level. The highest abundance species of Holothuroidea was found at under rock with 15 species. Whereas, the highest number of individuals was found in seagrass areas with 5457 individuals. H. atra has extensive habitat distribution, such as seagrass, macroalgae, coral reef, dead coral, sand, and under rock.

  12. Evaluation of a spatially-distributed Thornthwaite water-balance model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lough, J.A. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Complex Systems Research Center)

    1993-03-01

    A small watershed of low relief in coastal New Hampshire was divided into hydrologic sub-areas in a geographic information system on the basis of soils, sub-basins and remotely-sensed landcover. Three variables were spatially modeled for input to 49 individual water-balances: available water content of the root zone, water input and potential evapotranspiration (PET). The individual balances were weight-summed to generate the aggregate watershed-balance, which saw 9% (48--50 mm) less annual actual-evapotranspiration (AET) compared to a lumped approach. Analysis of streamflow coefficients suggests that the spatially-distributed approach is more representative of the basin dynamics. Variation of PET by landcover accounted for the majority of the 9% AET reduction. Variation of soils played a near-negligible role. As a consequence of the above points, estimates of landcover proportions and annual PET by landcover are sufficient to correct a lumped water-balance in the Northeast. If remote sensing is used to estimate the landcover area, a sensor with a high spatial resolution is required. Finally, while the lower Thornthwaite model has conceptual limitations for distributed application, the upper Thornthwaite model is highly adaptable to distributed problems and may prove useful in many earth-system models.

  13. Evaluating the risk of water distribution system failure: A shared frailty model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert M. Clark; Robert C. Thurnau

    2011-01-01

    Condition assessment (CA) Modeling is drawing increasing interest as a technique that can assist in managing drinking water infrastructure.This paper develops a model based on the application of a Cox proportional hazard (PH)/shared frailty model and applies it to evaluating the risk of failure in drinking water networks using data from the Laramie Water Utility (located in Laramie,Wyoming,USA).Using the risk model a cost/benefit analysis incorporating the inspection value method (IVM),is used to assist in making improved repair,replacement and rehabilitation decisions for selected drinking water distribution system pipes.A separate model is developed to predict failures in prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP).Various currently available inspection technologies are presented and discussed.

  14. The historical distribution of main malaria foci in Spain as related to water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Arturo; García-Barrón, Leoncio; Vetter, Mark; Morales, Julia

    2014-08-06

    The possible connectivity between the spatial distribution of water bodies suitable for vectors of malaria and endemic malaria foci in Southern Europe is still not well known. Spain was one of the last countries in Western Europe to be declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1964. This study combines, by means of a spatial-temporal analysis, the historical data of patients and deceased with the distribution of water bodies where the disease-transmitting mosquitos proliferate. Therefore, data from historical archives with a Geographic Information System (GIS), using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation method, was analyzed with the aim of identifying regional differences in the distribution of malaria in Spain. The reasons, why the risk of transmission is concentrated in specific regions, are related to worse socioeconomic conditions (Extremadura), the presence of another vector (Anopheles labranchiae) besides A. atroparvus (Levante) or large areas of water bodies in conditions to reproduce theses vectors (La Mancha and Western Andalusia). In the particular case of Western Andalusia, in 1913, the relatively high percentage of 4.73% of the surface, equal to 202362 ha, corresponds to wetlands and other unhealthy water bodies. These wetlands have been reduced as a result of desiccation policies and climate change such as the Little Ice Age and Global Climate Change. The comprehension of the main factors of these wetland changes in the past can help us interpret accurately the future risk of malaria re-emergence in temperate latitudes, since it reveals the crucial role of unhealthy water bodies on the distribution, endemicity and eradication of malaria in southern Europe.

  15. The Historical Distribution of Main Malaria Foci in Spain as Related to Water Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Sousa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible connectivity between the spatial distribution of water bodies suitable for vectors of malaria and endemic malaria foci in Southern Europe is still not well known. Spain was one of the last countries in Western Europe to be declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization (WHO in 1964. This study combines, by means of a spatial-temporal analysis, the historical data of patients and deceased with the distribution of water bodies where the disease-transmitting mosquitos proliferate. Therefore, data from historical archives with a Geographic Information System (GIS, using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW interpolation method, was analyzed with the aim of identifying regional differences in the distribution of malaria in Spain. The reasons, why the risk of transmission is concentrated in specific regions, are related to worse socioeconomic conditions (Extremadura, the presence of another vector (Anopheles labranchiae besides A. atroparvus (Levante or large areas of water bodies in conditions to reproduce theses vectors (La Mancha and Western Andalusia. In the particular case of Western Andalusia, in 1913, the relatively high percentage of 4.73% of the surface, equal to 202362 ha, corresponds to wetlands and other unhealthy water bodies. These wetlands have been reduced as a result of desiccation policies and climate change such as the Little Ice Age and Global Climate Change. The comprehension of the main factors of these wetland changes in the past can help us interpret accurately the future risk of malaria re-emergence in temperate latitudes, since it reveals the crucial role of unhealthy water bodies on the distribution, endemicity and eradication of malaria in southern Europe.

  16. Assessment of Iron and Manganese Concentration Changes in Kaunas City Drinking Water Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Gražulevičienė

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Environmental factors may affect the quality of drinking water supplied by municipal water distribution network. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors influencing changes in concentrations of iron (Fe and manganese (Mn in Kaunas drinking water distribution network. Analytical study on the drinking water quality was performed. Concentrations of manganese and iron in drinking water were assessed by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Correlation between the changes in manganese concentrations and the distance from the water treatment plant was found, the correlation coefficient was -0.367; p=0.022, however, for iron it was 0.179; p = 0.148. At some sampling points the concentrations of Mn and Fe exceeded the regulated limits. To ensure the water quality and to avoid possible adverse health effects it is recommended to install Mn and Fe filter system in a consumer's drinking water pipeline.

  17. Occurrence and variability of iodinated trihalomethanes concentrations within two drinking-water distribution networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Panagiotis; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2016-02-01

    Non-iodo-containing trihalomethanes (TTHM) are frequently detected in chlorinated tap water and currently regulated against their carcinogenic potential. Iodinated THM (ITHM) may also form in disinfected with chlorine waters that are high in iodine content, but little is known about their magnitude and variability within the drinking-water pipe distribution network of urban areas. The main objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and variability of ITHM and TTHM levels and their corresponding daily intake estimates within the drinking water distribution systems of Limassol and Nicosia cities of Cyprus, using tap samples collected from individual households (n=37). In Limassol, mean household tap water ITHM and TTHM levels was 0.58 and 38 μg L(-1), respectively. Dichloroiodomethane (DCIM) was the dominant species of the two measured ITHM compounds accounting for 77% of total ITHM and in the range of 0.032 and 1.65 μg L(-1). The range of DCIM concentrations in Nicosia tap water samples was narrower (0.032 - 0.848 μg L(-1)). Mean total iodine concentration in tap water samples from the seaside city of Limassol was 15 μg L(-1) and approximately twice to those observed in samples from the mainland Nicosia city. However, iodine concentrations did not correlate with the ITHM levels. The calculated chronic daily intake rates of ITHM were low when compared with those of TTHM, but because of their widespread occurrence in tap water and their enhanced mammalian cell toxicity, additional research is warranted to assess the magnitude and variability of human ITHM exposures.

  18. Resilience of microbial communities in a simulated drinking water distribution system subjected to disturbances: role of conditionally rare taxa and potential implications for antibiotic-resistant bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many US water utilities using chloramine as their secondary disinfectant have experienced nitrification episodes that detrimentally impact water quality in their distribution systems. A semi-closed pipe-loop chloraminated drinking water distribution system (DWDS) simulator was u...

  19. Expression, Distribution and Role of Aquaporin Water Channels in Human and Animal Stomach and Intestines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stomach and intestines are involved in the secretion of gastrointestinal fluids and the absorption of nutrients and fluids, which ensure normal gut functions. Aquaporin water channels (AQPs represent a major transcellular route for water transport in the gastrointestinal tract. Until now, at least 11 AQPs (AQP1–11 have been found to be present in the stomach, small and large intestines. These AQPs are distributed in different cell types in the stomach and intestines, including gastric epithelial cells, gastric glands cells, absorptive epithelial cells (enterocytes, goblet cells and Paneth cells. AQP1 is abundantly distributed in the endothelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract. AQP3 and AQP4 are mainly distributed in the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells in the stomach and intestines. AQP7, AQP8, AQP10 and AQP11 are distributed in the apical of enterocytes in the small and large intestines. Although AQP-null mice displayed almost no phenotypes in gastrointestinal tracts, the alterations of the expression and localization of these AQPs have been shown to be associated with the pathology of gastrointestinal disorders, which suggests that AQPs play important roles serving as potential therapeutic targets. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the expression, localization and distribution of AQPs in the stomach, small and large intestine of human and animals. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the potential roles of AQPs in the physiology and pathophysiology of stomach and intestines.

  20. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in groundwater treatment and drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wielen, Paul W J J; Voost, Stefan; van der Kooij, Dick

    2009-07-01

    The ammonia-oxidizing prokaryote (AOP) community in three groundwater treatment plants and connected distribution systems was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and sequence analysis targeting the amoA gene of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA). Results demonstrated that AOB and AOA numbers increased during biological filtration of ammonia-rich anoxic groundwater, and AOP were responsible for ammonium removal during treatment. In one of the treatment trains at plant C, ammonia removal correlated significantly with AOA numbers but not with AOB numbers. Thus, AOA were responsible for ammonia removal in water treatment at one of the studied plants. Furthermore, an observed negative correlation between the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in the water and AOA numbers suggests that high DOC levels might reduce growth of AOA. AOP entered the distribution system in numbers ranging from 1.5 x 10(3) to 6.5 x 10(4) AOPs ml(-1). These numbers did not change during transport in the distribution system despite the absence of a disinfectant residual. Thus, inactive AOP biomass does not seem to be degraded by heterotrophic microorganisms in the distribution system. We conclude from our results that AOA can be commonly present in distribution systems and groundwater treatment, where they can be responsible for the removal of ammonia.

  1. Expression, Distribution and Role of Aquaporin Water Channels in Human and Animal Stomach and Intestines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cui; Chen, Zhuang; Jiang, Zongyong

    2016-08-29

    Stomach and intestines are involved in the secretion of gastrointestinal fluids and the absorption of nutrients and fluids, which ensure normal gut functions. Aquaporin water channels (AQPs) represent a major transcellular route for water transport in the gastrointestinal tract. Until now, at least 11 AQPs (AQP1-11) have been found to be present in the stomach, small and large intestines. These AQPs are distributed in different cell types in the stomach and intestines, including gastric epithelial cells, gastric glands cells, absorptive epithelial cells (enterocytes), goblet cells and Paneth cells. AQP1 is abundantly distributed in the endothelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract. AQP3 and AQP4 are mainly distributed in the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells in the stomach and intestines. AQP7, AQP8, AQP10 and AQP11 are distributed in the apical of enterocytes in the small and large intestines. Although AQP-null mice displayed almost no phenotypes in gastrointestinal tracts, the alterations of the expression and localization of these AQPs have been shown to be associated with the pathology of gastrointestinal disorders, which suggests that AQPs play important roles serving as potential therapeutic targets. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the expression, localization and distribution of AQPs in the stomach, small and large intestine of human and animals. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the potential roles of AQPs in the physiology and pathophysiology of stomach and intestines.

  2. Influence of seasonal variation on water quality in tropical water distribution system: is the disease burden significant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchie, Ayotunde T; Etchie, Tunde O; Adewuyi, Gregory O; Kannan, Krishnamurthi; Wate, Satish R; Sivanesan, Saravanadevi; Chukwu, Angela U

    2014-02-01

    Recent evidence shows that water distribution system (WDS) is a major risk factor in piped water supply system and the degree of contamination of water in WDS is usually influenced by seasonal variation. Risk assessment studies eliminate the effect of seasonality whenever annualized estimate of concentration of contaminants in water is used to determine the risk to health. In tropical climate where strong seasonal variation prevails, the excess risk during dry and hot season, above the annualized risk can be significant. This study investigates what impact seasonal adjustment may have on health improvement targets for WDS. Water quality data of two Nigerian water supply schemes were used to estimate the impact of WDS on water quality. Seasonal deviation from the annualized impact was quantified as the latent risk in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The hazards identified in both WDSs were cadmium and lead, and the estimated 95th-percentile risk of the metals, over the course of dry season was about 31-38%, and 1-3% higher than the estimated yearly average risk, respectively. Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that the risk distributions during the dry season was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the yearly average. The median latent risks (5th, 95th-percentiles), for both WDS were 0.014 (7.6 × 10(-3), 0.023) and 4.8 × 10(-3) (-, 7.6 × 10(-3)) DALYs/person/year for cadmium and 0.87 × 10(-3) (0, 0.1 × 10(-3)) and 0.16 × 10(-3) (0, 0.031 × 10(-3)) DALYs/person/year, respectively, for lead. These risks are substantially higher than the WHO limit (1 × 10(-6) DALYs/person/year). Therefore, to achieve effective health improvement target, mitigation measures should be planned and executed by season.

  3. Experimental study on upward bubble velocity and pierce length distributions in a water model of copper converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Du; Jiayun Zhang; Tuping Zhou; Qifeng Shu

    2003-01-01

    The upward bubble velocity and the pierce length distributions in a sectional water model of the copper convener in Guixi Smelter in Jiangxi, China, were measured using a two-contact electro-resistivity probe. In the case of using a single tuyere, the bubble velocity distribution along longitudinal direction was similar to that derived from Guassian function. Beyond the center of the longitudinal range, the bubble pierce length exhibited a sudden increase. The upward bubble velocity at a specified location could go up to meters per second. Its probability at a fixed location obeys a lognormal function; the bubble pierce length there varies bellow a few centimeters. In the case of using multi-tuyeres, the upward bubble velocity was roughly uniform right above the tuyeres and showed a slow decrease beyond this region. The bubble pierce length within both of these two regions was roughly uniform. Its average value in the former region, however, was found to be somewhat lower than that in the later.

  4. Distribution and ecology of deep-water benthic foraminifera in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poag, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    Bathyal and abyssal foraminifera in the Gulf of Mexico are distributed among thirteen generic predominance facies. Five predominance facies nearly encircle the Gulf basin along the slope and rise; a sixth predominance facies blankets the Sigsbee Plain, and a seventh is restricted to the Mississippi Fan. The remaining eight predominance facies have more restricted distributions. The areal patterns of these predominance facies can be related chiefly to water mass and substrate characteristics; modifications are brought about by calcite dissolution, upwelling, and sill depth. Analysis of ancient generic predominance facies is useful in predicting relative paleobathymetry and other paleoenvironmental properties. ?? 1984.

  5. Interference structure of shallow water reverberation in time-frequency distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The striations of the reverberation spectrum in the time-frequency distribution were observed in a shallow water acoustic experiment in 2002. A model following the coherent reverberation model developed in 2002 is presented to explain the observed striations. To examine the consistency between the measured data and numerical predictions, we have used a method based on Radon transform for determining the slope of the striations to the measured reverberation data and numerical predictions. The results indicate that the previously developed coherent reverberation model can predict the interference structure of the reverberation intensity in the time-frequency distribution.

  6. Development of Extended Period Pressure-Dependent Demand Water Distribution Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judi, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mcpherson, Timothy N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has used modeling and simulation of water distribution systems for N-1 contingency analyses to assess criticality of water system assets. Critical components considered in these analyses include pumps, tanks, and supply sources, in addition to critical pipes or aqueducts. A contingency represents the complete removal of the asset from system operation. For each contingency, an extended period simulation (EPS) is run using EPANET. An EPS simulates water system behavior over a time period, typically at least 24 hours. It assesses the ability of a system to respond and recover from asset disruption through distributed storage in tanks throughout the system. Contingencies of concern are identified as those in which some portion of the water system has unmet delivery requirements. A delivery requirement is defined as an aggregation of water demands within a service area, similar to an electric power demand. The metric used to identify areas of unmet delivery requirement in these studies is a pressure threshold of 15 pounds per square inch (psi). This pressure threshold is used because it is below the required pressure for fire protection. Any location in the model with pressure that drops below this threshold at any time during an EPS is considered to have unmet service requirements and is used to determine cascading consequences. The outage area for a contingency is the aggregation of all service areas with a pressure below the threshold at any time during the EPS.

  7. A simulation-optimisation approach for designing water distribution networks under multiple objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Jens; Pham Van, Tinh; Müller, Ruben; Schütze, Niels

    2014-05-01

    Especially in arid and semi-arid regions, water distribution networks are of major importance for an integrated water resources management in order to convey water over long distances from sources to consumers. However, to design a network optimally is still a challenge which requires an appropriate determination of: (1) pipe/pump/tank characteristics - decision variables (2) cost/network reliability - objective functions including (3) a given set of constraints. Thereby, objective functions are contradicting, which means that by minimising costs network reliability is decreasing resulting in a higher risk of network failures. For solving this multi-objective design problem, a simulation-optimisation approach is developed. The approach couples a hydraulic network model (Epanet) with an optimiser, namely the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMAES). The simulation-optimisation model is applied on international published benchmark cases for single and multi-objective optimisation and simultaneous optimisation of above mentioned decision variables as well as network layout. Results are encouraging. The proposed model performs with similar or better results, which means smaller costs and higher network reliability. Subsequently, the new model is applied for an optimal design and operation of a water distribution system to supply the coastal arid region of Al-Batinah (North of Oman) with water for agricultural production.

  8. Spatiotemporal Variability of the Urban Water Budget and Implications for Distributed Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, A. S.; Welty, C.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    In seeking to understand the feedbacks between urban development and water availability, we are in the process of coupling an integrated hydrologic model with an urban growth model, both of the Baltimore, Maryland, USA region. We are implementing ParFlow.CLM as the integrated hydrologic model (a subsurface-surface flow/land surface processes model) for the 13,000 sq km Baltimore metropolitan area. This work requires an understanding of the distribution of flows and making decisions on how to best model the short-circuiting of water and other phenomena unique to urban systems. In order to assess the attributes of available data, we conducted a study of the urban water budget from 2000 to 2009 and across an urban to rural gradient of development. For 65 watersheds in the Baltimore metropolitan area we quantified both natural (precipitation, evapotranspiration and streamflow) and engineered or piped (wastewater infiltration and inflow, lawn irrigation, water supply pipe leakage and reservoir withdrawals) water budget components on a monthly basis. We used monthly PRISM grids for precipitation, the land surface model GLDAS- Noah for gridded evapotranspiration estimates and streamflow from USGS gage records. For piped components, we used Baltimore City's comprehensive wastewater monitoring program data, which has infiltration and inflow estimates for most of the city's sewer basins, as well as estimates of lawn irrigation from fine-scale land cover data and lawn watering estimates, and water supply pipe leakage based on system wide values and the distribution of water supply pipes. We found that when solely considering natural components, urban watersheds generally appeared to have excess water, although the spatial variability was much higher for urban watersheds as compared to rural ones. This apparent excess water was more than accounted for by the most significant piped component, the export of groundwater and rainwater by cracks and improper connections to the

  9. Distribution and Potential Health Risks of Arsenic, Selenium, and Fluorine in Natural Waters in Tibet, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Tian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The contents of major and trace elements were analyzed in 204 different types of water samples in 138 villages across 51 counties and cities of Tibet. The average concentrations of arsenic (As, selenium, and fluorine for each water category decreased in the following order: arsenic (in μg/L: hot spring 241.37 > lake 27.46 > stream 22.11 > shallow well 11.57 > deep well 6.22, selenium (in μg/L: deep well 0.85 > shallow well 0.68 > stream 0.62 > hot spring 0.39 > lake 0.36, and fluorine (in mg/L: hot spring 2.10 > lake 1.06 > deep well 0.45 > stream 0.20 > shallow well 0.15. The distribution of arsenic in Tibetan waters ranged between 77.35 μg/L in Ali prefecture and 1.17 μg/L in Chamdo prefecture, with intermediate values of 4.39, 2.52, 2.10, 1.68, and 1.51 μg/L in the prefectures of Shigatse, Nagchu, Lhasa, Lhoka, and Nyingchi, respectively. Carbonatite is a major source of elements in these waters. The non-carcinogenic risk in Tibet caused by heavy metals in drinking water is low overall, except in Ali prefecture’s surface and shallow ground waters, which contain high levels of As. Thus, deep well water in Tibet is safe to drink.

  10. Vertical Distribution of Bacterial Community Diversity and Water Quality during the Reservoir Thermal Stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Han Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir thermal stratification drives the water temperature and dissolved oxygen gradient, however, the characteristic of vertical water microbial community during thermal stratification is so far poorly understood. In this work, water bacterial community diversity was determined using the Illumina Miseq sequencing technique. The results showed that epilimnion, metalimnion and hypolimnion were formed steadily in the JINPEN drinking water reservoir. Water temperature decreased steadily from the surface (23.11 °C to the bottom (9.17 °C. Total nitrogen ranged from 1.07 to 2.06 mg/L and nitrate nitrogen ranged from 0.8 to 1.84 mg/L. The dissolved oxygen concentration decreased sharply below 50 m, and reached zero at 65 m. The Miseq sequencing revealed a total of 4127 operational taxonomic units (OTUs with 97% similarity, which were affiliated with 15 phyla including Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Caldiserica, Chlamydiae, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. The highest Shannon diversity was 4.41 in 45 m, and the highest Chao 1 diversity was 506 in 5 m. Rhodobacter dominated in 55 m (23.24% and 65 m (12.58%. Prosthecobacter dominated from 0.5 to 50 m. The heat map profile and redundancy analysis (RDA indicated significant difference in vertical water bacterial community composition in the reservoir. Meanwhile, water quality properties including dissolved oxygen, conductivity, nitrate nitrogen and total nitrogen have a dramatic influence on vertical distribution of bacterial communities.

  11. A Distributed Monthly Water Balance Model for Analyzing Impacts of Land Cover Change on Flow Regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jun; WANG Gang-Sheng; YE Ai-Zhong; NIU Cun-Wen

    2005-01-01

    The Miyun Reservoir is the most important water source for Beijing Municipality, the capital of China with a population of more than 12 million. In recent decades, the inflow to the reservoir has shown a decreasing trend, which has seriously threatened water use in Beijing. In order to analyze the influents of land use and cover change (LUCC)upon inflow to Miyun Reservoir, terrain and land use information from remote sensing were utilized with a revised evapotranspiration estimation formula; a water loss model under conditions of human impacts was introduced; and a distributed monthly water balance model was established and applied to the Chaobai River Basin controlled by the Miyun Reservoir. The model simulation suggested that not only the impact of land cover change on evapotranspiration, but also the extra water loss caused by human activities, such as the water and soil conservation development projects should be considered. Although these development projects were of great benefit to human and ecological protection, they could reallocate water resources in time and space, and in a sense thereby influence the stream flow.

  12. A Study of Energy Optimisation of Urban Water Distribution Systems Using Potential Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sarbu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy use in water supply systems represents a significant portion of the global energy consumption. The electricity consumption due to the water pumping represents the highest proportion of the energy costs in these systems. This paper presents several comparative studies of energy efficiency in water distribution systems considering distinct configurations of the networks and also considers implementation of the variable-speed pumps. The main objective of this study is the energy optimisation of urban systems using optimal network configurations that reduce energy consumption and improve energy efficiency. The paper describes in detail four strategies for improving energy efficiency of water pumping: control systems to vary pump speed drive according to water demand, pumped storage tanks, intermediary pumping stations integrated in the network, and elevated storage tanks floating on the system. The improving energy efficiency of water pumping is briefly reviewed providing a representative real case study. In addition, a different approach for the hydraulic analysis of the networks and the determination of the optimal location of a pumped storage tank is provided. Finally, this study compares the results of the application of four water supply strategies to a real case in Romania. The results indicate high potential operating costs savings.

  13. Methodology for Calculation of Pressure Impulse Distribution at Gas-Impulse Regeneration of Water Well Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ivashechkin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a mathematical model for process of pressure impulse distribution in a water well which appear as a result of underwater gas explosions in cylindrical and spherical explosive chambers with elastic shells and in a rigid cylindrical chamber which is open from the bottom. The proposed calculation methodology developed on the basis of the mathematical model makes it possible to determine pressure in the impulse on a filter wall and at any point of a water well pre-filter zone. 

  14. The seasonal abundance and size distributions of water bodies on the Yamal Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofaier, Anna Maria; Bartsch, Annett; Rees, William Gareth

    2014-05-01

    The significant role Arctic freshwater ecosystems play in the carbon cycle leads to a necessity to quantify these remote inland waters on the landscape-scale. A new approach to analysing size-frequency distributions of open surface water bodies is presented in this study. Geospatial data of water bodies over the Yamal peninsula (NW Siberia) in the form of binary (two classes: water and land) temporal composite classifications are analysed over the two summer months July and August in 2007, 2008 and 2009. The source of the temporal composite dataset is the European Space Agency's Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) operating in Wide Swath Mode (WSM). These data are medium/low spatial resolution data with a pixel spacing of 75 m. However, their high temporal frequencies enable a seasonal analysis of water body abundance and size distributions. The emphasis is not only on quantifying Arctic lakes, but also on evaluating the distribution of spring floods throughout the active season. Size-frequency distributions are fit to a power-law model, conforming to be linear on a base 10 log-log scale. However, extrapolation of the myriad of smaller water bodies has in the past proven to be more complex than the current model would suggest. The apparent scale issues are investigated by additionally analysing active microwave data from the high spatial resolution TerraSAR-X satellite, and comparing the results to co-temporal ASAR WS data. With a total surface water area of around 606±50 km2 over the first two weeks of July in 2007, 2008 and 2009, a continuous decrease in water surface extent is determined over the course of the following six weeks. In 2009, high fragmentation of the early season classification is determined (1.6 and 1.4 times more polygons are found compared to the same period in 2007 and 2008). This is an artefact from weather affected data, resulting from high wind speeds over larger lakes and therefore showing a distinct wind bias in the

  15. Simplification of Water Distribution Network Simulation by Topological Clustering – Investigation of its Potential Use in Copenhagen's Water Supply Monitoring and Contamination Contingency Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirstein, Jonas Kjeld; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Rygaard, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Topological clustering was investigated to simplify a complex water distribution network of Copenhagen, Denmark, into recogniz- able water movement patterns. This made it possible to assess the general transport of the water and to suggest strategic sampling locations. Through a topological...

  16. RESEARCH ON MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF RESIDUAL CHLORINE DECAY AND OPTIMIZATION OF CHLORINATION ALLOCATION OF URBAN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yi-mei; CHI Hai-yan; LI Hong; SHAN Jin-lin; ZHAI Chun-nian

    2005-01-01

    The concentration of Residual Chlorine (RC) frequently violates the standard in situations of urban water distribution system with large water supply area and long time of distribution.If chlorine dosage increases within water treatment plant, although RC in distribution system could meet water quality standard, Disinfection By-Products (DBPs) such as hydrocarbon halide rises.In the paper, a mathematical model of chlorine allocation optimization was presented based on reaction kinetics mechanism and optimization theory to solve the problem.The model includes the objective function of minimizing annual operation cost and constraints of RC standard and rational chlorination station distribution, and solving by 0-1 Integer Programming (IP).The model had been applied to a real water distribution system.The simulation results of the model showed that adding chlorine in water distribution system remarkably improved water quality and reduced the operation cost by 49.3% per year less than chlorine dosed only in water treatment plant to meet RC standard.The results prove adding chlorine in water distribution system based on the model can bring both technological and economic advancement.

  17. CONCEPT OF STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION INFORMATION SITUATIONAL CENTERS FOR OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT MACHINEBUILDING DIVISION WITH A GEOGRAPHICALLY DISTRIBUTED PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Rechkalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of organizing the planning system based on virtual manufacturing in constructingsituational center for engineering division. The analysis of foreign and domestic experience in the field of situational management, organization planning and managementsystems as virtual production in relation to the real (underlying production is provided. The scheme of organization situational center for engine-building enterprises of theEngineering Division is given.

  18. Model for the movement and distribution of fish in a body of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeAngelis, D.L.

    1978-06-01

    A Monte Carlo mathematical model tracks the movement of fish in a body of water (e.g., a pond or reservoir) which is represented by a two-dimensional grid. For the case of a long, narrow reservoir, depth and length along the reservoir are the logical choices for coordinate axes. In the model, it is assumed that the movement of fish is influenced by gradients of temperature and dissolved oxygen, as well as food availability and habitat preference. The fish takes one spatial ''step'' at a time, the direction being randomly selected, but also biased by the above factors. In trial simulations, a large number of simulated fish were allowed to distribute themselves in a hypothetical body of water. Assuming only temperature was influencing the movements of the fish, the resultant distributions are compared with experimental data on temperature preferences.

  19. Distribution and accumulation of heavy metalsin the water and sediments of the River Sava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŽIVORAD VUKOVIĆ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and accumulation of assorted heavy metals and a long-lived radionuclide (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, U, Th and 137Cs in the water and sediment of the River Sava (in Serbia were investigated at three locations in the vicinity of industrial and urban settlements (Sabac, Obrenovac, Belgrade. The concentrations of heavy metals in the sediment were found to be in the ranges (mg kg-1: 29.6–145.1 for Cu, 53.2–253.6 for Zn, 14.2–78.6 for Pb, 0.3–24.6 for Cd, and 4.0–12.5 Bq l-1 for 137Cs. These values correlate to the con-centrations in the river water if expressed by equilibrium distribution coefficients Kd (dm3 g-1 between the solid and liquid phases. The degrees of accumulation and enrichment of tracer metals were determined.

  20. Transient Water Age Distributions in Environmental Flow Systems: The Time-Marching Laplace Transform Solution Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Cornaton, F J

    2011-01-01

    Environmental fluid circulations are very often characterized by analyzing the fate and behavior of natural and anthropogenic tracers. Among these tracers, age is taken as an ideal tracer which can yield interesting diagnoses, as for example the characterization of the mixing and renewal of water masses, of the fate and mixing of contaminants, or the calibration of hydro-dispersive parameters used by numerical models. Such diagnoses are of great interest in atmospheric and ocean circulation sciences, as well in surface and subsurface hydrology. The temporal evolution of groundwater age and its frequency distributions can display important changes as flow regimes vary due to natural change in climate and hydrologic conditions and/or human induced pressures on the resource to satisfy the water demand. Steady-state age frequency distributions can be modelled using standard numerical techniques, since the general balance equation describing age transport under steady-state flow conditions is exactly equivalent to...

  1. Improved mine blast algorithm for optimal cost design of water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadollah, Ali; Guen Yoo, Do; Kim, Joong Hoon

    2015-12-01

    The design of water distribution systems is a large class of combinatorial, nonlinear optimization problems with complex constraints such as conservation of mass and energy equations. Since feasible solutions are often extremely complex, traditional optimization techniques are insufficient. Recently, metaheuristic algorithms have been applied to this class of problems because they are highly efficient. In this article, a recently developed optimizer called the mine blast algorithm (MBA) is considered. The MBA is improved and coupled with the hydraulic simulator EPANET to find the optimal cost design for water distribution systems. The performance of the improved mine blast algorithm (IMBA) is demonstrated using the well-known Hanoi, New York tunnels and Balerma benchmark networks. Optimization results obtained using IMBA are compared to those using MBA and other optimizers in terms of their minimum construction costs and convergence rates. For the complex Balerma network, IMBA offers the cheapest network design compared to other optimization algorithms.

  2. Seagrass distribution and abundance in Eastern Gulf of Mexico coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard L.; Bittaker, Henry F.

    1986-05-01

    The marine angiosperms Thalassia testudinum, Syringodium filiforme, and Halodule wrightii form two of the largest reported seagrass beds along the northwest and southern coasts of Florida where they cover about 3000 square km in the Big Bend area and about 5500 square km in Florida Bay, respectively. Most of the leaf biomass in the Big Bend area and outer Florida Bay was composed of Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme which were distributed throughout the beds but which were more abundant in shallow depths. A short-leaved form of Halodule wrightii grew in monotypic stands in shallow water near the inner edges of the beds, while Halophila decipiens and a longer-leaved variety of H. wrightii grew scattered throughout the beds, in monotypic stands near the outer edges of the beds, and in deeper water outside the beds. Halophila engelmanni was observed scattered at various depths throughout the seagrass beds and in monospecific patches in deep water outside the northern bed. Ruppia maritima grew primarily in brackish water around river mouths. The cross-shelf limits of the two major seagrass beds are controlled nearshore by increased water turbidity and lower salinity around river mouths and off-shore by light penetration to depths which receive 10% or more of sea surface photosynthetically active radiation. Seagrasses form large beds only along low energy reaches of the coast. The Florida Bay seagrass bed contained about twice the short-shoot density of both Thalassia testudinum and Syringodium filiforme, for data averaged over all depths, and about four times the average short-shoot density of both species in shallow water compared with the Big Bend seagrass bed. The differences in average seagrass abundance between Florida Bay and the Big Bend area may be a consequence of the effects of greater seasonal solar radiation and water temperature fluctuations experienced by plants in the northern bed, which lies at the northern distribution limit for American

  3. Spatial distribution of soil water repellency in a grassland located in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata

    2014-05-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) it is recognized to be very heterogeneous in time in space and depends on soil type, climate, land use, vegetation and season (Doerr et al., 2002). It prevents or reduces water infiltration, with important impacts on soil hydrology, influencing the mobilization and transport of substances into the soil profile. The reduced infiltration increases surface runoff and soil erosion. SWR reduce also the seed emergency and plant growth due the reduced amount of water in the root zone. Positive aspects of SWR are the increase of soil aggregate stability, organic carbon sequestration and reduction of water evaporation (Mataix-Solera and Doerr, 2004; Diehl, 2013). SWR depends on the soil aggregate size. In fire affected areas it was founded that SWR was more persistent in small size aggregates (Mataix-Solera and Doerr, 2004; Jordan et al., 2011). However, little information is available about SWR spatial distribution according to soil aggregate size. The aim of this work is study the spatial distribution of SWR in fine earth (Mataix-Solera, J., Nava, A.L., Alanis, N. (2011) Effects of fire severity on water repellency and agregate stability on mexican volcanic soils, Catena, 84, 136-147. Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S. (2004) hydrophobicity and agregate stability in calcareous topsoils from fire-affected pine forests in south-easthern Spain, Geoderma, 118, 77-88. Wessel, A.T. (1988) On using the effective contact angle and the water drop penetration time for classification of water repellency in dune soils, Earth Surfaces Process. Landforms, 13, 555-562, 1988.

  4. Influence of biofilms on iron and manganese deposition in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginige, Maneesha P; Wylie, Jason; Plumb, Jason

    2011-02-01

    Although health risk due to discoloured water is minimal, such water continues to be the source of one of the major complaints received by most water utilities in Australia. Elevated levels of iron (Fe) and/or manganese (Mn) in bulk water are associated with discoloured water incidents. The accumulation of these two elements in distribution systems is believed to be one of the main causes for such elevated levels. An investigation into the contribution of pipe wall biofilms towards Fe and Mn deposition, and discoloured water events is reported in this study. Eight laboratory-scale reactors were operated to test four different conditions in duplicate. Four reactors were exposed to low Fe (0.05 mg l(-1)) and Mn (0.02 mg l(-1)) concentrations and the remaining four were exposed to a higher (0.3 and 0.4 mg l(-1) for Fe and Mn, respectively) concentration. Two of the four reactors which received low and high Fe and Mn concentrations were chlorinated (3.0 mg l(-1) of chlorine). The biological activity (measured in terms of ATP) on the glass rings in these reactors was very low (∼1.5 ng cm(-2) ring). Higher concentrations of Fe and Mn in bulk water and active biofilms resulted in increased deposition of Fe and Mn on the glass rings. Moreover, with an increase in biological activity, an increase in Fe and Mn deposition was observed. The observations in the laboratory-scale experiments were in line with the results of field observations that were carried out using biofilm monitors. The field data additionally demonstrated the effect of seasons, where increased biofilm activities observed on pipe wall biofilms during late summer and early autumn were found to be associated with increased deposition of Fe and Mn. In contrast, during the cooler months, biofilm activities were a magnitude lower and the deposited metal concentrations were also significantly less (ie a drop of 68% for Fe and 86% for Mn). Based on the laboratory-scale investigations, detachment of pipe wall

  5. WATER RESOURCES IN THE ROMANIAN CARPATHIANS – GENESIS, TERRITORIAL DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. GÂȘTESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Water resources in Romanian Carpathians-genesis, territorial distribution, management. Discussing water resources in Romania implies a twofold approach: water as a sine qua non of life itself and water as an important factor for the development of the contemporary society. Lying in a temperate zone, Romania’s water resources are rather modest compared with other countries in Europe. Inland rivers span 78,905 km (referred only to the 4,864 codified watercourses at an average density: 0.38 km/km2 and an annual volume: 40.6 billion m3, which means 1,765 m3/capita. To knowledge ground waters are put at 9.62 billion m3/year, of which 6 billion can be used in optimal technological and economic conditions. According to a recent UN statistical report, Romania lists at position 21 among the 34 European. Natural lakes are replenished from precipitation and springs water every year and the reserves are estimated at around 1 billion m3/year and are of local importance for water management schemes. The Black Sea (in the Romanian sector could become a major source if sea water desalting could be economical.The water resources of the drainage network were calculated on the basis of the mean liquid flow map (scale 1: 500,000 releves picture of river-water resources in the major relief units: the Carpathian, which occupies only 27.9% of the Romanian territory, 65.3% (26.48 billion mc from a total of 40.61 billion m3 of the water is formed and regenerated every year; the hill unit, which includes the Subcarpathians, the tablelands and the piedmont hills, and occupies 42.4% of Romania’s territory, only 28.0% of the water volume is formed (11.38 billion m3, of which 8.7% (3.51 billion m3 in the Subcarpathians and 19.4% (7.87 billion m3 in the other two units; the plain unit, which covers 29.7% of the country’s territory, the water volume formed there is small (6.7%

  6. Abnormal quality detection and isolation in water distribution networks using simulation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nejjari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model based detection and localisation method to deal with abnormal quality levels based on the chlorine measurements and chlorine sensitivity analysis in a water distribution network. A fault isolation algorithm which correlates on line the residuals (generated by comparing the available chlorine measurements with their estimations using a model with the fault sensitivity matrix is used. The proposed methodology has been applied to a District Metered Area (DMA in the Barcelona network.

  7. Strontium Adsorption and Desorption Reactions in Model Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-04

    Strontium K-edge spectra for bulk XANES sr’+ standards and for the iron corrosion product samples representing (a) chlorine and chloramine simulated...RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 11-04-2014 Journal Article Strontium adsorption and desorption reactions in model... strontium (Sr2+) adsorption to and desorption from iron corrosion products were examined in two model drinking water distribution systems (DWDS

  8. Leak signature space: an original representation for robust leak location in water distribution networks

    OpenAIRE

    Casillas, Myrna V.; Garza-Castañón, Luis E.; Vicenç Puig; Adriana Vargas-Martinez

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an original model-based scheme for leak location using pressure sensors in water distribution networks is introduced. The proposed approach is based on a new representation called the Leak Signature Space (LSS) that associates a specific signature to each leak location being minimally affected by leak magnitude. The LSS considers a linear model approximation of the relation between pressure residuals and leaks that is projected onto a selected hyperplane. This new approach allo...

  9. Improving the efficiency of the loop method for the simulation of water distribution networks

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Efficiency of hydraulic solvers for the simulation of flows and pressures in water distribution systems (WDSs) is very important, especially in the context of optimization and risk analysis problems, where the hydraulic simulation has to be repeated many times. Among the methods used for hydraulic solvers, the most prominent nowadays is the global gradient algorithm (GGA), based on a hybrid node-loop formulation. Previously, another method based just on loop flow equations was proposed, which...

  10. Effect of soil water content on spatial distribution of root exudates and mucilage in the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Maire; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Water and nutrients are expected to become the major factors limiting food production. Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase the access to these limited soil resources. Low molecular root exudates released into the rhizosphere increase nutrient availability, while mucilage improves water availability under low moisture conditions. However, studies on the spatial distribution and quantification of exudates in soil are scarce. Our aim was therefore to quantify and visualize root exudates and mucilage distribution around growing roots using neutron radiography and 14C imaging at different levels of water stress. Maize plants were grown in rhizotrons filled with a silty soil and were exposed to varying soil conditions, from optimal to dry. Mucilage distribution around the roots was estimated from the profiles of water content in the rhizosphere - note that mucilage increases the soil water content. The profiles of water content around different root types and root ages were measured with neutron radiography. Rhizosphere extension was approx. 0.7 mm and did not differ between wet and dry treatments. However, water content (i.e. mucilage concentration) in the rhizosphere of plants grown in dry soils was higher than for plants grown under optimal conditions. This effect was particularly pronounced near the tips of lateral roots. The higher water contents near the root are explained as the water retained by mucilage. 14C imaging of root after 14CO2 labeling of shoots (Pausch and Kuzyakov 2011) was used to estimate the distribution of all rhizodeposits. Two days after labelling, 14C distribution was measured using phosphor-imaging. To quantify 14C in the rhizosphere a calibration was carried out by adding given amounts of 14C-glucose to soil. Plants grown in wet soil transported a higher percentage of 14C to the roots (14Croot/14Cshoot), compared to plants grown under dry conditions (46 vs. 36 %). However, the percentage of 14C allocated from roots to

  11. Large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of Australian deep-water kelp forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel M Marzinelli

    Full Text Available Despite the significance of marine habitat-forming organisms, little is known about their large-scale distribution and abundance in deeper waters, where they are difficult to access. Such information is necessary to develop sound conservation and management strategies. Kelps are main habitat-formers in temperate reefs worldwide; however, these habitats are highly sensitive to environmental change. The kelp Ecklonia radiate is the major habitat-forming organism on subtidal reefs in temperate Australia. Here, we provide large-scale ecological data encompassing the latitudinal distribution along the continent of these kelp forests, which is a necessary first step towards quantitative inferences about the effects of climatic change and other stressors on these valuable habitats. We used the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV facility of Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS to survey 157,000 m2 of seabed, of which ca 13,000 m2 were used to quantify kelp covers at multiple spatial scales (10-100 m to 100-1,000 km and depths (15-60 m across several regions ca 2-6° latitude apart along the East and West coast of Australia. We investigated the large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of deep-water kelp (>15 m depth and their relationships with physical variables. Kelp cover generally increased with latitude despite great variability at smaller spatial scales. Maximum depth of kelp occurrence was 40-50 m. Kelp latitudinal distribution along the continent was most strongly related to water temperature and substratum availability. This extensive survey data, coupled with ongoing AUV missions, will allow for the detection of long-term shifts in the distribution and abundance of habitat-forming kelp and the organisms they support on a continental scale, and provide information necessary for successful implementation and management of conservation reserves.

  12. Identification of water-bearing zones by the use of geophysical logs and borehole television surveys, collected February to September 1997, at the Former Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster, Bucks County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Randall W.

    1998-01-01

    Between February 1997 and September 1997, 10 monitor wells were drilled near the site of the former Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster, Bucks County, Pa., to monitor water levels and sample ground-water contaminants in the shallow, intermediate, and deep water-bearing zones. The sampling will determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known or suspected contaminant sources. Four wells were drilled north of the property adjacent to Area A, three wells along strike located on Lewis Drive, and three wells directly down dip on Ivyland Road. Well depths range from 69 feet to 300 feet below land surface. Borehole-geophysical logging and television surveys were used to identify water-bearing zones so that appropriate intervals could be screened in each monitor well. Geophysical logs were obtained at the 10 monitor wells. Borehole television surveys were obtained at the four monitor wells adjacent to Area A. Caliper and borehole television surveys were used to locate fractures, inflections on fluidtemperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures, and heatpulse- flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, borehole television surveys, and driller?s logs, all wells were screened such that water-level fluctuations could be monitored and water samples collected from discrete water-bearing zones in each borehole.

  13. Spatial distribution of Legionella pneumophila MLVA-genotypes in a drinking water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Sarah; Sharaby, Yehonatan; Pecellín, Marina; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred; Halpern, Malka

    2015-06-15

    Bacteria of the genus Legionella cause water-based infections, resulting in severe pneumonia. To improve our knowledge about Legionella spp. ecology, its prevalence and its relationships with environmental factors were studied. Seasonal samples were taken from both water and biofilm at seven sampling points of a small drinking water distribution system in Israel. Representative isolates were obtained from each sample and identified to the species level. Legionella pneumophila was further determined to the serotype and genotype level. High resolution genotyping of L. pneumophila isolates was achieved by Multiple-Locus Variable number of tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA). Within the studied water system, Legionella plate counts were higher in summer and highly variable even between adjacent sampling points. Legionella was present in six out of the seven selected sampling points, with counts ranging from 1.0 × 10(1) to 5.8 × 10(3) cfu/l. Water counts were significantly higher in points where Legionella was present in biofilms. The main fraction of the isolated Legionella was L. pneumophila serogroup 1. Serogroup 3 and Legionella sainthelensis were also isolated. Legionella counts were positively correlated with heterotrophic plate counts at 37 °C and negatively correlated with chlorine. Five MLVA-genotypes of L. pneumophila were identified at different buildings of the sampled area. The presence of a specific genotype, "MLVA-genotype 4", consistently co-occurred with high Legionella counts and seemed to "trigger" high Legionella counts in cold water. Our hypothesis is that both the presence of L. pneumophila in biofilm and the presence of specific genotypes, may indicate and/or even lead to high Legionella concentration in water. This observation deserves further studies in a broad range of drinking water systems to assess its potential for general use in drinking water monitoring and management.

  14. Designing of Hydraulically Balanced Water Distribution Network Based on GIS and EPANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RASOOLI Ahmadullah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper are, designing and balancing of Water Distribution Network (WDN based on loops hydraulically balanced method as well as using Geographical Information System (GIS methodology with the contribution of EPANET. GIS methodology is used to ensure WDN’s integrity and skeletonized a proper and functional WDN by using Network Analyst utilizing the geometric network and topology network by hierarchical geo-databases. The problem is to make WDN hydraulically balanced by applying WDN balancing method. For that reason, we have analyzed water flows in each pipe and performed the iterations process on loops in order to make the algebraic summation of head loss“h_f” around any closed loop zero. In case, the summation of pipe flows must be equal to the flow amount entering or leaving the system through each node. At each iteration, reasonable changes occurred at pipes flow until the head loss has become very small or fixed zero as (optimizes correction by using excel sheet solver. Since this method is confirmed to be effective, simulations were done by using GIS and EPANET water distribution platform. As a result, we accomplished hydraulically balanced WDN. Finally, we have analyzed and simulated hydraulics parameters for the targeted area in Kabul city. Thus, determined successfully the hydraulics state of parameters around the network as a positive result. It is worth mentioning that, Hardy-cross method is being used for approaching more precise optimized correction and consequences concerning hydraulically-balanced and optimal WDN. This method can be done for complex loops WDN as well; the advantage of the method is simple math and self-correction. Managers and engineers who work in the field of water supply this methodology has been recommended as the more advantageous workflow in planning water distribution pattern.

  15. 基于整数规划的物流配送中心选址研究%The location of logistics distribution centers based on integer programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章海燕

    2016-01-01

    本文从物流配送中心的运营成本和运输时间限制着手,在满足连锁店服务要求的前提下,利用混合整数规划对物流配送中心进行选址模型研究,并结合实例给出了求解。%In this paper, under the premise of meeting the service requirements of the chain store, with the operation cost and transportation time limit of the logistics distribution center, research on logistics distribution center location model based on mixed integer programming. And the solution is given with an example.

  16. Studies and Practice of Distribution Center Construction Planning%配送中心规划建设研究及实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兴明

    2011-01-01

    给出了配送中心规划的内容、方法和过程,并详细介绍了温州烟草配送中心的规划建设实践,实践表明首先进行科学周密的规划,然后再进行有序高效地建设和细致到位地实施是实现配送中心建设目标的重要保障.%The content, methods, and process of distribution center planning are introduced and illustrated with the planning and construction practice of the Wenzhou tobacco distribution center, which indicates that scientific and all-round planning, efficient and well-organized construction, and careful and thorough implementation are important supporting conditions for the securing of the construction objectives.

  17. Tomographic Imaging of Water Content and Mine-Induced Stress Distribution in North Aurora, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulemans, A. J.; Fratta, D.; Wang, H. F.

    2013-12-01

    Located in North Aurora, Illinois, the Lafarge-Conco plant is a room-and-pillar mine that is in active production of aggregates, taken from the Galena-Platteville formations. To better understand how stresses are distributed among the pillars over periods of mining production, tomographic images of the interior of the pillar using seismic data collected in November 2012 and March 2013 were created. Seismic tomographic images showed changes in seismic velocity between the two surveys, which is interpreted as change in stress. The southeast corner pillar showed a significant stress increase, and could indicate a possible area of very high stresses within the pillar. While the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) tomographic image was used to assess a very uniform water content and porosity distribution within the pillar. Understanding how stress and moisture distribution changes within pillars during excavation is valuable to mine design and to the maintenance of mine safety.

  18. Logistic Regression for Prediction and Diagnosis of Bacterial Regrowth in Water Distribution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Lihua; ZHAO Xinhua; WU Qing; YANG You'an

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the quantitative expression of bacterial regrowth in water distribution system. Considering public health risks of bacterial regrowth, the experiment was performed on a distribution system of selected area. Physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters such as turbidity, temperature, residual chlorine and pH were measured over a three-month period and correlation analysis was carried out. Combined with principal components analysis(PCA), a logistic regression model is developed to predict and diagnose bacterial regrowth and locate the zones with high risks of microbiology in the distribution system. The model gives the probability of bacterial regrowth with the number of heterotrophic plate counts as the binary response variable and three new prin-cipal components variables as the explanatory variables. The veracity of the logistic regression model was 90%, which meets the precision requirement of the model.

  19. Location and Size of Distributed Generation Using a Modified Water Cycle Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Edwin Candelo Becerra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modified water cycle algorithm (WCA adapted to the problem of finding the location and size of distributed generation (DG. Power losses minimization was used as an objective function to compare the proposed algorithm with particle swarm optimization (PSO, the batinspired Algorithm (BA, and harmony search (HS. The test scenarios consisted of locating five to seven generators with a maximum real and reactive power in the 33-node and 69-node radial distribution networks. The experiment was designed to start iterations from the same initial population to identify the algorithms’ performance when searching for the best solutions. The results demonstrate that the modified WCA found the minimum power losses after locating and sizing distributed generators for most of the test scenarios. The algorithm converged quickly to the best solution and the solutions for all repetitions tested were close to the best for each case simulated.

  20. Study on Logistics Distribution Centers for B2C Online Shopping%B2C网购物流配送中心研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯凌燕; 尹军琪

    2011-01-01

    分析了我国B2C网购物流配送的现状,对其特点和难点作了分析,并提出了相应的B2C网购物流配送中心设计解决方案.%The paper analyzes the current status of the logistics and distribution operations for B2C online shopping in China, analyzes its characteristics and existing issues, and puts forth solutions for the design of logistics and distribution centers for B2C online shopping.

  1. Estimating the environmental and resource costs of leakage in water distribution systems: A shadow price approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Mocholí-Arce, Manuel; Sala-Garrido, Ramon

    2016-10-15

    Water scarcity is one of the main problems faced by many regions in the XXIst century. In this context, the need to reduce leakages from water distribution systems has gained almost universal acceptance. The concept of sustainable economic level of leakage (SELL) has been proposed to internalize the environmental and resource costs within economic level of leakage calculations. However, because these costs are not set by the market, they have not often been calculated. In this paper, the directional-distance function was used to estimate the shadow price of leakages as a proxy of their environmental and resource costs. This is a pioneering approach to the economic valuation of leakage externalities. An empirical application was carried out for the main Chilean water companies. The estimated results indicated that for 2014, the average shadow price of leakages was approximately 32% of the price of the water delivered. Moreover, as a sensitivity analysis, the shadow prices of the leakages were calculated from the perspective of the water companies' managers and the regulator. The methodology and findings of this study are essential for supporting the decision process of reducing leakage, contributing to the improvement of economic, social and environmental efficiency and sustainability of urban water supplies.

  2. Spatial distribution of water in the stratosphere of Jupiter from observations with the Herschel space observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalié, T.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Lellouch, E.; de Val-Borro, M.; Jarchow, C.; Moreno, R.; Hartogh, P.; Orton, G.; Greathouse, T. K.; Billebaud, F.; Dobrijevic, M.; Lara, L. M.; Gonzalez, A.; Sagawa, H.

    2013-09-01

    distributions of water in Jupiter's stratosphere, we rule out interplanetary dust particles as its main source. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Jupiter's stratospheric water was delivered by the SL9 comet and that more than 95% of the observed water comes from the comet according to our models. On the longer term, this study can be regarded as a preparation of the observations to be performed by the SubmillimetreWave Instrument (SWI) [12]. SWI is an instrument proposed for the payload of the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE). This instrument will observe water and the other SL9-derived species in Jupiter with a higher spatiotemporal resolution than Herschel to constrain its 3D stratospheric circulation.

  3. Differential evolution algorithm (DE to estimate the coefficients of uniformity of water distribution in sprinkler irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Mansouri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Iran, has caused most of the water used and as much as possible to avoid losses. One of the important parameters in agriculture is water distribution uniformity coefficient (CU in sprinkler irrigation. CU amount of water sprinkler operating depends on different pressure heads (P, riser height (RH, distance between sprinklers on lateral pipes (Sl and the distance between lateral pipes (Sm. The best combination of the above parameters for maximum CU, is still unknown for applicators. In this research, CU quantities of zb model sprinkler (made in Iran were measured at Hashemabad cotton research station of Gorgan under 3 different pressure heads (2.5, 3 and 3.5 atm, 2 riser heads (60 and 100 cm and 7 sprinkler (Sl×Sm including 9×12, 9×15, 12×12, 15×12, 12×18, 15×15, 15×18m arrangements. By using differential evolution algorithm (DE, CU equation was optimized and the best optimized coefficients obtained. In this algorithm, the coefficients F and CR equal to 2 and 0.5, respectively, with a population of 100 members and 1000 number of generations (iterations, provides the best re