WorldWideScience

Sample records for center sugar platform

  1. National Bioenergy Center, Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update, Summer 2011 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-09-01

    Summer 2011 issue of the National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly update. Issue topics: evaluating new analytical techniques for measuring soluble sugars in the liquid portion of biomass hydrolysates, and measurement of the fraction of insoluble solids in biomass slurries.

  2. From the Sugar Platform to biofuels and biochemicals : Final report for the European Commission Directorate-General Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, R.; Nattrass, L.; Alberts, G.; Robson, P; Chudziak, C.; Bauen, A.; Libelli, I.M.; Lotti, G; Prussi, M.; Nistri, R; Chiaramonti, D.; López-Contreras, A.M.; Bos, H.H.; Eggink, G; Springer, J

    2015-01-01

    Numerous potential pathways to biofuels and biochemicals exist via the sugar platform1. This study uses literature surveys, market data and stakeholder input to provide a comprehensive evidence base for policymakers and industry – identifying the key benefits and development needs for the sugar platform. The study created a company database for 94 sugar-based products, with some already commercial, the majority at research/pilot stage, and only a few demonstration plants crossing the “valley ...

  3. From the Sugar Platform to biofuels and biochemicals : Final report for the European Commission Directorate-General Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, R.; Nattrass, L.; Alberts, G.; Robson, P.; Chudziak, C.; Bauen, A.; Libelli, I.M.; Lotti, G.; Prussi, M.; Nistri, R.; Chiaramonti, D.; lópez-Contreras, A.M.; Bos, H.H.; Eggink, G.; Springer, J.; Bakker, R.; Ree, van R.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous potential pathways to biofuels and biochemicals exist via the sugar platform1. This study uses literature surveys, market data and stakeholder input to provide a comprehensive evidence base for policymakers and industry – identifying the key benefits and development needs for the sugar plat

  4. Acid-catalyzed conversion of mono- and poly-sugars into platform chemicals: effects of molecular structure of sugar substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xun; Wu, Liping; Wang, Yi; Song, Yao; Mourant, Daniel; Gunawan, Richard; Gholizadeh, Mortaza; Li, Chun-Zhu

    2013-04-01

    Hydrolysis/pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass always produces a mixture of sugars with distinct structures as intermediates or products. This study tried to elucidate the effects of molecular structure of sugars on their acid-catalyzed conversions in ethanol/water. Location of carbonyl group in sugars (fructose versus glucose) and steric configuration of hydroxyl groups (glucose versus galactose) significantly affected yields of levulinic acid/ester (fructose>glucose>galactose). The dehydration of fructose to 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural produces much less soluble polymer than that from glucose and galactose, which results in high yields of levulinic acid/ester from fructose. Anhydrate sugar such as levoglucosan tends to undergo the undesirable decomposition to form less levulinic acid/ester. Catalytic behaviors of the poly-sugars (sucrose, maltose, raffinose, β-cyclodextrins) were determined much by their basic units. However, their big molecular sizes create the steric hindrance that significantly affects their followed conversion over solid acid catalyst. PMID:23454803

  5. The Savannah River Technology Center environmental monitoring field test platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly all industrial facilities have been responsible for introducing synthetic chemicals into the environment. The Savannah River Site is no exception. Several areas at the site have been contaminated by chlorinated volatile organic chemicals. Because of the persistence and refractory nature of these contaminants, a complete clean up of the site will take many years. A major focus of the mission of the Environmental Sciences Section of the Savannah River Technology Center is to develop better, faster, and less expensive methods for characterizing, monitoring, and remediating the subsurface. These new methods can then be applied directly at the Savannah River Site and at other contaminated areas in the United States and throughout the world. The Environmental Sciences Section has hosted field testing of many different monitoring technologies over the past two years primarily as a result of the Integrated Demonstration Program sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development. This paper provides an overview of some of the technologies that have been demonstrated at the site and briefly discusses the applicability of these techniques

  6. E-Center: A Collaborative Platform for Wide Area Network Users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The E-Center is a social collaborative web-based platform for assisting network users in understanding network conditions across network paths of interest to them. It is designed to give a user the necessary tools to isolate, identify, and resolve network performance-related problems. E-Center provides network path information on a link-by-link level, as well as from an end-to-end perspective. In addition to providing current and recent network path data, E-Center is intended to provide a social media environment for them to share issues, ideas, concerns, and problems. The product has a modular design that accommodates integration of other network services that make use of the same network path and performance data.

  7. Soybean bio-refinery platform: enzymatic process for production of soy protein concentrate, soy protein isolate and fermentable sugar syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loman, Abdullah Al; Islam, S M Mahfuzul; Li, Qian; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-10-01

    Soybean carbohydrate is often found to limit the use of protein in soy flour as food and animal feed due to its indigestibility to monogastric animal. In the current study, an enzymatic process was developed to produce not only soy protein concentrate and soy protein isolate without indigestible carbohydrate but also soluble reducing sugar as potential fermentation feedstock. For increasing protein content in the product and maximizing protein recovery, the process was optimized to include the following steps: hydrolysis of soy flour using an Aspergillus niger enzyme system; separation of the solid and liquid by centrifugation (10 min at 7500×g); an optional step of washing to remove entrapped hydrolysate from the protein-rich wet solid stream by ethanol (at an ethanol-to-wet-solid ratio (v/w) of 10, resulting in a liquid phase of approximately 60 % ethanol); and a final precipitation of residual protein from the sugar-rich liquid stream by heat treatment (30 min at 95 °C). Starting from 100 g soy flour, this process would produce approximately 54 g soy protein concentrate with 70 % protein (or, including the optional solid wash, 43 g with 80 % protein), 9 g soy protein isolate with 89 % protein, and 280 ml syrup of 60 g/l reducing sugar. The amino acid composition of the soy protein concentrate produced was comparable to that of the starting soy flour. Enzymes produced by three fungal species, A. niger, Trichoderma reesei, and Aspergillus aculeatus, were also evaluated for effectiveness to use in this process.

  8. Soybean bio-refinery platform: enzymatic process for production of soy protein concentrate, soy protein isolate and fermentable sugar syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loman, Abdullah Al; Islam, S M Mahfuzul; Li, Qian; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-10-01

    Soybean carbohydrate is often found to limit the use of protein in soy flour as food and animal feed due to its indigestibility to monogastric animal. In the current study, an enzymatic process was developed to produce not only soy protein concentrate and soy protein isolate without indigestible carbohydrate but also soluble reducing sugar as potential fermentation feedstock. For increasing protein content in the product and maximizing protein recovery, the process was optimized to include the following steps: hydrolysis of soy flour using an Aspergillus niger enzyme system; separation of the solid and liquid by centrifugation (10 min at 7500×g); an optional step of washing to remove entrapped hydrolysate from the protein-rich wet solid stream by ethanol (at an ethanol-to-wet-solid ratio (v/w) of 10, resulting in a liquid phase of approximately 60 % ethanol); and a final precipitation of residual protein from the sugar-rich liquid stream by heat treatment (30 min at 95 °C). Starting from 100 g soy flour, this process would produce approximately 54 g soy protein concentrate with 70 % protein (or, including the optional solid wash, 43 g with 80 % protein), 9 g soy protein isolate with 89 % protein, and 280 ml syrup of 60 g/l reducing sugar. The amino acid composition of the soy protein concentrate produced was comparable to that of the starting soy flour. Enzymes produced by three fungal species, A. niger, Trichoderma reesei, and Aspergillus aculeatus, were also evaluated for effectiveness to use in this process. PMID:27207010

  9. Dendritic silica particles with center-radial pore channels: promising platforms for catalysis and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2015-01-27

    Dendritic silica micro-/nanoparticles with center-radial pore structures, a kind of newly created porous material, have attracted considerable attention owing to their unique open three-dimensional dendritic superstructures with large pore channels and highly accessible internal surface areas compared with conventional mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). They are very promising platforms for a variety of applications in catalysis and nanomedicine. In this review, their unique structural characteristics and properties are first analyzed, then novel and interesting synthesis methods associated with the possible formation mechanisms are summarized to provide material scientists some inspiration for the preparation of this kind of dendritic particles. Subsequently, a few examples of interesting applications are presented, mainly in catalysis, biomedicine, and other important fields such as for sacrificial templates and functional coatings. The review is concluded with an outlook on the prospects and challenges in terms of their controlled synthesis and potential applications.

  10. Sweeteners - sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rise in blood sugar after meals or cause tooth decay. Unlike other sugar alcohols, it does not cause ... and other sweeteners with calories can lead to tooth decay . Large amounts of sugar-containing foods lead to ...

  11. JobCenter: an open source, cross-platform, and distributed job queue management system optimized for scalability and versatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaschob Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laboratories engaged in computational biology or bioinformatics frequently need to run lengthy, multistep, and user-driven computational jobs. Each job can tie up a computer for a few minutes to several days, and many laboratories lack the expertise or resources to build and maintain a dedicated computer cluster. Results JobCenter is a client–server application and framework for job management and distributed job execution. The client and server components are both written in Java and are cross-platform and relatively easy to install. All communication with the server is client-driven, which allows worker nodes to run anywhere (even behind external firewalls or “in the cloud” and provides inherent load balancing. Adding a worker node to the worker pool is as simple as dropping the JobCenter client files onto any computer and performing basic configuration, which provides tremendous ease-of-use, flexibility, and limitless horizontal scalability. Each worker installation may be independently configured, including the types of jobs it is able to run. Executed jobs may be written in any language and may include multistep workflows. Conclusions JobCenter is a versatile and scalable distributed job management system that allows laboratories to very efficiently distribute all computational work among available resources. JobCenter is freely available at http://code.google.com/p/jobcenter/.

  12. An Open Data Platform in the framework of the EGI-LifeWatch Competence Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Gómez, Fernando; de Lucas, Jesús Marco; Yaiza Rodríguez Marrero, Ana

    2016-04-01

    The working pilot of an Open Data Platform supporting the full data cycle in research is presented. It aims to preserve knowledge explicitly, starting with the description of the Case Studies, and integrating data and software management and preservation on equal basis. The uninterrupted support in the chain starts at the data acquisition level and covers up to the support for reuse and publication in an open framework, providing integrity and provenance controls. The Lifewatch Open Science Framework is a pilot web portal developed in collaboration with different commercial companies that tries to enrich and integrate different data lifecycle-related tools in order to address the management of the different steps: data planning, gathering, storing, curation, preservation, sharing, discovering, etc. To achieve this goal, the platform includes the following features: -Data Management Planning. Tool to set up an structure of the data, including what data will be generated, how it will be exploited, re-used, curated, preserved, etc. It has a semantic approach: includes reference to ontologies in order to express what data will be gathered. -Close to instrumentation. The portal includes a distributed storage system that can be used both for storing data from instruments and output data from analysis. All that data can be shared -Analysis. Resources from EGI Federated Cloud are accessible within the portal, so that users can exploit computing resources to perform analysis and other processes, including workflows. -Preservation. Data can be preserved in different systems and DOIs can be minted not only for datasets but also for software, DMPs, etc. The presentation will show the different components of the framework as well as how it can be extrapolated to other communities.

  13. Sweeteners - sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at much higher risk for type 2 diabetes , metabolic syndrome , and high blood pressure . Sugar alcohols such as ... limiting the amount of added sugars in your diet. The recommendation extends to all types of added ...

  14. Sugar beet activities of the USDA-ARS East Lansing conducted in cooperation with Saginaw Research & Extension Center during 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation and rating plots were planted at the Saginaw Valley Research & Extension Center (SVREC) in Frankenmuth, MI in 2014 that focused on Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) and Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (CRR) disease performance of a wide range of Beta vulgaris materials. CLS and CRR trials were co...

  15. Sustainability aspects of biobased applications : comparison of different crops and products from the sugar platform BO-12.05-002-008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.L.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Conijn, J.G.; Corre, W.J.; Patel, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study different uses of biomass are compared. In order to allow for a systematic comparison the study focuses on three different chemicals that can be produced from sugar. In this way it is also, in principle, possible to compare different crops for the production of the same product. The st

  16. Mine or Theirs, Where Do Users Go? A Comparison of E-Journal Usage at the OhioLINK Electronic Journal Center Platform versus the Elsevier ScienceDirect Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Juleah

    2015-01-01

    This research provides librarians with a model for assessing and predicting which platforms patrons will use to access the same content, specifically comparing usage at the Ohio Library and Information Network (OhioLINK) Electronic Journal Center (EJC) and at Elsevier's ScienceDirect from 2007 to 2013. Findings show that in the earlier years, the…

  17. Managing information well: Toward an ontology-driven informatics platform for data sharing and secondary use in epilepsy self-management research centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Satya S; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Bamps, Yvan; Fraser, Robert; Stoll, Shelley; Lhatoo, Samden D; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Sams, Johnny; Welter, Elisabeth; Sajatovic, Martha

    2016-09-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition that requires active self-management to reduce personal and population burden. The Managing Epilepsy Well Network, funded by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, conducts research on epilepsy self-management. There is an urgent need to develop an integrated informatics platform to maximize the secondary use of existing Managing Epilepsy Well Network data. We have implemented multiple steps to develop an informatics platform, including: (a) a survey of existing outcome data, (b) identification of common data elements, and (c) an integrated database using an epilepsy domain ontology to reconcile data heterogeneity. The informatics platform enables assessment of epilepsy self-management samples by site and in aggregate to support data interpretations for clinical care and ongoing epilepsy self-management research. The Managing Epilepsy Well informatics platform is expected to help advance epilepsy self-management, improve health outcomes, and has potential application in other thematic research networks. PMID:25769938

  18. Added Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Restaurant Deciphering the Menu Ordering Your Meal Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness ... Learn more about reading food labels . Limit your consumption of foods with high amounts of added sugars, ...

  19. SUrvey of Guideline Adherence for Treatment of Systolic Heart Failure in Real World (SUGAR: a multi-center, retrospective, observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Su Yoo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines have been slowly and inconsistently applied in clinical practice, and certain evidence-based, guideline-driven therapies for heart failure (HF have been significantly underused. The purpose of this study was to survey guideline compliance and its effect on clinical outcomes in the treatment of systolic HF in Korea. METHOD AND RESULTS: The SUrvey of Guideline Adherence for Treatment of Systolic Heart Failure in Real World (SUGAR trial was a multi-center, retrospective, observational study on subjects with systolic HF (ejection fraction <45% admitted to 23 university hospitals. The guideline adherence indicator (GAI was defined as a performance measure on the basis of 3 pharmacological classes: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI or angiotensin receptor II blocker (ARB, beta-blocker (BB, and aldosterone antagonist (AA. Based on the overall adherence percentage, subjects were divided into 2 groups: those with good guideline adherence (GAI ≥50% and poor guideline adherence (GAI <50%. We included 1319 regional participants as representatives of the standard population from the Korean national census in 2008. Adherence to drugs at discharge was as follows: ACEI or ARB, 89.7%; BB, 69.2%; and AA, 65.9%. Overall, 82.7% of the patients had good guideline adherence. Overall mortality and re-hospitalization rates at 1 year were 6.2% and 37.4%, respectively. Survival analysis by log-rank test showed a significant difference in event-free survival rate of mortality (94.7% vs. 89.8%, p = 0.003 and re-hospitalization (62.3% vs. 56.4%, p = 0.041 between the good and poor guideline-adherence groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with systolic HF in Korea, adherence to pharmacologic treatment guidelines as determined by performance measures, including prescription of ACEI/ARB and BB at discharge, was associated with improved clinical outcomes.

  20. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  1. Critical success factors and case analysis on platform marketing for coal trading center%煤炭交易中心平台营销的关键成功要素与案例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董丽荣

    2015-01-01

    煤炭交易中心平台运营需要特定的平台营销模式。界定了平台营销的概念,提出集体营销和整体营销理念,构建了基于SAVER的平台营销框架。描述了煤炭交易中心平台营销的特殊性、迫切性,并识别了煤炭交易中心启动期平台营销的重要举措,最后以内蒙古煤炭交易中心的平台营销为例进行了案例分析。%Coal trading center need specific marketing model for platform under the guidance of platform operation. This paper defines the concept of platform marketing,reveals collective marketing and holistic marketing for platform marketing,and builds the platform marketing framework based on SAVER model;then it identifies the characteristics and urgency of platform marketing for coal trading center,presents several crucial actions and tactics of platform market-ing for coal trading center;finally a case study of Inner Mongolia Coal Exchange Center platform marketing is presented.

  2. Software Development Of Sugar Cane Plantation And Harvesting Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This software is a management system based on database-driven computer software application. It is intended to improve the quality of sugar cane through increased efficiency in managing, harvesting and transporting of sugar cane, as part of a sugar factory operation. The software was developed using the Borland Delphi development platform, with database manipulation using Microsoft Access. The software is intended for Personal Computer with Windows 95 (or later) installed. The application has been tested with acceptable result and can be used in Sragi Sugar Factory's related activities; namely sugar cane plantation management, harvesting and transporting of sugar cane, payment process and other related administrative processes

  3. Measuring Center of Pressure Signals to Quantify Human Balance Using Multivariate Multiscale Entropy by Designing a Force Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-Wei Huang; Pei-Der Sue; Maysam F. Abbod; Jiang, Bernard C.; Jiann-Shing Shieh

    2013-01-01

    Copyright @ 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). To assess the improvement of human body balance, a low cost and portable measuring device of center of pressure (COP), known as center of pressure and complexity monitoring system (CPCMS), has been developed for data logging and analysis. In order to pr...

  4. Clinical Data Center Based on Integration Platform%基于集成平台的临床数据中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉杰

    2014-01-01

    基于集成平台的完整一体化医院信息系统是目前医院建设和发展的基础工程,医院各系统之间的整合,建立患者主索引、标准字典库和临床数据中心、数据交换平台和数据共享平台,是优化业务流程,提高工作效率,充分体现医院管理和业务特色的重要工作。%The hospital information system established on a complete integration platform is currently the basic project in the hospital information system construction and development. To embody the outstanding characteristics in hospital business management, the important work in information system construction is to optimize business processes and improve work efficiency. This includes integrating different administrative departments and establishing the prime patient index, standardized dictionary database, clinical data center, data exchange platform and data sharing platform.

  5. UC3M Emergencies : health center search, first aid, defibrillators, emergency exits, last warnings and torch (iOS platform)

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Civiac, María

    2013-01-01

    This document contains Maria Martin’s bachelor thesis. The issues that this project wants to solve are emergencies-related: health centersand emergency exits location,emergency call, first aid instructions and information and latest emergency alerts at Carlos III University. It has been detected that members of Carlos III University currently have difficulties to find health centers, emergency exits and first aid information. Furthermore, the University itself did not have any mechanism to pu...

  6. Sugar Substitutes: Artificial Sweeteners and Sugar Alcohols

    OpenAIRE

    Washburn, Carolyn; Christensen, Nedra

    2012-01-01

    Most people enjoy the sweet taste of food. Artificial sweeteners and sugar alcohols can provide the sweet flavor and be beneficial for people with diabetes or those choosing to avoid sugars because they contain lower calories and carbohydrates than regular sugars. These products are also beneficial in that they do not cause tooth decay.

  7. Measuring center of pressure signals to quantify human balance using multivariate multiscale entropy by designing a force platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Wei; Sue, Pei-Der; Abbod, Maysam F; Jiang, Bernard C; Shieh, Jiann-Shing

    2013-01-01

    To assess the improvement of human body balance, a low cost and portable measuring device of center of pressure (COP), known as center of pressure and complexity monitoring system (CPCMS), has been developed for data logging and analysis. In order to prove that the system can estimate the different magnitude of different sways in comparison with the commercial Advanced Mechanical Technology Incorporation (AMTI) system, four sway tests have been developed (i.e., eyes open, eyes closed, eyes open with water pad, and eyes closed with water pad) to produce different sway displacements. Firstly, static and dynamic tests were conducted to investigate the feasibility of the system. Then, correlation tests of the CPCMS and AMTI systems have been compared with four sway tests. The results are within the acceptable range. Furthermore, multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD) and enhanced multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) analysis methods have been used to analyze COP data reported by the CPCMS and compare it with the AMTI system. The improvements of the CPCMS are 35% to 70% (open eyes test) and 60% to 70% (eyes closed test) with and without water pad. The AMTI system has shown an improvement of 40% to 80% (open eyes test) and 65% to 75% (closed eyes test). The results indicate that the CPCMS system can achieve similar results to the commercial product so it can determine the balance. PMID:23966184

  8. Measuring Center of Pressure Signals to Quantify Human Balance Using Multivariate Multiscale Entropy by Designing a Force Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Huang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To assess the improvement of human body balance, a low cost and portable measuring device of center of pressure (COP, known as center of pressure and complexity monitoring system (CPCMS, has been developed for data logging and analysis. In order to prove that the system can estimate the different magnitude of different sways in comparison with the commercial Advanced Mechanical Technology Incorporation (AMTI system, four sway tests have been developed (i.e., eyes open, eyes closed, eyes open with water pad, and eyes closed with water pad to produce different sway displacements. Firstly, static and dynamic tests were conducted to investigate the feasibility of the system. Then, correlation tests of the CPCMS and AMTI systems have been compared with four sway tests. The results are within the acceptable range. Furthermore, multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD and enhanced multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE analysis methods have been used to analyze COP data reported by the CPCMS and compare it with the AMTI system. The improvements of the CPCMS are 35% to 70% (open eyes test and 60% to 70% (eyes closed test with and without water pad. The AMTI system has shown an improvement of 40% to 80% (open eyes test and 65% to 75% (closed eyes test. The results indicate that the CPCMS system can achieve similar results to the commercial product so it can determine the balance.

  9. Mutagenicity profile of atmospheric particulate matter in a small urban center subjected to airborne emission from vehicle traffic and sugar cane burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Debora Kristina M; Kummrow, Fábio; Cardoso, Arnaldo A; Morales, Daniel A; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is genotoxic and recently was classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. PM chemical composition varies depending on source and atmospheric conditions. The Salmonella/microsome assay is the most used mutagenicity test and can identify the major chemical classes responsible for observed mutagenicity. The objective of this work was to characterize the mutagenicity of PM samples from a countryside city, Limeira, Brazil, which is influenced by heavy traffic and sugar cane biomass burning. Six samples of total PM were collected. Air mass backward trajectories were calculated. Organic extracts were assayed using the Salmonella/microsome microsuspension mutagenicity assay using TA98, YG1041, and TA1538, with and without metabolic activation (S9). YG1041 was the most sensitive strain and mutagenicity reached 9,700 revertants per m(3) without metabolic activation. Potency for TA1538 was higher than TA98, indicating that this strain should be considered in air mutagenicity studies. The increased response to YG1041 relative to TA98, and the decreased response with S9, suggests that nitroaromatics are the major contributors. Limeira is among the most mutagenic cities in the world. High mutagenicity in Limeira seems to occur when the air mass from the area of sugarcane production is mixed with air from the region impacted by anthropogenic activities such as traffic. An increase in the formation of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may result from longer contact time between the aromatic compounds and the atmosphere with high NOx and ozone concentration, although more studies are required to confirm this hypothesis.

  10. Mutagenicity profile of atmospheric particulate matter in a small urban center subjected to airborne emission from vehicle traffic and sugar cane burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Debora Kristina M; Kummrow, Fábio; Cardoso, Arnaldo A; Morales, Daniel A; Umbuzeiro, Gisela A

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is genotoxic and recently was classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. PM chemical composition varies depending on source and atmospheric conditions. The Salmonella/microsome assay is the most used mutagenicity test and can identify the major chemical classes responsible for observed mutagenicity. The objective of this work was to characterize the mutagenicity of PM samples from a countryside city, Limeira, Brazil, which is influenced by heavy traffic and sugar cane biomass burning. Six samples of total PM were collected. Air mass backward trajectories were calculated. Organic extracts were assayed using the Salmonella/microsome microsuspension mutagenicity assay using TA98, YG1041, and TA1538, with and without metabolic activation (S9). YG1041 was the most sensitive strain and mutagenicity reached 9,700 revertants per m(3) without metabolic activation. Potency for TA1538 was higher than TA98, indicating that this strain should be considered in air mutagenicity studies. The increased response to YG1041 relative to TA98, and the decreased response with S9, suggests that nitroaromatics are the major contributors. Limeira is among the most mutagenic cities in the world. High mutagenicity in Limeira seems to occur when the air mass from the area of sugarcane production is mixed with air from the region impacted by anthropogenic activities such as traffic. An increase in the formation of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may result from longer contact time between the aromatic compounds and the atmosphere with high NOx and ozone concentration, although more studies are required to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:26289646

  11. Constructing HSOC data platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HXMT is the only independent space astronomic secondary planet during 2006-2010 in China. Also it is the first independent astronomic secondary planet of China. HSOC, which is the data management sub-system, is the fundamental infrastructure of HXMT's scientific administration center. The data platform is the object of data management sub-system, which is an integrated platform supporting storage, share, exchange, query, statistics and management of data. The paper introduces the meaning and construction of HSOC data platform. (authors)

  12. Sustainability Issues and Opportunities in the Sugar and Sugar-Bioproduct Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Eggleston

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Like many other industries, the sugar and sugar-bioproduct industries are facing important sustainability issues and opportunities. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, surpluses of sugar, world-wide trend to produce alternative, renewable bio-based fuels and chemicals to those derived from petroleum and reduce greenhouse gases, water- and energy-intensive factories and refineries, and increased consumer demands for sustainably manufactured products are putting pressure on the industries to diversify for sustainability. Sugar crops, including sugar and energy cane (Saccharum officinarum, sugar and energy beets (Beta vulgaris, and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, are excellent, renewable biomass feedstocks because of their availability, their being amongst the plants that give the highest yields of carbohydrates per hectare, and high sugar contents. While much research has been focused on conversion technologies for advanced biofuels and bioproducts, attention is now focused on developing sustainable supply chains of sugar feedstocks for the new, flexible biorefineries, with customers wanting maximum feedstock reliability and quality, while minimizing cost. All biomass from sugar crops are potential feedstocks. The cogeneration of bioelectricity from bagasse and leaf residues is being increasingly manufactured in more countries and, due to the high carbon content of bagasse and leaves, can also be converted into value-added products such as biochar. Sugar crops are superior feedstocks for the production of platform chemicals for the manufacture of a range of end-products, e.g., bioplastics, chemicals, and biomaterials. In several countries and regions, green sustainability criteria are now in place and have to be met to count against national biofuel targets. Processes to convert high-fiber sugar crop biomass into biofuel have been developed but there has only been limited commercialization at the large-scale.

  13. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar Print ... Other Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar ...

  14. Hydrophobic sugar holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Fontanilla-Urdaneta, R.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2008-02-01

    The sugar matrix is used to record of phase holograms; it was modified with the purpose of obtaining a hydrophobic material to improve the stability of the registered image and to stimulate the photosensitivity of the sugar. The new material is formed by a sugar, pectin and vanillin dissolution. The diffraction efficiency parameter increases in comparison with only the sugar matrix, obtaining already of 10%.

  15. Sugar exported: sugar packed in containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Yemal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study in the port sector specialized in handling of bagged sugar. Sugar has always been exported in bags of 50 kg, placed directly in the holds of ships for general cargo. It appears that this form of transport has become obsolete now, the market for the direct form of transport of sugar packed in containers. Companies involved in this type of port handling need understand the reasons that are influencing this new mode of transportation as a way to fit and remain active and competitive in the industry.

  16. Sugar, ethics and legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azize, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    There are serious ethical and legal issues concerning the sale of sugar products, especially to children, yet one cannot address children's consumption without addressing consumption across society. The ethical principles are not even controversial. However, sugar has been insufficiently scrutinised, probably because sweetness is popular and plays a prominent, but dispensable, cultural role. Sugar is both addictive and toxic, although it is a very mild, very slow-working poison. Yet, over time, its effects can be quite serious. The social and health problems have proved grave and intractable. Given the nature of sugar, it should be regulated like alcohol and tobacco, if not more stringently, given its greater social and cultural penetration across all ages. That is, sales of sugar products at school canteens should be banned, advertising severely limited, full disclosure of sugar content made mandatory, warnings placed on certain products, and sugar itself should be taxed. PMID:20552941

  17. Sugar and Other Sweeteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godshall, Mary An

    Sugar and starch are among the most abundant plant products available, and large industries exist worldwide to extract and process them from agricultural sources. The world production of sugar (sucrose from cane and beet) in 2004/2005 was 142 million metric tons, raw value, 1 with 24.8 percent of that being beet sugar and 75.1 percent being cane sugar.2 The proportion of beet sugar to cane sugar has fallen steadily since about 1971, when it constituted 42.8 percent of total sugar production. The decline in total beet sugar proportion over the last ten years represents not so much a decline in beet production, which has remained in a range of 33-39 million metric tons, but rather a continued increase in cane sugar production from around 70 million metric tons in 1991 to 112 million metric tons.2 The production of total world sugar has also risen dramatically since 1971/72, when it was 71.7 million tons.3

  18. Detection of Sugar-Lectin Interactions by Multivalent Dendritic Sugar Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Vasu, K S; Bagul, R S; Jayaraman, N; Sood, A K; 10.1063/1.4739793

    2012-01-01

    We show that single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) decorated with sugar functionalized poly (propyl ether imine) (PETIM) dendrimer is a very sensitive platform to quantitatively detect carbohydrate recognizing proteins, namely, lectins. The changes in electrical conductivity of SWNT in field effect transistor device due to carbohydrate - protein interactions form the basis of present study. The mannose sugar attached PETIM dendrimers undergo charge - transfer interactions with the SWNT. The changes in the conductance of the dendritic sugar functionalized SWNT after addition of lectins in varying concentrations were found to follow the Langmuir type isotherm, giving the concanavalin A (Con A) - mannose affinity constant to be 8.5 x 106 M-1. The increase in the device conductance observed after adding 10 nM of Con A is same as after adding 20 \\muM of a non - specific lectin peanut agglutinin, showing the high specificity of the Con A - mannose interactions. The specificity of sugar-lectin interactions was chara...

  19. Sugar - a harmless indulgence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Ovesen, L.

    1998-01-01

    and mineral deficiency, especially in low energy consumers. The sugar intake and the fat intake, expressed as percentage of energy, usually show an inverse association. This has lead to the statement that a diet with both a low sugar content and a low fat content is incompatible, but we will argue...... that this is not the fact. The significance of sugar for the development of obesity is not clarified. A high fat content in the diet seems to promote the development of obesity, while a high carbohydrate content tends to reduce obesity. It is not known if sugar in this connection is comparable to the other carbohydrates......The consumption of sugar is relatively high in Denmark - and other industrial countries - and many persons have a consumption which exceeds the recommended level of maximally 10% of energy intake. A high sugar consumption may reduce the nutrient density of the diet and increase the risk of vitamin...

  20. Sugar from Palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders

    Throughout the tropics and subtropics a large number of products are derived from the sugar-rich sap tapped from palms. I will give an overview of the most important species being exploited, harvesting practices and yields. I will further provide insights in the biomechanmics of sugar...... transportation in palms, which remain an enigma. Finally, the prospects for developing palm sugar into a commodity of worlswide significance will be discussed....

  1. Transport of sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Qing; Cheung, Lily S; Feng, Liang; Tanner, Widmar; Frommer, Wolf B

    2015-01-01

    Soluble sugars serve five main purposes in multicellular organisms: as sources of carbon skeletons, osmolytes, signals, and transient energy storage and as transport molecules. Most sugars are derived from photosynthetic organisms, particularly plants. In multicellular organisms, some cells specialize in providing sugars to other cells (e.g., intestinal and liver cells in animals, photosynthetic cells in plants), whereas others depend completely on an external supply (e.g., brain cells, roots and seeds). This cellular exchange of sugars requires transport proteins to mediate uptake or release from cells or subcellular compartments. Thus, not surprisingly, sugar transport is critical for plants, animals, and humans. At present, three classes of eukaryotic sugar transporters have been characterized, namely the glucose transporters (GLUTs), sodium-glucose symporters (SGLTs), and SWEETs. This review presents the history and state of the art of sugar transporter research, covering genetics, biochemistry, and physiology-from their identification and characterization to their structure, function, and physiology. In humans, understanding sugar transport has therapeutic importance (e.g., addressing diabetes or limiting access of cancer cells to sugars), and in plants, these transporters are critical for crop yield and pathogen susceptibility.

  2. Structural studies of sugar binding proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Sooriyaarachchi, Sanjeewani

    2010-01-01

    Binding proteins, which are themselves non-enzymatic, play an important role in enzymatic reactions as well as non-enzymatic processes by providing a binding platform for the specific recognition of particular molecules. For example, periplasmic binding proteins play a vital role in nutrient uptake in Gram-negative bacteria. In the present study, three sugar binding proteins, including two periplasmic binding proteins and a β-glucan binding protein, are described. The glucose/galactose bindin...

  3. Sugar (sucrose) holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Lee, E. L.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2004-06-01

    Computer holograms made with sugar crystals are reported. This material is well known as a good sweetener; the sugar from sugar cane or sugar beet (sucrose). These sweetener can be applied as honey "water and diluted sugar" easily on any substrate such as plastics or glasses without critical conditions for developed process. This step corresponds only to the cured sucrose as a photopolymer process. The maximum absorption spectra is localized at UV region λ=240 nm. We record with lithographic techniques some gratings, showing a good diffraction efficiency around 45%. This material has good resolution to make diffraction gratings. These properties are attractive because they open the possibility to make phase holograms on candies. Mainly the phase modulation is by refraction index.

  4. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds

  5. Design of Data Center of RDB Platform and Big Data Platform Mashup%RDB平台和大数据平台混搭式的数据中心设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张轶

    2015-01-01

    Existing warehouse storage and performance is close to saturation with massive data,on the one hand,causing that traditional warehouse calculated pressure is too large to carry,on the other hand,traditional warehouse scalability is weak and cost is high. Aiming to those problems,creatively propose “mix mode” which is the big data architecture platform coexisting with RDB platform by introducing the new technology of cloud computing and unstructured data processing,achieving cost-effective storage and handling for various types of data. The main task of RDB technology is to solve the traditional warehouse structured data business,and big data platform technology is used to solve unstructured data processing and storage business of big data platform.%针对现有仓库存储和性能接近饱和,数据海量,一方面传统经分仓库计算压力大无法承载,另一方面传统经分仓库的扩展性弱,且成本很高。通过引入云计算、非结构化数据处理等新技术,创造性地提出了大数据架构平台与RDB平台并存的“混搭模式”,实现对各类数据高效低成本的存储及处理。 RDB技术主要解决传统仓库(主数据仓库、地市集市、VGOP等专业集市)结构化数据业务,大数据平台技术主要解决大数据平台(流量日志类、网络信令类等流量运营)非结构化数据的处理和存储业务。

  6. Sugars in Antarctic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Elena; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Zangrando, Roberta; Vecchiato, Marco; Piazza, Rossano; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The processes and transformations occurring in the Antarctic aerosol during atmospheric transport were described using selected sugars as source tracers. Monosaccharides (arabinose, fructose, galactose, glucose, mannose, ribose, xylose), disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose, lactulose), alcohol-sugars (erythritol, mannitol, ribitol, sorbitol, xylitol, maltitol, galactitol) and anhydrosugars (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan) were measured in the Antarctic aerosol collected during four different sampling campaigns. For quantification, a sensitive high-pressure anion exchange chromatography was coupled with a single quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method was validated, showing good accuracy and low method quantification limits. This study describes the first determination of sugars in the Antarctic aerosol. The total mean concentration of sugars in the aerosol collected at the "Mario Zucchelli" coastal station was 140 pg m-3; as for the aerosol collected over the Antarctic plateau during two consecutive sampling campaigns, the concentration amounted to 440 and 438 pg m-3. The study of particle-size distribution allowed us to identify the natural emission from spores or from sea-spray as the main sources of sugars in the coastal area. The enrichment of sugars in the fine fraction of the aerosol collected on the Antarctic plateau is due to the degradation of particles during long-range atmospheric transport. The composition of sugars in the coarse fraction was also investigated in the aerosol collected during the oceanographic cruise.

  7. Sugar Coated Taro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Taro is smooth and sticky in texture and rich in fat,protein and sugar.According to Chinese traditional medicine, taro nourishes the spine and stomach and helps energy. Ingredients:500 grams taro (peeled and chopped into diamond-shaped cubes), 15 grams sugar. 250 grams vegetable oil. Method: 1. Heat oil in a wok and add taro cubes. Fry unti they turn golden brown. 2. Take out the taro with a sieve and pour the oil into a container for later use. Add sugar and one tablespoon oil.Stir continuously to prevent burning. When the

  8. Efficient extraction of zero-phonon-line photons from single nitrogen-vacancy centers in an integrated GaP-on-diamond platform

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Michael; Dadgostar, Shabnam; Hatami, Fariba; Fu, Kai-Mei C

    2016-01-01

    Scaling beyond two-node quantum networks using nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond is limited by the low probability of collecting zero phonon line (ZPL) photons from single centers. Here, we demonstrate GaP-on-diamond disk resonators which resonantly couple ZPL photons from single NV centers to single-mode waveguides. In these devices, the probability of a single NV center emitting a ZPL photon into the guided waveguide mode after optical excitation can reach 9%, due to a combination of resonant enhancement of the ZPL emission and efficient coupling between the resonator and waveguide. We verify the single-photon nature of the emission and experimentally demonstrate both high in-waveguide photon numbers and substantial Purcell enhancement for a set of devices. These devices may enable scalable integrated quantum networks based on NV centers.

  9. NV centers in 3 C ,4 H , and 6 H silicon carbide: A variable platform for solid-state qubits and nanosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bardeleben, H. J.; Cantin, J. L.; Csóré, A.; Gali, A.; Rauls, E.; Gerstmann, U.

    2016-09-01

    The outstanding magneto-optical properties of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond have stimulated the search for similar systems. We show here that NV triplet centers can also be generated in all the main SiC polytypes. We have identified by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and first-principles calculations the axial NV- pairs in 3 C ,4 H , and 6 H SiC, showing polytype and lattice site-specific magnetic and optical properties. We demonstrate very efficient room-temperature spin polarization of the ground state upon near infrared optical excitation for the NV center in 3 C SiC and axial NV centers in the hexagonal (4 H ,6 H ) polytypes; the signals of basal pairs are much lower in intensity. Axial NV centers in hexagonal SiC polytypes and thus constitute unidirectional ensembles which may be useful in nanosensing applications.

  10. Blood Sugar and Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyperglycemia) can be a sign of the disease diabetes mellitus. High blood sugar levels can eventually damage ... treated with the same medications used to treat diabetes. There is no simple blood test for insulin ...

  11. Offshore Minerals Management Platforms for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Geographic NAD83, MMS (2006) [platforms_mms_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Offshore Minerals Management Platforms for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Identifies the location of platforms in GOM. All platforms existing in the database are included.

  12. Platform Constellations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina Stefanova; Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This research paper presents an initial attempt to introduce and explain the emergence of new phenomenon, which we refer to as platform constellations. Functioning as highly modular systems, the platform constellations are collections of highly connected platforms which co-exist in parallel and a......’ acquisition and users’ engagement rates as well as unlock new sources of value creation and diversify revenue streams....

  13. Platform Constructionof RegionalEnergy Management Center%区域性能源管理中心平台建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡珏

    2014-01-01

    Based on the analysis of different requirements of energy management center construction and the data acquisition of various industries in wide area network, as well as the practices of real-time online system, the paper puts forward the construction scheme of regional energy management center (REMC) which can achieve real time online monitoring of organizations' energy consumption via data collection, and also proposes the design idea of energy data acquisition based on national standards.

  14. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the condit

  15. Research and information security management of C structure application data distribution center platform%C机构应用数据集散地平台的科研信息资料安全管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鑫

    2015-01-01

    With the degree of information technology industry research continuously deepening, information leakage events occur frequently, which makes serious impact on the reputation and image of scientific research institutions. Data distribution center platform is a C-based agency headquarters Browser / Server architecture development platform data sharing. This study describes the personal network disk, group documents, group user maintenance, work order process and its application. Distribution center platform C organizations can quickly and easily be shared and information security management research, to meet the daily researchers centralized storage, grading, you need security controls to ensure that information security research, worth in the promotion of scientific research institutions.%随着科研行业信息化程度不断加深,信息泄露事件频频发生,严重影响了科研机构的声誉和形象。数据集散地平台是C机构总部基于Browser/Server架构开发的数据共享平台,本研究主要介绍了个人网盘、组文件、组用户维护、工单流程及其应用。C机构的集散地平台能够方便、快捷地实现科研信息的共享和安全管理,满足日常科研人员集中存储、分级使用、安全控制的需要,确保科研信息安全,值得在科研机构推广。

  16. International Competitiveness of Sugar Production

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Beate; Zeddies, Jurgen

    2002-01-01

    Sugar market is one of the most protected markets for agricultural products world wide. In almost every sugar producing country the sugar market is regulated in some way. With an increasing liberalization of agricultural trade in the "Millennium Round" of the WTO trade negotiations, the question of international competitiveness is of increasing importance. Based on empirical studies, in this article the competitiveness of sugar production in the most important sugar producing countries is ana...

  17. Design and construction of virtual logistics center and information platform%虚拟物流中心和信息平台的设计与构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷锋社; 李选芒

    2012-01-01

    On the virtual logistics center properties, function, operation mode and key cost undertakes thorough analysis put forward the construction of virtual logistics center needs to solve three key problems proposed constructing virtual logistics center system method and the theory of virtual logistics center of the importance of the construction of the information platform. The proposed logistics network of entities and the virtual network has become a seamless combination of modern logistics needs of the primary objectives and direction of development of the logistics industry.%对虚拟物流中心的性质、职能、运作模式及关键成本进行深入分析提出了构建虚拟物流中心需要解决的三个关键问题提出了构建虚拟物流中心的系统方法和理论提出虚拟物流中心的信息平台建设的重要性。提出物流的实体网络与虚拟网络的无缝结合已成为现代物流需求的首要目标和物流行业的发展方向。

  18. Lysimeter Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Plieschnegger, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The existing European Lysimeter Platform (www.lysimeter.at/HP_EuLP) provides an overview of lysimeter types used in Europe and show details on equipment, research results and future perspectives of lysimeter facilities. However, this platform is not user-editable and has not been updated since 2008. Thus, the Lysimeter Research Group (www.lysimeter.at) intends to serve a new database based website called Lysimeter Platform, where existing information of the former European Lysimeter Platform will be transferred to the new Lysimeter Platform and, furthermore, registered users are able to create and edit sites where lysimeters, soil water samplers and soil hydrologic measuring profiles are operated. The Lysimeter Research Group is a scientific association and, therefore, the membership is free of charge. The new Lysimeter Platform contains general information of lysimeter sites worldwide (e.g., what is measured at which site) in a standardized form to get a quick but informative overview of the sites and can be linked to more detailed, already existing information provided by the site operators. Due to the standardized information in the database the Lysimeter Platform serves also as search-engine for soil water measurements and helps to find sites of interest and corresponding contact information worldwide. The Session "Estimation of soil-atmosphere and vadose zone water fluxes by use of precision lysimeter measurements" at the EGU General Assembly 2014 would be an excellent chance to present the idea and the concept of this new Lysimeter Platform to international site operators and scientists.

  19. Forecasting Sales in a Sugar Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios ASSIMAKOPOULOS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Beets’ cultivation and sugar production represent one of the most important parts of Greek agricultural economy. A careful and well-organized planning of the production as well as the determination of an accurate safety stock is important for sugar industry, as for many other companies and organizations, in order to define the production quantity which leads to maximum revenues and profits. Forecasting, and especially widely used statistical forecasting techniques, is the best way for policymakers to organize their activities and company’s production and make the appropriate adjustments. Apparently, management information systems and forecasting support packages play a leading role in this area, since the amount of data under process is usually quite large and demands an automated procedure to effectively produce and evaluate forecasts. In this case study, “Pythia”, an expert forecasting platform developed by the Forecasting and Strategy Unit of the National Technical University of Athens, was implemented on a monthly data series regarding sugar sales of a Greek sugar factory for the years 2000-2005, bringing theory and practice together. Additionally, the methods or combinations of methods which are well suited for this time series are highlighted based on three error indices. Finally, the results of the study and conclusions are considered and perspectives of progress and development in the field of forecasting are contemplated.

  20. Intestinal sugar transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie A Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2006-01-01

    Carbohydrates are an important component of the diet.The carbohydrates that we ingest range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) to disaccharides (lactose, sucrose) to complex polysaccharides. Most carbohydrates are digested by salivary and pancreatic amylases, and are further broken down into monosaccharides by enzymes in the brush border membrane (BBM) of enterocytes. For example, lactase-phloridzin hydrolase and sucraseisomaltase are two disaccharidases involved in the hydrolysis of nutritionally important disaccharides. Once monosaccharides are presented to the BBM, mature enterocytes expressing nutrient transporters transport the sugars into the enterocytes. This paper reviews the early studies that contributed to the development of a working model of intestinal sugar transport, and details the recent advances made in understanding the process by which sugars are absorbed in the intestine.

  1. Platform contents

    OpenAIRE

    Renault, Régis

    2014-01-01

    A monopoly platform hosts advertisers who compete on a market for horizontally differentiated products. These products may be either mass market products that appeal broadly to the entire consumer population or niche products that are tailored to the tastes of some particular group. Consumers search sequentially through ads incurring a surfing cost of moving to the next ad. They may click on an ad at some cost, which provides all relevant information and the opportunity to buy. The platform c...

  2. Sugar Cane Magic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Nancy Alpert

    The booklet contains a story for middle-grade students which shows how the roles of men and women change through the years. The main characters are three sixth graders in Hawaii: one girl has Hawaiian ancestors, one girl has Japanese ancestors, and one boy has New England missionary ancestors. The children discover a magic stalk of sugar cane…

  3. Future sustainability of the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like many other food and chemical industries, the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries are facing important sustainability issues. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, the world-wide impetus to produce alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and reduce green house gases, and water- and ...

  4. Design of management platform for virtual machine in data center based on cloud computing%基于云计算的数据中心虚拟机管理平台的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英壮; 廖培腾; 孙梦; 李先毅

    2011-01-01

    随着数字化校园和绿色校园的深入开展,校园网各项业务逐渐自动化和集成化.大连理工大学基于VMware虚拟化技术构建了安全高效的数据中心,并对校内各部门提供虚拟机服务.然而在虚拟机申请和管理维护过程中涉及大量人工操作,这构成了数据中心管理瓶颈.基于云计算思想设计了虚拟机管理平台,并以Web服务虚拟机申请为例介绍了该平台的功能.该管理平台对提高虚拟机管理效率有重要意义.%With the development of digital campus and green campus ,the services based on campus network are becoming more and more automated and integrated. In recent years, our campus have built a high security data center based on VMware virtualization technology, which provides VM (virtual machine) services for the school sectors. However, during the process of applications and management of VMs, lots of manual operations are involved, which become the bottlenecks of VM management. A management platform for VMs is designed based on the cloud computing. The functions of the platform are described through the application of VM which provides Web services. Tie platform will be very useful to improve the efficiency of VM management.

  5. Mobile Launch Platform Vehicle Assembly Building Area (SWMU 056) Hot Spot 3 Bioremediation Interim Measures Work Plan, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney L. Morrison; Daprato, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    This Interim Measures Work Plan (IMWP) presents an approach and design for the remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) groundwater impacts using bioremediation (biostimulation and bioaugmentation) in Hot Spot 3, which is defined by the area where CVOC (trichloroethene [TCE], cis-1,2-dichloroethene [cDCE], and vinyl chloride [VC]) concentrations are greater than 10 times their respective Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Natural Attenuation Default Concentration (NADC) [10xNADC] near the western Mobile Launch Platform (MLP) structure. The IM treatment area is the Hot Spot 3 area, which is approximately 0.07 acres and extends from approximately 6 to 22 and 41 to 55 feet below land surface (ft BLS). Within Hot Spot 3, a source zone (SZ; area with TCE concentrations greater than 1% solubility [11,000 micrograms per liter (micrograms/L)]) was delineated and is approximately 0.02 acres and extends from approximately 6 to 16 and 41 to 50 ft BLS.

  6. 教师教育综合训练中心网络信息平台建设探究%Construction of Network Information Platform of Teachers Education Comprehensive Training Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧启忠

    2011-01-01

    广西师范学院教师教育综合训练中心借助先进的信息技术,整合校内的教师教育资源,构建了一个包含“未来教师空间站”、实验教学系统、实验教学、实验室管理系统和创新体系的网络信息平台,有效实现网上辅助教学和网络化、智能化管理,促进师范生和在职教师的教师教育技能培养,推动了民族地区基础教育教师专业化发展.%The teacher education comprehensive training center of Guangxi Teachers University built up a creative network information platform by integrating the campus teacher education resources and advanced information technologies. The platform includes the space for future teacher, the experimental teaching and management systems as well as labs management system which can realize the network-aided teaching and intelligent network-based management. It will promote the education skills of pedagogic students and in-service teachers and to contribute to the development of teachers' specialization of elementary education in minority areas.

  7. Frequently Asked Questions about Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Americans' diets? Sugar-sweetened beverages including regular soft drinks, sports drinks and fruit drinks (fruitades and fruit ... milk). Does this mean I should avoid all soft drinks and other sugar-sweetened beverages? You can choose ...

  8. Low blood sugar symptoms (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nervousness and irritability are signs that a person's blood sugar is getting dangerously low. A person showing any of these symptoms should check their blood sugar. If the level is low (70 mg/dl), ...

  9. Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Heart Alternate Language URL Español Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers: Use Them to Manage Your Diabetes Page Content Checking your blood sugar, also called blood glucose, is an important part ...

  10. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so you ... possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

  11. Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with your health care team. What are target blood sugar levels for people with diabetes? A target is something ... gly- see -mee-uh). It means that your blood sugar level is higher than your target level or over ...

  12. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are: simple carbohydrates (or simple sugars): these include fructose, glucose, and lactose, which also are found in nutritious ... look at the ingredient list for sugar, corn syrup or sweetener, dextrose, fructose, honey, or molasses, to name just a few. ...

  13. Sugar-water hemolysis test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003673.htm Sugar-water hemolysis test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The sugar-water hemolysis test is a blood test to detect ...

  14. Sugar Market Liberalization: Modeling the EU Supply of "C" Sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Gohin, Alexandre; Bureau, Jean-Christophe

    2005-01-01

    The various assessments of the effects of a liberalization of world sugar markets are largely inconsistent. One cause seems to be the modeling of the EU supply response. We investigate three possible linkages between production quota sugar and the out-of-quota or "C" sugar supply: i/ the existence of fixed costs covered by the in-quota sugar; ii /the "overshooting" behavior as prevention against poor yields; iii/ the production of C sugar as "reference building" in view of expected reforms. M...

  15. 75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... 2010 (FY 2010) State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors. This applies to all domestic sugar marketed for human consumption in the United States...

  16. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. J. G. Aller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.

  17. Detection of sugar-lectin interactions by multivalent dendritic sugar functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasu, K. S.; Naresh, K.; Bagul, R. S.; Jayaraman, N.; Sood, A. K.

    2012-07-01

    We show that single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) decorated with sugar functionalized poly (propyl ether imine) (PETIM) dendrimer is a very sensitive platform to quantitatively detect carbohydrate recognizing proteins, namely, lectins. The changes in electrical conductivity of SWNT in field effect transistor device due to carbohydrate-protein interactions form the basis of present study. The mannose sugar attached PETIM dendrimers undergo charge-transfer interactions with the SWNTs. The changes in the conductance of the dendritic sugar functionalized SWNT after addition of lectins in varying concentrations were found to follow the Langmuir type isotherm, giving the concanavalin A (Con A)-mannose affinity constant to be 8.5 × 106 M-1. The increase in the device conductance observed after adding 10 nM of Con A is same as after adding 20 μM of a non-specific lectin peanut agglutinin, showing the high specificity of the Con A-mannose interactions. The specificity of sugar-lectin interactions was characterized further by observing significant shifts in Raman modes of the SWNTs.

  18. The Center for Optimized Structural Studies (COSS) platform for automation in cloning, expression, and purification of single proteins and protein-protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynek, Georg; Lehner, Anita; Neuhold, Jana; Leeb, Sarah; Kostan, Julius; Charnagalov, Alexej; Stolt-Bergner, Peggy; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina; Pinotsis, Nikos

    2014-06-01

    Expression in Escherichia coli represents the simplest and most cost effective means for the production of recombinant proteins. This is a routine task in structural biology and biochemistry where milligrams of the target protein are required in high purity and monodispersity. To achieve these criteria, the user often needs to screen several constructs in different expression and purification conditions in parallel. We describe a pipeline, implemented in the Center for Optimized Structural Studies, that enables the systematic screening of expression and purification conditions for recombinant proteins and relies on a series of logical decisions. We first use bioinformatics tools to design a series of protein fragments, which we clone in parallel, and subsequently screen in small scale for optimal expression and purification conditions. Based on a scoring system that assesses soluble expression, we then select the top ranking targets for large-scale purification. In the establishment of our pipeline, emphasis was put on streamlining the processes such that it can be easily but not necessarily automatized. In a typical run of about 2 weeks, we are able to prepare and perform small-scale expression screens for 20-100 different constructs followed by large-scale purification of at least 4-6 proteins. The major advantage of our approach is its flexibility, which allows for easy adoption, either partially or entirely, by any average hypothesis driven laboratory in a manual or robot-assisted manner. PMID:24647677

  19. Platform computing

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Platform Computing releases first grid-enabled workload management solution for IBM eServer Intel and UNIX high performance computing clusters. This Out-of-the-box solution maximizes the performance and capability of applications on IBM HPC clusters" (1/2 page) .

  20. Payment Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Damsgaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Payment transactions through the use of physical coins, bank notes or credit cards have for centuries been the standard formats of exchanging money. Recently online and mobile digital payment platforms has entered the stage as contenders to this position and possibly could penetrate societies...

  1. Fermentation of various sugars and sugar substitutes by oral microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boonyanit Thaweboon; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Doan Minh Tri

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine acid production of caries-associated strains of oral microorganisms and salivary microorganisms from sugar and sugar substitutes. Methods:Standard and clinical strains of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) and Candida albicans were incubated in peptone-yeast-extract media containing 1% test sugar (sucrose, glucose, fructose) or sugar substitutes (xylitol, sorbitol, trehalulose and palatinose) at 37 ℃in 5% CO2 for 24-48 h. The pH of each culture was measured and microbial growth was determined as optical density at 660 nm. Paraffin-stimulated saliva collected from high caries-risk persons were added to media containing 10%test sugar or sugar substitutes. The pH of medium was measured at each time interval from 0-90 minutes. Results:All types of sugar and trehalulose could be fermented by all test microorganisms in pH lower than 5.5 except sucrose by standard strain of L. casei. All sugar and sugar substitutes supported growth of all organisms except xylitol for S. mutans. In the fermentation assay by salivary microorganisms, all sugar could be utilized and produced pH< 5.5 within 10 minutes of incubation and the pH drop was prolonged to until 90 minutes. Conversely, xylitol and palatinose were not fermented by microorganisms in saliva. Conclusions:All test microorganisms could ferment sucrose, glucose, fructose and trehalulose to pH lower than 5.5. Sugar alcohols and palatinose were not utilized well by organisms and may be used as sugar substitutes to reduce dental caries incidence. However, further studies particularly clinical investigations are required to evaluate the cariogenicity of these sugar substitutes.

  2. Analysis of sugars and sugar polyols in atmospheric aerosols by chloride attachment in liquid chromatography/negative ion electrospray mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Eric C H; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2007-04-01

    Sugars and sugar polyols are relatively abundant groups of water-soluble constituents in atmospheric aerosols. This paper describes a method that uses liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to analyze sugars and sugar polyols in atmospheric aerosols, ranging from C3 sugar alcohols to trisaccharides. Postcolumn addition of chloroform in acetonitrile was found to greatly enhance ionization of these compounds by forming chloride adduct ions in the negative-ion mode using electrospray ionization. A gradient elution program starting at 5%:95% H20/acetonitrile and ending at 30%:70% H2O/acetonitrile provides baseline separations of the sugars and sugar polyols on an amino-based carbohydrate column. The detection limits based on quantification of [M + 35Cl]- adduct ions were in the order of 0.1 microM. By eliminating the need for derivatization, this LC-MS based method provides a simpler alternative method to the commonly used and more laborious gas-chromatography based methods. It also has an additional advantage of being able to quantify trisaccharide sugars. The method was applied to analyze 30 ambient samples of fine particulate matter collected at a site away from urban centers in Hong Kong. The sugar compounds positively identified and detected in the ambient samples included four sugar alcohols (glycerol, erythritol, xylitol, and mannitol), three monosacchride sugars (xylose, fructose, and glucose), two disaccharides (sucrose, trehalose), two trisaccharides (melezitose, raffinose), and one anhydrosugar (levoglucosan). The sum of these sugar and sugar polyol compounds ranged from 38 to 1316 ng m(-3), accounting for an average of 1.3% organic carbon mass. Through the use of a principal component analysis of the ambient measurements, the mono- to trisactharide sugars and C3-C5 sugar polyols were identified to be mainly associated with soil/soil microbiota while the anhydrosugar (levoglucosan) was associated with biomass burning. PMID:17438800

  3. Free Sugar Profile in Cycads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edward Marler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date.

  4. 高校网络中心服务器虚拟化平台构建与应用%Construction and application of virtualized server platform in campus network center for colleges and universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏评

    2014-01-01

    With too many physical servers , network administration center running large numbers of information is usually of high power consumption and high operation cost .It ’ s inevitable to build and apply virtulized server platform with the application of virtualization technologies and cloud computing . Server virtualization has great effect on physical server utilization , integration of hardware , strengthening the system security , energy-saving emission reduction and green environmental protection .Through case analysis , this paper introduces the construction and application of Dell R 720 virtulized server platform in detail, it has a high reference and practical value .%高校网络中心运行着大量信息系统,物理服务器众多、电力消耗大、运行成本高。随着虚拟化与云计算的逐步推广应用,构建服务器虚拟化平台是信息化建设的必然趋势。实施虚拟化对于提高物理服务器利用率、整合硬件资源、加强系统安全、节能减排与绿色环保等方面具有很大的优势。通过案例分析,介绍了戴尔R720服务器虚拟化平台构建与应用的主要步骤,具有较高的参考与实际应用价值。

  5. ITS Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøfting, Svend; Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    Aalborg University and two local companies have over the past four years developed and tested an ITS Platform, which can be used for communication with cars and for providing a number of services to the drivers. The purpose has been to perform a technological test of the possible use of a hidden...... GPS box with data connection to a backend server. The ITS Platform project has had a budget of DKK 33 million (app € 4.4) and it has demonstrated that boxes which register the position of the cars can be helpful to drivers in many ways. Establishing dynamic traffic information and support systems...... for safer and more economic driving is technologically possible. Big Data from the system can provide traffic authorities with a better basis for decision for their traffic planning. Last, but not least, it is possible to establish payment systems. The project has also shown that the boxes in the cars do...

  6. Reforming the EU Sugar Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Frandsen, Soren E.; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    2002-01-01

    This article presents and analyses the impacts of the EU sugar policy. Particular attention is given to the modelling of the quite complex policy and the calibration of the global general equilibrium model at the member state level. Two scenarios are analysed, namely a reduction in the intervention price of sugar and the sugar quota. It is found that the economic impacts of the two scenarios are quite different in terms of the effects on European production and trade in sugar as well in terms...

  7. Activities that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) in captivity at night

    OpenAIRE

    ANITA SARDIANA TJAKRADIDJAJA; DIDID DIAPARI; ARIA PERDANA; WARTIKA ROSA FARIDA

    2005-01-01

    Activities that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) in captivity at night study on activity that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider in captivity of small mammals at night has been conducted at the Division of Zoology, Research Center for Biology-LIPI, Bogor. Feeds consisted of passion fruit, banana, guava, papaya, sweet corn, coconut, and bread and were given ad libitum. Four sugar glider consisting of two males and females were place in two cages. One ...

  8. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) is issuing this notice to publish the fiscal year (FY) 2012 State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors, which apply to...

  9. Method for determining the composition of the sugar moiety of a sugar containing compound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods of labeling sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds including glycopeptides. The compounds presented in the present invention facilitate reliable detection of sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds by a combination of spectroscopy methods...

  10. Sugar intolerance complicating acute gastroenteritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans-Jones, G; McDowell, H P

    1986-01-01

    Sugar intolerance occurred in 31 of 200 children admitted to hospital with acute gastroenteritis. In 28 this was transient and settled rapidly, but in the remaining three it indicated a more serious and persistent problem. The most important predisposing factor was viral infection, in particular with rotavirus. The current regimen for the management of sugar intolerance complicating acute gastroenteritis at this hospital is outlined.

  11. Urinary Sugars--A Biomarker of Total Sugars Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Natasha

    2015-07-01

    Measurement error in self-reported sugars intake may explain the lack of consistency in the epidemiologic evidence on the association between sugars and disease risk. This review describes the development and applications of a biomarker of sugars intake, informs its future use and recommends directions for future research. Recently, 24 h urinary sucrose and fructose were suggested as a predictive biomarker for total sugars intake, based on findings from three highly controlled feeding studies conducted in the United Kingdom. From this work, a calibration equation for the biomarker that provides an unbiased measure of sugars intake was generated that has since been used in two US-based studies with free-living individuals to assess measurement error in dietary self-reports and to develop regression calibration equations that could be used in future diet-disease analyses. Further applications of the biomarker include its use as a surrogate measure of intake in diet-disease association studies. Although this biomarker has great potential and exhibits favorable characteristics, available data come from a few controlled studies with limited sample sizes conducted in the UK. Larger feeding studies conducted in different populations are needed to further explore biomarker characteristics and stability of its biases, compare its performance, and generate a unique, or population-specific biomarker calibration equations to be applied in future studies. A validated sugars biomarker is critical for informed interpretation of sugars-disease association studies.

  12. Water requirements of sugar cane grown in tropical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente de Paulo Rodrigues da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An accurate estimation of water consumption of cane sugar crop is important for maximum productivity with less investment. The objective of this study was to determine the water requirements of sugar cane grown in tropical environments. The field experiment was carried out in Paraiba state, during the productive cycle of sugar cane crop variety RB 92 579 irrigated by central pivot irrigation (sprinkler from October 2009 to September 2011. The crop evapotranspiration was obtained based on soil water balance and reference evapotranspiration by Penman-Monteith method (FAO/56, using the data of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and solar radiation from Data Collection Platform, next to the experimental site. Soil water moisture was monitored by TDR probes (Frequency Domain Reflectometry, Model PR2/6, Delta-T. The results showed that the crop coefficients values proposed by the FAO for sugar cane are not suitable for tropical regions. The water consumption of sugar cane ranged from 2.6 mm day-1, at initial crop growth stage, to 6.38 mm day-1, with an average of 4.3 mm day-1 for all cycle. Similarly, the crop coefficient ranged from 0.56 to 1.43, with an average of 0.99 for the same development crop growth stages.

  13. Eliminate Sweetened Drinks, Cut Kids' Sugar Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161163.html Eliminate Sweetened Drinks, Cut Kids' Sugar Intake Average U.S. child consumes about 80 grams ... Looking for the quickest way to cut added sugar from your kid's diet? Eliminate sugar-sweetened drinks, ...

  14. When Blood Sugar Is Too Low

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes When Blood Sugar Is Too Low KidsHealth > For Kids > When ... they get too low. The Causes of Low Blood Sugar Low blood sugar levels can happen to ...

  15. Platform christened

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On Friday May 9, 1997, a ceremony took place in which the Hibernia platform was officially christened by Aline Chretien, the wife of the Prime Minister of Canada. The ceremony highlighted the successful completion of Hibernia and the tremendous accomplishment of this offshore structure which will be towed out of Bull Arm, Newfoundland, in June 1997 to its offshore location. Drilling for the first well will begin in August with first oil expected by December 1997. Other guests at the ceremony included Hibernia owner companies Mobil Oil, Chevron, Petro-Canada, Canada Hibernia Holding Corp., Murphy Oil and Norsk Hydro. The Hibernia project paves the way for other offshore ventures and employment opportunities in Newfoundland

  16. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    OpenAIRE

    W. J. R. Castro; A. M. Zanine; D.J. Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with f...

  17. Production and applications of carbohydrate-derived sugar acids as generic biobased chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehtiö, Tuomas; Toivari, Mervi; Wiebe, Marilyn G; Harlin, Ali; Penttilä, Merja; Koivula, Anu

    2016-10-01

    This review considers the chemical and biotechnological synthesis of acids that are obtained by direct oxidation of mono- or oligosaccharide, referred to as sugar acids. It focuses on sugar acids which can be readily derived from plant biomass sources and their current and future applications. The three main classes of sugar acids are aldonic, aldaric and uronic acids. Interest in organic acids derived from sugars has recently increased, as part of the interest to develop biorefineries which produce not only biofuels, but also chemicals to replace those currently derived from petroleum. More than half of the most desirable biologically produced platform chemicals are organic acids. Currently, the only sugar acid with high commercial production is d-gluconic acid. However, other sugar acids such as d-glucaric and meso-galactaric acids are being produced at a lower scale. The sugar acids have application as sequestering agents and binders, corrosion inhibitors, biodegradable chelators for pharmaceuticals and pH regulators. There is also considerable interest in the use of these molecules in the production of synthetic polymers, including polyamides, polyesters and hydrogels. Further development of these sugar acids will lead to higher volume production of the appropriate sugar acids and will help support the next generation of biorefineries.

  18. Life Cycle Assessment of Sugar Production (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teljigovic, Mehmed; Mengiardi, Jon; Factor, Gabriela;

    1999-01-01

    will be made between sugar from sugar beet produced in Denmark versus sugar produces from sugar cane in a tropical country, Brazil, and transported afterwards to Denmark. To evaluate the environmental aspects of these two product systems a Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) will be carried out.From the results...... a personal choice. What the danish consumer should be aware of is that no big difference has been found between sugar from sugar cane and sugar from sugar beet with regard to environmental impacts and resource consumption....

  19. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SUGAR BEAT PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Jozo Kanisek; Jadranka Deže; Ljubica Ranogajec; Mirjana Miljević

    2008-01-01

    Croatian quota of 180.000 tones of sugar beet per year is approved for export to EU countries. For that amount of sugar it is necessary to produce about 30.000 ha of sugar beet. Sugar beet production requires deep and fertile soils, and crop rotation requirement is at least five year. Therefore, Slavonia and Baranya do t have enough areas under sugar beet. An additional problem is so called “sugar reform” applied by EUaiming to decrease price of sugar produced from sugar beet root and its eq...

  20. Smashing Bubbles and Vanishing Sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alan

    1979-01-01

    Science activities with soap bubbles for primary school children are described in this article. Another activity involves children in determining the whereabouts of sugar as it dissolves in water. (SA)

  1. Sugar Cane Nutrient Distribution Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Molecular Absorption Spectrometry (UV-Vis), and Flame Photometry techniques were applied to measure plant nutrient concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mn, N, Na and P in sugar-cane root, stalk and leaves. These data will be used to explore the behavior of element concentration in different parts of the sugar-cane to better understand the plant nutrient distribution during its development.

  2. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  3. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of... in the domestic sugar Overall Allotment Quantity (OAQ); a reassignment of surplus sugar...

  4. Optimal concentration for sugar transport in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Savage, Jessica A.; HOLBROOK, N. MICHELE

    2013-01-01

    Vascular plants transport energy in the form of sugars from the leaves where they are produced to sites of active growth. The mass flow of sugars through the phloem vascular system is determined by the sap flow rate and the sugar concentration. If the concentration is low, little energy is transferred from source to sink. If it is too high, sap viscosity impedes flow. An interesting question is therefore at which concentration is the sugar flow optimal. Optimization of sugar flow and transpor...

  5. Technical Efficiency in Louisiana Sugar Cane Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jason L.; Zapata, Hector O.; Heagler, Arthur M.

    1995-01-01

    Participants in the Louisiana sugar cane industry have provided little information related to the efficiency of sugar processing operations. Using panel data from the population of Louisiana sugar processors, alternative model specifications are estimated using stochastic frontier methods to measure the technical efficiency of individual sugar factories. Results suggest the Louisiana sugar processing industry is characterized by a constant returns to scale Cobb-Douglas processing function wit...

  6. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Tandel, Kirtida R.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, ...

  7. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  8. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k{sub 0} method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  9. Whole Genome Sequencing of Sugar Beet and Transcriptional Profiling of Beet Curly Top Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genome of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) doubled haploid line (KDH13) has been sequenced using Illumina HiSeq2000 next generation sequencing platform. This line (PI663862) was released by USDA-ARS as a genetic stock resistant to beet curly top. Sequencing of a standard paired end...

  10. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  11. Sugar sensing by enterocytes combines polarity, membrane bound detectors and sugar metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Gall, Maude; Tobin, Vanessa; Stolarczyk, Emilie; Dalet, Véronique; Leturque, Armelle; Brot-Laroche, Edith

    2007-01-01

    Sugar consumption and subsequent sugar metabolism are known to regulate the expression of genes involved in intestinal sugar absorption and delivery. Here we investigate the hypothesis that sugar-sensing detectors in membranes facing the intestinal lumen or the bloodstream can also modulate intestinal sugar absorption. We used wild-type and GLUT2-null mice, to show that dietary sugars stimulate the expression of sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and L-pyruvate kinase (L-PK) by GLUT2-dependent mechanism...

  12. Efficiency Dynamics of Sugar Industry of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Raheman; Abdul Qayyum; Talat Afza

    2009-01-01

    Pakistan is the 15th largest producer of sugar in the world, 5th largest in terms of area under sugar cultivation and 60th in yield. The sugar industry is the 2nd largest agro based industry which comprises of 81 sugar mills. With this scenario, Pakistan has to import sugar which exposes it to the effects of shortage and rising prices in the world. The present sugar crisis has opened up new avenues for researcher to analyse the performance and efficiency of the firms in this sector. Total fac...

  13. Price Transmission in the German Sugar Market

    OpenAIRE

    Nolte, Stephan; Natanelov, Valeri; Buysse, Jeroen; Huylenbroeck, Guido Van

    2012-01-01

    The German sugar market is governed by the European Union’s common market organization (CMO). In 2006, the CMO was subject to its first major reform. Among others, the administered price for sugar was reduced by 36%. We use a data set with monthly prices for sugar and sugar containing products to perform a cointegration analysis. Results show that the reduction of the institutional price has led to a reduction of wholesale prices and of retail prices for table sugar. Prices for sugar containi...

  14. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  15. Sugar cane and sugar beet molasses, antioxidant-rich alternatives to refined sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Veronica; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Danesi, Francesca; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Bordoni, Alessandra

    2012-12-26

    Molasses, the main byproduct of sugar production, is a well-known source of antioxidants. In this study sugar cane molasses (SCM) and sugar beet molasses (SBM) were investigated for their phenolic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity and for their protective effect in human HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress. According to its higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant capacity in vitro, SCM exhibited an effective protection in cells, comparable to or even greater than that of α-tocopherol. Data herein reported emphasize the potential health effects of molasses and the possibility of using byproducts for their antioxidant activity. This is particularly important for consumers in developing countries, as it highlights the importance of consuming a low-price, yet very nutritious, commodity. PMID:23190112

  16. Molecular Mobility in Sugar Glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, van den I.J.

    2000-01-01

    Glasses are liquids that exhibit solid state behavior as a result of their extremely high viscosity. Regarding their application to foods, glasses play a role in the preservation of foods, due to their high viscosity and the concomitant low molecular mobility. This thesis focuses on sugar glasses. S

  17. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet.

  18. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? When Blood Sugar Is Too High KidsHealth > For Teens > When Blood ... it often can be unhealthy. What Is High Blood Sugar? The blood glucose level is the amount of ...

  19. OMICS Technologies and Applications in Sugar Beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongxue; Nan, Jingdong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet is a species of the Chenopodiaceae family. It is an important sugar crop that supplies approximately 35% of the sugar in the world. Sugar beet M14 line is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss. And exhibits tolerance to salt stress. In this review, we have summarized OMICS technologies and applications in sugar beet including M14 for identification of novel genes, proteins related to biotic and abiotic stresses, apomixes and metabolites related to energy and food. An OMICS overview for the discovery of novel genes, proteins and metabolites in sugar beet has helped us understand the complex mechanisms underlying many processes such as apomixes, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The knowledge gained is valuable for improving the tolerance of sugar beet and other crops to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as for enhancing the yield of sugar beet for energy and food production. PMID:27446130

  20. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet. PMID:27444594

  1. Collaborative Research: Metabolic Engineering of E. coli Sugar-Utilization Regulatory Systems for the Consumption of Plant Biomass Sugars.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramon Gonzalez (PI); J. V. Shanks (Co-PI); K-Y. San (Co-PI).

    2006-03-31

    The overall objective of this project is to metabolically engineer the E. coli sugar-utilization regulatory systems (SURS) to utilize sugar mixtures obtained from plant biomass. Of particular relevance is the implementation of a metabolic engineering cycle aided by functional genomics and systems biology tools. Our findings will help in the establishment of a platform for the efficient production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic sugars. Our research has improved the understanding of the role of SURS in regulating sugar utilization and several other cellular functions. For example, we discovered that Mlc, a global regulatory protein, regulates the utilization of xylose and demonstrated the existence of an important link between catabolite repression and respiratory/fermentative metabolism. The study of SURS mutants also revealed a connection between flagellar biosynthesis and catabolite repression. Several tools were also developed as part of this project. A novel tool (Elementary Network Decomposition, END) to help elucidate the network topology of regulatory systems was developed and its utility as a discovery tool was demonstrated by applying it to the SURS in E. coli. A novel method (and software) to estimate metabolic fluxes that uses labeling experiments and eliminates reliance on extracellular fluxes was also developed. Although not initially considered in the scope of this project, we have developed a novel and superior method for optimization of HPLC separation and applied it to the simultaneous quantification of different functionalities (sugars, organic acids, ethanol, etc.) present in our fermentation samples. Currently under development is a genetic network driven metabolic flux analysis framework to integrate transcriptional and flux data.

  2. Sugar in the diet of adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Klemenčič, Mojca

    2014-01-01

    Sugar and sweetened beverages are increasingly present in the nutrition of adolescents. Sugars added to food usually do not contain essential nutrients and inhibit the consumption of nutritionally rich foods. The aim of this diploma thesis is to determine how much sugar is present in the diets of adolescents, how and when most frequently adolescents eat sugar and whether the consumption of sweet foods among adolescents vary according to gender, age, and body weight. Data were collected using ...

  3. 7 CFR 58.934 - Sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugars. 58.934 Section 58.934 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....934 Sugars. Any sugar used in the manufacture of sweetened condensed or sterilized milk products...

  4. Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Teens > Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar Print A A A Text Size What's in ... and prevent future problems, you have to keep blood sugar levels in a healthy range. To do that, ...

  5. Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000085.htm Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. Hypoglycemia - self-care What is low Blood Sugar? Low blood sugar is called hypoglycemia. A blood ...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an...

  7. 27 CFR 24.317 - Sugar record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sugar record. 24.317... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.317 Sugar record. A proprietor who receives, stores, or uses sugar shall maintain a record of receipt and use. The record will show the date...

  8. Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy’s sugar process (CLE Sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Johnway

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Results Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy’s Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood, and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood. Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate

  9. Cyanobacteria as a platform for biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E Nozzi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria have great potential as a platform for biofuel production because of their fast growth, ability to fix carbon dioxide gas, and their genetic tractability. Furthermore they do not require fermentable sugars or arable land for growth and so competition with cropland would be greatly reduced. In this perspective we discuss the challenges and areas for improvement most pertinent for advancing cyanobacterial fuel production, including: improving genetic parts, carbon fixation, metabolic flux, nutrient requirements on a large scale, and photosynthetic efficiency using natural light.

  10. Application of reliability centered maintenance (RCM) to the gas compression system of the platforms P-09 and P-19 (E and P from Bacia de Campos, RJ, Brazil); Aplicacao de manutencao centrada em confiabilidaade (MCC) ao sistema de compressao de gas das plataformas P-09 e P-19 (E e P da Bacia de Campos)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, Flavio L.B.; Oliveira, Luiz F.S. de [DNV Principia Ltda., Macae, RJ (Brazil); Frydmana, Bernardo; Okada, Ricardo Okada [PETROBRAS, Macae, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao. Gerencia de Logistica

    2000-07-01

    In this paper, the main results of the application of Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) to the gas compression systems of Platforms P-09 (Turbine Taurus 60) and P-19 (Turbine Mars 90) are presented. RCM is a method whose central paradigm is to preserve systems' functions, unlike traditional maintenance, which focus on equipment maintenance, without care about systems' functions and the allocation of maintenance resources. A total of 654 components were analyzed at P-19 and 551 at P-09, and about 650 maintenance tasks were established. Besides the results, this paper presents details of the method and some comments about its applicability in other systems. (author)

  11. ITS Platform North Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Juhl, Jens;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the project entitled “ITS Platform North Denmark” which is used as a test platform for Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) solutions. The platform consists of a newly developed GNSS/GPRS On Board Unit (OBU) to be installed in 500 cars, a backend server and a specially...... designed digital road map for ITS applications. The platform is freely accessible, which means that third party applications could be run on the platform. It is estimated that using this platform enables the ITS applications to be developed for 20% of the normal cost, hence third party are invited to test...... their applications in this platform. This paper presents the platform’s potentials and explains a series of test applications which are under development on it. Moreover, a number of new projects planned for the platform are demonstrated....

  12. Sugar Companies Shifted Focus to Fat as Heart Harm: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar increased, a trade group for the sugar industry -- the Sugar Research Foundation -- commissioned a research review by Harvard ... also served on scientific advisory boards for the sugar industry, the authors of the new study said. Besides ...

  13. Platform development supportedby gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård

    2007-01-01

    , possibly increasing the strategic risks for the firm. This paper reports preliminary findings on platform management process at LEGO, a Danish toy company.  Specifically, we report the process of applying games combined with simulations and workshops in the platform development. We also propose a framework......, based on the portfolio management thinking, to measure the degree of modularity embedded in a given platform and to what extent it is aligned with other platforms....

  14. Mobile platform security

    CERN Document Server

    Asokan, N; Dmitrienko, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Recently, mobile security has garnered considerable interest in both the research community and industry due to the popularity of smartphones. The current smartphone platforms are open systems that allow application development, also for malicious parties. To protect the mobile device, its user, and other mobile ecosystem stakeholders such as network operators, application execution is controlled by a platform security architecture. This book explores how such mobile platform security architectures work. We present a generic model for mobile platform security architectures: the model illustrat

  15. Why Anticancer Nanomedicine Needs Sugars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, E; El Cheikh, K; Gallud, A; Da Silva, A; Maynadier, M; Basile, I; Gary-Bobo, M; Morere, A; Garcia, M

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, nanomedicine brings new opportunities for diagnosis and treatment through innovative combinations of materials structured at the nanoscale, biomolecules and physicochemical processes. If the intrinsic properties of nanomaterials appear of major importance in this new discipline, the functionalization of these nanotools with biomolecules improves both their biocompatibility and efficacy. This is the case of carbohydrate derivatives, natural or synthetic, which are increasingly being used in nanostructures for medical purposes. As in current medicine, sugars are used to mimic their physiological roles. Indeed, carbohydrates enhance the solubility and reduce the clearance of drugs. They are used to mask immunogenic components of nano-objects and escape the body defenses and finally facilitate the delivery to the target tissue. All these properties explain the growing importance of sugars in nanomedicine.

  16. Irradiation of cane sugar spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the effect of irradiation on the gas-chromatographic profile of irradiated cane sugar spirit irradiated in glass containers in the presence of oak chops with doses of 0-10 kGy. Volatile constituents were analyzed in a CG gas chromatographer with a flame ionization detector using a Megabore CG-745 column. The results are discussed considering the contribution of irradiation to the quality of the spirit and the contribution of the irradiated oak wood. (author)

  17. Sugar recognition by human galactokinase

    OpenAIRE

    Timson David J; Reece Richard J

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Galactokinase catalyses the first committed step of galactose catabolism in which the sugar is phosphorylated at the expense of MgATP. Recent structural studies suggest that the enzyme makes several contacts with galactose – five side chain and two main chain hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inhibition of galactokinase may help sufferers of the genetic disease classical galactosemia which is caused by defects in another enzyme of the pathway galactos...

  18. Production of clean pyrolytic sugars for fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rover, Marjorie R; Johnston, Patrick A; Jin, Tao; Smith, Ryan G; Brown, Robert C; Jarboe, Laura

    2014-06-01

    This study explores the separate recovery of sugars and phenolic oligomers produced during fast pyrolysis with the effective removal of contaminants from the separated pyrolytic sugars to produce a substrate suitable for fermentation without hydrolysis. The first two stages from a unique recovery system capture "heavy ends", mostly water-soluble sugars and water-insoluble phenolic oligomers. The differences in water solubility can be exploited to recover a sugar-rich aqueous phase and a phenolic-rich raffinate. Over 93 wt % of the sugars is removed in two water washes. These sugars contain contaminants such as low-molecular-weight acids, furans, and phenols that could inhibit successful fermentation. Detoxification methods were used to remove these contaminants from pyrolytic sugars. The optimal candidate is NaOH overliming, which results in maximum growth measurements with the use of ethanol-producing Escherichia coli.

  19. Effect Evaluation of the Application of Web Platform in Medical Quality Control Data Management Center%Web平台在医疗质控数据管理中的应用效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高健; 杜静; 张菊芬; 李建

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To discuss about the effect of the application of WEB network platform in the medical quality control data management. Methods: The satisfaction and other indexes of hospital management department and clinical departments using the WEB network platform from October 2014 to March 2015 and those who did not use the WEB network platform April 2014 to September 2014 are compared and analyzed. Results: After the medical quality control with WEB network platform, the satisfaction of hospital management department increased from 31.25% to 84.38%. The satisfaction of clinical departments increased from 42.59% to 85.19%. The difference statistically is significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: The medical quality control with WEB platform helps to improve the work efficiency, and the control level of medical statistics in China, so as to lay a solid foundation for comprehensive and stable development of relevant work.%目的:探讨采用Web网络平台对医疗质控数据管理的应用效果.方法:对比分析2014年10月至2015年3月采用Web网络平台及2014年4月至2012年9月未采取Web网络平台进行医疗质控的医院管理部门及临床科室的满意度等指标进行分析.结果:采用Web网络平台进行医疗质控后医院管理部门的满意度由31.25%提高至84.38%,临床科室的满意度由42.59%提高至85.19%,差异具有显著的统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:采取Web网络平台进行医疗质控有助于提高工作效率,完善我国医疗统计数据的控制水准,从而为相关工作的全面稳定发展打下坚实的基础.

  20. Product Platform Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Lone

    The aim of this research is to improve understanding of platform-based product development by studying platform performance in relation to internal effects in companies. Platform-based product development makes it possible to deliver product variety and at the same time reduce the needed resources...... experienced representatives from the different life systems phase systems of the platform products. The effects are estimated and modeled within different scenarios, taking into account financial and real option aspects. The model illustrates and supports estimation and quantification of internal platform...

  1. Product Platform Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus

    This PhD thesis has the title Product Platform Modelling. The thesis is about product platforms and visual product platform modelling. Product platforms have gained an increasing attention in industry and academia in the past decade. The reasons are many, yet the increasing globalisation...... with two main purposes; First, various phenomena related to product platforms are investigated and secondly it is investigated how some of these phenomena can be visually modelled in order to support decision making in industrial platform projects. The investigation of platform phenomena is based...... effects are obtained without necessarily introducing standardised physical interfaces between the varying elements. By means of three industrial cases, in the companies Danfoss, Grundfos and Aker Solutions, it is discussed and exemplified how some of the phenomena and effects related to reuse...

  2. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  3. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets,...

  4. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising...

  5. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  6. 78 FR 146 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar... certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar containing products of Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of Chile, Morocco, Costa Rica, the...

  7. Transcriptome and selected metabolite analyses reveal points of sugar metabolism in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lisong; Wu, Gang; Hao, Chaoyun; Yu, Huan; Tan, Lehe

    2016-07-01

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., commonly known as jackfruit, produces the largest tree-borne fruit known thus far. The edible part of the fruit develops from the perianths, and contains many sugar-derived compounds. However, its sugar metabolism is poorly understood. A fruit perianth transcriptome was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform, producing 32,459 unigenes with an average length of 1345nt. Sugar metabolism was characterized by comparing expression patterns of genes related to sugar metabolism and evaluating correlations with enzyme activity and sugar accumulation during fruit perianth development. During early development, high expression levels of acid invertases and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for the rapid utilization of imported sucrose for fruit growth. The differential expression of starch metabolism-related genes and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for starch accumulated before fruit ripening but decreased during ripening. Sucrose accumulated during ripening, when the expression levels of genes for sucrose synthesis were elevated and high enzyme activity was observed. The comprehensive transcriptome analysis presents fundamental information on sugar metabolism and will be a useful reference for further research on fruit perianth development in jackfruit. PMID:27181946

  8. The "sugar pack" health marketing campaign in Los Angeles County, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragan, Noel C; Noller, Ali J; Robles, Brenda; Gase, Lauren N; Leighs, Michael S; Bogert, Suzanne; Simon, Paul A; Kuo, Tony

    2014-03-01

    As part of a comprehensive approach to combating the obesity epidemic, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health launched the "Sugar Pack" health marketing campaign in fall 2011. Carried out in three stages, the campaign sought to educate and motivate the public to reduce excess calorie intake from sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. The primary Sugar Pack creative concepts provided consumers with information about the number of sugar packs contained in sugary drinks. Data from formative market research as well as lessons from previous campaigns in other U.S. jurisdictions informed the development of the materials. These materials were disseminated through a multipronged platform that included paid outdoor media on transit and billboards and messaging using social media (i.e., Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and sendable e-cards). Initial findings from a postcampaign assessment indicate that the Sugar Pack campaign reached broadly into targeted communities, resulting in more than 515 million impressions. Lessons learned from the campaign suggest that employing health marketing to engage the public can lead to increased knowledge, favorable recognition of health messages, and self-reported intention to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, potentially complementing other obesity prevention strategies in the field. PMID:24149214

  9. Transcriptome and selected metabolite analyses reveal points of sugar metabolism in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lisong; Wu, Gang; Hao, Chaoyun; Yu, Huan; Tan, Lehe

    2016-07-01

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., commonly known as jackfruit, produces the largest tree-borne fruit known thus far. The edible part of the fruit develops from the perianths, and contains many sugar-derived compounds. However, its sugar metabolism is poorly understood. A fruit perianth transcriptome was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform, producing 32,459 unigenes with an average length of 1345nt. Sugar metabolism was characterized by comparing expression patterns of genes related to sugar metabolism and evaluating correlations with enzyme activity and sugar accumulation during fruit perianth development. During early development, high expression levels of acid invertases and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for the rapid utilization of imported sucrose for fruit growth. The differential expression of starch metabolism-related genes and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for starch accumulated before fruit ripening but decreased during ripening. Sucrose accumulated during ripening, when the expression levels of genes for sucrose synthesis were elevated and high enzyme activity was observed. The comprehensive transcriptome analysis presents fundamental information on sugar metabolism and will be a useful reference for further research on fruit perianth development in jackfruit.

  10. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar.

  11. Thinking of Practice Teaching System Based on the Experimental Teaching Demonstration Center Platform Construction%基于实验教学示范中心平台建设的实践教学体系的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海学; 朱文碧; 马文芝; 王立春

    2013-01-01

    The construction of experimental teaching demonstration center is a systematic project, which is also a long-term project,each center facing an important issue is how to make the experimental teaching demonstration center for sustainable development. In this paper, based on the accreditation requirements of national and Tianjin experimen-tal teaching demonstration center,we started from the practice of Tianjin Agricultural Experiment Teaching Demonstra-tion Center construction,confirmed the basic principles and scientific rational management model of the agricultural Universities experimental demonstration center construction;established a multi-level laboratory management system;constructed a stereoscopic practice teaching system by the reforming practice teaching method.%实验教学示范中心建设既是一项系统工程,也是一项长期工程,如何能使实验教学示范中心可持续发展是各中心面临的重要问题。本文根据国家级和天津市高校实验教学示范中心建设评审要求,从天津农学院实验教学示范中心建设的实践出发,阐明了实验教学示范中心建设的意义;确定了农业类高校实验示范中心建设的基本原则和科学合理的管理模式;建立了多层次的实验室管理体系;通过改革实践教学方法,构建了立体实践教学体系。

  12. Sugar recognition by human galactokinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timson David J

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Galactokinase catalyses the first committed step of galactose catabolism in which the sugar is phosphorylated at the expense of MgATP. Recent structural studies suggest that the enzyme makes several contacts with galactose – five side chain and two main chain hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inhibition of galactokinase may help sufferers of the genetic disease classical galactosemia which is caused by defects in another enzyme of the pathway galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase. Galactokinases from different sources have a range of substrate specificities and a diversity of kinetic mechanisms. Therefore only studies on the human enzyme are likely to be of value in the design of therapeutically useful inhibitors. Results Using recombinant human galactokinase expressed in and purified from E. coli we have investigated the sugar specificity of the enzyme and the kinetic consequences of mutating residues in the sugar-binding site in order to improve our understanding of substrate recognition by this enzyme. D-galactose and 2-deoxy-D-galactose are substrates for the enzyme, but N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, L-arabinose, D-fucose and D-glucose are all not phosphorylated. Mutation of glutamate-43 (which forms a hydrogen bond to the hydroxyl group attached to carbon 6 of galactose to alanine results in only minor changes in the kinetic parameters of the enzyme. Mutation of this residue to glycine causes a ten-fold drop in the turnover number. In contrast, mutation of histidine 44 to either alanine or isoleucine results in insoluble protein following expression in E. coli. Alteration of the residue that makes hydrogen bonds to the hydroxyl attached to carbons 3 and 4 (aspartate 46 results in an enzyme that although soluble is essentially inactive. Conclusions The enzyme is tolerant to small changes at position 2 of the sugar ring, but not at positions 4 and 6. The results from site directed mutagenesis could

  13. Sugar industry dilemma in NWFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane is an important cash-crop in Pakistan, ranking fourth in average cultivation after wheat, rice and cotton. It contributed 6.3 percent to the national agricultural value addition and 1.3 percent of the GDP during 2002-2003. It provides direct employment to more than 10,000 persons in NWFP. Sugarcane is grown over an area of more or less one million hectares in Pakistan, the Punjab shares 66.8%, Sindh 23.5% and NWFP shares 9.5% of the total area and 63.7, 26.5 and 9.7% of the production, respectively (Agriculture statistics of Pakistan FRS 2003). The national average cane-yield (47 tonnes per hectare) is far below the existing potential, Sindh with 53 tonnes per hectare is the leading province, followed by NWFP (48 tonnes) and Punjab (45 tonnes per hectare), respectively. In Pakistan, 73 mills are in operation. On the average, these Sugar Mills produce 3.52 million tons Sugar and employed labour force of 1.06 million persons, involving about nine million people of rural population in the production of sugarcane in 2002. In the year 2002-03, cane production was over 52 million tonnes; the Mills utilized (80.28%) of the total cane production with a yield of 3.66 million tonnes of sugar. Part 1 of this paper discusses the importance of sugarcane crop and sugarcane industry towards national economy. In part 2, problems of varied horizon have been covered, in detail, with sound viable recommendations. Finally, conclusions have been drawn in part 3 for consideration by all relevant stakeholders of the sector. To avert problems like low cane-yield, minimum return to farmers, negative attitude and delaying tactics in payments, policy makers and decision-support unit of the province should ensure the following: no further expansion of sugar-mills on political grounds and without viable feasibility; immediate improvement in water-courses, improvement of irrigation efficiency, develop cane-varieties with high sucrose-recovery percentage, reduce cost of production of

  14. Continuous Platform Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Fiil

    , but continuous product family evolution challenges this strategy. The concept of continuous platform development is based on the fact that platform development should not be a one-time experience but rather an ongoing process of developing new platforms and updating existing ones, so that product family...... low risks and investments but also with relatively fuzzy results. When looking for new platform projects, it is important to make sure that the company and market is ready for the introduction of platforms, and to make sure that people from marketing and sales, product development, and downstream......, while Grundfos is relatively new within this area. This study puts emphasis on platform projects and defines such projects as something very different from product development projects and more similar to industrial research projects, due to the fact that they are continuous activities with relatively...

  15. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species.

  16. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species. PMID:24599867

  17. Platform Competition in Telecommunications

    OpenAIRE

    Church, Jeffrey; Gandal, Neil

    2004-01-01

    In this Paper we consider the economics of platform competition in telecommunications. Platform competition occurs when different, sometimes incompatible, technologies compete to provide telecommunications services to end-users. Battles between competing technologies have been an important feature of telecommunications in the last twenty or so years. Examples of platform competition in telecommunications include wireless vs. wireline networks, competing wireless options, such as satellite vs....

  18. Eclipse Platform Technical Overview

    OpenAIRE

    ALS-NSCORT,

    2003-01-01

    The Eclipse Platform is designed for building integrated development environments (IDEs) that can be used to create applications as diverse as web sites, embedded JavaTM programs, C++ programs, and Enterprise JavaBeansTM. This paper is a general technical introduction to the Eclipse Platform. Part I presents a technical overview of its architecture. Part II is a case study of how the Eclipse Platform was used to build a full-featured Java development environment. 20 pages Provider Notes...

  19. The Creative Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrge, Christian; Hansen, Søren

    This book is about introducing more creativity into general educational courses and cross-disciplinary activities. It is directed toward teachers at all levels in the educational system, but the Creative Platform is a general model, and thus the creative process will fundamentally be the same...... you can use in your work with the Creative Platform. This book is intended as an introduction on how to use the Creative Platform....

  20. Expression patterns of genes involved in sugar metabolism and accumulation during apple fruit development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Li

    Full Text Available Both sorbitol and sucrose are imported into apple fruit from leaves. The metabolism of sorbitol and sucrose fuels fruit growth and development, and accumulation of sugars in fruit is central to the edible quality of apple. However, our understanding of the mechanisms controlling sugar metabolism and accumulation in apple remains quite limited. We identified members of various gene families encoding key enzymes or transporters involved in sugar metabolism and accumulation in apple fruit using homology searches and comparison of their expression patterns in different tissues, and analyzed the relationship of their transcripts with enzyme activities and sugar accumulation during fruit development. At the early stage of fruit development, the transcript levels of sorbitol dehydrogenase, cell wall invertase, neutral invertase, sucrose synthase, fructokinase and hexokinase are high, and the resulting high enzyme activities are responsible for the rapid utilization of the imported sorbitol and sucrose for fruit growth, with low levels of sugar accumulation. As the fruit continues to grow due to cell expansion, the transcript levels and activities of these enzymes are down-regulated, with concomitant accumulation of fructose and elevated transcript levels of tonoplast monosaccharide transporters (TMTs, MdTMT1 and MdTMT2; the excess carbon is converted into starch. At the late stage of fruit development, sucrose accumulation is enhanced, consistent with the elevated expression of sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS, MdSPS5 and MdSPS6, and an increase in its total activity. Our data indicate that sugar metabolism and accumulation in apple fruit is developmentally regulated. This represents a comprehensive analysis of the genes involved in sugar metabolism and accumulation in apple, which will serve as a platform for further studies on the functions of these genes and subsequent manipulation of sugar metabolism and fruit quality traits related to carbohydrates.

  1. Supply Response of Sugar Cane in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Noer Soetrisno

    1984-01-01

    The paper investigates the supply response of sugar cane using an extended Nerlovian model, The analysis is separated into sugar mills and farmers’ responses. Output response is decomposed into area response and yield response. An important finding shows farmers to be responsive to price while millers are not, The insignificant results on sugar mills indicate that when they are under strict control, and are no longer profit maximizing, the Nerlovian supply response does not apply.

  2. Natural sweet substances - alternative of sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Kratochvílová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Natural sweet substances – alternative of sugar Summary Sugar (sucrose) is undoubtedly the most commonly used sweetening agent of natural origin, but certainly not the only one. Large amount of sweet substances with different structure has been isolated from the plants. These non-carbohydrate sweetening agents have several advantages over sucrose. They are low-energy substances, which have much higher sweetening effect than sucrose, and therefore become a suitable alternative sugar. U...

  3. Pullulan production from sugar beat molasses

    OpenAIRE

    Kassim, Mohammad Bashir Ismail [محمد بشيراسماعيل قاسم; Sultan, Raad Hussani

    1997-01-01

    Sugar beet molasses was used as the substrate for the production of pullulan with Aureobasidum pullulans ATCC 42023. In addition biomass, residual sugar and final pH of the culture medium were investigated. In comparing sugar beet molasses and glucose media, it was found that production of pullulan from glucose medium highly exceeded that produced from molasses medium. Treatment of molasses with sodium sulphate slightly enhanced pullulan production. Highest pullulan production from molasses o...

  4. The Mexican sugar industry : problems and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Borrell, Brent

    1991-01-01

    The Mexican sugar industry operates under strict government controls. The sugar parastatal, AZUCAR, and other state agencies govern virturally all aspects of pricing and, until recently, AZUCAR controlled virtually all aspects of marketing. The purpose of this study is to make transparent the main economic effects of existing sugar policies. Three broad measures are used to estimate the resource misallocation effects of intervention: the nominal rate of protection, the effective rate of assis...

  5. Sugar and Alcoholic Fair Closed in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 80th China National Sugar and Alcoholic Commodities Fair was held in Chengdu (capital of Sichuan province) from March 24 to 28.Sponsored by China National Sugar and Alcohol Group Corp.,this is the 20th time for Chengdu to host such a big event.Since the fair was initially held in 1955,Sugar and Alcoholic Fair has become increasingly well-known in both China and abroad while sticking to the principle of serving enterprises.

  6. Metal Chlorides in Ionic Liquid Solvents Convert Sugars to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Haibo; Holladay, John E.; Brown, Heather M.; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2007-06-15

    Sugars were converted to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) at high yield in ionic liquids without the addition of Bronsted acids. Very small amount of certain metal halides significantly reduced the fructose dehydration barrier in ionic liquids producing HMF at high yields. Most remarkably, glucose, a common sugar molecule, was selectively converted to HMF in good yield in ionic liquids containing a small amount of CrCl2. Thus CrCl2 is unique among metal chlorides tested for its effectiveness in both isomerizing glucose as well as dehydrating fructose. Only negligble amount of levulinic acid was formed in the reactions. The catalytic activity of metal chlorides for sugar conversion in ionic liquids is perhaps related to hydroxyl group of the sugar forming metal complexes with the unsaturated metal center.

  7. Games and Platform Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2007-01-01

    be described as being a configuration problem with a high number of variables. These variables are different in nature; they have contradictory influence on the total performance, and, their importance change over time. Consequently, the specific platform decisions become highly complex and the consequences...... support to the platform decision making.......Platform is an ambiguous multidisciplinary concept. The philosophy behind it is easy to communicate and makes intuitively sense. However, the ease in communication does overshadow the high complexity when the concept is implemented. The practical industrial platform implementation challenge can...

  8. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban Sugar Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a review concerning the applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements ) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processes has been performed by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elements sugar cane soil plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (rawr, blanco directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in other applications are given

  9. Oil and Gas Producing Platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1998)[platforms_MMS_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point data set for the location of over 4300 MMS administered platform structures used for oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico. Groups of...

  10. Application of Pharmacy Administration Based on the Platform of Hospital Data Center%基于全院数据中心平台的医院药事管理应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶正强

    2012-01-01

    Based on our experience of enterprise data warehouse construction, the paper is to describe data extraction, parsing and visualization over the platform, which can better serve the evolving needs of data applications by the users throughout our hospital. With the implementation of this platform, it forms an enterprise-wide data strategy, which can, in turn, to drive transformation of the existing information systems, and reengineering of business process. The use cases built on top of such data model will strengthen clinical and managerial decision-making support, enabling improved quality and efficiency.%根据复旦大学附属眼耳鼻喉科医院数据中心平台建设经验,重点介绍了在平台基础上实现数据汇聚、离散化处理和构建视图,使处理后的数据能更灵活地满足用户的数据利用需求.通过平台建设,形成全院数据整合与利用的一整套规范,可以反过来驱动现有医疗业务信息系统的改造及对医院业务流程的再造.构建在规范的数据模型之上的用例,结合用户需求和智慧,辅助临床和管理决策,从而有效提升医疗质量和管理绩效.

  11. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivation comes with risks. Small-scale cultivation of sugar palm perfectly fits into local farming systems. In order to make a proper assessment of the value palm sugar as bio-ethanol crop more informati...

  12. 加快武汉区域金融中心建设 构建中三角城市群发展核心平台%Speeding up the Construction of Regional Financial Center of Wuhan Building the Core Platform of the Triangle in the Development of Urban Agglomerations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴少新; 彭芸; 张世晓

    2012-01-01

    武汉区域金融中心的建设将通过金融集聚为中三角城市群发展构建核心平台。这一核心平台的重要功能主要体现在:发掘潜在优势,将预期收益转化为现实生产力和现实财富的先导功能;转变经济发展方式的深化功能;将科教文化转化为生产力的催化功能。构建武汉区域金融中心的着力点在于资本化,集中体现在非上市公司股权交易中心建设等十个方面。武汉区域金融中心建设具有历史、现实的客观基础,又逢重要发展战略的机遇期,需要制定一个总体规划,积极创造发展条件,加大政策扶持力度,加快推进武汉区域金融中心建设。%The construction of Wuhan regional financial center will build a core platform for the triangular development of urban agglomerations through the financial gathering. The important functions of the core platform are mainly reflected as follows: the leading function of exploring potential advantages which means translating expected benifits into practical productive forces and real wealth; the deepening function of changing the mode of economic development; the catalyzing function of turning education and culture into productivity. The point to build Wuhan regional financial center is capitalization, which concentrately reflected in the ten areas in non-listed companies trading center. The construction of Wuhan regional financial center is on the basis of history and reality which is very objective, and as meeting the opportunity of an important development strategy, we need to develop a blue print, create conditions for development actively, intensify policy support and accelerate the construction of Wuhan regional financial center.

  13. EURESCOM Services Platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Lambert J.M.; Halteren, van Aart

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the EURESCOM Project 715. In February 1999, a large team of researchers from six European public network operators completed a two year period of cooperative experiments on a TINA-based environment, called the EURESCOM Services Platform (ESP). This platform consist

  14. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35 percent of the overall allotment quantity. (b) The allotment for cane sugar will be 45.65 percent of...

  15. Product Platform Replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    shed light on this unexplored and growing managerial concern, the purpose of this explorative study is to identify operational challenges to management when product platforms are replaced. Design/methodology/approach – The study uses a longitudinal field-study approach. Two companies, Gamma and Omega......Purpose – It is argued in this article that too little is known about product platforms and how to deal with them from a manager's point of view. Specifically, little information exists regarding when old established platforms are replaced by new generations in R&D and production environments. To...... distinguishing between platform replacement “height” and “width”. Seven groups of managerial measures for dealing with the issues are recommended. Originality/value – The study aims to contribute to the existing literature by taking a managers' perspective of product platform development. Its specific...

  16. Sugars present in tobacco extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, S C; Pollack, R L; Hsu, A F; Going, R E

    1980-12-01

    The presence of fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, and isomaltose in commercial tobacco products was identified and quantitated. Gas-liquid chromatographic studies showed that these five types of sugar were present in the water-soluble extracts of pouch and plug chewing tobacco, yet only fructose and glucose were found in extracts of snuff and unprocessed natural tobaccos. The amount of sucrose present in pouch chewing tobacco was twice that in plug chewing tobacco. No detectable amount of sucrose was found in snuff or unprocessed natural tobaccos. The content of maltose and isomaltose was much less than the content of fructose, glucose, or sucrose. All unprocessed natural tobacco leaves studied as controls contained low amounts of fructose and glucose, and no detectable amounts of sucrose, maltose, or isomaltose. The larger amounts of fructose and glucose, and the additional sucrose, maltose, and isomaltose present in pouch and plug chewing tobaccos are probably added during the manufacturing process. PMID:6935284

  17. The sugar industry in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaren, Peter F.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the early Colonial times sugar production has been a key sector in the Peruvian export economy. This article analyzes its evolution as from the beginning of its modern phase by mid 19th Century, its consolidation in the Northern coastal region, and its concentration in scale-economy plants. The prosperity of this type of production contributed to the formation of both an oligarchy which governed the country until 1968, and the populist party (APRA and its electoral basis (the so-called «Aprista North». In the sixties Velasco Alvarado’s military revolution nationalized the sugar industry, which underwent structural changes leading to a serious crisis in the eighties that has not been overcome up-todate.

    La producción de azúcar ha constituido un importante sector en la economía exportadora del Perú desde el período colonial temprano. Este artículo analiza su evolución, sobre todo tras el inicio de su fase moderna, fechada a partir de mediados del siglo XIX, cuando se modernizó, se consolidó en la región costera septentrional y se concentró en fábricas que operaban con economías de escala. Su prosperidad, contribuyó, además, a la formación de una oligarquía que gobernó el país hasta 1968 y del partido populista, APRA, y su base electoral (el llamado «sólido Norte aprista». La revolución militar de Velasco Alvarado nacionalizó la industria en la década de 1960 y los cambios estructurales que sufrió posteriormente le condujeron a una grave crisis en los años ochenta que aún no ha superado.

  18. Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

  19. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative light scattering

  20. Diabetes: Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Web version Diabetes | Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level What tests can I use to check my blood sugar level? There are 2 blood tests that can help ... the past 2-3 months. Testing your A1C level every 3 months is the best way for ...

  1. PROSPECTS OF SUGAR PRODUCTION AND IMPORTS: MEETING THE SUGAR DEMAND OF NIGERIA BY YEAR 2020

    OpenAIRE

    J.N. Nmadu; M.A. Ojo; F.D. Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The trend of sugar cane production and refined sugar imports for the period 1960-2010 were analysed and forecasted to year 2020. Results show that sugar cane output will rise to 2.8m tonnes from about 88 thousand hectares of land by year 2020. The total refined sugar that will be available from production and import is about 720 thousand tonnes but with Nigerian population growing at the rate of 2.27%, potential demand for refined sugar will rise to 1.6B tonnes by the year 2020 creating a def...

  2. How a change in Brazil's sugar policies would affect the world sugar market

    OpenAIRE

    Borrell, Brent

    1991-01-01

    Although Brazil is the world's largest sugarcane producer, only one-third of the cane it grows is used to produce sugar; the rest is used to produce ethanol as fuel for automobiles. Still, Brazil is the world's fourth largest sugar producer. This paper asks what it would mean for Brazil and for the world sugar market if Brazil were to shift largely away from ethanol to sugar production. This question is of keen interest for the world sugar market because such a shift -- although politically d...

  3. Comparative anatomy of the peduncles of Thai Sugar Palms provides insight on putative sugar transport mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somjaiai, Pananun; Barfod, Anders; Jampeetong, Arunothai

    Inflorescences of sugar palms exude copious amounts of sugar-rich sap, when their peduncles are scarred. In Thailand this phenomenon form the basis of a widespread cottage industry based on species such as Arenga pinnata, Borassus flabellifera, Cocos nucifera and Nypa fruticans. The extracted sugar...... sap is used mainly for jaggery, syrup and different types of beverages. In this study we looked for anatomical correlates of the elevated sap flow in injured peduncles of sugar palms. Despite a limited sample size we observed that sugar producing palms differ from the reference palm Chamaedorea...

  4. Alkaline degradation of invert sugar from molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Byung Y; Montgomery, Rex

    2007-11-01

    Sugar beet and sugar cane molasses have been shown to be suitable starting materials for producing de-icer preparations. The sucrose in the molasses is hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose by invertase. The reducing sugars are then degraded by NaOH, the alkali being neutralized by the sugar acids produced, resulting in an increase of the ionic strength and consequently depression of the freezing point of the resulting solution. For the preparation of de-icers, the desired freezing point depression to a temperature of less than about -20 degrees C can be achieved by adjusting the amount and concentration of the alkali metal hydroxide used. The resulting products are biodegradable and eliminate the corrosive effects associated with the use of conventional chloride salts. Degradation of invert sugar by NaOH has been achieved without an external heat source. The reaction products showed the same freezing point depression as seen in the degradation products from pure glucose. PMID:17222551

  5. 基于OE-VServer技术的高校云数据中心平台构建%Construction of Cloud Data Center Platform based on OE-VServer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆伟; 岳珍梅; 刘婷

    2014-01-01

    随着云计算的日益普及,传统的高校数据中心计算利用率差、运营成本高等问题日益突出。采用OE-VServer技术对实验中心的大数据实验室进行升级改造,增加虚拟化程序,实现一机变多机技术,单虚拟机可以实现安装简单、动态资源分配、易于管理、实时监控及故障迁移,有效提高数据处理的高速性、稳定性及安全性。%With the increasing popularity of cloud computing, the traditional data center is calculated by the rate difference, higher operating costs have become increasingly prominent, using OE-VServer technology of large data laboratory of experimental center of the upgrade, increase the virtual program more machine technology becomes a machine, a single virtual machine can achieve a simple installation, easy management, dynamic resource allocation, real time monitoring and fault migration, effectively improve the speed, stability and security of data processing.

  6. Cloud platform based on IaaS and its application in data center of large enterprise%基于IaaS的云平台及其在大型企业数据中心的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冰; 马瑜

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing and virtualization technology have become the trend of data center construction cur-rently. Being a service type of cloud computing, IaaS has been widely used in more and more large enterprises. With IaaS, the applicant can get the IT foundation service quickly and flexibly. This paper first introduces the basic concept of IaaS, and then discusses its overall structure. Finally, this paper analyses in detail the obvious advantages that IaaS brings to enterprise data center comparing with the traditional mode.%云计算和虚拟化技术已经成为当前企业数据中心建设的趋势,IaaS作为云计算的一种服务类型,已经在很多大型企业得到了成功应用,资源申请者可以通过其快速、灵活地获得IT基础设施服务。本文首先对IaaS及虚拟化概念进行介绍,然后讨论基于IaaS的云平台的架构设计,最后分析该平台在实际应用中相比于传统数据中心建设模式带来的明显优势。

  7. A single amino acid change converts the sugar sensor SGLT3 into a sugar transporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bianchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter proteins (SGLT belong to the SLC5A family, characterized by the cotransport of Na(+ with solute. SGLT1 is responsible for intestinal glucose absorption. Until recently the only role described for SGLT proteins was to transport sugar with Na(+. However, human SGLT3 (hSGLT3 does not transport sugar but causes depolarization of the plasma membrane when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. For this reason SGLT3 was suggested to be a sugar sensor rather than a transporter. Despite 70% amino acid identity between hSGLT3 and hSGLT1, their sugar transport, apparent sugar affinities, and sugar specificity differ greatly. Residue 457 is important for the function of SGLT1 and mutation at this position in hSGLT1 causes glucose-galactose malabsorption. Moreover, the crystal structure of vibrio SGLT reveals that the residue corresponding to 457 interacts directly with the sugar molecule. We thus wondered if this residue could account for some of the functional differences between SGLT1 and SGLT3. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We mutated the glutamate at position 457 in hSGLT3 to glutamine, the amino acid present in all SGLT1 proteins, and characterized the mutant. Surprisingly, we found that E457Q-hSGLT3 transported sugar, had the same stoichiometry as SGLT1, and that the sugar specificity and apparent affinities for most sugars were similar to hSGLT1. We also show that SGLT3 functions as a sugar sensor in a living organism. We expressed hSGLT3 and E457Q-hSGLT3 in C. elegans sensory neurons and found that animals sensed glucose in an hSGLT3-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, we demonstrate that hSGLT3 functions as a sugar sensor in vivo and that mutating a single amino acid converts this sugar sensor into a sugar transporter similar to SGLT1.

  8. Ladder attachment platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swygert,; Richard, W [Springfield, SC

    2012-08-28

    A ladder attachment platform is provided that includes a base for attachment to a ladder that has first and second side rails and a plurality of rungs that extend between in a lateral direction. Also included is a user platform for having a user stand thereon that is carried by the base. The user platform may be positioned with respect to the ladder so that it is not located between a first plane that extends through the first side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction and a second plane that extends through the second side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction.

  9. USA Hire Testing Platform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The USA Hire Testing Platform delivers tests used in hiring for positions in the Federal Government. To safeguard the integrity of the hiring processes and ensure...

  10. EPA Geospatial Platform

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Geospatial Platform is a shared infrastructure that a suite of geospatial tools, data and services that helps coordinate and consolidate mapping activities,...

  11. Identification of platform levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2005-01-01

    and efficient tool. Transforming product development from single to multiple product development is a significant change in product development often involving major changes of product models, procedures and organization. In the area of product models a set of new models has to be introduced, e.g. models......These years many companies are changing their product development from single to multi product development, meaning that not only one product is developed but product families. There are many reasons for this change, but among the most important ones are reduction of time to market, total cost...... of the platform including interfaces are necessary. Procedures change because platform based product development requires a clear distinction between preparation (i.e. development of the platform) and development of individual products (i.e. application of the platform). The organization often has to be changed...

  12. "Platform" innovative educational technology

    OpenAIRE

    Klimashova Yuliya Igorevna

    2015-01-01

    This article reflects the main aspects of "Platform" innovative education technology, determines the theoretical and practical components of the technology, and describes the results of its application in the educational process.

  13. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, D; Cernicchiaro, N; Allan, S A; Cohnstaedt, L W

    2016-06-01

    The mixing of an insecticide with sugar solution creates an oral toxin or insecticidal sugar bait (ISB) useful for reducing adult insect populations. The ability of ISBs to kill the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a vector of bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease and vesicular stomatitis viruses, was tested. The commercial insecticide formulations (percentage active ingredient) tested included bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and spinosad. Mortality rates were determined for various concentrations of commercial formulations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3%) and observed at 1, 4, 10 and 24 h post-exposure to the ISB. In the first set of assays, laboratory-reared midges were fed sugar ad libitum and then exposed to insecticide-treated sugar solutions to measure mortality. The second assay assessed competitive feeding: midges were provided with a control sugar solution (10% sucrose) in one vial, and a sugar and insecticide solution in another. Pyrethroid treatments resulted in the greatest mortality in the first hour at the lowest concentrations and spinosad consumption resulted in the least mortality. Biting midges were not deterred from feeding on the 1% ISB solutions despite the presence of an insecticide-free alternative source of sugar. PMID:26789534

  14. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-01-01

    World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas ...

  15. Innovating Platform Business Models

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Daniel; Gassmann, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Digitalization, connected products and services, and shortening innovation cycles are widely discussed topics in management practice and theory and demand for new concepts. Platforms are such a concept and find successively entry into a growing number of companies. However, research did not yet address how business models for platforms can be innovated. Thus, we build on a multi-case study and analyze how three major companies, Amazon, Apple and Google innovated their business models. We foun...

  16. The FLP microsatellite platform flight operations manual

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book represents the Flight Operations Manual for a reusable microsatellite platform – the “Future Low-cost Platform” (FLP), developed at the University of Stuttgart, Germany. It provides a basic insight on the onboard software functions, the core data handling system and on the power, communications, attitude control and thermal subsystem of the platform. Onboard failure detection, isolation and recovery functions are treated in detail. The platform is suited for satellites in the 50-150 kg class and is baseline of the microsatellite “Flying Laptop” from the University. The book covers the essential information for ground operators to controls an FLP-based satellite applying international command and control standards (CCSDS and ECSS PUS). Furthermore it provides an overview on the Flight Control Center in Stuttgart and on the link to the German Space Agency DLR Ground Station which is used for early mission phases. Flight procedure and mission planning chapters complement the book. .

  17. The anaerobic digestion of sugar beet pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartini, Sri

    2014-01-01

    World-wide there are substantial quantities of sugar beet pulp, which arises as a residue after the processing of whole beet to extract sugar for refining as a foodstuff or for use in fermentation, in particular for the production of ethanol for the biofuel market. In both cases the resulting pulp residue is still rich in pentose sugars and fibre, and the research considered anaerobic digestion (AD) as a potential technology for the conversion of this material into renewable energy in the for...

  18. The Platformization of the Web: Making Web Data Platform Ready

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Helmond

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I inquire into Facebook’s development as a platform by situating it within the transformation of social network sites into social media platforms. I explore this shift with a historical perspective on, what I refer to as, platformization, or the rise of the platform as the dominant

  19. Studies on soft centered coated snacks

    OpenAIRE

    Pavithra, A. S.; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Babylatha, R.; Archana, S. N.; Bhat, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    Roasted groundnut seeds, amaranth and dates pulp formed the center filling which was coated with sugar, breadings, desiccated coconut and roasted Bengalgram flour (BGF) to get 4 coated snacks. Physicochemical characteristics, microbiological profile, sorption behaviour and sensory quality of 4 coated snacks were determined. Centre filling to coating ratio of the products were in the range of 3:2–7:1, the product having BGF coating had the thinnest coating. Center filling had soft texture and ...

  20. Analysis of a sugar maple tree core for monitoring environmental uranium contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations and isotopic ratios of metals in tree rings can be employed to resolve temporal changes in contamination, but few studies have explored the behavior of uranium (U). This study measured U abundance and isotopic compositions of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) tree rings near the former Fernald Feed Materials Production Center (FFMPC), a U purification facility in Ohio. U concentrations, 235U/238U, and 234U/238U are generally consistent with known events in FFMPC history. Additionally, the outermost rings have compositions consistent with contemporary soil. These results suggest that sugar maple may be reliable for monitoring past and present environmental U contamination. (author)

  1. Survey on the effects of breast feeding on blood sugar in highbirth weight neonates

    OpenAIRE

    S. Behzadnia; V. Ghaffari; K. Vahidshahi

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose : The low amount of blood sugar in neonates is an important and prevalent problem which needs serious attention because of its cerebral complications. High birth weight is one of the risk factors for hypoglycemia.There is no general agreement about how to approach the high birth weight neonates who do not have the symptoms of hypoglycemia but are at a high risk of it.In some centers the neonates blood sugar is checked before beginning the breast feeding and treatment bu...

  2. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin; Elander, Richard; Hennessey, Susan M.

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  3. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a review concerning the application of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processe4s has been performed by means of instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elemental sugar cane soill-plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (raw, blanco-directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in the other applications are given. (author). 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  4. Blood Sugar - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Blood Sugar URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bloodsugar.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  5. Enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Kristensen, Jan Bach; Felby, Claus

    2007-01-01

    The economic dependency on fossil fuels and the resulting effects on climate and environment have put tremendous focus on utilizing fermentable sugars from lignocellulose, the largest known renewable carbohydrate source. The fermentable sugars in lignocellulose are derived from cellulose...... into fermentable sugars requires a number of different cellulases and hemicellulases. The hydrolysis of cellulose is a sequential breakdown of the linear glucose chains, whereas hemicellulases must be capable of hydrolysing branched chains containing different sugars and functional groups. The technology...... issues within pretreatment and hydrolysis remain to be solved. However, significant improvements in yield and cost reductions are expected, thus making large-scale fermentation of lignocellulosic substrates possible. © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd...

  6. Root rot diseases of sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

  7. What Price Sugar? Land, Labor, and Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Littlefield

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Sugar, Slavery, and Society: Perspectives on the Caribbean, India, the Mascarenes, and the United States. Bernard Moitt (ed.. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. vii + 203 pp. (Cloth US $ 65.00 Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450-1680. Stuart B. Schwartz (ed.. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. xiii + 347 pp. (Paper US $ 22.50 These two books illustrate the fascination that sugar, slavery, and the plantation still exercise over the minds of scholars. One of them also reflects an interest in the influence these have had on the modern world. For students of the history of these things the Schwartz collection is in many ways the more useful. It seeks to fill a lacuna left by the concentration of monographs on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, suggesting that we know less about the history of sugar than we thought we did. Perhaps in no other single place is such a range of information on so wide an area presented in such detail for so early a period. Ranging from Iberia to the Caribbean and including consumption as well as production of sugar, with a nod to the slave trade and a very useful note on weights and currencies, this volume is a gold mine of information. It considers (briefly the theoretical meaning as well as the growing of this important crop, contrasting its production in Iberia with that on the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Canaries, colonized by Iberian powers, and continuing the contrast with São Tomé, off the coast of Africa, and on to Brazil and the Spanish American empire before ending with the British in Barbados. In the transit, it of necessity considers and complicates the meaning of “sugar revolution” and shows how scholars using that term do not always mean the same thing. John McCusker and Russell Menard, for example, tackling a cornerstone of the traditional interpretation of the development of sugar, argue that there

  8. SUGAR-SWEETENED BEVERAGE, SUGAR INTAKE OF INDIVIDUALS AND THEIR BLOOD PRESSURE: INTERMAP STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Ian J; Stamler, Jeremiah; Van Horn, Linda; Robertson, Claire E; Chan, Queenie; Dyer, Alan R; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; Zhao, Liancheng; Daviglus, Martha L; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Elliott, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has focused attention on relationships of sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) to cardiovascular risk factors. Here we report cross-sectional associations of SSB, diet beverages, sugars with blood pressure (BP) for UK and USA participants of the International Study of Macro/Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP). Data collected includes four 24-h dietary recalls, two 24-h urine collections, eight BP readings, questionnaire data for 2,696 people ages 40-59 fro...

  9. UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase controls the activity of proceeding sugar-1-kinases enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Geserick, Claudia; Tenhaken, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    Plant cell wall synthesis requires a number of different nucleotide sugars which provide the building blocks of the different polymers. These nucleotide sugars are mainly provided by de novo synthesis but recycling pathways also contribute to the pools. The last enzyme of the recycling pathway is UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase (USP), a single copy gene in Arabidopsis, of which a knockout is lethal for pollen development. Here we analyze the dependency between USP enzyme activity and the upstream...

  10. Growth of sugar cane varieties under salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Welson Lima Simões; Marcelo Calgaro; Daniela Siqueira Coelho; Delfran Batista dos Santos; Moisés Alves de Souza

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Large salty areas in the Brazilian semi-arid region have limited farming in Northeastern Brazil. One example is the sugar cane cultivation, which reinforces the need of selecting varieties that are more tolerant to salinity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of salinity on growth of ten varieties of sugar cane. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, set in the experimental field of Embrapa Semiárido, in Petrolina, Pernambuco State. The experimental design ...

  11. Sugar Reduction: Responding to the Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health England

    2014-01-01

    In ‘Sugar Reduction: Responding to the Challenge’, PHE is calling on charities, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), academics, businesses, retailers and consumers to work together to reduce the amount of sugar we eat as a nation. By analysing dietary data and discussing food habits with stakeholders, we have identified a range of areas that need exploring further. PHE already runs successful marketing campaigns designed to promote healthy living. To build on this, we also...

  12. Holograms recorded in dichromated with simple sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N Y; Olivares-Perez, A [Instituto Tecnologico Superior de Atlixco, Coordinacion de Bioquimica, Prolongacion Heliotropo N0 1201, Vista Hermosa Atlixco, Puebla (Mexico); Grande-Grande, A, E-mail: nilyame@inaoep.mx, E-mail: olivares@inaoep.mx

    2011-01-01

    Sugars as glucose and fructose can be used to holographic record. These materials have the advantage to mix very well with K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}.Holographic gratings recorded in sugars, were made by a lineal setup to producing interference pattern using a wavelength at 473 nm. These materials have the ability to register information in real time.

  13. Hastings Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Events October 19, Hastings Center Seminar, Garrison : Human Genetic Engineering: Wh at Can We Do? What Should We ... Public Events October 19, Hastings Center Seminar, Garrison : Human Genetic Engineering: Wh at Can We Do? What Should We ...

  14. Platform-based production development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Jacob; Brunoe, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Platforms as a means for applying modular thinking in product development is relatively well studied, but platforms in the production system has until now not been given much attention. With the emerging concept of platform-based co-development the importance of production platforms is though...

  15. Transactional Network Platform: Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Lutes, Robert G.; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2013-10-31

    In FY13, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) designed, prototyped and tested a transactional network platform to support energy, operational and financial transactions between any networked entities (equipment, organizations, buildings, grid, etc.). Initially, in FY13, the concept demonstrated transactions between packaged rooftop air conditioners and heat pump units (RTUs) and the electric grid using applications or "agents" that reside on the platform, on the equipment, on a local building controller or in the Cloud. The transactional network project is a multi-lab effort with Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) also contributing to the effort. PNNL coordinated the project and also was responsible for the development of the transactional network (TN) platform and three different applications associated with RTUs. This document describes two applications or "agents" in details, and also summarizes the platform. The TN platform details are described in another companion document.

  16. Study of fiber optic sugar sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Jayanth Kumar; N M Gowri; R Venkateswara Raju; G Nirmala; B S Bellubbi; T Radha Krishna

    2006-08-01

    Over the last two decades, the fiber optic technology has passed through many analytical stages. Some commercially available fiber optic sensors, though in a small way, are being used for automation in mechanical and industrial environments. They are also used for instrumentation and controls. In the present work, an intensity-modulated intrinsic fiber optic sugar sensor is presented. This type of sensor, with slight modification, can be used for on-line determination of the concentration of sugar content in sugarcane juice in sugar industry. In the present set-up, a plastic fiber made of polymethylmethacrylate is used. A portion of the cladding (1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm) at the mid-point along the length of the fiber is removed. This portion is immersed in sugar solution of known concentration and refractive index. At one end of the fiber an 850 nm source is used and at the other end a power meter is connected. By varying the concentration of sugar solution, the output power is noted. These studies are made due to the change in refractive index of the fluid. The device was found to be very sensitive which is free from EMI and shock hazards, stable and repeatable and they can be remotely interfaced with a computer to give on-line measurements and thus become useful for application in sugar industries.

  17. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirtida R Tandel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from "safe under all conditions" to "unsafe at any dose". Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes.

  18. Aerosol Chemistry of Furfural and Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srithawirat, T.; Brimblecombe, P.

    2008-12-01

    Furfural and sugars (as levoglucosan equivalent) are derived from biomass burning and contribute to aerosol composition. This study examined the potential of furfural and levoglucosan to be tracers of biomass burning. Furfural is likely to be oxidized quickly so comparison with levoglucosan may give a sense of the age of the aerosols in forest fire smoke. However, few furfural emissions are available for biomass combustion. Furfural and sugars were determined in coarse aerosols (>2.4μm aerodynamic diameter) and fine aerosols (Furfural and sugars dominated in fine fractions, especially in the UK autumn. Sugars were found at 5.96-18.37 nmol m-3 in fine mode and 1.36-5.75 nmol m-3 in coarse mode aerosols in the UK. Furfural was found at 0.18-0.91 nmol m-3 and 0.05-0.51 nmol m-3 respectively in the same aerosols. Sugars were a dominant contributor to aerosol derived from biomass burning. Sugars and furfural were about 10 and 20 times higher during haze episodes in Malaysia. Laboratory experimental simulation suggested furfural is more rapid destroyed by UV and sunlight than levoglucosan.

  19. Excel Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Citigroup,one of the World top 500 companies,has now settled in Excel Center,Financial Street. The opening ceremony of Excel Center and the entry ceremony of Citigroup in the center were held on March 31.Government leaders of Xicheng District,the Excel CEO and the heads of Asia-Pacific Region leaders of Citibank all participated in the ceremony.

  20. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas the leader in the production of sugar derived from sugar beet is the EU-28. When the Republic of Croatia joined the EU, the Croatian sugar industry became part of the single European sugar market, so the break-even point was used in the research to determine the competitiveness level of the Croatian sugar beet production. Based on the expected selling price of sugar beet amounting to EUR 34 per ton of standard quality sugar beet, and using the break-even method, it was determined that the quantity required to cover total costs in sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia amounts to 55.26 tons per hectare of payable sugar beet, standard quality, i.e. 8.84 tons of polarized sugar per hectare. As the average sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia, expressed in the equivalent of polarized sugar, amounts to 7.8 tons per hectare, it is obvious that an average Croatian producer of sugar beet, without income from subsidies, operates at a loss.

  1. Universal visualization platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Alexander G.; Li, Hongli; Yu, Min; Smrtic, Mary Beth; Cvek, Urska; Goodell, Howie; Gupta, Vivek; Lawrence, Christine; Zhou, Jainping; Chiang, Chih-Hung; Grinstein, Georges G.

    2005-03-01

    Although there are a number of visualization systems to choose from when analyzing data, only a few of these allow for the integration of other visualization and analysis techniques. There are even fewer visualization toolkits and frameworks from which one can develop ones own visualization applications. Even within the research community, scientists either use what they can from the available tools or start from scratch to define a program in which they are able to develop new or modified visualization techniques and analysis algorithms. Presented here is a new general-purpose platform for constructing numerous visualization and analysis applications. The focus of this system is the design and experimentation of new techniques, and where the sharing of and integration with other tools becomes second nature. Moreover, this platform supports multiple large data sets, and the recording and visualizing of user sessions. Here we introduce the Universal Visualization Platform (UVP) as a modern data visualization and analysis system.

  2. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty sugars. An importer or the importer's agent...

  3. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a total of 325,000 short tons, raw value, of the cane sugar allotment. (b) A new entrant cane State...

  4. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a...

  5. 27 CFR 24.181 - Use of sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of sugar. 24.181... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.181 Use of sugar. Only sugar, as defined in § 24.10, may be used in the production of standard wine. The quantity of sugar used will be...

  6. Supply optimization for the production of raw sugar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.; Westinner, R.

    2007-01-01

    Based on a case study from Venezuela, the production of raw sugar is investigated. Ideally, sugar mills operate at a constant production rate. However, safety stocks of the raw material cannot be maintained as sugar cane quality deteriorates very rapidly. Sugar cane is therefore continuously...

  7. Industry Platforms and Ecosystem Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Gawer, Annabelle; Cusumano, Michael A., 1954-

    2013-01-01

    This paper brings together the recent literature on industry platforms and shows how it relates to managing innovation within and outside the firm as well as to dealing with technological and market disruptions and change over time. First, we identify distinct types of platforms. Our analysis of a wide range of industry examples suggests that there are two predominant types of platforms: internal or company-specific platforms, and external or industry-wide platforms. We define internal (compa...

  8. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining... cane sugar into liquid refined sugar....

  9. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2010-01-01

    The Azure Services Platform is a brand-new cloud-computing technology from Microsoft. It is composed of four core components-Windows Azure, .NET Services, SQL Services, and Live Services-each with a unique role in the functioning of your cloud service. It is the goal of this book to show you how to use these components, both separately and together, to build flawless cloud services. At its heart Windows Azure Platform is a down-to-earth, code-centric book. This book aims to show you precisely how the components are employed and to demonstrate the techniques and best practices you need to know

  10. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2011-01-01

    The Windows Azure Platform has rapidly established itself as one of the most sophisticated cloud computing platforms available. With Microsoft working to continually update their product and keep it at the cutting edge, the future looks bright - if you have the skills to harness it. In particular, new features such as remote desktop access, dynamic content caching and secure content delivery using SSL make the latest version of Azure a more powerful solution than ever before. It's widely agreed that cloud computing has produced a paradigm shift in traditional architectural concepts by providin

  11. Seasonal variation of prices of sugar cane, ethanol and electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal price of sugar cane, fuel alcohol (hydrated and anhydrous) and electricity tariffs as a way of aiding tool for optimization of energy generation, using biomass originating from cane sugar. Using the method of moving average centered was concluded that cane and electricity rates were close to seasonal average, with low range of prices, suggesting the non-occurrence of seasonal variation in prices. Unlike the seasonal indices of ethanol showed seasonal variation of prices with greater amplitude of seasonal index. Thus, the results suggest that the utilization of by-products of sugar cane to produce electrical power points to the prospect of reducing risks associated with variations in the price of ethanol, thereby contributing to greater stability and possibility to those involved in planning alcohol sector. (author)

  12. Job center

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better meet the needs of AGU members, a program has been started to increase the effectiveness of the Job Center activity at the Spring and Fall Meetings. As a result, participation in the Job Center at the 1988 AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore increased substantially compared to previous Spring Meetings. The number of employers, applicants, and interviews scheduled more than doubled compared to the 1987 Spring Job Center.In order to make the meeting Job Centers even better, a survey is being conducted of employers and applicants who participated in the 1988 Spring Job Center. Evaluation of this survey will be useful in continuing increased participation in and the effectiveness of the Job Center at the 1988 Fall Meeting. Past participants and those interested in the future of the Job Center are encouraged to forward comments and suggestions to AGU, Member Programs Division, 2000 Florida Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20009.

  13. Practical problems in use of sugar substitutes in preventive dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    N M Roshan; Sakeenabi, B.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar (sucrose) being most acceptable sweetening agent in use by mankind is considered as the “Arch Criminal” in dental caries initiation. Search for suitable sweetening agent which will satisfy all the characteristics of sugar along with being non-cariogenic is going on since decades. At this given point of time, there is no such substitute which will replace sugar in all aspects, but, cariogenic potential can certainly be reduced by using sugar substitutes. Recently, few sugar substitutes a...

  14. Power generation from fuelwood by the Nicaraguan sugar mills

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro de Miranda, R.; Broek, R. van den

    2002-01-01

    With new concept development for the sugar industry and with new power market opportunities, two sugar mills in Nicaragua initiated projects aimed at becoming power plants during the sugar cane off-season. Basically the idea is to use more efficient boilers and turbines, and generate power beyond the mill's needs fueled by bagasse during the sugar cane crushing season ,and by fuelwood from eucalyptus plantations during the sugar cane off season. The surplus power in both seasons will be sold ...

  15. Structural confirmation of oligosaccharides newly isolated from sugar beet molasses

    OpenAIRE

    Abe Tatsuya; Horiuchi Kenichi; Kikuchi Hiroto; Aritsuka Tsutomu; Takata Yusuke; Fukushi Eri; Fukushi Yukiharu; Kawabata Jun; Ueno Keiji; Onodera Shuichi; Shiomi Norio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Sugar beet molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar beets into sugar. The molasses is known to contain sucrose and raffinose, a typical trisaccharide, with a well-established structure. Although sugar beet molasses contains various other oligosaccharides as well, the structures of those oligosaccharides have not been examined in detail. The purpose of this study was isolation and structural confirmation of these other oligosaccharides found in sugar beet...

  16. Postgraduate programmes as platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swet, Jacqueline van; Ponte, Petra; Smit, Ben

    2007-01-01

    Typical of postgraduate courses for experienced teachers is the wealth of professional experience that the studetns bring with them. Such students can examine their own practice, for which they are fully responsible. Authors from diverse backgrounds address important aspects of the platform, such as

  17. Creative Platform Learning (CPL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jonna Langeland; Hansen, Søren

    Creative Platform Learning (CPL) er en pædagogisk metode, der skaber foretagsomme og innovative elever, der kan anvende deres kreativitet til at lære nyt. Ifølge den nye skolereform skal Innovation og entreprenørskab tydeliggøres i alle fag. I CPL er det en integreret del af undervisningen...

  18. PROSPECTS OF SUGAR PRODUCTION AND IMPORTS: MEETING THE SUGAR DEMAND OF NIGERIA BY YEAR 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N. Nmadu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The trend of sugar cane production and refined sugar imports for the period 1960-2010 were analysed and forecasted to year 2020. Results show that sugar cane output will rise to 2.8m tonnes from about 88 thousand hectares of land by year 2020. The total refined sugar that will be available from production and import is about 720 thousand tonnes but with Nigerian population growing at the rate of 2.27%, potential demand for refined sugar will rise to 1.6B tonnes by the year 2020 creating a deficit of over 1.5B tonnes. This require a drastic action which if not taken will lead to sugar crisis. Three major options are advocated in this paper i.e. hectarage expansion, massive funding of research to improve sugar cane production technology such that yield will rise to 150 tonnes per hectare and import expansion. Of the three options, only increase funding of research will encourage local technology and save Nigeria foreign exchange of more than $100B annually and will make Nigeria self-reliant in sugar production by the year 2020 and facilitate the emergence of Nigeria as a developed nation.

  19. Aromatics extraction from pyrolytic sugars using ionic liquid to enhance sugar fermentability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Luque-Moreno, L.C.; Oudenhoven, S.R.G; Rehmann, L.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Schuur, B.

    2016-01-01

    Fermentative bioethanol production from pyrolytic sugars was improved via aromatics removal by liquid–liquid extraction. As solvents, the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide (P666,14[N(CN)2]) and ethyl acetate (EA) were compared. Two pyrolytic sugar solutions were created fro

  20. Process innovation in the sugar industry : Chromatographic sugar separation using SMB technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussmann, P.; Vroon, R.; Timmer, J.; Boon, F.; Bruijn, J.M. de

    2007-01-01

    The chromatographic separation of sugar from raw juice was identified as a promising alternative for the current juice purification. Simulated moving bed technology (SMB) was chosen as the most suitable technology on the basis of the purification, limited degree of dilution and increased sugar yield

  1. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivati

  2. Mobile Platforms and Development Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Helal, Sumi; Li, Wengdong

    2012-01-01

    Mobile platform development has lately become a technological war zone with extremely dynamic and fluid movement, especially in the smart phone and tablet market space. This Synthesis lecture is a guide to the latest developments of the key mobile platforms that are shaping the mobile platform industry. The book covers the three currently dominant native platforms -- iOS, Android and Windows Phone -- along with the device-agnostic HTML5 mobile web platform. The lecture also covers location-based services (LBS) which can be considered as a platform in its own right. The lecture utilizes a sampl

  3. Functional Centering

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, M

    1996-01-01

    Based on empirical evidence from a free word order language (German) we propose a fundamental revision of the principles guiding the ordering of discourse entities in the forward-looking centers within the centering model. We claim that grammatical role criteria should be replaced by indicators of the functional information structure of the utterances, i.e., the distinction between context-bound and unbound discourse elements. This claim is backed up by an empirical evaluation of functional centering.

  4. 建筑创作的情与理--汽摩配检测公共服务平台暨国家质检中心方案设计%Sentiment and Rationality of Architectural Creation--Design of Public Service Platform and National Quality Inspection Center on Detection of Automobile and Motorcycle Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑朝灿; 陈重东

    2014-01-01

    The marketization of the construction industry, to a certain extent, led to the randomization of the building functions, homogenization of the facade and the architectural space. Taking the design of public service platform and national quality inspection center on detection of automobile and motorcycle parts as an example, the paper analyzed the basic principles of harmonization of ideal and scientific nature, simplicity and complexity, randomness and texture of architectural creation, reveals the lack of the subject status of the building design, proposing sentiment and rationality of the architectural creation.%建筑的市场化,一定程度上导致了建筑功能的随意化、立面造型的同质化及建筑空间的匀质化。本文以“汽摩配检测公共服务平台暨国家质检中心”方案设计为例,分析了理想性与科学性、矛盾性与统一性、简单性与复杂性、随机性与肌理性等建筑创作的基本原则,反思建筑设计主体地位的缺失,呼唤建筑师创作的情与理。

  5. Sugar Transport and Metabolism in Thermotoga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noll, Kenneth M.; Romano, Antonio H.

    2003-02-11

    The work conducted under this grant demonstrated that the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana carries out glucose and lactose transport in a sodium-dependent manner and that energization of anaerobic cells is required to observe transport. We also demonstrated that Thermotoga maritima carries out maltose and glucose transport using periplasmic sugar binding proteins. We began defining patterns of expression of genes encoding sugar transport and catabolic functions in both T. maritima and T. neapolitana. We began a collaborative effort to identify all the genes regulated at the transcriptional level in response to sugars substrates. These funds also allowed us to begin an examination of the functions of several periplasmic substrate binding proteins encoded in the genome of T. maritima.

  6. Sap flow and sugar transport in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K. H.; Berg-Sørensen, K.; Bruus, H.;

    2016-01-01

    Green plants are Earth's primary solar energy collectors. They harvest the energy of the sun by converting light energy into chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugar molecules. A multitude of carefully orchestrated transport processes are needed to move water and minerals from the soil to sites...... of photosynthesis, and to distribute energy-rich sugars throughout the plant body to support metabolism and growth. The long-distance transport happens in the plants' vascular system, where water and solutes are moved along the entire length of the plant. In this review, we discuss the current understanding...... of the mechanism and the quantitative description of these flows, connecting theory and experiments as far as possible. We begin begin with an overview of low-Reynolds-number transport processes, followed by an introduction to the anatomy and physiology of vascular transport in the phloem and xylem. Next, sugar...

  7. Sap flow and sugar transport in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Bruus, Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    Green plants are Earth’s primary solar energy collectors. They harvest the energy of the Sun by converting light energy into chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugar molecules. A multitude of carefully orchestrated transport processes are needed to move water and minerals from the soil to sites...... of photosynthesis and to distribute energy-rich sugars throughout the plant body to support metabolism and growth. The long-distance transport happens in the plants’ vascular system, where water and solutes are moved along the entire length of the plant. In this review, the current understanding of the mechanism...... and the quantitative description of these flows are discussed, connecting theory and experiments as far as possible. The article begins with an overview of low-Reynolds-number transport processes, followed by an introduction to the anatomy and physiology of vascular transport in the phloem and xylem. Next, sugar...

  8. Textile materials trading center formally launched online

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Textile materials trading center was formally launched online in Wuxi City,Jiangsu Province. This is the first third-party electronic trading platform for spot trading in China textile materials professional market. The project will strive to build the most influential textile materials trading center of East China,the whole country and even the whole world China textile materials trading center will be

  9. Distribution center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Distribution center is a logistics link fulfill physical distribution as its main functionGenerally speaking, it's a large and hiahly automated center destined to receive goods from various plants and suppliers,take orders,fill them efficiently,and deliver goods to customers as quickly as possible.

  10. OGC Collaborative Platform undercover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, G.; Arctur, D. K.; Bermudez, L. E.

    2012-12-01

    The mission of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is to serve as a global forum for the collaboration of developers and users of spatial data products and services, and to advance the development of international standards for geospatial interoperability. The OGC coordinates with over 400 institutions in the development of geospatial standards. OGC has a dedicated staff supported by a Collaborative Web Platform to enable sophisticated and successful coordination among its members. Since its origins in the early 1990s, the OGC Collaborative Web Platform has evolved organically to be the collaboration hub for standards development in the exchange of geospatial and related types of information, among a global network of thousands of technical, scientific and management professionals spanning numerous disparate application domains. This presentation describes the structure of this collaboration hub, the relationships enabled (both among and beyond OGC members), and how this network fits in a broader ecosystem of technology development and information standards organizations.

  11. Online stock trading platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion LUNGU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is the perfect tool that can assure the market’s transparency for any user who wants to trade on the stock market. The investor can have access to the market news, financial calendar or the press releases of the issuers. A good online trading platform also provides real-time intraday quotes, trading history and technical analysis giving the investor a clearer view of the supply and demand in the market. All this information provides the investor a good image of the market and encourages him to trade. This paper wishes to draft the pieces of an online trading platform and to analyze the impact of developing and implementing one in a brokerage firm.

  12. Available: motorised platform

    CERN Multimedia

    The COMPASS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The COMPASS collaboration would like to offer to a new owner the following useful and fully operational piece of equipment, which is due to be replaced with better adapted equipment.   Please contact Erwin Bielert (erwin.bielert@cern.ch or 160539) for further information.  Motorized platform (FOR FREE):   Fabricated by ACL (Alfredo Cardoso & Cia Ltd) in Portugal. The model number is MeXs 5-­‐30.  Specifications: 5 m wide, 1 m deep, adjustable height (1.5 m if folded). Maximum working floor height: 4 m. conforms to CERN regulations, number LV158. Type LD500, capacity 500 kg and weight 2000 kg.  If no interested party is found before December 2014, the platform will be thrown away.

  13. Common tester platform concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  14. Cloud Robotics Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busra Koken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud robotics is a rapidly evolving field that allows robots to offload computation-intensive and storage-intensive jobs into the cloud. Robots are limited in terms of computational capacity, memory and storage. Cloud provides unlimited computation power, memory, storage and especially collaboration opportunity. Cloud-enabled robots are divided into two categories as standalone and networked robots. This article surveys cloud robotic platforms, standalone and networked robotic works such as grasping, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM and monitoring.

  15. Geology of spermonde platform

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Imran; M.S., Kaharuddin; Suriamihardja, D.A.; Sirajuddin, H.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The spermonde islands are a reef complex trending north ??? south in the western coastline of South Sulawesi. The development of the reef is controlled by geological processes forming Makassar Strait. The strait arises since rifting between Kalimantan and Sulawesi in Paleocene Era and followed by spreading to form Makassar Strait. The geological process allows the reef complex developed along the Spermonde platform in the west coast of South Sulawesi. Beside the geological factor (s...

  16. HPC - Platforms Penta Chart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo, Angelina Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-08

    Strategy, Planning, Acquiring- very large scale computing platforms come and go and planning for immensely scalable machines often precedes actual procurement by 3 years. Procurement can be another year or more. Integration- After Acquisition, machines must be integrated into the computing environments at LANL. Connection to scalable storage via large scale storage networking, assuring correct and secure operations. Management and Utilization – Ongoing operations, maintenance, and trouble shooting of the hardware and systems software at massive scale is required.

  17. Sugar and Sugar Derivatives in Residues Produced from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuevo, M.; Sandford, S. A.; Cooper, G.

    2016-01-01

    A large variety and number of organic compounds of prebiotic interest are known to be present in carbonaceous chondrites. Among them, one sugar (dihydroxyacetone) as well as several sugar acids, sugar alcohols, and other sugar derivatives have been reported in the Murchison and Murray meteorites. Their presence, along with amino acids, amphiphiles, and nucleobases strongly suggests that molecules essential to life can form abiotically under astrophysical conditions. This hypothesis is supported by laboratory studies on the formation of complex organic molecules from the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of simulated astrophysical ice mixtures consisting of H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, CH4, NH3, etc., at low temperature. In the past 15 years, these studies have shown that the organic residues recovered at room temperature contain amino acids, amphiphiles, nucleobases, as well as other complex organics. However, no systematic search for the presence of sugars and sugar derivatives in laboratory residues have been reported to date, despite the fact that those compounds are of primary prebiotic significance. Indeed, only small (up to 3 carbon atoms) sugar derivatives including glycerol and glyceric acid have been detected in residues so far.

  18. The economics of crowdfunding platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Belleflamme, Paul; Omrani, Nessrine; Peitz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a description of the crowdfunding sector, considering investment-based crowdfunding platforms as well as platforms in which funders do not obtain monetary payments. It lays out key features of this quickly developing sector and explores the economic forces at play that can explain the design of these platforms. In particular, it elaborates on cross-group and within-group external effects and asymmetric information on crowdfunding platforms.

  19. The Prodiguer Messaging Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denvil, S.; Greenslade, M. A.; Carenton, N.; Levavasseur, G.; Raciazek, J.

    2015-12-01

    CONVERGENCE is a French multi-partner national project designed to gather HPC and informatics expertise to innovate in the context of running French global climate models with differing grids and at differing resolutions. Efficient and reliable execution of these models and the management and dissemination of model output are some of the complexities that CONVERGENCE aims to resolve.At any one moment in time, researchers affiliated with the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate modeling group, are running hundreds of global climate simulations. These simulations execute upon a heterogeneous set of French High Performance Computing (HPC) environments. The IPSL's simulation execution runtime libIGCM (library for IPSL Global Climate Modeling group) has recently been enhanced so as to support hitherto impossible realtime use cases such as simulation monitoring, data publication, metrics collection, simulation control, visualizations … etc. At the core of this enhancement is Prodiguer: an AMQP (Advanced Message Queue Protocol) based event driven asynchronous distributed messaging platform. libIGCM now dispatches copious amounts of information, in the form of messages, to the platform for remote processing by Prodiguer software agents at IPSL servers in Paris. Such processing takes several forms: Persisting message content to database(s); Launching rollback jobs upon simulation failure; Notifying downstream applications; Automation of visualization pipelines; We will describe and/or demonstrate the platform's: Technical implementation; Inherent ease of scalability; Inherent adaptiveness in respect to supervising simulations; Web portal receiving simulation notifications in realtime.

  20. Data center high availability for integrated machine control platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Hole, Anders

    2014-01-01

    National Oilwell Varco is a multinational company providing solutions to the oil industry. The main focus in Stavanger office is the Cyberbase chair and control system. This chair is a operators interface with machinery and software that controls the drilling process. The high operation costs of an oil exploration rig, downtime is expensive and should be avoided. The current computer system used in machine control is setup uses multiple paths, which are dependent ...

  1. Contemporary Internet of Things platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Mineraud, Julien; Mazhelis, Oleksiy; Su, Xiang; Tarkoma, Sasu

    2015-01-01

    This document regroups a representative, but non-exhaustive, list of contemporary IoT platforms. The platforms are ordered alphabetically. The aim of this document is to provide the a quick review of current IoT platforms, as well as relevant information.

  2. Product Platform Screening at LEGO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Steen Jensen, Thomas; Nielsen, Ole Fiil

    2012-01-01

    Product platforms offer great benefits to companies developing new products in highly competitive markets. Literature describes how a single platform can be designed from a technical point of view, but rarely mentions how the process begins. How do companies identify possible platform candidates...

  3. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Yttri

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP. In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry – Time of Flight method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m−3 in PM10 and 55 ng m−3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m−3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m−3.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2

  4. Conversion of hemicellulose sugars catalyzed by formic acid: kinetics of the dehydration of D-xylose, L-arabinose, and D-glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussan, Karla; Girisuta, Buana; Lopes, Marystela; Leahy, James J; Hayes, Michael H B

    2015-04-24

    The pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass produces a liquid stream of hemicellulose-based sugars, which can be further converted to high-value chemicals. Formosolv pulping and the Milox process use formic acid as the fractionating agent, which can be used as the catalyst for the valorisation of hemicellulose sugars to platform chemicals. The objective of this study was to investigate the reaction kinetics of major components in the hemicelluloses fraction of biomass, that is, D-xylose, L-arabinose and D-glucose. The kinetics experiments for each sugar were performed at temperatures between 130 and 170 °C in various formic acid concentrations (10-64 wt %). The implications of these kinetic models on the selectivity of each sugar to the desired products are discussed. The models were used to predict the reaction kinetics of solutions that resemble the liquid stream obtained from the fractionation process of biomass using formic acid. PMID:25821128

  5. Growth of sugar cane varieties under salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welson Lima Simões

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Large salty areas in the Brazilian semi-arid region have limited farming in Northeastern Brazil. One example is the sugar cane cultivation, which reinforces the need of selecting varieties that are more tolerant to salinity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of salinity on growth of ten varieties of sugar cane. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, set in the experimental field of Embrapa Semiárido, in Petrolina, Pernambuco State. The experimental design was randomized blocks arranged in a 6 X 10 factorial arrangement, comprised of six levels of salinity (0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 dS m-1 and ten sugar cane varieties (VAT 90212; RB 72454; RB 867515; Q 124; RB 961003; RB 957508; SP791011; RB 835089; RB 92579 and SP 943206. Salt levels of irrigation water were obtained by adding NaCl, CaCl2.2H2O and MgSO4.7H2O to achieve an equivalent ratio among Na:Ca:Mg of 7:2:1. Sixty days later, plant height, stem diameter (base, number of leaves, stalks and sprouts, leaf area and fresh and dry mass of the aerial part and roots were all measured. The varieties of sugar cane showed similar responses for growth reduction as soil salinity increases, being considered moderately sensitive to salinity.

  6. Sugars in peach fruit: a breeding perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Marco; Bassi, Daniele; Ciacciulli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has been characterized by a decrease in peach (Prunus persica) fruit consumption in many countries, foremost due to unsatisfactory quality. The sugar content is one of the most important quality traits perceived by consumers, and the development of novel peach cultivars with sugar-enhanced content is a primary objective of breeding programs to revert the market inertia. Nevertheless, the progress reachable through classical phenotypic selection is limited by the narrow genetic bases of peach breeding material and by the complex quantitative nature of the trait, which is deeply affected by environmental conditions and agronomical management. The development of molecular markers applicable in MAS or MAB has become an essential strategy to boost the selection efficiency. Despite the enormous advances in 'omics' sciences, providing powerful tools for plant genotyping, the identification of the genetic bases of sugar-related traits is hindered by the lack of adequate phenotyping methods that are able to address strong within-plant variability. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways and physiological mechanisms regulating sugar accumulation in peach fruit, the main advances in phenotyping approaches and genetic background, and finally addressing new research priorities and prospective for breeders. PMID:26816618

  7. Idiomatic Control used in Sugar Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    1993-01-01

    A description of a control system for a large scale industrial plant - the evaporator section of a sugar plant. The control system is based on the idiomatic control concept, causing decomposition into loop control units - idioms. Dynamic decoupling, feedforward- and feedback loops eg. have been...

  8. Senior Centers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Karen Albers] We provide a wide variety of activities -- physical, health, mental health programs with Senior Plus, cognitive ... of games. [Narrator] Many senior centers also offer exercise programs. [Karen Albers] We offer aerobics, tai chi, ...

  9. Senior Centers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living independently at home is something many older adults would like to do as long as they can. Senior centers, adult day care, transportation, and meals programs are long- ...

  10. Senior Centers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... variety of social and recreational activities. [Karen Albers] We provide a wide variety of activities -- physical, health, ... senior centers also offer exercise programs. [Karen Albers] We offer aerobics, tai chi, tap dancing, ballroom dancing, ...

  11. Senior Centers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transportation, and meals programs are long-term care services available in the community which make it easier ... about senior centers and other long-term care services available in your community, contact the Eldercare Locator ...

  12. Senior Centers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of games. [Narrator] Many senior centers also offer exercise programs. [Karen Albers] We offer aerobics, tai chi, ... chi, tap dancing, ballroom dancing, square dancing, chair exercise, arthritis classes, yoga, and lots of dancing. [Narrator] ...

  13. The Geohazards Exploitation Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laur, Henri; Casu, Francesco; Bally, Philippe; Caumont, Hervé; Pinto, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    The Geohazards Exploitation Platform, or Geohazards TEP (GEP), is an ESA originated R&D activity of the EO ground segment to demonstrate the benefit of new technologies for large scale processing of EO data. This encompasses on-demand processing for specific user needs, systematic processing to address common information needs of the geohazards community, and integration of newly developed processors for scientists and other expert users. The platform supports the geohazards community's objectives as defined in the context of the International Forum on Satellite EO and Geohazards organised by ESA and GEO in Santorini in 2012. The GEP is a follow on to the Supersites Exploitation Platform (SSEP) an ESA initiative to support the Geohazards Supersites & Natural Laboratories initiative (GSNL). Today the GEP allows to exploit 70+ Terabyte of ERS and ENVISAT archive and the Copernicus Sentinel-1 data available on line. The platform has already engaged 22 European early adopters in a validation activity initiated in March 2015. Since September, this validation has reached 29 single user projects. Each project is concerned with either integrating an application, running on demand processing or systematically generating a product collection using an application available in the platform. The users primarily include 15 geoscience centres and universities based in Europe: British Geological Survey (UK), University of Leeds (UK), University College London (UK), ETH University of Zurich (CH), INGV (IT), CNR-IREA and CNR-IRPI (IT), University of L'Aquila (IT), NOA (GR), Univ. Blaise Pascal & CNRS (FR), Ecole Normale Supérieure (FR), ISTERRE / University of Grenoble-Alpes (FR). In addition, there are users from Africa and North America with the University of Rabat (MA) and the University of Miami (US). Furthermore two space agencies and four private companies are involved: the German Space Research Centre DLR (DE), the European Space Agency (ESA), Altamira Information (ES

  14. Sweet Stuff: How Sugars and Sweeteners Affect Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in calories and offer none of the healthful benefits of fruits and other naturally sweet foods. Sugar-sweetened beverages like soda, energy drinks, and sports drinks are the leading source of added sugars ...

  15. Measurements of particulate sugars at urban and forested suburban sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Sae; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Shigihara, Ado; Katono, Koichi; Igawa, Manabu

    2011-04-01

    Neutral sugars (arabinose, fucose, galactose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose, and xylose) in fine and coarse aerosols were measured at urban and forested suburban sites in Japan. The most dominant compound in the sugar group was glucose at both sites. Size partitioning of the sugars generally showed dominance in the fine mode range but shifted toward the coarse mode range in summer. Seasonal trends in the sugar concentrations in the fine and coarse mode ranges were opposite: higher concentrations of fine mode sugars were found in winter, although coarse mode sugars increased in summer. Fine mode glucose consisted dominantly of the combined form, whereas free glucose increased in the coarse mode range. Although the sources of the sugars in the aerosols remain largely uncertain, primary biogenic particles can be considered as candidates of main sources of the sugars in both coarse and fine mode ranges.

  16. The role of sugars and sugar metabolism genes (sucrose synthase) in arabidopsis thaliana seed development

    OpenAIRE

    Odunlami, Benjamin Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    Seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana, has been studied at several levels. However, little has been done to study the role of sugar metabolism genes in seed pod development in this species. As the fertilized egg progresses to a mature seed, the sugars composition during different stages of the developing changes. These changes are related to metabolic processes in the developing seeds, but also to the activity of sucrose- converting and transporting genes, active at the interphase between ...

  17. PROCESS OF OBTAINING OF SUGAR FROM SUGAR BEET AND INFLUENCE ON ITS QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Marián Tokár; Helena Frančáková; Tatiana Bojňanská; Marek Bennár

    2011-01-01

    Cooking of massecuites has been study in the connection with different particle size distribution of white sugar. During the crystallization is possible to operate with parameters which have influence on particle size of white sugar. Dry matter of juice in crystallizer, volume of the standard syrup in crystallizer and heating curve of crystallization process are constant parameters in this process. Quantity of slurry (seed magma crystallizate) and volume of slurry massecuite are parameters wh...

  18. Consumers’ Attitudes towards Country of Origin Labeling for Sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Karen E.; Grebitus, Carola

    2013-01-01

    Given the ongoing debate regarding country of origin labeling (COOL) for certain agricultural products, it is very important to understand why certain consumers prefer COOL. Utilizing a consumer survey, 566 participants’ preferences for COOL for sugar and for sugar in soft drinks was analyzed. Using a bivariate ordered probit model, it was discovered that high levels of consumer ethnocentrism and consumer patriotism positively impacted consumers’ preference that sugar and sugar in soft drinks...

  19. Kinetic modelling of the Maillard reaction between proteins and sugars

    OpenAIRE

    Brands, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: Maillard reaction, sugar isomerisation, kinetics, multiresponse modelling, brown colour formation, lysine damage, mutagenicity, casein, monosaccharides, disaccharides, aldoses, ketosesThe aim of this thesis was to determine the kinetics of the Maillard reaction between proteins and sugars, taking into account other simultaneously occurring sugar reactions. Model systems of foods, consisting of the protein casein and various sugars in a buffered solution, were studied. The reaction c...

  20. PROCESS OF OBTAINING OF SUGAR FROM SUGAR BEET AND INFLUENCE ON ITS QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tokár

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cooking of massecuites has been study in the connection with different particle size distribution of white sugar. During the crystallization is possible to operate with parameters which have influence on particle size of white sugar. Dry matter of juice in crystallizer, volume of the standard syrup in crystallizer and heating curve of crystallization process are constant parameters in this process. Quantity of slurry (seed magma crystallizate and volume of slurry massecuite are parameters which can be changed for control the particle size distribution of white sugar. Five variants of viable parameters have been trying for obtain ideal particle size distribution of white sugar. As a best has been evaluated variant with 1100 cm3 of slurry and 20 % of volume of slurry massecuite in crystallizer. This variant has had the crystals proportions captured by the sieves between 1.00 and 0.40 mm with minimal differences in weight. More results have been related to reduction of losses of sugar in molasses with the right setting for the line of cooling crystallization process. The looses of sugar can be reduced by adding two coolers in the end of cooling crystalization process what will decrease a temperature to 40 ° C. This temperature will lead to more efficient crystallization in the cooling crystallization process.doi:10.5219/122

  1. Battlefield Air Command and Control Center of US-Army:E-2/E-3 Warning Control Platform%美军战场空中指挥控制中心:E-2/E-3预警指控平台磁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王谦; 王建荣; 姜耿

    2014-01-01

    以E-2/E-3为主要分析对象,讨论了美空海军的空中指挥控制中心的组成、定位与发展历史。首先,以系统功能的分解为基础,讨论了主要作战任务、作战样式、整体能力。其次,分析了系统在作战使用中具备的优势,并结合具体战例讨论了E-2/E-3的使用情况。最后,结合美军在空中预警指控平台的最新动向,分析了我军在该领域应重点关注的若干问题。%With E-2/E-3 as the main analysis object ,the composition ,orientation and development history of American Air Force's Naval Air-Command and Control Center has been discussed ,its main combat missions ,combat-style and the o-verall capacity are discussed ,Secondly ,combining with concrete examples of E-2/E-3 ,the advantage of the system in opera-tion is analyzed .Finally ,with the latest trends of US-Army in airborne warning and control platform ,several issues which should be focused on our troops in the field are analyzed .

  2. Sugar convertibility in the parasitoid Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausmann, C.; Wäckers, F.L.; Dorn, S.

    2005-01-01

    Lack of suitable sugar sources for adult parasitic wasps is an important cause of failure in biological control programs, but the metabolic constraints of sugar feeding are poorly understood. Here we investigated the suitability of 11 naturally occurring sugars as energy sources for the parasitoid C

  3. Sugar signalling during germination and early seedling establishment in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, S.J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Sugars have pronounced effects on many plant processes like gene expression, germination and early seedling development. Several screens for sugar insensitive mutants were performed to identify genes involved in sugar response pathways using the model plant Arabidopsis. These include sun, gin and si

  4. Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Mc Cutchen, Carol M. (Wilmington, DE); Li; Xu (Newark, DE); Emptage, Mark (Wilmington, DE); Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO)

    2009-12-08

    Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

  5. Privatization and human resource issues in the Caribbean sugar industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, C Y

    1995-01-01

    Examines privatization of the sugar plantations and sugar processing industry in the Caribbean region. Provides a detailed account of the current state of the Caribbean sugar industry. Examines the modalities and activities of the privatization process in the six countries. Identifies the forces which led to the nationalization policies of the 1970s and their reversal in the 1990s.

  6. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151.22 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as...

  7. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations relative to the weighing, taring, sampling,...

  8. Power generation from fuelwood by the Nicaraguan sugar mills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro de Miranda, R.; Broek, R. van den

    2002-01-01

    With new concept development for the sugar industry and with new power market opportunities, two sugar mills in Nicaragua initiated projects aimed at becoming power plants during the sugar cane off-season. Basically the idea is to use more efficient boilers and turbines, and generate power beyond th

  9. Ratiometric fluorescence sensing of sugars via a reversible disassembly and assembly of the peptide aggregates mediated by sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Lok Nath; Han, Song Yee; Lee, Keun-Hyeung

    2014-06-01

    An amphiphilic dipeptide (1) bearing pyrene and phenylboronic acid was demonstrated as a unique example of a ratiometric sensing system for sugars by reversibly converting the peptide aggregates into the monomer form of the complex with sugars in aqueous solutions.

  10. Development of Child-Teen Obesity Treatment Service Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kahyun; Lee, Byung Mun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to develop an effective and efficient obesity treatment and management service platform for obese children/teenagers. Methods The integrated smart platform was planned and established through cooperation with service providers such as hospitals and public health centers, obese children/teenagers who constitute the service's user base, and IT development and policy institutions and companies focusing on child-teen obesity management and treatment. Results Based on guidelines on intervention strategies to manage child-teen obesity, we developed two patient/parent mobile applications, one web-monitoring service for medical staff, one mobile application for food-craving endurance, and one mobile application for medical examinations. Conclusions The establishment of the integrated service platform was successfully completed; however, this study was restrictively to the hospital where the pilot program took place. The effectiveness of the proposed platform will be verified in the future in tests involving other organizations. PMID:27525166

  11. Platform Performance and Challenges - using Platforms in Lego Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Lone; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2009-01-01

    This article studies the performance and challenges of using nine implemented product platforms in LEGO Company. Most of these do produce results, but do not meet their goals due to challenges in their usage in the daily product. The main challenges are that the platforms are not being used...... needs focus on the incentive of using the platform. This problem lacks attention in literature, as well as industry, where assessment criteria do not cover this aspect. Therefore, we recommend including user incentive in platform assessment criteria to these challenges. Concrete solution elements...

  12. 29 CFR 780.819 - Production must be of unrefined sugar or syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... apply to the manufacture of sugar that is produced by melting sugar, purifying the melted sugar solution through a carbon medium process and the recrystallization of the sugar from this solution. Nor does...

  13. Yarrowia lipolytica as an oleaginous cell factory platform for the production of fatty acid-based biofuel and bioproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eAbghari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today’s biotechnologists seek new biocatalysts to meet the growing demand for the bioproducts. This review critically evaluates the potential use of Y. lipolytica as an oleaginous cell factory platform. This yeast has undergone extensive modifications for converting a wide range of hydrophobic and hydrophilic biomass, including alkane, oil, glycerol and sugars to fatty acid-based products. This article highlights challenges in the development of this platform and provides an overview of strategies to enhance its potential in the sustainable production of biodiesel, functional dietary lipid compounds and other value-added oleochemical compounds. Future applications of the recombinant Y. lipolytica platform are also discussed.

  14. Fuel bio ethanol production from experimental crops of sugar cane, sweet sorghum and sugar beet in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is about the fuel bio ethanol production. Its requires the use of raw materials, process, integration with food producing chains, and social inclusion. Agricultural and fermentability assays of three sugar crops were performed: sugar beet, sugar cane and sweet sorghum grown in fields of small producers .

  15. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic...

  16. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... United States Trade Representative under Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On July 30, 2010... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...

  17. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic...

  18. 75 FR 23631 - Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar-Containing Products Re-Export Program, and the Polyhydric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... withdrawing the proposed rule published at 70 FR 3150 on January 21, 2005, to implement Chapter 17 of the...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service 7 CFR Part 1530 Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar... cane sugar under subheading 1701.11.20 of the HTS for the production of polyhydric alcohols,...

  19. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Trade Representative in Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On September 10, 2012, the... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

  20. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic...

  1. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... under Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On August 1, 2011, the Secretary of Agriculture... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...

  2. Urinary sugars (sucrose and fructose) associations with self-reported sugars intake: the influence of plausibility of reported energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urinary sucrose and fructose may serve as biomarkers of sugars intake, the latter which are thought to be underreported in dietary assessment. We examined associations of urinary sugars with reported sugars intake in adults recruited for a study on diet and chronic disease risk. Methods: Healthy, no...

  3. Activities that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps in captivity at night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANITA SARDIANA TJAKRADIDJAJA

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Activities that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps in captivity at night study on activity that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider in captivity of small mammals at night has been conducted at the Division of Zoology, Research Center for Biology-LIPI, Bogor. Feeds consisted of passion fruit, banana, guava, papaya, sweet corn, coconut, and bread and were given ad libitum. Four sugar glider consisting of two males and females were place in two cages. One zero sampling method was used to observe daily activity with interval every 15 minutes which was divided in two periods (06.00-11.45 pm and 00.15-06.00 am. Result of behaviour observation showed that feeding activity (13.65%, drinking activity (0.58%, urination activity (4.71% and defecation activity (5.93%. Other activities are locomotion, grooming, and resting activities 42.59%; 23.54%; and 9.01%. Male and female sugar gliders different in their feeding activities and locomotion.

  4. Catalytic Hydrogenolysis of 5-Carbon Sugar Alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacher, Alan H.; Frye, John G.; Werpy, Todd A.; Miller, Dennis J.

    2005-01-01

    PNNL, in cooperation with the USDOE and CRADA partners, National Corn Growers Association and Archer Daniels Midland, has developed a new class of catalysts based on Nickel and Rhenium with very effective performance for highly selective, high conversion hydrogenolysis of five–carbon sugar alcohols to useful glycols. The Ni-Re catalyst appears to exhibit preferential hydrogenolysis of the carbon-carbon bonds of secondary carbons over primary carbons of the 5-carbon sugar alcohols tested. In addition, the catalyst has demonstrated significant and unique primary C-O bond hydrogenolysis activity in its ability to convert glycerol into 1,2- propylene glycol, which is then stable in the presence of this class of catalysts. The rhenium containing catalysts are found to have higher activity and better selectivity to desired glycols than previously reported catalysts. A continuous flow reactor lifetime test of over 1500 hours also demonstrated the requisite high stability for an industrially attractive process.

  5. Fermentable sugars from biopolymers of bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, K.; Das, K.; Sharma, D.K.

    1987-11-01

    Ethanol can replace oil as a fuel and its use would help in the conservation of the meagre oil reserves in India. The article indicates some convenient and cost-effective processes for the production of ethanol from biopolymers available in bagasse, an agricultural residue. A two-stage acid hydrolysis process produced a maximum of fermentable sugars at 35%. Calcium chloride used as a promoter enhanced production by 3.5%. Other promoters are under investigation. Agitation had a significant effect on production, complete hydrolysis being possible between 10-45 minutes depending on temperature. The fermentable sugars obtained, xylose and glucose, can then be fermented to ethanol in an integrated three-stage process. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Blood sugar monitoring with laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Chen, Jianhong; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, the non-invasive measurement of blood sugar level was studied by use of near infrared laser diode. The in-vivo experiments were carried out using laser diodes with wavelength 1625nm and 1650nm. Several volunteers were tested before and after drinking glucose solution. We took blood from a fingertip and measured its concentration with a glucose meter while taking signal voltage from laser diode system. The signal voltage was processed by using a computer and blood absorption was obtained. The results show that blood sugar level and blood absorption have similar trends before and after drinking glucose solution. We also compared the trends of drinking glucose solution and pure water and the results show that the difference of blood absorption is obvious. From the results we can see that laser diode is suitable for blood glucose monitoring.

  7. High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šovljanski Radmila A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methidathion. EDS can cause sterility or decreased fertility, impaired development, birth defects of the reproductive tract and metabolic disorders. Authors recommend limited application of EDS pesticides (to limit the number of treatments to only one during the vegetation, replacement with pesticides with low risk to humans game and fishes, as well as mandatory submission of re-entry data for registration.

  8. Strip-till seeder for sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulze Lammers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strip-till save costs by reducing tillage on the area of sugar beet rows only. The seeding system is characterized by a deep loosening of soil with a tine combined with a share and by following tools generating fine-grained soil as seed bed. In cooperation with the Kverneland company group Soest/Germany a strip tiller combined with precision seeder was designed and tested in field experiments. Tilling and seeding was performed in one path on fields with straw and mustard mulch. Even the plant development was slower as compared to conventional sawn sugar beets the yield was on equivalent level. Further field experiments are planned to attest constant yield, cost and energy efficiency of the seeding system.

  9. Sugar as a substitute for natural oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    Sugar may either be used as a fuel after fermentation to ethanol or after gasification to synthetic natural gas, or it may be directly used as a raw material for the chemical industry. It is technically possible to produce methane, methanol, and ethanol/ethylene on a saccharose basis. In some countries, such processes are already being implemented on a technical scale. When using saccharose as a chemical raw material, a number of by-products are obtained which make it much harder to separate and clean individual compounds and which also use up a considerable amount of the sugar. In spite of this in Japan, France, Brazil, and other countries, tensides (1,000 t/a), softeners and, by purposeful fermentation processes, xanthane (a water-thickening agent) are produced from saccharose, and plants for alginate production are being planned. The main problems still remain in the complicated and expensive processing procedure for the reaction products.

  10. Rhapsody on small processor platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Per-Oskar

    2008-01-01

    Rhapsody is a Model-Driven Development (MDD) tool for embedded and real-time system design. The purpose of this thesis is to determine if Rhapsody can be used for software development on small processor platforms such as the Atmel AVR. Rhapsody is normally used on platforms running an operating system. Therefore certain adaptations are needed in order to use it on platforms without an operating system. These adaptations and their affect on the usability of the tool, advantages and disadvantag...

  11. Utilizing platforms in industrialized construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonev, Martin; Wörösch, Michael; Hvam, Lars

    2015-01-01

    construction companies. A promising approach adapted by operations management and design theory regards individual building projects as the adjustment and recombination of components and processes from a set of predefined platforms, while configuration systems assure feasible building solutions. Design...... methods map structural platform characteristics so as to balance commonality and distinctiveness. Originality/value – This paper proposes a general theory of platform-based development and execution in the industrialised construction sector, which goes beyond concurrent approaches of standardising...

  12. Communications payloads for geostationary platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    Trends in communication satellites show increasing reuse of the frequency spectrum through multiple spot beams and orthogonal polarization, as well as consortia operation. Current reliance on orbital arc separation for frequency reuse may be inadequate for the projected traffic growth and the orbital slotting proposals before the ITU. This paper notes that cost advantages can accrue through common use of spacecraft subsystems and multiple users' platforms aboard a common geostationary platform. The rationale for such platforms is described and potential payloads are suggested.

  13. Web Platform Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsworth, Ashley [Sunvestment Group, Frederick, MD (United States); Kurtz, Jim [Sunvestment Group, Frederick, MD (United States); Brun de Pontet, Stephanie [Sunvestment Group, Frederick, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Sunvestment Energy Group (previously called Sunvestment Group) was established to create a web application that brings together site hosts, those who will obtain the energy from the solar array, with project developers and funders, including affinity investors. Sunvestment Energy Group (SEG) uses a community-based model that engages with investors who have some affinity with the site host organization. In addition to a financial return, these investors receive non-financial value from their investments and are therefore willing to offer lower cost capital. This enables the site host to enjoy more savings from solar through these less expensive Community Power Purchase Agreements (CPPAs). The purpose of this award was to develop an online platform to bring site hosts and investors together virtually.

  14. Energy Tracking Software Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan Davis; Nathan Bird; Rebecca Birx; Hal Knowles

    2011-04-04

    Acceleration has created an interactive energy tracking and visualization platform that supports decreasing electric, water, and gas usage. Homeowners have access to tools that allow them to gauge their use and track progress toward a smaller energy footprint. Real estate agents have access to consumption data, allowing for sharing a comparison with potential home buyers. Home builders have the opportunity to compare their neighborhood's energy efficiency with competitors. Home energy raters have a tool for gauging the progress of their clients after efficiency changes. And, social groups are able to help encourage members to reduce their energy bills and help their environment. EnergyIT.com is the business umbrella for all energy tracking solutions and is designed to provide information about our energy tracking software and promote sales. CompareAndConserve.com (Gainesville-Green.com) helps homeowners conserve energy through education and competition. ToolsForTenants.com helps renters factor energy usage into their housing decisions.

  15. Reproducible Experiment Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Baranov, Alexander; Khairullin, Egor; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    Data analysis in fundamental sciences nowadays is an essential process that pushes frontiers of our knowledge and leads to new discoveries. At the same time we can see that complexity of those analyses increases fast due to a)~enormous volumes of datasets being analyzed, b)~variety of techniques and algorithms one have to check inside a single analysis, c)~distributed nature of research teams that requires special communication media for knowledge and information exchange between individual researchers. There is a lot of resemblance between techniques and problems arising in the areas of industrial information retrieval and particle physics. To address those problems we propose Reproducible Experiment Platform (REP), a software infrastructure to support collaborative ecosystem for computational science. It is a Python based solution for research teams that allows running computational experiments on shared datasets, obtaining repeatable results, and consistent comparisons of the obtained results. We present s...

  16. Power Quality Indices Estimation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana I. Arango-Zuluaga

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An interactive platform for estimating the quality indices in single phase electric power systems is presented. It meets the IEEE 1459-2010 standard recommendations. The platform was developed in order to support teaching and research activities in electric power quality. The platform estimates the power quality indices from voltage and current signals using three different algorithms based on fast Fourier transform (FFT, wavelet packet transform (WPT and least squares method. The results show that the algorithms implemented are efficient for estimating the quality indices of the power and the platform can be used according to the objectives established. 

  17. Platform decisions supported by gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2007-01-01

    be described as being a configuration problem with a high number of variables. These variables are different in nature; they have contradictory influence on the total performance, and, their importance change over time. Consequently, the specific platform decisions become highly complex and the consequences...... support to the platform decision making.......Platform is an ambiguous multidisciplinary concept. The philosophy behind it is easy to communicate and makes intuitively sense. However, the ease in communication does overshadow the high complexity when the concept is implemented. The practical industrial platform implementation challenge can...

  18. ICP (ITER Collaborative Platform)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER organization has the necessity to manage a massive amount of data and processes. Each team requires different process and databases often interconnected with those of others teams. ICP (ITER Collaborative Platform) is the current central ITER repository of structured and unstructured data. All data in ICP is served and managed via a web interface that provides global accessibility with a common user friendly interface. This paper will explain the model used by ICP and how it serves the ITER project by providing a robust and agile platform. ICP is developed in ASP.NET using MSSQL Server for data storage. It currently houses 15 data driven applications, 150 different types of record, 500 k objects and 2.5 M references. During European working hours the system averages 150 concurrent users and 20 requests per second. ICP connects to external database applications to provide a single entry point to ITER data and a safe shared storage place to maintain this data long-term. The Core model provides an easy to extend framework to meet the future needs of the Organization. ICP follows a multi-tier architecture, providing logical separation of process. The standard three-tier architecture is expanded, with the data layer separated into data storage, data structure, and data access components. The business or applications logic layer is broken up into a common business functionality layer, a type specific logic layer, and a detached work-flow layer. Finally the presentation tier comprises a presentation adapter layer and an interface layer. Each layer is built up from small blocks which can be combined to create a wide range of more complex functionality. Each new object type developed gains access to a wealth of existing code functionality, while also free to adapt and extend this. The hardware structure is designed to provide complete redundancy, high availability and to handle high load. This document is made of the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  19. An econometrics method to estimate demand of sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Seyed Soleimany

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is one of the strategic goods in the basket of households in each country and it plays an important role in supplying the required energy. On the other hand, it is one of the goods, which Iranian government is about to change its subsidy strategies. To design useful sugar subsidy strategies, it is necessary to know sugar position in the basket of households and be familiar with households' sugar demand or consumption behavior. This research estimates sugar demand for Iranian households by using time series of 1984-2008, which is taken from central bank of Iran. In this paper, first independent and dependent variables of household sugar demand model are chosen based on the literature review and theory of demand. Then, sugar demand is estimated by OLS technique and linear regression. The preliminary statistical observations such as Durbin-Watson, F statistic and R2 indicate that the regression is admissible. The results seem plausible and consistent with theory and show that sugar demand in Iranian households is associated with household expenditure, relative sugar price, family size and indicate that demand of sugar is affected during the war time. The results also show the income elasticity is 0.8 and price elasticity is -0.2 which means sugar is essential good for Iranian households and is inelastic to price.

  20. Senior Centers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dancing. [Narrator] These centers can provide entree to new activities and expand a person’s social contacts. [Karen ... meeting all their interests and introducing them to new things; whether it’s an arts and crafts project, ...

  1. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kinetics and functionality of such oxidativelycross-linked sugar beet pectin, in relation to stabilizing...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  2. GENPLAT: an Automated Platform for Biomass Enzyme Discovery and Cocktail Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Jonathan; Banerjee, Goutami; Car, Suzana

    2011-01-01

    The high cost of enzymes for biomass deconstruction is a major impediment to the economic conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to liquid transportation fuels such as ethanol. We have developed an integrated high throughput platform, called GENPLAT, for the discovery and development of novel enzymes and enzyme cocktails for the release of sugars from diverse pretreatment/biomass combinations. GENPLAT comprises four elements: individual pure enzymes, statistical design of experiments, robot...

  3. THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN INPUT ON POLARISED SUGAR PRODUCTION AND QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN MACÁK

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available During 1998-2002, the application of different forms and doses of nitrogen on quantitative (polarised sugar productionand qualitative parameters (digestion, molasses forming components - potassium, sodium and α-amino nitrogen content of sugar beet in vulnerable zones (Nitrate directive was studied. Calculated input of nitrogen ranged from 12 kg up to 240 kg N.ha-1. By increasing input of N from FYM application into the soil causes an increases of α- amino nitrogen content in root, which in consequence causes a decreases the sugar content (negative correlation r= -0.8659+. The application of straw instead FYM of analogues treatments caused significant decrease (straw versus FYM and highly significant decrease (straw plus N fertilizers versus FYM plus N fertilizers of α-amino nitrogen content in sugar beet root living the productive parameters unchanged. The content of α-amino nitrogen in root of sugar beet indicate an environmentally friendly management practices with causal relation to water protection from nitrate.

  4. Aromatics extraction from pyrolytic sugars using ionic liquid to enhance sugar fermentability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Luque-Moreno, Luis C; Oudenhoven, Stijn R G; Rehmann, Lars; Kersten, Sascha R A; Schuur, Boelo

    2016-09-01

    Fermentative bioethanol production from pyrolytic sugars was improved via aromatics removal by liquid-liquid extraction. As solvents, the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide (P666,14[N(CN)2]) and ethyl acetate (EA) were compared. Two pyrolytic sugar solutions were created from acid-leached and untreated pinewood, with levoglucosan contents (most abundant sugar) of 29.0% and 8.3% (w/w), respectively. In a single stage extraction, 70% of the aromatics were effectively removed by P666,14[N(CN)2] and 50% by EA, while no levoglucosan was extracted. The IL was regenerated by vacuum evaporation (100mbar) at 220°C, followed by extraction of aromatics from fresh pyrolytic sugar solutions. Regenerated IL extracted aromatics with similar extraction efficiency as the fresh IL, and the purified sugar fraction from pretreated pinewood was hydrolyzed to glucose and fermented to ethanol, yielding 0.46g ethanol/(g glucose), close to the theoretical maximum yield. PMID:27214164

  5. Aromatics extraction from pyrolytic sugars using ionic liquid to enhance sugar fermentability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Luque-Moreno, Luis C; Oudenhoven, Stijn R G; Rehmann, Lars; Kersten, Sascha R A; Schuur, Boelo

    2016-09-01

    Fermentative bioethanol production from pyrolytic sugars was improved via aromatics removal by liquid-liquid extraction. As solvents, the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide (P666,14[N(CN)2]) and ethyl acetate (EA) were compared. Two pyrolytic sugar solutions were created from acid-leached and untreated pinewood, with levoglucosan contents (most abundant sugar) of 29.0% and 8.3% (w/w), respectively. In a single stage extraction, 70% of the aromatics were effectively removed by P666,14[N(CN)2] and 50% by EA, while no levoglucosan was extracted. The IL was regenerated by vacuum evaporation (100mbar) at 220°C, followed by extraction of aromatics from fresh pyrolytic sugar solutions. Regenerated IL extracted aromatics with similar extraction efficiency as the fresh IL, and the purified sugar fraction from pretreated pinewood was hydrolyzed to glucose and fermented to ethanol, yielding 0.46g ethanol/(g glucose), close to the theoretical maximum yield.

  6. Regulation of sucrose synthase activity and sugar yield by nitrogen in sugar beet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Caifeng; MA Fengming; LI Wenhua; WANG Rui; CHEN Shengyong; LUO Yu

    2007-01-01

    The content of sugar is influenced by sucrose synthase (SS) activity in roots. The effects of nitrogen level in the aminonitrate ratio on SS activity of leaves and roots, roots yield and sugar content in sugar beet were studied in the field experiment by nutrient solution culture. The results showed that SS activity in leaves was lower than that in roots. With nitrogen level increasing,SS decomposition activity enhanced, and synthesis activity reduced. SS activity was regulated by different nitrogen forms and the ratio of NO3- and NH4+. SS synthesis activity was enhanced as NH4+ increasing when NO3-: NH4+≥ 1, and it decreased as increasing NH4+ when NO3-: NH4+≤1, and it was the highest when NO3-: NH4+=1. SS decomposition activity was enhanced as NO3- increasing.Sucrose content in root was lowed as nitrogen level increasing, but it was enhanced as NH4+ increasing in the same nitrogen level.Root and sugar yield were the highest in the medium nitrogen level and NO3-: NH4+=1. The result in field experiment corresponded with that in the nutrient fluid culture. It provides a basis for using reasonably nitrogen fertilizer in sugar beet production.

  7. Intake of added sugar in Malaysia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarra, Maria Sofia V; Khor, Geok Lin; Chan, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    The term 'added sugars' refers to sugars and syrup added to foods during processing or preparation, and sugars and syrups added at the table. Calls to limit the daily intakes of added sugars and its sources arose from evidence analysed by WHO, the American Heart Association and other organizations. The present review examined the best available evidence regarding levels of added sugar consumption among different age and sex groups in Malaysia and sources of added sugars. Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys and published studies. Varying results emerged, as nationwide information on intake of sugar and foods with added sugar were obtained at different times and used different assessment methods. Data from the 2003 Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) using food frequency questionnaires suggested that on average, Malaysian adults consumed 30 grams of sweetened condensed milk (equivalent to 16 grams sugar) and 21 grams of table sugar per day, which together are below the WHO recommendation of 50 grams sugar for every 2000 kcal/day to reduce risk of chronic disease. Published studies suggested that, for both adults and the elderly, frequently consumed sweetened foods were beverages (tea or coffee) with sweetened condensed milk and added sugar. More accurate data should be obtained by conducting population-wide studies using biomarkers of sugar intake (e.g. 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose excretion or serum abundance of the stable isotope 13C) to determine intake levels, and multiple 24 hour recalls to identify major food sources of added sugar. PMID:27222405

  8. Intake of added sugar in Malaysia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarra, Maria Sofia V; Khor, Geok Lin; Chan, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    The term 'added sugars' refers to sugars and syrup added to foods during processing or preparation, and sugars and syrups added at the table. Calls to limit the daily intakes of added sugars and its sources arose from evidence analysed by WHO, the American Heart Association and other organizations. The present review examined the best available evidence regarding levels of added sugar consumption among different age and sex groups in Malaysia and sources of added sugars. Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys and published studies. Varying results emerged, as nationwide information on intake of sugar and foods with added sugar were obtained at different times and used different assessment methods. Data from the 2003 Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) using food frequency questionnaires suggested that on average, Malaysian adults consumed 30 grams of sweetened condensed milk (equivalent to 16 grams sugar) and 21 grams of table sugar per day, which together are below the WHO recommendation of 50 grams sugar for every 2000 kcal/day to reduce risk of chronic disease. Published studies suggested that, for both adults and the elderly, frequently consumed sweetened foods were beverages (tea or coffee) with sweetened condensed milk and added sugar. More accurate data should be obtained by conducting population-wide studies using biomarkers of sugar intake (e.g. 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose excretion or serum abundance of the stable isotope 13C) to determine intake levels, and multiple 24 hour recalls to identify major food sources of added sugar.

  9. A Typology of Multi-sided Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina Stefanova; Damsgaard, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address how the composition of a platform impacts the platform’s business model. By platform’s business model we mean platform features, platform architecture and platform governance. To this end, we construct the Platform Business Model Framework. We apply the framework to three...... in several configurations. The particular platform architecture can explain the difficulties in designing a viable business models for platforms....

  10. IRASM Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRASM is a national center for radiation processing developed around an industrial Co60 gamma irradiator. Being a department in an R and D national institute, IRASM Center is dealing with radiation treatment, pre/post microbiological control, validation of irradiation sterilization, detection of irradiated foodstuffs. Training is available for operators of new irradiation facilities focused on radiation technologies, dosimetry, sterilization, food treatment, conservation by irradiation of cultural heritage, quality assurance. Expertise on proper choosing the plastics for packaging versus dose is offered to the potential clients. IRASM Center is also involved in interdisciplinary applied research like chitosan treatment, sterile male technique or implementation of irradiation step in production of pharmaceuticals. All important activities: irradiation treatment, dosimetry, microbiology, detection of irradiated food, radioprotection, nuclear safety, physical protection. are performed in accordance with the proper standards in the frame of a certified quality management system. In this way Co60 industrial sources, a byproduct of certain nuclear power plants like Candu type, appear to be the key of a large technical and R and D domain. (authors)

  11. ADAPTABLE ALTERNATE REALITY GAMES PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu-Adrian Cotfas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an alternate reality games platform that facilitates the creation of ARG projects with different themes and sizes. The platform is well integrated with the most important social media networks, thus facilitating both the involvement of the public and the creation of a more engaging interaction for the participants. A cloud-based architecture was used in order to allow the platform to easily accommodate projects of various sizes and to provide a good level of scalability. The platform is fully localizable in any language and multiple languages can be used at once to create projects that target users from different countries. An initial project that uses gamification to create an immersive learning environment has been created around the developed platform. The project combines professional and public feedback in order to provide an enhanced learning experience.

  12. Tension leg platform project execution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dagang; Wang Chunsheng; Zhang Tianyu

    2013-01-01

    The first floating platform concept design work for South China Sea is undergoing in DMAR' s office now.This tension leg platform has potential to become the first advanced floating production platform project.Project execution is always a challenge for floating system.This paper focuses on the critical elements of project execution for tension leg platform,and studies potential implications to future oil and gas exploration in South China Sea.There are many factors affecting successful execution of floating system project,including technical issues,engineering management,interface management,etc.There are also failure examples of project execution in the industry.The author has participated 28 large detailed projects and has gained extensive experience on floating projects,with ample hands-on project experiences.A detailed tension leg platform project study example and discussions in depth are presented for future project execution in China deepwater development.

  13. Are restrictive guidelines for added sugars science based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Added sugar regulations and recommendations have been proposed by policy makers around the world. With no universal definition, limited access to added sugar values in food products and no analytical difference from intrinsic sugars, added sugar recommendations present a unique challenge. Average added sugar intake by American adults is approximately 13% of total energy intake, and recommendations have been made as low 5% of total energy intake. In addition to public health recommendations, the Food and Drug Administration has proposed the inclusion of added sugar data to the Nutrition and Supplemental Facts Panel. The adoption of such regulations would have implications for both consumers as well as the food industry. There are certainly advantages to including added sugar data to the Nutrition Facts Panel; however, consumer research does not consistently show the addition of this information to improve consumer knowledge. With excess calorie consumption resulting in weight gain and increased risk of obesity and obesity related co-morbidities, added sugar consumption should be minimized. However, there is currently no evidence stating that added sugar is more harmful than excess calories from any other food source. The addition of restrictive added sugar recommendations may not be the most effective intervention in the treatment and prevention of obesity and other health concerns. PMID:26652250

  14. Maximizing the xylitol production from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate by controlling the aeration rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, S.S.; Ribeiro, J.D.; Felipe, M.G.A. [Faculty of Chemical Enginering of Lorena (Brazil); Vitolo, M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    Batch fermentations of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated for removing the inhibitors of the fermentation were performed by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 for xylitol production. The fermentative parameters agitation and aeration rate were studied aiming the maximization of xylitol production from this agroindustrial residue. The maximal xylitol volumetric productivity (0.87 g/L {center_dot} h) and yield (0.67 g/g) were attained at 400/min and 0.45 v.v.m. (K{sub L}a 27/h). According to the results, a suitable control of the oxygen input permitting the xylitol formation from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate is required for the development of an efficient fermentation process for large-scale applications. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  15. World Sugar Market – Basic Development Trends and Tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Svatoš

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the issues of the world‘s sugar production and cultivation of sugar crops (sugar beet and sugar cane. It also analyzes the development of the global sugar trade. The main aim of this paper is to define the basic developmental trends and tendencies that affect the current situation on the market for sugar and sugar crops and then outline a process of gradual profiling of the world markets for these commodities. The article identifies the most important players operating in the global market, both in terms of production and in terms of trade. It also identifies not only the most important subjects of the global market from the viewpoint of the realized volume of production and trade, but also in terms of available comparative advantages and growth dynamics of the realized volume of production and trade. Finally, the paper highlights the significant differences existing in unit prices of the realized export and import flows in individual countries and regions. The results of this study show clearly that the world sugar market is extremely concentrated. A narrow group of entities localized mainly in Latin America, Southeast Asia, Europe and North America controls most of the world production of sugar beet and sugar cane. Furthermore, the results of the analysis show that the production and export of sugar are logically closely linked with the regions cultivating sugar crops, which again suggests that a limited number of entities controls most of the global sugar market. Currently, this market is dominated mainly by Latin American countries and Southeast Asia together with Europe.

  16. Reproducible Experiment Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Baranov, Alexander; Khairullin, Egor; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey

    2015-12-01

    Data analysis in fundamental sciences nowadays is an essential process that pushes frontiers of our knowledge and leads to new discoveries. At the same time we can see that complexity of those analyses increases fast due to a) enormous volumes of datasets being analyzed, b) variety of techniques and algorithms one have to check inside a single analysis, c) distributed nature of research teams that requires special communication media for knowledge and information exchange between individual researchers. There is a lot of resemblance between techniques and problems arising in the areas of industrial information retrieval and particle physics. To address those problems we propose Reproducible Experiment Platform (REP), a software infrastructure to support collaborative ecosystem for computational science. It is a Python based solution for research teams that allows running computational experiments on shared datasets, obtaining repeatable results, and consistent comparisons of the obtained results. We present some key features of REP based on case studies which include trigger optimization and physics analysis studies at the LHCb experiment.

  17. Plat_Forms -- a contest: The web development platform comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Prechelt, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    "Plat_Forms" is a competition in which top-class teams of three programmers compete to implement the same requirements for a web-based system within 30 hours, each team using a different technology platform (Java EE, .NET, PHP, Perl, Python, or Ruby on Rails). The results will provide new insights into the real (rather than purported) pros, cons, and emergent properties of each platform. The evaluation will analyze many aspects of each solution, both external (usability, functionality, reliability, performance, etc.) and internal (structure, understandability, flexibility, etc.).

  18. An Overview of the NASA Test Platform Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K. B.; Shin, J.-Y.; Cooper, E. G.; Moerder, D. D.; Khong, T. H.; Smith, M. F.

    2003-01-01

    A methodology for improving attitude stability and control for low-speed and hovering air vehicle is under development. In addition to aerodynamically induced control forces such as vector thrusting, the new approach exploits the use of bias momenta and torque actuators, similar to a class of spacecraft system, for its guidance and control needs. This approach will be validated on a free-flying research platform under development at NASA Langley Research Center. More broadly, this platform also serves as an in-house testbed for research in new technologies aimed at improving guidance and control of a Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) vehicle.

  19. Stratospheric Platforms for Monitoring Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratospheric platforms are emerging systems based on challenging technology. Goal is to create a platform, payload, and mission design which is able to complement satellite services on a local scale. Applications are close to traditional satellite business in telecommunication, navigation, science, and earth observation and include for example mobile telecommunications, navigation augmentation, atmospheric research, or border control. Stratospheric platforms could potentially support monitoring activities related to safeguards, e.g. by imagery of surfaces, operational conditions of nuclear facilities, and search for undeclared nuclear activities. Stratospheric platforms are intended to be flown in an altitude band between 16 and 30 km, above 16-20 km to take advantage of usually lower winds facilitating station keeping, below 30 km to limit the challenges to achieve a reasonable payload at acceptable platform sizes. Stratospheric platforms could substitute satellites which are expensive and lack upgrade capabilities for new equipment. Furthermore they have practically an unlimited time over an area of interest. It is intended to keep the platforms operational and maintenance free on a 24/7 basis with an average deployment time of 3 years. Geostationary satellites lack resolution. Potential customers like Armed Forces, National Agencies and commercial customers have indicated interest in the use of stratospheric platforms. Governmental entities are looking for cheaper alternatives to communications and surveillance satellites and stratospheric platforms could offer the following potential advantages: Lower operational cost than satellite or UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) constellation (fleet required); Faster deployment than satellite constellation; Repositioning capability and ability to loiter as required; Persistent long-term real-time services over a fairly large regional spot; Surge capability: Able to extend capability (either monitoring or communications

  20. Pollen dispersal in sugar beet production fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmency, Henri; Klein, Etienne K; De Garanbé, Thierry Gestat; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Richard-Molard, Marc; Muchembled, Claude

    2009-04-01

    Pollen-mediated gene flow has important implications for biodiversity conservation and for breeders and farmers' activities. In sugar beet production fields, a few sugar beet bolters can produce pollen as well as be fertilized by wild and weed beet. Since the crop, the wild beets, and the weed beets are the same species and intercross freely, the question of pollen flow is an important issue to determine the potential dispersal of transgenes from field to field and to wild habitats. We report here an experiment to describe pollen dispersal from a small herbicide-resistant sugar beet source towards male sterile target plants located along radiating lines up to 1,200 m away. Individual dispersal functions were inferred from statistical analyses and compared. Pollen limitation, as expected in root-production fields, was confirmed at all the distances from the pollen source. The number of resistant seeds produced by bait plants best fitted a fat-tailed probability distribution curve of pollen grains (power-law) dependent on the distance from the pollen source. A literature survey confirmed that power-law function could fit in most cases. The b coefficient was lower than 2. The number of fertilized flowers by background (herbicide-susceptible) pollen grains was uniform across the whole field. Airborne pollen had a fertilization impact equivalent to that of one adjacent bolter. The individual dispersal function from different pollen sources can be integrated to provide the pollen cloud composition for a given target plant, thus allowing modeling of gene flow in a field, inter-fields in a small region, and also in seed-production area. Long-distance pollen flow is not negligible and could play an important role in rapid transgene dispersal from crop to wild and weed beets in the landscape. The removing of any bolting, herbicide-resistant sugar beet should be compulsory to prevent the occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed beet, thus preventing gene flow to wild

  1. Just a Spoonful of Sugar Will Land You Six Feet Underground: Should the Food and Drug Administration Revoke Added Sugar's GRAS Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Melissa Marie; Abela, John Francis

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses whether added sugar meets FDA's standard to be generally recognized as safe ("GRAS"). If added sugar is not GRAS, then manufacturers are subject to premarket approval prior to using added sugar in their products. This article advocates that FDA should issue a Federal Register notice determining that added sugar is not GRAS, allowing FDA to regulate the amount of added sugar used in processed foods, decreasing the health adversities that stem from added sugar consumption. PMID:26630822

  2. Insights revealed by rodent models of sugar binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Susan M; Tulloch, Alastair J; Chen, Eunice Y; Avena, Nicole M

    2015-12-01

    Binge eating is seen across the spectrum of eating disorder diagnoses as well as among individuals who do not meet diagnostic criteria. Analyses of the specific types of foods that are frequently binged upon reveal that sugar-rich items feature prominently in binge-type meals, making the effects of binge consumption of sugar an important focus of study. One avenue to do this involves the use of animal models. Foundational and recent studies of animal models of sugar bingeing, both outlined here, lend insight into the various neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that may participate in or be altered by this behavior. Further, several preclinical studies incorporating sugar bingeing paradigms have explored the utility of pharmacological agents that target such neural systems for reducing sugar bingeing in an effort to enhance clinical treatment. Indeed, the translational implications of findings generated using animal models of sugar bingeing are considered here, along with potential avenues for further study.

  3. An Update on the Consequences of EU Sugar Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibusiso Moyo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Since its formation the European Union (EU has employed a rather complicated policy to ensure high prices to domestic sugar growers and trade preferences to certain sugar exporting countries, e.g. the African Caribbean and Pacific (ACP group. One result of this policy is that the EU has been both the second largest importer and second largest exporter in the world market. Under pressure from the World Trade Organization (WTO, the EU agreed to reform its policies toward sugar in 2001, with the full effect of the reforms being fully implemented in 2006. In this paper, the impact of the sugar reform on EU production, consumption, imports, and exports is examined especially with regard to how it all affects the ACP countries who receive preferential treatment regarding access to EU sugar markets. Preliminary analysis indicates that lowering domestic EU prices, while quotas requirements for ACP countries remain intact might have negative revenue implications for poor sugar producers.

  4. Recent advances in biological production of sugar alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Cheol; Oh, Eun Joong; Jo, Jung-Hyun; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-02-01

    Sugar alcohols, such as xylitol, mannitol, sorbitol, and erythritol are emerging food ingredients that provide similar or better sweetness/sensory properties of sucrose, but are less calorigenic. Also, sugar alcohols can be converted into commodity chemicals through chemical catalysis. Biotechnological production offers the safe and sustainable supply of sugar alcohols from renewable biomass. In contrast to early studies that aimed to produce sugar alcohols with microorganisms capable of producing sugar alcohols naturally, recent studies have focused on rational engineering of metabolic pathways to improve yield and productivity as well as to use inexpensive and abundant substrates. Metabolic engineering strategies to utilize inexpensive substrates, alleviate catabolite repression, reduce byproduct formation, and manipulate redox balances led to enhanced production of sugar alcohols.

  5. Recent advances in biological production of sugar alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Cheol; Oh, Eun Joong; Jo, Jung-Hyun; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-02-01

    Sugar alcohols, such as xylitol, mannitol, sorbitol, and erythritol are emerging food ingredients that provide similar or better sweetness/sensory properties of sucrose, but are less calorigenic. Also, sugar alcohols can be converted into commodity chemicals through chemical catalysis. Biotechnological production offers the safe and sustainable supply of sugar alcohols from renewable biomass. In contrast to early studies that aimed to produce sugar alcohols with microorganisms capable of producing sugar alcohols naturally, recent studies have focused on rational engineering of metabolic pathways to improve yield and productivity as well as to use inexpensive and abundant substrates. Metabolic engineering strategies to utilize inexpensive substrates, alleviate catabolite repression, reduce byproduct formation, and manipulate redox balances led to enhanced production of sugar alcohols. PMID:26723007

  6. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  7. Separate circuitries encode the hedonic and nutritional values of sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Luis A; Han, Wenfei; Zhang, Xiaobing; Ferreira, Tatiana L; Perez, Isaac O; Shammah-Lagnado, Sara J; van den Pol, Anthony N; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2016-03-01

    Sugar exerts its potent reinforcing effects via both gustatory and post-ingestive pathways. It is, however, unknown whether sweetness and nutritional signals engage segregated brain networks to motivate ingestion. We found in mice that separate basal ganglia circuitries mediated the hedonic and nutritional actions of sugar. During sugar intake, suppressing hedonic value inhibited dopamine release in ventral, but not dorsal, striatum, whereas suppressing nutritional value inhibited dopamine release in dorsal, but not ventral, striatum. Consistently, cell-specific ablation of dopamine-excitable cells in dorsal, but not ventral, striatum inhibited sugar's ability to drive the ingestion of unpalatable solutions. Conversely, optogenetic stimulation of dopamine-excitable cells in dorsal, but not ventral, striatum substituted for sugar in its ability to drive the ingestion of unpalatable solutions. Our data indicate that sugar recruits a distributed dopamine-excitable striatal circuitry that acts to prioritize energy-seeking over taste quality.

  8. Vertical Relationships within Platform Marketplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. Tremblay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In two-sided markets a platform allows consumers and sellers to interact by creating sub-markets within the platform marketplace. For example, Amazon has sub-markets for all of the different product categories available on its site, and smartphones have sub-markets for different types of applications (gaming apps, weather apps, map apps, ridesharing apps, etc.. The network benefits between consumers and sellers depend on the mode of competition within the sub-markets: more competition between sellers lowers product prices, increases the surplus consumers receive from a sub-market, and makes platform membership more desirable for consumers. However, more competition also lowers profits for a seller which makes platform membership less desirable for a seller and reduces seller entry and the number of sub-markets available on the platform marketplace. This dynamic between seller competition within a sub-market and agents’ network benefits leads to platform pricing strategies, participation decisions by consumers and sellers, and welfare results that depend on the mode of competition. Thus, the sub-market structure is important when investigating platform marketplaces.

  9. Creating new growth platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Donald L; Doz, Yves L; Sheer, Claude P

    2006-05-01

    Sooner or later, most companies can't attain the growth rates expected by their boards and CEOs and demanded by investors. To some extent, such businesses are victims of their own successes. Many were able to sustain high growth rates for a long time because they were in high-growth industries. But once those industries slowed down, the businesses could no longer deliver the performance that investors had come to take for granted. Often, companies have resorted to acquisition, though this strategy has a discouraging track record. Over time, 65% of acquisitions destroy more value than they create. So where does real growth come from? For the past 12 years, the authors have been researching and advising companies on this issue. With the support of researchers at Harvard Business School and Insead, they instituted a project titled "The CEO Agenda and Growth". They identified and approached 24 companies that had achieved significant organic growth and interviewed their CEOs, chief strategists, heads of R&D, CFOs, and top-line managers. They asked, "Where does your growth come from?" and found a consistent pattern in the answers. All the businesses grew by creating new growth platforms (NGPs) on which they could build families of products and services and extend their capabilities into multiple new domains. Identifying NGP opportunities calls for executives to challenge conventional wisdom. In all the companies studied, top management believed that NGP innovation differed significantly from traditional product or service innovation. They had independent, senior-level units with a standing responsibility to create NGPs, and their CEOs spent as much as 50% of their time working with these units. The payoff has been spectacular and lasting. For example, from 1985 to 2004, the medical devices company Medtronic grew revenues at 18% per year, earnings at 20%, and market capitalization at 30%. PMID:16649700

  10. Technical and Economical Feasibility of Production of Ethanol from Sugar Cane and Sugar Cane Bagasse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efe, C.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The primary aim of this study is to investigate and analyze the sugar-ethanol plants operating in Brazil to construct a raw model to gain better understanding and insight about the technical and economical aspects of the currently operating plants. And, the secondary aim is to combine the knowledge

  11. Understanding the Effect of Sugar and Sugar Replacement in Short Dough Biscuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, L.; Vallons, K.J.R.; Jurgens, A.; Sanz, T.

    2013-01-01

    Sucrose is the main sugar used in short dough biscuit formula, and it plays an important role in the biscuit manufacturing as well as in the biscuits final quality. However, for health reasons, high levels of sucrose are undesirable, making sucrose replacement an important issue to study. The presen

  12. Policy induced substitution of high fructose corn syrup for sugar in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Hafi, Ahmed; Connell, Peter; Roberts, Ivan

    1996-01-01

    US sugar policies have depressed the world sugar price markedly, and tlte substitution of high fructose com syrup for sugar brought about by US sugar policies has contributed a major part of this price depressing effect. Current US sugar policies impose substantial costs on US consumers. the US economy and sugar exporters, most of which are developing countries. This paper measures the impact that the increased consumption of high fructose com has had on both the USand world sugar economies. ...

  13. PRICE VARIABILITY AND FINANCIAL RISK FOR SUGAR BEET GROWERS

    OpenAIRE

    Nganje, William E.; Stoltman, Gwen

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops a portfolio framework to characterize and analyze the impact of price risk faced by sugar beet growers in the Red River Valley and derives implications for capital markets. Other sources of risk incorporated in the analysis are yields and production cost. Results from stochastic simulation analysis reveal that sugar beet growers incur significant price and financial risk. The hypothesis that the loan rate for sugar truncates the distribution of net returns and protects gro...

  14. The EU Sugar Policy Regime and Implications of Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Elbehri, Aziz; Umstaetter, Johannes; Kelch, David R.

    2008-01-01

    The European Union’s sugar policy, in place since 1968, underwent its first major reform in 2005 in response to mounting and unsustainable imbalances in supply and demand. The reform, however, targeted only a few policy instruments (intervention price cut, voluntary production quota buyout, and restrictions on nonquota sugar exports), while leaving other key policies unchanged (interstate quota trading, sugar-substitute competition, and import barriers). Consequently, the extent of the reform...

  15. Water requirements of sugar cane grown in tropical environment

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente de Paulo Rodrigues da Silva; Cícera Josefa Rozangela Borges; Walker Gomes de Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    An accurate estimation of water consumption of cane sugar crop is important for maximum productivity with less investment. The objective of this study was to determine the water requirements of sugar cane grown in tropical environments. The field experiment was carried out in Paraiba state, during the productive cycle of sugar cane crop variety RB 92 579 irrigated by central pivot irrigation (sprinkler) from October 2009 to September 2011. The crop evapotranspiration was obtained based on soi...

  16. Sugar transporters for intercellular exchange and nutrition of pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Li-Qing; Hou, Bi-Huei; Lalonde, Sylvie; Takanaga, Hitomi; Hartung, Mara L; Qu, Xiao-Qing; Guo, Woei-Jiun; Kim, Jung-Gun; Underwood, William; Chaudhuri, Bhavna; Chermak, Diane; Antony, Ginny; White, Frank F; Somerville, Shauna C.; Mudgett, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    Sugar efflux transporters are essential for the maintenance of animal blood glucose levels, plant nectar production, and plant seed and pollen development. Despite broad biological importance, the identity of sugar efflux transporters has remained elusive. Using optical glucose sensors, we identified a new class of sugar transporters, named SWEETs, and show that at least six out of seventeen Arabidopsis, two out of over twenty rice and two out of seven homologues in Caenorhabditis elegans, an...

  17. The future of global sugar markets: Policies, reforms, and impact

    OpenAIRE

    Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Gohin, Alexandre; Guindé, Loïc; Millet, Guy; Brandão, Antônio Salazar P.; Haley, Stephen; Wagner, Owen; Orden, David; Sandrey, Ron; Vink, Nick

    2008-01-01

    "Sugar is one of the most highly protected agricultural commodities worldwide. This protection depresses trade opportunities and the prices received by exporters without preferential market access. For this reason, dialogues about sugar policy are often polarized and short sound bites caustic. Yet today's sugar markets are being driven by a complex array of dynamic and emerging supply, demand, and policy forces that need to be understood. A number of these forces have the potential to reshape...

  18. Bioenergy productivity of sugar beet irrigated with reclaimed wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquale Campi; Alejandra Navarro; A. Domenico Palumbo; Marcello Mastrangelo; Antonio Lonigro; Marcello Mastrorilli

    2015-01-01

    The use of treated wastewater to irrigate the sugar beet (Beta Vulgaris L. var. saccharifera) for bioethanol could play a strategic role to contrast the use of natural water resources and increase the productivity of the crop. The 2-year experiment (2013-2014) was performed on sugar beet irrigated with fresh water and wastewater at different steps of the reclamation process (secondary and tertiary treatments). The data obtained showed that the root sugar beet yield and ethanol production unde...

  19. EU SUGAR POLICY REFORM: QUOTA REDUCTION AND DEVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Witzke, Heinz Peter; Heckelei, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The research presented is part of a larger study aiming at the analysis of reform options for the EU sugar policy regime. This paper focuses on the effects of quota reduction and support price cuts. A thorough theoretical analysis investigates the implications of farm heterogeneity for aggregate supply modeling purposes under the current sugar regime. It can be shown that the treatment of sugar quantities produced under the different quotas and without quota can be treated as different produc...

  20. Consumer understanding of sugars claims on food and drink products

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, N J; Sadler, M J; Cooper, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims is a key aspect of current regulations in the European Union (EU). In view of this, qualitative and quantitative research techniques were used to investigate consumer awareness and understanding of product claims in the UK, focusing particularly on nutrition claims relating to sugars. Both research methods identified a good awareness of product claims. No added sugars claims were generally preferred to reduced sugars claims, and there was ...

  1. Perceptions of sugar mommy practices in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Shisana, Olive; Davids, Adlai; Tabane, Cily; Mbelle, Margaret; Matseke, Gladys; Banyini, Mercy; Kekana, Queen

    2014-01-01

    The study sought to explore sugar mommy practices regarding their occurrence, acceptability as well as perceived reasons why older women and younger men enter into sugar mommy relationships. An exploratory qualitative study involving 135 participants from 11 diverse focus groups in terms of age, gender (females=27%) and geotype throughout the nine South African provinces was conducted. Data on the participants’ views, opinions and experiences of sugar mommy practices were collected using focu...

  2. Multilateral Trade and Agricultural Policy Reforms in Sugar Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Amani Elobeid; John C. Beghin

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the removal of current market interventions in world sugar markets using a partial-equilibrium international sugar model calibrated on 2002 market data and current policies. We analyze the impact of trade liberalization and the removal of production subsidies and consumption distortions. The removal of trade distortions alone induces a 27 percent price increase by the end of the decade relative to the baseline level for sugar. The removal of all trade and production distortions ind...

  3. Biofuel production from plant biomass derived sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cripps, R.

    2007-03-15

    This report details the results of a project that aimed to develop a recombinant thermophilic microorganism able to produce ethanol in a commercial yield from mixed C5 (xylose and arabinose) and C6 (mainly glucose) sugar substrates typically found in biomass hydrolysates. The main focus of the project was on producing a stable recombinant which formed ethanol as its major product and did not produce significant quantities of by-products. The costs of bioethanol could be substantially reduced if cheap plant-based feedstocks could be utilised. This study focussed on a strain of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius known to be a thermophilic ethanol producer and developed the genetic manipulation techniques necessary to engineer its metabolism such that unwanted products (mainly organic acids) were no longer formed and ethanol became the overwhelming product. An appropriate genetic took kit to allow the required metabolic engineering was acquired and used to inactivate the genes of the metabolic pathways involved in the formation of the organic acids (e.g. lactic acid) and to up-regulate genes concerned with the formation of ethanol. This allowed the flow of metabolites derived from the sugar substrates to be redirected to the desired product. Stable mutants lacking the ability to form lactic acid were created and shown to give enhanced levels of ethanol, with yields from glucose approaching those achieved in yeast fermentations and low by-product formation.

  4. Sugar cane bagasse prehydrolysis using hot water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abril

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the hot water prehydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for obtaining ethanol by fermentation. The experimental study consisted of the determination of the effect of temperature and time of prehydrolysis on the extraction of hemicelluloses, with the objective of selecting the best operating conditions that lead to increased yield of extraction with a low formation of inhibitors. The study, carried out in a pilot plant scale rotational digester, using a 3² experimental design at temperatures of 150-190ºC and times of 60-90 min, showed that it is possible to perform the hot water prehydrolysis process between 180-190ºC in times of 60-82 min, yielding concentrations of xylose > 35 g/L, furfural < 2.5 g/L, phenols from soluble lignin < 1.5 g/L, and concentrations < 3.0 g/L of hemicelluloses in the cellolignin residue. These parameters of temperature and prehydrolysis time could be used for the study of the later hydrolysis and fermentation stages of ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse.

  5. pH Regulation of Electrogenic Sugar/H+ Symport in MFS Sugar Permeases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzone, Andre; Madej, M. Gregor; Kaback, H. Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial sugar symporters in the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) use the H+ (and in a few cases Na+) electrochemical gradients to achieve active transport of sugar into the cell. Because a number of structures of MFS sugar symporters have been solved recently, molecular insight into the transport mechanism is possible from detailed functional analysis. We present here a comparative electrophysiological study of the lactose permease (LacY), the fucose permease (FucP) and the xylose permease (XylE), which reveals common mechanistic principles and differences. In all three symporters energetically downhill electrogenic sugar/H+ symport is observed. Comparison of the pH dependence of symport at symmetrical pH exhibits broad bell-shaped pH profiles extending over 3 to 6 pH units and a decrease at extremely alkaline pH ≥ 9.4 and at acidic to neutral pH = 4.6–7.5. The pH dependence can be described by an acidic to neutral apparent pK (pKapp) and an alkaline pKapp. Experimental evidence suggests that the alkaline pKapp is due to H+ depletion at the protonation site, while the acidic pKapp is due to inhibition of deprotonation. Since previous studies suggest that a single carboxyl group in LacY (Glu325) may be the only side chain directly involved in H+ translocation and a carboxyl side chain with similar properties has been identified in FucP (Asp46) and XylE (Asp27), the present results imply that the pK of this residue is switched during H+/sugar symport in all three symporters. PMID:27227677

  6. pH Regulation of Electrogenic Sugar/H+ Symport in MFS Sugar Permeases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzone, Andre; Madej, M Gregor; Kaback, H Ronald; Fendler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial sugar symporters in the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) use the H+ (and in a few cases Na+) electrochemical gradients to achieve active transport of sugar into the cell. Because a number of structures of MFS sugar symporters have been solved recently, molecular insight into the transport mechanism is possible from detailed functional analysis. We present here a comparative electrophysiological study of the lactose permease (LacY), the fucose permease (FucP) and the xylose permease (XylE), which reveals common mechanistic principles and differences. In all three symporters energetically downhill electrogenic sugar/H+ symport is observed. Comparison of the pH dependence of symport at symmetrical pH exhibits broad bell-shaped pH profiles extending over 3 to 6 pH units and a decrease at extremely alkaline pH ≥ 9.4 and at acidic to neutral pH = 4.6-7.5. The pH dependence can be described by an acidic to neutral apparent pK (pKapp) and an alkaline pKapp. Experimental evidence suggests that the alkaline pKapp is due to H+ depletion at the protonation site, while the acidic pKapp is due to inhibition of deprotonation. Since previous studies suggest that a single carboxyl group in LacY (Glu325) may be the only side chain directly involved in H+ translocation and a carboxyl side chain with similar properties has been identified in FucP (Asp46) and XylE (Asp27), the present results imply that the pK of this residue is switched during H+/sugar symport in all three symporters. PMID:27227677

  7. pH Regulation of Electrogenic Sugar/H+ Symport in MFS Sugar Permeases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Bazzone

    Full Text Available Bacterial sugar symporters in the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS use the H+ (and in a few cases Na+ electrochemical gradients to achieve active transport of sugar into the cell. Because a number of structures of MFS sugar symporters have been solved recently, molecular insight into the transport mechanism is possible from detailed functional analysis. We present here a comparative electrophysiological study of the lactose permease (LacY, the fucose permease (FucP and the xylose permease (XylE, which reveals common mechanistic principles and differences. In all three symporters energetically downhill electrogenic sugar/H+ symport is observed. Comparison of the pH dependence of symport at symmetrical pH exhibits broad bell-shaped pH profiles extending over 3 to 6 pH units and a decrease at extremely alkaline pH ≥ 9.4 and at acidic to neutral pH = 4.6-7.5. The pH dependence can be described by an acidic to neutral apparent pK (pKapp and an alkaline pKapp. Experimental evidence suggests that the alkaline pKapp is due to H+ depletion at the protonation site, while the acidic pKapp is due to inhibition of deprotonation. Since previous studies suggest that a single carboxyl group in LacY (Glu325 may be the only side chain directly involved in H+ translocation and a carboxyl side chain with similar properties has been identified in FucP (Asp46 and XylE (Asp27, the present results imply that the pK of this residue is switched during H+/sugar symport in all three symporters.

  8. Characterization of Sugar Insensitive (sis) Mutants of Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Susan I.

    2009-06-08

    Despite the fact that soluble sugar levels have been postulated to play an important role in the control of a wide variety of plant metabolic and developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which plants respond to soluble sugar levels remain poorly understood. Plant responses to soluble sugar levels are also important in bioenergy production, as plant sugar responses are believed to help regulate both carbon fixation and carbon partitioning. For example, accumulation of soluble sugars, such as sucrose and glucose, in source tissues leads to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, thereby decreasing rates of carbon fixation. Soluble sugar levels can also affect sink strengths, affecting the rates of accumulation of carbon-based compounds into both particular molecular forms (e.g. carbohydrates versus lipids versus proteins) and particular plant organs and tissues. Mutants of Arabidopsis that are defective in the ability to respond to soluble sugar levels were isolated and used as tools to identify some of the factors involved in plant sugar response. These sugar insensitive (sis) mutants were isolated by screening mutagenized seeds for those that were able to germinate and develop relatively normal shoot systems on media containing 0.3 M glucose or 0.3 M sucrose. At these sugar concentrations, wild-type Arabidopsis germinate and produce substantial root systems, but show little to no shoot development. Twenty-eight sis mutants were isolated during the course of four independent mutant screens. Based on a preliminary characterization of all of these mutants, sis3 and sis6 were chosen for further study. Both of these mutations appear to lie in previously uncharacterized loci. Unlike many other sugar-response mutants, sis3 mutants exhibit a wild-type or near wild-type response in all phytohormone-response assays conducted to date. The sis6-1 mutation is unusual in that it appears to be due to overexpression of a gene, rather than representing a loss of function mutation

  9. [True place of simple sugars in the cause of caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, M G

    1991-02-01

    A recent leaflet published for dental patients by the Canadian Association of Confectioners promotes the consumption of sweets, considering them on an equal basis, in regard to caries, as any other foods containing simple sugars, such as: fruits, vegetables, bread or pasta. This article intends to demistify such inference. While it is true that most foods containing simple sugars can lower plaque pH when considered alone, in the context of a total diet, the relationship between simple sugars and caries is much more complex. Also, in regard to total health, one can not equate all simple sugars since they differ considerably in terms of nutritional value. PMID:1869698

  10. Food gap and food security of sugar in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    SHEHATA, Gaber Ahmed Bassyouni

    2015-01-01

    The research aims mainly to study food gap and food security of sugar in Egypt through studying of several sub-goals represented in: estimating models of general trends function for some economic indicators of sugar in Egypt during the period (1995- 2012), studying of the most important indicators of food security of sugar, estimating the size of the food gap of sugar and knowledge of the most important factors responsible for, and studying the policies and means to achieve food security of s...

  11. Sugar ester surfactants: enzymatic synthesis and applications in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Nair S; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2015-01-01

    Sugar esters are non-ionic surfactants that can be synthesized in a single enzymatic reaction step using lipases. The stability and efficiency of lipases under unusual conditions and using non-conventional media can be significantly improved through immobilization and protein engineering. Also, the development of de novo enzymes has seen a significant increase lately under the scope of the new field of synthetic biology. Depending on the esterification degree and the nature of fatty acid and/or sugar, a range of sugar esters can be synthesized. Due to their surface activity and emulsifying capacity, sugar esters are promising for applications in food industry.

  12. Synergistic Interactions of Sugars/Polyols and Monovalent Salts with Phospholipids Depend upon Sugar/Polyol Complexity and Anion Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ginevra A; Henderson, J Michael; Heffern, Charles; Akgün, Bülent; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Lee, Ka Yee C

    2015-11-24

    We found that interactions of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid monolayers with sugars are influenced by addition of NaCl. This work is of general importance in understanding how sugar-lipid-salt interactions impact biological systems. Using Langmuir isothermal compressions, fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and neutron reflectometry, we examined DPPC monolayers upon addition of sugars/polyols and/or monovalent salts. Sugar-lipid interactions in the presence of NaCl increased with increasing complexity of the sugar/polyol in the order glycerol ≪ glucose lithium ions may also compete with glucose for binding sites. Thus, both cooperative and competitive factors contribute to the overall influence of salts on sugar-lipid interactions. PMID:26496486

  13. Platform attitude data acquisition system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Afzulpurkar, S.

    A system for automatic acquisition of underwater platform attitude data has been designed, developed and tested in the laboratory. This is a micro controller based system interfacing dual axis inclinometer, high-resolution digital compass...

  14. Preparing for a Product Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiil-Nielsen, Ole; Munk, Lone; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2005-01-01

    . The introduction of product platforms requires coordination of individual product development projects. This coordination requires the clarification of reuse and variance through the projects. But which parts of a project should be reused and which parts should vary? Reuse in product development platforms is based...... they lead to increased sales due to more customized product as well as decreased costs due to reuse, making a product development platform a very profitable strategy for product developing companies. A successful implementation of a product development platform is not straightforward though...... on commonalities and similarities in the product family, and variance should be based on customer demands. To relate these terms and to improve the basis on which decisions are made, we need a way of visualizing the hierarchy of the product family as well as the commonality and variance. This visualization method...

  15. Elevated Fixed Platform Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Elevated Fixed Platform (EFP) is a helicopter recovery test facility located at Lakehurst, NJ. It consists of a 60 by 85 foot steel and concrete deck built atop...

  16. NASA's geostationary communications platform program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramler, J.; Durrett, R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews recent trends in communications satellites and explains NASA's current interest in geostationary communications platforms. Large communications platforms capable of supporting multiple payloads with common utilities have been examined in a number of studies since 1974 and appear to offer a number of potential advantages. In 1981, an Industry Briefing and Workshop sponsord by NASA focused on the institutional, operational and technical issues that will influence the implementation of geostationary platforms. The workshop identified numerous issues and problem areas that needed more detailed study. To address the issues/problems identified, a NASA geostationary communications platform program has been developed. This program is described, focusing on the initial studies to be performed.

  17. Association of δ13C in Fingerstick Blood with Added Sugars and Sugar-sweetened Beverage Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Davy, Brenda M.; Jahren, A. Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.

    2011-01-01

    A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related co-morbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of 13C, a naturally-occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners, of which sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are the primary dietary source, may be refle...

  18. Displacement Pumping of Liquids Radially Inward on Centrifugal Microfluidic Platforms in Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Salin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe two novel centrifugal microfluidic platform designs that enable passive pumping of liquids radially inward while the platform is in motion. The first design uses an immiscible liquid to displace an aqueous solution back towards the center of the platform, while the second design uses an arbitrary pumping liquid with a volume of air between it and the solution being pumped. Both designs demonstrated the ability to effectively pump 55% to 60% of the solution radially inward at rotational frequencies as low as 400 rpm (6.7 Hz to 700 rpm (11.7 Hz. The pumping operations reached completion within 120 s and 400 s respectively. These platform designs for passive pumping of liquids do not require moving parts or complex fabrication techniques. They offer great potential for increasing the number of sequential operations that can be performed on centrifugal microfluidic platforms, thereby reducing a fundamental limitation often associated with these platforms.

  19. Disentangling Competition Among Platform Driven Strategic Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Tan, Chee-Wee; Lim, Eric

    2015-01-01

    competition within platform-driven markets, we opted for the UK mobile payment market as our empirical setting. By embracing the theoretical lens of strategic groups and digital platforms, this study supplements prior research by deriving a taxonomy of platform-driven strategic groups that is grounded......In platform-driven markets, competitive advantage is derived from superior platform design and configurations. For this reason, platform owners strive to create unique and inimitable platform configurals to maintain and extend their competitiveness within network economies. To disentangle firm...... on competitive attributes of platform- driven markets; namely interfirm modularity and strategic linkages....

  20. PCMAT, an adaptive learning platform

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, Paulo; Fernandes, Marta; Martins, Constantino; Faria, Luiz

    2013-01-01

    This paper is about PCMAT, an adaptive learning platform for Mathematics in Basic Education schools. Based on a constructivist approach, PCMAT aims at verifying how techniques from adaptive hypermedia systems can improve e-learning based systems. To achieve this goal, PCMAT includes a Pedagogical Model that contains a set of adaptation rules that influence the student-platform interaction. PCMAT was subject to a preliminary testing with students aged between 12 and 14 years old on th...

  1. Integrated instrument platform for in situ characterization of tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integrated instrument platform will support robotic characterization of radioactive chemical waste materials in the underground storage tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The support platform supplies the basic support infrastructure needed to perform remotely controlled robotic deployment of sensors. A trailer serves as a field operations center, providing power and utilities, data acquisition and control equipment, common instrumentation, and test equipment. As part of the platform development effort, information on operational requirements and interface specifications is being compiled and distributed to potential suppliers of instrumentation. An overall characterization strategy has been developed, incorporating the currently identified characterization missions. This strategy will evolve over time and should provide a baseline to assist in planning for future deployment of characterization technology

  2. Research on the positioning problem in HIFU surgery platform application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Lin-qing; GAO Xue-guan; XU Jian-bo; MA Pei-sun

    2006-01-01

    For describing the positioning process of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Surgery Platform in the application in tumor treatment, a simplified representation of the shape and location of the positioning target tumor in the workspace of the platform by the Positioning Volume Ellipsoid is designed; and the Nearest Neighbor Search method is used to find the closest center point of the simplified ellipsoid tumor model in a selected patient body surface point set determined by the motion parameter of the platform. By the query result the goal positioning path configuration and an intermediate positioning path configuration for the positioning motion are determined for the positioning motion planning. Three new criterions using distance change between Positioning Volume Ellipsoid and the Ultrasound Focus Ellipsoid are proposed to evaluate the result of the whole positioning procedure.

  3. Sugar regulation of harvest-related genes in asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, K M; Seelye, J F; Irving, D E; Borst, W M; Hurst, P L; King, G A

    1996-07-01

    The signals controlling the abundance of transcripts up-regulated (pTIP27, pTIP31, and pTIP32) or down-regulated (pTIP20 and pTIP21) after harvest in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spears were examined. pTIP27 and pTIP31 are known to encode asparagine synthetase (AS) and a beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) homolog, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of pTIP20, pTIP21, and pTIP32 were determined, and they encode histone 3, histone 2B, and an unknown product, respectively. Changes in respiration, soluble sugars, and abundance of the five mRNAs were similar in the tips stored as 30-mm lengths or as part of 180-mm spears. We previously hypothesized that sugars may regulate the level of AS transcripts in asparagus tissue. Asparagus cell cultures were used to test the role of sugar status may regulate the level of AS transcripts in asparagus tissue. Asparagus cell cultures were used to test the role of sugar status in regulating gene expression. Transcript abundance for AS, beta-gal, and pTIP32 was low in cells in sugar-containing medium but increased within 12 h after transferring cells to a sugar-free medium. Histone 3 and histone 2B transcripts were, in general, abundant in cells on sugar-containing medium but declined in abundance when transferred to sugar-free medium. When cells were returned to sugar-containing medium the abundance of transcripts for histone 3 and histone 2B increased, whereas that for AS, beta-gal, and pTIP32 decreased. Soluble sugar levels are known to decline rapidly in the tips of harvested spears. Metabolic regulation by sugar status may have a major influence on gene expression in asparagus spears and other tissue after harvest. PMID:8754687

  4. Total and Free Sugar Content of Canadian Prepackaged Foods and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi T. Bernstein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of recommendations for policy and program interventions to limit excess free sugar consumption have emerged, however there are a lack of data describing the amounts and types of sugar in foods. This study presents an assessment of sugar in Canadian prepackaged foods including: (a the first systematic calculation of free sugar contents; (b a comprehensive assessment of total sugar and free sugar levels; and (c sweetener and free sugar ingredient use, using the University of Toronto’s Food Label Information Program (FLIP database 2013 (n = 15,342. Food groups with the highest proportion of foods containing free sugar ingredients also had the highest median total sugar and free sugar contents (per 100 g/mL: desserts (94%, 15 g, and 12 g, sugars and sweets (91%, 50 g, and 50 g, and bakery products (83%, 16 g, and 14 g, proportion with free sugar ingredients, median total sugar and free sugar content in Canadian foods, respectively. Free sugar accounted for 64% of total sugar content. Eight of 17 food groups had ≥75% of the total sugar derived from free sugar. Free sugar contributed 20% of calories overall in prepackaged foods and beverages, with the highest at 70% in beverages. These data can be used to inform interventions aimed at limiting free sugar consumption.

  5. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar... processing of raw cane sugar into crystalline refined sugar....

  6. Hybrid modelling of a sugar boiling process

    CERN Document Server

    Lauret, Alfred Jean Philippe; Gatina, Jean Claude

    2012-01-01

    The first and maybe the most important step in designing a model-based predictive controller is to develop a model that is as accurate as possible and that is valid under a wide range of operating conditions. The sugar boiling process is a strongly nonlinear and nonstationary process. The main process nonlinearities are represented by the crystal growth rate. This paper addresses the development of the crystal growth rate model according to two approaches. The first approach is classical and consists of determining the parameters of the empirical expressions of the growth rate through the use of a nonlinear programming optimization technique. The second is a novel modeling strategy that combines an artificial neural network (ANN) as an approximator of the growth rate with prior knowledge represented by the mass balance of sucrose crystals. The first results show that the first type of model performs local fitting while the second offers a greater flexibility. The two models were developed with industrial data...

  7. Monitoring the Health of Sugar Maple, "Acer Saccharum"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Martha

    2013-01-01

    The sugar maple, "Acer saccharum," is projected to decline and die in 88 to 100 percent of its current range in the United States. An iconic symbol of the northeastern temperate forest and a dominant species in this forest, the sugar maple is identified as the most sensitive tree in its ecosystem to rising temperatures and a warming…

  8. A methodological approach to sugar mill diversification and conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Aguilar Rivera

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar industry diversification is complex, being constrained by biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Ongoing work has shown the sugarcane industry’s potential as biorefinery or its sustainable use by offering products as raw material. However, few studies have studied how such potential could be achieved by promoting a conventional sugar mill through integrating its indicators for developing an efficient diversified processing plant which would contribute towards fossil energy saving and competitiveness. This paper presents a conceptual framework for analysis based on existing knowledge regarding sugar industry state-of-the-art for evaluating diversification, using analytical hierarchy process (AHP as a tool for analysing complex systems, identifying alternatives to the current situation and discussing them to facilitate collective decision-making. Sugar mill AHP scores enabled discussion about the variables most affecting sugar mill diversification (0.332 factory yield, 0.327 sugar mill products and 0.121 sugarcane quality. The results serve as a useful guidance for formulating strategies for the optimum use of by-products in a sugar mill while maximising benefits to modify/convert a traditional sugar mill to a so-called bio-refinery.

  9. Countering Children's Sugared Food Commercials: Do Rebuttals Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Lois; Sandman, Peter M.

    To assist the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in policy making decisions concerning sugared food advertisements on television, a study was conducted to assess the effects on children of counter advertisements and disclaimers as a means of lessening the undesirable impact of sugared food ads. Approximately 1,200 children, aged 5 to 10 years,…

  10. Sugar and polyol solutions as effective solvent for biopolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Ternary mixtures of biopolymers, sugars or polyols and water can be treated as a pseudo binary system with respect to melting of the biopolymer. Sugar and polyol solutions can be treated as an effective solvent, characterized by the density of hydroxyl groups available for intermolecular hydrogen

  11. Investigation of Copper Sorption by Sugar Beet Processing Lime Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 Mg yr-1) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairi...

  12. Two Step Wittig/Dihydroxylation Synthetic Route to Higher Sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten; Madsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Higher carbon sugars are obtained by a two carbon, two step chain elongation of aldoses involving first a Wittig reaction and then an osmium tetroxide catalyzed dihydroxylation......Higher carbon sugars are obtained by a two carbon, two step chain elongation of aldoses involving first a Wittig reaction and then an osmium tetroxide catalyzed dihydroxylation...

  13. Sugar Cane Genome Numbers Assumption by Ribosomal DNA FISH Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thumjamras, S.; Jong, de H.; Iamtham, S.; Prammanee, S.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional cytological method is limited for polyploidy plant genome study, especially sugar cane chromosomes that show unstable numbers of each cultivar. Molecular cytogenetic as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques were used in this study. A basic chromosome number of sugar cane w

  14. "Sugar" jõuab lavale / Ülle Hallik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hallik, Ülle, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Vanemuises esietendub 5. juunil "Sugar", lavastaja Mare Tommingas. Muusikal põhineb Jule Styne muusikalil "Sugar ehk Dzhässis ainult tüdrukud". Muusikali libreto kirjutas Peter Stone Robert Thoereni jutustuse ning Billy Wilderi ja I. A. L. Dimanondi filmi "Some Like It Hot" põhjal

  15. Effects of sugar intake on body weight: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, S.H.F.; Pasman, W.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Weight reduction programmes are mainly focused on reducing intake of fat and sugar. In this review we have evaluated whether the replacement of dietary (added) sugar by low-energy sweeteners or complex carbohydrates contributes to weight reduction. In two experimental studies, no short-term differen

  16. Structural confirmation of novel oligosaccharides isolated from sugar beet molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tatsuya; Kikuchi, Hiroto; Aritsuka, Tsutomu; Takata, Yusuke; Fukushi, Eri; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Kawabata, Jun; Ueno, Keiji; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio

    2016-07-01

    Eleven oligosaccharides were isolated from sugar beet molasses using carbon-Celite column chromatography and HPLC. The constituent sugars and linkage positions were determined using methylation analysis, MALDI-TOF-MS, and NMR measurements. The configurations of isolated oligosaccharides were confirmed based on detailed NMR analysis. Based on our results, three of the 11 oligosaccharides were novel. PMID:26920296

  17. Protein abundance changes of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in different sugar concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong; Niu, Chen; Liu, Bin; Wei, JianPing; Wang, HuXuan; Yuan, YaHong; Yue, TianLi

    2016-09-16

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a yeast which can cause spoilage in the concentrated juice industries. It exhibits resistance to high sugar concentrations but genome- and proteome-wide studies on Z. rouxii in response to high sugar concentrations have been poorly investigated. Herein, by using a 2-D electrophoresis based workflow, the proteome of a wild strain of Z. rouxii under different sugar concentrations has been analyzed. Proteins were extracted, quantified, and subjected to 2-DE analysis in the pH range 4-7. Differences in growth (lag phase), protein content (13.97-19.23mg/g cell dry weight) and number of resolved spots (196-296) were found between sugar concentrations. ANOVA test showed that 168 spots were different, and 47 spots, corresponding to 40 unique gene products have been identified. These protein species are involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, response to stimulus, protein transport and vesicle organization, cell morphogenesis regulation, transcription and translation, nucleotide metabolism, amino-sugar nucleotide-sugar pathways, oxidoreductases balancing, and ribosome biogenesis. The present study provides important information about how Z. rouxii acts to cope with high sugar concentration at molecular levels, which might enhance our global understanding of Z. rouxii's high sugar-tolerance trait. PMID:27322723

  18. The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, van F.

    1975-01-01

    The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant was studied by measuring dry weight and chemical composition of every leaf, the crown and the root during the growing season.The sugar-beet plant has an almost neutral uptake. The nitrate and sulphate reduction determines the amount of carboxylates in the pl

  19. REMOVAL OF INHIBITORS FROM BIOMASS SUGARS USING A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major constraint to fermentation of sugars in biomass hydrolysates is the presence of side-products of hydrolysis that are toxic to microorganisms. These chemicals include products of sugar degradation (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and levulinic acid), organic acids released from hemi...

  20. Root rot in sugar beet piles at harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet root rots are not only a concern because of reduced yields, but can also be associated with losses in storage. Our primary sugar beet root rot disease problem in the Amalgamated production area is Rhizoctonia root rot. However, this rot frequently only penetrates a short distance past t...

  1. Effect of commonly consumed sugar containing and sugar free fruit drinks on the hydrogen ion modulation of human dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanika Mahajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the increased awareness of healthy diet among the population, the intake of fruit juices as health drinks has been increased. This study has been designed to check the potential cariogenicity of fruit drinks frequently consumed by infants and young children. Aim: To compare the acidogenic potential of sugar free fruit juices with fruit juices containing sugar by evaluating the plaque pH changes, following consumption of the above drinks. Design: The study was carried out on 10 children in the age group of 8-15 years. The four fruit juices used were 1 orange juice with added sugar 2 orange juice with no added sugar 3 apple juice with added sugar 4 apple juice with no added sugar. Sucrose rinse of 10% was used as control group. The endogenous pH of the fruit juices and control was assessed using digital pH meter. The plaque pH was assessed at the baseline and after the consumption of the drinks at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 60 minutes time interval using the plaque-harvesting technique. The obtained results were compiled and subjected to statistical analysis using paired t-test. Result: All the fruit juices showed drop in plaque pH. A drop in pH was also observed in the juices despite of no added sugar content. Conclusion: The fruit juices labeled with "no added sugar" or "free from added sugar", contained substantial quantities of sugar and are equally cariogenic as are fruit drinks with added sugar.

  2. DETERMINATION OF THERMODYNAMIC AND KINETIC PARAMETERS OF LARGE SCALE CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION OF SUGAR AND REDUCING SUGAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiZhong; ShuWenli; 等

    1996-01-01

    The parameter identification model of large scale chromatography separation process is proposed.The phase equilibrium constants and lumped mass transfer coefficients of sugar and reducing sugar adsorption on D1,D2 and D3 resins as well as the axial dispersion coefficients of the fluid through packed columns are determined by means of the pulse-response experiment technique with an inert substance as a tracer and the chromatography measuring technique.The elution curve calculated from these parameters is good agreement with the experimental elution curve.The sensitivity analysis of these parameters is carried out ,and the result shows that the elution curves of chromatography separation are more sensitive to the variations of the phase equilibrium relationship than to the variation of the axial dispersion as well as the lumped mass transfer coefficients.

  3. A Commercial Platform Takes off in Beijing CBD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China Overseas Plaza unveils its model floor On November 6, 2008, China Overseas Plaza, situated in the center of Beijing CBD and Chang’an Avenue, celebrated the opening of its model floor on the sixth floor of the south building. The successful opening of the model floor marked the beginning of a new phase for its leasing project, and the birth of a topquality international pure commercial platform.

  4. Security and Dependability for Federated Cloud Platforms (Dagstuhl Seminar 12281)

    OpenAIRE

    Kapitza, Rüdiger; Schunter, Matthias; Shapiro, Marc; Verissimo, Paulo; Waidner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    From July 8-13, 2012, the Dagstuhl Seminar "Security and Dependability for Federated Cloud Platforms" was held in Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz Center for Informatics. During this seminar, participants presented their current research and discussed open problems in the fields of security and dependability of infrastructure clouds and their federation. The executive summary and abstracts of the talks given during the seminar are put together in this paper.

  5. iMOOC : building a platform from existing software components

    OpenAIRE

    Rocio, Vitor; Coelho, José, 1948-

    2015-01-01

    iMOOC is a new pedagogical model for massive open online courses (Teixeira & Mota, 2013), that evolved from UAb’s online model (Pereira et al., 2008), based on its four pillars of student-centered learning, interaction, flexibility and digital inclusion. It is also a software platform, that supports this model, and that was developed at UAb in close articulation with the pedagogical model. In this paper we describe the guidelines that oriented such development, an...

  6. Water sorption and glass transition of amorphous sugars containing BSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, K.; Suzuki, T.; Tatsumichi, T.; Kirii, S.; Okazaki, M. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-08-01

    Water sorption and glass transition of four amorphous sugars (lactose, maltose, sucrose, and trehalose) containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) are investigated. Freeze-dried sugar-BSA samples equilibrated at several water activities ranging from 0 to 0.43 were prepared. Moisture content and glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) were measured. For the all sugars, it is found that BSA lowers T{sub g} at low water activity, and raises it at high water activity. It is also found that the difference between T{sub g} of the sugar-BSA samples and that of the corresponding amorphous sugar samples (T{sub g0}) depends mainly on T{sub g0}. (author)

  7. Effect of genotype on sugar beet yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenadić N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a considerable number of both domestic and foreign sugar beet genotypes on root yield and quality was investigated. The data demonstrated the most favorable results of some genotypes for root yield and sugar content. Trials were conducted on rhizomania infested soil, thus tolerant genotypes were used. Susceptible cultivars represented the control. In the trial root yield was high and sugar content low. On average, in the genotypes tested, root yield varied from 73.98 to 93.30 t/ha and sugar content from 11.90 to 13.36%, depending on weather conditions. Root yield of the genotypes investigated varied from 30.61 to 112.64 t/ha and sugar content from 10.60 to 14.20%. The Swedish cultivar Dorotea (tolerant to both rhizomania and cercospora was the most yielding. The least yielding (susceptible to both rhizomania and cercospora was the domestic cultivar Dana.

  8. Capillary electrophoretic study on UDP-sugars in cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许国旺; R.Lehmann; 路鑫; H.M.Liebich; 张玉奎; 卢佩章

    2000-01-01

    Glucose is an important regulator of cell growth and metabolism. Uridine diphosphate sugars (UDP-sugars), as the intermediate products of metabolism, play pivotal roles as precursors in the synthesis of complex carbohydrates and glycolipids as well as lectose. It is very important to study their metabolism in cells in clinical biochemistry. A capillary electrophoretic method has been developed for the analysis of UDP-sugars and nucleotides. By using an uncoated capillary (70cm×50μm) and 20 mmol/L borax buffer (pH 9), 4 important UDP-sugars can be analyzed in 15 min at 22 kV with satisfactory precision and sensitivity. The developed method has been applied to analyze UDP-sugars concentrations in lymphocytes, fibroblasts and mesangial cells, and the results show it not only is much better than HPLC method, but also can be used to measure the energy charge of cells.

  9. Capillary electrophoretic study on UDP-sugars in cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Glucose is an important regulator of cell growth and metabolism. Uridine diphosphate sugars (UDP-sugars), as the intermediate products of metabolism, play pivotal roles as precursors in the synthesis of complex carbohydrates and glycolipids as well as lectose. It is very important to study their metabolism in cells in clinical biochemistry. A capillary electrophoretic method has been developed for the analysis of UDP-sugars and nucleotides. By using an uncoated capillary (70cm×50 μm) and 20 mmol/L borax buffer (pH 9), 4 important UDP-sugars can be analyzed in 15 min at 22 kV with satisfactory precision and sensitivity. The developed method has been applied to analyze UDP-sugars concentrations in lymphocytes, fibroblasts and mesangial cells, and the results show it not only is much better than HPLC method, but also can be used to measure the energy charge of cells.

  10. Sugar transport across lactose permease probed by steered molecular dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Yin, Ying; Tajkhorshid, Emad;

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli lactose permease (LacY) transports sugar across the inner membrane of the bacterium using the proton motive force to accumulate sugar in the cytosol. We have probed lactose conduction across LacY using steered molecular dynamics, permitting us to follow molecular and energetic......, forcing it to interact with channel lining residues. Lactose forms a multitude of direct sugar-channel hydrogen bonds, predominantly with residues of the flexible N-domain, which is known to contribute a major part of LacY's affinity for lactose. In the periplasmic half-channel lactose predominantly...... interacts with hydrophobic channel lining residues, whereas in the cytoplasmic half-channel key protein-substrate interactions are mediated by ionic residues. A major energy barrier against transport is found within a tight segment of the periplasmic half-channel where sugar hydration is minimal and protein-sugar...

  11. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate

  12. Usability of robotic platforms for remote surgical teleproctoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ereso, Alexander Q; Garcia, Pablo; Tseng, Elaine; Dua, Monica M; Victorino, Gregory P; Guy, Ltc Thomas S

    2009-06-01

    Military field hospitals and rural medical centers may lack surgical subspecialists. Robotic technology can enable proctoring of remotely located general surgeons by subspecialists. Our objective compared three proctoring platforms: (1) 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) computer input devices controlling a camera and laser pointer mounted on robotic arms, (2) a computer mouse controlling a pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) camera and robotic laser scanner, and (3) a computer pen/tablet controlling a PTZ-camera and robotic laser scanner. Our hypothesis was that a pen/tablet or mouse platform would be superior to the 6-DOF-input device platform. Five surgeons used each platform by simulating the creation of operative incisions. Qualitative (instrument handling, time, motion, spatial awareness) and quantitative performance (accuracy, speed) was assessed on a five-point scale. Each surgeon completed a satisfaction survey. Both mouse and pen/tablet had higher mean performance scores than the 6-DOF-input device in all quantitative (6-DOF = 1.7 +/- 0.8, mouse = 4.3 +/- 0.2, pen = 4.1 +/- 0.6; p laser pointer. Either a mouse or pen/tablet platform allows subspecialists to proctor remotely located surgeons. PMID:19548825

  13. New offshore platform in the Mexican Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beisel, T.

    1982-04-01

    After a construction period of only 10 months, the second steel Offshore platform was recently completed in the Mexican Gulf. The pattern for this structure was the Cognac platform. The erection of the new platform, called the 'Cerveza' platform, is described in the article.

  14. Variability in the occurrence of the sugar cane froghopper Aeneolamia flavilatera (Homoptera: Cercopidae), on sugar estates in Guyana and Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiedijk, F.

    1982-01-01

    Significant numbers of the sugar cane froghopper, Aeneolamia flavilatera, are generally not found to be present on sugar cane during the periodically occurring prolonged dry periods. This is primarily attributable to drought induced quiescence in the froghopper eggs, which delays the appearence of t

  15. Exploration of Sugar Functionality in Sugar-Snap and Wire-Cut Cookie Baking: Implications for Sucrose Reduction or Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugars are plasticizers of the biopolymers of wheat flour, but concentrated sugar solutions act as anti-plasticizers, compared to water alone. As a result, gluten development during dough mixing and starch gelatinization/pasting during cookie baking are delayed or prevented. In great excess, aqueou...

  16. Modeling sugar content of farmer-managed sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A. Jaradat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We measured or estimated leaf and root physical and chemical traits of spatio-temporally heterogeneousfield-grown sugar beet throughout its ontogeny during three growing seasons. The objective was toquantify the impact of temporal changes in these traits on root sugar content [S(R; g 100 g-1 root dryweight]. Artificial Neural Network (ANN, in conjunction with thermal time (ºCd, adequately delineatedthe boundaries (mean ± standard deviation, S.D. between S(R during early (41.6 ± 6.2, med (54.5 ± 3.0,and late ontogeny (63.4 ± 2.4, corresponding, respectively to low, medium, and high S(R. Calibrationand validation Partial Least Squares (PLS regression models, using plant physical and chemical traits,predicted and validated sugar content of sugar beet leaves [S(L] and roots [S(R] throughout its ontogenywith significant probabilities. Most physical and all chemical traits exhibited dynamic changesthroughout plant ontogeny and, consequently, negatively or positively impacted S(R. The positiveimpact of S(L and root volume (RV on S(R diminished towards the end of the growing season;whereas, the positive impact of root density (RD and carbon:nitrogen (C:N ratio in leaves [C:N(L] androots [C:N(R] persisted throughout plant ontogeny. Specific leaf area (SLA, in particular, exhibitednegative, then positive impact on S(R. The utility of physical and chemical traits of field-grown sugarbeets in building reliable PLS models was confirmed using multivariate analysis on secondary statistics(residual mean square errors, RMSE and validation coefficients of determination, Q2 whichdiscriminated between and correctly classified low (100%, medium (95% and high (97% S(R groups.The findings may have implications to design management practices that can enhance C:N ratio and Csequestrationin roots, maintain optimum, but not excessive, N level in developing leaves and roots,optimize root sugar content and minimize its variation under field conditions

  17. Studies on soft centered coated snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavithra, A S; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Babylatha, R; Archana, S N; Bhat, K K

    2013-04-01

    Roasted groundnut seeds, amaranth and dates pulp formed the center filling which was coated with sugar, breadings, desiccated coconut and roasted Bengalgram flour (BGF) to get 4 coated snacks. Physicochemical characteristics, microbiological profile, sorption behaviour and sensory quality of 4 coated snacks were determined. Centre filling to coating ratio of the products were in the range of 3:2-7:1, the product having BGF coating had the thinnest coating. Center filling had soft texture and the moisture content was 10.2-16.2% coating had lower moisture content (4.4-8.6%) except for Bengal gram coating, which had 11.1% moisture. Sugar coated snack has lowest fat (11.6%) and protein (7.2%) contents. Desiccated coconut coated snack has highest fat (25.4%) and Bengal gram flour coated snack had highest protein content (15.4%). Sorption studies showed that the coated snack had critical moisture content of 11.2-13.5%. The products were moisture sensitive and hence require packaging in films having higher moisture barrier property. In freshly prepared snacks coliforms, yeast and mold were absent. Mesophillic aerobes count did not show significant change during 90 days of storage at 27 °C and 37 °C. Sensory analysis showed that products had a unique texture due to combined effect of fairly hard coating and soft center. Flavour and overall quality of all the products were rated as very good. PMID:24425933

  18. Cerveza platforms offer economic options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblanc, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    Two single-piece platforms, Cerveze and Cerveza Ligera, were installed by Union Oil Co. in 925-935 ft of water. The technology and equipment used for the two platforms can be used for units to a depth of 1,400 ft in mild climates and to 1,000 ft in more critical weather areas such as the North Sea. The significant improvements in design and procedures in the construction and installation of the Cerveza Ligera platform are: (1) four leg structure, as opposed to eight, requiring less steel; (2) simplified fabrication; and (3) quicker installation. The most significant area of improvement in the Ligera project compared with Cerveza was in communications. Communications between naval architects and onshore launch foremen during loadout, and between surveyors and tug captains during positioning, are cited as examples.

  19. Persistent Monitoring Platforms Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C L

    2007-02-22

    This project was inspired and motivated by the need to provide better platforms for persistent surveillance. In the years since the inception of this work, the need for persistence of surveillance platforms has become even more widely appreciated, both within the defense community and the intelligence community. One of the most demanding technical requirements for such a platform involves the power plant and energy storage system, and this project concentrated almost exclusively on the technology associated with this system for a solar powered, high altitude, unmanned aircraft. An important realization for the feasibility of such solar powered aircraft, made at the outset of this project, was that thermal energy may be stored with higher specific energy density than for any other known practical form of rechargeable energy storage. This approach has proved to be extraordinarily fruitful, and a large number of spin-off applications of this technology were developed in the course of this project.

  20. Towards a Framework of Digital Platform Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Tan, Chee-Wee; Lim, Eric T. K.

    2016-01-01

    between monopolistic (i.e., Pingit) and federated (i.e., Paym) mobile payment platforms to illustrate its applicability and yield principles on the nature and impact of competition among platform-driven ubiquitous systems. Preliminary findings indicate that monopolistic mobile digital platforms attempt...... to create unique configurals to obtain monopolistic power by tightly coupling platform layers, which are difficult to replicate. Conversely, federated digital platforms compete by dispersing the service layer to harness the collective resources from individual firms. Furthermore, the interaction...

  1. A practice scaffolding interactive platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    , structures the students' activity, and interactively supports subject learning. A PracSIP facilitates students' development of complex competencies, and at the same time it supports the students' development of skills defined in the curriculum. The paper introduces the concept, presents the theoretical......A Practice Scaffolding Interactive Platform (PracSIP) is a social learning platform which supports students in collaborative project based learning by simulating a professional practice. A PracSIP puts the core tools of the simulated practice at the students' disposal, it organizes collaboration...

  2. Adoption of Mobile Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina Stefanova; Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Numerous mobile payment solutions, which rely on new disruptive technologies, have been launched on the payment market in recent years. But despite the growing number of mobile payment apps, very few solutions have turned to be successful as the majority of them fail to gain a critical mass...... of users. In this paper, we investigate successful platform adoption strategies by using the Reach and Range Framework for Multi-Sided Platforms as a strategic tool to which mobile payment providers can adhere in order to tackle some of the main challenges they face throughout the evolution...

  3. Laterally Mounted Azobenzenes on Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerich, Melanie; Herges, Rainer

    2015-11-20

    Triazatriangulenium ions have previously been used as platforms to prepare self-assembled monolayers of functional molecules such as azobenzenes with vertical orientation and that are free-standing on gold surfaces. We have now prepared azobenzenes that are spanned between two posts which are attached on two platforms. Absorbed on a gold surface, the azobenzene should be laterally oriented at a distance of more than 4 Å above and thus electronically decoupled from the surface, and the system should perform a muscle-type movement upon isomerization. PMID:26551306

  4. Effects of sugar solutions on hypothalamic appetite regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colley, Danielle L; Castonguay, Thomas W

    2015-02-01

    Several hypotheses for the causes of the obesity epidemic in the US have been proposed. One such hypothesis is that dietary intake patterns have significantly shifted to include unprecedented amounts of refined sugar. We set out to determine if different sugars might promote changes in the hypothalamic mechanisms controlling food intake by measuring several hypothalamic peptides subsequent to overnight access to dilute glucose, sucrose, high fructose corn syrup, or fructose solutions. Rats were given access to food, water and a sugar solution for 24h, after which blood and tissues were collected. Fructose access (as opposed to other sugars that were tested) resulted in a doubling of circulating triglycerides. Glucose consumption resulted in upregulation of 7 satiety-related hypothalamic peptides whereas changes in gene expression were mixed for remaining sugars. Also, following multiple verification assays, 6 satiety related peptides were verified as being affected by sugar intake. These data provide evidence that not all sugars are equally effective in affecting the control of intake.

  5. Is extrinsic sugar a vehicle for dietary fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, P M; Heaton, K W

    1995-06-17

    Although many guidelines to healthy eating recommend restriction of the intake of extrinsic (refined) sugar, there are concerns that such restriction might result in an increase in the amount and the proportion of dietary fats with a consequent possible increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease. We used regression analysis to examine the determinants of fat intake in subjects from a population survey who had weighed their food for 4 days. In men (n = 77) and women (n = 83), fat eaten was positively related to the intake of extrinsic sugar. When intakes were expressed as percent of calories the relation became negative. A survey in a semi-random sample of 739 men aged 40-69 yr and 976 women aged 25-69 yr showed that, in both sexes, an increase in extrinsic sugar was associated with a linear increase in the intake of sweetened fat and hence of fat combined with carbohydrate. This was due mainly to a higher intake of cakes and biscuits. Foods containing sugar and fat provided an extra 12.0 g per day of fat in the men and 13.8 g per day in the women when the highest quartile of extrinsic sugar consumers were compared with the lowest quartile. We conclude that lowering the intake of extrinsic sugar is unlikely to be associated with higher fat intake. Instead extrinsic sugar may act as a vehicle for fat intake, encouraging consumption by making the fat more palatable.

  6. Enantiomeric and Isotopic Analysis of Sugar Derivatives in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George; Asiyo, Cynthia; Turk, Kendra; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Several classes of organic compounds are found in carbonaceous meteorites including amino acids, carboxylic acids, hydroxy acids, purines, and pyrimidines. Such compounds are thought to have been delivered to the early Earth in asteroids and comets and may have played a role in the origin of life. Likewise, sugar derivatives are critical to all known lifeforms. Recent analyses of the Murchison and Murray carbonaceous meteorites revealed a diverse suite of such derivatives, i.e., sugar alcohols, and sugar acids. This presentation will focus primarily on the analysis of individual sugar acids - their enantiomeric and isotopic composition. Analysis of these compounds may reveal the nature of past (or present) meteoritic sugars themselves. For example, if parent sugars decomposed (by well-known mechanisms) to give the present acids, were their enantiomeric ratios preserved? Combined with other evidence, the enantiomeric composition of such compounds as glyceric acid and (especially) rare acids may help to answer such questions. C-13 and D isotope analysis of meteoritic sugar alcohols (glycerol, threitol, ribitol, etc.) as a group revealed that they were indigenous to the meteorite. Preliminary C-13 analysis of glyceric acid shows that it is also extraterrestrial.

  7. Effects of sugar solutions on hypothalamic appetite regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colley, Danielle L; Castonguay, Thomas W

    2015-02-01

    Several hypotheses for the causes of the obesity epidemic in the US have been proposed. One such hypothesis is that dietary intake patterns have significantly shifted to include unprecedented amounts of refined sugar. We set out to determine if different sugars might promote changes in the hypothalamic mechanisms controlling food intake by measuring several hypothalamic peptides subsequent to overnight access to dilute glucose, sucrose, high fructose corn syrup, or fructose solutions. Rats were given access to food, water and a sugar solution for 24h, after which blood and tissues were collected. Fructose access (as opposed to other sugars that were tested) resulted in a doubling of circulating triglycerides. Glucose consumption resulted in upregulation of 7 satiety-related hypothalamic peptides whereas changes in gene expression were mixed for remaining sugars. Also, following multiple verification assays, 6 satiety related peptides were verified as being affected by sugar intake. These data provide evidence that not all sugars are equally effective in affecting the control of intake. PMID:25449399

  8. Solubility and physical properties of sugars in pressurized water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Sugar solubility in pressurized water and density at high pressures were measured. ► Glucose solubility was higher than that of lactose as predicted by their σ-profiles. ► Sugar aqueous solubility decreased with an increase in pressure from 15 to 120 bar. ► Aqueous glucose molecular packing shows high sensitivity to pressure. ► The COSMO-SAC model qualitatively predicted the sugar solubility data. - Abstract: In this study, the solubility, density, and refractive index of glucose and lactose in water as a function of temperature were measured. For solubility of sugars in pressurized water, experimental data were obtained at pressures of (15 to 120) bar and temperatures of (373 to 433) K using a dynamic flow high pressure system. Density data for aqueous sugar solutions were obtained at pressures of (1 to 300) bar and temperatures of (298 to 343) K. The refractive index of aqueous sugar solutions was obtained at 293 K and atmospheric pressure. Activity coefficient models, Van Laar and the Conductor-like Screening Model-Segment Activity Coefficient (COSMO-SAC), were used to fit and predict the experimental solubility data, respectively. The results obtained showed that the solubility of both sugars in pressurized water increase with an increase in temperature. However, with the increase of pressure from 15 bar to 120 bar, the solubility of both sugars in pressurized water decreased. The Van Laar model fit the experimental aqueous solubility data with deviations lower than 13 and 53% for glucose and lactose, respectively. The COSMO-SAC model predicted qualitatively the aqueous solubility of these sugars.

  9. EVALUATION OF APPROPRIATENESS OF SUGAR CANE PURCHASE RATE GIVEN BY SUGAR FACTORIES TO SUGAR CANE GROWERS IN KOLHAPUR DISTRICT, MAHARASHTRA (A Case Study of Shri. Chhatrapati Shahu Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana Ltd., Kagal, Tehsil-Kagal)

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, P. T.

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane occupies an area of 20.42 million ha with a total production of 1333 million metric tons worldwide. Now, in India sugar industries are categorized as a co-operative, private and public sectors. Now few crises were come up in case of cooperative sugar factories in Kolhapur district particularly associated with sugar cane purchase rate given to the sugar cane growers by sugar cane factory. For in-depth analysis out of 14 efficiently working co-operative sugar factories in Kolhapur ...

  10. Sugarcane, sugar and ethanol technlogical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.I.F.; Oliveira, D.R.M.S.; Marin, F.R.; Santos, A.D.; Hanashiro, M.M. [Embrapa Agriculture Informatics, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Vian, C.E.F; Sollero, G.C.; Andrioli, K.G. [Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture/University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work describes Embrapa's (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation) pioneer initiative creating an online service which provides sugarcane, sugar and ethanol technological information. Embrapa has developed software tools for structuring Knowledge Trees, management contents, graphic visualization (hyperbolic tree) and it has also developed its own methodologies for organizing information. The Knowledge Tree is designed in the patterns of the productive chain of sugarcane; the sets of data present the main instructions, recommendations and technologies produced by Brazilian public research institutions. It is intended to offer an ample amount of pertinent and relevant technical information - displayed at Embrapa Information Agency website - to many professionals in the sugarcane sector, especially for producers, students and technical support staff. Moreover, it is expected to contribute to the enhancement of the technology transference process to allow competitive gains in Brazilian agri-business and to socialize knowledge - which is the mission of Embrapa in its business. It is still expected to contribute to the diffusion of technological information and the knowledge of sugarcane for the areas of tropical agriculture around the world.

  11. Stochastic steps in secondary active sugar transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Joshua L; Ghezzi, Chiara; Bisignano, Paola; Loo, Donald D F; Choe, Seungho; Abramson, Jeff; Rosenberg, John M; Wright, Ernest M; Grabe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Secondary active transporters, such as those that adopt the leucine-transporter fold, are found in all domains of life, and they have the unique capability of harnessing the energy stored in ion gradients to accumulate small molecules essential for life as well as expel toxic and harmful compounds. How these proteins couple ion binding and transport to the concomitant flow of substrates is a fundamental structural and biophysical question that is beginning to be answered at the atomistic level with the advent of high-resolution structures of transporters in different structural states. Nonetheless, the dynamic character of the transporters, such as ion/substrate binding order and how binding triggers conformational change, is not revealed from static structures, yet it is critical to understanding their function. Here, we report a series of molecular simulations carried out on the sugar transporter vSGLT that lend insight into how substrate and ions are released from the inward-facing state of the transporter. Our simulations reveal that the order of release is stochastic. Functional experiments were designed to test this prediction on the human homolog, hSGLT1, and we also found that cytoplasmic release is not ordered, but we confirmed that substrate and ion binding from the extracellular space is ordered. Our findings unify conflicting published results concerning cytoplasmic release of ions and substrate and hint at the possibility that other transporters in the superfamily may lack coordination between ions and substrate in the inward-facing state. PMID:27325773

  12. Does Consuming Sugar and Artificial Sweeteners Change Taste Preferences?

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolotto, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Americans consume 22.3 teaspoons of added caloric sweeteners a day. Sweeteners range from 180 to 13,000 times sweeter than sugar. In summer 2014, 20 people from Kaiser Permanente California facilities cut out all added sugars and artificial sweeteners for 2 weeks: 95% of participants found that sweet foods and drinks tasted sweeter or too sweet, 75% found that other foods tasted sweeter, and 95% said moving forward they would use less or even no sugar. Additionally, 86.6% of participants stop...

  13. Quality and management of wastewater in sugar industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Pradeep Kumar; Sahu, Omprakash

    2015-02-01

    Wastewater from sugar industries is one that has complex characteristics and is considered a challenge for environmental engineers in terms of treatment as well as utilization. Before treatment and recycling, determination of physicochemical parameter is an important mechanism. Many different types of techniques are introduced and modified for the purpose, but depend upon the water quality parameters. The main aim of this study is to determine the physicochemical characteristics of sugar industry waste water by the standard method and minimize the fresh water consumption in sugar industry by water pinch methodology.

  14. Sugar Supplementation Stimulates Growth Performance in Calves with Growth Retardation

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Tomohiro; HIDAKA, Yuichi; KAMIMURA, Shunichi

    2010-01-01

    The growth effect of sugar supplementation was determined in 49 retarded growth calves. Calves were supplemented with sugar at 1 g/kg BW 2 times weekly for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance tests prior to the experiment showed no difference between the retarded growth calves and normal growth controls. After sugar supplementation, the calves were classified into 4 groups characterized by high (H) or low (L) periodic changes in daily weight gain (DG) with a breakpoint of 0.8 kg/d in three periods, bi...

  15. Tax Responses in Platform Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Köthenbürger, Marko; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    Two-sided platform firms serve distinct customer groups that are connected through interdependent demand, and include major businesses such as the media industry, banking, and the software industry. A well known result of tax incidence is that consumers of a more heavily taxed good pay a higher...

  16. 2009 Infrastructure Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass program‘s Infrastructure platform review meeting, held on February 19, 2009, at the Marriott Residence Inn, National Harbor, Maryland.

  17. 2009 Feedstocks Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program‘s Feedstock platform review meeting, held on April 8–10, 2009, at the Grand Hyatt Washington, Washington, D.C.

  18. Platform Support for Pedagogical Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Yvan; Vantroys, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with providing support for the execution of pedagogical scenarios in Learning Management Systems. It takes an engineering point of view to identifies actors, design and use processes. Next it defines the necessary capabilities of a platform so that actors can manage or use pedagogical scenarios. The second part of the article is…

  19. 2009 Analysis Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Analysis platform review meeting, held on February 18, 2009, at the Marriott Residence Inn, National Harbor, Maryland.

  20. Spintronic platforms for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, P P; Cardoso, F A; Martins, V C; Martins, S A M; Loureiro, J; Amaral, J; Chaves, R C; Cardoso, S; Fonseca, L P; Sebastião, A M; Pannetier-Lecoeur, M; Fermon, C

    2012-02-01

    Since the fundamental discovery of the giant magnetoresistance many spintronic devices have been developed and implemented in our daily life (e.g. information storage and automotive industry). Lately, advances in the sensors technology (higher sensitivity, smaller size) have potentiated other applications, namely in the biological area, leading to the emergence of novel biomedical platforms. In particular the investigation of spintronics and its application to the development of magnetoresistive (MR) biomolecular and biomedical platforms are giving rise to a new class of biomedical diagnostic devices, suitable for bench top bioassays as well as point-of-care and point-of-use devices. Herein, integrated spintronic biochip platforms for diagnostic and cytometric applications, hybrid systems incorporating magnetoresistive sensors applied to neuroelectronic studies and biomedical imaging, namely magneto-encephalography and magneto-cardiography, are reviewed. Also lab-on-a-chip MR-based platforms to perform biological studies at the single molecule level are discussed. Overall the potential and main characteristics of such MR-based biomedical devices, comparing to the existing technologies while giving particular examples of targeted applications, are addressed. PMID:22146898

  1. Venus Atmospheric Maneuverable Platform (VAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidan, R.; Lee, G.; Sokol, D.; Griffin, K.; Bolisay, L.

    2014-05-01

    VAMP is a long lived, semi-buoyant, atmospheric “rover” that deploys in orbit, enters the Venus atmosphere and flies in the Venus atmosphere between 55 and 70 km for up to one year as a platform to address VEXAG goals I.A, I.B, and I.C.

  2. AN INTRODUCTION OF SURVEYING AND GEOMATICS EDUCATION WITH E-PLATFORM IN NCTU, TAIWAN

    OpenAIRE

    Teo, T.-A.; Shih, P. T.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the current status of Surveying and Geomatics education provided by Department of Civil Engineering at National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan. The Surveying and Geomatics Education at NCTU is introduced first. Then the current status of using E-learning platform for Surveying and Geomatics courses is described. This platform, also known as E-Campus, is designed and implemented by NCTU Digital Content Production Center. This paper also shows some statistical numb...

  3. Key Technologies for Decentralized Control Platform with Dynamic Evolution for Railway Transportation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Yongdong; GuiXun; Qian Qingquan

    2006-01-01

    Key technologies as well as their principles were discussed for a decentralized control platform capable of dynamic evolution.The primary content includes the automatic decision-making mechanism and the algorithm of the control center migration, the principle and technology of system self-monitoring, the principle and technology of the switch-mode of remote control station, the information transmission technology, and the data consistency technology. These key technologies have shown a series of advanced characteristics for decentralized control platform.

  4. Experiences in the co-design of software and hardware elements in a SDR platform

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez Mora , Magdalena; Lotze, Jörg; Corley, Gerry; Farrell, Ronan

    2008-01-01

    The Center for Telecommunications Value-Chain Research (CTVR) has developed an integrated software radio platform that combines a reconfigurable hardware radio platform, called NUIM SDR transceiver, and a modular software radio framework, called Implementing Radio in Software (IRIS). This paper outlines the design challenges in achieving the integration between these two systems, and also presents experimental results. The test consists of transmitting an image file us...

  5. Dynamic QTLs for sugars and enzyme activities provide an overview of genetic control of sugar metabolism during peach fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnoues, Elsa; Baldazzi, Valentina; Génard, Michel; Mauroux, Jehan-Baptiste; Lambert, Patrick; Confolent, Carole; Quilot-Turion, Bénédicte

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of the genetic control of sugar metabolism is essential to enhance fruit quality and promote fruit consumption. The sugar content and composition of fruits varies with species, cultivar and stage of development, and is controlled by multiple enzymes. A QTL (quantitative trait locus) study was performed on peach fruit [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch], the model species for Prunus Progeny derived from an interspecific cross between P. persica cultivars and P. davidiana was used. Dynamic QTLs for fresh weight, sugars, acids, and enzyme activities related to sugar metabolism were detected at different stages during fruit development. Changing effects of alleles during fruit growth were observed, including inversions close to maturity. This QTL analysis was supplemented by the identification of genes annotated on the peach genome as enzymes linked to sugar metabolism or sugar transporters. Several cases of co-locations between annotated genes, QTLs for enzyme activities and QTLs controlling metabolite concentrations were observed and discussed. These co-locations raise hypotheses regarding the functional regulation of sugar metabolism and pave the way for further analyses to enable the identification of the underlying genes. In conclusion, we identified the potential impact on fruit breeding of the modification of QTL effect close to maturity. PMID:27117339

  6. Association of Dietary Sugars and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake with Obesity in Korean Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungho Ha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the association between dietary sugar intake and obesity in Asian children and adolescents. We evaluated the association of dietary sugar intake and its food source with obesity in Korean children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from five studies conducted between 2002 and 2011. The study included 2599 children and adolescents who had completed more than three days of dietary records and had anthropometric data. Total sugar intake was higher in girls than in boys (54.3 g for girls and 46.6 g for boys, p < 0.0001. Sugar intake from milk and fruits was inversely associated with overweight or obesity in girls only (OR for overweight, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32–0.84; p for trend = 0.0246 and OR for obesity, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23–0.79; p for trend = 0.0113. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption was not associated with obesity in girls, while boys had lower odds ratios for obesity (OR for obesity, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.26–1.05; p for trend = 0.0310. These results suggest that total sugars and SSB intake in Asian children and adolescents remains relatively low and sugar intake from milk and fruits is associated with a decreased risk of overweight or obesity, especially in girls.

  7. Synergistic Sensory Platform: Robotic Nurse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Wick

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept, structural design and implementation of components of a multifunctional sensory network, consisting of a Mobile Robotic Platform (MRP and stationary multifunctional sensors, which are wirelessly communicating with the MRP. Each section provides the review of the principles of operation and the network components’ practical implementation. The analysis is focused on the structure of the robotic platform, sensory network and electronics and on the methods of the environment monitoring and data processing algorithms that provide maximal reliability, flexibility and stable operability of the system. The main aim of this project is the development of the Robotic Nurse (RN—a 24/7 robotic helper for the hospital nurse personnel. To support long-lasting autonomic operation of the platform, all mechanical, electronic and photonic components were designed to provide minimal weight, size and power consumption, while still providing high operational efficiency, accuracy of measurements and adequateness of the sensor response. The stationary sensors serve as the remote “eyes, ears and noses” of the main MRP. After data acquisition, processing and analysing, the robot activates the mobile platform or specific sensors and cameras. The cross-use of data received from sensors of different types provides high reliability of the system. The key RN capabilities are simultaneous monitoring of physical conditions of a large number of patients and alarming in case of an emergency. The robotic platform Nav-2 exploits innovative principles of any-direction motion with omni-wheels, navigation and environment analysis. It includes an innovative mini-laser, the absorption spectrum analyser and a portable, extremely high signal-to-noise ratio spectrometer with two-dimensional detector array.

  8. Role of Sugar and Sugar Substitutes in Dental Caries: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Prahlad Gupta; Nidhi Gupta; Atish Prakash Pawar; Smita Shrishail Birajdar; Amanpreet Singh Natt; Harkanwal Preet Singh

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic disease which can affect us at any age. The term “caries” denotes both the disease process and its consequences, that is, the damage caused by the disease process. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology in which there is interplay of three principal factors: the host (saliva and teeth), the microflora (plaque), and the substrate (diet), and a fourth factor: time. The role of sugar (and other fermentable carbohydrates such as highly refined flour) as a risk fac...

  9. Value addition to lignocellulosics and biomass-derived sugars: An insight into solid acid-based catalytic methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prasenjit Bhaumik; A K Deepa; Tanushree Kane; Paresh Laxmikant Dhepe

    2014-03-01

    For the synthesis of important platform chemicals such as sugars (xylose and arabinose) and furans (furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)) from carbohydrates (hemicellulose and fructose) solid acid catalysts are employed. Similarly, over solid acid catalysts, conversion of lignin into aromatic monomers is performed. It is observed that in the dehydration of fructose, because of higher hydrothermal stability, silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) catalysts give better activity (78% HMF yield) compared with other solid acid catalysts (<63% HMF yield) at 175°C. Particularly, SAPO-44 catalyst can be reused at least 5 times with marginal decrease in the activity. Zeolite, HUSY (Si/Al = 15) is active in the conversion of isolated (pure) hemicellulose to produce 41% C5 sugars in water. The catalyst is also active in the selective conversion of hemicellulose from bagasse to yield 59% C5 sugars. It is possible to obtain high yields of furfural (54%) directly from bagasse if instead of water, water+toluene solvent system is used. Depolymerization of lignin using HUSY catalyst produced aromatic monomers with 60% yield at 250°C. A detailed catalyst characterization study is performed to understand the correlation between catalyst activity and morphology. To understand the effect of impurities present in the substrate over solid acid catalysts, metal-exchange study is carried out.

  10. Total, Added, and Free Sugars: Are Restrictive Guidelines Science-Based or Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Erickson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND. Utilizing the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR nutritional database, results found that plans created by the USDA and AND averaged 5.1% and 3.1% calories from added sugar, 8.7% and 3.1% from free sugar, and 23.3% and 21.1% as total sugars respectively. Compliance with proposed added sugar recommendations would require strict dietary compliance and may not be sustainable for many Americans. Without an accepted definition and equation for calculating added sugar, added sugar recommendations are arbitrary and may reduce intakes of nutrient-rich, recommended foods, such as yogurt, whole grains, and tart fruits including cranberries, cherries, and grapefruit. Added sugars are one part of excess calorie intake; however, compliance with low added sugar recommendations may not be achievable for the general public.

  11. Total, added, and free sugars: are restrictive guidelines science-based or achievable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-04-01

    Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND). Utilizing the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) nutritional database, results found that plans created by the USDA and AND averaged 5.1% and 3.1% calories from added sugar, 8.7% and 3.1% from free sugar, and 23.3% and 21.1% as total sugars respectively. Compliance with proposed added sugar recommendations would require strict dietary compliance and may not be sustainable for many Americans. Without an accepted definition and equation for calculating added sugar, added sugar recommendations are arbitrary and may reduce intakes of nutrient-rich, recommended foods, such as yogurt, whole grains, and tart fruits including cranberries, cherries, and grapefruit. Added sugars are one part of excess calorie intake; however, compliance with low added sugar recommendations may not be achievable for the general public.

  12. 1st AAU Workshop on Human-Centered Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 2012 AAU Workshop on Human-Centered Robotics took place on 15 Nov. 2012, at Aalborg University, Aalborg. The workshop provides a platform for robotics researchers, including professors, PhD and Master students to exchange their ideas and latest results. The objective is to foster closer inter......, social, serving robots and HRI, and innovative robot design, control and vision technologies as well.......The 2012 AAU Workshop on Human-Centered Robotics took place on 15 Nov. 2012, at Aalborg University, Aalborg. The workshop provides a platform for robotics researchers, including professors, PhD and Master students to exchange their ideas and latest results. The objective is to foster closer...... interaction among researchers from multiple relevant disciplines in the human-centered robotics, and consequently, to promote collaborations across departments of all faculties towards making our center a center of excellence in robotics. The workshop becomes a great success, with 13 presentations, attracting...

  13. Energy potential of sugar cane biomass in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rípoli Tomaz Caetano Cannavam

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a developing tropical country with abundant biomass resources. Sugar cane (Saccahrum spp. is primarily produced to obtain sugar and alcohol. Presently sugar cane is burned before harvest. If the cane were not burned before harvest, the trash (tops and leaves could be collected and burned to produce steam to generate electricity, or be converted into alcohol fuel and decrease the severe air pollution problems caused by sugar cane burning. Based upon logical assumptions and appropriate data, we estimate the number of people that could be served each year by this biomass if its energy was converted into electricity. From trash and bagasse, 7.0x10(6 and 5.5x10(6 people y-1 could be served, respectively.

  14. Enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Jensen, Mette; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    in standard gels. Protein reduced the hardness, stiffness and chewiness of the gels whereas there were some variation in the effect of protein on the adhesiveness of the gels. Sugar beet pectin in black currant juice formed a gel and a gelation also took place in milk. In luncheon meat a cohesive gel......Sugar beet pectin is a food ingredient with specific functional properties. It may form gels by an oxidative cross-linking of ferulic acid. In the present study, the gel forming properties of three oxidative enzymes were examined in different food relevant conditions. The enzymes chosen were two...... laccases and one peroxidase. The textural properties of the produced gels were measured on a texture analyser. The influence of sugar, salt and protein were analysed. Finally, the enzymatic gelation was studied in three food products with added sugar beet pectin. These were black currant juice, milk...

  15. Association Mapping of Main Tomato Fruit Sugars and Organic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiantao; Xu, Yao; Ding, Qin; Huang, Xinli; Zhang, Yating; Zou, Zhirong; Li, Mingjun; Cui, Lu; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of Solanum lycopersicum (123 accessions) and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions) to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) over 2 years using the mixed linear model (MLM). We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding. PMID:27617019

  16. Small angle scattering from protein/sugar conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew; White, John

    2006-11-01

    The Maillard reaction between free amine groups on proteins and sugars is well known. We have examined the effect of the reaction of the casein group of milk proteins with sugars on their nanoscale structure and aggregation. The small angle neutron scattering from beta casein and sodium caseinate and their sugar conjugates have been studied as a function of solution concentration. At high conjugate concentration (greater than ca. 5 mg/ml) the addition of sugar reduces supra-micellar aggregation of the protein whilst at lower concentration, where the protein is expected to be deaggregated already, little effect is seen. Guinier analysis of the scattering data show a radius of gyration of around 75 A˚ for beta casein in solution and around 80 A˚ for the sucrose conjugate.

  17. Small angle scattering from protein/sugar conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Andrew [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)]. E-mail: ajj@nist.gov; White, John [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2006-11-15

    The Maillard reaction between free amine groups on proteins and sugars is well known. We have examined the effect of the reaction of the casein group of milk proteins with sugars on their nanoscale structure and aggregation. The small angle neutron scattering from beta casein and sodium caseinate and their sugar conjugates have been studied as a function of solution concentration. At high conjugate concentration (greater than ca. 5mg/ml) the addition of sugar reduces supra-micellar aggregation of the protein whilst at lower concentration, where the protein is expected to be deaggregated already, little effect is seen. Guinier analysis of the scattering data show a radius of gyration of around 75A-bar for beta casein in solution and around 80A-bar for the sucrose conjugate.

  18. Sugar expressions on the vaginal epithelium in pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Youhei; Takeuchi, Takashi; Shimokawa, Tetsuya; Nabeta, Motowo; Matsuu, Aya; Asano, Atsushi; Ohta, Yasuhiko

    2012-06-01

    Sugar expressions were examined on the epithelium of both the middle portion of the vagina and the vaginal portion of the cervical canal (CC) in pregnant mice to understand the pathogenesis of bacterial infection in the female reproductive organ by using a panel of lectins. As a result, N-acetylglucosamine was positive before pregnant day (P) 7 but negative after P10 and at diestrus on both the vagina and the CC. In addition, some differences in sugar expressions were seen between them. These results suggest that sugar expressions on the mucosal surface would change not only site-specifically but also time-dependently, and these sugar differences indicate the possibility of the alteration of the settled bacterial species on the vaginal mucosa in pregnancy.

  19. Dicarbonyl compounds and sugar contents of Thai commercial beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monthana Weerawatanakorn

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Glyoxal (GO and methylglyoxal (MGO, two -dicarbonyl compounds (RCS found in humans, cause carbonyl stress following the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs. Both are linked to many chronic diseases. Foods, the extrinsic source, could cause the increase of RCS levels in physiological conditions. Previous data showed that high fructose corn syrup is the major source of RCS in beverages. Because of increasing consumption of syrup-sweetened beverages in Thailand, we aimed to find the GO, MGO, sugar contents, and their quantity relationship. We discovered that 70 different types of beverages contained extremely high levels of GO and MGO at maximum level of 333 and 1,208 μg/ml, respectively. All commercial syrup tested contained dicarbonyl contents, and statistics tests showed strong significant correlation between monosaccharide sugar and RCS. The total sugar contents of more than 20 tested was higher than the current daily recommendation for sugar intake to maintain health.

  20. Business Intelligence Competence Center (BICC) - Lessius Mechelen

    OpenAIRE

    Tubbax, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Business Intelligence Competence Center (BICC) stands for an organized structure, the pooling of knowledge and skills around Business Intelligence (management reporting). It is a platform for close cooperation with the business community, alumni, students and other organizations interested in BI and information management. * The collaboration between the university and the business world is an important part of the innovation process. New training programs are so created. * This a...

  1. Virtual health care center in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Thomas; Kldiashvili, Ekaterina

    2008-01-01

    Application of telemedicine systems to cover distant geographical areas has increased recently. However, the potential usefulness of similar systems for creation of national networks does not seem to be widely appreciated. The article describes the "Virtual Health Care Knowledge Center in Georgia" project. Its aim was the set up of an online integrated web-based platform to provide remote medical consultations and eLearning cycles. The project "Virtual Health Care Knowledge Center in Georgia" was the NATO Networking Infrastructure Grant dedicated for development of telemedicine in non-NATO countries. The project implemented a pilot to organize the creation of national eHealth network in Georgia and to promote the use of innovative telemedicine and eLearning services in the Georgian healthcare system. In June 2007 it was continued under the NATO Networking Infrastructure Grant "ePathology--Virtual Pathology Center in Georgia as the Continuation of Virtual Health Care Center". PMID:18673518

  2. Collaborative Platforms Aid Emergency Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Terra. Aqua. Cloudsat. Landsat. NASA runs and partners in many missions dedicated to monitoring the Earth, and the tools used in these missions continuously return data on everything from shifts in temperature to cloud formation to pollution levels over highways. The data are of great scientific value, but they also provide information that can play a critical role in decision making during times of crisis. Real-time developments in weather, wind, ocean currents, and numerous other conditions can have a significant impact on the way disasters, both natural and human-caused, unfold. "NASA has long recognized the need to make its data from real-time sources compatible and accessible for the purposes of decision making," says Michael Goodman, who was Disasters Program manager at NASA Headquarters from 2009-2012. "There are practical applications of NASA Earth science data, and we d like to accelerate the use of those applications." One of the main obstacles standing in the way of eminently practical data is the fact that the data from different missions are collected, formatted, and stored in different ways. Combining data sets in a way that makes them useful for decision makers has proven to be a difficult task. And while the need for a collaborative platform is widely recognized, very few have successfully made it work. Dave Jones, founder and CEO of StormCenter Communications Inc., which consults with decision makers to prepare for emergencies, says that "when I talk to public authorities, they say, If I had a nickel for every time someone told me they had a common operating platform, I d be rich. But one thing we ve seen over the years is that no one has been able to give end users the ability to ingest NASA data sets and merge them with their own."

  3. Fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsanipour, Mandana; Suko, Azra Vajzovic; Bura, Renata

    2016-06-01

    A systematic study of bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica (strain ATCC 39073) was conducted. Four different water-soluble fractions (hydrolysates) obtained after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were selected and fermented to acetic acid in batch fermentations. M. thermoacetica can effectively ferment xylose and glucose in hydrolysates from wheat straw, forest residues, switchgrass, and sugarcane straw to acetic acid. Xylose and glucose were completely utilized, with xylose being consumed first. M. thermoacetica consumed up to 62 % of arabinose, 49 % galactose and 66 % of mannose within 72 h of fermentation in the mixture of lignocellulosic sugars. The highest acetic acid yield was obtained from sugarcane straw hydrolysate, with 71 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (17 g/L acetic acid from 24 g/L total sugars). The lowest acetic acid yield was observed in forest residues hydrolysate, with 39 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (18 g/L acetic acid from 49 g/L total sugars). Process derived compounds from steam explosion pretreatment, including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.4 g/L), furfural (0.1 g/L) and total phenolics (3 g/L), did not inhibit microbial growth and acetic acid production yield. This research identified two major factors that adversely affected acetic acid yield in all hydrolysates, especially in forest residues: (i) glucose to xylose ratio and (ii) incomplete consumption of arabinose, galactose and mannose. For efficient bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid, it is imperative to have an appropriate balance of sugars in a hydrolysate. Hence, the choice of lignocellulosic biomass and steam pretreatment design are fundamental steps for the industrial application of this process. PMID:26992903

  4. Colorimetric Sugar Sensing Using Boronic Acid-Substituted Azobenzenes

    OpenAIRE

    Yuya Egawa; Ryotaro Miki; Toshinobu Seki

    2014-01-01

    In association with increasing diabetes prevalence, it is desirable to develop new glucose sensing systems with low cost, ease of use, high stability and good portability. Boronic acid is one of the potential candidates for a future alternative to enzyme-based glucose sensors. Boronic acid derivatives have been widely used for the sugar recognition motif, because boronic acids bind adjacent diols to form cyclic boronate esters. In order to develop colorimetric sugar sensors, boronic acid-conj...

  5. Conventional coefficient of elasticity for sugar beet roots

    OpenAIRE

    M. Brzowska-Bakalarz

    1998-01-01

    One of the more important mechanical characteristics of sugar beet roots is the conventional coefficient of elasticity. It is a modulus describing elasticity a basic parameter classifying quality of raw material that is strictly connected with the tissue turgor. A static experiment on compression was carried out using Instron testers on a range of sugar beet varieties grown with differentiated doses and types of nitrogen fertilizers, and tested in differentiated periods. The present studies w...

  6. Fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsanipour, Mandana; Suko, Azra Vajzovic; Bura, Renata

    2016-06-01

    A systematic study of bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica (strain ATCC 39073) was conducted. Four different water-soluble fractions (hydrolysates) obtained after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were selected and fermented to acetic acid in batch fermentations. M. thermoacetica can effectively ferment xylose and glucose in hydrolysates from wheat straw, forest residues, switchgrass, and sugarcane straw to acetic acid. Xylose and glucose were completely utilized, with xylose being consumed first. M. thermoacetica consumed up to 62 % of arabinose, 49 % galactose and 66 % of mannose within 72 h of fermentation in the mixture of lignocellulosic sugars. The highest acetic acid yield was obtained from sugarcane straw hydrolysate, with 71 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (17 g/L acetic acid from 24 g/L total sugars). The lowest acetic acid yield was observed in forest residues hydrolysate, with 39 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (18 g/L acetic acid from 49 g/L total sugars). Process derived compounds from steam explosion pretreatment, including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.4 g/L), furfural (0.1 g/L) and total phenolics (3 g/L), did not inhibit microbial growth and acetic acid production yield. This research identified two major factors that adversely affected acetic acid yield in all hydrolysates, especially in forest residues: (i) glucose to xylose ratio and (ii) incomplete consumption of arabinose, galactose and mannose. For efficient bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid, it is imperative to have an appropriate balance of sugars in a hydrolysate. Hence, the choice of lignocellulosic biomass and steam pretreatment design are fundamental steps for the industrial application of this process.

  7. Characterisation of a phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp composite

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, J.L.; A. T. N. Pires; S. M. A. G. Ulson de Souza; A.A.Ulson de Souza

    2004-01-01

    Polymeric materials are increasingly replacing metallic materials as a result of their properties. In this work a composite of phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp was developed. The sugar cane pulp has been previously alkalinised, dried, and milled and the particles had been classified in a range of grain sizes. Experimental assays were performed, varying the proportion of the resin and the reinforcement and the size of the cane pulp fibre, keeping the pressure and moulding temperature constan...

  8. Factors affecting Maillard induced gelation of protein-sugar systems

    OpenAIRE

    Azhar, Mat Easa

    1996-01-01

    Gelation due to the Maillard reaction took place when solutions containing a low level of bovine serum albumin were heated in the presence of carbonyl compounds. The Maillard reaction caused a change in colour, a decrease in the pH and induced gelation. These changes were dependent on the type and concentration of sugars or protein and on the heating conditions used. Reducing sugar and Maillard reaction products (e.g. glyoxal) affected these changes, yet their order of reactivity for browning...

  9. Everybody loves sugar: first report of plant feeding in triatomines

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Albiter, Hector M; Dillon, Viv M.; Dillon, Roderick James

    2016-01-01

    Background Triatomines, which are the vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, have been considered to be exclusive blood feeders for more than 100 years, since the discovery of Chagas disease. Methods We offered artificial sugar meals to the laboratory model-insect Rhodnius prolixus, which is considered a strict haematophagous insect. We registered feeding by adding colorant to sugar meals. To assess putative phytophagy, fruits of the tomato Solanum lycopersicum were offered to R. prolixus and the pres...

  10. Pyridylamination as a means of analyzing complex sugar chains

    OpenAIRE

    Hase, Sumihiro

    2010-01-01

    Herein, I describe pyridylamination for versatile analysis of sugar chains. The reducing ends of the sugar chains are tagged with 2-aminopyridine and the resultant chemically stable fluorescent derivatives are used for structural/functional analysis. Pyridylamination is an effective “operating system” for increasing sensitivity and simplifying the analytical procedures including mass spectrometry and NMR. Excellent separation of isomers is achieved by reversed-phase HPLC. However, separation ...

  11. Giant optical activity of sugar in thin soap films.

    OpenAIRE

    Emile, Janine; Emile, Olivier; Ghoufi, Aziz; Moréac, Alain; Casanova, Federico; Ding, Minxia; Houizot, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    We report on enhanced experimental optical activity measurements of thin soap films in the presence of sugar. This unusual optical activity is linked to the intramolecular chiral conformation of the glucose molecules at the air/liquid interface. Choosing sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as a model surfactant and glucose as model sugar, favorable interactions between the anionic group -OSO3(-)- and the glucose molecules are highlighted. This induces an interfacial anchoring of glucose molecules lea...

  12. Toxoplasmosis in a colony of sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Michelle

    2006-09-01

    Eleven of a group of 16 sugar gliders died acutely over a period of 2 to 3 weeks. Histopathologic examination revealed a protozoal infection with tachyzoites present in multiple organs, including the intestine, heart, brain, spleen, pancreas, adrenal gland, and kidney. Immunostaining confirmed disseminated toxoplasmosis. Marsupials are susceptible to toxoplasmosis. It was thought that the sugar gliders acquired the infection through foraging in wood chips used as a substrate that were contaminated with feline fecal material.

  13. Fundamental research enables process optimization in the sugar industry

    OpenAIRE

    Justé, Annelies; Lievens, Bart; Klingeberg, M; Michiels, Chris; Willems, Kris

    2010-01-01

    Storing sugar extracts as thick juice, a form of sucrose syrup, is common practice in the sugar industry. However, this thick juice storage commonly faces problems due to juice degradation. The precise cause for this problem was ill defined but believed to be of microbial origin. In this research, the microbial population dynamics during thick juice storage was described and we identified the causative degradation flora. Finally, optimal good storage practices were defined with the ultimate g...

  14. Association between sugar consumption, sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Zorada Hattingh; Bester, Catharina J.; Walsh, Corinna M

    2013-01-01

    Background: The increase in prevalence of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity and abnormal blood lipid levels has raised the question of a possible relationship between these conditions and the consumption of sugar.Objectives: This study investigated the sugar consumption of financially-restricted Black women in Mangaung, South Africa.Method: Five hundred women were selected randomly and divided into younger (25–34 years) and older (35–44 years) groups. Dietary intake, sociodemog...

  15. Potentialities of molasses from cane sugar crystallization in food formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Payet, Bertrand; Shum Cheong Sing, Alain; Smadja, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    Molasses are produced together with granulated sugar. Three kinds of molasses are obtained during fractional crystallization : A, B, C molasses issued respectively from the first, the second and the third step of crystallization. Several parameters as the sucrose inversion, the presence of aminoacids, of water, of mineral salts, the alkaline pH, the sugar process duration (3 days) and the high temperature (90°C) favour Maillard reactions. These reactions generate coloured macromolecules and h...

  16. Impacts of WTO restrictions on subsidized EU sugar exports

    OpenAIRE

    Poonyth, Daneswar; Westhoff, Patrick; Womack, Abner; Adams, Gary M.

    2000-01-01

    The study evaluates the impact of World Trade Organization (WTO) restrictions on the European Union (EU) sugar sector and the world sugar market. A small reduction in production quotas would be sufficient to satisfy the export subsidy limitations of the Uruguay Round agreement. Complete elimination of export subsidies by 2005 would require either a 10% reduction in production quotas or the combination of an 8% reduction in quotas and an 11% reduction in intervention prices. Higher world price...

  17. Corrosion of Modified Concrete with Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez-Jaquez, R. E.; J. E. Buelna-Rodríguez; C. P. Barrios-Durstewitz; Gaona-Tiburcio, C.; Almeraya-Calderón, F.

    2012-01-01

    Concrete is a porous material and the ingress of water, oxygen, and aggressive ions, such as chlorides, can cause the passive layer on reinforced steel to break down. Additives, such as fly ash, microsilica, rice husk ash, and cane sugar bagasse ash, have a size breakdown that allows the reduction of concrete pore size and, consequently, may reduce the corrosion process. The objective of this work is to determine the corrosion rate of steel in reinforced concrete by the addition of 20% sugar ...

  18. Hydrogenolysis of sugar beet fiber by supported metal catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Guha, Samar K.; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Hara, Kenji; Kikuchi, Hiroto; Aritsuka, Tsutomu; Fukuoka, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Sugar beet fiber is an agricultural by-product in the sugar manufacturing and an available biomass source with a rich hemicellulose component. So far, there has been no report on the catalytic conversion of the beet fiber for the synthesis of chemicals. In this work, the hydrogenolysis of the beet fiber was studied by using supported metal catalysts under pressurized hydrogen conditions. Activated carbon supported Ru was found to show the highest catalytic activity to give arabitol as a major...

  19. [Rapid determination of beet sugar content using near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Ren, Jian; Zheng, Xi-Qun; Zhao, Li-Ying; Li, Mao-Mao

    2014-10-01

    In order to classify and set different prices on basis of difference of beet sugar content in the acquisition process and promote the development of beet sugar industry healthily, a fast, nondestructive, accurate method to detect sugar content of beet was determined by applying near infrared spectroscopy technology. Eight hundred twenty samples from 28 representative varieties of beet were collected as calibration set and 70 samples were chosen as prediction set. Then near infrared spectra of calibration set samples were collected by scanning, effective information was extracted from NIR spectroscopy, and the original spectroscopy data was optimized by data preprocessing methods appropriately. Then partial least square(PLS)regression was used to establish beet sugar quantitative prediction mathematical model. The performances of the models were evaluated by the root mean square of cross-validation (RMSECV), the coefficient of determination (R2) of the calibration model and the standard error of prediction (SEP), and the predicted results of these models were compared. Results show that the established mathematical model by using first derivative (FD) and standard normal variate transformation (SNV) coupled with partial least squares has good predictive ability. The R2 of calibration models of sugar content of beet is 0.908 3, and the RMSECV is 0.376 7. Using this model to forecast the prediction set including 70 samples, the correlation coefficient is 0.921 4 between predicted values and measured values, and the standard error of prediction (SEP) is 0.439, without significant difference (p > 0.05) between predicted values and measured values. These results demonstrated that NIRS can take advantage of simple, rapid, nondestructive and environmental detection method and could be applied to predict beet sugar content. This model owned high accuracy and can meet the precision need of determination of beet sugar content. This detection method could be used to classify

  20. Inclusion complexation involving sugar-containing species: β-cyclodextrin and sugar surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface tension, proton NMR, and computer modeling studies were undertaken in nonionic alkylpolyglycoside (APG) solutions containing β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with a view to characterize the inclusion complexes formed and to determine if the sugar entities of the host and guest molecules played a significant role in the process. The APGs investigated were four glucopyranosides (octyl G8, decyl G10, dodecyl G12, tetradecyl G14) and two maltosides (decyl M10, dodecyl M12). Critical micelle concentrations (CMC) were obtained in the surfactant-β-CD systems, which in all cases increased with increasing β-CD concentration. The 1:1 APG-β-CD inclusion complex was principally formed with binding constants of 425 (mol L-1)-1 for the G12 complex, 340 (mol L-1)-1 for the G10 complex, and 125 (mol L-1)-1 for the M12 complex. The preferred configuration of the G-12-β-CD complex has the surfactant tail coiled in the CD cavity with the surfactant sugar moiety sealing off the narrower opening of the CD torus. (author)

  1. Call Center ist nicht gleich Call Center

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgartner, Marc; Udris, Ivars

    2005-01-01

    Untersuchungen in 14 Schweizer Call Centers erbrachten vier Call Center-Typen, die sich hinsichtlich Arbeitstätigkeiten und Kommunikationsrichtung voneinander unterscheiden: (a) Beratungs- und Beschwerdemanagement, (b) Informationsmanagement, (c) Auftragsmanagement und (d) Kunden- und Kampagnenmanagement. Dies hat auch Auswirkungen auf die Personalstruktur, -selektion und -entwicklung der Call Center. Es wird der Frage nachgegangen, welche Kompetenzanforderungen in den unterschiedlichen Call ...

  2. Mission Exploitation Platform PROBA-V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goor, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    VITO and partners developed an end-to-end solution to drastically improve the exploitation of the PROBA-V EO-data archive (http://proba-v.vgt.vito.be/), the past mission SPOT-VEGETATION and derived vegetation parameters by researchers, service providers and end-users. The analysis of time series of data (+1PB) is addressed, as well as the large scale on-demand processing of near real-time data. From November 2015 an operational Mission Exploitation Platform (MEP) PROBA-V, as an ESA pathfinder project, will be gradually deployed at the VITO data center with direct access to the complete data archive. Several applications will be released to the users, e.g. - A time series viewer, showing the evolution of PROBA-V bands and derived vegetation parameters for any area of interest. - Full-resolution viewing services for the complete data archive. - On-demand processing chains e.g. for the calculation of N-daily composites. - A Virtual Machine will be provided with access to the data archive and tools to work with this data, e.g. various toolboxes and support for R and Python. After an initial release in January 2016, a research platform will gradually be deployed allowing users to design, debug and test applications on the platform. From the MEP PROBA-V, access to Sentinel-2 and landsat data will be addressed as well, e.g. to support the Cal/Val activities of the users. Users can make use of powerful Web based tools and can self-manage virtual machines to perform their work on the infrastructure at VITO with access to the complete data archive. To realise this, private cloud technology (openStack) is used and a distributed processing environment is built based on Hadoop. The Hadoop ecosystem offers a lot of technologies (Spark, Yarn, Accumulo, etc.) which we integrate with several open-source components. The impact of this MEP on the user community will be high and will completely change the way of working with the data and hence open the large time series to a larger

  3. The Physiological Mechanism of Postphloem Sugar Transport in Citrus Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jun-wei; ZHANG Shang-long; ZHANG Liang-cheng; Ruan Yong-ling; XIE Ming; TAO Jun

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of translocation and partitioning of 14C-phothsynthates, the concentration of sucrose in fruit tissues and the effects of the membrane carrier- and ATPase-specific inhibitors on 14C-sucrose uptake by juice sacs of the satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Miyagawa wase) fruit were examined at the stage of fruit enlargement and fruit full ripe. Kinetic data of 14C-photosynthate translocation indicated that the rate of photosynthate transport into juice sacs decreased with fruit maturation and sugar accumulation. Along the photosynthate translocation path, i.e. from vascular bundles to segment epidermis then to juice sacs, a descending sugar gradient was observed. With fruit maturation and sugar accumulation in juice sacs, the 14C photosynthate gradient increased, whereas the static sucrose concentration gradient decreased with fruit maturation and sugar accumulation. The higher gradient of specific 14C radioactivity was considered to favor diffusion and sugar transport into juice sacs at the later stage of fruit development. The rate of uptake 14C-sucrose by juice sacs of satsuma mandarin fruit was markedly reduced by PCMBS, EB, DNP and NO-3 treatment. The above results suggested the participation of a carrier-mediated, energy-dependent sugar active transport process in juice sacs of satsuma mandarin fruit.

  4. Seasonal hydroclimatic impacts of Brazilian sugar cane expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Mahalov, A.

    2012-12-01

    Brazil is the leading producer of sugar cane in the world with roughly half used for ethanol production. Because of suitable climatic growing conditions, the majority of biofuel production is derived from sugar plantations in southeastern states. Anticipated increases in global demand for biofuels are expected to lead to future sugar cane expansion extending into Brazilian pasturelands and native cerrado. Prior to undergoing large-scale expansion an evaluation of impacts on the region's hydroclimate is warranted. Using a suite of multi-year ensemble-based simulations with the WRF modeling system, we quantify hydroclimatic consequences of sugar cane expansion across portions of south-central Brazil. Conversion from current land use to sugar cane causes opposing seasonal impacts on near-surface temperature. Proggresively greater cooling is simulated during the course of the growing season, followed by an abrupt warming shift post-harvest. Although seasonal impacts on near-surface temperature are significant, with cooling of 1C occurring during the peak of the growing season followed by warming of similar magnitude, impacts are small when annually averaged. Ensemble mean differences between the imposed sugar cane expansion and non-expansion scenario are suggestive of a drying precipitation trend, yet large uncertainty among individual members precludes definitive statements about impacts on the region's rainfall.

  5. Investigation of the Insecticide Seed Dressing on the Sugar Beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Igrc Barčić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of three year trials with various sugar beet seed treatments on the most important sugar beet pests, wireworms, flea beetles, sugar beet weevil and aphids are presented. The task of the investigation was to establish whether or not the sugar beet seed should be treated with insecticides and when granulars should be applied. In threeyear investigations 6 trials on different localities were carried out. Gaucho 70WS, Montur 190 FS, Geocid ST 35, Carbofuran 500 FS and a combination of Geocid ST 35 and Geocid G-5 were applied. The results showed that the imidacloprid seed treatment was satisfactory efficient on wireworms ensuring 20-42% more plants than on untreated plots. The efficacy of all treatments on the flea beetles was sufficient: Gaucho 70 WS 63-70%, the combined carbofuran treatment 65-67%, Geocid ST 35 54-55% and Montur 190 FS 52-55%. Therefore on imidacloprid and carbofuran treated crops the foliar treatment against flea beetles is mostly unnecassary. Insecticides based on imidacloprid showed a very good efficacy on aphids until 64 days after the sowing time with a somewhat longer residual action than the standard carbofuran treatments. All investigated insecticides were not satisfactorily efficient against sugar beet weevil. The seed dressing with a systemic insecticide is a justified measure. But, if the attack of wirevorms is strong or if a positive sugar beet weevil forecast is present, granulars shoud be applied additionaly.

  6. Comparison of Resource Platform Selection Approaches for Scientific Workflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmhan, Yogesh; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya

    2010-03-05

    Cloud computing is increasingly considered as an additional computational resource platform for scientific workflows. The cloud offers opportunity to scale-out applications from desktops and local cluster resources. At the same time, it can eliminate the challenges of restricted software environments and queue delays in shared high performance computing environments. Choosing from these diverse resource platforms for a workflow execution poses a challenge for many scientists. Scientists are often faced with deciding resource platform selection trade-offs with limited information on the actual workflows. While many workflow planning methods have explored task scheduling onto different resources, these methods often require fine-scale characterization of the workflow that is onerous for a scientist. In this position paper, we describe our early exploratory work into using blackbox characteristics to do a cost-benefit analysis across of using cloud platforms. We use only very limited high-level information on the workflow length, width, and data sizes. The length and width are indicative of the workflow duration and parallelism. The data size characterizes the IO requirements. We compare the effectiveness of this approach to other resource selection models using two exemplar scientific workflows scheduled on desktops, local clusters, HPC centers, and clouds. Early results suggest that the blackbox model often makes the same resource selections as a more fine-grained whitebox model. We believe the simplicity of the blackbox model can help inform a scientist on the applicability of cloud computing resources even before porting an existing workflow.

  7. Modified sugar beet pectin induces apoptosis of colon cancer cells via an interaction with the neutral sugar side-chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Ellen G; Colquhoun, Ian J; Chau, Hoa K; Hotchkiss, Arland T; Waldron, Keith W; Morris, Victor J; Belshaw, Nigel J

    2016-01-20

    Pectins extracted from a variety of sources and modified with heat and/or pH have previously been shown to exhibit activity towards several cancer cell lines. However, the structural basis for the anti-cancer activity of modified pectin requires clarification. Sugar beet and citrus pectin extracts have been compared. Pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp only weakly affected the viability of colon cancer cells. Alkali treatment increased the anti-cancer effect of sugar beet pectin via an induction of apoptosis. Alkali treatment decreased the degree of esterification (DE) and increased the ratio of rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI) to homogalacturonan. Low DE per se did not play a significant role in the anti-cancer activity. However, the enzymatic removal of galactose and, to a lesser extent, arabinose from the pectin decreased the effect on cancer cells indicating that the neutral sugar-containing RGI regions are important for pectin bioactivity.

  8. Parametric modelling of nonstationary platform deck motions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.

    -sense-stationary processes. Then the time series are modelled by the maximum entropy method which is formulated here for spectral estimation of platform deck displacements. The lower order maximum entropy spectra of nonstationary platform deck displacements are compared...

  9. Front-end conceptual platform modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Ravn, Poul Martin; Mortensen, Niels Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    Platform thinking has been the subject of investigation and deployment in many projects in both academia and industry. Most contributions involve the restructuring of product programs, and only a few support front-end development of a new platform in parallel with technology development....... This contribution deals with the development of product platforms in front-end projects and introduces a modeling tool: the Conceptual Product Platform model. State of the art within platform modeling forms the base of a modeling formalism for a Conceptual Product Platform model. The modeling formalism is explored...... through an example and applied in a case in which the Conceptual Product Platform model has supported the front-end development of a platform for an electro-active polymer technology. The case describes the contents of the model and how its application supported the development work in the project...

  10. Software development on the SAP HANA platform

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Software Development on the SAP HANA Platform is a general tutorial guide to SAP HANA.This book is written for beginners to the SAP HANA platform. No knowledge of SAP HANA is necessary to start using this book.

  11. Stratifying the Develoment of Product Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer

    2013-01-01

    The prior research on product platforms has added to our knowledge from a strategic, technological, and organizational point of view. However, the existing literature, while exploring the platform concept, considers the actual development of platforms from a rather general perspective although...... companies develop platforms for different aims, purposes, and product scopes. Following on from this, the requirements for platform development resources, the ways of organizing platform development, and the implications for management styles have not been explored and are presumably varying. To start...... with the aim of creating a foundation, the platform, for the subsequent development of derivative products. The analysis of the development of platform in different strategic situations and with different purposes demonstrates how combinations of changes in components and/or architecture represent a key...

  12. Product Platform Development in Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer; Skold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the strategic issues involved in the deployment of product platform development in an industrial network. The move entails identifying the types and characteristics of generically different product platform strategies and clarifying strategic motives and differences. Number...

  13. Hierarchical DSE for multi-ASIP platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micconi, Laura; Corvino, Rosilde; Gangadharan, Deepak;

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes a hierarchical Design Space Exploration (DSE) for the design of multi-processor platforms targeted to specific applications with strict timing and area constraints. In particular, it considers platforms integrating multiple Application Specific Instruction Set Processors (ASIPs...

  14. A Platform for Spreadsheet Composition

    CERN Document Server

    Baglietto, Pierpaolo; Mangiante, Simone; Maresca, Massimo; Parodi, Andrea; Stecca, Michele

    2011-01-01

    A huge amount of data is everyday managed in large organizations in many critical business sectors with the support of spreadsheet applications. The process of elaborating spreadsheet data is often performed in a distributed, collaborative way, where many actors enter data belonging to their local business domain to contribute to a global business view. The manual fusion of such data may lead to errors in copy-paste operations, loss of alignment and coherency due to multiple spreadsheet copies in circulation, as well as loss of data due to broken cross-spreadsheet links. In this paper we describe a methodology, based on a Spreadsheet Composition Platform, which greatly reduces these risks. The proposed platform seamlessly integrates the distributed spreadsheet elaboration, supports the commonly known spreadsheet tools for data processing and helps organizations to adopt a more controlled and secure environment for data fusion.

  15. Climate News Across Media Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2015-01-01

    In a changing media landscape marked by technological, institutional and cultural convergence, comparative and cross-media content analysis represents a valuable analytical tool in mapping the diverse channels of climate change communication. This paper presents a comparative study of climate...... change news on five different media platforms: newspapers, television, radio, web-news and mobile news. It investigates the themes and actors represented in public climate change communication as well as the diverse possibilities of participating in public debates and information sharing. By combining...... quantitative and qualitative content analysis the paper documents and explores the extent and character of climate change news across different media platforms. The study aims at contributing to the on-going assessment of how news media are addressing climate change at a time when old and new media...

  16. DATABASE REPLICATION IN HETEROGENOUS PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Nindito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of diverse database technologies in enterprises today is increasingly a common practice. To provide high availability and survavibality of real-time information, a database replication technology that has capability to replicate databases under heterogenous platforms is required. The purpose of this research is to find the technology with such capability. In this research, the data source is stored in MSSQL database server running on Windows. The data will be replicated to MySQL running on Linux as the destination. The method applied in this research is prototyping in which the processes of development and testing can be done interactively and repeatedly. The key result of this research is that the replication technology applied, which is called Oracle GoldenGate, can successfully manage to do its task in replicating data in real-time and heterogeneous platforms.

  17. YARP: Yet Another Robot Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Natale

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe YARP, Yet Another Robot Platform, an open-source project that encapsulates lessons from our experience in building humanoid robots. The goal of YARP is to minimize the effort devoted to infrastructure-level software development by facilitating code reuse, modularity and so maximize research-level development and collaboration. Humanoid robotics is a "bleeding edge" field of research, with constant flux in sensors, actuators, and processors. Code reuse and maintenance is therefore a significant challenge. We describe the main problems we faced and the solutions we adopted. In short, the main features of YARP include support for inter-process communication, image processing as well as a class hierarchy to ease code reuse across different hardware platforms. YARP is currently used and tested on Windows, Linux and QNX6 which are common operating systems used in robotics.

  18. 76 FR 61074 - USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar AGENCY... increase in the fiscal year (FY) 2011 refined sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) of 136,078 metric tons raw... MTRV for sugars, syrups, and molasses (collectively referred to as refined sugar) described...

  19. 7 CFR 1435.504 - Timing of distribution of CCC-owned sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Timing of distribution of CCC-owned sugar. 1435.504... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Processor Sugar Payment-In-Kind (PIK) Program § 1435.504 Timing of distribution of CCC-owned sugar. Distribution of...

  20. Environmentally Benign Synthesis of Sugar Orthoesters Promoted by Anhydrous Sodium Acetate and Ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晋忠; 魏善巧; 岳爱琴; 邵华武

    2012-01-01

    A convenient and alternative procedure for the synthesis of sugar orthoesters from glycosyl bromides with an- hydrous sodium acetate as base under ultrasound irradiation is described. Various sugar and sugar-sugar orthoesters were prepared in 70%-91% isolated yields.