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Sample records for center sofia bulgaria

  1. Presentations at TENCompetence Workshop in Sofia, Bulgaria. March 30th-31st, 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Several

    2006-01-01

    Several (2006). Presentations at International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development. March, 30-31, 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence Conference. The full proceedings can be downloaded at: http://hdl.handle.net/1820/836.

  2. Bulgaria: INIS Center - 45 years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgaria is one of 35 countries in the world operating nuclear power plants. Bulgaria's nuclear program was launched in 1956 with the construction of an IRT-2000 research reactor at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), which was commissioned in 1961. The reactor is now under reconstruction. In 1960, construction of the first Bulgarian nuclear power plant started. At the moment, there are 6 power units at the Kozloduy NPP site; 4 of them (VVER-440/B-230) under decommissioning and 2 (VVER-1000/B-320) in operation. Several storage facilities for radioactive waste, mainly from the Kozloduy NPP and from various sources of ionizing radiation in medicine and industry are also in operation. The Kozloduy NPP, INRNE, Sofia University, the Technical University, and the State Enterprise Radioactive Waste are the main generators of nuclear information in Bulgaria and the main consumers of INIS products. The Bulgarian INIS Center, therefore, maintains continuous and effective cooperation with these Institutions

  3. An Examination of Teacher's Pedagogical Philosophical Beliefs of Secondary Science Teachers in Sofia Public Schools, Sofia, Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    E. Boiadjieva; A. Tafrova-Grigorova; J.E. Hollenbeck; M. Kirova

    2009-01-01

    This investigation sought understand of the pedagogical philosophies of Bulgarian secondary science teachers in public schools in Sofia, Bulgaria, using the instrument that derived information for this study was an interview protocol consisting of six open-ended questions, with a numerical scoring analysis: the Teachers Pedagogical Philosophy Interview (TPPI). A review of literature shows there is no research on the pedagogical philosophical basis of teacher’s beliefs on teaching or on the ef...

  4. Seasonal variations of schizophrenic patients in emergency departments in Sofia, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zornitsa Spasova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to reveal the seasonal distribution of emergency department visits of schizophrenic patients in Sofia, Bulgaria. Methods: We collected daily data for visits of patients with schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders in the emergency center of the regional dispenser for mental disorders in the city of Sofia for the period 1998-2003. The total number of emergency visits was 5723 (mean daily visits: 5.04±2.4. T-test was used to compare the monthly and seasonal distribution of visits. Results: The season with the highest levels of emergency visits was summer, and the lowest levels were observed in winter (P<0.0001. Spring and autumn had intermediate values close to the mean value, and significantly differentiated from winter values. The month with the highest admission rates was September, followed by May and the three summer’s months. The lowest levels were observed in December, October and January, with statistically significant differences observed between the values of all the three months. Differences between July values compared with December and October values were significant, but not with January values. Conclusion: The study showed significant seasonal and monthly differences in emergency schizophrenics’ visits. The data confirm the outcome of similar studies conducted in countries with temperate climate in the Northern Hemisphere. These results could prove useful for psychiatrists, public health specialists, and governmental authorities dealing with team planning and prevention programs in the field of psychiatry.

  5. Seismic hazard assessment for the Sofia area

    OpenAIRE

    Christoskov, L.; Simeonova, S.; D. Solakov

    2001-01-01

    The capital of Bulgaria, Sofia, is situated in the center of the so-called Sofia area. This is the most populated industrial and cultural region of Bulgaria that faces considerable earthquake risk. We apply a version of machine code EQRISK for hazard assessment of the Sofia area according to the Cornell-McGuire approach. The probabilistic seismic hazard analysis is based on a simplified seismogenic model, which is derived from seismic zoning of Bulgaria. We show, using a Monte Carlo approach,...

  6. Upgrading of the INT-2000 reactor in sofia (Bulgaria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the design features and experimental capabilities of the IRT-5000 pool-type research reactor (upgrading of the IRT-2000 reactor in Sofia) are reviewed; in this reactor, IRT-2M-type fuel assemblies containing 36% enriched uranium are used instead of cassettes with EhK-10 fuel elements. The main characteristics of the IRT-2M fuel assemblies are given, as are the technical and physical characteristics of the IRT-5000 reactor. Use of the IRT-2M-type fuel assemblies in the IRT-5000 will make possible operation of the reactor with a core volume of 60-83 litres at 7.5 MW, and will raise the maximum thermal neutron flux density to 1.5 X 1018 m-2 · s-1. The design features employed will significantly improve the operational safety of the reactor

  7. Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Convention on Nuclear Safety, Bulgaria should ensure that sufficient numbers of qualified staff with appropriate education, training and retraining are available for all safety related activities in or for each nuclear installation, throughout its lifetime. The development of the nuclear sector is closely related to the education and training of a sufficient number of skilled and qualified specialists in the following directions: - Fundamental and application nuclear science; - Nuclear energetic; - Nuclear I and C industry and microelectronics; - Civil engineering; - Nuclear safety and emergency planning; - Ecology and radioactive waste management; - Economical aspects of nuclear technology; - Security of nuclear installations and non-proliferation. The development and maintenance of a state of the art system for education and training of nuclear installations personnel is crucial for the safety and the reliable and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. The major task of the government, academic community and nuclear industry sector is to preserve existing nuclear expertise and to implement a successive approach to set up a three level qualified personnel - undergraduate education, graduate and post-graduate education and specialized training. Education in Nuclear Science at university level in Bulgaria exists since 1939, when E. Karamihailova began to teach a course on Experimental Atomic Physics and Radioactivity at the University of Sofia. A few years later (1945) she founded the Department of Atomic Physics. Later, in 1962 K. Kostadinov gave the first lectures in radiochemistry as an optional course at the Faculty of Chemistry. Specialized education at the MSc level started in 1972: in nuclear engineering at the Faculty of Physics and in radiochemistry at the Faculty of Chemistry, both at the University of Sofia. Nowadays, there are three departments at the University of Sofia, which, along with the Technical University of Sofia, form

  8. University for Mining and Geology - Sofia, extended history and tradition in the area of mining in Bulgaria; Universitaet fuer Bergbau und Geologie - Sofia, lange Geschichte und Tradition im Bergbauwesen in Bulgarien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladkova, Blagovesta; Kriltchev, Alexander; Vlaseva, Elena [Universitaet fuer Bergbau und Geologie, Sofia (Bulgaria). Lehrstuhl ' Bergbaulueftung und Arbeitssicherheit'

    2009-12-15

    Since 1953, the University for Mining and Geology Sofia (Bulgaria) exists as an independent institute of education. It is the only university in the range of the mining in Bulgaria. Engineering graduates are trained in geosciences, in the mining and in mining -electromechanical subjects. Until today, more than 15,000 Bulgarian and foreign students were trained.

  9. Partial dismantling activities prior to the refurbishment of the IRT research reactor in Sofia, Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2001 the Bulgarian Government took a decision for refurbishment and conversion of the research reactor in Sofia in low power reactor. By reason of this decision it has been performed a partial dismantling of the IRT-Sofia old systems and equipment, with an intention to re-use the concrete bio shield for the new low power research reactor. For most efficient use of resources there was a need for implementation of the engineering project, 'Plan for partial dismantling of equipment of the IRT-Sofia as a part of the refurbishment into low power research reactor' which has been already accomplished. (author)

  10. Seismic hazard assessment for the Sofia area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Christoskov

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The capital of Bulgaria, Sofia, is situated in the center of the so-called Sofia area. This is the most populated industrial and cultural region of Bulgaria that faces considerable earthquake risk. We apply a version of machine code EQRISK for hazard assessment of the Sofia area according to the Cornell-McGuire approach. The probabilistic seismic hazard analysis is based on a simplified seismogenic model, which is derived from seismic zoning of Bulgaria. We show, using a Monte Carlo approach, that uncertainties in seismic input have a relatively small effect on the PSHA output, especially when compared with uncertainties associated with the attenuation relationship. Our PSHA map shows that a 10–3 annual probability of the PGA exceeds 0.3 g in much of the Sofia area

  11. Yield of PV-generated energy by small scale PV system at a site of Sofia, Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 36W PV module has been installed on the building of Solar Energy Lab in Sofia. The purpose of this demonstration is to determine practically the amount of energy can be produced for a fixed period of time and to assess the opportunity for solar power application in small utility systems in Bulgaria. This paper reports the results of testing a module over spring and summer time when solar insolation reaches its maximum. The data measured include operation weather variables, DC and thermal performance of a module. These data were analyzed to calculate average PV-generated energy for a sunny day and for a whole month (April 1995). Empirical thermal dissipation coefficient for the developed module assembly is also extracted from the data. (author). 1 ref., 4 figs

  12. Fresh and spent nuclear fuel repatriation from the IRT-2000 research reactor facility, Sofia, Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IRT-2000 research reactor, operated by the Bulgarian Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped all of their Russian-origin nuclear fuel from the Republic of Bulgaria to the Russian Federation beginning in 2003 and completing in 2008. These fresh and spent fuel shipments removed all highly enriched uranium (HEU) from Bulgaria. The fresh fuel was shipped by air in December 2003 using trucks and a commercial cargo aircraft. One combined spent fuel shipment of HEU and low enriched uranium (LEU) was completed in July 2008 using high capacity VPVR/M casks transported by truck, barge, and rail. The HEU shipments were assisted by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) and the LEU spent fuel shipment was funded by Bulgaria. This report describes the work, approvals, organizations, equipment, and agreements required to complete these shipments and concludes with several major lessons learned. (author)

  13. Fresh and Spent Nuclear Fuel Repatriation from the IRT-2000 Research Reactor Facility, Sofia, Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IRT 2000 research reactor, operated by the Bulgarian Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped all of their Russian-origin nuclear fuel from the Republic of Bulgaria to the Russian Federation beginning in 2003 and completing in 2008. These fresh and spent fuel shipments removed all highly enriched uranium (HEU) from Bulgaria. The fresh fuel was shipped by air in December 2003 using trucks and a commercial cargo aircraft. One combined spent fuel shipment of HEU and low enriched uranium (LEU) was completed in July 2008 using high capacity VPVR/M casks transported by truck, barge, and rail. The HEU shipments were assisted by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) and the LEU spent fuel shipment was funded by Bulgaria. This report describes the work, approvals, organizations, equipment, and agreements required to complete these shipments and concludes with several major lessons learned

  14. Fresh and Spent Nuclear Fuel Repatriation from the IRT-2000 Research Reactor Facility, Sofia, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. J. Allen; T. G. Apostolov; I. S. Dimitrov

    2009-03-01

    The IRT 2000 research reactor, operated by the Bulgarian Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped all of their Russian-origin nuclear fuel from the Republic of Bulgaria to the Russian Federation beginning in 2003 and completing in 2008. These fresh and spent fuel shipments removed all highly enriched uranium (HEU) from Bulgaria. The fresh fuel was shipped by air in December 2003 using trucks and a commercial cargo aircraft. One combined spent fuel shipment of HEU and low enriched uranium (LEU) was completed in July 2008 using high capacity VPVR/M casks transported by truck, barge, and rail. The HEU shipments were assisted by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) and the LEU spent fuel shipment was funded by Bulgaria. This report describes the work, approvals, organizations, equipment, and agreements required to complete these shipments and concludes with several major lessons learned.

  15. Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides information on the status of institutional and financial arrangements in Bulgaria for the long term management of HLW and SNF, It includes the following elements: A consistent set of requirements for the technical and legal infrastructure including: funding, liability, institutional control, records management, and research activities; An organizational structure with clearly defined responsibilities; and Provisions for participation by interested parties in decisions and outcomes

  16. Overview of the SOFIA Data Processing System: A generalized system for manual and automatic data processing at the SOFIA Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuping, Ralph; Krzaczek, Robert; Vacca, William D.; Charcos-Llorens, Miguel; Reach, William T.; Alles, Rosemary; Clarke, Melanie; Melchiorri, Riccardo; Radomski, James T.; Shenoy, Sachindev S.; Sandel, David; Omelian, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne astronomical observatory comprised of a 2.5-meter telescope mounted in the aft section of a Boeing 747SP aircraft. SOFIA is designed to execute observations at altitudes between 37,000 and 45,00 feet, above 99% of atmospheric water vapor. During routine operations, several instruments will be available to the astronomical community including cameras and spectrographs in the near- to far-IR. Raw data obtained in-flight require a significant amount of processing to correct for background emission (from both the telescope and atmosphere), remove instrumental artifacts, correct for atmospheric absorption, and apply both wavelength and flux calibration. In general, this processing is highly specific to the instrument and telescope. Once this post-processing is complete, the data can be used in scientific analysis and publications. In order to maximize the scientific output of the observatory, the SOFIA Science Center must provide these post-processed data sets to Guest Investigators in a timely manner. To meet this requirement, we have designed and built the SOFIA Data Processing System (DPS): an in-house set of tools and services that can be used in both automatic ("pipeline") and manual modes to process data from a variety of instruments. In this poster paper, we present an overview of the DPS concepts and architecture, as well as operational results from the first two SOFIA observing cycles (2013--2014).

  17. Overview of the SOFIA Data Processing System: A generalized system for manual and automatic data processing at the SOFIA Science Center

    CERN Document Server

    Shuping, R Y; Vacca, W D; Charcos-Llorens, M; Reach, W T; Alles, R; Clarke, M; Melchiorri, R; Radomski, J; Shenoy, S; Sandel, D; Omelian, E B

    2014-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne astronomical observatory comprised of a 2.5-meter telescope mounted in the aft section of a Boeing 747SP aircraft. During routine operations, several instruments will be available to the astronomical community including cameras and spectrographs in the near- to far-IR. Raw data obtained in-flight require a significant amount of processing to correct for background emission (from both the telescope and atmosphere), remove instrumental artifacts, correct for atmospheric absorption, and apply both wavelength and flux calibration. In general, this processing is highly specific to the instrument and telescope. In order to maximize the scientific output of the observatory, the SOFIA Science Center must provide these post-processed data sets to Guest Investigators in a timely manner. To meet this requirement, we have designed and built the SOFIA Data Processing System (DPS): an in-house set of tools and services that can be used in both auto...

  18. Country watch: Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, R I

    1995-01-01

    Eros and Psyche is a club for adolescents based in a youth center in Sofia, Bulgaria. Eros, the ancient Greek god of love, and Psyche, representing the human soul, symbolize the club's activities relating to the psychological and aesthetic aspects of sexuality. The club was started in December 1988 to provide sex education to out-of-school youth, the first attempt to move away from restrictive, medical approaches. Members include pupils, students, workers and even parents. The club meets twice a week for two hours, with specialists from different fields addressing the group, videos, readings and other activities that stimulate discussion. Anyone is free to come and go. Twice a year the club holds training sessions in psychosocial skills that aim to promote self-reflection and help people interact more openly with one another. Each individual is helped to find a personal route to understanding his or her own sexuality. Other clubs have been formed on the Sofia model. To help them organize, the Sofia club has prepared a leaders' manual and is developing a one-week course for club leaders. PMID:12346874

  19. Chemical Education in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkov, Vladimir N.

    1999-08-01

    The sociopolitical changes in Eastern Europe of the 1990s and the ongoing globalization of the chemical industry and chemical education prompted this analysis of the current status of chemical education in Bulgaria, which is not very different from the educational practices in the rest of Europe. The level of chemistry knowledge expected from all high-school graduates in Bulgaria is roughly equivalent to the general and organic chemistry courses for science majors at U.S. universities. The newly introduced four-year bachelor's degree curriculum (based on 15-week semesters) at the University of Sofia includes a core of 106 semester hours (labs counted as 1 hour each), 41 semester hours of electives, and 445 contact hours (11 weeks) of research, which ends with a thesis defense. The instructional techniques in Bulgaria are subject-centered and follow the hierarchical structure of knowledge in an integrated and unitary manner. In conclusion, the Bulgarian system of education in chemistry aims at preparing a scientifically literate citizenry and broadly trained chemists by imposing a very challenging and rigid curriculum with very few choices. It is speculated that the laissez-faire climate of free intellectual initiative seen only at American universities provides a more appropriate environment for talent encouragement and scientific innovation for overseas-educated undergraduate and graduate students than their home institutions.

  20. Activities of the Sofia EC Energy Center in the framework of the THERMIE programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Community Energy Center in Sofia is responsible for the EC implementation of the THERMIE programme. The programme's activities are promotion and dissemination of existing European technologies leading to better energy management and covering the fields of rational use of hydrocarbons, solid fuels and renewable energy sources. Application of these technologies would lead to substantial energy savings resulting in significant financial and environmental benefits. During its one-year operation the EC Energy Centre has organized and performed specific action as energy audits (food and beverage industrial units and buildings), demonstration projects (local heating control in buildings, diesel engine regulation of buses), training courses and seminars (in energy management and in space heating measuring and regulation), workshops (energy conservation in buildings, the bricks and clays sector and the food and beverage sector) and studies (wind energy potential, 'clean' coal technologies potential). Some of these actions have had very encouraging results showing potential energy savings of the order of 10-20% just by application of simple measures and with small additional investment. The activities of the EC Energy Centre in the coming year aimed at electricity savings along the entire line of electricity generation, transmission and consumption are outlined. (author)

  1. SOFIA/FORCAST Observations of the Arched Filamentary Region in the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Matthew; Lau, Ryan M.; Morris, Mark; Herter, Terry L.

    2016-06-01

    Abstract: We present 19.7, 25.2, 31.5, and 37.1 μm maps of the Thermal Arched Filament region in the Galactic Center taken with the Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) with an angular resolution of 3.2-3.8". We calculate the integrated infrared luminosity of the Arched Filaments and show that they are consistent with being heated by the nearby Arches cluster. Additionally, using our observations, we infer dust temperatures (75 – 90 K) across the Arched Filaments which are remarkably consistent over large spatial scales (∼ 25 pc). We discuss the possible geometric effects needed to recreate this temperature structure. Additionally, we compare the observed morphology of the Arches in the FORCAST maps with the Paschen-α emission in the region to study what fraction of the infrared emission may be coming from dust in the HII region versus the PDR beneath it. Finally, we use Spitzer/IRAC 8 μm data to look for spatial variations in PAH abundance in the rich UV environment of the young (~2-4 Myr) and massive Arches cluster.

  2. Revealing the Galactic Center in the Far-Infrared with SOFIA/FORCAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ryan M.; Herter, Terry; Morris, Mark; Li, Zhiyuan; Becklin, Eric; Adams, Joseph; Hankins, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    We present a summary of far-infrared imaging observations of the inner 40 pc of the Galactic center addressing the dense, dusty torus around Sgr A*, massive star formation, and dust production around massive stars and in the Sgr A East supernova remnant. Observations of warm dust emission were performed using the Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST). The Circumnuclear Ring (CNR) surrounding and heated by central cluster in the vicinity of Sgr A* shows no internal active star formation but does exhibit significant density “clumps,” a surprising result because tidal shearing should act quickly to smear out structure. G-0.02-0.07, a complex consisting of three compact HII regions and one ultracompact HII region, is site of the most recent confirmed star formation within ~10 pc of the Galactic center. Our observations reveal the dust morphologies and SEDs of the regions to constrain the composition and gas-to-dust mass ratios of the emitting dust and identify heating sources candidates from archival near-IR images. FORCAST observations Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) located in and near the Quintuplet Cluster reveal the asymmetric, compressed shell of hot dust surrounding the Pistol Star and provide the first detection of the thermal emission from the symmetric, hot dust envelope surrounding G0.120-0.048. These two LBV’s have nebulae with similar quantities of dust (~0.02 M⊙) but exhibit contrasting appearances due to the external influence of their different environments. Finally, the far-infrared observations indicate the presence of ~0.02 M⊙ of warm (~100 K) dust in the hot interior of the ~10,000 yr-old SgrA East supernova remnant indicating the dust has survived the passage of the reverse shock. The results suggest that supernovae may indeed be the dominant dust production mechanism in the dense environment of early Universe galaxies.

  3. Seismic safety review mission for the follow-up of the seismic upgrading of Kozloduy NPP (Units 1-4). Sofia, Bulgaria, 16-20 November 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Seismic Safety Review Mission for the follow-up of the design and implementation of the seismic upgrading of Kozloduy NPP was performed in Sofia from 16-20 November 1992. This mission continued the second task of the follow-up activities of the design and implementation of the seismic upgrading (Phases 1 and 2), which is being carried out in Units 1 and 2 of the NPP. Thus the objectives of the mission was to assist the Bulgarian authorities in the technical evaluation of the design tasks defined for Phases 1 and 2 item HB of WANO 6 Month Programme, as follows: anchorage upgrades of low seismic capacity components; list of seismic safety related systems and components; detailed walkdown to assess seismic capacity of components and define priorities for the upgrading; determination of seismic structural capacity of pump house, diesel generator building and turbine building and design of required upgrades; liquefaction potential evaluation. Tabs

  4. Radiation monitoring program at nuclear scientific experimental and educational center - IRT-Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensuring minimal risk of personnel exposure without exceeding the dose limits is the main task of the General Program for Radiation Monitoring of Nuclear Scientific Experimental and Education Centre (NSEEC) with research reactor IRT. Since 2006 the IRT-Sofia is equipped with a new and modern Radiation Monitoring System (RMS). All RMS detectors are connected to the server RAMSYS. They have online (real-time) visualization in two workstations with RAMVISION software. The RMS allows the implementation of technological and environmental monitoring at the nuclear facility site. Environmental monitoring with the RMS external system includes monitoring of dose rate; alpha and beta activity; radon activity; Po-218, Po-214, Po-212 activity; gamma control of vehicles. Technological control of reactor gases includes: Alpha beta particulate monitor; Iodine monitor; Noble gases monitor; Stack flow monitor. The General Program based on the radiation monitoring system allows real-time monitoring and control of radiation parameters in the controlled area and provides for a high level of radiation protection of IRT staff and users of its facilities. This paper presents the technical and functional parameters of the radiation monitoring system and radiation protection activities within the restricted zone in IRT facilities. (authors)

  5. SOFIA's Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors: An External Evaluation of Cycle 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) represents a partnership between NASA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The observatory itself is a Boeing 747 SP that has been modified to serve as the world's largest airborne research observatory. The SOFIA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) program is a component of SOFIA's…

  6. Observatory Improvements for SOFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Robert A.; Jensen, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint project between NASA and Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), the German Space Agency. SOFIA is based in a Boeing 747 SP and flown in the stratosphere to observe infrared wavelengths unobservable from the ground. In 2007 Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) inherited and began work on improving the plane and its telescope. The improvements continue today with upgrading the plane and improving the telescope. The Observatory Verification and Validation (V&V) process is to ensure that the observatory is where the program says it is. The Telescope Status Display (TSD) will provide any information from the on board network to monitors that will display the requested information. In order to assess risks to the program, one must work through the various threats associate with that risk. Once all the risks are closed the program can work towards improving the observatory.

  7. CERN exhibition a big hit in Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The first CERN exhibition in Bulgaria attracted many visitors. In the first ever CERN exhibition to be held in Bulgaria, over 1,400 visitors, many of them students and young physicists, visited the 10-day event in Sofia. The CERN mini-exhibition took place at the National Earth and Mankind Museum between 8 and 17 November. Permanently staffed by young physicists from Sofia University, there were exhibits on display about research activities at CERN, as well as four additional posters describing Bulgaria's participation. The inauguration took place on the morning of 8 November in the presence of the Vice-Minister for Science and Education, Mrs. Vanya Dobreva, and some 200 guests. A series of short speeches were followed by a visit to the exhibition. CERN's representative at the event, Ray Lewis, was then asked by Professor Matey Mateev, President of the Union of Physicists in Bulgaria, to say a few words on behalf of the Organization. Numerous journalists were also present at the inauguration. A painting enti...

  8. SOFIA Program SE and I Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ronald J.; Fobel, Laura J.; Brignola, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Once a "Troubled Project" threatened with cancellation, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Program has overcome many difficult challenges and recently achieved its first light images. To achieve success, SOFIA had to overcome significant deficiencies in fundamental Systems Engineering identified during a major Program restructuring. This presentation will summarize the lessons learn in Systems Engineering on the SOFIA Program. After the Program was reformulated, an initial assessment of Systems Engineering established the scope of the problem and helped to set a list of priorities that needed to be work. A revised Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) was written to address the new Program structure and requirements established in the approved NPR7123.1A. An important result of the "Technical Planning" effort was the decision by the Program and Technical Leadership team to re-phasing the lifecycle into increments. The reformed SOFIA Program Office had to quickly develop and establish several new System Engineering core processes including; Requirements Management, Risk Management, Configuration Management and Data Management. Implementing these processes had to consider the physical and cultural diversity of the SOFIA Program team which includes two Projects spanning two NASA Centers, a major German partnership, and sub-contractors located across the United States and Europe. The SOFIA Program experience represents a creative approach to doing "System Engineering in the middle" while a Program is well established. Many challenges were identified and overcome. The SOFIA example demonstrates it is never too late to benefit from fixing deficiencies in the System Engineering processes.

  9. First Stellar Occultation Observation with SOFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Edward W.; Bida, T.; Bosh, A.; Collins, P.; Levine, S.; Person, M.; Pfueller, E.; Roeser, H.; Taylor, B.; Wiedemann, M.; Wolf, J.; Zuluaga, C.

    2012-01-01

    We successfully observed the 2011 June 23 UT stellar occultation by Pluto with the High-speed Imaging Photometer for Occultations (HIPO) instrument from Lowell Observatory and the Fast Diagnostic Camera (FDC) from the Deutches SOFIA Institut (DSI) mounted on the SOFIA telescope. A major prediction astrometry effort focused at MIT combined with the willingness of the SOFIA project to entertain the idea of an in-flight change to the flight plan allowed us to target the center of the occultation shadow. This was accomplished by means of an in-flight prediction update by satellite telephone and a real-time onboard flight plan modification to accommodate the prediction update. We obtained excellent results with both channels of HIPO and the FDC with each light curve showing a small, extended brightening while the star was occulted. We will discuss analysis results as well as SOFIA's considerable potential for future occultation work. We thank the SOFIA program for its willingness to attempt this challenging observation at such an early stage of SOFIA science operations. Lowell's SOFIA work was supported by a grant from USRA, MIT's prediction work was supported by the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program and the National Science Foundation, and the FDC work was supported by the DSI. We thank the US Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station for allowing us to use their facilities to obtain our prediction astrometry observations.

  10. The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (sofia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrz, R. D.; Becklin, E. E.

    2011-06-01

    The joint U.S. and German Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a 2.5- meter infrared airborne telescope in a Boeing 747-SP that began science flights in 2010. Flying in the stratosphere at altitudes as high as 45,000 feet, SOFIA can conduct photometric, spectroscopic, and imaging observations at wavelengths from 0.3 microns to 1.6 millimeters with an average transmission of greater than 80 percent. SOFIA is staged out of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center aircraft operations facility at Palmdale, CA and the SOFIA Science Mission Operations Center (SSMOC) is located at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA. SOFIA's first-generation instrument complement includes high speed photometers, broadband imagers, moderate resolution spectrographs capable of resolving broad features due to dust and large molecules, and high resolution spectrometers suitable for kinematic studies of molecular and atomic gas lines at km/s resolution. About 100 eight to ten hour flights per year are expected by 2014, and the observatory will operate until the mid 2030's. We will review the status of the SOFIA facility, its initial complement of science instruments, and the opportunities for advanced instrumentation.

  11. Economics - Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Mitko

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlines the overall picture of the state of economic science in Bulgaria in the early 21st century, achieved as a result of changes in it since 1989. The analysis is carried out in five main areas - redefining the discipline, basic theoretical and methodological orientations, thematic orientation and funding, public space and academic debates and views on further development. The situation before 1989 is briefly presented, in order to understand more clearly the problems and proce...

  12. Public Information in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power program started in Bulgaria by the construction of Kozloduy NPP where the units 1 to 4 (WWER 440/B-230 reactors) were commissioned in 1974, 1975, 1980 and 1982. Units 5 and 6 (WWER 1000/B-320) were put in operation in 1988 and 1993, respectively. Kozloduy NPP share in the total electricity generation in Bulgaria is ∼ 45%. The following main principles of the information policy are discussed: - The public should be openly, clearly and consistently informed about all issues impacting its safety and prosperity; - The nuclear program is one of the basic elements supporting the country economics and the necessary component of the solid energy industry. As objectives, this activity has the goals to accumulate the capital of public trust towards Kozloduy NPP as a safe, reliable and environment friendly source of energy and to gain public support to further development of the nuclear power industry in Bulgaria. As strategies and tactics one acts towards: creation of transparent information medium of the plant work; creation of a favourable public image of the plant; proactive approach to key opinion makers; enhancement of the public nuclear culture; provision of constant flow of reliable information on the status of the plant, safety and environment; systematic approach to the public relation (PR) programs; implementation of good practices and cooperation with PR services. The Kozloduy NPP Information Center and PR activities are then presented. The talk ends with a review of the media image of nuclear industry in Bulgaria. It results that the Nuclear Energy is attacked rather by the politicians than by the experts (35% vs 26%) and is defended rather by the experts than by politicians (48% vs 25%). Also, one finds that 54% of the publications are neutral, 30% are optimistic while 16% are catastrophic

  13. Queen Sofia Shawl

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    4. mail 2009 saabusid Eestisse riigivisiidile Hispaania kuningas Juan Carlos I ja kuninganna Sofia. Presidendi kantselei tellis kuningannale kingituseks Haapsalu salli. Juuresoleval fotol president Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja proua Evelin Ilves kingitust üle andmas

  14. The SOFIA Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Krabbe, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The SOFIA telescope as the heart of the observatory is a major technological challenge. I present an overview on the astro-nomical and scientific requirements for such a big airborne observatory and demonstrate the impact of these requirements on the layout of SOFIA, in particular on the telescope design as it is now. Selected components of the telescope will be de-scribed in their context and functionality. The current status of the telescope is presented.

  15. SOFIA Project: SOFIA-Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ting

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the SOFIA project is shown. The topics include: 1) Aircraft Information; 2) Major Components of SOFIA; 3) Aircraft External View; 4) Airborne Observatory Layout; 5) Telescope Assembly; 6) Uncoated Primary Mirror; 7) Airborne Astronomy; 8) Requirements & Specifications; 9) Technical Challenges; 10) Observatory Operation; and 11) SOFIA Flight Test.

  16. SOFIA: Flying the Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Troy A.; Cumming, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    The primary focus of this paper is how the flight test team for the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) re-cast an extensive developmental test program to meet key milestones while simultaneously ensuring safe certification of the airframe and delivery of an operationally relevant platform, ultimately saving the overall program from financial demise. Following a brief introduction to the observatory and what it is designed to do, SOFIAs planned developmental test program is summarized, including analysis and design philosophy, envelope expansion, model validation and airframe certification. How NASA used lessons learned from other aircraft that employed open cavities in flight is explained as well as how and why the chosen design was selected. The approach to aerodynamic analysis, including bare airframe testing, wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics and finite element modeling proved absolutely critical. Despite a solid analytical foundation, many unknowns remained. History provides several examples of disastrous effects on both systems and flight safety if cavity design is not approached properly. For these reasons, an extensive test plan was developed to ensure a safe and thorough build-up for envelope expansion, airframe certification and early science missions. Unfortunately, as is often the case, because of chronic delays in overall program execution, severe schedule and funding pressures were present. If critical milestones were not met, domestic as well as international funding was in serious jeopardy, and the demise of the entire program loomed large. Concentrating on rigorous model validation, the test team challenged certification requirements, increased test efficiency and streamlined engineering analysis. This resulted in the safe reduction of test point count by 72%, meeting all program milestones and a platform that soundly satisfied all operational science requirements. Results from early science missions are shown

  17. How RES started in Bulgaria-Professor Velislav Ivanov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrinova, Annie [Bulgarian Solar Energy Society, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2008-07-01

    The contemporary RES achievements started with Prof Velislav Ivanov in Bulgaria. Here are traced his reach creative and scientific (nearly 60 years) work in its different aspects. From the very beginning (1933) most of his projects and realizations are innovatory - not only as engineer, but as scientist, pedagogue, organizer, promoter, inventor - step by step as to Head of Department of ''Technical thermodynamics and Heat Technique'' in Technical University in Sofia, then chair of scientific Laboratory and after 1977 year - head of RES corporation. As author of 6 manuals, different calculation methods, founder of departments and corporation he also sequenced the world most important RES trends and achievements with then educational systems and industry in Bulgaria. His followers are among the Bulgarian RES professionals today. His influence on the contemporary RES/EE situation in Bulgaria is enormous and stable. (orig.)

  18. Analyses of the IRT, Sofia intital LEU core performance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, J.; Hanan, N.; Apolstolov, T.; Belousov, S.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Bulgarian Academy Science

    2006-01-01

    The initial LEU (IRT-4M fuel assemblies, 19.75% {sup 235}U) core of the new IRT-Sofia research reactor of the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) of the Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia, Bulgaria is jointly analyzed with the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to evaluate its performance and other important characteristics for safety analyses. The initial configuration using 16 fuel assemblies (four 8-tube and twelve 6-tube fuel assemblies) detailed power distributions and beam tubes flux performance for two critical core states corresponding to different control rods positioning, and different performance characteristics are compared. Results of calculations for two configurations at the beginning of the second operation cycle using 17 fuel assemblies (sixteen burned fuel assemblies (FA) and one fresh 6-tube FA) are presented. The results provide important and useful information for safety analyses and performance of the future reactor operation.

  19. SOFIA: Flying the Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Troy; Cumming, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an international cooperative development and operations program between the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the German Space Agency, DLR (Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft-und Raumfahrt). SOFIA is a 2.5 meter, optical/infrared/sub-millimeter telescope mounted in a Boeing model 747SP-21 aircraft and will be used for many basic astronomical observations performed at stratospheric altitudes. It will accommodate installation of different focal plane instruments with in-flight accessibility provided by investigators selected from the international science community. The Facility operational lifetime is planned to be greater than 20 years. This presentation will present the results of developmental testing of SOFIA, including analysis, envelope expansion and the first operational mission. It will describe a brief history of open cavities in flight, how NASA designed and tested SOFIAs cavity, as well as flight test results. It will focus on how the test team achieved key milestones by systematically and efficiently reducing the number of test points to only those absolutely necessary to achieve mission requirements, thereby meeting all requirements and saving the potential loss of program funding. Finally, it will showcase examples of the observatory in action and the first operational mission of the observatory, illustrating the usefulness of the system to the international scientific community. Lessons learned on how to whittle a mountain of test points into a manageable sum will be presented at the conclusion.

  20. Reconstruction of the Sofia (Bulgaria) IRT-2000 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history and structure of the original reactor are described, followed by a description of the new solution based on SKODA JS's design. The article focusses on the design of the reactor and spent fuel storage pool that have been developed and delivered by SKODA JS. (orig.)

  1. Early Science with SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Young, E T; Marcum, P M; Roellig, T L; De Buizer, J M; Herter, T L; Güsten, R; Dunham, E W; Temi, P; Andersson, B -G; Backman, D; Burgdorf, M; Caroff, L J; Casey, S C; Davidson, J A; Erickson, E F; Gehrz, R D; Harper, D A; Harvey, P M; Helton, L A; Horner, S D; Howard, C D; Klein, R; Krabbe, A; McLean, I S; Meyer, A W; Miles, J W; Morris, M R; Reach, W T; Rho, J; Richter, M J; Roeser, H -P; Sandell, G; Sankrit, R; Savage, M L; Smith, E C; Shuping, R Y; Vacca, W D; Vaillancourt, J E; Wolf, J; Zinnecker, H; 10.1088/2041-8205/749/2/L17

    2012-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne observatory consisting of a specially modified Boeing 747SP with a 2.7-m telescope, flying at altitudes as high as 13.7 km (45,000 ft). Designed to observe at wavelengths from 0.3 micron to 1.6 mm, SOFIA operates above 99.8 % of the water vapor that obscures much of the infrared and submillimeter. SOFIA has seven science instruments under development, including an occultation photometer, near-, mid-, and far-infrared cameras, infrared spectrometers, and heterodyne receivers. SOFIA, a joint project between NASA and the German Aerospace Center DLR, began initial science flights in 2010 December, and has conducted 30 science flights in the subsequent year. During this early science period three instruments have flown: the mid-infrared camera FORCAST, the heterodyne spectrometer GREAT, and the occultation photometer HIPO. This article provides an overview of the observatory and its early performance.

  2. Reliability and sustainability analysis of large panel residential buildings in Sofia, Skopje and Novi Sad

    OpenAIRE

    Folić Radomir; Laban Mirjana; Milanko Verica

    2011-01-01

    Large panel residential buildings, dating from second half of 20 Century, are to be found in almost every urban settlement across Europe. Within the context of three case studies of urban blocks in Bulgaria (Mladost - Sofia), Macedonia (Karpos III - Skopje) and Serbia (Detelinara - Novi Sad), comparative analysis and evaluation of technical and structural characteristics according to reliability (seismic resistance and fire safety) and sustainability (energy efficiency, internal air quality, ...

  3. Bulgaria : Poverty Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    The sharp reduction in poverty in Bulgaria since the 1997 crisis highlights the role of effective economic stabilization policies and the social safety nets in improving the living conditions of the population. The nature of poverty in Bulgaria has changed since 1997, when poverty for many households was a transient phenomenon resulting from the immediate shock of hyperinflation and sharpl...

  4. First report of Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis, 1909 (Hemiptera: Aphididae from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tasheva-Terzieva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopterus nephrelepidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae is reported for the first time in Bulgaria on ornamental ferns in four greenhouses in Sofia and Varna. Dense colonies of apterous viviparous females and larvae were observed. The established host plants are Nephrolepis exaltata, Asplenium nidus and Pteris cretica. Infested ferns exhibit leaf deformation. The aphids were reared in laboratory conditions for four months. A morphometric study of apterae was carried out. Taking into account the presence of host plants of I. nephrelepidis in Bulgaria which are native to the local flora and the reports of the aphid from the Balkan area, it may spread in the country outdoors.

  5. Rabbit production in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova Ivona; Dimitrov Tz.; Teneva A.; Tzvetkova H.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to present the situation of rabbit production in Bulgaria. As a whole the rabbit production in Bulgaria is in extensive stage. To change it as intensive or semi intensive it need to improve selection and feeding systems, to concentrate the farm, and to build new more modern farms with control systems of microclimatic parameters and which covered veterinarian requirements.

  6. Market Report : The electrical power markets in Romania and Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romania and Bulgaria want to attract foreign investment for the rehabilitation of their electric power sectors to meet the requirements for membership to the European Union. In 2000, world exports of power equipment to both countries reached $857 million, an increase of 23 per cent from 1999. This report describes the potential for Canadian exports of electric power equipment and services to work in Romania and Bulgaria. In Romania, the electric power market is expected to growth by almost 20 per cent to $550 million by the end of 2001. The major current investment is in the completion of the second unit of the Cernavoda nuclear power plant, the completion of unfinished hydroelectric power plants, and the rehabilitation of the country's power transmission and distribution system. In Bulgaria, the market is also expected to grow as the infrastructure for the thermal and hydroelectric power plant is upgraded. Bulgaria is also launching a nuclear energy program which includes modernizing older units and the construction of one new plant to increase generation capacity. Opportunities for Canadian companies will lie in the areas of cogeneration equipment, modernizing coal-fired power plants, boilers and turbines. Other opportunities lie in the areas of hydroelectric and nuclear power plants, including their control devices, voltage breakers, and equipment related to power distribution and transmission. It is recommended that Canadian companies work in cooperation with the Canadian Embassy in Bucharest and the Canadian Consulate General in Sofia. refs., tabs

  7. Sofia entre mujeres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Serrano, Yolanda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sofia Coppola ha tenido que luchar para lograr un reconocimiento propio como guionista y directora. Con tan sólo tres largometrajes en su haber, ha demostrado al público y a la crítica que su talento es independiente de su apellido. El aislamiento, la juventud, los hijos o el erotismo son temas coincidentes en las tres películas, donde la mujer brilla por encima de todo. Sus protagonistas nos hablan de las preocupaciones inherentes a su edad: qué hacer con el futuro, lo difícil que es amar, las primeras relaciones, el sexo, las relaciones materno-filiales, el miedo. En una palabra: la vida. Y de todo ello nos habla con personalidad propia y un punto de vista original, lo más difícil de encontrar en esta profesión.

  8. A detailed study of the Pernik (Bulgaria) seismic sequence of 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykova, Plamena; Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Dimitrova, Liliya

    2014-05-01

    A detailed study of the Pernik (Bulgaria) seismic sequence of 2012 D.Solakov, S.Simeonova ,I. Georgiev, P.Raykova, L.Dimitrova and V.Protopopova National Institute of Geophysics, Geodesy and Geography-BAS, Sofia, Bulgaria The spatial and temporal clustering of aftershocks is the dominant non-random element of seismicity, so that when aftershocks are removed, the remaining activity can be modelled (as first approximation) as a Poisson process. The properties of aftershock sequences (distinct cluster, for example; even aftershocks can have aftershocks) allow time-dependent prediction of aftershock probabilities. Consideration of recent earthquake sequences suggests that aftershocks to large earthquakes although they are still, by definition, smaller events, can be very damaging and should be addressed in emergence planning scenarios. Because of the factors such as location and radiation pattern and the cumulative nature of building damage, aftershocks can cause more damage than the main shock. An earthquake of moment magnitude 5.6 hit Sofia seismic zone, on May 22nd, 2012. The earthquake occurred in the vicinity of Pernik city, at about 25 km south west of the city of Sofia (the capital of Bulgaria). The event was followed by intensive activity. The active area is situated in the central part of western Bulgaria. That is the most populated (more than 1.2 mil. inhabitants), industrial and cultural region of Bulgaria. Seismicity in the zone is related to the marginal neotectonic faults of Sofia graben. The boundaries of the graben are represented by SE-NW fault system with expressive neotectonic activity. This zone is characterized by shallow earthquakes. The strongest known event in the region is the 1858 quake with intensity I0=9-10 MSK. The 1858 earthquake caused heavy destruction in the city of Sofia and the appearance of thermal spring. It is worth mentioning that the seismic sequence of May 2912 occurred in an area characterized by a long quiescence (of 95 years

  9. ENERDATA energetic line: Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here is a brief description of the energy situation in Bulgaria: in first is given who is responsible of energy policy and then the energy resources and supplies are detailed; the situation of nuclear power is noticed and then the consumption is reviewed with which sector is consumer and how much does it consumes. 2 figs., 1 tab

  10. Status of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    CERN Document Server

    Gehrz, R D; de Buizer, J; Herter, T; Keller, L D; Krabbe, A; Marcum, P M; Roellig, T L; Sandell, G H L; Temi, P; Vacca, W D; Young, E T; Zinnecker, H

    2011-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), a joint U.S./German project, is a 2.5-meter infrared airborne telescope carried by a Boeing 747-SP that flies in the stratosphere at altitudes as high as 45,000 feet (13.72 km). This facility is capable of observing from 0.3 {\\mu}m to 1.6 mm with an average transmission greater than 80 percent. SOFIA will be staged out of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center aircraft operations facility at Palmdale, CA. The SOFIA Science Mission Operations (SMO) will be located at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA. First science flights began in 2010 and a full operations schedule of up to one hundred 8 to 10 hour flights per year will be reached by 2014. The observatory is expected to operate until the mid 2030's. SOFIAs initial complement of seven focal plane instruments includes broadband imagers, moderate-resolution spectrographs that will resolve broad features due to dust and large molecules, and high-resolution spectrometers capable of studying ...

  11. LIDAR detection of forest fire smoke above Sofia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Ivan; Deleva, Atanaska; Stoyanov, Dimitar; Kolev, Nikolay; Kolarov, Georgi

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of aerosol load in the atmosphere due to two forest fires near Sofia (the capital city of Bulgaria) was studied using two aerosol lidars which operated at 510.6 nm and 1064 nm. Experimental data is presented as 2D-heatmaps of the evolution of attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles and mean profile of the aerosol backscatter coefficient, calculated for each lidar observation. Backscatter related Angstrom exponent was used as a criterion in particle size estimation of detected smoke layers. Calculated minimal values at altitudes where the aerosol layer was observed corresponded to predominant fraction of coarse aerosol. Dust-transport forecast maps and calculations of backward trajectories were employed to make conclusions about aerosol's origin. They confirmed the local transport of smoke aerosol over the city and lidar station. DREAM forecast maps predicted neither cloud cover, nor Saharan load in the air above Sofia on the days of measurements. The results of lidar observations are discussed in conjunction with meteorological situation, aiming to better explain the reason for the observed aerosol stratification. The data of regular radio sounding of the atmosphere showed a characteristic behavior with small differences of the values between the air temperature and dew-point temperature profiles at aerosol smoke layer altitude. So the resulting stratification revealed the existence of atmospheric layers with aerosol trapping properties.

  12. EARLY SCIENCE WITH SOFIA, THE STRATOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY FOR INFRARED ASTRONOMY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, E. T.; Becklin, E. E.; De Buizer, J. M.; Andersson, B.-G.; Casey, S. C.; Helton, L. A. [SOFIA Science Center, Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Marcum, P. M.; Roellig, T. L.; Temi, P. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Herter, T. L. [Astronomy Department, 202 Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Guesten, R. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, Bonn (Germany); Dunham, E. W. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Rd., Flagstaff AZ 86001 (United States); Backman, D.; Burgdorf, M. [SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 211-1, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Caroff, L. J.; Erickson, E. F. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Davidson, J. A. [School of Physics, The University of Western Australia (M013), 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia); Gehrz, R. D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S. E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Harper, D. A. [Yerkes Observatory, University of Chicago, 373 W. Geneva St., Williams Bay, WI (United States); Harvey, P. M. [Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); and others

    2012-04-20

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne observatory consisting of a specially modified Boeing 747SP with a 2.7 m telescope, flying at altitudes as high as 13.7 km (45,000 ft). Designed to observe at wavelengths from 0.3 {mu}m to 1.6 mm, SOFIA operates above 99.8% of the water vapor that obscures much of the infrared and submillimeter. SOFIA has seven science instruments under development, including an occultation photometer, near-, mid-, and far-infrared cameras, infrared spectrometers, and heterodyne receivers. SOFIA, a joint project between NASA and the German Aerospace Center Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft und-Raumfahrt, began initial science flights in 2010 December, and has conducted 30 science flights in the subsequent year. During this early science period three instruments have flown: the mid-infrared camera FORCAST, the heterodyne spectrometer GREAT, and the occultation photometer HIPO. This Letter provides an overview of the observatory and its early performance.

  13. EARLY SCIENCE WITH SOFIA, THE STRATOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY FOR INFRARED ASTRONOMY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne observatory consisting of a specially modified Boeing 747SP with a 2.7 m telescope, flying at altitudes as high as 13.7 km (45,000 ft). Designed to observe at wavelengths from 0.3 μm to 1.6 mm, SOFIA operates above 99.8% of the water vapor that obscures much of the infrared and submillimeter. SOFIA has seven science instruments under development, including an occultation photometer, near-, mid-, and far-infrared cameras, infrared spectrometers, and heterodyne receivers. SOFIA, a joint project between NASA and the German Aerospace Center Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und-Raumfahrt, began initial science flights in 2010 December, and has conducted 30 science flights in the subsequent year. During this early science period three instruments have flown: the mid-infrared camera FORCAST, the heterodyne spectrometer GREAT, and the occultation photometer HIPO. This Letter provides an overview of the observatory and its early performance.

  14. Reliability and sustainability analysis of large panel residential buildings in Sofia, Skopje and Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folić Radomir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Large panel residential buildings, dating from second half of 20 Century, are to be found in almost every urban settlement across Europe. Within the context of three case studies of urban blocks in Bulgaria (Mladost - Sofia, Macedonia (Karpos III - Skopje and Serbia (Detelinara - Novi Sad, comparative analysis and evaluation of technical and structural characteristics according to reliability (seismic resistance and fire safety and sustainability (energy efficiency, internal air quality, accessibility criteria has been conducted. Additionally, previous experiences from individual renewal projects are reviewed. Previous experiences and comparative analysis results, could contribute to formulation of wider applicable solutions and development of new urban renewal strategies.

  15. Pharmacy in medieval Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, J

    2007-06-01

    A survey of the state of pharmacy in medieval Bulgaria is done, analyzing written records of various origin and content. Written documents are reviewed separately in chronological order. They all seem to lend support to the conclusion that realism is a characteristic feature of pharmacy in medieval Bulgaria. Mysticism and superstition are relatively rarely resorted to, precedence is given to real treatment with suitable and not so suitable medical plants, minerals and animal products. Relatively weak is the impact of West-European medicine and pharmacy because of the different influence of the Eastern and the Western Orthodox religion, and partly because of the territorial remoteness. During the High Middle Ages Bulgarian pharmacy developed under the influence of Hellenic ancient culture. Later, after the 15 century, the influence of the Arabian culture and medicine is also felt as a result of the complex compilation between the Bulgarian and Ottoman culture during the 500-year Turkish yoke. PMID:17663197

  16. Restructuring in SMEs: Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Krastenova, Elena; PAVLOV, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Based on information derived from 85 case studies across all EU Member States and other sources, the project outlines the features peculiar to SMEs in their anticipation and management of restructuring, explores the main drivers of change and analyses the factors influencing successful restructuring. It offers some insight into how restructuring impacts on workers and the company itself and sets out several policy pointers for future action. This is the country report for Bulgaria.

  17. Budgeting in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Hawkesworth; Richard Emery; Joachim Wehner; Kristin Saenger

    2009-01-01

    Bulgaria’s budget management has seen a series of structural and procedural reforms, including in budget execution, treasury functions, internal audit, and programme and medium-term budgeting. This article discusses the use of modern budgeting techniques in Bulgaria such as top-down budgeting, multi-year budgeting perspectives and the use of performance information in the budget process, and makes recommendations for budget formulation, the role of Parliament, budget execution and management ...

  18. Regulatory framework in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basis of current nuclear safety legislation in Bulgaria was established in 1985 when a new Law on the Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes was issued by National Assembly Decree. The content of the law and the main amendments from 1995 are briefly described. Regulations in the field of radiation protection, developed by the Committee on the Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes (CUAEPP) and other Ministries, are also presented

  19. Thysanoptera of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olia Karadjova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present checklist includes data on the species composition, geographic distribution and feeding preferences of thrips species in Bulgaria. In total, 155 species in 48 genera are listed. Of these, 125 species belong to suborder Terebrantia and include 103 species of 33 genera in family Thripidae, 14 species of two genera in Aeolothripidae, seven species of two genera in Melanthripidae and one species in Fauriellidae. In suborder Tubulifera, 30 species of 10 genera in the single family Phlaeothripidae are listed. Of the 155 Bulgarian thrips species, 87.7% are phytophagous, 4.5% are obligate predators, 5.8% are mycophagous and 1.9% are with unknown feeding preferences. Fourteen pest species are listed for Bulgaria, of which Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips tabaci and Haplothrips tritici are of economic importance. The list provides detailed information on the horizontal and vertical distribution of Thysanoptera in 5 regions and 45 subregions of Bulgaria. The present paper also includes an evaluation of the biodiversity of Thysanoptera and the extent to which each region of the country has been studied.

  20. NASA SOFIA International Year of Light (IYL) Event: Infrared Light: Hanging out in the Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Coral; Backman, Dana E.; Harman, Pamela; Veronico, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    As an International Year of Light committee endorsed event, Infrared Light: Hanging out in the Stratosphere will engage learners around the world, linking participants with scientists at work on board NASA SOFIA, the world's largest flying observatory. This major event will showcase science-in-action, interviews, live data, and observations performed both aboard the aircraft and at partner centers on land.SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy) is an 80% - 20% partnership of NASA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) consisting of an extensively modified Boeing 747SP aircraft carrying a reflecting telescope with an effective diameter of 2.5 meters. SOFIA is a program in NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Astrophysics Division. Science investigators leverage SOFIA's unique capabilities to study the universe at infrared wavelengths by making observations that are impossible for even the largest and highest ground-based telescopes. SOFIA received Full Operating Capacity status in May, 2014, and astrophysicists will continue to utilize the observatory and upgraded instruments to study astronomical objects and phenomena, including star birth and death; planetary system formation; identification of complex molecules in space; planets, comets, and asteroids in our solar system; and nebulae and dust in galaxies.This landmark event will reflect and build on the ProjectLink. In October 1995, SOFIA's predecessor, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), performed the first satellite links from an airplane to the ground. The KAO downlinked to the Exploratorium museum (SF, CA), where over 200 students watched the webcast, conversed, and participated in simultaneous observations at the world-renowned science museum. SOFIA will now take this concept into the 21st century, utilizing internet technologies to engage and inspire 100,000+ learners of all ages through simultaneous presentations and appearances by over 70 SOFIA Educators at schools and informal learning

  1. Managing fiscal risk in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Brixi, Hana Polackova; Shatalov, Sergei; Zlaoui, Leila

    2000-01-01

    To understand the fiscal position of a country, contingent liabilities and other sources of fiscal risk need to be considered. The authors develop a framework to assess and manage fiscal risk in Bulgaria. Bulgaria's Currency Board Arrangement has effectively imposed fiscal discipline, but leaves only limited room to accommodate potential fiscal shocks. Through risks embedded in the portfol...

  2. Sofia Observatory Performance and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temi, Pasquale; Miller, Walter; Dunham, Edward; McLean, Ian; Wolf, Jurgen; Becklin, Eric; Bida, Tom; Brewster, Rick; Casey, Sean; Collins, Peter; Jakob, Holger; Killebrew, Jana; Lampater, Ulrich; Mandushev, Georgi; Marcum, Pamela; Meyer, Allan; Pfueller, Enrico; Reinacher, Andreas; Roeser, Hans-Peter; Savage, Maureen; Teufel, Stefan; Wiedemann, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has recently concluded a set of engineering flights for Observatory performance evaluation. These in-flight opportunities have been viewed as a first comprehensive assessment of the Observatory's performance and will be used to address the development activity that is planned for 2012, as well as to identify additional Observatory upgrades. A series of 8 SOFIA Characterization And Integration (SCAI) flights have been conducted from June to December 2011. The HIPO science instrument in conjunction with the DSI Super Fast Diagnostic Camera (SFDC) have been used to evaluate pointing stability, including the image motion due to rigid-body and flexible-body telescope modes as well as possible aero-optical image motion. We report on recent improvements in pointing stability by using an Active Mass Damper system installed on Telescope Assembly. Measurements and characterization of the shear layer and cavity seeing, as well as image quality evaluation as a function of wavelength have been performed using the HIPO+FLITECAM Science Instrument configuration (FLIPO). A number of additional tests and measurements have targeted basic Observatory capabilities and requirements including, but not limited to, pointing accuracy, chopper evaluation and imager sensitivity. SCAI activities included in-flight partial Science Instrument commissioning prior to the use of the instruments as measuring engines. This paper reports on the data collected during the SCAI flights and presents current SOFIA Observatory performance and characterization.

  3. Economically available resources of renewable energy sources in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is a part of the Project on Renewable Energy Sources jointly developed by the US National Laboratory on Renewable Energy Sources and the Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Sofia. The economically accessible resources (EAR) in different geographical regions of Bulgaria are calculated for the following applications: passive and active use of solar energy for heating, photovoltaic batteries and wind energy equipment. A comparison of EAR values for certain renewable technologies in 2010 and 2020 is made. The analysis comprises: passive use of solar energy, domestic water heating, district heating, industrial water heating, photovoltaics, wind energy conversion systems (WECS) with horizontal axis turbines; burning of municipal, forestry and agricultural residues; small hydro installations, balneology, home heating. The percentage share of EAR values for each technology is calculated and compared with those of corresponding reserve estimates. 4 refs., 1 tab

  4. Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Phase A: System concept description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared astronomers have made significant discoveries using the NASA/Ames Research Center C-141 Kuiper airborne Observatory (KAO) with its 0.91-meter telescope. The need for a 3-meter class airborne observatory has been established to improve astronomy data gathering capability. The new system envisioned by NASA and the international community of astronomers will be known as the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). The platform of choice for SOFIA is a modified Boeing 747SP. SOFIA is viewed as a logical progression from the KAO. Potentially, a 3-meter telescope operating at the altitude achievable by the 747SP aircraft can be 11 times more sensitive than the KAO, can have 3.3 times better angular resolution, and will allow observations of compact sources in a volume of space up to 36 times that of the KAO. The KAO has enabled detection of about 15 percent of the far infrared IRAS survey point-sources; SOFIA should be able to detect them all. This document presents the results of in-house ARC and contracted concept definition studies for SOFIA. Using the ARC-based Kuiper Airborne Observatory as a basis for both SOFIA design and operations concepts, the SOFIA system concept has been developed with a view toward demonstrating mission and technical feasibility, and preparing preliminary cost estimates. The reference concept developed is not intended to represent final design, and should be treated accordingly. The most important products of this study, other than demonstration of system feasibility, are the understanding of system trade-offs and the development of confidence in the technology base that exists to move forward with a program leading to implementation of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA).

  5. Palaeobotanical data for climate change during the late Miocene - early Pliocene in Western Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Coexistence Approach (CA) analysis was applied to plant macro- and microfossils from the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene sites in western Bulgaria to obtain quantitative climate data and reconstruct climate dynamics. Calculated new values for the Sofia macro flora confirmed a warm-temperate and humid climate with mean annual temperature (MAT) between 12–170C, mean temperature of the warmest month (WMT) 23.6–280C, mean temperature of the coldest month (CMT) 0–50C and mean annual precipitation (MAP) 843–1179 mm. This is consistent with the climatic parameters obtained from the microflora – MAT 13.6–16, WMT 23.6–27.9, CMT 3.7–6 and MAP 803–1308mm. All presented data are in good accordance with other regional palaeoclimate reconstructions from Bulgarian and Europaean floras. Key words: Late Miocene–Early Pliocene, palaeoclimate, Sofia Basin

  6. Individual monitoring in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of individual external exposure monitoring and the outlooks of its development are discussed. The principles and organization of monitoring settled by the current regulations are outlined. The reasons for the dominating use of the film dosimeter (FD) in regular monitoring are given, as well as the prerequisites for the wider use of thermoluminescence dosimetric systems (TLD) in this respect. Technical and dosimetric information about the individual dosimetric systems in Bulgaria is presented. ( FD, TLD, ionization), applied in regular and operative monitoring. Approximately 10000 persons are included in the system of control. The results of the measurements, the calibration of dosimeters ( FD is calibrated with photon irradiation Eeff.=42KeV and 662 KeV 137Cs and TLD is calibrated with 137Cs or 60Co) and the quality of measurements are subject of discussion. The task of the specialists engaged in individual monitoring is to work out methods for measurement of the individual equivalent dose Hp(10) by dosimeters in use Bulgaria. The creation of a National Register for Individual Doses is a major task still awaiting solution

  7. Uranium geology of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three major uranium districts containing several deposits, plus 32 additional deposits, have been identified in Bulgaria, all of which are detailed geologically in this article. Most of the deposits are located in the West Balkan mountains, the western Rhodope mountains, and the Thracian Basin. A few deposits occur in the East Balkan, eastern Rhodope and Sredna Gora mountains. The types of deposits are sandstone, vein, volcanic, and surficial. Sandstone deposits are hosted in Permian and Tertiary sediments. In early 1992, fifteen deposits were being exploited, of which roughly 70 percent of the uranium produced was being recovered using in-situ leaching (ISL) methods. The remainder was being recovered by conventional underground mining, except for one small deposit that utilized open-pit methods. Fifteen other Bulgarian deposits had been exhausted, while five deposits were still in the exploration stage. Uranium production began in Bulgaria in 1946, and cumulative production through 1991 exceeded 100 million pounds equivalent U3O8. Current annual production is on the order of one million pounds equivalent U3O8, about 750 thousand pounds of which are recovered by ISL operations

  8. NASA Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Airborne Astronomy Ambassador Program Evaluation Results To Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Pamela K.; Backman, Dana E.; Clark, Coral

    2015-08-01

    SOFIA is an airborne observatory, capable of making observations that are impossible for even the largest and highest ground-based telescopes, and inspires instrumention development.SOFIA is an 80% - 20% partnership of NASA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), consisting of a modified Boeing 747SP aircraft carrying a diameter of 2.5 meters (100 inches) reflecting telescope. The SOFIA aircraft is based at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, Building 703, in Palmdale, California. The Science Program Office and Outreach Office is located at NASA Ames Research center. SOFIA is one of the programs in NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Astrophysics Division.SOFIA will be used to study many different kinds of astronomical objects and phenomena, including star birth and death, formation of new solar systems, identification of complex molecules in space, planets, comets and asteroids in our solar system, nebulae and dust in galaxies, and ecosystems of galaxies.Airborne Astronomy Ambassador Program:The SOFIA Education and Communications program exploits the unique attributes of airborne astronomy to contribute to national goals for the reform of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education, and to the elevation of public scientific and technical literacy.SOFIA’s Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) effort is a professional development program aspiring to improve teaching, inspire students, and inform the community. To date, 55 educators from 21 states; in three cohorts, Cycles 0, 1 and 2; have completed their astronomy professional development and their SOFIA science flight experience. Cycle 3 cohort of 28 educators will be completing their flight experience this fall. Evaluation has confirmed the program’s positive impact on the teacher participants, on their students, and in their communities. Teachers have incorporated content knowledge and specific components of their experience into their curricula, and have given hundreds of presentations and

  9. NASA Astrophysics E/PO Impact: NASA SOFIA AAA Program Evaluation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Pamela; Backman, Dana E.; Clark, Coral; Inverness Research Sofia Aaa Evaluation Team, Wested Sofia Aaa Evaluation Team

    2015-01-01

    SOFIA is an airborne observatory, studying the universe at infrared wavelengths, capable of making observations that are impossible for even the largest and highest ground-based telescopes. SOFIA also inspires the development of new scientific instrumentation and fosters the education of young scientists and engineers.SOFIA is an 80% - 20% partnership of NASA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), consisting of an extensively modified Boeing 747SP aircraft carrying a reflecting telescope with an effective diameter of 2.5 meters (100 inches). The SOFIA aircraft is based at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, Building 703, in Palmdale, California. The Science Program and Outreach Offices are located at NASA Ames Research center. SOFIA is a program in NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Astrophysics Division.Data will be collected to study many different kinds of astronomical objects and phenomena, including star cycles, solar system formation, identification of complex molecules in space, our solar system, galactic dust, nebulae and ecosystems.Airborne Astronomy Ambassador (AAA) Program:The SOFIA Education and Communications program exploits the unique attributes of airborne astronomy to contribute to national goals for the reform of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education, and to elevate public scientific and technical literacy.The AAA effort is a professional development program aspiring to improve teaching, inspire students, and inform the community. To date, 55 educators from 21 states; Cycles 0, 1 and 2; have completed their astronomy professional development and their SOFIA science flight experience. Evaluation has confirmed the program's positive impact on the teacher participants, on their students, and in their communities. The inspirational experience has positively impacted their practice and career trajectory. AAAs have incorporated content knowledge and specific components of their experience into their curricula, and have given

  10. Analyses of IRT, Sofia LEU core: steady-state thermal-hydraulic and accident analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial LEU (IRT-4M fuel assemblies, 19.75% 235U) core of the new IRT, Sofia research reactor of the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) of the Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia, Bulgaria is jointly analyzed with the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to evaluate its characteristics important to safety. Analyses are carried out for the fuel properties presented in the actual fuel Catalogue Description specified for IRT, Sofia research reactor. The initial configuration using 16 fuel assemblies (four 8-tube and twelve 6-tube fuel assemblies) is analyzed at a critical core state preferable for BNCT tube operation. Results of detailed steady-state thermal-hydraulic calculations and transients for this initial core configuration are presented in this paper. These results show that one pump in the primary circuit is sufficient for safe operation at 200, 500 and 1000 kW reactor power levels and that safety is maintained for all transients. (author)

  11. Journalists' Perceptions of Nomenklatura Networks and Media Ownership in Post-communist Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada Trifonova Price

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of the former communist party elite (the nomenklatura in the Bulgarian post-communist media landscape in relation to media ownership and the origin of media outlets’ capital. The spotlight is on Bulgarian journalists’ perceptions explored in semi-structured interviews with media professionals from the capital city, Sofia. The findings indicate that Bulgarian journalists are strongly interested in, and concerned with, the influence of members of the former nomenklatura and their informal networks on the Bulgarian media landscape and particularly on the way Bulgarian media in Bulgaria have been owned and financed since 1989.

  12. Large scale screening of spatial heavy metal distribution on territory of Bulgaria using Populus nigra as monitor. Final report for the period 15 December 1994 - 14 December 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large scale screening of heavy and toxic metals in Bulgaria using Populus nigra (poplar) leaves as biomonitor was done. Samples collected on more than 130 sites, were analyzed by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Elements As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th, and Zn were determined. On average, mean values obtained for most of elements, were comparable to the literature ones for terrestrial plants and similar to comparable studies in Europe. Within the area investigated, the highest concentrations were found near metallurgical facilities around Sofia, and some ''hot spots'' which increased values for several elements at some other locations. Cluster analysis on limited number of elements yielded four regions with different levels of pollution: (1) Sofia and Plovdiv areas (the most polluted); (2) southwestern Bulgaria, middle-northern Bulgaria, Varna and Stara Zagora areas; (3) middle Bulgaria and the Bourgass region; and (4) northeastern Bulgaria (the least polluted). Study done on poplar leaves from unpolluted area during a course of 7 years showed fairly constant content of elements during this period thus providing appropriateness of poplar leaves as a biomonitor. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  13. RUSSIAN-ORIGIN HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL SHIPMENT FROM BULGARIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly Cummins; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Tihomir Apostolov; Ivaylo Dimitrov

    2009-07-01

    In July 2008, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the IRT 2000 research reactor in Sofia, Bulgaria, operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped 6.4 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Russian Federation. The shipment, which resulted in the removal of all HEU from Bulgaria, was conducted by truck, barge, and rail modes of transport across two transit countries before reaching the final destination at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. This paper describes the work, equipment, organizations, and approvals that were required to complete the spent fuel shipment and provides lessons learned that might assist other research reactor operators with their own spent nuclear fuel shipments.

  14. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovkova, Mariya; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Tasheva-Terzieva, Elena; Pencheva, Aneliya

    2013-01-01

    Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses) and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses). The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts), Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts) and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts). The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis) fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country. PMID:24039530

  15. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Yovkova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses. The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts, Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts.The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species. Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species.Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country.

  16. Bulgaria: Novi Han radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Novi Han radioactive waste repository is the only national radioactive waste disposal site in Bulgaria. It is located in Losen mountain, 6.5 km from the small village of Novi Han and 35 km from the capital, Sofia. The repository accepts radioactive waste generated from nuclear applications in industry, medicine, research and education. The facility was constructed according to a modified Soviet design (type TP-4891). Its construction licence was issued in 1959 and that for commissioning in 1964. The repository was specially built for the needs of the IRT-2000 research reactor operated by the Institute of Physics and other academic and medical facilities. In 1959, the Government appointed the Physical Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, whose successor is now the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), as the central authority for the collection and disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear applications. The Novi Han repository site covers an area of 4.25 ha.1 The site is divided into two areas separated by a fence. One area contains the administrative buildings, garage and maintenance shops. The other contains the disposal facilities, radiochemical laboratory and decontamination station. The repository consists of (1) a concrete vault for low and intermediate level solid wastes, which consists of 3 separate cells with a total volume of 237 m3, (2) a concrete vault for biological wastes with a volume of 80 m3, (3) four steel tanks for storage of low level liquid wastes with a total volume of 48 m3, (4) a special 1 m3 concrete vault for spent sealed sources and (5) a concrete trench for solid waste, which consists of 7 separate units with a total volume of 200 m3. Waste acceptance criteria follow Regulation No. 7 of the Committee on the Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes on Collection, Treatment, Storage, Transport and Disposal of Radioactive Wastes in the Territory of the Republic of Bulgaria. They take into account origin

  17. Early Science Results from SOFIA, the World's Largest Airborne Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    De Buizer, James M

    2013-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, is the largest flying observatory ever built,consisting of a 2.7-meter diameter telescope embedded in a modified Boeing 747-SP aircraft. SOFIA is a joint project between NASA and the German Aerospace Center Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft und-Raumfahrt (DLR). By flying at altitudes up to 45000 feet, the observatory gets above 99.9 percent of the infrared-absorbing water vapor in the Earth's atmosphere. This opens up an almost uninterrupted wavelength range from 0.3-1600 microns that is in large part obscured from ground based observatories. Since its 'Initial Science Flight' in December 2010, SOFIA has flown several dozen science flights, and has observed a wide array of objects from Solar System bodies, to stellar nurseries, to distant galaxies. This paper reviews a few of the exciting new science results from these first flights which were made by three instruments: the mid-infrared camera FORCAST, the far-infrared heterodyne spectrometer GREAT, and...

  18. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF RESEARCH PROJECT ACTIVITIES PERFORMED AT MEDICAL UNIVERSITIES IN BULGARIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Garov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are five Bulgarian medical universities in the cities of Sofia, Plovdiv, Varna, Pleven and Stara Zagora. A major priority of medical universities is to encourage research activities mainly aimed at preparation and implementation of research projects. Projects are managed by the participating organizations called “beneficiaries”. Beneficiaries develop projects, apply for finances and if approved they implement those projects.Aim: The purpose of our study is to examine the organizational structure of research project activities on the macro level and on the micro level in Bulgarian medical universities.Material and methods: In order to define the separate elements of the organizational structure and to analyze the relations and interaction between them we have applied a documentary and sociological approach. Results: During the last six years there was a significant increase in the number and the overall annual financial value of the projects performed at medical universities in Bulgaria. The reasons for such increase are: managers realizing the advantages of and benefits from the implementation of research projects ensuring high quality modernization of research units’ equipment and facilities; access to innovative technologies; development of interdisciplinary relations, etc. Benefits arising from improved results motivate us to consider as appropriate some additional investments aimed at increasing the number of team members and further optimization of the currently existing structures (research centers in charge of research with the purpose of achieving even better results in this particular field. Conclusion: The role of research project activities in medical universities’ research field is of vital importance for the educational institutions’ success. Taking into consideration the changed conditions, European possibilities and the highly competitive environment, realizing this aspect will be essential for the

  19. Bulgaria health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Antoniya; Rohova, Maria; Moutafova, Emanuela; Atanasova, Elka; Koeva, Stefka; Panteli, Dimitra; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2012-01-01

    In the last 20 years, demographic development in Bulgaria has been characterized by population decline, a low crude birth rate, a low fertility rate, a high mortality rate and an ageing population. A stabilizing political situation since the early 2000s and an economic upsurge since the mid-2000s were important factors in the slight increase of the birth and fertility rates and the slight decrease in standardized death rates. In general, Bulgaria lags behind European Union (EU) averages in most mortality and morbidity indicators. Life expectancy at birth reached 73.3 years in 2008 with the main three causes of death being diseases of the circulatory system, malignant neoplasms and diseases of the respiratory system. One of the most important risk factors overall is smoking, and the average standardized death rate for smoking-related causes in 2008 was twice as high as the EU15 average. The Bulgarian health system is characterized by limited statism. The Ministry of Health is responsible for national health policy and the overall organization and functioning of the health system and coordinates with all ministries with relevance to public health. The key players in the insurance system are the insured individuals, the health care providers and the third party payers, comprising the National Health Insurance Fund, the single payer in the social health insurance (SHI) system, and voluntary health insurance companies (VHICs). Health financing consists of a publicprivate mix. Health care is financed from compulsory health insurance contributions, taxes, outofpocket (OOP) payments, voluntary health insurance (VHI) premiums, corporate payments, donations, and external funding. Total health expenditure (THE) as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) increased from 5.3% in 1995 to 7.3% in 2008. At the latter date it consisted of 36.5% OOP payments, 34.8% SHI, 13.6% Ministry of Health expenditure, 9.4% municipality expenditure and 0.3% VHI. Informal payments in the health

  20. NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA): Capabilities for Planetary and Exoplanetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Dana E.; Reach, W. T.; Dunham, E. W.; Wolf, J.; Rho, J.; SOFIA Science Team

    2012-10-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) enables high angular and spectral resolution observations with its seven first-generation instruments: 3 cameras, 3 spectrometers, and a high-speed photometer. These capabilities make SOFIA a powerful facility for advancing understanding of planetary and exoplanetary atmospheres, star and planet formation processes, and chemistry of the protosolar nebula and protoplanetary disks. SOFIA's Early Science program, using the FORCAST mid-IR camera (PI Terry Herter, Cornell), the GREAT far-IR spectrometer (PI Rolf Guesten, MPIfR), and the HIPO occultation photometer (PI Ted Dunham, Lowell Observatory), is now complete. Some Early Science results were published in special issues of Ap.J.Letters (v.749) and Astronomy & Astrophysics (v.542). Regarding solar system targets, SOFIA obtained mid-IR images of Jupiter and of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 (the latter observations were part of Earth-based support for the EPOXI mission). On 23 June 2011, SOFIA intercepted the center of Pluto's shadow that crossed the Pacific at nearly 30 km/sec. The occultation light curve was observed from SOFIA simultaneously by the HIPO photometer and the Fast Diagnostic Camera (FDC; PI Juergen Wolf, DSI). HIPO is specifically intended for planetary science, including stellar occultations by solar system bodies and extrasolar planet transits. HIPO can be co-mounted with the near-IR camera FLITECAM (PI Ian McLean, UCLA) to provide simultaneous photometric coverage in two bands (0.3-1 and 1-5 microns); this was first demonstrated in October 2011. At longer wavelengths SOFIA will make unique contributions to the characterization of astrochemical processes and molecular contents of planets, exoplanets, and protoplanetary disks with a mid-IR spectrometer, a far-IR imaging spectrometer, and a far-IR camera with grism that are soon to be commissioned.

  1. Occultation Spectrophotometry of Extrasolar Planets with SOFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerhausen, Daniel; Huber, Klaus F.; Mandell, Avi M.; McElwain, Michael W.; Czesla, Stefan; Madhusudhan, Nikku

    2012-01-01

    The NASA/DLR Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), a 2.5- meter infrared telescope on board a Boeing 747-SP, will conduct 0.3 - 1,600 micrometer photometric, spectroscopic, and imaging observations from altitudes as high as 45,000 ft., where the average atmospheric transmission is greater than 80 percent. SOFIA's first light cameras and spectrometers, as well as future generations of instruments, will make important contributions to the characterization of the physical properties of exoplanets. Our analysis shows that optical and near-infrared photometric and spectrophotometric follow-up observations during planetary transits and eclipses will be feasible with SOFIA's instrumentation, in particular the HIPOFLITECAM optical/NIR instruments. The airborne-based platform has unique advantages in comparison to ground- and space-based observatories in this field of research which we will outline here. Furthermore we will present two exemplary science cases, that will be conducted in SOFIA's cycle 1.

  2. SOFIA - Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Nans; Bowers, Al

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). The contents include: 1) Heritage & History; 2) Level 1 Requirements; 3) Top Level Overview of the Observatory; 4) Development Challenges; and 5) Highlight Photos.

  3. SOFIA: Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Eric; Kunz, Nans; Bowers, Al

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). The contents include: 1) Heritage & History; 2) Level 1 Requirements; 3) Top Level Overview of the Observatory; 4) Development Challenges; and 5) Highlight Photos.

  4. Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, Sofia University

    OpenAIRE

    Nisheva, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics (FMI) of Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski” is briefly presented as an educational and research institution. The possible contribution of FMI to KT-DigiCULT-BG project is analyzed.

  5. Refurbishment of research reactor IRT in Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decommissioning strategy of the research reactor IRT-Sofia is subjected to a refurbishment into critical assembly is presented. The main stages in the planning and management of a partial decommissioning are exposed. (author)

  6. Eurobachelor in Chemistry - Bulgaria's Odds? [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Toshev

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bachelor education in chemistry is presented in the Universities of Sofia, Plovdiv, Shumen and Blagoevgrad. The chemistry education in the University of Sofia has a long tradition. The paper examines the rules and criteria for obtaining the Eurobachelor label, developed by the European Chemistry Thematic Network (ECTN. The comparative analysis of the existing program with these European criteria shows that the eventual application of the University of Sofia for that label seems to be untimely at the present moment.

  7. Shipment summary of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessons learned (major differences from previous shipments): - The use of an experienced carrier (Kozloduy NPP) with experience in shipping nuclear materials to and from the Russian Federation was a great advantage and avoided problems; - Signing road and river carriers and security contracts in advance minimized last-minute delays at shipment time; - Shipping papers that were drafted and reviewed in advance with the help of representatives from Kozloduy NPP and PA 'Mayak' avoided last-minute delays; - Have all permits and licenses in place as far in advance as possible; - Procure nuclear liability, cargo, and personnel insurance in advance of the shipment; - Provide a senior technical person with the authority to resolve issues en-route to accompany the shipment; - Pre-arrange a method for 24-hour monitoring and reporting during shipment to provide 'Need-to-Know' information to the appropriate personnel to provide immediate additional technical support, if needed; - Develop a coded tracking system in advance to allow monitoring reports to DOE without compromising security; - Having communications equipment, a laptop computer and a printer on the barge was very useful for the technical person accompanying the shipment; - Very good cooperation with the Bulgarian nuclear safety authorities helped with planning and implementation; - Very good cooperation with other important partners in Bulgaria - Kozloduy NPP, Bulgarian Police and Gendarme, Bulgarian Fire and Rescue Corps, helped with shipment planning and provided appropriate support during the shipment; - Assure that all interested and involved organizations have a sufficient security level (Secret and Confidential level) for their main points of contact personnel

  8. Spent Fuel Management in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the legislative framework in the Republic of Bulgaria for spent fuel (SF) management; storage facilities for spent fuel (at reactor spent fuel storage/reactor pond, away from reactor spent fuel storage facility (SFSF) and the dry storage facility), as well as the SF transportation back to Russia. The policy of the Republic of Bulgaria regarding the management of SF and radioactive wastes (RAW) has been based on the moral principle of avoiding to impose undue burdens on future generations. (author)

  9. Development of the SOFIA Image Processing Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Alexander N.

    2011-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a Boeing 747SP carrying a 2.5 meter infrared telescope capable of operating between at altitudes of between twelve and fourteen kilometers, which is above more than 99 percent of the water vapor in the atmosphere. The ability to make observations above most water vapor coupled with the ability to make observations from anywhere, anytime, make SOFIA one of the world s premiere infrared observatories. SOFIA uses three visible light CCD imagers to assist in pointing the telescope. The data from these imagers is stored in archive files as is housekeeping data, which contains information such as boresight and area of interest locations. A tool that could both extract and process data from the archive files was developed.

  10. Progress in joint feasibility study of conversion from HEU to LEU fuel at IRT-200, Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new 200 kW IRT-Sofia research reactor of the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) of the Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia, Bulgaria is jointly studied with the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to examine the feasibility of conversion from the use of fuel containing highly enriched uranium (HEU, 36% 235U) to use of fuel containing low enriched uranium (LEU, 19.75% 235U). The reference design had a core configuration using 14 IRT-2M fuel assemblies (four 4-tubes and 10 3-tubes) with 36% HEU. This HEU fuel is no longer available since it was transported from INRNE to Russia in December 2003 as part of an agreement with the US DOE. An LEU core configuration using 14 IRT-4M fuel assemblies (four 8- tubes and ten 6-tubes) which yields a similar flux performance, when compared with the HEU design, was created. Results of detailed calculations comparing the new LEU core with the reference HEU core design are presented. From these results it is concluded that the LEU core performance (both in term of fluxes for the experiments and in fuel consumption) is very similar to the HEU reference core. (author)

  11. Progress in joint feasibility study of conversion from HEU to LEU fuel at IRT-200, Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The new 200 kW IRT-Sofia research reactor of the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) of the Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia, Bulgaria is jointly studied with the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to examine the feasibility of conversion from the use of fuel containing highly enriched uranium (HEU, 36% 235U) to use of fuel containing low enriched uranium (LEU, 19.75% 235U). The reference design had a core configuration using 14 IRT-2M fuel assemblies (four 4-tubes and 10 3-tubes) with 36% HEU. This HEU fuel is no longer available since it was transported from INRNE to Russia in December 2003 as part of an agreement with the US DOE. An LEU core configuration using 14 IRT-4M fuel assemblies (four 8-tubes and ten 6-tubes) which yields a similar flux performance, when compared with the HEU design, was created. Results of detailed calculations comparing the new LEU core with the reference HEU core design are presented. From these results it is concluded that the LEU core performance (both in term of fluxes for the experiments and in fuel consumption) is very similar to the HEU reference core. (author)

  12. Progress in conversion from HEU to LEU fuel at IRT, Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new 200 kW IRT-Sofia research reactor of the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) of the Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia, Bulgaria is jointly studied with the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to realize its conversion from the use of fuel containing highly enriched uranium (HEU, 36% 235U) to use of fuel containing low enriched uranium (LEU, 19.75% 235U). After the applicability of IRT-4M LEU fuel for conversion was approved, further activities related to modification of the Safety Analyses Report were initiated. An initial core configuration was selected and its neutronic calculation was performed. The initial LEU core configuration uses 16 IRT-4M fuel assemblies (four 8-tubes and twelve 6-tubes). Results of detailed calculations of this initial core configuration and the neutronics properties that are important for preparation of the Safety Analyses Report are presented. These results provide information for thermal-hydraulic and accident analyses that are needed to demonstrate that the safety margin requirements are satisfied for the selected configuration. (author)

  13. Progress in conversion from HEU to LEU fuel at IRT, Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new 200 kW IRT-Sofia research reactor of the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) of the Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia, Bulgaria is jointly studied with the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to realize its conversion from the use of fuel containing highly enriched uranium (HEU, 36% 235U) to use of fuel containing low enriched uranium (LEU, 19.75% 235U). After the applicability of IRT-4M LEU fuel for conversion was approved, initial core configuration was selected and preliminary neutronic calculation was performed, further activities related to modification of the Safety Analyses Report were initiated. Results of detailed MCNP code calculations when all control rods are withdrawn and in critical state of power distribution in the initial core configuration and their comparison with the preliminary power distribution results obtained by the DIF3D (REBUS) code when all control rods are withdrawn are presented. The comparison demonstrates good consistency between all results. The results are used for improvement of the Safety Analyses Report. These results provide detailed information for thermal-hydraulic and accident analyses that are needed to demonstrate that the safety margin requirements are satisfied for the selected configuration. (author)

  14. Strategy for Sustainable Utilization of IRT-Sofia Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Research Reactor IRT-2000 in Sofia is in process of reconstruction into a low-power reactor of 200 kW under the decision of the Council of Ministers of Republic of Bulgaria from 2001. The reactor will be utilized for development and preservation of nuclear science, skills, and knowledge; implementation of applied methods and research; education of students and training of graduated physicists and engineers in the field of nuclear science and nuclear energy; development of radiation therapy facility. Nuclear energy has a strategic place within the structure of the country’s energy system. In that aspect, the research reactor as a material base, and its scientific and technical personnel, represent a solid basis for the development of nuclear energy in our country. The acquired scientific experience and qualification in reactor operation are a precondition for the equal in rights participation of the country in the international cooperation and the approaching to the European structures, and assurance of the national interests. Therefore, the operation and use of the research reactor brings significant economic benefits for the country. For education of students in nuclear energy, reactor physics experiments for measurements of static and kinetic reactor parameters will be carried out on the research reactor. The research reactor as a national base will support training and applied research, keep up the good practice and the preparation of specialists who are able to monitor radioactivity sources, to develop new methods for detection of low quantities of radioactive isotopes which are hard to find, for deactivation and personal protection. The reactor will be used for production of isotopes needed for medical therapy and diagnostics; it will be the neutron source in element activation analysis having a number of applications in industrial production, medicine, chemistry, criminology, etc. The reactor operation will increase the public understanding, confidence

  15. Wind energy potential in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, wind characteristic and wind energy potential in Bulgaria were analyzed using the wind speed data. The wind energy potential at different sites in Bulgaria has been investigated by compiling data from different sources and analyzing it using a software tool. The wind speed distribution curves were obtained by using the Weibull and Rayleigh probability density functions. The results relating to wind energy potential are given in terms of the monthly average wind speed, wind speed probability density function (PDF), wind speed cumulative density function (CDF), and wind speed duration curve. A technical and economic assessment has been made of electricity generation from three wind turbines having capacity of (60, 200, and 500 kW). The yearly energy output capacity factor and the electrical energy cost of kWh produced by the three different turbines were calculated

  16. Workshop on PSA applications, Sofia, Bulgaria, 7-11 October 1996. Lecturing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this workshop was to present detailed, systematic and useful information about PSA-based tools and PSA applications. The first presentation of the workshop was titled ''The role of PSA in safety management''. This topic served to introduce the workshop and to highlight several concepts that were afterwards stressed during the week, i.e. the defence in depth principle and the use of deterministic and probabilistic approaches in a complementary way. This presentation provided a basis for the discussion of ''PSA applications''. As a complement to the theoretical lectures, there was a workshop during which three different exercises were run in parallel. For two of these, computer-based PSA tools were used. One of them was focused towards the analysis of design modifications and the other one towards demonstrating configuration control strategies. The objective of the third practice was to obtain Allowed Outage Times using different PSA-based approaches and to discuss the differences observed and the insights obtained. To conclude the workshop, stress was put on the importance of the quality of the PSA (the development of a high quality Living PSA should be the first step), the necessity to be cautious (before taking decisions both the qualitative and numerical results should be carefully analyzed), and the logical order for the implementation of PSA applications. Refs, figs, tabs

  17. Information Society Development in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Chobanova, Rossitsa

    2003-01-01

    The rapidly changing nature of modern societies needs to enable the benchmarking of progress through statistical indicators. The book is taking up the challenge of using newly developed innovative information society indicators, tested and piloted in a representative survey held in all EU Member States, Switzerland and the United States in 2002 and in ten new associated states in 2003. The first part of the book concerns benchmarking Information society development in Bulgaria. The topics...

  18. ERAWATCH Country Reports 2013: Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Chobanova, Rossitsa

    2014-01-01

    The Republic of Bulgaria has been a Member State of the European Union since 2007. Its economic development has been framed by a Currency Board Arrangement (binding the national currency to the euro) since 1997. Recent development is characterised by slow economic growth. Preliminary GDP data for 2013 indicates a slight pick-up in growth in the second half of the year. Growth was driven by net exports and a surge in public expenditure, whereas household consumption contracted. Annual growth i...

  19. Information Society Development in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Chobanova, Rossitsa

    2003-01-01

    The rapidly changing nature of modern societies needs to enable the benchmarking of progress through statistical indicators. The book is taking up the challenge of using newly developed innovative information society indicators, tested and piloted in a representative survey held in all EU Member States, Switzerland and the United States in 2002 and in ten new associated states in 2003. The first part of the book concerns benchmarking Information society development in Bulgaria. The topics pre...

  20. EDUCATION IN INFORMATICS AT SOFIA UNIVERSITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilieva, Sylvia; Nikolov, Roumen

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents some real experiences, emerging models and lessons learnt based on the case of Sofia University - Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics (FMI), and its partners. Some experience in developing a layer of MSc programs as a live link to the professional ICT society and ICT industry i

  1. Effect of jet engine exhaust on SOFIA straylight performance. [Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair Dinger, Ann

    1993-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is being designed at NASA's Ames Research Center as a replacement for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). A 2.5-m Nasmyth telescope will be mounted in a Boeing 747 SP and flown at 41,000 ft, above most of the H2O in the earth's atmosphere. In the original SOFIA design, the telescope is located in front of the wings, as it is in the KAO. An alternative design with the telescope placed behind the wings is being studied as part of an effort to reduce cost and weight. In this location, the emission from the engines and the hot H2O molecules in the exhaust become significant straylight sources. The engines and exhaust radiate into the telescope cavity, and illuminate the primary and tertiary mirrors at low telescope elevation angles. The APART/PADE program was used to analyze the straylight at the SOFIA focal plane as a function of wavelength and telescope elevation angle. The emission from the engines and exhaust gas is compared to that from the earth and the telescope itself. Based on the results of this analysis, the SOFIA telescope has been moved behind the wings.

  2. Economical issues on radiotherapy establishment in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the ground of accurate cost analysis for construction and operation of a new radiotherapy center an average cost of radiotherapy (RT) per patient in Bulgaria has been estimated. There is a lack of Bulgarian economical standard for RT center. As a country of comparable population and cancer incidence rate Belgian economical approach was implemented. A base for standard cost for RT are investment costs for buildings, installations, salaries and supply in ratio of 5 : 72 : 7 : 12 : 4. A minimal cost per patient was worked out for a big center if 1500 - 2000 cases are treated per year. It is calculated to be 750 - 800 Euro for regular treatment and up to 900 Euro, if high technology is applied. Comparison to standard cost per patient in USA and European Community countries reveals 3.5 - 5 fold lower figures. The reason is a different cost structure: mainly very low expenses foe salaries, lower prices for buildings and other hospital expenditure. High technology appliance is not cost effective for the small RT centers. The initial investment of 20 - 25 mill Euro are urgently needed to decrease partly the gap between European and Bulgarian RT. Providing such funds is of fundamental importance for Bulgarian RT. (authors)

  3. Bulgaria : Public Expenditures for Growth and Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Bulgaria's economy performed relatively well during the crisis and the economy is reviving. In comparison with other Tenth European Union (EU10) countries, for Bulgaria the drop in Gross Domestic Product, or GDP growth was below the median, fiscal performance deteriorated less, and public debt stayed among the lowest in the entire EU. In late January 2011 the EC concluded that in 2010 Bulg...

  4. Radioecological problems in Bulgaria relating to development of uranium mining and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over a period of more than four decades, uranium deposits have been developed at many sites in Bulgaria and treated in two uranium ore plants in Bukhovo and Eleshnitsa. Quantitative determination of uranium, radium-226, thorium-232, polonium-210, lead-210, radon and radon daughters in samples of soil, water, vegetation, bottom sediments, fruits, vegetables and atmospheric air in the regions surrounding uranium mines and mills is performed by the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (BG). Analyses of urinary and blood contents of natural radionuclides in the personnel and the population residing in these regions are performed. The number of radionuclides into the surrounding environment and their possible intake by man are analysed. The migration of some highly toxic long-lived radionuclides (mostly strontium-90 and cesium-137) generated from Kozloduy NPP is also studied. An assessment of their possible impacts on man is reported. (author)

  5. Training of Instrumentalists and Development of New Technologies on SOFIA

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Edwin F.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Baluteau, Jean-Paul; Becklin, Eric E.; Bjoraker, Gordon; Burton, Michael; Caroff, Lawrence J.; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Churchwell, Edward B.; Clemens, Dan P.; Cohen, Martin; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Dunham, Edward W.; Fazio, Giovanni G.

    2009-01-01

    This white paper is submitted to the Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010 Decadal Survey (Astro2010)1 Committee on the State of the Profession to emphasize the potential of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) to contribute to the training of instrumentalists and observers, and to related technology developments. This potential goes beyond the primary mission of SOFIA, which is to carry out unique, high priority astronomical research. SOFIA is a Boeing 747SP aircraft with a...

  6. Policing in Sofia. From centralisation to decentralisation

    OpenAIRE

    Devroe, E.; Petrov, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, which is embedded in the special issue of the Journal which focuses on the comparative research project ‘Policing European Metropolises’, the general aim is to provide an answer to the research question: ‘Are underlying Anglo-American assumptions regarding trends towards plural policing recognisable in European local geographical settings’? Our underlying question in this article concerns whether or not the local empirical situation in Sofia differs from more general evolutio...

  7. The integrated motion measurement simulation for SOFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaswekar, Prashant; Greiner, Benjamin; Wagner, Jörg

    2014-07-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy SOFIA consists of a B747-SP aircraft, which carries aloft a 2.7-meter reflecting telescope. The image stability goal for SOFIA is 0:2 arc-seconds rms. The performance of the telescope structure is affected by elastic vibrations induced by aeroacoustic and suspension disturbances. Active compensation of such disturbances requires a fast way of estimating the structural motion. Integrated navigation systems are examples of such estimation systems. However they employ a rigid body assumption. A possible extension of these systems to an elastic structure is shown by different authors for one dimensional beam structures taking into account the eigenmodes of the structural system. The rigid body motion as well as the flexible modes of the telescope assembly, however, are coupled among the three axes. Extending a special mathematical approach to three dimensional structures, the aspect of a modal observer based on integrated motion measurement is simulated for SOFIA. It is in general a fusion of different measurement methods by using their benefits and blinding out their disadvantages. There are no mass and stillness properties needed directly in this approach. However, the knowledge of modal properties of the structure is necessary for the implementation of this method. A finite-element model is chosen as a basis to extract the modal properties of the structure.

  8. Placing SOFIA in the central flash for the 29 June 2015 Pluto Occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, Carlos A.; Bosh, Amanda S.; Person, Michael J.; Levine, Stephen E.; Bright, Len P.; Harris, Hugh C.; Tilleman, Trudy; Thanathibodee, Thanawuth; Weisenbach, Luke W.

    2015-11-01

    We report on the astrometry prediction process carried out for the 29 June 2015 occultation of an 11.9 magnitude star by Pluto. The occultation star, UCAC2 139-209445 was first identified in 2013 as a good candidate for an occultation to be observed with Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) due to the circumstances of the event. In addition, the event's proximity to the New Horizons encounter with Pluto made the event even more timely. We were awarded time on SOFIA for the Pluto occultation in 2014. From mid-2014 up through the night of the occultation, we tracked Pluto's position. We collected astrometric data from four telescopes: the SARA-CT telescope located in Cerro Tololo International Observatory, Chile; the Lowell Observatory 42-inch Hall telescope; the Lowell Observatory 4.3-m Discover Channel Telescope, both in Flagstaff, AZ; and the USNO 1.55-m Kaj Strand telescope in Flagstaff, AZ. The objective of the astrometric observations was to improve the prediction enough to place the aircraft within the central flash zone (approximately ±75 km, 5mas, from the center line of the Pluto shadow).The prediction uncertainties included those of the star position and proper motion, Pluto ephemeris offset, potential zone-dependent offsets in the reference catalog, unknown stellar duplicity, and center-of-mass to center-of-light offsets. Over the two years since we identified this event as promising, we worked to steadily decrease each of the sources of uncertainty.We communicated prediction updates to the SOFIA flight planning team. We provided a pre-take-off update, which was then followed by a later in-flight update that necessitated a change in the flight plan of 320 km. The crew were able to implement this change and SOFIA was able to capture the central flash of this event (Bosh et al., and Person et al., this conference).

  9. Catalog of Investment Projects in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    This catalog includes information about 129 potential investment projects in Bulgaria and was developed by a team of experts from InvestBulgaria Agency in cooperation with municipalities and private companies. The document presents in brief general facts about the regions in Bulgaria. Projects are divided into the following categories: Tourism, Manufacturing, Urban Planning, Real Estate, Environment and renewable energy sources, Commerce, and Innovative and creative projects. The catalog provides detailed information about each project such as: status of the project, location, ownership, infrastructure, estimated value, contact information, etc.

  10. “In pace with the times”: Superman vs. Alyosha: understanding historical wars of position on the ideological battleground in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Traykov, Bozhin

    2012-01-01

    On June 17th 2011 the Monument of the Soviet Army (MSA) in Sofia, Bulgaria underwent a peculiar transformation. People stared with dismay at the soldiers of the Red Army that had overnight taken the identities of icons of American consumer culture, such as Superman, Ronald McDonald and the Coca Cola prototype of Santa Claus. This provocation reignited the emotional debate about the future of the monument. Its destiny has been a bone of contention since the fall of the Berlin wall. The Monumen...

  11. Education and energy sustainability: Ten-year contribution of UNESCO Chair TU Sofia and REgional Network Engineering for Development (RENED)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United Nations Organization (UNO) implemented and supported all the recommendations and conclusions of the World Summit on the Earth State and more recently on Sustainable Development. Since 1952, UNESCO has received the tasks to develop studies and training on Education and Energy Sustainability. The UNESCO Chair 'Engineering for Development' established at the Technical University of Sofia (Bulgaria) in 1994 contributed from the beginning to these tasks. This paper will summarise the activities developed and the results reached as well some proposals of improvements in the near future. After some historical data about the Tempus-Tacis project and how Uchinsa has been involved as partner institution, the paper describes the actions promoted by Uchinsa and the first results achieved. Some first conclusions and recommendations and the next steps to be made by Uchinsa and the Ukrainian partners institutions to continue the cooperation even after the end of this project, are proposed. (author)

  12. Regulatory aspects and activities in the field of radioactive waste management in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgaria uses nuclear power for electricity generation and for a variety of nuclear applications in industry, research and medicine. Six WWER type Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) went into operation at Kozloduy between 1974 and 1991. Until 1988 spent fuel was transported back to the former Soviet Union, but since then has been stored on site. Operational low level waste is stored on site, but since 1993 a volume reduction strategy using supercompaction has been employed, which has reduced stored waste volumes by a factor of four. Institutional radioactive wastes are disposed at the Novi Han near surface repository, located 35 km from Sofia. It was commissioned in 1964 and is now about half full. Siting studies have begun for a new near surface repository that would accept both institutional and NPP waste. A legislative and regulatory framework, as well as organizational and institutional arrangements, are in place. A national strategy that includes provisions for compiling a national inventory of spent fuel and radioactive waste and provisions for funding spent fuel and radioactive waste management, has been developed. The paper elaborates on the current situation regarding radioactive waste management in Bulgaria. (author)

  13. Forest-biological erosion control on coal-mine spoil banks in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The forest fallowing of coal-mine spoils helps re-establish the processes of natural, self-sustaining, soil formation. Environmental monitoring in Bulgaria demonstrates that forestation can moderate soil pH (from ph> 3.0 to pH 1.3 g/cm3 in the 0-5 cm layer) in the case of coal briquette spoils at Pernik, near Sofia. Ground losses from forested, 16-17 degree slope, coal briquette-spoils at Pernik are a quarter of those from an entirely unvegetated section of the same embankment (48.5 vs 12. 1 mm in the period 1988-1994) despite the absence of ground cover beneath the trees. On lignite spoil banks, at Maritsa-Iztok, central Bulgaria, forestation increases the organic content of the soil to greater depths than revegetation with grass, and to a greater degree than conventional agricultural cultivation. On Pinus nigra forested crest sites at Pernik, and in Robinia pseudacacia forested groves on the lignite minespoil banks at Maritsa-Iztok, slopes showed ground advance rather than ground retreat. Slopes protected by mechanical means alone did not allow soil growth and, where the structure broke down, they suffered as much erosion as untreated sites. In sum, the forest fallowing of surface coal-mine disturbed land accelerates organic matter accumulation in the soil, helps improve soil structure, reduces erosion, and may transform soil loss into soil gain, even on steeply sloping sites. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. CURRENT STATUS OF RESEARCH PROJECT ACTIVITIES IN MEDICAL UNIVERSITIES IN BULGARIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Garov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Bulgaria there are five medical universities: in the cities of Sofia, Plovdiv, Varna, Pleven and Stara Zagora. Their main mission is training specialists in the fields of medicine and health care, increasing their qualification by means of postgraduate education and performing research activities. One of medical universities’ top priorities is encouraging research activities mainly aimed at preparation and implementation of research projects. Aim: The purpose of our study is to examine the current status of research project activities in Bulgarian medical universities.Material and methods: In order to define the science competitions related to Bulgarian medical universities we have applied a documentary and sociological approach. Results: Research projects that Bulgarian medical universities can apply for are divided into two groups – national and international. The most significant international projects are European ones since Bulgaria is an EU member state and this allows us to participate in such projects. Conclusion: Universities should strive for establishing even better conditions for encouraging application for research projects aimed at developing competent and experienced staff, even though the majority of them may not obtain approval for financing.The changes in the situation regarding Bulgarian science require the implementation and development of more research staff motivated to improve their knowledge and skills in the relevant dynamically changing competition and project field.

  15. NIMBUS: The Near-Infrared Multi-Band Ultraprecise Spectroimager for SOFIA

    CERN Document Server

    McElwain, Michael W; Woodgate, Bruce; Spiegel, David S; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Amatucci, Edward; Blake, Cullen; Budinoff, Jason; Burgasser, Adam; Burrows, Adam; Clampin, Mark; Conroy, Charlie; Deming, L Drake; Dunham, Edward; Foltz, Roger; Gong, Qian; Knutson, Heather; Muench, Theodore; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Peabody, Hume; Rauscher, Bernard; Rinehart, Stephen A; Villanueva, Geronimo

    2012-01-01

    We present a new and innovative near-infrared multi-band ultraprecise spectroimager (NIMBUS) for SOFIA. This design is capable of characterizing a large sample of extrasolar planet atmospheres by measuring elemental and molecular abundances during primary transit and occultation. This wide-field spectroimager would also provide new insights into Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNO), Solar System occultations, brown dwarf atmospheres, carbon chemistry in globular clusters, chemical gradients in nearby galaxies, and galaxy photometric redshifts. NIMBUS would be the premier ultraprecise spectroimager by taking advantage of the SOFIA observatory and state of the art infrared technologies. This optical design splits the beam into eight separate spectral bandpasses, centered around key molecular bands from 1 to 4 microns. Each spectral channel has a wide field of view for simultaneous observations of a reference star that can decorrelate time-variable atmospheric and optical assembly effects, allowing the instrument to ac...

  16. WRF-Fire Applied in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrinkova, Nina; Jordanov, Georgi; Mandel, Jan

    2010-01-01

    WRF-Fire consists of the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) coupled with a fire spread model, based on the level-set method. We describe a preliminary application of WRF-Fire to a forest fire in Bulgaria, oportunities for research of forest fire models for Bulgaria, and plans for the development of an Environmental Decision Support Systems which includes computational modeling of fire behavior.

  17. Flora of the Mediterranean Rivers in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Yordanka G. Hristeva; Gana M. Gecheva; Karin Pall

    2015-01-01

    Species composition and distribution of aquatic bryophytes and vascular plants assemblages in Mediteranean Rivers in Bulgaria are presented in this work. Aquatic macrophytes were studied at thirteen rivers in South Bulgaria during 2014, together with abiotic factors (flow velocity, shading, and substrate type), mean depth and altitude. In total, 73 species were registered, of them 13 bryophytes and 60 vascular plants were identified. Aquatic bryophytes included 10 mosses and 3 liverworts. The...

  18. Supply Chain of Organic Products in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Mishev, Plamen Dimitrov; Stoyanova, Zornitsa D.

    2009-01-01

    The market of organic products in Bulgaria enlarged significantly in the last few years. Although the share of organic food products in general food market in the country is relatively small-less than 5 %, the total area under organic products in Bulgaria/cultivated and wild collected/ is more than 250 thousand ha. The development of organic production is considered for one of the priority for development of the agricultural sector and food market. One of the factors considered to an obstacle...

  19. Radioactivity in Virgin Soils and Soils from Some Areas with Closed Uranium Mining Facilities in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, I.; Staneva, D.; Misheva, L.; Bineva, Ts.; Banov, M.

    2012-04-01

    The soil radioecology is an important part of the environmental research in the country. Since the beginning of the 1970's regular monitoring of the content of different radionuclides in Bulgarian soils has been done. Objective of the studies were virgin soils from high mountain areas, hills and plains (the region of Kozloduy NPP and the Danube river valley). Natural and men-made radionuclides were observed. In the 25-year period after the the contamination with radionuclides due to the 1986 Chernobyl NPP accident a rich data base has been collected, recording the radiation status of the soils in Bulgaria. Special attention has been paid to the contamination with the long-lived technogenic radionuclides caesium-137 and strontium-90. This paper presents a summary of the obtained results. Caesium-137 and strontium-90 were the main men-made radionuclides detected in the examined Bulgarian soils few years after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Their content in the soils from high mountain areas (Rodopa and Rila mountains) is several times higher than that in the soils from North Bulgaria and Sofia fields. High non-homogenity in the pollution within small areas (even as small as several square meters) has been observed. Natural radioactivity was also studied. Averaged values for natural radionuclides like uranium-238, thorium-232, and radium-226 in virgin soils from different areas in the country are presented. A comparison of the dynamics of their behavior throughout the years is done. Bulgaria is a country with intensive uranium mining activities in the past years. That is why radiological monitoring of closed uranium mining facilities in different regions of the country are obligatory and of great interest. This work presents results from such investigations made in regions where remediation has been done. The results have been evaluated according to the Bulgarian radionuclide environment contamination legislation. The necessity of permanent environmental monitoring is

  20. SOFIA--Education Partnerships at 41,000 feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M.; DeVore, E.

    2000-05-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) represents a unique opportunity for education and public outreach (EPO). SOFIA is the first research observatory--airborne or ground-based--in which close participation by educators and journalists is being designed into both the physical facility and the administrative structure of the observatory. With the overall goal of contributing to the public's awareness and understanding of science in general and astronomy in particular, the SOFIA EPO program will include formal K-12 and undergraduate educational activities, public outreach, and media relations. One of the most exciting and unique aspects of the SOFIA EPO program is the observatory's ability to carry up to 10 educators on science flights, enabling them to partner with scientists and see science in action. Some 200 formal and informal educators per year are expected to participate in the SOFIA Airborne Ambassadors program (SAAP). Educators who have participated in SAAP will be encouraged to continue their scientist partnerships and will be supported in their efforts to carry their new-found knowledge and enthusiasm to their students, other educators in their communities, and the general public. Scientists, engineers, and other members of the SOFIA team will be encouraged to partner with local teachers and visit their classrooms as a part of the SOFIA Education Partners Program ( SEPP). This program will enable students to interact with scientists and other professionals on a one-on-one basis. Participating educators may fly onboard SOFIA with their scientist partners. Scientists who participate in this program will be able to work with educators and students in their local communities to forge long-lasting science education partnerships. The SOFIA EPO staff is interested in forming collaborations with interested organizations, other NASA missions, and individual astronomers. For more information please contact one of the authors. SOFIA is being

  1. Simulator training and human factor reliability in Kozloduy NPP, Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a PowerPoint presentation. Situated in North Bulgaria, in the vicinity of the town of Kozloduy, near the Danube River bank, there is the Bulgarian Kozloduy Nuclear Power plant operating four WWER-440 and two WWER-1000 units. Units 1 and 2 were commissioned in July, 1974 and November, 1975, respectively. These were shut down at the end of 2003. Units 3 and 4 were commissioned in December, 1980 and May, 1982. They were shut down at the end of 2006 as a precondition for Bulgaria's accession to the European Union. The 1000 MW units 5 and 6 of Kozloduy NPP were commissioned in September, 1988 and December, 1993, respectively. Large-scale modernization have been implemented and now the units meet all international safety standards. The paper describes the multifunctional simulator Kozloduy NPP for the operational staff training. The training stages are as follows: - Preparatory; -Theoretical studies; - Training at the Training Centre by means of technical devices; - Preparation and sitting for an exam before a Kozloduy NPP expert commission; - Simulator training ; - Preparation to obtain a permit for a license, corresponding to the position to begin work at the NPP; - Exams before the Nuclear Regulatory Agency (NRA) and licensing; - Shadow training at the working place; - Permission for unaided operation. The following positions are addressed by the simulator training: - Chief Plant Supervisor; - Shift Unit Supervisor; - Senior Reactor Operator; - Simulator Instructor; - Controller physicist; -Senior Turbine Operator; - Senior Operator of Turbine Feedwater Pumps of Kozloduy NPP. Improving of training method led to a reduction of number of significant events while worldwide practice proves that improvement of engineering resulted in an increase in the percentage of events, related to human factor. Analysis of human reliability in 2005 and 2006 in cooperation with representatives from Great Britain and the Technical University in Sofia were worked on the DTI NSP B

  2. IRT-Sofia BNCT beam tube optimization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optimization study of IRT-Sofia BNCT beam tube is presented. In the study we used the MIT/FCB experience. The enlarging of filter/moderator cross section dimensions and the decreasing of collimator length within the limits of the IRT-Sofia reactor design were analyzed. The influence of beam and reactor core axes non-coincidence on the beam properties was also evaluated. The irradiation resistance of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon®) was also evaluated. The results provide information for making decisions on the IRT-Sofia BNCT beam construction.

  3. IRT-Sofia BNCT beam tube optimization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belousov, S., E-mail: belousov@inrne.bas.bg [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tsarigradsko 72, Sofia (Bulgaria); Mitev, M.; Ilieva, K. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tsarigradsko 72, Sofia (Bulgaria); Riley, K. [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Watertown, MA (United States); Harling, O. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2011-12-15

    An optimization study of IRT-Sofia BNCT beam tube is presented. In the study we used the MIT/FCB experience. The enlarging of filter/moderator cross section dimensions and the decreasing of collimator length within the limits of the IRT-Sofia reactor design were analyzed. The influence of beam and reactor core axes non-coincidence on the beam properties was also evaluated. The irradiation resistance of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon{sup Registered-Sign }) was also evaluated. The results provide information for making decisions on the IRT-Sofia BNCT beam construction.

  4. New nuclear unit in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the construction of NPP Belene has been stopped in 1990, 4 attempts are made for the development of a new nuclear power unit in Bulgaria. In accordance with the regulations the following principles and criteria are considered - the probabilistic assessment should ensure frequency for the core integrity damage -5 1/reactor years; frequency of the radioactive release in case of beyond design basis accident -6 1/reactor. Comparison of different projects and perspective for NNPs in various countries is made. Analysis of technical solutions for safety and reliability is made, considering the modernization programme for the Kozloduy NPP units 5 and 6 and the experience of other power plants. In connection with the planning of a new nuclear power unit the following items are discussed: characteristics of the Kozloduy site and Belene site (variants of general plans are studied); finance analyses; technical analyses; legislation. The main conclusions about the new power unit construction is that the Belene NPP is the project which would be the most competitive on the energy market and it is expected to bring the most investment returns. It is stated that the completion of the Belene NPP unit 1 using the Improved Project B-320M is technically and financially substantiated, profitable and without alternative

  5. Stakeholder analysis for coppice forestry in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Velichkov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the state of coppice forestry in Bulgaria during last 18 years. Stakeholders and their interests and preferences in coppice forests are explored and assessed. Forests restitution process in Bulgaria started in 1997 and has not been finished yet. Nevertheless, significant further changes of the current ownership distribution are not expected. By the end of 2007, the state was the biggest coppice forest owner/stakeholder in Bulgaria with 71.3% of all coppice forests being state property. The other two important stakeholders are the municipalities (14.0% and private owners (12.0%. Currently, forest owners' number in Bulgaria exceeds 1 million, the average holding area being smaller than 1 ha. Only 150 individual plots are larger than 50 ha. The majority of private owners aim at taking maximum and immediate profit from their recently restituted forest properties. In most cases that reflects in clearcuts. Coppice forests management has been one of the problematic issues of Bulgarian forestry for decades. Despite of forest authorities significant efforts, the area of coppice forests in Bulgaria (1.78 million ha in 2007 remained unchanged for a period of 50 years. The official forest policy is still aimed at conversion of coppice forests into seed ones through different silvicultural methods. That policy is applied to almost all coppice forests regardless of their ownership.

  6. Stakeholder analysis for coppice forestry in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IvayloVelichkov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the state of coppice forestry in Bulgaria during last 18 years. Stakeholders and their interests and preferences in coppice forests are explored and assessed. Forests restitution process in Bulgaria started in 1997 and has not been finished yet. Nevertheless, significant further changes of the current ownershipdistribution are not expected. By the end of 2007, the state was the biggest coppice forest owner/stakeholder in Bulgaria with 71.3% of all coppice forests being state property. The other two important stakeholders are the municipalities (14.0% and private owners (12.0%. Currently, forest owners' number in Bulgaria exceeds 1million, the average holding area being smaller than 1 ha. Only 150 individual plots are larger than 50 ha. The majority of private owners aim at taking maximum and immediate profit from their recently restituted forest properties. In most cases that reflects in clearcuts. Coppice forests management has been one of the problematicissues of Bulgarian forestry for decades. Despite of forest authorities significant efforts, the area of coppice forests in Bulgaria (1.78 million ha in 2007 remained unchanged for a period of 50 years. The official forest policy is still aimed at conversionof coppice forests into seed ones through different silvicultural methods. That policy is applied to almost all coppice forests regardless of their ownership.

  7. Future utilization of the research reactor IRT in Sofia after its reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research reactor IRT-2000 (IRT) in Sofia to the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) was built and put into operation in 1962. It was temporarily shut down in 1989 for improvement. The reconstruction of the IRT is being carried out under the decision of the Council of Ministers of Republic of Bulgaria from 2001. The strategy for sustainable utilization considers the IRT as a national base and aims to satisfy the society needs for: education of students and training of graduated physicists and engineers in the field of nuclear science and nuclear energy; implementation of applied methods and research; development and preservation of nuclear science, skills, and knowledge. The IRT Technical Design is being in process of elaboration. The IRT will be reconstructed into a reactor of thermal power 200 kW with low enriched fuel, with uranium-235 enrichment below 20%, with ten vertical and seven horizontal experimental channels which will supply maximal fast neutron flux about 3. 1012n/cm2s, and maximal thermal flux about 8.1012n/cm2s, with a channel which will supply epithermal neutron flux about 0,9.109 n/cm2s suitable for medical Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) application

  8. English Language Cultures in Bulgaria: A Linguistic Sibling Rivalry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Laurie M.

    1998-01-01

    In Bulgaria, a complex matrix of power relations governs English language education, and a triangle of international and intercultural relations between Bulgaria, United States, and United Kingdom. In the context of the changing economic and political milieu of central and eastern Europe, a study examines how Bulgaria fits into the emerging…

  9. Deterministic earthquake scenarios for the city of Sofia

    CERN Document Server

    Slavov, S I; Panza, G F; Paskaleva, I; Vaccari, P

    2002-01-01

    The city of Sofia is exposed to a high seismic risk. Macroseismic intensities in the range of VIII-X (MSK) can be expected in the city. The earthquakes, that can influence the hazard at Sofia, originate either beneath the city or are caused by seismic sources located within a radius of 40km. The city of Sofia is also prone to the remote Vrancea seismic zone in Romania, and particularly vulnerable are the long - period elements of the built environment. The high seismic risk and the lack of instrumental recordings of the regional seismicity makes the use of appropriate credible earthquake scenarios and ground motion modelling approaches for defining the seismic input for the city of Sofia necessary. Complete synthetic seismic signals, due to several earthquake scenarios, were computed along chosen geological profiles crossing the city, applying a hybrid technique, based on the modal summation technique and finite differences. The modelling takes into account simultaneously the geotechnical properties of the si...

  10. Refurbishment of IRT-2000 research reactor in Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning strategy of IRT-2000 research reactor, Sofia is subjected to a refurbishment into low-power reactor. Some pre-decommissioning activities of this complicated decommissioning-refurbishment process have been carried out. (author)

  11. SOFIA EPO--Education Partnerships at 41,000 Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M. A.; DeVore, E.

    2001-05-01

    SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, expected to begin operations in late 2004, represents a unique opportunity for education and public outreach (EPO). SOFIA is the first research observatory--airborne or ground-based--in which close participation by educators and journalists is being designed into both the physical facility and the administrative structure of the observatory. With the overall goal of contributing to the public's awareness and understanding of science in general and astronomy in particular, the SOFIA EPO program will include formal K-12 and undergraduate educational activities, public outreach, and media relations. One of the most exciting and unique aspects of the SOFIA EPO program is the observatory's ability to carry up to 10 educators on science flights, enabling them to partner with scientists and see science in action. Some 200 formal and informal educators per year are expected to participate in the SOFIA Airborne Ambassadors program (SAAP). Educators who have participated in SAAP will be encouraged to continue their scientist partnerships and will be supported in their efforts to carry their new-found knowledge and enthusiasm to their students, other educators in their communities, and the general public. SOFIA and SIRTF EPO are currently collaborating with Montana State University-Bozeman on the development of an on-line course aimed at working teachers which will concentrate on how to translate key concepts in IR and airborne astronomy into standards-based K-12 classroom activities. Scientists, engineers, and other members of the SOFIA team will be encouraged to partner with local teachers and visit their classrooms as a part of the SOFIA Education Partners Program (SEPP). This program will enable students to interact with scientists and other professionals on a one-on-one basis. Participating educators may fly onboard SOFIA with their scientist partners. Scientists who participate in this program will be able to work

  12. Circulation factors affecting precipitation over Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojarov, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the influence of circulation factors on precipitation in Bulgaria. The study succeeds investigation on the influence of circulation factors on air temperatures in Bulgaria, as the focus here is directed toward precipitation amounts. Circulation factors are represented through two circulation indices, showing west-east or south-north transport of air masses over Bulgaria and four teleconnection indices (patterns)—North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic, East Atlantic/Western Russia, and Scandinavian. Omega values at 700-hPa level show vertical motions in the atmosphere. Annual precipitation trends are mixed and not statistically significant. A significant decrease of precipitation in Bulgaria is observed in November due to the strengthening of the eastward transport of air masses (strengthening of EA teleconnection pattern) and anticyclonal weather (increase of descending motions in the atmosphere). There is also a precipitation decrease in May and June due to the growing influence of the Azores High. An increase of precipitation happens in September. All this leads to a redistribution of annual precipitation course, but annual precipitation amounts remain the same. However, this redistribution has a negative impact on agriculture and winter ski tourism. Zonal circulation has a larger influence on precipitation in Bulgaria compared to meridional. Eastward transport throughout the year leads to lower than the normal precipitation, and vice versa. With regard to the four teleconnection patterns, winter precipitation in Bulgaria is determined mainly by EA/WR teleconnection pattern, spring and autumn by EA teleconnection pattern, and summer by SCAND teleconnection pattern.

  13. Tracking subsystem of the SOFIA telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Hermann; Braeuninger, Christoph; Dierks, Andreas; Erdmann, Matthias; Erhard, Markus; Lattner, Klaus; Schmolke, Juergen

    2000-06-01

    The Tracking Subsystem of the SOFIA telescope consists of three high performance imagers and a dedicated tracking control unit. There are two boresighted imagers for target acquisition and tracking, one with a wide (6 degrees) and one with a fine (70 arcmin) field-of-view, and one main- telescope-optics sharing imager with a narrow field-of-view (8 arcmin) for high performance tracking. From the recorded stellar images, tracking error signals are generated by the tracker controller. The tracker controller has several features to support various tracking schemes such as tracking the telescope as an inertial platform, on- axis/offset tracking, and limb tracking. The tracker has three modes, i.e. positioning, tracking and `override'. Special features are the handling of so-called areas-of- interest in the inertial reference frame and the external imager synchronization. The paper presents the design and functional/operational performance of the imagers and the tracking control unit.

  14. The SOFIA Mission Control System Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiligman, G. M.; Brock, D. R.; Culp, S. D.; Decker, P. H.; Estrada, J. C.; Graybeal, J. B.; Nichols, D. M.; Paluzzi, P. R.; Sharer, P. J.; Pampell, R. J.; Papke, B. L.; Salovich, R. D.; Schlappe, S. B.; Spriestersbach, K. K.; Webb, G. L.

    1999-05-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) will be delivered with a computerized mission control system (MCS). The MCS communicates with the aircraft's flight management system and coordinates the operations of the telescope assembly, mission-specific subsystems, and the science instruments. The software for the MCS must be reliable and flexible. It must be easily usable by many teams of observers with widely differing needs, and it must support non-intrusive access for education and public outreach. The technology must be appropriate for SOFIA's 20-year lifetime. The MCS software development process is an object-oriented, use case driven approach. The process is iterative: delivery will be phased over four "builds"; each build will be the result of many iterations; and each iteration will include analysis, design, implementation, and test activities. The team is geographically distributed, coordinating its work via Web pages, teleconferences, T.120 remote collaboration, and CVS (for Internet-enabled configuration management). The MCS software architectural design is derived in part from other observatories' experience. Some important features of the MCS are: * distributed computing over several UNIX and VxWorks computers * fast throughput of time-critical data * use of third-party components, such as the Adaptive Communications Environment (ACE) and the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) * extensive configurability via stored, editable configuration files * use of several computer languages so developers have "the right tool for the job". C++, Java, scripting languages, Interactive Data Language (from Research Systems, Int'l.), XML, and HTML will all be used in the final deliverables. This paper reports on work in progress, with the final product scheduled for delivery in 2001. This work was performed for Universities Space Research Association for NASA under contract NAS2-97001.

  15. SOFIA: first science highlights and future science potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnecker, H.

    2013-06-01

    SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, is a joint project between NASA and the German Aerospace Agency (DLR) to develop and operate a 2.5 m airborne telescope in a highly modified Boeing 747SP aircraft that can fly as high as 45 000 feet (13.7 km). This is above 99.8 % of the precipitable water vapor which blocks much of the mid- and far-infrared radiation from reaching ground-based telescopes. In this review, we briefly discuss the characteristics of the Observatory and present a number of early science highlights obtained with the FORCAST camera in 5-40 micron spectral region and with the GREAT heterodyne spectrometer in the 130-240 micron spectral region. The FORCAST images in Orion show the discovery of a new high-mass protostar (IRc4), while GREAT observations at 1 km s-1 velocity resolution detected velocity-resolved, redshifted ammonia spectra at 1.81 THz in absorption against several strong far-infrared dust continuum sources, clear evidence of substantial protostellar infall onto massive (non-ionizing) protostars. These powerful new data allow us to determine how massive stars form in our Galaxy. Another highlight is the stunning image taken by FORCAST that reveals the transient circumnuclear 1.5 pc radius (dust) ring around our Galactic center, heated by hundreds of massive stars in the young nuclear star cluster. The GREAT heterodyne spectrometer also observed the circumnuclear ring in highly excited CO rotational lines, indicative of emission from warm dense molecular gas with broad velocity structure, perhaps due to local shock heating. GREAT also made superb mapping observations of the [C II] fine structure cooling line at 158 microns, for example in M17-SW molecular cloud-star cluster interface, observations which disprove the simple canonical photodissociation models. The much better baseline stability of the GREAT receivers (compared to Herschel HIFI) allows efficient on-the-fly mapping of extended [C II] emission in our

  16. Overview of the SOFIA Data Cycle System: An Integrated Set of Tools and Services for the SOFIA General Investigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuping, R. Y.; Vacca, W. D.; Lin, L.; Sun, L.; Krzaczek, R.

    2013-10-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne astronomical observatory comprised of a 2.5 meter infrared telescope mounted in the aft section of a Boeing 747SP aircraft that flies at operational altitudes between 37,000 and 45,00 feet, above 99% of atmospheric water vapor. During routine operations, a host of instruments will be available to the astronomical community including cameras and spectrographs in the near- to far-IR; a sub-mm heterodyne receiver; and an high-speed occultation imager. One of the challenges for SOFIA (and all observatories in general) is providing a uniform set of tools that enable the non-expert General Investigator (GI) to propose, plan, and obtain observations using a variety of very different instruments in an easy and seamless manner. The SOFIA Data Cycle System (DCS) is an integrated set of services and user tools for the SOFIA Science and Mission Operations GI Program designed to address this challenge. Program activities supported by the DCS include: proposal preparation and submission by the GI; proposal evaluation by the telescope allocation committee and observatory staff; Astronomical Observation Request (AOR) preparation and submission by the GI; observation and mission planning by observatory staff; data processing and archiving; data product distribution. In this poster paper we present an overview of the DCS concepts, architecture, and user tools that are (or soon will be) available in routine SOFIA operations. In addition, we present experience from the SOFIA Basic Science program, and planned upgrades.

  17. SOFIA Outreach--Educational Partnerships at 41,000 Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M. A.

    2000-10-01

    SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy), expected to begin operations in late 2002, represents a unique opportunity for education and public outreach (EPO). SOFIA is the first research observatory--airborne or ground-based--in which close participation by educators and journalists is being designed into both the physical facility and the administrative structure of the observatory. With the overall goal of contributing to the public's awareness and understanding of science in general and astronomy in particular, the SOFIA EPO program will include formal K-12 and undergraduate educational activities, public outreach, and media relations. One of the most exciting and unique aspects of the SOFIA EPO program is the observatory's ability to carry up to 10 educators on science flights, enabling them to partner with scientists and see science in action. Some 200 formal and informal educators per year are expected to participate in the SOFIA Airborne Ambassadors program (SAAP). Educators who have participated in SAAP will be encouraged to continue their scientist partnerships and will be supported in their efforts to carry their new-found knowledge and enthusiasm to their students, other educators in their communities, and the general public. Scientists, engineers, and other members of the SOFIA team will be encouraged to partner with local teachers and visit their classrooms as a part of the SOFIA Education Partners Program (SEPP). This program will enable students to interact with scientists and other professionals on a one-on-one basis. Participating educators may fly onboard SOFIA with their scientist partners. Scientists who participate in this program will be able to work with educators and students in their local communities to forge long-lasting science education partnerships. The SOFIA EPO staff is interested in forming collaborations with interested organizations, other NASA missions, and individual astronomers. For more information please

  18. A UK view of Bulgaria's potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a personal view of the options and challenges for the future of Eastern Europe countries. The widening of Europe, UK situation and investment criteria are discussed. Bulgaria is considered in better shape than some European states as a host for new or replacement nuclear power station construction

  19. Bulgaria. A relatively short organic history

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolov, Stoylko; Heeb, Marlene

    2003-01-01

    Organic agriculture in Bulgaria has a relatively short history. The concept of organic agriculture was only introduced after the fall of the communist regime in 1990, when the process of land restitution started. Below is an account of developments over the following thirteen years and a report on the current status of organic agriculture in the country.

  20. Addressing Unfair Trading Practices in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    The Government of Bulgaria (GoB) is concerned that large retail chains may be using their superior bargaining position to dictate the terms of contractual relations with their suppliers. The Government believes that this constitutes unfair trading practices (UTP) and remedies should be found in the nation's competition policy framework. The GoB is considering the introduction of the concep...

  1. Application of the neo-deterministic seismic microzonation procedure in Bulgaria and validation of the seismic input against Eurocode 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The earthquake record and the Code for design and construction in seismic regions in Bulgaria have shown that the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria is exposed to a high seismic risk due to local shallow and regional strong intermediate-depth seismic sources. The available strong motion database is quite limited, and therefore not representative at all of the real hazard. The application of the neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment procedure for two main Bulgarian cities has been capable to supply a significant database of synthetic strong motions for the target sites, applicable for earthquake engineering purposes. The main advantage of the applied deterministic procedure is the possibility to take simultaneously and correctly into consideration the contribution to the earthquake ground motion at the target sites of the seismic source and of the seismic wave propagation in the crossed media. We discuss in this study the result of some recent applications of the neo-deterministic seismic microzonation procedure to the cities of Sofia and Russe. The validation of the theoretically modeled seismic input against Eurocode 8 and the few available records at these sites is discussed. (author)

  2. St. Sofia in Ohrid, space, structure, forms: Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korać Vojislav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work comments in particular on studies dealing with the church of St. Sofia in Ohrid. Among them are the monographs of two authors, Barbara Maria Schellewald (Die Arhitektur der Sophien Kirchen in Ohrid, Bon 1986 and Boris Čipan (Sveta Sofija, katedralen hram na ohridskata arhiepiskopija, Skopje 1995. Special attention is devoted to the typological interpretation of St. Sofia, to its initial design as a triple-nave basilica with a dome at the centre. Insightful descriptions are given about the older monuments in the Byzantine capital, Constantinople. Special attention is paid to the external architectonic workmanship. The western façade of St. Sofia demonstrates the features of Late Byzantine architecture, while the eastern façade directly reveals the triple-nave spatial design. That is why this article on St. Sofia contains sketches of the western and the eastern façades, illustrating the features of its architectonic specificities. On the whole, the author presents St. Sofia in Ohrid as a unique work of architecture of the Byzantine region. .

  3. IRT - Sofia conversion feasibility study experience 2002-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belousov, S.I.; Apostolov, T.G. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of Bulgarian Academy of Science, Tsarigradsko 72, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-07-01

    A joint conversion feasibility study concerning the IRT - Sofia research reactor between INRNE and the RERTR Program at ANL was initiated in 2002. The initial steps studies (up to 2006) were mainly focused on neutronics properties significant for reactor application and safety analyses. Thermal hydraulic, accident analyses as well as additional neutronics study required were performed after that (up to 2010). The obtained results show that the IRT-4M LEU fuel assemblies (19.75% {sup 235}U enrichment) are appropriate for IRT-Sofia conversion (IRT-Sofia was initially designed for the IRT-2M HEU fuel assemblies with 36% {sup 235}U enrichment). The results obtained in the frames of the joint study show that the IRT-Sofia operation even with usage of only one pump in the primary circuit meets all safety requirements at power level up to 1000 kW and that safety is maintained for accident transients. Presented results of analyses (neutronics, thermal hydraulic, and accident) and accumulated experience for the IRT-Sofia will be useful for other research reactors where conversion from IRT-2M (HEU) to IRT-4M (LEU) fuel is underway and/or foreseen. (authors)

  4. IRT - Sofia conversion feasibility study experience 2002-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A joint conversion feasibility study concerning the IRT - Sofia research reactor between INRNE and the RERTR Program at ANL was initiated in 2002. The initial steps studies (up to 2006) were mainly focused on neutronics properties significant for reactor application and safety analyses. Thermal hydraulic, accident analyses as well as additional neutronics study required were performed after that (up to 2010). The obtained results show that the IRT-4M LEU fuel assemblies (19.75% 235U enrichment) are appropriate for IRT-Sofia conversion (IRT-Sofia was initially designed for the IRT-2M HEU fuel assemblies with 36% 235U enrichment). The results obtained in the frames of the joint study show that the IRT-Sofia operation even with usage of only one pump in the primary circuit meets all safety requirements at power level up to 1000 kW and that safety is maintained for accident transients. Presented results of analyses (neutronics, thermal hydraulic, and accident) and accumulated experience for the IRT-Sofia will be useful for other research reactors where conversion from IRT-2M (HEU) to IRT-4M (LEU) fuel is underway and/or foreseen. (authors)

  5. Flying the Infrared Skies: An Authentic SOFIA Educator Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, J. G.

    2015-11-01

    The NASA/DLR Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) flagship education effort is its Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) program. The program flies teams of teachers on SOFIA research flights as part of an educator professional development effort enabling these teachers to experience first-hand the workings of the airborne observatory, to interact with scientists and technologists, to observe research in progress and how scientists use technology—all in support of national STEM goals. The presenter will share his own experience as an EPO escort on a recent SOFIA flight including two educator teams, providing a first-hand account of how an “authentic” science experience can exploit unique NASA assets to improve science teaching, inspire students, inform local communities, and contribute to the elevation of public science literacy.

  6. Marketing approaches for OTC analgesics in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Petkova, Valentina; Valchanova, Velislava; Ibrahim, Adel; NIKOLOVA, IRINA; Benbasat, Niko; Dimitrov, Milen

    2014-01-01

    The marketing management includes analysis of market opportunities, selection of target markets, planning, developing and implementing of marketing strategies, monitoring and result control. The object of the present study was to analyse the marketing approaches applied for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Bulgaria. The performed SWOT(planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis for one of the leading Bulgarian manufacturers...

  7. Flexible Working Time Arrangements in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Beleva, Iskra

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the flexible working time arrangements in Bulgaria, using a life-course perspective. Two important features have to be outlined, namely: underdeveloped flexible forms of employment in the country, including working time arrangement, and lack of previous analysis on flexible working time arrangements from the angle of life-course perspective. The author describes the regulatory framework, collective agreements at national and company level as a frame w...

  8. Bulgaria: Ethnic differentials in rapidly declining fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimiter Philipov

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter provides a detailed description of the fertility changes in Bulgaria during recent decades and discusses possible reasons and consequences. It also gives an overview of the steps that the government has undertaken to offset the considerable decline in fertility. Before the fall of communism, fertility trends in Bulgaria were stable and characterized by a nearly universal entry into parenthood, dominance of a two-child family model, an early start and early end of childbearing, stable mean ages at entry into childbearing and marriage, and low percentages of non-marital births. During the 1990s and in the first years of the new century, we observe a marked, rapid change in fertility behaviour. Together with the severe decline in overall fertility rates, demographic data reveal a significant postponement of entry into motherhood and marriage, a decline of the two-child family model, and an emergence of new family forms. Most research attributes these changes to the particular political and social situation in Bulgaria since 1989.

  9. IMPLEMENTATION OF ISO 14001 IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina HARIZANOVA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the Bulgarian business organizations and government bodies were facing with the increased needs to implement new standards which could bring a higher benefit for companies and also not to affect the environment. The ISO 14 000 Family is based on standards for environmental management and gives the possibility to be applied in any type of organization, public or private sectors, administrations, etc . The main aim of the publication is to trace the implementation of ISO 14001 in Bulgaria by sectors and type of activities. As well this research offers the main reasons to the Bulgarian firms to implement ISO 14001. For reaching the aim, the study made a review of a Evolution of ISO 14001 and its flexibility, in compliance with changes in the environment and business; b Research of the firms which implemented ISO 14001 in Bulgaria, c Content of the activities in the certification cycle. The used methods are according to the research system of the Bulgarian firms which implemented ISO 14001. Finally, some conclusions were drawn about the development of the ISO 14 001 in Bulgaria.

  10. The optical system of the SOFIA telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Hermann; Erdmann, Matthias; Erhard, Markus; Haberler, Peter

    2004-10-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) houses a 2.5-m infrared telescope in a Boeing 747SP aircraft. It will be operated at high altitudes above the atmospheric water vapor. The telescope is of Cassegrain type in a so-called Nasmyth configuration with a VIS and an IR focus. The 2.7-m primary mirror is a monolithic element of Zerodur with a milled honeycomb structure on the backside. Despite of its size, it has a high stiffness (approx. 160 Hz 1st natural frequency) and a mass of approx. 885 kg only. The mirror support structure is a lightweight structure made from CFRP panels and profiles, bonded and riveted together with metallic inserts and joints. The mirror mounting by dedicated flexures provides a very stiff but nevertheless isostatic mounting of the mirror in the support structure (first natural frequency around 70 Hz). The secondary mirror is made from SiC with a very high 1st natural frequency of approx. 2 kHz allowing noise-suppressing chopper operation without image distortions. The tertiary mirror assembly is implemented as a dichroic beam splitter providing the IR Nasmyth focus for the scientific instruments and as a fully reflective mirror providing the VIS Nasmyth focus for tracking purposes. The paper describes the optical system with its subassemblies, their tested as-built performance as well as the predicted extrapolated overall image performance. The integration of the primary mirror assembly into the aircraft will be shown. The further integration and alignment steps, planned for summer 2004, will be explained.

  11. Thermal hydraulic calculations of the IRT-Sofia reactor with LEU fuel IRT-4M, Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutronic calculations of the IRT-Sofia research reactor with fuel assemblies (FA) of the IRT-4M type, containing low enriched uranium (19.75%), confirmed the justness of the selection of its initial core configuration. On the basis of the neutronic calculation results the thermal-hydraulic calculations were done by PLTEMP code. Three possible operational regimes have been considered. For each of them the margin coefficients of the water onset of the nucleate boiling (ONB) have been determined. An analysis has been made on the fuel element surface for the particular fuel assembly with maximum power density. The calculations have been accomplished for the core water inlet temperature of 450C. The results are in compliance with the thermal-hydraulic safety requirements. This is valid for all analyzed regimes

  12. Training of Instrumentalists and Development of New Technologies on SOFIA

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Edwin F; Baluteau, Jean-Paul; Becklin, Eric E; Bjoraker, Gordon; Burton, Michael; Caroff, Lawrence J; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Churchwell, Edward B; Clemens, Dan P; Cohen, Martin; Cruikshank, Dale P; Dinerstein, Harriet L; Dunham, Edward W; Fazio, Giovanni G; Gatley, Ian; Gehrz, Robert D; Genzel, Reinhard; Graf, Paul; Greenhouse, Matthew A; Harper, Doyal A; Harvey, Paul M; Harwit, Martin; Hildebrand, Roger H; Hollenbach, David J; Lane, Adair P; Larson, Harold P; Lord, Steven D; Madden, Suzanne; Melnick, Gary J; Neufeld, David A; Olkin, Catherine B; Packham, Christopher C; Roellig, Thomas L; Roeser, Hans-Peter; Sandford, Scott A; Sellgren, Kristen; Simpson, Janet P; Storey, John W V; Telesco, Charles M; Tielens, Alexander G G M; Tokunaga, Alan T; Townes, Charles H; Walker, Christopher K; Werner, Michael W; Whitcomb, Stanley E; Wolf, Juergen; Woodward, Charles E; Young, Erick T; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    This white paper is submitted to the Astronomy and Astrophysics 2010 Decadal Survey (Astro2010)1 Committee on the State of the Profession to emphasize the potential of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) to contribute to the training of instrumentalists and observers, and to related technology developments. This potential goes beyond the primary mission of SOFIA, which is to carry out unique, high priority astronomical research. SOFIA is a Boeing 747SP aircraft with a 2.5 meter telescope. It will enable astronomical observations anywhere, any time, and at most wavelengths between 0.3 microns and 1.6 mm not accessible from ground-based observatories. These attributes, accruing from the mobility and flight altitude of SOFIA, guarantee a wealth of scientific return. Its instrument teams (nine in the first generation) and guest investigators will do suborbital astronomy in a shirt-sleeve environment. The project will invest $10M per year in science instrument development over a lifetime o...

  13. Infrared Observations of novae in the SOFIA era

    CERN Document Server

    Gehrz, R D; Helton, L A; Woodward, C E

    2015-01-01

    Classical novae inject chemically enriched gas and dust into the local inter-stellar medium (ISM). Abundances in the ejecta can be deduced from infrared (IR) forbidden line emission. IR spectroscopy can determine the mineralogy of grains that grow in nova ejecta. We anticipate the impact that NASA's new Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) will have on future IR studies of novae.

  14. SOFIA telescope modal survey test and test-model correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keas, Paul; Brewster, Rick; Guerra, Jorge; Lampater, Ulrich; Kärcher, Hans; Teufel, Stefan; Wagner, Jörg

    2010-07-01

    The NASA/DLR Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) employs a 2.5-meter reflector telescope in a Boeing 747SP. The telescope is housed in an open cavity and will be subjected to aeroacoustic and inertial disturbances. The image stability goal for SOFIA is 0.2 arc-seconds (RMS). Throughout the development phase of the project, analytical models were employed to predict the image stability performance of the telescope, and to evaluate pointing performance improvement measures. These analyses clearly demonstrated that key aspects which determined performance were: 1) Disturbance environment and relevant load-paths 2) Telescope modal behavior 3) Sensor and actuator placement 4) Control algorithm design The SOFIA program is now entering an exciting phase in which the characteristics of the telescope and the cavity environment are being verified through ground and airborne testing. A modal survey test (MST) was conducted in early 2008 to quantify the telescope modal behavior. We will give a brief overview of analytical methods which have been employed to assess/improve the pointing stability performance of the SOFIA telescope. In this context, we will describe the motivation for the MST, and the pre-test analysis which determined the modes of interest and the required MST sensor/shaker placement. A summary will then be given of the FEM-test correlation effort, updated end-to-end simulation results, and actual data coming from telescope activation test flights.

  15. Bulgaria : Raising Skills for Employment, Growth and Convergence

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The Bulgarian labor market has seen remarkable improvements in recent years and has contributed to strong economic growth. The benign environment for job creation is now changing, as the global economic crisis impacts on labor market demand in Bulgaria. Compared to the EU27 averages, activity and employment rates have remained low, and Bulgaria has significant untapped domestic labor res...

  16. Overview of the SOFIA Data Cycle System: An integrated set of tools and services for the SOFIA General Investigator

    CERN Document Server

    Shuping, R Y; Lin, Lan; Sun, Li; Krzaczek, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne astronomical observatory comprised of a 2.5 meter infrared telescope mounted in the aft section of a Boeing 747SP aircraft that flies at operational altitudes between 37,000 and 45,00 feet, above 99% of atmospheric water vapor. During routine operations, a host of instruments will be available to the astronomical community including cameras and spectrographs in the near- to far-IR; a sub-mm heterodyne receiver; and an high-speed occultation imager. One of the challenges for SOFIA (and all observatories in general) is providing a uniform set of tools that enable the non-expert General Investigator (GI) to propose, plan, and obtain observations using a variety of very different instruments in an easy and seamless manner. The SOFIA Data Cycle System (DCS) is an integrated set of services and user tools for the SOFIA Science and Mission Operations GI Program designed to address this challenge. Program activities supported by the DCS inclu...

  17. Status, problems and perspectives of the education on nuclear energetics and nuclear safety within the Technical University of Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Education on nuclear energetic within the Technical University of Sofia is conducted since 1966 within the framework of the specialty 'Thermal energetic' at that time, and since 1973, within the specialty 'Thermal and nuclear energetic'. In 1986 is opened a college on nuclear energetic teaching on specialty 'Nuclear Energetic' and 'Automation in Energetic'. Since 1998 the department 'Thermal and nuclear energetic' is the only one within the Republic of Bulgaria having the legal rights to train 'engineers-bachelors' and 'engineers-master of science' on 'Thermal and nuclear energetic', as well as doctors - engineers of the same specialty. The bachelor course is graduated from between 40 and 60 students annually. The training within the bachelor level is 4 years and finishes by defending diploma thesis. Part of the graduated bachelors (between 20 and 30 students) are closely specialized in the area of Nuclear Energetic. The specialization is trained through preparation of diploma thesis within the nuclear area. The master course has 3 semesters including preparation of diploma thesis. Within the master level are prepared 25 students annually. Within the sub-division 'Nuclear Energetic' are promulgated between 2 and 4 competitions for preparation of doctoral thesis annually. At the moment 7 students are preparing doctoral thesis. Graduated engineers on 'Nuclear Energetic' are engaged as operative personnel mainly in Kozloduy NPP. The rest of them are engaged within the engineering and scientific organizations, connected to nuclear energetic

  18. Flora of the Mediterranean Rivers in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanka G. Hristeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and distribution of aquatic bryophytes and vascular plants assemblages in Mediteranean Rivers in Bulgaria are presented in this work. Aquatic macrophytes were studied at thirteen rivers in South Bulgaria during 2014, together with abiotic factors (flow velocity, shading, and substrate type, mean depth and altitude. In total, 73 species were registered, of them 13 bryophytes and 60 vascular plants were identified. Aquatic bryophytes included 10 mosses and 3 liverworts. The recorded bryophytes species refer to 7 families and 12 genera. The most frequently distributed species was Leptodictyum riparium (Hedw. Warnst., followed by Cratoneuron filicinum (Hedw. Spruce and Platyhypnidium riparioides (Hedw. Dixon, Brachythecium rivulare Schimp. and Hygroamblystegium tenax (Hedw. Jenn. The recorded 60 species of vascular plants refer to 25 families and 43 genera. The most common hydrophyte species was Lemna minor L., followed by Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix, Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Potamogeton nodosus Poir. The most abundant species from the group of helophytes and amphiphytes was Mentha aquatica L., followed by Agrostis stolonifera L. Mentha spicata L., Berula erecta (Huds. Coville, Juncus effusus L., Lycopus europaeus L., Lythrum salicaria L., Phalaris arundinacea L., Ranunculus repens L., Sparganium erectum L., Typha latifolia L., and Veronica anagalis-aquatica L. The majority of studied rivers sites were sunny, with moderate velocity, stony bottom, average depth up to 0.3 m and altitude between 100 and 500 m a.s.l.

  19. Induced Mutagenesis for Crop Improvement in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental mutagenesis has been investigated and applied in crop breeding in various Bulgarian agricultural research institutes during the last half century. In this paper some major accomplishments achieved in Bulgaria are highlighted. Both, physical mutagens (mainly gamma rays) and chemical mutagens (mainly EMS, NMU, NEU), have been used and their proper doses have been established. According to the information available to the author, there are more than 76 new cultivars developed using induced mutants in Bulgaria, namely: barley (5), wheat (5), durum wheat (9), maize (26), sunflower (3), lentil (4), bean (2), pea (1), chickpea and vetch (2), soybean (5), tomato (6), pepper (4), cotton (2), tobacco (2). Some of the mutant cultivars such as maize hybrid Kneja 509 and durum wheat cultivar Gergana have become leading cultivars occupying up to 50% of the growing area of the crop concerned. In durum wheat, mutant cultivars have not only covered almost all the growing areas but also doubled the yield in the past 30 years. The achievements in mutation breeding programmes have also had a significant impact on the progress of genetic research by elucidating the underlying mechanisms of induced mutations and the training of many young researchers and university students through their involvement in various research projects. A number of mutant lines with novel characteristics and mutant cultivars of economical importance together with relevant techniques used in the development and characterization of those mutant lines/cultivars are described in this paper. (author)

  20. Problems and tendencies in management optimisation of hospital sector within health care system of Republic of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Stoycheva

    2013-03-01

    Bulgaria over the period 2001-2009, published in NCMI Bulletin No10. The analysis of the published report coincides with the general development trend in the area of health care in the EU and corresponds to the hospital care development forecasts in theRepublic of Bulgaria to 2014. The priorities of financing hospital care in the EU and theRepublic of Bulgaria are discussed by G.Komitovand, S.Genev.Considerable attention is paid to health care issues in the hospital sector of Bulgaria. These are analyzed in the context of European reality and priorities, discussed at regular scientific and practical forums. As an example, directly relating to this publication, the author speaks of the Fifth national conference Information technologies and relations in health care challenges of the 21st century, held in Sofia in 2009.The author notes that the major role is played by the Government and the National Assembly of Republic of Bulgaria in the process of reforming health care and expresses its agreement on the importance of issues related with economy in health care. Regular documents on national and institutional level analyse the condition and the perspectives of development and restructuring of the hospital sector in Bulgaria.Analysing dynamics of hospital inpatient care in the European countries and RB the author finds similar tendencies, coinciding with data given by other authors [8; 13] and demonstrates analogous trends, connected with cost reduction in the hospital sector over the past 20 years by 55% to 30-35%. The author agrees with other researchers, that the tendencies are determined by the following major macro- and microeconomic changes: restructuring of medical services;reduction of the hospitals number (except for Bulgaria and Romania, where an increase is found related to the increased demand for certain hospital services; reduction of budget expenses for hospitals financing; increased efficiency and rationality of hospital medical care; improved hospital

  1. Fossil birds in the National Museum of Natural History, Sofia: composition, development and scientific value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boev, Z.N.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the fossil and subfossil avian record kept in Bulgaria is presented. The only collection of fossil birds in Bulgaria was established in the 1980s. 99.6% originates from 98 localities throughout Bulgaria. Foreign fossils originate from Azerbaijan, Greece, Hungary, Namibia and New Zealand.

  2. SOFIA FORCAST Far-IR Photometry of Comet ISON and Constraints on the Coma Grain Size Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, D. H.; DeBuizer, J. M.; Kelley, M. S.; Woodward, C. E.; Harker, D. E.; Reach, W. T.; Sitko, M. L.; Russell, R. W.; Gehrz, R. D.; dePater, Imke; Kolokolova, Ludmilla

    2014-01-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) was unique in that it was a dynamically new comet derived from the nearly isotropic Oort cloud reservoir of comets with a sun-grazing orbit. Infrared (IR) observations were executed on NASA's Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) by the FORCAST instrument on 2013 October 25 UT (r(sub h)=1.18 AU, Delta=1.5AU). Photometry was obtained in FORCAST filters centered at 11.1, 19.7, and 31.5 micron. The observations compliment a large world-wide effort to observe and characterize comet ISON.

  3. AIRES: An Airborne Infra-Red Echelle Spectrometer for SOFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Jessie J.; Erickson, Edwin F.; Haas, Michael R.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Simpson, Janet P.; Telesco, Charles M.; Pina, Robert K.; Wolf, Juergen; Young, Erick T.

    1999-01-01

    SOFIA will enable astronomical observations with unprecedented angular resolution at infrared wavelengths obscured from the ground. To help open this new chapter in the exploration of the infrared universe, we are building AIRES, an Airborne Infra-Red Echelle Spectrometer. AIRES will be operated as a first generation, general purpose facility instrument by USRA, NASA's prime contractor for SOFIA. AIRES is a long slit spectrograph operating from 17 - 210 microns. In high resolution mode the spectral resolving power is approx. 10(exp 6) microns/A or approx. 10(exp 4) at 100 microns. Unfortunately, since the conference, a low resolution mode with resolving power about 100 times lower has been deleted due to budgetary constraints. AIRES includes a slit viewing camera which operates in broad bands at 18 and 25 microns.

  4. Planning and Executing Airborne Astronomy Missions for SOFIA

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Michael A K

    2010-01-01

    SOFIA is a 2.5 meter airborne infrared telescope, mounted in a Boeing 747SP aircraft. Due to the large size of the telescope, only a few degrees of azimuth are available at the telescope bearing. This means the heading of the aircraft is fundamentally associated with the telescope's observation targets, and the ground track necessary to enable a given mission is highly complex and dependent on the coordinates, duration, and order of observations to be performed. We have designed and implemented a Flight Management Infrastructure (FMI) product in order to plan and execute such missions in the presence of a large number of external constraints (e.g. restricted airspace, international boundaries, elevation limits of the telescope, aircraft performance, winds at altitude, and ambient temperatures). We present an overview of the FMI, including the process, constraints and basic algorithms used to plan and execute SOFIA missions.

  5. THz Quantum-Cascade Laser as Local Oscillator for SOFIA

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Heiko; Greiner-Bär, Michael; Pavlov, Sergey; Semenov, A. D.; Wienold, Martin; Schrottke, L; Giehler, M.; Hey, R.; Grahn, H.-T.; Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of a compact local oscillator (LO) for operation on board of SOFIA, namely for GREAT, the German Receiver for Astronomy at Terahertz Frequencies. The LO combines a quantum-cascade laser (QCL) with a compact, low-input-power Stirling cooler. The output power is sufficient for pumping a hot-electron bolometer mixer. Frequency stabilization is achieved by locking to a molecular absorption line. Detectors operating at room temperature can be used for the stabilization...

  6. Deterministic Earthquake Scenarios for the City of Sofia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavov, S.; Paskaleva, I.; Kouteva, M.; Vaccari, F.; Panza, G. F.

    The city of Sofia is exposed to a high seismic risk. Macroseismic intensities in the range of VIII - X (MSK) can be expected in the city. The earthquakes that can influence the hazard in Sofia originate either beneath the city or are caused by seismic sources located within a radius of 40 km. The city of Sofia is also prone to the remote Vrancea seismic zone in Romania, and particularly vulnerable are the long-period elements of the built environment. The high seismic risk and the lack of instrumental recordings of the regional seismicity make the use of appropriate credible earthquake scenarios and ground-motion modelling approaches for defining the seismic input for the city of Sofia necessary. Complete synthetic seismic signals, due to several earthquake scenarios, were computed along chosen geological profiles crossing the city, applying a hybrid technique, which combines the modal summation technique and finite differences. The modelling takes into account simultaneously the geotechnical properties of the site, the position and geometry of the seismic source and the mechanical properties of the propagation medium. Acceleration, velocity and displacement time histories and related quantities of earthquake engineering interest (e.g., response spectra, ground-motion amplification along the profiles) have been supplied. The approach applied in this study allows us to obtain the definition of the seismic input at low cost, exploiting large quantities of existing data (e.g. geotechnical, geological, seismological). It may be efficiently used to estimate the ground motion for the purposes of microzonation, urban planning, retrofitting or insurance of the built environment, etc.

  7. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS FROM FACULTIES OF DENTAL MEDICINE IN BULGARIA REGARDING THEIR MOTIVATION FOR PARTICIPATION IN AND THE WAY THEY ARE FAMILIAR WITH RESEARCH PROJECTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Garov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years there has been a significant increase in the number and value of projects implemented by medical universities in Bulgaria. The involvement of representatives of the student community in the research teams increases their knowledge and skills and in this way they also gain experience in team work and become motivated to further develop their science careers. Aim: The purpose of our study is by analyzing data from our questionnaire to examine the level of students’ willingness to participate in research project activities performed by Bulgarian faculties of Dental Medicine. Material and methods: The written examination technique has been applied as a primary empirical sociological information registration method. For that purpose a 13-question survey (questionnaire has been prepared. The survey is anonymous and it has been completed by 190 students in their 4th and 5th year of studying in medical universities in Sofia, Plovdiv and Varna. Data was collected during the period from January to May 2013. Results: In order for us to achieve the goal of this study we focused on the questions from the questionnaire.Conclusion: The role that research projects play in medical universities and in particular in the faculties of dental medicine in Bulgaria is of key importance for their accreditation. The scientific cooperation between lecturers and students is a prerequisite for developing a competitive environment that defines the future scientific achievements in the relevant research institution.

  8. Seismic Hazard and risk assessment for Romania -Bulgaria cross-border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Stela; Solakov, Dimcho; Alexandrova, Irena; Vaseva, Elena; Trifonova, Petya; Raykova, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    parameter in the historical earthquake catalogues. A particular advantage of using intensities is that the very irregular pattern of the attenuation field of the Vrancea intermediate depth earthquakes can be estimated from detailed macroseismic observations that are available (in both countries) for the study region. Additionally, de-aggregation of the seismic hazard for a recurrence period of 475 years (probability of exceedance of 10% in 50 years) for intensity was performed for 9 cities (administrative centers) situated in northern Bulgaria. Finally, applying SELENA software earthquake risk for Bulgarian part of the cross-boarder region is analyzed. The results presented for the Romania-Bulgaria cross border region are part of the work carried out in the DACEA Project (2010-2013) that was implemented in the framework of the Romania - Bulgaria Cross Border Cooperation Programme (2007-2013).

  9. CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics in Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the Institute for Nuclear Research & Nuclear Energy (INRNE – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences) jointly organised a course on Introduction to Accelerators, at the Grand Hotel Varna, Bulgaria, from 19 September to 1 October, 2010.   CERN Accelerator School group photo. The course was extremely well attended with 109 participants representing 34 different nationalities, coming from countries as far away as Australia, Canada and Vietnam. The intensive programme comprised 39 lectures, 3 seminars, 4 tutorials where the students were split into three groups, a poster session where students could present their own work, and 7 hours of guided and private study. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and excellent quality of their lectures. For the first time at CAS, the CERN Director-General, Rolf Heuer, visited the school and presented a seminar entitled...

  10. Marketing approaches for OTC analgesics in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Valentina; Valchanova, Velislava; Ibrahim, Adel; Nikolova, Irina; Benbasat, Niko; Dimitrov, Milen

    2014-01-01

    The marketing management includes analysis of market opportunities, selection of target markets, planning, developing and implementing of marketing strategies, monitoring and result control. The object of the present study was to analyse the marketing approaches applied for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Bulgaria. The performed SWOT(planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis for one of the leading Bulgarian manufacturers marked the complex corporative strategy for stimulating the sales of NSAIDs. The study results show that the legislation frame in the country gives an opportunity for regulation of the NSAID market in order that incorrect marketing approaches such as disloyal competition are avoided. PMID:26019521

  11. Longshore sediment transport at Golden Sands (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Nikolov

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies on the qualitative and quantitative features of the littoral drift at Golden Sands (Bulgaria, carried out jointly by Polish and Bulgarian researchers. The mathematical modelling of physical coastal processes took wave transformation (wave diffraction and refraction; the effects of shoaling and wave breaking and longshore sediment transport into account. The computations were carried out for the mean statistical annual wave climate, determined on the basis of IO BAS wave data, simulated using the WAM method from long-term Black Sea wind data. The results of sediment transport computations clearly show that its direction off the Golden Sands shore is from north to south.

  12. Options for Bulgaria power system extension planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the existing transition to market economy in Bulgaria, the planning of development of electricity generation is among the priorities of the national policy of restructuring and renovation of electricity system in the country. Optimal plans for development of the generation capacity are worked out by means of optimization procedure part of ENPEP package (ELECTRIC module) based on the dynamic programming technique. The optimal plans study three main strategies for development of energy capacities, which have to do with the priority of some type of natural resources--Coal, Natural Gas and Nuclear Energy. The Hydro Power Plant construction and loading schedule for each scenario is different and it harmonized with the maneuverability of other capacities. Coal scenario emphasizes the opportunities for the maximizing of local coal mining, substitution of black coal (energy and coke) import by mining of local coal fields and implementation of efficient and environmentally sound technologies when constructing new thermal power plants. Gas scenario envisages natural gas consumption within the limit of existing capacities of the national and transit pipelines. In this connection, the share of the new generating capacities using combined cycle increases their share. Nuclear scenario assumes increased share of the nuclear units at the expense of local coal mining and natural gas. This is due to the rehabilitation of 1,000 MW units in NPP Kozloduy, completion of a 1,000 MW unit in new NPP and construction of 1--2 new units 600 MW after 2010. The data obtained outlines the perspectives for development of energy generation capacities in Bulgaria for the period 2000--2020, tendencies in the generation structure and the share of each different type of generation units in the structure of electricity generation system. Output information serves as a sound base for conclusions on the advantages and disadvantages of the three strategies

  13. PROBLEMS WITH MEASURING LABOUR INTEGRATION OF THE IMMIGRANTS IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Slavyanska, V.

    2015-01-01

    Labour integration of the immigrants is very important for them, as well as for the receiving society. The present paper is devoted to the problems, connected with the indicators used for its measuring in Bulgaria.

  14. The Future Energy Projects of Bulgaria – Opportunities beyond Frontiers

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Zhelyazkova

    2011-01-01

    Bulgaria is situated in a geopolitical crossroad. This creates opportunities that can be beneficial not only for the country, but also for the region and beyond. One of the spheres that Bulgaria can take advantage of is the development of energy projects. This can happen in two main directions: • By serving as energy hub for the region and by distributing natural gas brought via pipelines from Russia and the East. • Exporting electricity produced in the upgraded production facilities as well ...

  15. Public expenditure and drug policies in Bulgaria in 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Toni Yonkov Vekov; Silviya Aleksandrova-Yankulovska

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to provide an analysis of the factors which have a significant impact on the growth of public expenditure on medical products in Bulgaria. Methods: This research work consists of a critical analysis of the data reported by the National Health Insurance Fund in Bulgaria on the stability of the healthcare insurance model and the implementation of the budget for 2014. Results: The results from the current analysis indicate that the growth of public...

  16. QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY ON CRANIOMANDIBULAR DISORDER ISSUES IN STUDENTS' AND POST-GRADUATE TRAINING IN BULGARIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Dimova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of craniomandibular disorders (CMD among the Bulgarian population as well as the risk factors for unlocking bruxism and bruxomania mechanisms pose a demand for education on these issues reflecting modern science. The authors' aim is to examine the subjective assessment of participants in “DAYS OF PROSTHETICS, Sofia, 15 -16 March 2014”, regarding: 1.Prevelance of CMD in the country; 2. Education and training of students and post-graduates in the issues related to diagnostics and treatment of craniomandibular disorders; 3. Theoretical background for successful treatment of patients with bruxism and bruxomania. Materials and methods: For the purpose of the present research 192 participants have been surveyed - among them 163 are dentists and 29 are students in the 4th and 5th year of study. The survey feedback has been obtained via an anonymous questionnaire consisting of 8 questions targeted at dentists' assessment of CMD prevalence and distribution, training in CMD issues in Bulgaria and the treatment of patients with bruxism and bruxomania. The results obtained indicate that 84.0% - 93.1% (95% CI of respondents, working as dentists in the country, expressed the view that students' curriculum lacks an overall concept for training them in the diagnostics and treatment of CMD. 79.6% - 90.2% (95% CI of participants, dentists in the country, define post-graduate training in CMD as insufficient or lacking. Conclusion: The development and promotion of a working platform for early screening, diagnostics and treatment of CMD for timely referral to a specialized treatment is necessary and expected by the professional community in our country.

  17. Bulgaria ,Boosting Energy Cooperation with China Interview with Deputy Minster Yaneva, Ministry of Economy and Energy, the Republic of Bulgaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Deputy Minister Yaneva of Economy and Energy, the Republic of Bulgaria, a nice lady with outstanding talents, headed a delegation of Bulgaria to visit China in late June, for the participation at the 13th Bulgarian-Chinese Intergovernmental Commission for Economic, Trade, Scientific and Technical Cooperation. As an important instrument, the Joint Commission played a significant role in promoting the overall development of the bilateral economic relations.

  18. Access to health care for Roma children in Central and Eastern Europe: findings from a qualitative study in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Nick J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the attention the situation of the Roma in Central and Eastern Europe has received in the context of European Union enlargement, research on their access to health services is very limited, in particular with regard to child health services. Methods 50 qualitative in-depth interviews with users, providers and policy-makers concerned with child health services in Bulgaria, conducted in two villages, one town of 70,000 inhabitants, and the capital Sofia. Results Our findings provide important empirical evidence on the range of barriers Roma children face when accessing health services. Among the most important barriers are poverty, administrative and geographical obstacles, low levels of parental education, and lack of ways to accommodate the cultural, linguistic and religious specifics of this population group. Conclusion Our research illustrates the complexity of the problems the Roma face. Access to health care cannot be discussed in isolation from other problems this population group experiences, such as poverty, restricted access to education, and social exclusion.

  19. Shakespeare arean hypertexts in communist Bulgaria Shakespeare arean hypertexts in communist Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Shurbanov

    2008-01-01

    Since the first days of the reception of Shakespeare’s work in Bulgaria during the second half of the nineteenth century down to the present time two of his tragedies, Romeo and Juliet and Hamlet, have held an unrivalled sway on the national stage and over the people’s minds. Another one, Othello, was produced very frequently in the beginning, though often by non-Bulgarian troupes, and yet another, Macbeth, was a set text at the schools for many decades but rarely took the fancy of ...

  20. Valokuvan ja valokuvaajan oikeudet, case: Tmi Sofia Virtanen

    OpenAIRE

    Halme, Ira

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli saada kattava paketti valokuvaajan ja valokuvan oikeuksista Tmi Sofia Virtaselle. Tarkoituksena oli myös selvittää yrityksen asiakkaiden tietoa tekijänoikeuksista. Teoriaosuudessa tarkastellaan tekijänoikeuksia ja niihin kuuluvaa lähioikeutta ja erityisesti valokuvaajan oikeuksia. Tekijänoikeuksista puhutaan, kun valokuva on ylittänyt teoskynnyksen ja lähioikeuksista puhutaan silloin, kun valokuva ei täytä näitä teoksen vaatimuksia. Kaikki valokuvat saavat na...

  1. The Kresna earthquake of 1904 in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Ambraseys

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The Kresna earthquake in 1904 in Bulgaria is one of the largest shallow 20th century events on land in the Balkans. This event, which was preceded by a large foreshock, has hitherto been assigned a range of magnitudes up to M S = 7.8 but the reappraisal of instrumental data yields a much smaller value of M S = 7.2 and a re-assement of the intensity distribution suggests 7.1. Thus both instrumental and macroseismic data appear consistent with a magnitude which is also compatible with the fault segmentation and local morphology of the region which cannot accommodate shallow events much larger than about 7.0. The relatively large size of the main shock suggests surface faulting but the available field evidence is insufficient to establish the dimensions, attitude andamount of dislocation, except perhaps in the vicinity of Krupnik. This downsizing of the Kresna earthquake has important consequences for tectonics and earthquake hazard estimates in the Balkans.

  2. Genetic analysis of haemophilia A in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremensky Ivo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemophilias are the most common hereditary severe disorders of blood clotting. In families afflicted with heamophilia, genetic analysis provides opportunities to prevent recurrence of the disease. This study establishes a diagnostical strategy for carriership determination and prenatal diagnostics of haemophilia A in Bulgarian haemophilic population. Methods A diagnostical strategy consisting of screening for most common mutations in the factor VIII gene and analysis of a panel of eight linked to the factor VIII gene locus polymorphisms was established. Results Polymorphic analysis for carrier status determination of haemophilia A was successful in 30 families out of 32 (94%. Carrier status was determined in 25 of a total of 28 women at risk (89%. Fourteen prenatal diagnoses in women at high risk of having a haemophilia A – affected child were performed, resulting in 6 healthy boys and 5 girls. Conclusion The compound approach proves to be a highly informative and cost-effective strategy for prevention of recurrence of haemophilia A in Bulgaria. DNA analysis facilitates carriership determination and subsequent prenatal diagnosis in the majority of Bulgarian families affected by haemophilia A.

  3. IT OUTSOURCING PARTNERSHIPS IN BULGARIA: STRATEGIC ORIENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilda ALEXANDROVA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available IT outsourcing is among the prevalent practices in the global business today. It is found that business organizations decide to transfer such kind of services to other firms (identified as “vendors” mainly because of cost-related advantages. It is still not clear whether the vendors are able to provide comparative advantages from the point of view of economizing costs of the production of these services. The objective of this paper is to identify the main determinants affecting the success of IT outsourcing partnership in Bulgaria on the basis of empirical study. The paper presents selected results from a survey of the outsourcing relations between Bulgarian vendor organizations and their clients (outsourcers considering the issues of the development of successful strategic partnerships in outsourcing practices. In 2008 an empirical survey of outsourcing partnerships in 28 organizations providing high technology services has been conducted based on cases of Bulgarian vendor organizations. The subject of the study was the analysis of the key determinants influencing the formation and development of strategic outsourcing partnerships between Bulgarian vendor organizations and their clients (foreign companies.

  4. Shakespeare arean hypertexts in communist Bulgaria Shakespeare arean hypertexts in communist Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shurbanov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the first days of the reception of Shakespeare’s work in Bulgaria during the second half of the nineteenth century down to the present time two of his tragedies, Romeo and Juliet and Hamlet, have held an unrivalled sway on the national stage and over the people’s minds. Another one, Othello, was produced very frequently in the beginning, though often by non-Bulgarian troupes, and yet another, Macbeth, was a set text at the schools for many decades but rarely took the fancy of theatre directors and audiences. Since the first days of the reception of Shakespeare’s work in Bulgaria during the second half of the nineteenth century down to the present time two of his tragedies, Romeo and Juliet and Hamlet, have held an unrivalled sway on the national stage and over the people’s minds. Another one, Othello, was produced very frequently in the beginning, though often by non-Bulgarian troupes, and yet another, Macbeth, was a set text at the schools for many decades but rarely took the fancy of theatre directors and audiences.

  5. Maximum Expected Wall Heat Flux and Maximum Pressure After Sudden Loss of Vacuum Insulation on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Liquid Helium (LHe) Dewars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene K.

    2014-01-01

    The aircraft-based Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a platform for multiple infrared observation experiments. The experiments carry sensors cooled to liquid helium (LHe) temperatures. A question arose regarding the heat input and peak pressure that would result from a sudden loss of the dewar vacuum insulation. Owing to concerns about the adequacy of dewar pressure relief in the event of a sudden loss of the dewar vacuum insulation, the SOFIA Program engaged the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). This report summarizes and assesses the experiments that have been performed to measure the heat flux into LHe dewars following a sudden vacuum insulation failure, describes the physical limits of heat input to the dewar, and provides an NESC recommendation for the wall heat flux that should be used to assess the sudden loss of vacuum insulation case. This report also assesses the methodology used by the SOFIA Program to predict the maximum pressure that would occur following a loss of vacuum event.

  6. Development of the SOFIA silicon carbide secondary mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit, Michel; Antoine, Pascal; Varin, Jean-Luc; Bittner, Hermann; Erdmann, Matthias

    2003-02-01

    The SOFIA telescope is ajoint NASA-DLR project for a 2.5 m airborne Stratospheric Observatory for IR Astronomy to be flown in a specially adapted Boeing 747 SP plane, Kayser-Threde being resopinsible for the development of the Telescope Optics. The φ 352 mm Secondary Mirror is mounted ona chopping mechanism to allow avoidance of background noise during IR observations. Stiffness associated to lightness is a major demand for such a mirror to achieve high frequency chopping. This leads to select SIlicon Carbide for the mirror blank. Its development has been run by the ASTRIUM/BOOSTEC joint venture SiCSPACE, taking full benefit of the instrinsic properties of the BOOSTEC SiC-100 sintered material, associated to qualified processes specifically developed for space borne mirrors by ASTRIUM. Achieved performances include a low mass of 1.97 kg, a very high stiffness with a first resonant frequency of 1865 Hz and a measured optical surface accuracy of 39 nm rms, using Ion Beam Figuring. It is proposed here to present the major design features of the SOFIA Secondary Mirror, highlighting the main advantages of using Silicon Carbide, the main steps of its development and the achieved optomechanical performances of the developed mirror.

  7. Mapping PAH sizes in NGC 7023 with SOFIA

    CERN Document Server

    Croiset, B A; Berné, O; Tielens, A G G M

    2016-01-01

    NGC 7023 is a well-studied reflection nebula, which shows strong emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules in the form of aromatic infrared bands (AIBs). The spectral variations of the AIBs in this region are connected to the chemical evolution of the PAH molecules which, in turn, depends on the local physical conditions. We use the capabilities of SOFIA to observe a 3.2' x 3.4' region of NGC 7023 at wavelengths that we observe with high spatial resolution (2.7") at 3.3 and 11.2 um. We compare the SOFIA images with existing images of the PAH emission at 8.0 um (Spitzer), emission from evaporating very small grains (eVSG) extracted from Spitzer-IRS spectral cubes, the ERE (HST and CFHT), and H_2 (2.12 um). We create maps of the 11.2/3.3 um ratio to probe the morphology of the PAH size distribution and the 8.0/11.2 um ratio to probe the PAH ionization. We make use of an emission model and of vibrational spectra from the NASA Ames PAHdb to translate the 11.2/3.3 um ratio to PAH sizes. The 11....

  8. First Science Results From SOFIA/FORCAST: Super-Resolution Imaging of the S140 Cluster at 37\\micron

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Paul M; Herter, Terry L; Gull, George; Schoenwald, Justin; Keller, Luke D; De Buizer, James M; Vacca, William; Reach, William; Becklin, E E

    2012-01-01

    We present 37\\micron\\ imaging of the S140 complex of infrared sources centered on IRS1 made with the FORCAST camera on SOFIA. These observations are the longest wavelength imaging to resolve clearly the three main sources seen at shorter wavelengths, IRS 1, 2 and 3, and are nearly at the diffraction limit of the 2.5-m telescope. We also obtained a small number of images at 11 and 31\\micron\\ that are useful for flux measurement. Our images cover the area of several strong sub-mm sources seen in the area -- SMM 1, 2, and 3 -- that are not coincident with any mid-infrared sources and are not visible in our longer wavelength imaging either. Our new observations confirm previous estimates of the relative dust optical depth and source luminosity for the components in this likely cluster of early B stars. We also investigate the use of super-resolution to go beyond the basic diffraction limit in imaging on SOFIA and find that the van Cittert algorithm, together with the "multi-resolution" technique, provides excelle...

  9. 11th Congress of South-East European Studies. Sofia 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Korzeniewska-Wiszniewska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 11th Congress of South-East European Studies. Sofia 2015The 11th Congress of South-East European Studies took place in Sofia, Bulgaria, between 31 August and 4 September 2015. It was organised by the International Association for Southeast European Studies (orig. in French: AIESEE – Associacion Internationale d’ Études du Sud-Est Européen.South-Eastern Europe is an area looked upon by world powers with a large amount of ambivalence. As the region’s states are not considered to be key global players, the events that occur in this part of the continent draw interest that is cyclical in nature and that is usually triggered by cyclical issues, too. Though relatively small, the area has been a point of interest for many researchers for over 100 years due to its ethnic diversity and the related inherent multi-nationality the scale of which is not encountered anywhere else in Europe. The cultural, linguistic, and religious pluralism of this region often produces specific social amalgams. With the cyclical interest aside, for a little more than a century the main European (and not only European political powers have been making efforts to exert influence in the region, understanding the significance of its geographic location, where East meets West. Regardless of the changing dynamics of interest in South-Eastern Europe, the region will certainly remain one of the most fascinating focus areas for researchers and academics across the world, who will meet again not in five, but in four years at another congress this time to be held in Romanian Constanţa to discuss issues and topics related to this corner of the world. 11. Kongres AIESEE, Sofia 2015W dniach od 31 sierpnia do 4 września 2015 r. w Sofii (Bułgaria odbył się 11 Kongres Studiów nad Europą Południowo-Wschodnią, zorganizowany przez Międzynarodowe Stowarzyszenie Studiów nad Europą Południowo-Wschodnią (AIESEE - Associacion Internationale d’ Études du Sud-Est Europ

  10. Analysis of Climate Change in Southeastern Bulgaria and Northwestern Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of climate change in two neighbor regions in Bulgaria and Turkey was done. Annual and seasonal variability of air temperature and precipitation in Southeastern Bulgaria and Northwestern Turkey during the period 1961-2000 was studied. Different sources were used to complete the required input weather data. For assessing climate trends some techniques such as anomalies, polynomial, linear fit, moving average as well as the Mann-Kendall test were applied. Drought episodes during the late 20th century in the selected regions were defined and discussed. Climate change scenarios for the 21st century (e.g. 2020, 2050, 2080) were also created for Southeastern Bulgaria and Northwestern Turkey. HadCM3 scenarios (including A2 and B2 IPCC SRES emission scenarios) with high resolution (10'x 10') were applied for this purpose. A special attention was paid on the projected precipitation. (Author)

  11. Implementation of the partial dismantling of research reactor IRT-Sofia prior to its refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2001, the Bulgarian Government decided to refurbish and convert the research reactor in Sofia into a low-power reactor. Due to this, a partial dismantling of IRT-Sofia's old systems and equipment was carried out with the intention of reusing the concrete bioshield in the construction of the new low-power research reactor. For a more efficient use of available resources, an engineering project known as 'The plan for the partial dismantling of IRT-Sofia equipment as a part of its refurbishment into a low-power research reactor' was drawn up and has since been successfully implemented. (author)

  12. First Science Observations with SOFIA/FORCAST: The FORCAST Mid-infrared Camera

    CERN Document Server

    Herter, T L; De Buizer, J M; Gull, G E; Schoenwald, J; Henderson, C P; Keller, L D; Nikola, T; Stacey, G; Vacca, W D

    2012-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) completed its first light flight in May of 2010 using the facility mid-infrared instrument FORCAST. Since then, FORCAST has successfully completed thirteen science flights on SOFIA. In this paper we describe the design, operation and performance of FORCAST as it relates to the initial three Short Science flights. FORCAST was able to achieve near diffraction-limited images for lambda > 30 microns allowing unique science results from the start with SOFIA. We also describe ongoing and future modifications that will improve overall capabilities and performance of FORCAST.

  13. FIRST SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS WITH SOFIA/FORCAST: THE FORCAST MID-INFRARED CAMERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, T. L.; Adams, J. D.; Gull, G. E.; Schoenwald, J.; Henderson, C. P.; Nikola, T.; Stacey, G. [Astronomy Department, 202 Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); De Buizer, J. M.; Vacca, W. D. [Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Keller, L. D. [Department of Physics, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States)

    2012-04-20

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) completed its first light flight in May of 2010 using the facility mid-infrared instrument FORCAST. Since then, FORCAST has successfully completed 13 science flights on SOFIA. In this Letter, we describe the design, operation, and performance of FORCAST as it relates to the initial three Short Science flights. FORCAST was able to achieve near-diffraction-limited images for {lambda} > 30 {mu}m allowing unique science results from the start with SOFIA. We also describe ongoing and future modifications that will improve overall capabilities and performance of FORCAST.

  14. Assesment of opportunities for landfill gas utilisation in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Bulgaria, about 14 million tons annually of municipal solid waste (MSW) are collected and disposed of in landfills - about 618 kg/capita annually. The implementation of Landfill Gas (LFG) energy recovery/utilization projects in Bulgaria serves as an essential landfill management strategy, and can also reduce greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to improved local air quality and reduced health risks. Results of assesment landfill tests of several municipalities, made by the team of Encon Services for estimation of the potential of their sites are shown in this paper. (authors)

  15. Neutron diffraction investigations on the IRT-Sofia reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of solid state physics investigations performed during the last ten years on the neutron diffractometer DN-520 mounted on the eighth horizontal channel of the reactor IRT-2000 at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energetics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, is presented. The main physical results in two basic fields of study -crystal and amorphous materials - obtained by the method of elastic scattering of thermal neutrons (λ=0.1061 nm), are given. Some basic trends of practical interest as well as the perspectives of these investigations in Bulgaria are considered. 12 figs., 30 refs

  16. Partial decommissioning of the research reactor IRT Sofia and its further refurbishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolov, T.G.; Vitkova, M.G.; Ilieva, K.D.; Drenski, D.D. [Institute for Nuclear Research Nuclear Energy, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)

    2000-07-01

    The main activities are described which have been carried out in the last year concerning the spent fuel management, decommissioning strategy and liquid and solid wastes management arising from permanent shut down of the research reactor IRT-Sofia. (author)

  17. Partial decommissioning of the research reactor IRT Sofia and its further refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main activities are described which have been carried out in the last year concerning the spent fuel management, decommissioning strategy and liquid and solid wastes management arising from permanent shut down of the research reactor IRT-Sofia. (author)

  18. ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS IN THE VOLGA BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Abdulganieva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is much evidence that ankylosing spondylitis (AS is a disease that is also much older than early human civilizations and man as a whole. Until now, the Russia's earliest (14th c ntury archaeological finding of such a patient remains a Volga Bulgaria inhabitant suffering with AS during his life. In the Republic of Tatarstan, at the site of an ancient Bulgar settlement appearing in the early ninth century, archaeologists have discovered an unusual grave: the deceased sitting with his back against the western wall of a tomb pitand having a bronze crosslet under his fingers. According to a historical source, it was the way of burying Christian hierarchs as pastors sitting on the altar and anticipating the great assize during which the destinies of human souls should be ruled. Anthropological analysis showed that the bones belonged to a 35–45-year-old man who was 158–163 cm tall. During the examination of the remains,attention was called to the following features of the spinal structure: ankylosis of the inferior cervical and superior thoracic vertebrae (СV–ThI and inferior thoracic and lumbar spine (ThIV–LII predominantly due to ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament. Facet vertebral joints and costotransverse joints were also ankylosed at the same levels. The man's neck was fixed in a bent-over position with the head down, the chin touching the breast bone – the socalled soliciting posture. By and large, the vertebral changes are characteristic of late (X-ray stage III spondylitis. Spinal and pelvic photos and X-films are given for demonstration. The studies conducted by historical scientists and forensic medical experts suggest that the found remains are most likely to belong to Christian Theodore nicknamed Jerusaleman, also further known as Holy Theodore philosopher Kamsky (Bulgarian, who was mentioned in the Nikon chronicle in 1323.

  19. SOFIA tracking subsystem: results of assembly, operation, and calibration tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Hermann; Erdmann, Matthias; Schmolke, Juergen; Lattner, Klaus; Levin, Torsten; Erhard, Markus

    2003-02-01

    The SOFIA airborne telescope has a Tracking Subsystem for stellar acquisition, tracking, and pointing. The system has three high-performance imagers: the boresighted wide field (6 degrees FOV) and fine field imagers (70 arcminutes FOV), and the main-telescope-optics sharing focal plane imager (8 arcminutes FOV). The imagers are controlled by 3 CCD head controllers, an overall imager controller, and a tracker controller providing the tracking error signals from the objects observed by the imagers. There have been several test steps in the assembly, integration, and verification of the Tracking Subsystem. The paper presents the fully integrated system as actually built, the results of the thermal-vacuum and vibration tests of the fine field imager, the tested operational/functional S/W performance, as well as the results of the geometric and radiometric calibrations of the imagers.

  20. Interstellar shock studies: the SOFIA/GREAT contribution

    CERN Document Server

    Gusdorf, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Shocks are ubiquitous in the interstellar medium of galaxies, where they contribute to the energetic balance and to the cycle of matter, and where they are thought to be the primary sites for cosmic rays acceleration. Most of the time: in jets and outflows, supernova remnants, or colliding flows, they are linked with star formation. The study of shocks is hence a powerful tool to probe the evolution of the interstellar medium and to better understand star formation. To these aims, the most precise observations must be compared with the most precise models of shocks. The SOFIA/GREAT instrument represents a powerful observational tool to support our progresses, as it allows to observe numerous shock tracers in the far-infrared range.

  1. First report of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    TSATCHEV, Illia; KYRIAZIS, Ioannis D.; BOUTSINI, Sofia; Karagouni, Evdokia; Dotsika, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    Seroepidemiological studies on canine leishmaniasis in Bulgaria, even in areas where human leishmaniasis has been detected, are controversial. This report describes 2 clinical cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis. The disease was confirmed by microscopical, serological, and molecular methods. It is, therefore, suggested that infected dogs could constitute the reservoir for human leishmaniasis in the country.

  2. Taxonomy of Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous aptychi from Bulgaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašíček, Zdeněk; Motchurova; Dekova, N.; Ilcheva, A.; Metodiev, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 265, č. 3 (2012), s. 249-274. ISSN 0077-7749 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Late Jurassic * Early Cretaceous * Bulgaria * aptychi * ammonites * parataxonomy Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.923, year: 2012 http://www.schweizerbart.de/papers/njgpa/detail/265/78431/Taxonomy_of_Late_Jurassic_Early_Cretaceous_aptychi

  3. New Trends in Initial Vocational Education and Training in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganova, Penka

    2007-01-01

    Despite a fall in the percentage of young people choosing this course between 1993 and 1994 (58.17%) and 2003 and 2004 (55.23%), vocational training remains the main path chosen by young people in Bulgaria. The national programme for developing pre-school, school education and training (2006-15), adopted in 2006 due to major public interest in…

  4. Investigation on F/M material aspects of IRT-Sofia NCT channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The filter/moderator area of IRT-Sofia BNCT channel was investigated in this study in order to find a higher radiation resistant material as a suitable substitution for the Teflon®. Two options – Al2O3 and graphite – were investigated. The results show, that both graphite and the Al2O3 can be successfully used as a filter/moderator material at IRT-Sofia. Initial evaluation of the in-phantom performance of the IRT-Sofia BNCT channel was made and merits similar to the best existing ones were found. - Highlights: • Filter/moderators made by combination of aluminum and Al2O3 and by combination of aluminum and graphite are investigated. • The in-phantom performance of IRT-Sofia BNCT beam is estimated to be close to the best beams built until now. • The BNCT channel that fits best in IRT-Sofia shielding will be able to supply beam suitable for clinical applications. • The results justify further investigation on Al2O3 and graphite as a part of the IRT-Sofia BNCT channel's filter/moderator

  5. Procedures on implementation of the research reactor IRT-Sofia partial dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IRT-Sofia Research Reactor is in a reconstruction in view of a Government resolution for its refurbishment into a Low Power Reactor. In order realize the reconstruction project it is necessary to fulfill a partial dismantling of the Research reactor IRT-Sofia. Therefore it was developed and sent to the Regulatory body for approval a 'General Plan for partial dismantling of the Research reactor IRT-Sofia'. In the General Plan are described dismantling and all waste processing activities (characterization, conditioning, decontamination, transport, storage and final disposal); the value of decontamination (cost-benefit) for the internal or external surfaces of components, systems and instruments; appropriate mechanization; technological process for the dismantling of parts and equipment of the IRT-Sofia reactor; management organization structure which is appropriate for the partial decommissioning works; Safety assessment and Quality assurance Program. Prior the commencement of the partial dismantling of the IRT-Sofia it is necessary to develop a detailed work-schedule for implementation of the General Plan for partial dismantling. As well it is necessary to provide safe and secure spent nuclear fuel (EK-10 and C-36 type) transportation from IRT-Sofia site to Russia. With regard to this activities of the international project RRRFR are implementing at the present time. (author)

  6. NATO Expansion: Romania and Bulgaria within the Larger Context. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997. (Romania and Bulgaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Thomas M.

    This paper analyzes the issues regarding current expansion of NATO membership to include Romania and Bulgaria. The perspective given is that of the United States and places the Romanian and Bulgarian cases within the context of those issues. Sections of the paper include: (1) "The Road to Madrid: Expansion of NATO"; (2) "No Easy Answers: The…

  7. Short-term forecasting of wind power installed in North-Eastern Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large-scale introduction of wind power causes a number of challenges for electricity market and power system operators who will have to deal with the variability and uncertainty in wind power generation when making their scheduling and dispatch decisions. Wind power forecasting (WPF) is frequently identified as an important tool to address the variability and uncertainty in wind power and to more efficiently operate power systems with large wind power penetrations. Moreover, in a market environment, the wind power contribution to the generation portfolio becomes important in determining the daily and hourly prices, as variations in the estimated wind power will influence the clearing prices for both energy and operating reserves. In this report is presented the experience of national dispatching center of Bulgaria in short-term wind power forecasting. (author)

  8. Seroprevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in southeastern Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergova, Ivanka; Kamarinchev, Bozhin

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), which is endemic in Bulgaria, is caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). The seroprevalence of CCHFV in southeastern Bulgaria was examined in this study. For this purpose, a total of 751 human blood samples were collected and examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay. In addition, a questionnaire was completed for every participant. Anti-CCHFV antibodies were detected in 3.20% (24/751) of the tested sera. None of the seropositive individuals had a history of CCHF. The results indicate that the proportion of positive findings increase with age. The significant risk factors for CCHFV infection are tick bites (18.85%, 23/122), livestock breeding (6.15%, 16/260), and residing in rural areas (6.20%, 21/339). PMID:25241694

  9. Public expenditure and drug policies in Bulgaria in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Yonkov Vekov

    2015-11-01

    National Health Insurance Fund in Bulgaria on the stability of the healthcare insurance model and the implementation of the budget for 2014. Results: The results from the current analysis indicate that the growth of public expenditure is directly proportional to the number of reimbursed medical products and that the pattern of prescriptions including the innovative medical products mainly for the treatment of oncological and rare diseases has a significant impact on it. Conclusion: The reasons for the increase of public expenditure in Bulgaria include the non-transparent decisions in pricing and reimbursement of the products, the lack of guidelines for presenting pharmacological evidence and the lack of legislatively-defined drug policies for the management and control of the patterns of medical prescriptions.

  10. Revisiting the conceptualization of “Turks” in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Fatková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The information presented in this paper is based on repeated ethnographic fieldwork carried out in Bulgaria between 2008 and 2011. The aim of this study is to highlight the conceptual field of the ‘minority’ category and, in particular, of the construction of a ‘problematic minority’ in Bulgarian public discourse. First, the article focuses on the broad context of the concept of minority in Bulgaria illustrated by stereotypical statements of the Prime Minister Boyko Borissov. Next, the construction of a ‘problematic minorities’ category will be examined. We closely observe the stereotypes linked to the image of ‘Turks’, with particular attention to their presence in everyday speech.

  11. Evidences for the Lynx recovery in Bulgaria: the Lynx discovered in Western Rhodopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAI SPASSOV

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available On photographs taken by a camera trap in the region of Yagodina village, Western Rhodopes, (Bulgaria the presence of the Eurasian Lynx Lynx lynx L. has been registered in the summer of 2014. This is the most reliable to date argument for the presence in Rhodope mountains of this critically endangered species in Bulgaria and for its gradual dispersal from the western mountainous border region of Bulgaria to more appropriate country habitats inland.

  12. The Impact of Structural Reforms on Employment Growth and Labour Productivity: Evidence from Bulgaria and Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Ralitza

    2003-01-01

    Using firm-level data from Bulgaria and Romania, this paper addresses a lacuna in the transition literature, namely, the link of firm-level employment turnover with firm-level growth in labour productivity. The results suggest that while net job creation at the firm level was affected by privatization in Bulgaria, privatization in Romania did not have any effect on firm-level employment growth. Further, Olley-Pakes (1996) decomposition indicates that in Bulgaria, over time, resources moved fr...

  13. Development of nuclear fuel cycle in Bulgaria and worldwide experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is made of the natural and enriched uranium market situation, as well as the possible options for resolving the issue of spent nuclear fuel. At present the best economical solution for the spent fuel is considered to be interim storage. A assessment of the Bulgarian deposits of natural uranium is recommended and the possibility for partial recovery of the uranium extraction in Bulgaria is considered

  14. Corporate Social Responsibility Activities Of Business Organizations In Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kiril DIMITROV

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a survey of corporate social responsibility activities, under-taken by a group of business entities in Bulgaria in the context of great political, economical and cultural changes that the country has been passing through from 1990 up to date, and that affected the organizational behaviour of locally operating companies, as well as the beliefs, values and underlying assumptions of the individuals, working there. Environmental factors, influencing the initia...

  15. Corporate Governance Transformation in Transition Economies: Evidence from Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Peev, Evgeni

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents study of corporate governance evolution in Bulgaria and its convergence to EU structures. The author discusses the traditional approach to separation of ownership and control in transition economies and modern ideas about the need for changing corporate governance paradigm. The study analyses main ownership and control structures in the Bulgarian industry and specific property-rights structures in corporatized state-owned firms, privatized firms and established de novo priv...

  16. Bulgaria's institutions and policies : integrating into Pan-European markets

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski, Bartlomiej

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the process of institutional transformation in Bulgaria and assesses the extent to which it has established institutions and policies fostering domestic economic activity and integration into global markets. After a brief review of characteristics and achieved progress in first-generation reforms, that is, removal of central control over prices, liberalization of foreign trade and exchange rate regimes, the paper first assesses in the comparative perspective the progress m...

  17. Lifelong Learning and New Skills in Bulgaria: a Gender Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Beleva, Iskra

    2010-01-01

    This paper present an overview of the state of lifelong learning in Bulgaria from a gender perspective; reviews the progress in the public debates in this area and analyzes the implemented policies for developing lifelong learning in accordance with the European strategic objectives, including gender aspects. The analysis on the state and policies of the national progress of the lifelong learning, including early school leavers, educational level of the labour force and participation in LLL, ...

  18. Social Studies and Humanities Textbooks in Post-Socialist Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Psifidou, Irene

    2012-01-01

    As Bulgaria went through a radical socioeconomic transition involving democratization and integration in the European Union, school textbooks and curricular contents were progressively reviewed to reduce traces of bias, value judgments, ideological content and opinions, which were thought to inflame passions and sustain mistrust and misunderstandings. The present paper discusses important changes made in Bulgarian social studies and humanities textbooks since 1989, which involved discharging ...

  19. Decision making pattern of subsistence farmers in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Plamen Mishev; Philip Kostov

    2004-01-01

    Economic research by and large is dominated by a ‘rationality’ paradigm. Economic decision making within this paradigm is viewed as a maximising procedure. In general the latter represents the decision-making as a choice amongst a well defined set of alternatives. In this paper we question this and analyse the options of the small-scale subsistence farmers in Bulgaria in the way they see them. By applying mental accounting methodology we deduce some significant characteristics of Bulgarian su...

  20. New record of cryoseston in the Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukavský, Jaromír; Cepák, Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 99, 3-4 (2014), 453-466. ISSN 0029-5035 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080; GA TA ČR TA03011027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Aphanocapsa nivalis * Bulgaria, cryoseston * Rhodope Mountains * snow algae Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2014

  1. The difficult transition to national health insurance in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bistra Vladimirova Datzova

    2006-01-01

    Health sector reform in Bulgaria aims to enhance sector efficiency, increase resources allocated to the health sector and target public resources to the most cost-effective interventions. The health system is however currently being changed in two directions-social and commercial. Transition processes in health include the simultaneous creation of market-based behaviour of all participants in the health market, and the establishment of a national social insurance system that should prevent so...

  2. Opportunities for developing communist heritage tourism in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Stanislav

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses the possibilities to develop communist heritage tourism in Bulgaria. After a review of related literature, the paper identifies five characteristics of communist heritage tourism: ideologically overburdened type of tourism, controversial, represents a limited time period of history, represents a personality cult, concentration of resources in places related with communist history in the country (in cities and the countryside). The paper summarizes some of the most important...

  3. Possibilities of using geothermal energy for district heating in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the technical, economic and legal aspects of thermal water resources in Bulgaria is made. There is 137 sources of thermal waters in the country with a total flowrate of 3865 l/s and average temperature 44.5oC. Some recommendations to various governmental bodies concerning thorough investigation, assessment and effective utilization of thermal waters as energy source are presented. 1 tab

  4. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Bulgaria from a Systems Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kolev, Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    The European Union membership of Bulgaria since January 2007 imposes higher requirements to the national waste management system and demands changes in the current waste management practices. In this context it is of great interest to study the contemporary and possible future development of the Bulgarian municipal solid waste management system. A systems analysis was carried out to provide better understanding of the Bulgarian municipal solid waste management and to analyze the possibilities...

  5. THE TOURISM REGIONS IN BULGARIA – CONCEPTS AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Stankova, Mariya

    2010-01-01

    Bulgaria’s recent experience as tourism country raised the question about the importance of its tourism regions, and the effectiveness of marketing and advertising strategies. Very weak results were achieved about the “new” tourism region planning. The priority based in 2007 NTA (National Tourism Agency) – the regulator which is controlling the tourism policies in Bulgaria, defined the plan for contemporary needs about tourism planning of regions and the usage of that regions for observ...

  6. The Decline in Intergenerational Mobility in Post-Socialist Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Hertz; Mieke Meurs; Sibel Selcuk

    2007-01-01

    Economists studying developing and transition economies have recently drawn attention to the problem of intergenerational immobility, or the high rate of transmission of inequality from parent to child (World Bank 2005). One readily estimable measure of this intergenerational persistence of economic status is the degree of association between the educational attainment of parents and children. This paper documents that the strength of this association has doubled in Bulgaria since the end of ...

  7. Computer simulations of the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some extensive numerical simulations of the atmospheric composition fields in Bulgaria have been recently performed. The US EPA Model-3 system was chosen as a modelling tool. As the NCEP Global Analysis Data with 1 degree resolution was used as meteorological background, the MM5 and CMAQ nesting capabilities were applied for downscaling the simulations to a 3 km resolution over Bulgaria. The TNO emission inventory was used as emission input. Special pre-processing procedures are created for introducing temporal profiles and speciation of the emissions. The biogenic emissions of VOC are estimated by the model SMOKE. The simulations were carried out for years 2000-2007. The numerical experiments have been carried out for different emission scenarios, which makes it possible the contribution of emissions from different source categories to be evaluated. The Models-3 Integrated Process Rate Analysis option is applied to discriminate the role of different dynamic and chemical processes for the air pollution formation. The obtained ensemble of numerical simulation results is extensive enough to allow statistical treatment calculating not only the mean concentrations and different source categories contribution mean fields, but also standard deviations, skewness, etc. with their dominant temporal modes (seasonal and/or diurnal variations). Thus some basic facts about the atmospheric composition climate of Bulgaria can be retrieved from the simulation ensemble. (Author)

  8. Prevalence of American Foulbrood and Paenibacillus Larvae Genotypes in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolina V. RUSENOVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the prevalence of American foulbrood and Paenibacillus larvae genotypes in Bulgaria. For this purpose, data concerning American foulbrood outbreaks were used. Also, available data on the number of destroyed bee families covering a twenty-five-year period (1989 - 2013 was collected from the register of Bulgarian Food Safety Agency. In addition, Paenibacillus larvae genotypes in 15 apiaries were established by rep - PCR with BOXA1R and MBOREP1 primers. Results showed broad incidence of the disease, particularly at the beginning of the analysed period, with a tendency to reduction of affected apiaries and bee families at the end of the period. A statistically significant prevalence of American foulbrood in South Bulgaria compared to the northern regions was observed. Genotyping of Paenibacillus larvae revealed two genotypes: ab and AB, with the preponderance of the more virulent AB in South Bulgaria. The obtained results showed the need for conducting regular mandatory screening of bee colonies for early diagnostics of the disease and the implementation of relevant measures for American foulbrood prevention and control.

  9. Characterization of the elastic displacement demand: Case study - Sofia city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the study on the seismic site response in a part of the metropolitan Sofia are discussed. The neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment procedure has been used to compute realistic synthetic waveforms considering four earthquake scenarios, with magnitudes M = 3.7, M = 6.3 and M = 7.0. Source and site specific ground motion time histories are computed along three investigated cross sections, making use of the hybrid approach, combining the modal summation technique and the finite differences scheme. Displacement and acceleration response spectra are considered. These results are validated against the design elastic displacement response spectra and displacement demand, recommended in Eurocode 8. The elastic response design spectrum from the standard pseudo-acceleration, versus natural period, Tn, format is converted to the Sa - Sd format. The elastic displacement response spectra and displacement demand are discussed with respect to the earthquake magnitude, the seismic source-to-site distance, seismic source mechanism, and the local geological site conditions. (author)

  10. A SOFIA Survey of RV Tauri Stars and SRd Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, L. Andrew; Gehrz, Robert D.; Evans, Aneurin; Woodward, Charles; Arneson, Ryan

    2015-08-01

    The path from Main Sequence (MS) star to planetary nebula (PN) is a brief and turbulent period in the life of a star. RV Tauri stars and yellow semi-regular (SRd) variables are both classes of post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars that lie along the horizontal track on the H-R diagram linking AGB stars to PNe and are thought to be the immediate precursors of protoplanetary nebulae (PPNe). RV Tauri stars are characterized by semi-regular, bimodal variability (possibly resulting from interaction with a binary companion), a high mass-loss rate, and, often, a prominent IR excess. SRd variables are similar to RV Tauri stars in many respects but are probably single star systems, as indicated by the absence regular pulsations.Here we present near- and mid-IR spectra on a diverse sample of RV Tauri and SRd variables from our on-going observing campaign with the FLITECAM and FORCAST instruments on board the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). With this rich data set we produce the first self-consistent sampling of these objects from the near- to mid-IR. We model the emission to determine the source of the IR-excess, identifying the dust species present and quantifying fundamental dust properties, such as dust mass and grain size distribution. These parameters help to determine the physical properties of the circumstellar environment and to constrain models of post-AGB mass loss.

  11. Preliminary modeling of BNCT beam tube on IRT in Sofia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belousov, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tsarigradsko 72, Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: belousov@inrne.bas.bg; Ilieva, K. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tsarigradsko 72, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2009-07-15

    The technical design of the research reactor IRT in Sofia is in progress. It includes an arrangement for a BNCT facility for tumor treatment. Modeling of geometry and material composition of filter/collimator for the BNCT beam tube on IRT has been carried out following the beam tube configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor [Harling et al., 2002. The fission converter-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor. Nucl. Sci. Eng. 140, 223-240.] and taking into account an ability to include the tube into the IRT reactor geometry. The results of neutron and gamma transport calculations performed for the model have shown that the facility will be able to supply an epithermal neutron flux of about 5x10{sup 9} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, with low contamination from fast neutrons and gamma rays that would be among the best facilities currently available. An optimiziation study has been performed for the beam collimator, following similar studies for the TAPIRO research reactor in Italy. [Nava et al., 2005. Monte Carlo optimization of a BNCT facility for treating brain gliomas at the TAPIRO reactor. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 116 (1-4), 475-481.].

  12. Preliminary modeling of BNCT beam tube on IRT in Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical design of the research reactor IRT in Sofia is in progress. It includes an arrangement for a BNCT facility for tumor treatment. Modeling of geometry and material composition of filter/collimator for the BNCT beam tube on IRT has been carried out following the beam tube configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor [Harling et al., 2002. The fission converter-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor. Nucl. Sci. Eng. 140, 223-240.] and taking into account an ability to include the tube into the IRT reactor geometry. The results of neutron and gamma transport calculations performed for the model have shown that the facility will be able to supply an epithermal neutron flux of about 5x109 n cm-2 s-1, with low contamination from fast neutrons and gamma rays that would be among the best facilities currently available. An optimiziation study has been performed for the beam collimator, following similar studies for the TAPIRO research reactor in Italy. [Nava et al., 2005. Monte Carlo optimization of a BNCT facility for treating brain gliomas at the TAPIRO reactor. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 116 (1-4), 475-481.

  13. Technical project for reconstruction of the research reactor IRT - Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of analyses and investigations and on the basis of the prepared report, the Government has taken the Resolution No. 552/17.05.2001 for refurbishment of the IRT-2000 Research Reactor into a Low Power Reactor up to 200 kW. The IRT-2000 Research Reactor was commissioned in 1961. In this paper the design features and experimental capabilities of the IRT-200 pool-type research reactor are reviewed. In this reactor the IRT-2M type fuel assemblies (FA) containing 36 % enriched uranium will be used instead of the EK-10 fuel elements (FE). The main characteristics of the IRT-2M type FA are given, as are the characteristics of the IRT-200 reactor. Use of the IRT-2M type FA will make it possible to operate the reactor with a core volume of 42-48 litres. The reactor should provide also for possible application of the 'Boron neutron capture therapy/BNCT/' for brain tumors treatment. The selected design features will significantly improve the operational safety of the reactor. For the implementation of this modernization project, the INRNE called upon the services of INTERATOM (consortium of AtomENERGOPROJECT/SKODA/Kurchatov Institute), of the consortium BELGATOM/SCK-CEN, of the NRI-Rez and of the EQE-Sofia. (author)

  14. Mid-IR FORCAST/SOFIA Observations of M82

    CERN Document Server

    Nikola, T; Vacca, W D; Adams, J D; De Buizer, J M; Gull, G E; Henderson, C P; Keller, L D; Morris, M R; Schoenwald, J; Stacey, G; Tielens, A

    2012-01-01

    We present 75"x75" size maps of M82 at 6.4 micron, 6.6 micron, 7.7 micron, 31.5 micron, and 37.1 micron with a resolution of ~4" that we have obtained with the mid-IR camera FORCAST on SOFIA. We find strong emission from the inner 60" (~1kpc) along the major axis, with the main peak 5" west-southwest of the nucleus and a secondary peak 4" east-northeast of the nucleus. The detailed morphology of the emission differs among the bands, which is likely due to different dust components dominating the continuum emission at short mid-IR wavelengths and long mid-IR wavelengths. We include Spitzer-IRS and Herschel/PACS 70 micron data to fit spectral energy distribution templates at both emission peaks. The best fitting templates have extinctions of A_V = 18 and A_V = 9 toward the main and secondary emission peak and we estimated a color temperature of 68 K at both peaks from the 31 micron and 37 micron measurement. At the emission peaks the estimated dust masses are on the order of 10^{4} M_sun.

  15. MID-IR FORCAST/SOFIA OBSERVATIONS OF M82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikola, T.; Herter, T. L.; Adams, J. D.; Gull, G. E.; Henderson, C. P.; Schoenwald, J.; Stacey, G. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Vacca, W. D.; De Buizer, J. M. [Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Keller, L. D. [Department of Physics, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Morris, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Tielens, A. [Leiden Observatory, P.O. Box 9513, Leiden, 2300 RA (Netherlands)

    2012-04-20

    We present 75'' Multiplication-Sign 75'' size maps of M82 at 6.4 {mu}m, 6.6 {mu}m, 7.7 {mu}m, 31.5 {mu}m, and 37.1 {mu}m with a resolution of {approx}4'' that we have obtained with the mid-IR camera FORCAST on SOFIA. We find strong emission from the inner 60'' ({approx}1 kpc) along the major axis, with the main peak 5'' west-southwest of the nucleus and a secondary peak 4'' east-northeast of the nucleus. The detailed morphology of the emission differs among the bands, which is likely due to different dust components dominating the continuum emission at short mid-IR wavelengths and long mid-IR wavelengths. We include Spitzer-IRS and Herschel/PACS 70 {mu}m data to fit spectral energy distribution templates at both emission peaks. The best-fitting templates have extinctions of A{sub V} = 18 and A{sub V} = 9 toward the main and secondary emission peak and we estimated a color temperature of 68 K at both peaks from the 31 {mu}m and 37 {mu}m measurement. At the emission peaks the estimated dust masses are on the order of 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }.

  16. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR LECTURERS FROM FACULTIES OF DENTAL MEDICINE IN BULGARIA REGARDING THEIR MOTIVATION FOR PARTICIPATION IN AND THE WAY THEY ARE FAMILIAR WITH RESEARCH PROJECTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Garov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, especially after Bulgaria accession to the EU on 1st January 2007, new scientific horizons have appeared in front of the academic community in our country. Medical universities work in a really competitive environment both on a national and global scale, where the high quality of lecturing, research and medical activities is a key factor for success.Aim: The purpose of this study is by analyzing data from our questionnaire to define the most distinctively expressed lecturers’ opinions regarding the research project activities performed by Bulgarian faculties of Dental Medicine. Material and methods: The questionnaire including 13 questions was completed by 75 lecturers from Faculties of Dental Medicine in Sofia, Varna and Plovdiv. The questionnaire was anonymous so that maximum objectivity and reliability of the collected information can be achieved. The questionnaires were filled in between January and May 2013. Results: In order for us to achieve the goal of this study we focused on the questions from the questionnaire.Conclusion:Lecturers from all three faculties of dental medicine are partially aware of the procedures and various types of project financing. They express their willingness to participate in research project activities although their implementation is rather difficult. Lecturers estimate the advantages and disadvantages of participation in projects and in their opinion the unit in charge of project activities at the relevant Faculty of Dental Medicine should comprise of various experts who are to ensure up-to-date information on current or future projects.

  17. Contribution to the butterfly species of Belasitsa Mountain (SW Bulgaria and second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767 from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuben Domozetski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available At present, according to the literature data for Belasitsa Mountain are published 139 butterfly species. This article contributes to the knowleage of the butterfly fauna of the mountain by adding five more species. With this supplement the number of the butterflies’ fauna of Belasitsa Mountain increase to 144 species. This article also presents information about the second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767 in Bulgaria.

  18. Contribution to the butterfly species of Belasitsa Mountain (SW Bulgaria) and second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767) from Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Liuben Domozetski

    2013-01-01

    At present, according to the literature data for Belasitsa Mountain are published 139 butterfly species. This article contributes to the knowleage of the butterfly fauna of the mountain by adding five more species. With this supplement the number of the butterflies’ fauna of Belasitsa Mountain increase to 144 species. This article also presents information about the second record of Gonepteryx cleopatra (Linnaeus, 1767) in Bulgaria.

  19. Rainfall variability in Bulgaria and its relation with NAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variation of climate exerts strong influence on the productivity of agriculture and on the various aspects of human activity. Many research programs at local, regional and global levels show as a main task the action to reduce, avoid, and better understand the risk associated with the climate change. The precipitation determines the availability of drinking water and the level of the soil moisture. The paper is intended to provide information about seasonal and geographical variation of precipitation in Bulgaria and its relation with North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). A Statistical test is applied to test the homogeneity and distribution of the initial data. In order to characterize the long-term and more recent trends linear regression equations are calculated. Correlation analysis is used to define the relationship between precipitation and global circulation mechanisms. The main question of the research is: whether the observed trend in Bulgaria corresponds to the global climate change? The tasks are: - Investigation of short-term and long-term rainfall variability - Assessment of statistical significance of the linear trend - Establishing the relationship between rainfall variability and NAO - what is the influence of the NAO on rainfall variability in Bulgaria In order to characterize the long-term and more recent trends linear regression equations were calculated individually for each station for two periods 1931-2000 and 1961-2000. The trend is negative or close to 0 for the first period. For the second period it is a negative with the values for January to April between -0.2 and -0.7. Correlation analysis is applied to define the relationship between rainfall variability in Bulgaria and NAO. The relationship is stronger for more recent period 1960-2000. The correlation coefficients are negative. Statistical significant coefficients are found for January, February and March. The paper gives information about climate change in regional scale. The results

  20. Infrared Spectroscopic Studies with the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (sofia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrz, R. D.; Becklin, E. E.

    2011-06-01

    The joint U.S. and German Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) will be a premier facility for studying the physics and chemistry of the interstellar medium and the stellar evolution process for many decades. SOFIA's first-generation instrument complement includes broadband imagers, moderate resolution spectrographs capable of resolving broad features due to dust and large molecules, and high resolution spectrometers suitable for kinematic studies of molecular and atomic gas lines at km/s resolution. SOFIA spectroscopic science applications will be discussed, with special emphasis on investigations related to infrared spectroscopy of astrophysical gas, grains, and ices. First light images and early science results related to these topics will be presented.

  1. SOFIA follow-ups of massive clumps from the ATLASGAL galactic plane survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrowski, F.; Güsten, R.; Menten, K. M.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Csengeri, T.; König, C.; Urquhart, J. S.

    2016-05-01

    With the GREAT receiver at the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) we started a concerted observing effort towards a well selected sample of clumps with high masses covering a range of evolutionary stages based on their infrared properties. The sources were selected from the ATLASGAL sub-millimeter dust continuum survey of our Galaxy. The goal is threefold: (i) SOFIA/GREAT allows to study the cooling budget of the clumps, in particular with observations of the CII and OI cooling lines. (ii) With SOFIA/GREAT high-J CO lines can be observed to measure in combination with ground based data the CO SEDs of the sources. (iii) Using rotational transitions of ammonia at THz frequencies the kinematics of the clumps can be probed with absorption spectroscopy to search for infall. Here we will describe these efforts and in particular report new results from the ammonia 32+ - 22- (1.8 THz) observing program.

  2. The Challenge of Data Reduction for Multiple Instruments on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcos-Llorens, M. V.; Krzaczek, R.; Shuping, R. Y.; Lin, L.

    2011-07-01

    SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy, presents a number of interesting challenges for the development of a data reduction environment which, at its initial phase, will have to incorporate pipelines from seven different instruments developed by organizations around the world. Therefore, the SOFIA data reduction software must run code which has been developed in a variety of dissimilar environments, e.g., IDL, Python, Java, C++. Moreover, we anticipate this diversity will only increase in future generations of instrumentation. We investigated three distinctly different situations for performing pipelined data reduction in SOFIA: (1) automated data reduction after data archival at the end of a mission, (2) re-pipelining of science data with updated calibrations or optimum parameters, and (3) the interactive user-driven local execution and analysis of data reduction by an investigator. These different modes would traditionally result in very different software implementations of algorithms used by each instrument team, in effect tripling the amount of data reduction software that would need to be maintained by SOFIA. We present here a unique approach for enfolding all the instrument-specific data reduction software in the observatory framework and verifies the needs for all three reduction scenarios as well as the standard visualization tools. The SOFIA data reduction structure would host the different algorithms and techniques that the instrument teams develop in their own programming language and operating system. Ideally, duplication of software is minimized across the system because instrument teams can draw on software solutions and techniques previously delivered to SOFIA by other instruments. With this approach, we minimize the effort for analyzing and developing new software reduction pipelines for future generation instruments. We also explore the potential benefits of this approach in the portability of the software to an ever

  3. A CURRENT 4-YEARS RETROSPECTIVE SURVEY OF 64 SURGICALLY TREATED ZYGOMA COMPLEX FRACTURES IN DEPARTMENT OF MAXILLO-FACIAL SURGERY, UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL ‘ST. ANNA’, SOFIA, BULGARIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elitsa G. Deliverska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of this material was to be an example of the complications that can occur in cases of zygoma fractures and to draw the attention of the clinicians to the need of accurate diagnose and early treatment of the associated with zygoma fractures traumas. Materials and methods: Medical records of 276 patients with different traumas in face and neck area treated in our department ware reviewed. Of those 64 suffered from zygoma fractures and they ware classified according to age, sex, cause of trauma, presence or absence of associated trauma, etc.Results: As other studies also show, we determined that the most common cause of injury was assault and road accidents, fallowed by sport, industrial, etc. Males between 20 and 40 years old ware the biggest group of patients, often after alcohol consumption.Associated traumas occurred more frequently in cases of motor vehicle accident than in other cases and ware presented by closed head trauma, ophthalmologic problems, extremities fractures, etc.Conclusion: Delayed treatment of zygoma injuries is feasible and yields in good results when the severity of trauma needs it, but early repair of such injuries prevent late complications and should be preferred when possible.

  4. Assessment of genetically significant doses to the Sofia population from natural gamma background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetically significant dose to the population of Sofia city was assessed within a program covering larger urban communities in the country. Measurements were made of gamma background exposure rates in the gonadal region. Gonad doses were estimated using a screening factor of 0.73. Based on statistical data for total number of inhabitants and number of people of reproductive age, and on the mean annual gonad doses derived, calculations were made of genetically significant dose to the Sofia population. Base-line data were thus provided for an assessment of extra radiation dose resulting from occupational radiation exposure. (author)

  5. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Acoustical Resonance Technical Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael G.; Kehoe, Michael W.; Gupta, Kajal K.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Ginsberg, Jerry H.; Kolar, Ramesh

    2009-01-01

    A request was submitted on September 2, 2004 concerning the uncertainties regarding the acoustic environment within the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) cavity, and the potential for structural damage from acoustical resonance or tones, especially if they occur at or near a structural mode. The requestor asked for an independent expert opinion on the approach taken by the SOFIA project to determine if the project's analysis, structural design and proposed approach to flight test were sound and conservative. The findings from this assessment are recorded in this document.

  6. General plan for the partial dismantling of the IRT-Sofia research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the decision of the Bulgarian Government to reconstruct it, the strategy concerning the IRT-Sofia Research Reactor is to partially dismantle the old systems and equipment. The removal of the reactor core and replacement of old equipment will not pose any significant problems. For a more efficient use of existing resources, there is a need for an engineering project which has been already prepared under the title 'General Plan for the Partial Dismantling of Equipment at the IRT-Sofia as a Part of the Reconstruction into a Low Power RR'. (author)

  7. Partial dismantling of research reactor-Sofia prior its refurbishment into low power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategy for the Research Reactor IRT-Sofia, after decision of the Government for its refurbishment, is a partial dismantling of the old systems and equipment. Removal of the reactor core and replacement of old equipment will not pose any significant problems for dismantling. For most efficient use of resources there is a need for implementation of the engineering project, 'Plan for partial dismantling of equipment of the IRT-Sofia as a part of its refurbishment and conversion into low power RR', which has been already prepared. (author)

  8. General plan for the partial dismantling of the IRT-Sofia research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolov Tihomir G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available After the decision of the Bulgarian Government to reconstruct it, the strategy concerning the IRT-Sofia Research Reactor is to partially dismantle the old systems and equipment. The removal of the reactor core and replacement of old equipment will not pose any significant problems. For a more efficient use of existing resources, there is a need for an engineering project which has been already prepared under the title "General Plan for the Partial Dismantling of Equipment at the IRT-Sofia as a Part of the Reconstruction into a Low Power RR".

  9. Implementation of the partial dismantling of research reactor IRT-Sofia prior to its refurbishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolov Tihomir G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2001, the Bulgarian Government decided to refurbish and convert the research reactor in Sofia into a low-power reactor. Due to this, a partial dismantling of IRT-Sofia’s old systems and equipment was carried out with the intention of reusing the concrete bioshield in the construction of the new low-power research reactor. For a more efficient use of available resources, an engineering project known as “The plan for the partial dismantling of IRT-Sofia equipment as a part of its refurbishment into a low-power research reactor” was drawn up and has since been successfully implemented.

  10. Mapping PAH sizes in NGC 7023 with SOFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croiset, B. A.; Candian, A.; Berné, O.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2016-05-01

    Context. NGC 7023 is a well-studied reflection nebula, which shows strong emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules in the form of aromatic infrared bands (AIBs). The spectral variations of the AIBs in this region are connected to the chemical evolution of the PAH molecules which, in turn, depends on the local physical conditions. Aims: Our goal is to map PAH sizes in NGC 7023 with respect to the location of the star. We focus on the north west (NW) photo-dissociation region (PDR) and the south PDR of NGC 7023 to understand the photochemical evolution of PAHs, using size as a proxy. Methods: We use the unique capabilities of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) to observe a 3.2' × 3.4' region of NGC 7023 at wavelengths that we observe with high spatial resolution (2.7'') at 3.3 and 11.2 μm. We compare the SOFIA images with existing images of the PAH emission at 8.0 μm (Spitzer), emission from evaporating very small grains (eVSG) extracted from Spitzer-IRS spectral cubes, the extended red emission (Hubble Space Telescope and Canadian French Hawaiian Telescope), and H2 (2.12 μm). We create maps of the 11.2/3.3 μm ratio to probe the morphology of the PAH size distribution and the 8.0/11.2 μm ratio to probe the PAH ionization. We make use of an emission model and of vibrational spectra from the NASA Ames PAH database to translate the 11.2/3.3 μm ratio to PAH sizes. Results: The 11.2/3.3 μm ratio map shows the smallest PAH concentrate on the PDR surface (H2 and extended red emission) in the NW and south PDR. We estimated that PAHs in the NW PDR bear, on average, a number of carbon atoms (Nc) of ~70 in the PDR cavity and ~50 at the PDR surface. In the entire nebula, the results reveal a factor of 2 variation in the size of the PAH. We relate these size variations to several models for the evolution of the PAH families when they traverse from the molecular cloud to the PDR. Conclusions: The high-resolution PAH size map

  11. Bulgaria - Public Expenditure Issues and Directions for Reform : A Public Expenditure and Institutional Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    A long period of economic mismanagement and political instability in the early 1990s, delayed Bulgaria's transition from planned, to market economy by nearly a decade, leading to the collapse of Bulgaria's economy in 1996-97. The introduction of a Currency Board Arrangement (CBA) in July 1997 and the subsequent implementation of sound macroeconomic and structural policies succeeded in rest...

  12. 76 FR 50283 - Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-- Bulgaria AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice of finding regarding foreign social insurance or pension system--Bulgaria... Commissioner of Social Security finds has in effect a social insurance or pension system which is of...

  13. Bulgaria's Policy for Regulatory Reform in the European Union : Converging with Europe's Best Regulatory Environments

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Bulgaria's entry into the EU Single Market raises new opportunities and new risks for the national economy. As shown in the rest of Europe, a program of regulatory reform offers an effective strategy for managing the risks of more intense competition while preparing Bulgarian companies to prosper within the largest economy in the world. Bulgaria has already made significant progress in reg...

  14. Reforming health care financing in Bulgaria: the population perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanova, Dina; McKee, Martin

    2004-02-01

    Health financing reform in Bulgaria has been characterised by lack of political consensus on reform direction, economic shocks, and, since 1998, steps towards social insurance. As in other eastern European countries, the reform has been driven by an imperative to embrace new ideas modelled on systems elsewhere, but with little attention to whether these reflect popular values. This study explores underlying values, such as views on the role of the state and solidarity, attitudes to, and understanding of compulsory and voluntary insurance, and co-payments. The study identifies general principles (equity, transparency) considered important by the population and practical aspects of implementation of reform. Data were obtained from a representative survey (n=1547) and from 58 in-depth interviews and 6 focus groups with users and health professionals, conducted in 1997 before the actual reform of the health financing system in Bulgaria. A majority supports significant state involvement in health care financing, ranging from providing safety net for the poor, through co-subsidising or regulating the social insurance system, to providing state-financed universal free care (half of all respondents). Collectivist values in Bulgaria remain strong, with support for free access to services regardless of income, age, or health status and progressive funding. There is strong support (especially among the well off) for a social insurance system based on the principle of solidarity and accountability rather than the former tax-based model. The preferred health insurance fund was autonomous, state regulated, financing only health care, and offering optional membership. Voluntary insurance and, less so, co-payments were acceptable if limited to selected services and better off groups. In conclusion, a health financing system under public control that fits well with values and population preferences is likely to improve compliance and be more sustainable. Universal health insurance

  15. Nationalism and Declining Population in Bulgaria after 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Kotzeva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag liegt nur in englischer Sprache vor.This paper aims to illuminate and provide a critical assessment of the nationalist discourse on declining population in Bulgaria. Nationalist discourse is one of the mainstream approaches in Bulgaria and is widely spread through mass media having been voiced by renowned intellectuals, policy experts, scholars and media celebrities. It can be recognised in the political programmes of left-wing and nationalist parties, but also in governmental documents at both national as well as regional levels. The nationalistically oriented advocates articulate current concerns regarding the declining birth rates and declining population in the country labelling the demographic situation as “Bulgarian national catastrophe” and “Bulgaria’s collapse”. They place an emphasis on the decreasing proportion of ethnic Bulgarians and the growth of the ethnic minorities, especially Roma. The latter trend was labelled by the derogatory term “gypsyisation”, i.e. a distortion of the Bulgarian nation and shrinkage of its core ethnicity – ethnic Bulgarians. The threat of the “gypsyisation” of the Bulgarian nation has not only been viewed in quantitative terms, but also through the lens of an alleged worsening of the national human capital (e.g. level of education, professional skills and civic culture of the population. Another set of arguments exploited in the nationalist discourse is the diminishing size of the Bulgarian nation as a threat to national sovereignty, territorial unity and economic stability. We use a qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis of media textual materials in order to reconstruct the main ideas, arguments and strategies of the proponents of the nationalist discourse regarding the consequences of the declining population in Bulgaria, its social policy implications and future demographic prospects.

  16. FIRST SCIENCE RESULTS FROM SOFIA/FORCAST: SUPER-RESOLUTION IMAGING OF THE S140 CLUSTER AT 37 {mu}m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Paul M. [Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Adams, Joseph D.; Herter, Terry L.; Gull, George; Schoenwald, Justin, E-mail: pmh@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: jdadams@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: tlh10@cornell.edu, E-mail: geg3@cornell.edu, E-mail: jps10@cornell.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); and others

    2012-04-20

    We present 37 {mu}m imaging of the S140 complex of infrared sources centered on IRS1 made with the FORCAST camera on SOFIA. These observations are the longest wavelength imaging to resolve clearly the three main sources seen at shorter wavelengths, IRS 1, 2, and 3, and are nearly at the diffraction limit of the 2.5 m telescope. We also obtained a small number of images at 11 and 31 {mu}m that are useful for flux measurement. Our images cover the area of several strong submillimeter sources seen in the area-SMM 1, 2, and 3-that are not coincident with any mid-infrared sources and are not visible in our longer wavelength imaging either. Our new observations confirm previous estimates of the relative dust optical depth and source luminosity for the components in this likely cluster of early B stars. We also investigate the use of super-resolution to go beyond the basic diffraction limit in imaging on SOFIA and find that the van Cittert algorithm, together with the 'multi-resolution' technique, provides excellent results.

  17. Hazard assessment for Romania–Bulgaria crossborder region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the many kinds of natural and man-made disasters, earthquakes dominate with regard to their social and economical impact on the urban environment. Global seismic hazard and vulnerability to earthquakes are steadily increasing as urbanisation and development occupy more areas that are prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The assessment of the seismic hazard is particularly important, because it provides valuable information for seismic safety and disaster mitigation, and it supports decision making for the benefit of society. The main objective of this study is to assess the seismic hazard for Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region on the basis of integrated basic geo-datasets

  18. Kozloduy NPP units 1-4 significance for Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General data about nuclear power in Bulgaria is presented. The main topics covered are: estimated energy reserve; energy balance, new capacities, installed in 2002; information about the WWER-230 reactors operation; environmental impact and global warming; Bulgarian export and regional electricity demand; public opinion etc. The problem 'Long term safe operation vs forced early closure' is discussed. It is concluded that the decision on early closure of any unit should be made on economic grounds or failure to meet regulatory safety standards and must not be politically motivated

  19. Venezia Kuldlõvi võitis tänavu Sofia Coppola / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2010-01-01

    67. Venezia rahvusvahelise filmifestivali auhinnasaajatest. Parim film: Sofia Coppola "Kusagil", parim lavastaja poolakas Jerzy Skolomowski ("Sisuline tapmine"), parim meesnäitleja Vincent Gallo ("Sisuline tapmine"), parim naisnäitleja Ariane Labed ("Attenberg"). Marcello Mastroianni noore näitleja auhind: Mila Kunis ("Must luik")

  20. Väärikust otsides - pärimuse fenomen / Sofia Joons

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Joons, Sofia, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Loomingu Raamatukogus ilmunud Hasso Krulli kirjutise "Loomise mõnu ja kiri: essee vanarahva kosmoloogiast" üle arutlevad rahvamuusikud Sofia Joons ja Meelika Hainsoo, TÜ Viljandi kultuuriakadeemia rahvusliku käsitöö osakonna juhataja Ave Matsin ning TÜ Viljandi kultuuriakadeemia direktor Anzori Barkalaja

  1. The Research Reactor IRT-Sofia: 50 Years after First Criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design features of the research reactor IRT-2000 in Sofia and accumulated experience in the past prior to the partial dismantling of obsolete reactor systems are outlined. The present status of the ongoing refurbishment to a low power reactor IRT-200 and its planned utilization are briefly described. (author)

  2. In-Flight Performance of the Water Vapor Monitor Onboard the Sofia Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Thomas L.; Yuen, Lunming; Sisson, David; Hang, Richard

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) airborne observatory flies in a modified B747-SP aircraft in the lower stratosphere above more than 99.9% of the Earth's water vapor. As low as this residual water vapor is, it will still affect SOFIA's infrared and sub-millimeter astronomical observations. As a result, a heterodyne instrument has been developed to observe the strength and shape of the 1830Hz rotational line of water, allowing measurements of the integrated water vapor overburden in flight. In order to be useful in correcting the astronomical signals, the required measured precipitable water vapor accuracy must be 2 microns or better, 3 sigma, and measured at least once a minute. The Water Vapor Monitor has flown 22 times during the SOFIA Early Science shared-risk period. The instrument water vapor overburden data obtained were then compared with concurrent data from GOES-V satellites to perform a preliminary calibration of the measurements. This presentation will cover the.results of these flights. The final flight calibration necessary to reach the required accuracy will await subsequent flights following the SOFIA observatory upgrade that is taking place during the spring and summer of 2012.

  3. SoFiA: a flexible source finder for 3D spectral line data

    CERN Document Server

    Serra, Paolo; Giese, Nadine; Jurek, Russell; Flöer, Lars; Popping, Attila; Winkel, Benjamin; van der Hulst, Thijs; Meyer, Martin; Koribalski, Bärbel S; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Courtois, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    We introduce SoFiA, a flexible software application for the detection and parameterization of sources in 3D spectral-line datasets. SoFiA combines for the first time in a single piece of software a set of new source-finding and parameterization algorithms developed on the way to future HI surveys with ASKAP (WALLABY, DINGO) and APERTIF. It is designed to enable the general use of these new algorithms by the community on a broad range of datasets. The key advantages of SoFiA are the ability to: search for line emission on multiple scales to detect 3D sources in a complete and reliable way, taking into account noise level variations and the presence of artefacts in a data cube; estimate the reliability of individual detections; look for signal in arbitrarily large data cubes using a catalogue of 3D coordinates as a prior; provide a wide range of source parameters and output products which facilitate further analysis by the user. We highlight the modularity of SoFiA, which makes it a flexible package allowing us...

  4. Historical review, present status and perspectives of nuclear sciences education at the Sofia University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of the history of the education in nuclear sciences at the Faculty of Physics and Faculty of Chemistry of the Sofia University is made in the report. The present status of Bachelor, Master and PhD programmes in both Faculties is presented. (authors)

  5. Pluto's Atmosphere from the 29 June 2015 Occultation: SOFIA Airborne Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Michael J.; MIT-Williams Occulation Group (MIT/Williams College/Lowell Observatory/SAAO), HIPO Instrument Group (Lowell Observatory/MIT), FLITECAM Instrument Group (UCLA), FPI+ Instrument Group (DSI/U. Stuttgart), SOFIA Operations Group (NASA/USRA/DSI)

    2016-01-01

    After an extensive prediction effort, the 29 June 2015 occultation by Pluto was observed from both airborne (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy - SOFIA) and numerous ground-based telescopes (Bosh et al. 2015, in prep.). Real-time prediction updates allowed placement of the SOFIA telescope with its four detectors deep within the central-flash region of the atmospheric occultation. Fortuitously, the Mount John University Observatory (Lake Tekapo, New Zealand) was also within the central-flash region. This happenstance allowed for direct mutual calibration of the SOFIA data with the ground-based data in multiple central-flash detections in several colors from each facility resulting in a full maping of the central-flash evolute.Combining all of the data allows for a precise measurement of the SOFIA flight path through the shadow, and direct measurement of Pluto's atmospheric shadow size.We will examine and discuss the central-flash signatures from the deepest pass yet recorded through a Pluto central flash. The relative orientations and asymmetries in the various central flash data allow us to use them to tightly constrain the lower atmospheric ellipticity and orientation of likely winds with respect to Pluto's figure. The ratio of the two separate central flashes (airborne and ground-based) is also a strong constraint on the geometric solution for the full occultation data set, and the absolute height of the central flashes with respect to those expected for a clear isothermal atmosphere places constraints on haze densities and thermal gradients in Pluto's lower atmosphere. We can also compare the central-flash signatures in several colors to establish bounds on haze-particle sizes in the lower atmosphere.SOFIA is jointly operated by the Universities Space Research Association, Inc. (USRA), under NASA contract NAS2-97001, and the Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI) under DLR contract 50 OK 0901 to the University of Stuttgart. Support for this work was

  6. Scientific support of nuclear energy in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    experimental reactor will be a base for expanding the national center for scientific and applied investigations. It will play an important role for improving the qualification of the specialists and education of students and postgraduates as well. The INRNE collaboration with the IAEA, Vienna, and foreign nuclear institutes, the participation in the European and International programmes is a good base for training and methodology development. The obtained experience and knowledge may be applied for incoming needs of scientific support of Kozloduy NPP. The INRNE intends to be a promotional organization in the scientific services for safe operation of Kozloduy NPP, for developing visions and stand-points about next generation reactors, fuel cycle management, reactor decommissioning methodology, as well as providing input for energy policy decision making. The problems of education, qualification and preservation of specialists should be Government policy with clearly set objects and ways for their achievement. Failure to take appropriate steps now will seriously jeopardise the provision of adequate expertise tomorrow. (author)

  7. A Decade Of Teacher Professional Development With SOFIA's EXES And TEXES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, Mary Kay; Lacy, J. H.; Sneden, C.; Teacher Associates, EXES

    2007-12-01

    Since January 1998 central Texas grade 6-12 science and math teachers have met several times per year to learn first-hand about how a scientific instrument, the Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (EXES), is being developed and built for SOFIA. In addition to learning about the technology of astronomical instrumentation, they have learned about the development of SOFIA, the scheduling and preparation for observing runs, and a wide range of astronomical topics. A typical Saturday meeting includes an update on SOFIA, EXES, and its ground-based prototype, TEXES (Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph); one or more presentations on a science or technology topic; and a Standards-linked activity that they can carry back to use in their classrooms. A variety of guest-presenters - faculty, staff, and graduate students as well as visitors (e. g., Jackie Davidson and Alan Tokunaga) - enrich the program with their expertise. Field trips are important supplements to the program; the entire group visited Waco three times to observe the SOFIA aircraft modification while selected members have accompanied scientists to McDonald Observatory, IRTF, and Gemini for observing runs. In addition, the immediacy offered by live videoconferences with TEXES observers at IRTF and Gemini brought the participants a unique appreciation of nighttime observing at a professional observatory. The participants report their increased knowledge of astronomical concepts and of the culture of professional astronomy. By spreading the SOFIA EXES teacher program over its first decade of development, the staff has formed strong professional bonds with the participants while the participants have shared their experiences with each other. Support from USRA grant 8500-98-008 and the National Science Foundation AST-0607312 and AST- 0607708 is gratefully acknowledged.

  8. Occupational radiation injuries in Bulgaria during the last 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis for the period 1976-1995 have been done. The main reasons for radiation injuries as well as their distribution in different branches such as uranium industry, research, medicine and nuclear installations are outlined. Compiled data on the incidence of different nosological groups as chronic radiation disease, local radiation injury, radionuclide intoxication, radiation cataract, leucosis and malignant neoplasms are reported. The procedure of acknowledging a radiation injury as an occupational one as well as the necessary documentation for this are also described. The results presented in the article are based on the work carried out by the diagnostic commission at the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (BG). 2 refs., 2 tabs. (author)

  9. Prerequisites to promote energy efficiency investments in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PHARE Energy Programme's team observation and advice to the Committee of Energy in Bulgaria are outlined. In comparison to the Western European countries energy intensity in Bulgaria is 2-3 times higher. It is explained by the energy intensive industrial structure and the old and depreciated capital equipment. Cost-covering energy prices would make energy efficiency investment financially feasible and would attract financiers. But the lesson from Western European experience is that availability of finance capital and cost reflecting energy prices is not at all a necessary prerequisite for energy efficiency improvement. This improvement can be achieved with no cost or low cost measures. The potential for energy efficiency in industry (consuming more than 50% of the energy) is 11%-20%; in buildings - 6%; in transport - 4%. There are other obstacles, as lack of information, other business interests and no internal expertise, especially for small and medium size industries. The basic prerequisite to improve energy efficiency is raising of awareness and change of management culture, as well as radical change in organisational and management structures. (orig.)

  10. Geological formations in Bulgaria suitable for a deep HWL repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total volume of vitrified high-level waste (HLW) and of intermediate-level wastes containing significant amounts of long-lived alpha emitters, generated over the lifetime of Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), is estimated to be about 2,100 m3. Selection of a suitable formation to host a deep HLW repository in Bulgaria presents serious difficulties owing to the small area of the country, its complex geology, and the expected negative reaction of the local population. After a preliminary categorization of the Bulgarian territory, more than 40 areas were identified initially as potential disposal sites. This number was reduced to 20 using a screening method. A large portion of the selected regions comprises thick (up to 1,000 m) Lower Cretaceous marls, some at a distance of 60-80 km to the south of Kozloduy NPP. There are no active faults in the vicinity of the chosen areas and the seismicity is of degree VII on the MSK scale. Several regions in south-east Bulgaria containing magmatic and metamorphic rocks, have been suggested as prospective sites for deep HLW disposal: the Byala Reka structure of Precambrian highly metamorphic gneisses, the Avren and Zalti Chal areas in meta-ultrabasites, the Sakar Palaeozoic granite pluton, and two areas in volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks. The possibility of subsea geological disposal has also been discussed. At present, a programme is being developed for more detailed investigations of the suitable geological formations. 20 refs

  11. Asbestos exposure and mesothelioma incidence and mortality in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangelova, Katya; Dimitrova, Irina

    2016-06-01

    Bulgaria totally banned the import, production and use of asbestos in 2005, but produced and used asbestos products during the last 3-4 decades of the 20th century. The aim of this study was to follow the incidence and mortality of mesothelioma in Bulgaria in relation to past occupational exposures. A literature search between 1960 and 2014 was conducted to obtain information on asbestos consumption, occupational exposure and asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). Data on registered mesotheliomas were provided by the National Cancer Register and data for recognized occupational ARDs were provided by the National Social Security Institute. An increase in the incidence of mesothelioma from 5 to 58 from 1993 to 2013, with 666 cases in the 21-year period, was registered. Incidence, mortality rates, deaths and male-to-female ratios and were lower in comparison to industrialized countries. The increase in mesothelioma incidence is considered as a consequence of more recent production and use of asbestos and asbestos products and the high occupational exposure between 1977 and 1989, while the lower rate of mesothelioma deaths and male-to-female ratio need to be investigated further. PMID:27180335

  12. Derecho-like event in Bulgaria on 20 July 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gospodinov, Ilian; Dimitrova, Tsvetelina; Bocheva, Lilia; Simeonov, Petio; Dimitrov, Rumen

    2015-05-01

    In this work we analyze the development of a severe-convective-storm system in northwestern Bulgaria on 20 July 2011 which exhibited derecho-like characteristics. Prior to this event, a derecho had never been documented in Bulgaria. The convective system was associated with a cold front. We present a synoptic-scale analysis of the evolution of the cold front and an overview of the wind and the damage that has occurred in the region with the strongest impact. The convective system consisted of two multi-cell thunderstorms that are analyzed in some detail, based on radar data. The two storms merged and the convective system evolved into a bow-shape reflectivity structure with two rear inflow notches. The analysis of the radar data revealed cloud top heights of 17 km, with the formation of а bounded weak echo region, a maximum radar reflectivity factor of 63 dBZ, and wind speeds above 30 m/s. The field investigation revealed patterns in the damaged crops typical of strong wind gusts.

  13. Low level radioactive waste disposal in Kozloduy NPP in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozloduy NPP is the biggest power plant in the Republic of Bulgaria. It is in operation since 1974 and for the past 25 years it has generated over 263 billion kWh electric power. The NPP share in the total electric production in 1998 was about 50%. It has six units in operation - four WWER 440 B-230 and two WWER 1000 B-320. In the nuclear reactor operation the generation of radioactive waste (RAW) is an inevitable process. The waste must be conditioned, stored and disposed of in a safe manner. There are no national radioactive waste disposal facilities, for waste generated by an NPP, in Bulgaria to the moment. This situation necessitates the storage of operational RAW to be carried out on site for a long period of time (30 to 50 years). Following the principle for protection of human health and environment now and in the future, Kozloduy NPP adopted the concept for conditioning the RAW to a stable solid form and placing the waste in a package which should keep its features for a sufficiently long term so that the package can be safely transported to the disposal site. (author)

  14. Total, accessible and reserve wind energy resources in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article is a part of the international project 'Bulgaria Country Study to Address Climate Change Inventory of the Greenhouse Gases Emission and Sinks Alternative Energy Balance and Technology Programs' sponsored by the Department of Energy, US. The 'total' average annual wind resources in Bulgaria determined on the basis wind velocity density for more than 100 meteorological stations are estimated on 125 000 TWh. For the whole territory the theoretical wind power potential is about 14200 GW. The 'accessible' wind resources are estimated on about 62000 TWh. The 'reserve' (or usable) wind resources are determined using 8 velocity intervals for WECS (Wind Energy Conversion Systems) operation, number and disposition of turbines, and the usable (3%) part of the territory. The annual reserve resources are estimated at about 21 - 33 TWh. The 'economically beneficial' wind resources (EBWR) are those part of the reserve resources which could be included in the country energy balance using specific technologies in specific time period. It is foreseen that at year 2010 the EBWR could reach 0.028 TWh. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  15. LIDAR sensing of aerosol processes over sofia region in the frame of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is given of the remote sensing of the atmospheric processes over Sofia region by using lidars. Results obtained in the Institute of Electronics in the frame of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network are presented and discussed

  16. An Energy Overview of the Republic of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Bulgaria. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resource s permit

  17. Essential oil composition of Achillea clusiana from Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Todorova, Milka; Vitkova, Antonina

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil compositon of Achillea clusiana Tausch from Bulgaria has been studied by GC and GC/MS. Fifty-four components were registered, representing 92.5% of the oil. The oil was characterized by the presence of oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenoids. The main components were beta-thujone (17.2%), 1,8-cineole (11.2%), camphor (11.1%) and alpha-thujone (7.8%). Farnesol (3.1%), nerolidol (2.7%) and oxygenated nerolidol derivatives (cabreuva oxides A-D, isohumbertiols A-D, bejarol and 7-hydroxy-6,7-dihydro-5,6E-dehydronerolidol) were the main sesquiterpenoids in the oil. PMID:20184037

  18. The economic crisis and energy consumption in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic crisis in Bulgaria is manifested already before 1989 and has strong impact on energy consumption in 1989-1992. The generalized picture of economic development in this period gives the dynamics of the gross national product (GNP). The drop in GNP is about 23% and is accompanied by significant structural changes in different sectors. The final energy consumption decreased with about 50%. Based on the analysis of the economy-energy consumption interaction in different sectors, detailed economic data are given on the structure of the final energy consumption and dynamics of energy intensity by sectors. Some conclusions are drown and proposals for radical changes and long-term measures for improvement the situation are outlined. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs. (author)

  19. Chromosome study of three species of Dormice from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Peshev

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The karyotypes of three species of dormice were studied. The fat dormouse Myoxus glis is reported with 2n=62. The forest dormouse Dryomys nitedula has 2n=48 and the hazel dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius is reported with 2n=46. A secondary constriction is well visible in all three species. Riassunto Studio cromosomico di tre specie di Mioxidi in Bulgaria - Sono stati studiati i cariotipi di tre specie di mioxidi. M. glis è caratterizzato da 2n=62, D. nitedula da 2n=48 e M. avellanarius da 2n=46. Una costrizione secondaria è ben visibile in tutte e tre le specie.

  20. State system for radioactive waste management in Republic of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sources of radioactive wastes in Bulgaria are the Kozloduy NPP, IRT-2000 Research reactor and more than 2300 industrial or medical facilities. The Government has decided to continue the construction of the new nuclear power plant at Belene site. The development of the nuclear power production and use necessitates the development of a new infrastructure in the field of the radioactive waste management. Bulgarian policy in this field is presented in several laws: Act on the Safe Use of Nuclear Energy; Environment Protection Law and Law of Public Health. The protection of the personnel and population during work with radioactive wastes is realised according to the Basic Norm for Radiation Protection (edition 2000). The institutional framework and the financial activities as well as the National strategy in the field of radioactive waste management are presented

  1. Scenarios of energy demand and efficiency potential for Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzvetanov, P.; Ruicheva, M.; Denisiev, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents aggregated results on macroeconomic and final energy demand scenarios developed within the Bulgarian Country Study on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation, supported by US Country Studies Program. The studies in this area cover 5 main stages: (1) {open_quotes}Baseline{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Energy Efficiency{close_quotes} socioeconomic and energy policy philosophy; (2) Modeling of macroeconomic and sectoral development till 2020; (3) Expert assessments on the technological options for energy efficiency increase and GHG mitigation in the Production, Transport and Households and Services Sectors; (4) Bottom-up modeling of final energy demand; and (5) Sectoral and overall energy efficiency potential and policy. Within the Bulgarian Country Study, the presented results have served as a basis for the final integration stage {open_quotes}Assessment of the Mitigation Policy and Measures in the Energy System of Bulgaria{close_quotes}.

  2. POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF CROCUS L.(IRIDACEAE IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UZUNDZHALIEVA KATYA SPASOVA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollen of the wild species from the genus Crocus L., spread in Bulgaria has been analyzed. The investigations, made by light microscope show that the pollen of these species is spherical in shape and round in outlines, comparatively big. These morphological characteristics of the pollen of the wild Bulgarian Crocuses define it as a primitive one [6]. The Scanning Electron Microscope investigations, made by Beug [1], established two types of pollen morphology. The results of our investigation led to the conclusion that the same types are also presented in Bulgarian species: – C.biflorus –type, or syncolpate and C.vernus – type, or inaperturate. Eight of the species belong to the first type and only C. pallasii belongs to the second. The pollen of C. reticulatus is with quite unclear aperture – maybe transition to the inaperturate type.

  3. Investigation of the evapotranspiration regime in some regions of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of water management policies in our country is linked to the accuracy with which variations (temporal and special) in available water resources. Evapotranspiration is one of the most important processes in the land phase of the hydrological cycle. The aim of the presented paper is to estimate and describe the regime of the two river basins. Osam river base is representative for central part of Danube hilly plane and Struma river is the biggest river in south-western part of Bulgaria. The mean monthly potential evapotranspiration is calculated according Thornthwaite and Turc's empirical equations for mean monthly value actual evapotranspiration is applied. The long-term variability of evapotranspiration is analyzed.(Author)

  4. Contamination of soils in Bulgaria with Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium - 137 from the Latin word 'Caeius' - meaning sky blue or heavenly blue) is one of radioisotopes of cesium, which present in the biosphere in small amounts as a result of radiation leaks. It is an artificial radionuclide with a half-life of 30 years, and it was released into the nature by both stratospheric testing of above ground thermonuclear weapons and Chernobyl derived fallout. Cesium - 137 was deposited as fallout and in most environments was rapidly and strongly absorbed by soil particles at the ground surfaces. Its high affinity to fine soil particles, relatively long half-life, and world wide distribution have made it almost a universal environmental tracer. Definition of radiological state of soils in Bulgaria was done by using of nondestructive gamma-spectrometric analysis. Studying of concentration of cesium - 137 was made during the whole year at the specially marked stations at the territory of the country. Providing enough scientific data, scientists can define the real concentration of this radionuclide in soils. This is a very important process, because how we know soil is at the beginning of the food chain. So the good quality control here is very important. Cesium has no biological role. However it is capable of replacing potassium in the body to some extent because of its chemical similarity. Ingestion of any cesium compounds is therefore to be avoided. Because of its similarity the isotope 137CS is very toxic. In Bulgaria there were taken hundreds of samples per year, because of importance of this radioisotope and at the most cases the results are in normal borders. But the concentrations for the different parts of the country can vary from 0.2 Bq/kg to 540 Bq/kg. So it is necessary these parameters to be under control until its full stabilization and achievement of no biological and environmental risk.

  5. Safety Analyses of IRT- Sofia LEU Core: Sensitivity Analyses of Loss of Flow Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitivity analyses (by the PARET/ANL code) of the loss of forced flow accident because of pump stop as a result of loss of the offsite electricity supply for the IRT - Sofia are presented in this paper. These analyses are carried out because the used hydro dynamic calculation evaluation for a period during which the downward coolant flow is slowing down and stopped has very wide tolerance (from 2 to 25 sec). According to the obtained results the relation between evaluated and allowed conditions of the fuel operation does not vary significantly in the analyzed limits. Moreover for all analyzed conditions the peak cladding temperature reached in this transient is below the temperature for onset of nucleate boiling (1170C) and far below the safety limit of 4250C for the fuel cladding temperature that is fully consistent with the conclusion from the IRT - Sofia SAR for this accident. (authors)

  6. THE SOFIA OBSERVATORY AT THE START OF ROUTINE SCIENCE OPERATIONS: MISSION CAPABILITIES AND PERFORMANCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has recently concluded a set of engineering flights for observatory performance evaluation. These in-flight opportunities are viewed as the first comprehensive assessment of the observatory's performance and are used to guide future development activities, as well as to identify additional observatory upgrades. Pointing stability was evaluated, including the image motion due to rigid-body and flexible-body telescope modes as well as possible aero-optical image motion. We report on recent improvements in pointing stability by using an active mass damper system installed on the telescope. Measurements and characterization of the shear layer and cavity seeing, as well as image quality evaluation as a function of wavelength have also been performed. Additional tests targeted basic observatory capabilities and requirements, including pointing accuracy, chopper evaluation, and imager sensitivity. This paper reports on the data collected during these flights and presents current SOFIA observatory performance and characterization

  7. On sky testing of the SOFIA telescope in preparation for the first science observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Franziska; Wolf, Jürgen; Waddell, Patrick; Dunham, Edward; Reinacher, Andreas; Lampater, Ulrich; Jakob, Holger; Bjarke, Lisa; Adams, Sybil; Grashuis, Randy; Meyer, Allan; Bower, Kenneth; Schweikhard, Keith; Keilig, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, is an airborne observatory that will study the universe in the infrared spectrum. A Boeing 747-SP aircraft will carry a 2.5 m telescope designed to make sensitive infrared measurements of a wide range of astronomical objects. In 2008, SOFIA's primary mirror was demounted and coated for the first time. After reintegration into the telescope assembly in the aircraft, the alignment of the telescope optics was repeated and successive functional and performance testing of the fully integrated telescope assembly was completed on the ground. The High-speed Imaging Photometer for Occultations (HIPO) was used as a test instrument for aligning the optics and calibrating and tuning the telescope's pointing and control system in preparation for the first science observations in flight. In this paper, we describe the mirror coating process, the subsequent telescope testing campaigns and present the results.

  8. Business Cycle Accounting: Bulgaria after the introduction of the currency board arrangement (1999-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilev, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on explaining the economic fluctuations in Bulgaria after the introduction of the currency board arrangement in 1997, the period of macroeconomic stability that ensued, the EU accession, and the episode of the recent global financial crisis. This paper follows Chari et al. (2002) and performs business cycle accounting (BCA) for Bulgaria during the period 1999-2014. As in Cavalcanti (2007), who studies the Portuguese business cycles, most of the volatility in output per capi...

  9. Analysis of the Logistics Systems in Bulgaria under the Requirements of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Caner Cebeci; Marina Yankova

    2013-01-01

    The new EU member countries will participate actively in the growing freight development (Beckmann and Baum, 2002). The new EU member Bulgaria forms the ultimate frontier of the EU and because of its geographical location an important transit country for the transport between Europe and Asia. Because of numerous deficiencies in the Bulgarian transport infrastructure, the Bulgarian sections of the Trans-European road network cannot be used efficiently and thus Bulgaria loses large shares of th...

  10. Flashes from the Past: Establishment of the Bulgarian national Bank as Central bank of Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bojinov, Bojidar

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to outline the specifics related with the emergence and development of central banking in Bulgaria. Established in 1879 as an ordinary commercial bank, Bulgarian National Bank experienced a number of ups and downs in its 130 year history. In its evolutionary development, it became a central issue and Bank of Bulgaria in 1928. In the years of socialism, Bulgarian National Bank is experiencing its devolution development to become in the period 1971-1982 in the only bank in count...

  11. Origin-labeled Products - Food Quality and Food Safety in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Plamen Mishev; Emilia Valcheva

    2005-01-01

    Bulgaria has complicated systems for food quality and food safety control. Responsibility for them is divided among several institutions. The control system is still overstaffed and insufficient co-ordination between its different parts prevail; the current control system does not meet the requirements of the new EU approach: traceability and transparency. In the last years the improvement of food quality and food safety systems in Bulgaria has been substantial - both from legislative and ins...

  12. Modelling the water budget and the riverflows of the Maritsa basin in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    E. Artinyan; F. Habets; Noilhan, J.; Ledoux, Emmanuel; Dimitrov, D; Martin, E.; Le Moigne, P.

    2007-01-01

    A soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model coupled with a macroscale distributed hydrological model was used in order to simulate the water cycle for a large region in Bulgaria. To do so, an atmospheric forcing was built for two hydrological years (1 October 1995 to 30 September 1997), at an eight km resolution. It was based on the data available at the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH) of Bulgaria. Atmospheric parameters were carefully checked and interpolated with a hi...

  13. ODONATA FROM BULGARIA IN THE COLLECTION OF NATIONAL MUSEUM OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    OpenAIRE

    Kulijer, Dejan; Marinov, Milen

    2010-01-01

    The entomological collection of the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the oldest Balkan insect collections. Eighty-seven (87) dragonfly specimens from 19 species that originate from Bulgaria were found in this collection. In this paper we present the oldest and till now unknown records of dragonflies from Bulgaria from this collection. Some interesting and new distribution data on several species are also presented and discussed.

  14. STUDY ON SOME FACTORS FOR HEALTHY NUTRITION ENVIRONMENT IN RESTAURANTS IN SOUTHWESTERN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmila Ivanova; Julieta Trifonova; Ilinka Terziyska

    2012-01-01

    The purpose – The purpose of the study is to conduct a regional survey in tourist companies in Southwestern Bulgaria for examining some key factors for building/forming a healthy nutrition environment. Design – The special focus is given to analysis of the key factors for creating healthy nutrition environment in restaurants. Methodology – A cross sectional survey conducted including 34 respondents from 120 operating hotels with restaurants in Southwestern Bulgaria and 30 independent restaura...

  15. A case of integration of organic dairy sheep farm in value chains in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bachev, Hrabrin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the state of integration of small scale dairy farms in value chains in Bulgaria and a case study on organic farming as a new prospective approach for market inclusion. It outlines the evolution of dairy sheep farming and organic production; analyzes the pace, factors and impacts of development of a successful organic dairy sheep farm from North-West Bulgaria; specifies driving factors and prospects of small-scale organic farming development; assesses possibilities for repl...

  16. The adjustment of financial ratios in the presence of soft budget constraints: evidence from Bulgaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Konings, Josef

    2004-01-01

    This paper is the first to study the behaviour of financial ratios in an emerging economy of Central Europe. Using the entire population of company accounts in Bulgaria we find that for the financial ratios we considered, adjustment towards a target takes place but the speed of adjustment is lower than that for Western companies reported in earlier studies. Also, we find the adjustment of financial ratios in Bulgaria to be far slower in firms characterized by soft budget constraints, a widesp...

  17. SOFIA: An innovative setup to measure complete isotopic yield of fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed an experiment dedicated to the accurate isotopic yield measurement of fission fragments over the whole range. SOFIA exploits the inverse kinematics technique: using heavy ion beams at relativistic energies, fission is induced by Coulomb excitation in a high-Z target. The fragments are emitted forward and both of them are identified in charge and mass. The setup will be presented, as well as preliminary spectra. (authors)

  18. SOFIA: An innovative setup to measure complete isotopic yield of fission fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellereau E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We performed an experiment dedicated to the accurate isotopic yield measurement of fission fragments over the whole range. SOFIA exploits the inverse kinematics technique: using heavy ion beams at relativistic energies, fission is induced by Coulomb excitation in a high-Z target. The fragments are emitted forward and both of them are identified in charge and mass. The setup will be presented, as well as preliminary spectra.

  19. The SOFIA experiment: Measurement of 236U fission fragment yields in inverse kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grente L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The SOFIA (Studies On FIssion with Aladin experiment aims at measuring fission-fragments isotopic yields with high accuracy using inverse kinematics at relativistic energies. This experimental technique allows to fully identify the fission fragments in nuclear charge and mass number, thus providing very accurate isotopic yields for low energy fission of a large variety of fissioning systems. This report focuses on the latest results obtained with this set-up concerning electromagnetic-induced fission of 236U.

  20. Future development of the research nuclear reactor IRT-2000 in Sofia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolov, T.G. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, BAS, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1999-07-01

    The present paper presents a short description of the research reactor IRT-2000 Sofia, started in 1961 and operated for 28 years. Some items are considered, connected to the improvements made in the contemporary safety requirements and the unrealized project for modernization to 5 MW. Proposals are considered for reconstruction of reactor site to a 'reactor of low power' for education purposes and as a basis for the country's nuclear technology development. (author)

  1. Two-Year Monitoring of Water Samples from Dam of Iskar and the Black Sea, Bulgaria, by Molecular Analysis: Focus on Mycobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Panaiotov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The coast of the Bulgarian Black Sea is a popular summer holiday destination. The Dam of Iskar is the largest artificial dam in Bulgaria, with a capacity of 675 million m3. It is the main source of tap water for the capital Sofia and for irrigating the surrounding valley. There is a close relationship between the quality of aquatic ecosystems and human health as many infections are waterborne. Rapid molecular methods for the analysis of highly pathogenic bacteria have been developed for monitoring quality. Mycobacterial species can be isolated from waste, surface, recreational, ground and tap waters and human pathogenicity of nontuberculose mycobacteria (NTM is well recognized. The objective of our study was to perform molecular analysis for key-pathogens, with a focus on mycobacteria, in water samples collected from the Black Sea and the Dam of Iskar. In a two year period, 38 water samples were collected—24 from the Dam of Iskar and 14 from the Black Sea coastal zone. Fifty liter water samples were concentrated by ultrafiltration. Molecular analysis for 15 pathogens, including all species of genus Mycobacterium was performed. Our results showed presence of Vibrio spp. in the Black Sea. Rotavirus A was also identified in four samples from the Dam of Iskar. Toxigenic Escherichia coli was present in both locations, based on markers for stx1 and stx2 genes. No detectable amounts of Cryptosporidium were detected in either location using immunomagnetic separation and fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analyses did not detect key cyanobacterial toxins. On the basis of the results obtained we can conclude that for the period 2012–2014 no Mycobacterium species were present in the water samples. During the study period no cases of waterborne infections were reported.

  2. Future state of the climate change, mitigation and development of sustainable agriculture in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazandjiev, V.; Georgieva, V.; Moteva, M.; Marinova, T.; Dimitrov, P.

    2010-09-01

    The farming is one of the most important branches that bring the increase to the gross internal production in Bulgaria. At the same time, the agriculture is the only branch, as in home, so in world scale in which the made as well direct production spending and investing regenerating (or not) only in the frameworks to one vegetative season. In addition on this, development of the intensive farming without using the most advanced technologies such as irrigation, automation, selection - for obtaining stable cultivars and hybrids, permanent weather monitoring and agroclimatic zoning and integrated and biochemical protection to the cultures and plantations had not possible. Analysis of long-term meteorological data from different regions shows clear tendencies to warming and drying for the period of contemporary climate (1971-2000) as well in Bulgaria. Hydro-meteorological conditions in the country are worsened. The most entire estimate is made from the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) 2007. Most of authors proven that the last decades are really warmest for last century, even for the entire period of the most instrumental observations. The causes for global warming was long time debatable, but the last investigations prove it anthropogenetic derive. The main goal of the paper is framing in conditions of the expected climate changes in our country for period 2020-2050-2070 and the most likely impacts on the agriculture with inspection padding to the consequences in them and making physical conditions for development of proof farming in production regions of the country. By the means of the systematized database of meteorological and agrometeorological data which we have at disposition for the period of this survey (1971-2000); Provide assignment of the expected climatic changes according to the scenarios in the centers for observing and investigations of climatic changes in Europe, US., Canada and Australia (ECHAM 4, HadCM 2, CGCM 1, CSIRO-MK2 Bs and

  3. PROFILES AND PREFERENCES OF ON-LINE MILLENIAL SHOPPERS IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia R. Loubeau

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to develop a better understanding of the factors affecting on-line purchasing behavior among Generation Y (Gen Y consumers in Bulgaria. Also called millenials and born between the mid-1970s and late 1990s, this generation is especially active on-line and will be a dominant influence shaping e-commerce. An empirical study was conducted based on a written survey of a sample consisting of 367 high school and university students in Bulgaria. The most important reason why Bulgarian young people shop on-line is the pursuit of unique products not locally available, followed by convenience and better pricing, and their favorite category of internet purchases is “Apparel and Accessories.” Bulgarian millennials are using the internet to shop for trendy fashion and to obtain a variety of brands that are unavailable locally. Like other regions of the world, concern about financial transactions security is a major barrier limiting the willingness to shop on-line in Bulgaria. Unlike other markets where on-line music purchases are growing, high levels of digital piracy in Bulgaria strongly discourage Bulgarian students from purchasing music on-line. One limitation of this study arises because of its reliance on a convenience sample of students from medium sized cities in Southern Bulgaria. Further research employing stratified random sampling across Bulgaria is needed to assess whether the findings are broadly generalizable for the Gen Y population.

  4. ISO 9001 certification for hospitals in Bulgaria: does it help service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoimenova, Assena; Stoilova, Ani; Petrova, Guenka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study is to review the published literature on establishment and implementation of ISO 9001 QMS in European hospitals, to study the availability of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) quality management systems (QMS) in Bulgarian hospitals and to outline the main advantages of ISO implementation in the hospitals in Bulgaria. The information on availability of ISO QMS in the hospitals in Bulgaria was gathered via Bulgarian certification register, the registries of various quality associations, websites of hospitals and certification companies presented in Bulgaria. A total number of 312 hospitals in Bulgaria were screened for the availability of QMS certified against the ISO 9001 requirements. The experience of European hospitals that implemented QMS is positive and the used approaches to improve the processes and the demonstrated effects from ISO implementation are analysed by the researchers. Unlike other European Union member states, the establishment of quality management systems in Bulgaria is not compulsory. However, our study revealed that 14.42% of the hospitals in Bulgaria have implemented and have certified quality systems against the requirements of ISO 9001. Our study confirmed that a quality management system using the ISO 9001 standard is useful for the hospitals as it can help to increase the operational efficiencies, to reduce errors, improve patient safety and produce a more preventive approach instead of a reactive environment. PMID:26019523

  5. Procedures for selecting and buying district heating equipment. Sofia district heating. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The aim of this Final Report, prepared for the project `Procedures for Selecting and Buying DistRict Heating Equipment - Sofia District Heating Company`, is to establish an overview of the activities accomplished, the outputs delivered and the general experience gained as a result of the project. The main objective of the project is to enable Sofia District Heating Company to prepare specifications and tender documents, identify possible suppliers, evaluate offers, etc. in connection with purchase of district heating equipment. This objective has been reached by using rehabilitation of sub-stations as an example requested by Sofia DH. The project was originally planned to be finalized end of 1995, but due to the extensions of the scope of work, the project has been prolonged until end 1997. The following main activities were accomplished: Preparation of a detailed work plan; Collection of background information; Discussion and advice about technical specifications and tender documents for sub-station rehabilitation; Input to terms of reference for a master plan study; Input to technical specification for heat meters; Collection of ideas for topics and examples related to dissemination of information to consumers about matters related to district heating consumption. (EG)

  6. Remote monitoring of aerosol layers over Sofia during Sahara dust transport episode (April, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Dimitar; Grigorov, Ivan; Deleva, Atanaska; Kolev, Nikolay; Peshev, Zahari; Kolarov, Georgi; Donev, Evgeni; Ivanov, Danko

    2013-03-01

    In this work we present results of lidar remote sensing of aerosol layers in the atmosphere above Sofia during an episode of Sahara dust transport, 02-07 April, 2012. The investigations were made using two lidar systems, one equipped with a CuBr-vapor laser, emitting at wavelength 510.6 nm, and a second one - with Nd:YAG laser, at wavelengths 1064 nm and 532 nm. The results of lidar measurements are presented in terms of vertical atmospheric backscatter coefficient profiles and color maps of the aerosol stratification evolution. The involved into discussions ceilometer data (CHM 15k ceilometer) and satellite data from CALIPSO lidar, enhance the synergy of observations. Conclusion about atmospheric aerosol's origin was made upon analyses of the information of weather-forecast maps provided by the Forecast system of Barcelona Supercomputing Centre, which are accessible via Internet. Additional information was provided by calculations of the backward air mass trajectories, using online software of NOAA about HYSPLIT model. The comparison between the data from the two lidars and the ceilometer showed similar behavior of aerosol layers development in the atmosphere above Sofia. All information about aerosol layers origin, their altitude above ground, persistence during lidar observations, confirmed the conclusion of observation of a long-distance Sahara dust transport beyond Balkans and Sofia. An interesting completion of CALIPSO lidar and ground based lidars results of measurement is presented in case of thick opaque cloud layer in the atmosphere, which slices the path of lidar sensing in both directions.

  7. Progress of activities with regard to reconstruction of the research reactor IRT-Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategy for the Research Reactor IRT-Sofia, after decision of the Government for its reconstruction, is a partial dismantling of the old systems and equipment, conversion of the new fresh nuclear fuel and transportation of the spent fuel to Russia. Removal of the reactor core and replacement of old equipment will not pose any significant problems for dismantling. For most efficient use of resources there is a need for implementation of the engineering project, 'General plan for partial dismantling of equipment of the IRT-Sofia as a part of the reconstruction into low power RR', which has been already prepared. The new research reactor IRT-Sofia is jointly studied with the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to examine the feasibility of conversion from the use of fuel containing highly enriched uranium (HEU, 36% 235U) to use of fuel containing low enriched uranium (LEU, 19,7 % 235U). Other important task connected with the reconstruction is shipment of the spent nuclear fuel (EK-10 and C-36 type) to Russia. (author)

  8. Advances in molecular surveillance of Clostridium difficile in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobreva, Elina G; Ivanov, Ivan N; Vathcheva-Dobrevska, Rossitza S; Ivanova, Katucha I; Asseva, Galina D; Petrov, Petar K; Kantardjiev, Todor V

    2013-09-01

    The increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Bulgaria has indicated the need to implement better surveillance approaches. The aim of the present work was to improve the current surveillance of CDI in Bulgaria by introducing innovative methods for identification and typing. One hundred and twenty stool samples obtained from 108 patients were studied over 4 years from which 32 C. difficile isolates were obtained. An innovative duplex EvaGreen real-time PCR assay based on simultaneous detection of the gluD and tcdB genes was developed for rapid C. difficile identification. Four toxigenic profiles were distinguished by PCR: A(+)B(+)CDT(-) (53.1 %, 17/32), A(-)B(+)CDT(-) (28.1 %, 9/32), A(+)B(+)CDT(+) (9.4 %, 3/32) and A(-)B(-)CDT(-) (9.4 %, 3/32). PCR ribotyping and multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA7) were used for molecular characterization of the isolates. In total, nine distinct ribotypes were confirmed and the most prevalent for Bulgarian hospitals was 017 followed by 014/020, together accounting for 44 % of all isolates. Eighteen per cent of the isolates (6/32) did not match any of the 25 reference ribotypes available in this study. Twenty-four MLVA7 genotypes were detected among the clinical C. difficile isolates, distributed as follows: five for 017 ribotype, two for 014/020, 001, 002, 012 and 046 each, and one each for ribotypes 023, 070 and 078. The correlation between the typing methods was significant and allowed the identification of several clonal complexes. These results suggest that most C. difficile cases in the eight Bulgarian hospitals studied were associated with isolates belonging to the outbreak ribotypes 017 and 014/20, which are widely distributed in Europe. The real-time PCR protocol for simultaneous detection of gluD and tcdB proved to be very effective and improved C. difficile identification and confirmation of clinical C. difficile isolates. PMID:23598377

  9. Comparative mineralogical characteristics of red soils from South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Yaneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to compare mineralogical composition of red soils, formed on marbles in South Bulgaria. We used mineralogical analysis of heavy and light mineral fraction in immersion under polarizing microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis of bulk sample and clay fraction. Three test polygons, located in South Bulgaria were examined: Petrovo, Nova Lovcha and Dobrostan, which are characterized with different latitude, altitude, and exposition. Three or more sites from each polygon were sampled and analyzed. The red soils are formed on white and gray calcite and calcite-dolomite marbles, impure silicate-rich marbles and only in one site – on marble breccias. We determined the following mineral phases in red soils: calcite, dolomite, quarts, and feldspars, mica, illite-type mica, illite, smectite, vermiculite-smectite, and kaolinite. Heavy minerals are represented by amphibole, titanite and epidote, and minor amounts of zircon, garnet, tourmaline, rutile, pyroxene, andalusite, kyanite, sillimanite and apatite. Opaque minerals are predominantly goethite and hematite. Plant tissue is abundant in light fraction from the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils

  10. An ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anely Nedelcheva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study focuses on the wild vascular plants traditionally used for human consumption in Bulgaria and its aim is to present data about the richness and diversity of plants used as a nutrition source, about folk botanical knowledge and to give an impression about their contemporary state and development in relation to natural plant resources and traditional food culture. The study covers the period from the end of 19th to the middle of the 20th century. Materials and Methods: The study gathered data from more than 30 ethnobotanical and ethnographical sources which provide information for the end of 19th to the middle of the 20th century, in addition to field data collected through semi-structured interviews. Results: A total of 88 wild plant species, 25 families and 52 genera were identified as edible plants. Prevailing are representatives of Rosaceae, Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Brassicaceae, Compositae and Polygonaceae. The largest numbers of species are from Allium, Rumex and Chenopodium. Similar in number are the species which are used as leaves (43 and fruits (38, followed by young shoots (9, seeds (7, roots (4, bulbs (4 and inflorescences (2. The largest group is from plants whose aboveground parts are gathered mainly during the spring and used as vegetables. Important species are Urtica dioica, Rumex acetosa, Rumex patientia, Chenopodium album, Atriplex prostrata and Amaranthus retroflexus. The fruits are mostly gathered from Rosaceae, Adoxaceae, Ericaceae and Vitaceae shrubs and trees. The study determined eight major food groups: fresh greens and fruits, stuffed pies, stewed and boiled greens, boiled cereals, sweets (boiled fruit products, dried fruits, snacks and lacto-fermented products. The predominant taste is salty-sour-spicy. Some of wild foods are also used for medicinal purposes and included in preventing or healing diets. Conclusion: Today’s traditional diet is very different from the past. Bulgaria provides a

  11. Polonium 210 content in foodstuffs produced in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the content of polonium-210 in a variety of foodstuffs produced in Bulgaria in 1970 revealed peak radionuclide concentration in wheat - 6.7 pCi/kg, followed by prunes - 2.2 pCi/kg, cabbage - 1.86 pCi/kg, peppers - 1.64 pCi/kg. The content of polonium-210 in onions, meat and potatoes was low (0.5, 0.8 and 0.9 pCi/kg accordingly). All other food products studied - milk, bread, beans, eggs, tomatoes, apples, pears, grapes and drinking water - appeared to have approximately equal polonium-210 concentration - from 1.21 to 1.35 pCi/kg. The daily intake of polonium-210 with food and water amounted accordingly to 1.61, 1.79 and 2.08 pCi/kg in preschool children, in school children and in senile individuals. The major part (68 - 82 per cent) of incorporated polonium-210 was eliminated with the stools. In all age groups the amount of polonium-210 removed daily from the body with the excreta corresponded to the intake, i.e. the balance of polonium-210 was in a state of equilibrium. The age factor in all three groups exerted no effect on the radionuclide intake and elimination from the body. (Ch.K.)

  12. Tourism Competitiveness Index – An Empirical Analysis Romania vs. Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai CROITORU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of the current economic downturn, many specialists consider tourism as one of the sectors with the greatest potential to provide worldwide economic growth and development. A growing tourism sector can contribute effectively to employment, increase national income, and can also make a decisive mark on the balance of payments. Thus, tourism can be an important driving force for growth and prosperity, especially in emerging economies, being a key element in reducing poverty and regional disparities. Despite its contribution to economic growth, tourism sector development can be undermined by a series of economic and legislative barriers that can affect the competitiveness of this sector. In this context, the World Economic Forum proposes, via the Tourism Competitiveness Index (TCI, in addition to a methodology to identify key factors that contribute to increasing tourism competitiveness, tools for analysis and evaluation of these factors. In this context, this paper aims to analyze the underlying determinants of TCI from the perspective of two directly competing states, Romania and Bulgaria in order to highlight the effects of communication on the competitiveness of the tourism sector. The purpose of this analysis is to provide some answers, especially in terms of communication strategies, which may explain the completely different performances of the two national economies in the tourism sector.

  13. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF PEANUT PRODUCTION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly BENCHEVA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Peanut is not listed as one of the major crops in the Bulgarian agricultural sector, but its economic and fi nancial viability is promising, but unknown. We use enterprise budgets, capital budgeting techniques, risk analysis and logistic regression models to examine the fi nancial and economic structure of peanut farms and to evaluate the factors infl uencing short and long-term profi tability. The results show that peanut production is a profi table venture for most peanut farmers in Bulgaria. Long-run analyses show that peanut production may be economically feasible and producers engaged in production for a period of seven years, and at a discount rate of 13%, may generate internal rates of return (IRR that vary from -20.57% to 67.39%. About 70% of the farms studied had IRRs greater than the discount rate. Sensitivity analyses show that profi tability of peanut production was infl uenced by yield and variable costs. There were risks at the village level associated with peanut production.

  14. FACTORS AFFECTING THE VEGETABLE FARMING EFFICIENCY IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora STOEVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency is the major economic category, which measures the final result and the expenses related to the production and provides value expression. The article aims to analyze the prospects and conditions for the development of field vegetable production in Bulgaria. Field vegetable farming is a traditional and fast developing sector of the Bulgarian agriculture. Its condition and development is determined by the various natural and geographic conditions in the country and the experience in cultivating and farming vegetable crops, which are traditional for the Bulgarian population. The vegetable farming is organized in individual private agricultural farms and agricultural farming cooperatives and is performed in small areas. The crisis in the vegetable farming raised a lot of questions that need to be answered. It is necessary to overcome the decrease in vegetable production. This can happen by establishing efficiently operating organizational companies. The most important reasons for the reported decrease are the result of the improperly conducted reforms in the agriculture industry as a result of which the economic condition of the sector is declining. A serious flaw is that the farmers are selecting certain crop production without conducting any preliminary marketing and without any signed contracts for produce realization.

  15. Pilot survey of patient dose from computed tomography in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of computed tomography (CT) scanners in Bulgaria increased from 22 in 1996 to more than 160 in 2007. Big variety of scanners of different manufacturers and different generations exists in the country with predominant number of single-slice scanners. Significant part of the scanners is more than 10 years old. This work presents the pilot results from the measurements of CT dose quantities started in 2005 with the aim to spread them to a national survey of CT practice in the country. It was found that different clinical protocols are used for similar examination, resulting in large variations in dose quantities: CT air kerma index varied from 27.1 to 78.4 mGy for head examination, from 8.7 to 28.3 mGy for chest, 11.8 - 30.7 mGy for abdomen and 9.1 - 41.3 mGy for pelvis. The CT air kerma-length product for complete examination was found to vary from 310 to 1254 mGy.cm for head examination, from 215 to 893 mGy.cm for chest, from 265 to 615 mGy.cm for abdomen and from 220 to 761 mGy.cm for pelvis. The analysis demonstrated that the main reasons for found variations are differences in scanning geometry, beam quality, exposure parameters and scanning length. (author)

  16. Alternative energy balances for Bulgaria to mitigate climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Christo

    1996-01-01

    Alternative energy balances aimed to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are developed as alternatives to the baseline energy balance. The section of mitigation options is based on the results of the GHG emission inventory for the 1987 1992 period. The energy sector is the main contributor to the total CO2 emissions of Bulgaria. Stationary combustion for heat and electricity production as well as direct end-use combustion amounts to 80% of the total emissions. The parts of the energy network that could have the biggest influence on GHG emission reduction are identified. The potential effects of the following mitigation measures are discussed: rehabilitation of the combustion facilities currently in operation; repowering to natural gas; reduction of losses in thermal and electrical transmission and distribution networks; penetration of new combustion technologies; tariff structure improvement; renewable sources for electricity and heat production; wasteheat utilization; and supply of households with natural gas to substitute for electricity in space heating and cooking. The total available and the achievable potentials are estimated and the implementation barriers are discussed.

  17. Calculation of Precipitable Water for Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy Aircraft (SOFIA): Airplane in the Night Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Pey Chun; Busby, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, is the new generation airborne observatory station based at NASA s Dryden Aircraft Operations Facility, Palmdale, CA, to study the universe. Since the observatory detects infrared energy, water vapor is a concern in the atmosphere due to its known capacity to absorb infrared energy emitted by astronomical objects. Although SOFIA is hoping to fly above 99% of water vapor in the atmosphere it is still possible to affect astronomical observation. Water vapor is one of the toughest parameter to measure in the atmosphere, several atmosphere modeling are used to calculate water vapor loading. The water vapor loading, or Precipitable water, is being calculated by Matlab along the planned flight path. Over time, these results will help SOFIA to plan flights to regions of lower water vapor loading and hopefully improve the imagery collection of these astronomical features.

  18. Handling Qualities Flight Testing of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Scott T.; Strovers, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    Airborne infrared astronomy has a long successful history, albeit relatively unknown outside of the astronomy community. A major problem with ground based infrared astronomy is the absorption and scatter of infrared energy by water in the atmosphere. Observing the universe from above 40,000 ft puts the observation platform above 99% of the water vapor in the atmosphere, thereby addressing this problem at a fraction of the cost of space based systems. The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) aircraft is the most ambitious foray into the field of airborne infrared astronomy in history. Using a 747SP (The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) aircraft modified with a 2.5m telescope located in the aft section of the fuselage, the SOFIA endeavors to provide views of the universe never before possible and at a fraction of the cost of space based systems. The modification to the airplane includes moveable doors and aperture that expose the telescope assembly. The telescope assembly is aimed and stabilized using a multitude of on board systems. This modification has the potential to cause aerodynamic anomalies that could induce undesired forces either at the cavity itself or indirectly due to interference with the empennage, both of which could cause handling qualities issues. As a result, an extensive analysis and flight test program was conducted from December 2009 through March 2011. Several methods, including a Lower Order Equivalent Systems analysis and pilot assessment, were used to ascertain the effects of the modification. The SOFIA modification was found to cause no adverse handling qualities effects and the aircraft was cleared for operational use. This paper discusses the history and modification to the aircraft, development of test procedures and analysis, results of testing and analysis, lessons learned for future projects and justification for operational certification.

  19. The High Resolution Spectrometer for SOFIA-GREAT: Instrumentation, Atmospheric Modeling and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Geronimo L.

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of the thesis is the development of a high resolution spectrometer, in association with atmospheric modeling and observations. The new spectrometer, the "Chirp-Transform-Spectrometer (CTS)" as part of the "German REceiver for Astronomy at Terahertz frequencies (GREAT)" on the "Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)", will provide unprecedented spectral resolving power and linearity response. The analog Fourier transform performed by the CTS spectrometer was significantly improved through a new design called "Adaptive Digital Chirp Processor (ADCP)". The principle behind the ADCP consists of digitally generating the dispersive signal which adapts to the convolver dispersive properties, achieving higher spectral resolution and higher dynamic range. This development demanded a rational and optimum combination of different technologies, such as quadrature-modulation, high performance spectral filtering, ultra-stable frequency sources and a deep study of the problem through numerical simulations with an ad hoc model. The newly developed CTS is a prevailing instrument for the study of planetary atmospheres, especially as part of the SOFIA mission providing highly resolved altitude profiles of temperature, wind, water vapour and minor species from ground level up to an altitude of 80 km. Consequently, the link between the spectroscopic observations and the physical phenomena in study was addressed via the development of a general circulation model (GCM) for the Martian atmosphere. A running prototype of SOFIA-GREAT-CTS mounted at the Submillimeter Telescope in Arizona was used for remote sensing of Mars through the broadened line of CO at 345 GHz, providing temperature measurements which were then used as data assimilation inputs for the GCM. The new CTS also demonstrated itself to be a powerful tool for the study of narrow line features typical of cometary bodies, through the detection of hydrogen cyanide and outgassing asymmetries on comet

  20. Seismic Vulnerability Assessment for Massive Structure: Case Study for Sofia City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advanced modeling technique, which allows us to compute realistic synthetic seismograms, is used to create a database of synthetic accelerograms in a set of selected sites located within Sofia urban area. The accelerograms can be used for the assessment of the local site response, represented in terms of Response Spectra Ratio (RSR). The result of this study, i.e. time histories, response spectra and other ground motion parameters, can be used for different earthquake engineering analyses. Finally, with the help of 3D finite elements modeling, the building structural performance is assessed

  1. 25 years' environmental radiation control around the IRT-2000 research reactor in Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first Bulgarian nuclear research reactor IRT-2000 began operation in Sofia in September 1961. The environmental radiation control in the reactor area has been carried out by our laboratory since 1961. In this paper we present our sampling programme and the methods in use during the period 1961 to 1986. Results on total β-activity, γ-spectrometric analyses and γ-background measurements are discussed. All the results obtained during this period suggest that contaminations in both the reactor area and elsewhere in this country are due to the same source, namely nuclear weapon tests and not to the work of the reactor. (author)

  2. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Sofia: Growth in and Persistence on Eggs under Production and Retail Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis in Australia has been linked to eggs and egg products with specific serotypes associated with outbreaks. We compared attachment to and survival on egg shells and growth in eggs of two Salmonella serotypes, an egg outbreak associated Salmonella Typhimurium and a non-egg-associated Salmonella enterica ssp. II 1,4,12,27:b:[e,n,x] (S. Sofia). Experiments were conducted at combinations of 4, 15, 22, 37 and 42°C. No significant differences occurred between the serotypes in maximum gro...

  3. A new earthquake catalogue for Bulgaria and the conterminous Balkan high hazard region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Bayliss

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new homogenous earthquake catalogue covering Bulgaria and the surrounding Balkan area has been created with intention of performing a consistent seismic hazard assessment across the region. In keeping with modern requirements of cataloguing seismicity, this catalogue has been made homogenous as far as possible with regards to magnitude, which has been provided on any of four different reported scales for each event; mb, Ms, Mw and ML. A key historical catalogue for the region has been used to represent the early instrumental period of earthquake recording (1900 to 1963, whilst data have been obtained from the International Seismological Centre (ISC, National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC and National Observatory of Athens (NOA to cover the instrumental period of earthquake recording (1964 to 2004. ISC data have also been used to develop a new mb→Ms magnitude conversion equation for the catalogued region. Application of this new magnitude conversion relation, in combination with other selected magnitude scale correlations, ensures reported magnitudes can be systematically rendered onto homogenized Ms and Mw scales for all earthquakes. This catalogue contains 3681 events with homogenized magnitudes ≥4.0 Mw, for the time interval 1900 to 2004 (inclusive, located in the region bounded by 39°–45° N, 19°–29° E, at focal depths of 0.0 km to 401.0 km and in a magnitude range 4.0≤Mw≤7.2. Selected large magnitude (M≥6.0 Ms earthquakes have had their reported magnitudes reassessed – and adjusted if necessary – in light of work by other authors. Applied statistical approaches aimed at determining the lower threshold to magnitude completeness suggest this catalogue is complete down to a homogenized surface-wave magnitude of 4.6 Ms.

  4. Molecular epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Bulgaria-An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Pappa, Styliani; Panayotova, Elitsa; Papadopoulou, Elpida; Christova, Iva

    2016-05-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in Bulgaria. During 2013-2014, 11 confirmed CCHF cases have been reported in the country (seven in 2013 and four in 2014). The present study provides the CCHF molecular epidemiology in Bulgaria based on all currently available S, M, and L RNA segment nucleotide sequences spanning the years 1978-2014. A relatively low genetic difference (0-6%, the maximum seen in the M RNA segment) was seen among the CCHFV sequences suggesting that a slow evolving CCHFV strain belonging to "Europe 1" clade is present in Bulgaria. Although the virus emerged in new foci during the recent years, it is more active in the established endemic foci which seem to offer the most suitable ecosystem and environment. Understanding the CCHF epidemiology and virus evolution is the basis for public health programs and vaccine design. J. Med. Virol. 88:769-773, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26455333

  5. Combating illicit trafficking of nuclear material and other radioactive sources in Republic of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The turbulent history of the Republic of Bulgaria is proof of its importance for the commercial and military interests of the nations that have conquered and exploited the country through the ages. It is clear that it is the connecting node of two continents, Europe and Asia. It is a natural stop in the movement of goods for transcontinental commercial purposes as well as a natural resting place for the movement of armies during the ancient and medieval times. The geopolitical situation that currently exists in the Republic of Bulgaria may form conditions for illicit trafficking. This paper gives a short description of the efforts of the Government of Bulgaria to combat the illicit trafficking of nuclear material and other radioactive sources. (author)

  6. Assessment of the mitigation options in the energy system in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christov, C.; Vassilev, C.; Simenova, K. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Bulgaria signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the UNCEP in Rio in June 1992. The parliament ratified the Convention in March 1995. In compliance with the commitments arising under the Convention, Bulgaria elaborates climate change polity. The underlying principles in this policy are Bulgaria to joint the international efforts towards solving climate change problems to the extent that is adequate to both the possibilities of national economy and the options to attract foreign investments. All policies and measures implemented should be as cost-effective as possible. The Bulgarian GHG emission profile reveals the energy sector as the most significant emission source and also as an area where the great potential for GHG emissions reduction exists. This potential could be achieved in many cases by relatively low cost or even no-cost options. Mitigation analysis incorporates options in energy demand and energy supply within the period 1992-2020.

  7. National magnetic database for the topsoil samples from Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Diana; Jordanova, Neli; Petrov, Petar

    2015-04-01

    Establishment of topsoil magnetic database on a national scale provides important source of information, necessary for the purposes of soil classification; soil drainage; as an indirect estimate of the total soil carbon and initial planning in precision agriculture. Five hundred and ten topsoil samples from the upper 20cm of natural unpolluted soils from the territory of Bulgaria have been characterized by detailed magnetic measurements, including mass-specific magnetic susceptibility; frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility, Anhysteretic remanence, Isothermal remanence and their ratios; hysteresis parameters and ratios; as well as soil reaction (pH). Histograms of the measured parameters per soil type and for the whole database reveal specific peculiarities and dependence from different factors. According to the results from the factor analysis, 77% from the total variance can be explained by four factors. The main factor is dominated by the contribution from concentration-dependent magnetic parameters. The second factor reflects the role of fine-grained pedogenic magnetic fraction; while the third one is determined by the properties of the parent material. The fourth factor is governed by the effects from the internal structural peculiarities of the magnetic particles. The results from cluster analysis reveal the role of soil type and geology for the observed magnetic characteristics. The first two clusters separate soils, developed on volcanogenic/volcanic rocks and loess sediments. The third cluster is dominated by the soil type variable and includes mainly Cambisols, developed on different parent rocks. The fourth cluster separates soils developed on sedimentary rocks. The results emphasize the major role of geology (parent material) for the magnetic signature of topsoil samples on a national scale using sampling density of 1sample/200km2.

  8. Long-term trend of radioactive contamination of food products in Bulgaria after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results which characterize the dynamics for the power of radioactive contamination of foods in the Bulgaria with Cesium radionuclides from May 1986 to December 1995 are presented. It was done for motivation of some conclusions during the progress of radiation situation in Bulgaria after the Chernobyl accident. The data are compared with Maximum residues limits (MRL) of our country as well as that of international organizations. They are compared with the background contamination of foods descended from regions affected after experimental nuclear explosion till 1963 too

  9. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DEMAND FOR LOCAL AND FOREIGN WINES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petyo BOSHNAKOV

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We use a semantic differential based instrument to assess the main factors in demand attitudes of Bulgarian customers. We aim to find out whether specific marketing techniques could alter the demand for such a traditional product as the wine in Bulgaria. Given the fact that the Bulgarian customer only recently received the possibility to know them, we find that foreign wines are evaluated mainly with a prejudice of past knowledge, not linked to the actual product. We discover a rigidity in such prejudice and adhering to "standard" definitions of "prestige" and quality of wines. Most likely demanded in Bulgaria will continue to be mainly Bulgarian wines.

  10. Habitats of the Otter (Lutra lutra L. in some Regions of Southern Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiev D.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to gather base information on the distribution and relative quantity of otters in some habitats and regions, and thus to assist future monitoring of the species in Bulgaria. The otter was searched for in 111 UTM-grid squares mainly in Southern Bulgaria. It was found in 88 and absent from 23 of them. Environment stratification and habitat classification for 5 mountains, 3 valleys and Black Sea Coastal region was made. Data on otter quantity in some rivers and reservoirs is also presented.

  11. RATE OF RETURN ON INVESTMENT IN A DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING FARM IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Tsvetana HARIZANOVA

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyses the rate of return on investment in a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria. To achieve the aim, it was investigated a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria first category with average number of 83 cows in the main herd. Based on information collected from the farm in 2012 and on own calculations it was defined the different types of investments necessary to create a farm. It was calculated also the rate of return of cash inflows, rate of return of cash outflows and inves...

  12. WiN-Bulgaria - work with young people to promote nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main activities concerning work with youth is the establishment of high school section as a part of WiN - Bulgaria. The nuclear application and achievements of the nuclear industry and new nuclear technology are presented to young people by direct contact with them. WiN - Bulgaria organizes events, competitions and various forums on topics related to nuclear technology and its applications with the high school students participation. Emergency preparedness and how to react in case of radiological accident are also activities with young generation

  13. PROFILES AND PREFERENCES OF ON-LINE MILLENIAL SHOPPERS IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Loubeau, Patricia R.; Robert Jantzen; Elitsa Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This research seeks to develop a better understanding of the factors affecting on-line purchasing behavior among Generation Y (Gen Y) consumers in Bulgaria. Also called millenials and born between the mid-1970s and late 1990s, this generation is especially active on-line and will be a dominant influence shaping e-commerce. An empirical study was conducted based on a written survey of a sample consisting of 367 high school and university students in Bulgaria. The most important reason why Bulg...

  14. Current approaches on the management of disused sealed sources in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main options for the safe management of existing Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources (DSRS) in Bulgaria are discussed. The specific installations for handling and conditioning of all type of DSRS are being designed. The necessary equipment and materials for all conditioning operations have been defined. As the final disposal route for the radioactive wastes in Bulgaria is not defined yet, the proposed conditioning process for the DSRS ensures that end-point disposal of DSRS is not jeopardized by actions taken at present. All the DSRS would be packaged in secure, safe, monitorable and retrievable manner for interim storage

  15. A new cyanobacterial species of Anabaena genus (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria) from Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kirilov Kirjakov, Ivan; Naneva Velichkova, Katya

    2016-01-01

    Una nueva especie de cianobacteria del género Anabaena (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria) de Bulgaria Se describe una nueva especie del género de Cyanobacterias, Anabaena Bory ex Born. et Flah. (Nostocales) de las montañas Ródope de Bulgaria. Anabaena rhodopensis sp. nova. tiene acinetas con paredes celulares esculpidas. Se dan los datos biométricos para el tamaño de las células vegetativas, heterocistos y acinetos. Abstract: A new species of cyanobacterial genus Anabaena Bo...

  16. Treatment of renal stones in Bulgaria in ancient times ('Hissarya' baths).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenov, D; Nenov, V; Lazarov, G; Tchepilev, A

    1999-01-01

    Well-known mineral baths in Bulgaria, 'Hissarya', are described. Their existence dates back more than 25 centuries. 'Hissarya' is an Arabic word meaning 'siege of a castle'. Remains of castle walls are the symbol of 'Hissarya' today. Every year more than 100,000 patients from Bulgaria and other countries visit 'Hissarya'. From the time of the Thracians and the Roman Empire until now renal stones have been successfully treated by drinking the mineral water and by taking baths. The Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (193-211) visited 'Hissarya' every spring to treat his renal disease. PMID:10213812

  17. Legislative and regulatory framework on the safety of radioactive waste management in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are six nuclear power units in operation in Bulgaria. Over 2000 sites use sources of ionizing radiation. NPP radioactive waste is stored on-site and the institutional waste was disposed of at the Novi han repository until 1994. Bulgaria signed the Joint Convention in 1998 and is to ratify it until the end of 1999. A plan on preparation of the country for the obligations following the forthcoming ratification was developed and has been implemented. A National Strategy on SNF and RAW was developed, as well as a Comprehensive Legislative Programme in this field. Emphasis is put on the strengthening the regulatory body, improvement of the supervision and control activities. (author)

  18. Evidence from SOFIA Imaging of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Formation along a Recent Outflow in NGC 7027

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ryan M.; Werner, Michael W.; Sahai, Raghvendra; Ressler, Michael E.

    2016-06-01

    We report spatially resolved (FWHM ~ 3.8 - 4.6'') mid-IR imaging observations of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 7027 taken with the 2.5-m telescope aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Images of NGC 7027 were acquired at 6.3, 6.6, 11.1, 19.7, 24.2, 33.6, and 37.1 μm using the Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST). The observations reveal emission from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) and warm dust (TD ~ 90 K) from the ionized inner edge of the molecular envelope surrounding the central star of the planetary nebula (CSPN). The DustEM code was used to fit the spectral energy distribution of fluxes obtained by FORCAST and the archival infrared spectrum of NGC 7027 acquired by the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Best-fit dust models reveal a total dust mass of ~6 × 10-3 M⊙, where carbonaceous large (a = 1.5 μm) and very small (a ~ 12 Å) grains, and PAHs (3.1 Å photo-dissociation region (PDR) and molecular envelope.

  19. Performance and Science Opportunities with the upGREAT Spectrometer onboard of SOFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güsten, R.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Risacher, C.; Stutzki, J.; Hübers, H.-W.; Bell, A.; Buchbender, C.; Büchel, D.; Chambers, E.; Csengeri, T.; Graf, U.; Heyminck, S.; Honingh, C.; Jacobs, K.; Klein, B.; Klein, T.; Leinz, C.; Okada, Y.; Pütz, P.; Requena, M.; Reyes, N.; Richter, H.; Ricken, O.; Riquelme, D.; Simon, R.; Wunsch, A.

    2016-05-01

    The high-resolution far-infrared spectrometer GREAT is now routinely operated onboard the NASA/DLR airborne observatory SOFIA. The instrument runs simultaneously two receivers in science-selected frequency windows between 1.25 and 4.7 THz. Because the instrument has seen major upgrades during the last years we will briefly review the present instrument configurations and performances. The extension of GREAT to mid-size heterodyne arrays is under way. The commissioning of our low-frequency array, operating 2 × 7 HEB mixers at 1.9 THz in two polarizations in a hexagonal configuration, was successfully concluded in 2015, and will be available for community projects during SOFIA's cycle 4. A second (high-frequency) array with 7 pixels aiming at the frequency of the [OI] fine-structure line at 4.7 THz is under construction, with commissioning planned for late 2016. In more than 60 successful science flights, most of them performing community projects, a wide variety of astrophysical questions has been addressed, with particular interest in velocity-resolved spectroscopy of the most important ISM cooling lines accessible to GREAT, namely the [CII] and [OI] atomic fine-structure and the mid-J CO rotational transitions. On the example of a few selected science cases the performance of the instrument will be illustrated, and the science opportunities with the instrument in its current and near-future configurations will be addressed.

  20. Investigating the dusty torus of Seyfert galaxies using SOFIA/FORCAST photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, Lindsay; Packham, Chris; Ramos-Almeida, Cristina; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Levenson, Nancy; Radomski, James; Ichikawa, Kohei; Garcia-Bernete, Ismael; Gonzalez-Martin, Omaira; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Martinez-Parades, Mariela

    2016-01-01

    We present 31.5 micron imaging photometry of 11 nearby Seyfert galaxies observed from the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) using the Faint Object infraRed CAmera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST). We tentatively detect extended 31 micron emission for the first time in our sample. In combination with this new data set, subarcsecond resolution 1-18 micron imaging and 7.5-13 micron spectroscopic observations were used to compute the nuclear spectral energy distribution (SED) of each galaxy. We found that the turnover of the torus emission does not occur at wavelengths <31.5 micron, which we interpret as a lower-limit for the wavelength of peak emission. We used CLUMPY torus models to fit the nuclear infrared (IR) SED and infer trends in the physical parameters of the AGN torus for the galaxies in the sample. Including the 31.5 micron nuclear flux in the SED 1) reduces the number of clumpy torus models compatible with the data, and 2) modifies the model output for the outer radial exten...

  1. Evidence from SOFIA Imaging of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Formation along a Recent Outflow in NGC 7027

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, R M; Sahai, R; Ressler, M E

    2016-01-01

    We report spatially resolved (FWHM$\\sim3.8-4.6"$) mid-IR imaging observations of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 7027 taken with the 2.5-m telescope aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Images of NGC 7027 were acquired at 6.3, 6.6, 11.1, 19.7, 24.2, 33.6, and 37.1 $\\mu\\mathrm{m}$ using the Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST).The observations reveal emission from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) and warm dust ($T_D\\sim90$ K) from the illuminated inner edge of the molecular envelope surrounding the ionized gas and central star. The DustEM code was used to fit the spectral energy distribution of fluxes obtained by FORCAST and the archival infrared spectrum of NGC 7027 acquired by the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Best-fit dust models provide a total dust mass of $5.8^{+2.3}_{-2.6}\\times10^{-3}$ $\\mathrm{M}_\\odot$, where carbonaceous large ($a=1.5$ $\\mu$m) and very small ($a \\sim12\\AA$) grains, and PAHs ($...

  2. Automated and Scalable Data Reduction in the textsc{Sofia} Data Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzaczek, R.; Shuping, R.; Charcos-Llorens, M.; Alles, R.; Vacca, W.

    2015-09-01

    In order to provide suitable data products to general investigators and other end users in a timely manner, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy SOFIA) has developed a framework supporting the automated execution of data processing pipelines for the various instruments, called the Data Processing System (DPS), see Shuping et al. (2014) for overview). The primary requirement is to process all data collected from a flight within eight hours, allowing data quality assessments and inspections to be made the following day. The raw data collected during a flight requires processing by a number of different software packages and tools unique to each combination of instrument and mode of operation, much of it developed in-house, in order to create data products for use by investigators and other end-users. The requirement to deliver these data products in a consistent, predictable, and performant manner presents a significant challenge for the observatory. Herein we present aspects of the DPS that help to achieve these goals. We discuss how it supports data reduction software written in a variety of languages and environments, its support for new versions and live upgrades to that software and other necessary resources (e.g., calibrations), its accommodation of sudden processing loads through the addition (and eventual removal) of computing resources, and close with an observation of the performance achieved in the first two observing cycles of SOFIA.

  3. Pointing stability and image quality of the SOFIA Airborne Telescope during initial science missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampater, Ulrich; Keas, Paul; Brewster, Rick; Herter, Terry; Wolf, Juergen; Pfueller, Enrico; Wiedemann, Manuel; Teufel, Stefan; Harms, Franziska; Jakob, Holger; Roser, Hans-Peter

    2011-09-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne observatory for astronomical observations at wavelengths ranging from 0.3-1600 µm. It consists of a telescope with an effective aperture of 2.5 m, which is mounted in a heavily modified Boeing 747SP. The aircraft features an open port cavity that gives the telescope an unobstructed view of the sky. Hence the optical system is subject to both aerodynamic loads from airflow entering the cavity, and to inertial loads introduced by motion of the airborne platform. A complex suspension assembly was designed to stabilize the telescope. Detailed end-to-end simulations were performed to estimate image stability based on the mechatronic design, the expected loads, and optical influence parameters. In December 2010 SOFIA entered its operational phase with a series of Early Science flights, which have relaxed image quality requirements compared to the full operations capability. At the same time, those flights are used to characterize image quality and image stability in order to validate models and to optimize systems. Optimization of systems is not based on analytical models, but on models derived from system identification measurements that are performed on the actual hardware both under controlled conditions and operational conditions. This paper discusses recent results from system identification measurements, improvements to image stability, and plans for the further enhancement of the system.

  4. Parallel Adjective High-Order CFD Simulations Characterizing SOFIA Cavity Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barad, Michael F.; Brehm, Christoph; Kiris, Cetin C.; Biswas, Rupak

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents large-scale MPI-parallel computational uid dynamics simulations for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). SOFIA is an airborne, 2.5-meter infrared telescope mounted in an open cavity in the aft fuselage of a Boeing 747SP. These simulations focus on how the unsteady ow eld inside and over the cavity interferes with the optical path and mounting structure of the telescope. A temporally fourth-order accurate Runge-Kutta, and spatially fth-order accurate WENO- 5Z scheme was used to perform implicit large eddy simulations. An immersed boundary method provides automated gridding for complex geometries and natural coupling to a block-structured Cartesian adaptive mesh re nement framework. Strong scaling studies using NASA's Pleiades supercomputer with up to 32k CPU cores and 4 billion compu- tational cells shows excellent scaling. Dynamic load balancing based on execution time on individual AMR blocks addresses irregular numerical cost associated with blocks con- taining boundaries. Limits to scaling beyond 32k cores are identi ed, and targeted code optimizations are discussed.

  5. SOFIA/FORCAST Observations of Warm Dust in S106: A Fragmented Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, J D; Hora, J L; Schneider, N; Lau, R M; Staughn, J G; Simon, R; Smith, N; Gehrz, R D; Allen, L E; Bontemps, S; Carey, S J; Fazio, G G; Gutermuth, R A; Fernandez, A Guzman; Hankins, M; Hill, T; Keto, E; Koenig, X P; Kraemer, K E; Megeath, S T; Mizuno, D R; Motte, F; Myers, P C; Smith, H A

    2015-01-01

    We present mid-IR (19 - 37 microns) imaging observations of S106 from SOFIA/FORCAST, complemented with IR observations from Spitzer/IRAC (3.6 - 8.0 microns), IRTF/MIRLIN (11.3 and 12.5 microns), and Herschel/PACS (70 and 160 microns). We use these observations, observations in the literature, and radiation transfer modeling to study the heating and composition of the warm (~ 100 K) dust in the region. The dust is heated radiatively by the source S106 IR, with little contributions from grain-electron collisions and Ly-alpha radiation. The dust luminosity is >~ (9.02 +/- 1.01) x 10^4 L_sun, consistent with heating by a mid- to late-type O star. We find a temperature gradient (~ 75 - 107 K) in the lobes, which is consistent with a dusty equatorial geometry around S106 IR. Furthermore, the SOFIA observations resolve several cool (~ 65 - 70 K) lanes and pockets of warmer (~ 75 - 90 K) dust in the ionization shadow, indicating that the environment is fragmented. We model the dust mass as a composition of amorphous ...

  6. Mid-infrared imaging of the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 from SOFIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, M. W.; Sahai, R.; Davis, J.; Livingston, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91107 (United States); Lykou, F. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Vienna, Turkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180, Vienna (Austria); DE Buizer, J. [USRA SOFIA Science Center, M/S 211-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Morris, M. R. [Division of Astronomy, P.O. Box 951547, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Keller, L. [Department of Physics, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Adams, J.; Gull, G.; Henderson, C.; Herter, T.; Schoenwald, J., E-mail: Michael.W.Werner@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We have imaged the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 using SOFIA's FORCAST instrument in six wavelength bands between 6.6 and 37.1 μm. A bright central point source, unresolved with SOFIA's ∼4''-5'' beam, is seen at each wavelength, and the extended bipolar lobes are clearly seen at 19.7 μm and beyond. The photometry between 10 and 25 μm is well fit by the emission predicted from a stratified disk seen at large inclination, as has been proposed for this source by Lykou et al. and by Smith and Gehrz. The principal new results in this paper relate to the distribution and properties of the dust that emits the infrared radiation. In particular, a considerable fraction of this material is spread uniformly through the lobes, although the dust density does increase at the sharp outer edge seen in higher resolution optical images of M2-9. The dust grain population in the lobes shows that small (<0.1 μm) and large (>1 μm) particles appear to be present in roughly equal amounts by mass. We suggest that collisional processing within the bipolar outflow plays an important role in establishing the particle size distribution.

  7. Mid-Infrared Imaging of the Bipolar Planetary Nebula M2-9 from SOFIA

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, M W; Davis, J; Livingston, J; Lykou, F; de Buizer, J; Morris, M R; Keller, L; Adams, J; Gull, G; Henderson, C; Herter, T; Schoenwald, J

    2013-01-01

    We have imaged the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 using SOFIA's FORCAST instrument in six wavelength bands between 6.6 and 37.1 $\\mu m$. A bright central point source, unresolved with SOFIA's $\\sim$ 4${''}$-to-5${''}$ beam, is seen at each wavelength, and the extended bipolar lobes are clearly seen at 19.7 $\\mu m$ and beyond. The photometry between 10 and 25 $\\mu m$ is well fit by the emission predicted from a stratified disk seen at large inclination, as has been proposed for this source by Lykou et al and by Smith and Gehrz. The principal new results in this paper relate to the distribution and properties of the dust that emits the infrared radiation. In particular, a considerable fraction of this material is spread uniformly through the lobes, although the dust density does increase at the sharp outer edge seen in higher resolution optical images of M2-9. The dust grain population in the lobes shows that small ($$ 1 $\\mu m$) particles appear to be present in roughly equal amounts by mass. We suggest that co...

  8. Mid-infrared imaging of the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 from SOFIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have imaged the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 using SOFIA's FORCAST instrument in six wavelength bands between 6.6 and 37.1 μm. A bright central point source, unresolved with SOFIA's ∼4''-5'' beam, is seen at each wavelength, and the extended bipolar lobes are clearly seen at 19.7 μm and beyond. The photometry between 10 and 25 μm is well fit by the emission predicted from a stratified disk seen at large inclination, as has been proposed for this source by Lykou et al. and by Smith and Gehrz. The principal new results in this paper relate to the distribution and properties of the dust that emits the infrared radiation. In particular, a considerable fraction of this material is spread uniformly through the lobes, although the dust density does increase at the sharp outer edge seen in higher resolution optical images of M2-9. The dust grain population in the lobes shows that small (<0.1 μm) and large (>1 μm) particles appear to be present in roughly equal amounts by mass. We suggest that collisional processing within the bipolar outflow plays an important role in establishing the particle size distribution.

  9. Numerical modeling and calculation of the fuel cycle for the IRT-Sofia research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IRT-Sofia research reactor at the Nuclear Scientific Educational and Experimental Centre of the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy is under reconstruction in order to achieve the contemporary national and international standards for safety and reliability. The reactor is foreseen to operate with low enriched nuclear fuel (less than 20% U-235) according to the project for reconstruction. A model of the IRT reactor core is presented in this paper to determine the level of fuel burn-up using the MCNPX code, which performs neutron-physical calculations by the Monte Carlo method without applying approximations either for description of the core composition and geometry or for the neutron cross sections energy dependence. The reactor core is modeled taking into account the control rods positions and the actual rounded profile of the IRT-4M type fuel assemblies and, with this input data, the nuclear fuel consumption of the IRT-Sofia research reactor is determined. PACS codes: 28.52.Av

  10. Haze in Pluto's atmosphere: Results from SOFIA and ground-based observations of the 2015 June 29 Pluto occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosh, A. S.; Person, M. J.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Sickafoose, A. A.; Levine, S. E.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Dunham, E. W.; McLean, I.; Wolf, J.; Abe, F.; Becklin, E.; Bida, T. A.; Bright, L. P.; Brothers, T.; Christie, G.; Collins, P. L.; Durst, R. F.; Gilmore, A. C.; Hamilton, R.; Harris, H. C.; Johnson, C.; Kilmartin, P. M.; Kosiarek, M. R.; Leppik, K.; Logsdon, S. E.; Lucas, R.; Mathers, S.; Morley, C. J. K.; Nelson, P.; Ngan, H.; Pfüller, E.; Natusch, T.; Röser, H.-P.; Sallum, S.; Savage, M.; Seeger, C. H.; Siu, H.; Stockdale, C.; Suzuki, D.; Thanathibodee, T.; Tilleman, T.; Tristram, P. J.; Van Cleve, J.; Varughese, C.; Weisenbach, L. W.; Widen, E.; Wiedemann, M.

    2015-11-01

    We observed the 29 June 2015 occultation by Pluto from SOFIA and several ground-based sites in New Zealand. Pre-event astrometry (described in Zuluaga et al., this conference) allowed us to navigate SOFIA into Pluto's central flash (Person et al., this conference). Fortuitously, the central flash also fell over the Mt. John University Observatory (Pasachoff et al., this conference). We combine all of our airborne and ground-based data to produce a geometric solution for the occultation and to investigate the state of Pluto's atmosphere just two weeks before the New Horizons spacecraft's close encounter with Pluto. We find that the atmosphere parameters at half-light are unchanged from our observations in 2011 (Person et al. 2013) and 2013 (Bosh et al. 2015). By combining our light-curve inversion with recent radius measurements from New Horizons, we find strong evidence for an extended haze layer in Pluto's atmosphere. See also Sickafoose et al. (this conference) for an evaluation of the particle sizes and properties.SOFIA is jointly operated by the Universities Space Research Association, Inc. (USRA), under NASA contract NAS2-97001, and the Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI) under DLR contract 50 OK 0901 to the University of Stuttgart. Support for this work was provided by NASA SSO grants NNX15AJ82G (Lowell Observatory), NNX10AB27G (MIT), and NNX12AJ29G (Williams College), and by the National Research Foundation of South Africa.

  11. Atomic Questions Group peer review mission to Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Atomic Questions Group (AQG) peer review mission (17-19 Nov 2003) was to monitor the status of the recommendations contained in the 2001 Report on Nuclear Safety in the Context of Enlargement focusing specifically those recommendations identified in the 2002 Peer Review Status Report as requiring further attention or monitoring. Most AQG/WPNS 2001 recommendations were found as adequately addressed with the exception of the following to which Bulgaria was expected to devote further attention: 2nd General Recommendation NPP type I regarding Safety Analysis Reports (SARs); 1st Specific Recommendation NPP type I regarding the new nuclear legislation; 1st General Recommendation Other Nuclear Installations type II regarding the storage of radioactive waste. In addition WPNS recommended further monitoring of the following commitments: 1st General Recommendation NPP type I regarding the plant specific safety improvement programmes - to ensure that the programmes are completed in accordance with the plans; 2nd General Recommendation NPP type I regarding Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) - to ensure that the SARs are completed in accordance with the plans; 2nd General Recommendation NPP type I regarding Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) - to ensure the completion of work on EOPs in accordance with the plans and so that these provide for the development of appropriate guidance on the management of beyond design basis accidents; 2nd Specific Recommendation NPP type I regarding the resources of the regulator - to ensure that adequate human and financial resources will be provided according to the developed plan; 5th Specific Recommendation NPP type I regarding the implementation of specific upgrading improvements at Kozloduy units 3 and 4- to specifically follow these items during the monitoring associated with 1st General recommendation NPP type I, Upgrading programme; 6th Specific Recommendation NPP type I regarding high-energy pipe breaks at Kozloduy

  12. Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot on Apples in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Nakova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora is a genus of Oomycota responsible for some of the most serious diseases with great economic impact (Judelson and Blanco, 2005. While 54 species were found in the 20th century (Erwin and Ribeiro, 1996 another 51-54 new species have been identified(Brasier, 2008 since the year 2000. They are spread worldwide and have broad range of host plants – fruit trees, citrus, forest and park species. Phytophthora can cause serious damages in orchards and nurseries of apples, cherries, etc. In Bulgaria they have been found first on young apples and cherries (1998-1999 in Plovdiv region (Nakova, 2003. Surveys have been done for discovering disease symptoms in Plovdiv and Kjustendil regions. Isolates have been obtained from infected plant material (roots and stem bases applying baiting bioassay (green apples, variety Granny Smith and/or PARP 10 selective media. Phytophthora strains were identified based on standard morphology methods – types of colonies on PDA, CMA, V 8, type and size of sporangia, oogonia and antheridia, andoospores. Cardial temperatures for their growth were tested on CMA and PDA.For molecular studies, DNA was extracted from mycelium using the DNA extraction kit.DNA was amplified using universal primers ITS 6 and ITS 4. Amplification products concentrations were estimated by comparison with the standard DNA. Sequencing was done at the Scottish Crop Research Institute (SCRI, Dundee, Scotland. Phytophthora root and crown rot symptoms first appear in early spring. Infected trees show bud break delay, have small chlorotic leaves, and branches die all of a sudden. Later symptoms are found in August-September. Leaves of the infected trees show reddish discoloration and drop down. Both symptoms are connected with lesions (wet, necrotic in appearance at stem bases of the trees.Disease spread was 2-3% in most gardens, only in an apple orchard in Bjaga (Plovdiv region it was up to 8-10%. Morphologically, the isolates acquired from

  13. SOFIA Mid-infrared Imaging1 and CSO Submillimeter Polarimetry Observations of G034.43+00.24 MM1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T. J.; Gordon, Michael; Shenoy, Dinesh; Gehrz, R. D.; Vaillancourt, John E.; Krejny, M.

    2016-06-01

    We present 11.1 to 37.1 μm imaging observations of the very dense molecular cloud core MM1 in G034.43+00.24 using FORCAST on SOFIA and submillimeter (submm) polarimetry using SHARP on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. We find that at the spatial resolution of SOFIA, the point-spread function (PSF) of MM1 is consistent with being a single source, as expected based on millimeter (mm) and submm observations. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of MM1 and MM2 have a warm component at the shorter wavelengths not seen in mm and submm SEDs. Examination of H(1.65 μm) stellar polarimetry from the Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey shows that G034 is embedded in an external magnetic field aligned with the Galactic Plane. The SHARP polarimetry at 450 μm shows a magnetic field geometry in the vicinity of MM1 that does not line up with either the Galactic Plane or the mean field direction inferred from the CARMA interferometric polarization map of the central cloud core, but is perpendicular to the long filament in which G034 is embedded. The CARMA polarimetry does show evidence for grain alignment in the central region of the cloud core, and thus does trace the magnetic field geometry near the embedded Class 0 YSO. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/DLR Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). SOFIA is jointly operated by the Universities Space Research Association, Inc. (USRA), under NASA contract NAS2-97001, and the Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI) under DLR contract 50 OK 0901 to the University of Stuttgart.

  14. In search of a homogeneous nation: the assimilation of Bulgaria's Turkish minority, 1984-1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesselin Dimitrov

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the causes of the most extreme nationalist undertaking in Eastern Europe in the 1980s - the Bulgarian government's attempt to change the names of nearly one million Turks in the space of a few weeks in 1984-1985. The article argues that the assimilation campaign emerged as a result of a combination of threats and opportunities on a number of levels. Domestically, the failure of alternative strategies of dealing with the ethnic minorities created a temptation to resort to a radical solution, whilst the political and economic resources which the communist leadership commanded and which reached their high point in the mid-1980s gave it the means to undertake such a policy. Internationally, the Soviet Union, Bulgaria's main strategic ally, was powerful enough to protect it against possible Turkish and Western reprisals, but not strong enough to impose its own more tolerant nationalities policy on Bulgaria. Turkey, Bulgaria's historical enemy and the perceived patron of the Turkish minority, was seen as both posing a threat to Bulgaria after the invasion of Cyprus, and as suffering from weaknesses which would prevent it from undertaking serious counteractions. There thus existed in 1984-1985 a false 'window of opportunity' which encouraged the Bulgarian communist leadership to obliterate once and for all the problem of ethnic diversity with which they were increasingly unable to deal by other means.

  15. Antioxidant activity screening of extracts from Sideritis species (Labiatae) grown in Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Beek, van T.A.; Evstatieva, L.N.; Kortenska, V.; Handjieva, N.

    2003-01-01

    Plant samples from several species and populations of the genus Sideritis (Labiatae) grown in Bulgaria (S scardica, S syriaca and S montana) were extracted with different solvents. Their antioxidant activities were determined by the -carotene bleaching test (BCBT), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPP

  16. THE ECONOMIC AND POLITIC RELATIONS BETWEEN BULGARIA AND GERMANY. A SHORT HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Elena Gentimir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Members of the European Union, Germany and Bulgaria are united by the same values and expectations. Both countries aim to closer relations in order to insure economic growth and a high competitiveness level. The objective of this article is to present, from a historical approach, the evolution of the economic and political relations between Bulgaria and Germany. The methodological process adopted in the present analyses is of both qualitative and quantitative nature. The article uses data from theoretical and empirical research on the economic and politic relations between Germany and Bulgaria and presents them from a historical perspective. Even though they were hit by the economic crisis, the two member states of the EU continued to maintain their economic relation on a positive trend. The recovering German economy continues to help Bulgaria, which has a hard time coming out of the crisis. The good economic relationship between the two partners will continue to be successful, the trade and investment flows being expected to double until 2015.

  17. Terrestrial gastropods of Srebarna Nature Reserve, North-Eastern Bulgaria (Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivailo Dedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We give the results from the first investigation focused on the land snail fauna in Srebarna Nature Reserve in Bulgaria. A total of 23 localities were studied and 27 species of terrestrial gastropods were found, 23 of which were new observations for the Reserve.

  18. How Can Bulgaria Improve Its Education System? An Analysis of PISA 2012 and Past Results

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Bulgaria's performance on all three disciplines of the program for international student assessment (PISA) 2012 was slightly better than its PISA 2000 performance, after having dropped between 2000 and 2006. The improvements in performance between 2006 and 2012 promoted shared prosperity, but equality of opportunities is still a major challenge. In fact, disaggregating students' PISA score...

  19. Challenges and Perspectives of the Adult Vocational Training System in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Elka

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a brief review of recent developments and problems in adult training of the employed and unemployed in Bulgaria. It is presented in three parts: information on legislation and the institutions; information on current problems with vocational training of the employed and unemployed; and some future measures for improving…

  20. Taxonomic status of the roses (Rosa) described by S.G. Dimitrov from Bulgaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, J.; Petrova, A; Tan, Kit

    2004-01-01

    The original herbarium vouchers for six species of Rosa (Rosaceae) described by S. G. Dimitrov from Bulgaria are taxonomically evaluated. Two species (R. balcanica, R. orphei) are considered hybrids, four other names (R. bulgarica, R. parilica, R. pontica and R. rhodopaea) are taxonomic synonyms of...

  1. Fathers in Context: Comparative Analysis of Father Involvement in Bulgaria and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. Conkova (Nina); B.E. Ory (Brett)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis report compares father involvement with their children in Bulgaria and the Netherlands by examining country differences in family formation patterns, policy context, and cultural prescriptions regarding family life. In studying the time fathers spend with their children, it is i

  2. Holy Places and Pilgrimage in the Post-Socialist Bulgaria (Karamihova, 2014 [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Antova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After the communist regime in Bulgaria, the interest of the people to religion was revived. Many of anthropological dimensions with religious nature are considered in Karamihova’s book (2014. Religious tourism and places of pilgrimages are described. The dynamics of this new social development is studied.

  3. Holy Places and Pilgrimage in the Post-Socialist Bulgaria (Karamihova, 2014) [In Bulgarian

    OpenAIRE

    S. Antova

    2014-01-01

    After the communist regime in Bulgaria, the interest of the people to religion was revived. Many of anthropological dimensions with religious nature are considered in Karamihova’s book (2014). Religious tourism and places of pilgrimages are described. The dynamics of this new social development is studied.

  4. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 19: The Balkan States (Bulgaria and Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilova, Savina; Skoric, Lea

    2016-09-01

    This is the 19th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan Region (Bulgaria and Croatia). The next regular feature column will investigate two other Balkan states - Serbia and Slovenia. JM. PMID:27384106

  5. QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY ON CRANIOMANDIBULAR DISORDER ISSUES IN STUDENTS' AND POST-GRADUATE TRAINING IN BULGARIA.

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Dimova; Yavor Kalachev

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of craniomandibular disorders (CMD) among the Bulgarian population as well as the risk factors for unlocking bruxism and bruxomania mechanisms pose a demand for education on these issues reflecting modern science. The authors' aim is to examine the subjective assessment of participants in “DAYS OF PROSTHETICS, Sofia, 15 -16 March 2014”, regarding: 1.Prevelance of CMD in the country; 2. Education and training of students and post-graduates in the issues related to diagnostic...

  6. Journalists' Perceptions of Nomenklatura Networks and Media Ownership in Post-communist Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Lada Trifonova Price

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the role of the former communist party elite (the nomenklatura) in the Bulgarian post-communist media landscape in relation to media ownership and the origin of media outlets’ capital. The spotlight is on Bulgarian journalists’ perceptions explored in semi-structured interviews with media professionals from the capital city, Sofia. The findings indicate that Bulgarian journalists are strongly interested in, and concerned with, the influence of members of the former nome...

  7. Forensic analysis of a smuggled HEU sample interdicted in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A sample of HEU was seized in Rousse, Bulgaria on May 29, 1999, at a border crossing between Bulgaria and Romania. A search of the suspect's vehicle uncovered a lead canister hidden in the car trunk. The initial examination of the contents by Bulgarian scientists indicated that the sample was indeed HEU, and subsequently arrangements were made for a U.S. team of nuclear forensics scientists from several national laboratories to conduct a thorough examination. This report gives a summary of the results. The HEU sample was contained in a glass ampoule that was embedded in a yellow wax, and in turn the wax filled the inside of the cylindrical lead container. A broad set of techniques was used to examine both nuclear and non-nuclear materials. Our general experimental approach has been previously described at meetings of the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG), but this case represents the application of the most diverse set of nuclear forensic measurements for an actual seized sample. Analysis of the HEU itself included particle characterization, stoichiometry, impurity elements, residual nuclides, age-dating, and U and Pu isotopics. Measurements by XRD, SEM, and TEM show that sample is mostly U3O8, with minor amounts of two other phases. The powder is extremely fine-grained (160 nm mean) and quite uniform in size. Most grains (95%) are equidimensional, with the remainder rod-or plate-shaped. The U is 72.7% U-235 with a high U-236 abundance of 12.1%. The sample is reprocessed, reactor-irradiated material. The original U enrichment was 90% and the irradiation burned up about 50% of the initial U-235. Pu is present at a very low-level (3 ppb); the Pu-239 abundance is 82% with 240/239=0.12. Three fission products were detected at low levels, giving unambiguous evidence of fuel recycling. The total impurity content is about 600 ppmw (mostly S, Cl, Fe, and Br), which we interpret as indicating a batch processing operation because the

  8. Motivational factors for the adoption of ISO 9001 standards in Eastern Europe: the case of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Georgiev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study analyzes the motivational factors for ISO 9001 certification in Bulgaria from the internal/external motivations perspective, or the so-called dual model.Design/methodology/approach: This study is based on a mixed method research approach, which employed two interviews with experts in the field of quality management at the exploratory stage, and a survey involving 127 companies at the descriptive stage.Findings: This study claims that enhanced company image and competitiveness – an external motivation - is the leading motivational factor for ISO 9001 certification in Bulgaria. At the same time, our primary investigation reveals that Bulgarian firms are not predominantly externally driven, for internal motivations including process improvement and product quality improvement seem to be an important driver for ISO 9001 certification. Last but not least, this research asserts that enhanced company image and competitiveness has a stronger impact on the motivations for ISO 9001 certification than customer and supplier pressure, which is in line with previous research works on developing economy economies such as Bulgaria. Finally, our study indicates a moderate, yet positive correlation between motivations for and benefits of ISO 9001 certification.Social implications: This research work casts some light on the evolution of quality management in Bulgaria since the end of communism, which can serve as an important foundation for the better understanding of quality management in former communist economies in general and Eastern European states in particular.Originality/value: Derived from the acute gap between ISO studies in Western and former communist economies, this research work presents one of the first official, international studies in the field of ISO certification in Bulgaria, and more precisely, a paper describing the motives for ISO 9001 certification among Bulgarian businesses.

  9. Does the genetic structure of spring snail Bythinella (Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea) in Bulgaria reflect geological history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osikowski, Artur; Georgiev, Dilian; Hofman, Sebastian; Falniowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Bythinella is a minute dioecious caenogastropod that inhabits springs in central and southern Europe. In the Balkans, previous studies have addressed its morphological and genetic differentiation within Greece and Romania while the Bulgarian species have remained poorly known. The aim of the present paper has been to expand the knowledge on the subject in Bulgaria. Shell morphology and anatomy of the reproductive organs were examined, and a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and the nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS-1) were sequenced from 15 populations. Additional sequences from eight previously studied populations were included in our analyses. Phylogenetic analyses revealed five main mitochondrial DNA clades, which were partly confirmed by analyses of the ITS-1 sequences. The genetic differentiation between the clades was found to be in the range p=2.4-11.8%. Most of the populations belonged to clade I, representing Bythinella hansboetersi, and were distributed in SW Bulgaria. Clades II and III inhabit areas adjacent to clade I and were most closely related with the latter clade. Much more distinct were clade V, found at one locality in NW Bulgaria, and clade IV, found at one locality in SE Bulgaria, close to the sea. Four populations were found in caves, but only one of these represented a distinct clade. Considering the observed pattern of interpopulation differentiation of Bythinella in Bulgaria, we can suppose that isolation between clades I, II and III may have been caused by glaciations during the Pleistocene. The time of isolation between the above three clades and clade IV coincides with the Messinian Salinity Crisis, and the time of isolation between the clade V and the other four most probably reflects the isolation of the Rhodopes from western Balkan Mts by the seawater of the Dacic Basin. PMID:26448701

  10. Academic Position "Associate Professor in Chemistry Education" of the Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Sofia: Dr. Milena Kirova [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Toshev

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of research activity of Dr. Milena Kirova who applies for the academic position “Associate Professor in Chemistry Education” at the Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Sofia.

  11. Forensic analysis of smuggled high enriched uranium interdicted in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sample of HEU was seized in Rousse, Bulgaria on May 29, 1999 and arrangements were made for a U.S. team of nuclear forensics scientists from several national laboratories to conduct a thorough examination. A broad set of techniques was used to examine both nuclear and non-nuclear materials. This case represents the application of the most diverse set of nuclear forensic measurements for an actual seized sample. Analysis of the HEU itself included particle characterization, stoichiometry, impurity elements, residual nuclides, age-dating, and U and Pu isotopics. Measurements by XRD, SEM, and TEM show that sample is mostly U3O8, with minor amounts of two other phases. The U was 72.7% 235U with a high 236U abundance of 12.1%. The sample was reprocessed, reactor-irradiated material. The original U enrichment was 90% and the irradiation burned up about 50% of the initial 235U. Plutonium was present at a very low-level (3 ppb); the 239Pu abundance was 82% with 240/239=0.12. We determined the age of the chemical reprocessing by using seven nuclide systems. Using the multiple clocks enables us to evaluate the validity of the assumptions in the dating schemes. The slightly higher ages for Am and Ac chronometers are consistent with a Purex process. The mean age of the remaining clocks is October 30, 1993, with an uncertainty of only 25 days. The similar age for the Pu/Am clock suggests that the Pu is not from postprocessing contamination. The non-nuclear materials provide a number of forensic clues. Taken all together, the non-nuclear evidence is most consistent with assembly of the package in Eastern Europe from local sources. The nuclear isotopics can be used to constrain the type of reactor in which the HEU was irradiated. Detailed reactor calculations were performed using WIMS and GLASS codes for a pin fuel cell geometry. The results point to a light-water reactor with a very thermal spectrum. We calculate that a burn-up exposure of more than 300,000 MWD/MT are required

  12. Irradiation of samples for fusion prospective materials by the plasma focus device of Sofia University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapryanov, Stanislav; Blagoev, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the first results for irradiation of tungsten, molybdenum and stainless steel samples with the 4 kJ plasma focus (PF) device at the University of Sofia. The samples were placed 4 cm above the anode of the PF machine and were exposed to a considerable number of shots. The working gas was deuterium with the pressure adjusted in the range of 1-3.3 mbar. Thus, the plasma streams and the fast-ion beam, which appear after the pinch phase, impinge the samples. The interaction of the pinch products with the targets causes substantial surface damage to the specimens. A mesh of partially melted cracks and re-crystallized regions are revealed on this surface and various chemical compounds are also present.

  13. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by Sofia Science Festival

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Have you ever imagined that you could have access to CERN, one of the word’s largest and most respected centres for scientific research? Have you ever imagined that you could have access to science educational material with just one click? The Discover the COSMOS project goes to this year’s Sofia Science Festival and organises a dedicated Open Science workshop on innovative ways of engaging teachers and students in e-Science through the use of existing e-infrastructures in order to spark young people’s interest in science and in following scientific careers. Participants of this workshop will learn about e-science apps in particle physics and astronomy that can be used in the classroom. They will also have the unique opportunity to take a virtual tour at the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider.

  14. The SOFIA Observatory at the Start of Routine Science Operations : Mission capabilities and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Temi, Pasquale; Young, Erick; Adams, Joseph D; Adams, Sybil; Andersson, B -G; Becklin, Eric E; Boogert, Adwin; Brewster, Rick; Burgh, Eric; Cobleigh, Brent R; Culp, Steven; De Buizer, Jim; Dunham, Edward W; Engfer, Christian; Ediss, Geoffrey; Fujieh, Maura; Grashuis, Randy; Gross, Michael; Harmon, Edward; Helton, Andrew; Hoffman, Douglas; Homan, Jeff; Hutwohl, Michael; Jakob, Holger; Jensen, Stephen C; Kaminski, Charles; Kozarsky, Daniel; Krabbe, Alfred; Klein, Randolf; Lammen, Yannick; Lampater, Ulrich; Latter, William B; Le, Jeanette; McKown, Nancy; Melchiorri, Riccardo; Meyer, Allan W; Miles, John; Miller, Walter E; Miller, Scott; Moore, Elizabeth; Nickison, Donald J; Opshaug, Kortney; Pfueller, Enrico; Radomski, James; Rasmussen, John; Reach, William; Reinacher, Andreas; Roellig, Thomas L; Sandell, Goran; Sankrit, Ravi; Savage, Maureen L; Shenoy, Sachindev; Schonfeld, Julie E; Shuping, Ralph Y; Smith, Erin C; Talebi, Ehsan; Teufel, Stefan; Tseng, Ting C; Vacca, William D; Vaillancourt, John; Van Cleve, Jeffrey E; Wiedemann, Manuel; Wolf, Jurgen; Zavala, Eddie; Zeile, Oliver; Zell, Peter T; Zinnecker, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has recently concluded a set of engineering flights for Observatory performance evaluation. These in-flight opportunities are viewed as a first comprehensive assessment of the Observatory's performance and are used to guide future development activities, as well as to identify additional Observatory upgrades. Pointing stability was evaluated, including the image motion due to rigid-body and flexible-body telescope modes as well as possible aero-optical image motion. We report on recent improvements in pointing stability by using an active mass damper system installed on the telescope. Measurements and characterization of the shear layer and cavity seeing, as well as image quality evaluation as a function of wavelength have also been performed. Additional tests targeted basic Observatory capabilities and requirements, including pointing accuracy, chopper evaluation and imager sensitivity. This paper reports on the data collected during these flights ...

  15. Radiation monitoring at the IRT-Sofia from January 2011 to August 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the activities connected with the continuous radiation monitoring on the site of the IRT-Sofia, as well as the current radio-ecological conditions in the area around the reactor for the period January 2011- August 2012. The research has been carried out with the aim to assess the impact of the auxiliary facilities in the controlled zone, where, according to the monitoring program a continuous monitoring of the gamma background is performed, as well as direct analysis of environmental samples (aerosol filters, soils, plants and waters) for occurrence of beta and gamma radionuclides. On the base of the obtained results about the usual levels and concentration intervals, an assessment of the radiological conditions in the neighbouring areas is made

  16. Feasibility study of using of low enriched uranium fuel for research reactor in Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the study of arrangement of the reactor core of pool type Research Reactor 200 kW in Sofia are presented. The number of planned horizontal experimental channels of Research Reactor is equal to 8 and vertical ones to 9. The beginning of study performed for fresh IRT2M tubular fuel assemblies containing highly enriched uranium with 36% enrichment is presented. The core modelling calculations are performed by the MCNP4C code. The IRT-2M fuel assembly modelling is tested by experimental data. The configuration of the reactor core including three-tube and four-tube fuel assemblies as well as beryllium blocks is analysed. The aspects of feasibility of using of developed in Russia pin-type fuel assemblies IRT-MR with low enriched uranium (LEU<20%) in core design instead of IRT-2M ones are discussed. (author)

  17. The Orion Nebula in the Far-Infrared: FIFI-LS/SOFIA Mapped the PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Randolf

    2016-01-01

    The Orion Nebula is the closest massive star forming region allowing us to study the physical conditions in such a region with high spatial resolution. We used the far infrared integral-field spectrometer, FIFI-LS, on-board the airborne observatory SOFIA to study the atomic and molecular gas in the Orion Nebula at medium spectral resolution. The large maps in several fine structure lines obtained with FIFI-LS cover the nebula from the BN/KL-object in the west to the bar in the south-east and gull feature in north-east. The fine structure lines can be used as a diagnostic for the physical conditions of the photon-dominated region (PDR), the interface between the HII-region and the molecular cloud.

  18. SOFIA Education/Public Outreach with the Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (EXES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, M. K.; Lacy, J. H.; Jaffe, D. T.; Richter, M. J.; Green, K.; Harkrider, J. L.; Lutsinger, C. L.; Noid, E.; Penn, R.; Shepherd, L.; Suder, R.; Tykoski, M. J.; Willis, M. J.

    1998-12-01

    The integration of science and technology is maximized in the development of a new scientific instrument for SOFIA like EXES. Many teachers with good science backgrounds have never had an experience in which they can learn first-hand about instrument development. The goal of this program is to prepare a cadre of teachers who will promote astronomy within their communities and who will be prepared eventually for a flight experience on SOFIA. This program provides grade 7-12 Central Texas (i.e., work within 100 miles of UT-Austin) teachers an opportunity to learn not only the principles of astronomy, but also the technology behind instrument development. By spreading the experience out over several years, the group may observe the development and construction of EXES through many phases. In addition to traditional laboratory exercises [e.g. the celestial sphere, optics, optical telescopes, spectroscopy, use of CCD cameras, and error analysis], there will be practice in using equipment such as an interferometer for optical alignment, drill press, mill, and lathe. Simultaneous with the teachers' growing understanding of astronomy and technology through their hands-on activities, their knowledge of scientific research - particularly in the area of infrared astronomy - will be enhanced through regular interactive talks by the co-investigators. With careful planning, several important secondary goals are achieved with this program: 1. The activities are aligned with the National Science Education Standards 2. Many of the traditional astronomy activities have been modified for use by secondary school students 3. Information on careers is developed through activities which emphasize the team-work necessary to build and operate EXES 4. Professional links are forged between the EXES team and the teachers

  19. A study on early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal infection, Bulgaria, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova-Christova, M; Vacheva, R; Decheva, A; Nikolov, A; Slancheva, B; Stoichkova, D; Christova, E; Shopova, E; Hitrova, S; Masseva, A; Yarakova, N; Kraleva, I; Takova, T S; Dimitrova, N; Dobreva, A

    2014-09-01

    This study examines neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization and its relation to early-onset GBS disease (EOGBSD), based upon the experience of leading obstetrics and gynecology centers in Bulgaria. The objectives of the study were to update neonatal colonization rates and to assess relationships between clinically differentiated cases (culture-proven GBS newborns) and risk factors inherent to the infant and mother, using a computerized file. The neonatal GBS colonization rate ranged from 5.48 to 12.19 per 1000 live births. Maternal-fetal infection (MFI, a provisional clinical diagnosis in culture-proven colonized infants with initial signs of infection that is usually overcome with antibiotic treatment) and/or intrapartum asphyxia (IA) have been demonstrated as the most frequent clinical manifestations, with significant correlations for the primary diagnosis, but not affirmative for the final diagnosis at discharge, resulting from adequate treatment of neonates. MFI and IA were significantly related to prematurity, and reciprocally, prematurity was associated with the risk of MFI, indirectly suggesting that preterm birth or PPROM (preterm premature rupture of membranes, an obstetric indication associated with early labor and delivery, one of the major causes of preterm birth) is a substantial risk factor for EOGBSD. The regression analysis indicated that in the case of a newborn with MFI, a birth weight 593.58 g lower than the birth weight of an infant without this diagnosis might be expected. Testing the inverse relationship, i.e., the way birth weight influences a certain diagnosis (logistic regression) established the presence of a relationship between birth weight categories (degree of prematurity) and the diagnosis of MFI. The proportions and odds ratios, converted into probabilities that a baby would develop MFI, indicate the particularly high risk for newborns with extremely low and very low birth weight: extremely low birth weight (≤1000 g), the

  20. Quality of care of patients with acute myocardial infarction in Bulgaria: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraedts Max

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of death in Bulgaria. Because of notable differences in mortality rates between Bulgaria and other European countries, we presume a tangible difference in the management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI and an underutilization of evidence-based treatments. In order to determine the quality of care of patients with AMI in Bulgaria, we analyzed the appropriateness of current treatments and their relation to patient characteristics. Methods We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study, using retrospectively collected data from medical charts. We included all patients with AMI, residing and admitted to hospitals in the region of Stara Zagora, Bulgaria, between September 1st and December 31st, 2004. Socioeconomic status was surveyed within the framework of a structured patient interview. We used chi-square tests with Fisher's exact probabilities to analyze the relationship between prehospital time delay age, sex, and socio-economic status of the patients and Student's independent samples t-tests to check hypotheses about means. Results From 134 patients with AMI (mean age 64.6, SD 13.2, 66% male, 7% presented to a hospital within 59 minutes, and 44% within 4 hours of symptoms onset. The use of Heparin was 98%. In the first 24 hours, ASS was administrated in 82% and β-Blockers in 73% of the cases. At discharge Aspirin, β-Blockers, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors or AR-Blockers and Statins were used in 85%, 79%, 66%, and 43% of cases respectively. Intravenous fibrinolysis was applied in 32% of the eligible patients with ST-segment elevation. Percutaneous coronary interventions were applied in four patients within the first month after AMI. Hospital location in relation to a patient's place of residence and manner of transportation to hospital did not influence the time delay between the onset of symptoms to the start of hospital treatment. In the study region, a relation

  1. Vegetative and Productive Behaviors of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.), Grown by Direct Sowing Outside Under Conditions of Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    PANAYOTOV, Nikolay; POPOVA, Ani

    2014-01-01

    Cape gooseberry is a new crop for Bulgaria. Therefore, the establishment of appropriate technology is important. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different date of direct sowing outside under Bulgarian condition on the morphological development and on the productivity of cape gooseberry. The experiments were carried out with two varieties cape gooseberry - first Bulgarian variety Plovdiv and Columbian ecotype Obrazec 1 in region of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Three dates of dir...

  2. Present status and progress of safeguards activities and physical protection on the eve of year 2000 in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the very beginning of the IAEA safeguards implementation in Bulgaria, up to now the IAEA inspections verified no deviations or uncertainties in accounting of the nuclear materials. According to the official IAEA reports Bulgaria has fulfilled completely its duties under the safeguards and the Non-proliferation Treaty and has fully assisted the IAEA inspection activity. As for the physical protection, the complicated up-to-date system was established contributing to the safety of Kozloduy NPP and the plant operation

  3. TECHNOLOGICAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP OF SMALL AND MEDIUM BUSINESS IN THE REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA AS A FACTOR FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Angel Mirchev; Vesela Dicheva

    2013-01-01

    In the context of deepening economic and social crisis the importance of small and medium enterprises in the Republic of Bulgaria is steadily increasing. They have provided significant number of jobs on the labour market and have created much of the gross domestic product of Bulgaria. Our thesis is that technological entrepreneurship is a factor for the sustainable development of small and medium business in the country as a whole and stimulates overcoming the crisis in the country. This rese...

  4. Bulgaria; 2008 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    This 2008 Article IV Consultation discusses that Bulgaria has been hit by the global financial crisis, with clear signs that the country’s capital inflows-driven boom has come to an end and that the real economy is slowing down. Executive Directors have commended the Bulgarian authorities for their prudent policies that have built strong balance sheets in the public sector. Directors have also welcomed the authorities’ commitment to maintaining prudent fiscal policies, which will provide ...

  5. Exposure to environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Influences on cellular susceptibility to DNA damage (sampling Kosice and Sofia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate a possible influence of occupational exposure to carcinogenic environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) on cellular susceptibility to the induction of the DNA damage. Monitoring was performed and blood samples were collected from two groups of male subjects: occupationally exposed and matched controls. The group exposed to c-PAHs (average age of 35.1 years) consisted of 52 policemen from Kosice and 26 policemen and 25 bus drivers (51 altogether) from Sofia. The control group (average age of 36.4 years) consisted of 54 unexposed subjects from Kosice and 24 from Sofia. In the investigated groups 52.5% of exposed subjects and 45.3% of control were current smokers. A challenging dose of X-rays (3 Gy) and an alkaline version of the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, known as Comet assay, were used to evaluate levels of induced DNA damage and repair kinetics in isolated human blood lymphocytes. DNA damage detected in lymphocytes prior to or after irradiation did not differ significantly between exposed and unexposed subjects. A significant decrease in repair efficiency due to exposure to PAHs was observed in the exposed individuals from Kosice and Sofia, when analysed separately or together. A negative influence of tobacco smoking on the efficiency of DNA repair was observed. Statistically significant differences were found between subgroups stratified according to education level in Sofia: the half times for DNA repair declined with the increasing level of education. These results confirm that environmental exposure to c-PAHs can alter the ability of blood lymphocytes to repair DNA damage and, as a result could potentially lead to effects that are hazardous to human health

  6. Performance of the Quidel Sofia rapid influenza diagnostic test during the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 influenza seasons

    OpenAIRE

    Kammerer, Peter E.; Radin, Jennifer M.; Hawksworth, Anthony W.; Myers, Chris A.; Brice, Gary T.

    2016-01-01

    The Quidel Sofia Influenza A+B Fluorescent Immunoassay was used to test nasal swab specimens from patients with influenza‐like illness at US–Mexico border‐area clinics in the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 influenza seasons. Compared with real‐time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the overall sensitivities and specificities were 83% and 81%, and 62% and 93%, respectively.

  7. New Results from Air Pollution Studies in Bulgaria (Moss Survey 2000-2001)

    CERN Document Server

    Stamenov, J N; Vachev, B; Gueleva, E; Yurukova, L; Ganeva, A; Mitrikov, M; Antonov, A; Srentz, A; Varbanov, Z; Batov, I V; Damov, K; Marinova, E; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Strelkova, L P

    2002-01-01

    New results of moss survey 2000 of systematic study of air pollution with heavy metals and other toxic elements in Bulgaria are reported. The moss samples collected at 103 sites in Bulgaria, along the borders with Yugoslavia, Macedonia, Greece and Turkey were analyzed by instrumental activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 pulsed fast reactor for a wide set of elements including heavy metals and rare earth elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, and U). The results obtained are consistent with the mean European values for most of elements. The principle component analysis is applied to distinguish heavy and light crust elements and vegetation ones from those of anthropogenic origin.

  8. Probabilistic seismic hazard map for Bulgaria as a basis for a new building code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Simeonova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A seismic hazard map proposed as part of a new building code for Bulgaria is presented here on basis of the recommendations in EUROCODE 8. Seismic source zones within an area of about 200 km around Bulgaria were constructed considering seismicity, neotectonic and geological development. The most time consuming work was to establish a homogeneous earthquake catalogue out of different catalogues. The probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in terms of intensities is performed following Cornell (1968 with the program EQRISK (see McGuire, 1976, modified by us for use of intensities. To cope with the irregular isoseismals of the Vrancea intermediate depth earthquakes a special attenuation factor is introduced (Ardeleanu et al., 2005, using detailed macroseismic maps of three major earthquakes. The final seismic hazard is the combination of both contributions, of zones with crustal earthquakes and of the Vrancea intermediate depth earthquakes zone. Calculations are done for recurrence periods of 95, 475 and 10 000 years.

  9. 'Mafia Baroque': post-socialist architecture and urban planning in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleran, Max

    2014-03-01

    This paper traces the reception of the architectural style known as 'Mafia Baroque' within the professions of architecture and urban planning in Bulgaria. The debate within these professions was strongly linked to the general decline of power among former intellectual elites and the specific decline of architects and planners, who were sidelined as arbiters of 'good taste' and disempowered as regulators of urban growth. The reaction to this style also highlights the rise in public concern over corruption and organized crime and dissatisfaction with post-socialist urbanization. This paper chronicles the extent of changes in construction and regulation in Bulgaria during the 1990s and argues that planners and architects were challenged not only by their professional marginalization but also by a deeper embarrassment over cultural change. It then relates this debate to broader post-socialist anxieties over insufficient regulation of urbanization and fear of failing to meet Western European goals for economic and political change. PMID:24697714

  10. The renewable energy resources position in the fuel - energy balance forecast of R. Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renewable energy resources position in the current fuel energy balance of the country is clearly defined. There have been discussed the solar energy usage possibilities mainly for hot water preparation, for industrial uses, in agriculture, as well as the geothermal water, hydro energy etc. The energy development expectations from renewable resources in the period up to 2015 have been forecasted with the aim of local renewable most efficient usage as well as the country's possibilities to meet the EU requirements for renewable resources development in order to decrease the import fuel and energy dependence and to increase the energy independence of Bulgaria. There have been presented the forecast expectations of renewable development structure by economic sectors in the Republic of Bulgaria. (author)

  11. Socio-economic restructuring and vulnerability to environmental hazards in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnal, B

    1994-06-01

    The restructuring of Bulgaria's social, economic and political system includes a change in the way it handles disaster preparation and response. During the Cold War, the entire country drilled regularly in civil defense, which was under the control of the army. A recent decree and pending legislation transfers civil defense from the military to the Council of Ministers, which has developed a national plan for defense against environmental hazards. This research shows that the transformation from command to market economy, plus the country's severe economic crisis, is degrading existing civil defense structures, preventing the implementation of the proposed new organization and increasing the population's vulnerability to hazards. Case studies of a small city, a petrochemical complex, coastal-zone hazards management, earthquake hazards regulation and the Kozloduy nuclear facility demonstrate Bulgaria's increasing vulnerability to environmental hazards. PMID:8076162

  12. New results from air pollution studies in Bulgaria (moss survey 2000-2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New results of moss survey 2000 of systematic study of air pollution with heavy metals and other toxic elements in Bulgaria are reported. The moss samples collected at 103 sites in Bulgaria, along the borders with Yugoslavia, Macedonia, Greece and Turkey were analyzed by instrumental activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 pulsed fast reactor for a wide set of elements including heavy metals and rare earth elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, and U). The results obtained are consistent with the mean European values for most of elements. The principle component analysis is applied to distinguish heavy and light crust elements and vegetation ones from those of anthropogenic origin

  13. Possibilities for construction of small hydroelectric power plants in the Republic of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydroenergy potential of Bulgaria and its utilization until 2000 is discussed. An assessment is made of the possibilities of the use of additional micro-hydroenergy potential (the preliminary evaluation gives about 1.3 bill. kWh/y with total power 250 MW). In the National Strategy for the development, use and preservation of water in Bulgaria till 2020 it is envisioned 60 micro HPP with power of 36 MW power to be constructed. The Program for hydro energy to 2010 envisioned including of private investments if the construction, buying up the electric energy by the National Electric Company and two-stage construction of the cascade 'Sreden Iskyr' with 10 small NPPs. The necessity of the development of a Manual of express investigation and design of small NPP is substantiated

  14. Investigation about the presence of organochlorine pollutants in mussels from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Stanislava

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (HCB, DDT and its metabolites and HCBD in mussels from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis are aquatic organisms which are immobile so that the concentration of pollutants should primarily be considered as an indication of local levels of organochlorine compounds. Samples were collected from three areas of Black Sea coast of Bulgaria in summer 2015.

  15. 14 October 2014 - R. Plevneliev President of the Republic of Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2014-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Rosen Plevneliev President Republic of Bulgaria welcoming by CERN Director-General at CMS (Point 5); visiting the CMS cavern with CMS Spokesperson T. Camporesi; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Technology Department Head J.M. Jiménez; signing the Guest-Book; assisting to a meeting with Bulgarians at CERN and family photograph with Bulgarians at CERN.

  16. Comparative Analysis of the Evolution of Business Travel Romania – Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu; Cornelia Tureac; Bogdan Andronic; Florian Nuta

    2012-01-01

    The authors aim to analyze the evolution of the main tourism indicators in the two neighboringcountries Romania and Bulgaria. Current development of tourism is characterized by a profound renewal ofthe world tourism offer, in particular by developing a range of new tourism products, superior bothqualitatively and quantitatively. Romanian tourism revival will involve reshaping the development of tourismproducts based incentives at national and international tourism. Currently, the Romanian tou...

  17. DIVERSITY AND MORPHOMETRIC DATA OF BLOOD FILARIAL lARVAE IN CARNIVOROUS FROM BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Panayotova–Pencheva M.; Trifonova A.; Mirchev R.; Movsesyan S.

    2014-01-01

    During the period 2012-2013 investigations of blood samples from domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris ), goldon jackals ( Canis aureus ) and red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) originated from different regions of Bulgaria were performed aiming to document diversity and morphometric characteristics of established filarial larvae. Following features of microfilariae were analyzed: peculiarities in the shape, body length and maximum body width. According to the morphological characteristics three types of ...

  18. Investigating the opportunities of using mobile learning by young children in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kraleva, Radoslava; Stoimenovski, Aleksandar; Kostadinova, Dafina; Kralev, Velin

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of literature related to the use of mobile devices in teaching young children. For this purpose, the most popular mobile operating systems in Bulgaria are considered and the functionality of the existing mobile applications with Bulgarian interface is discussed. The results of a survey of parents' views regarding the mobile devices as a learning tool are presented and the ensuing conclusions are provided.

  19. How Media Portrayal Affects Perceptions of Minorities : The case of Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Georgieva, Radostina

    2013-01-01

    A connection is often drawn between the way the media represent ethnic minorities and the way majorities perceive them. This paper seeks to investigate further this link by drawing parallels between media portrayal of ethnic minorities in Bulgaria and the majority's attitude towards them. In addition it introduces the results of an online survey in which 250 people took part that directly studies the effects of negative media portrayal on the subject's attitude towards ethnic minorities in Bu...

  20. Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential of Arnica montana cultivated in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Zheleva-Dimitrova, Dimitrina; BALABANOVA, Vessela

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential of methanol extract from Arnica montana cultivated in Bulgaria was evaluated. For the determination of antioxidant activity 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) di-ammonium salt (ABTS) free radicals, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay were used. Modified Ellman's colorimetric method was used for quantitative assessment of acetylcholinesterase inhibiti...

  1. Bulgaria : The Road to Successful EU integration, The Policy Agenda, A Country Economic Memorandum

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    As Bulgaria approaches European Union accession, it has the opportunity to narrow the income gap, and raise productivity and investment, and set the economy on a higher growth path. To address these challenges and accelerate convergence with the European Union, this report proposes a reform agenda focused on five areas: productivity and growth, trade and investment integration, public expenditure policy, labor market adjustment, and the regulatory and institutional framework. Chapter 1 focuse...

  2. Inclusive education in Bulgaria and Bosnia and Herzegovina: policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Tsokova, Diana; Becirevic, Majda

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines developments in inclusive education in Bulgaria (BG) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) in the context of actual and desired accession to the European Union respectively. It seeks to provide insights into the national special education traditions in these countries and aims to establish how these have influenced current developments in inclusive education together with and alongside powerful external change agents. This research focuses on policy makers' perspectives on chan...

  3. Motivational factors for the adoption of ISO 9001 standards in Eastern Europe: the case of Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Svetoslav Georgiev; Emil Georgiev

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study analyzes the motivational factors for ISO 9001 certification in Bulgaria from the internal/external motivations perspective, or the so-called dual model.Design/methodology/approach: This study is based on a mixed method research approach, which employed two interviews with experts in the field of quality management at the exploratory stage, and a survey involving 127 companies at the descriptive stage.Findings: This study claims that enhanced company image and competitiven...

  4. Technology Development and Product Life Cycle: The Case of Counter-pressure Casting in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Tonchev, T.; Djarova, J.; Nenov, I.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the second part of the case study developed at the Metals Technology Company, in Bulgaria, which created and is applying the new original Bulgarian technology of casting by counter-pressure. After an investigation of the technology life cycle in the first part, the second part of the study concentrates on the inter-relation between technology and product life cycles. Selected product areas were investigated, and the product life cycle was applied in analyzing the product s...

  5. Problems and management of radioactive sources and measures against illicit trafficking of nuclear materials in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illicit trafficking of nuclear materials continues to pose a danger to public health and safety and to nuclear non proliferation efforts. The majority of cases so far have involved only small amounts of fissile materials or mainly radioactive sources in Bulgaria. A proper scheme for analysis of seized nuclear materials will be developed based on existing equipment for NDA analysis of nuclear materials supplemented by new system through PHARE project assistance by EU experts. (author)

  6. Firm Culture in Bulgaria as A Problem of the Economic Anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Adelina Milanova

    2004-01-01

    Drawn are views for the conditioning between the national and firm culture in theoretical aspect and based on concrete studies for Bulgaria. Firm culture in its quality of certain management mechanism is identified and analyzed as a subject in the frames of the economic anthropology. Based on the interdisciplinary approach are applied alternative instruments as an answer of current questions concerning the firm culture. Presented are results of study of the conditioning between the national a...

  7. Observable Effects of Atmospheric Pollution on Outpatient and Inpatient Morbidity in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    PLATIKANOVA, Magdalena; PENKOVA-RADICHEVA, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of Europe’s most well-developed industrial regions is found in the Republic of Bulgaria. The industrialization of the region has a big impact on air pollution. Thermal power plant “Maritza East” (the largest of its kind in southeastern Europe), the army training range, machine manufacturers, household heating and high volume of automobile traffic are all major sources of pollution in the region. Methods: A five year study (2009–2013) followed yearly concentrations of principal...

  8. Union formation and fertility in Bulgaria and Russia: A life table description of recent trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiva Jasilioniene

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an extensive descriptive analysis and comparison of recent trends in union formation and fertility in Bulgaria and Russia. The analysis is based on data from the Generation and Gender Surveys (GGS carried out in 2004. We generate a large number of single- and multi-decrement life tables describing various life course events: leaving home and separation from the parental family, entry into union, first and second childbirth, divorce. Life tables are constructed for real cohorts as well as for synthetic cohorts. We study four real cohorts, born in 1940-44, 1950-54, 1960-64 and 1970-74. Synthetic-cohort life tables are constructed for three periods of time, referring to the pre-transitional demographic situation (1985-1989, the beginning of the transition (1990-1994 and recent demographic developments (1999-2003. We study also Roma and Turkish ethnic groups in Bulgaria. The life tables deliver detailed information that is otherwise unavailable. Our tentative findings indicate that societal transformation had a stronger impact on family-related behavior in the Bulgarian population than in the population of Russia. There is evidence that in some aspects Bulgaria is lagging behind other former socialist and Western European countries where the second demographic transition is more advanced. Evidence also suggests that Russia is lagging behind Bulgaria. However, certain specific features distinctive to Russia, such as the low level of childlessness, a drastic drop in second and subsequent births, and very high divorce rates even compared to Western European countries (it is a long-standing, not just recent trend, lead us to think that Russia may have a model of change particular to the country.

  9. Smalholders’ Market Inclusion through Improved Eco-management – The Case of Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    BACHEV, Hrabrin Ianouchev

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Enhancing environmental performance is a prospective way for increasing market inclusion, effectiveness and sustainability of small-scale farms around the globe. With a very few exceptions, there are no studies on forms, factors and efficiency of “eco-driven” market inclusion of smallholders in modern supply chains in Bulgaria. This paper presents findings of a first large-scale study on state, driving forces, and efficiency of market inclusion of farms through enhanced eco-manageme...

  10. Filamentous cyanoprokaryotes (Cyanoprokaryota/Cyanobacteria in standing waters of Bulgaria: diversity and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PLAMEN STOYANOV

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanoprokaryotes are widespread organisms, which dominate in different water basins. In the present study, we have investigated the diversity of this group and related physicochemical parameters in 35 standing water basins in Bulgaria. We found 29 cyanoprokaryotic species, which belong to 13 genera from the orders Synechococcales, Spirulinales and Oscillatoriales. The frequency quotient of each species was calculated. Information about the distribution of the identified species and typology of the water basins is also provided.

  11. Macrophyte-Based Assessment of the Ecological Status of Lakes in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Gana M. Gecheva

    2011-01-01

    The aquatic macrophytes of lakes, situated in the whole territory of Bulgaria, were monitored during 2009. Six lake groups were established using differences in characteristics reflecting altitude, high calcium content and salinity, and altered hydromorphology and/or artificial origin. Abundance and species composition were assessed at each lake according to the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive, using the assessment procedure of macrophyte-based assessment system, proposed by ...

  12. THE SOCIAL ORIENTATION OF THE ACTIVITY OF THE LABOUR WORKING COOPERATIVES FOR DISABLED PEOPLE IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Albena MITEVA; Zornitsa STOYANOVA

    2014-01-01

    Bulgaria's membership in the European Union defines the orientation of our country in line with the key strategic priorities of Europe 2020, which aims to achieve smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The role of the cooperative system becomes especially important at this time when the EU itself is constructed as a union of equal socially oriented states. In the paper is depicted the role of the labour working producer cooperatives for disabled people as one of the main actors of the socia...

  13. The renewable energy resources future in the electricity energy balance forecast of R. Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usage of renewable resources for electricity production in Bulgaria could be extended significantly in reality, through the utilization of the existing high technical potential. Options for expected electricity production development in future period have been presented for the country on the base of two expected scenarios for economic development. Forecasted variations of structural mix for renewable energy sources electricity production have been proposed with respect of the existing options for better use of the RES economical potential

  14. Improvisation and Variation: Post-Communist Bulgaria Challenges National Folklore Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka Agoston-Nikolova

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the tension in post-totalitarian Bulgaria betweenthe national folklore tradition of Communist times with government sanctioned state ensembles and festivals and age-old Balkan multiculturalism now represented in a westernized free-market consumer society, where spontaneity and improvisation bridge the urban and the rural, the local and the global. Folk pop, folk jazz or other mixed genres reverberate with humor , parody and, above all, freedom and love of improvisation.

  15. ANALYSIS OF INTENSITY OF COMPETITION IN MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS SECTOR IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Radev, Radko

    2013-01-01

    The following paper presents the results of an analysis of the intensity of competition in the milk and milk products sector in Bulgaria. The analysis is performed by adapting the Porter’s five forces model and based on the specific features of the sector concerned. For this purpose the author accepts the industrial concept of interpretation of competition: two levels of consideration of the competition intensity are differentiated - product class as a whole and separate product categories. A...

  16. Comparative analysis of the prices of essential medicines among Bulgaria and Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Angelovska, Bistra; Bukilica, M; Todorov, Todor; Petrova, Guenka

    2005-01-01

    The prices of medicines differ because of many reasons as the sector that is purchasing medicines, distribution channel, patent status, trade mark and methodology of pricing. The current study aims at comparing the manufactoring, wholesale and retail prices of 30 30 INN essential medicines in Bulgaria and Macedonia as well their affordability to the population. There are presented the results for amoxicillin and glibenclamid. The collection, verification and data analysis are following the ne...

  17. CONCEPTUALIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF BALNEO, SPA AND WELLNESS ESTABLISHMENTS IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Trifonova Vasileva; Georgi Georgiev

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the origin, the process of development and consolidation of the health, SPA and wellness tourism in different regions of the world as well as in Bulgaria. Special attention is paid to the etymology of the words “wellness” and “SPA”, used as a basis for differentiation of their structural elements as tourism segments. Under observations are some theoretical issues, including the significant need of term clarification of these forms of tourism. Other matters of high importan...

  18. Conceptualization and classification of balneo, SPA and wellness establichments in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiev, Georgi; Vasileva, Maria Trifonova

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the origin, the process of development and consolidation of the health, SPA and wellness tourism in different regions of the world as well as in Bulgaria. Special attention is paid to the etymology of the words 'wellness' and 'SPA', used as a basis for differentiation of their structural elements as tourism segments. Under observations are some theoretical issues, including the significant need of term clarification of these forms of tourism. Other matters of high importan...

  19. Spiritual belief, social support, physical functioning and depression among older people in Bulgaria and Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Peter G.; Carare, Roxana O; Petrov, Ignat; Forbes, Elizabeth; Saigal, Anita; Spreadbury, John H.; Yap, Andrea; Kendrick, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: An exploratory investigation is reported into the role of spirituality and religious practice in protecting against depression among older people living in rural villages in Bulgaria and Romania, two neighbouring countries with similar cultural, political and religious histories, but with differing levels of current religiosity. Methods: In both countries, interviews were conducted with samples of 160 persons of 60 years and over in villages of similar socio-economic status. The H...

  20. Analysis of the Logistics Systems in Bulgaria under the Requirements of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner Cebeci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The new EU member countries will participate actively in the growing freight development (Beckmann and Baum, 2002. The new EU member Bulgaria forms the ultimate frontier of the EU and because of its geographical location an important transit country for the transport between Europe and Asia. Because of numerous deficiencies in the Bulgarian transport infrastructure, the Bulgarian sections of the Trans-European road network cannot be used efficiently and thus Bulgaria loses large shares of the transit transport. To meet the challenges of the globalization and to benefit from the growing Euro-Asian logistics services in the future, the Bulgarian government has set the main objectives in the national transport policy in a master plan, which should be implemented by the year 2020. The aim of this study is to analyze the transport situation and the national strategic reference framework in the transport sector of the Eastern European EU member Bulgaria and based on the EU requirements for efficiency and sustainability of the European transport systems, to derive recommendations for the future development of the logistics systems in the accession country.

  1. TRADITIONAL WOMEN’S APPARELS OF BULGARIA N IMMIGRANTS LIVING IN ESKİŞEHİR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak BOĞDAY SAYĞILI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of culture, clothing is a phenomenon which develops with humanity, which is specific to communities, being shap ed according to the ir taste, and reflecting the community’s living conditions and li fe styles . T he Turks who e migrated changed their clothing to adapt to the geo graphical and physical features as well as the living conditions at the places they migrated to, and through being influenced by the people in their region. Bulgaria is one of the countries to which great e migrations from the Ottoman empire took place. Having lived together for many years, the Turks and the Bulgarians were influenced by each other in clothing culture just as in every other field. These migrations , which took place intensively from time to time , are still co ntinuing. This research aims to reveal the traditional women’s apparels of immigrants from Bulgaria living in Eskişehir and the characteristics of their apparel . Historical and review methods were used in the research. From the sources reached using the survey form prepared as data collection tool, apparels reflecting general characteristics of the traditional women’s apparels of the immigrants from Bulgaria livi ng in Eskişehir were examined.

  2. Current status, surveillance and control of avian influenza in domestic and wild bird populations in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the history and current status of avian influenza (AI) infection and control in Bulgaria. The country has a unique geographic position in Europe with regard to wild bird populations and their migration routes which pass through its territory. In recent years, Bulgaria did not remain free from AI. The region with the highest rate of isolation of H5N1 virus strains were the Black Sea coast and wet territories connected with the Via Pontica migration pathway in the administrative districts of Dobrich, Varna and Bourgas. Low pathogenic (LP) AI strains isolated from ducks were subtypes H3, H4 and H6 from the areas of Plovdiv, Pazardjik, St. Zagora, Yambol, Sliven and Haskovo. Raising ducks for liver production is a popular practice in south and southeast Bulgaria. From an epidemiological standpoint, controlling circulation of AI viruses among duck flocks, especially before their gathering in larger farms for fattening is a mandatory requirement of official authorities. To prevent the spread of highly pathogenic (HP) AI, surveillance of domestic poultry as well as wild birds should be strengthened in countries at risk, especially along bird migration routes. Monitoring, sampling and analysis of the viral subtypes of AI found in wild birds needs to be carried out to fully understand their role in the propagation and spread of HPAI viruses. (author)

  3. SOFIA observations of dark asteroids: Evidence for hydrated minerals on asteroidal surfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Margaret; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Kelley, Michael S. P. T.

    2015-11-01

    We present results from recent SOFIA+FORCAST observations of three primitive asteroids and compare these to archived Spitzer Space Telescope (Spitzer) observations of similar objects. Three asteroids from a total of 12 have been observed with SOFIA+FORCAST in our Cycle-3 campaign. Currently, we have observed asteroids 38 Leda, 194 Prokne with both G111 and G227 grisms and asteroid 266 Aline with G227. Both wavelength regions (G111: 8.5-13.5-μm and G227: 17.6-27.7) have recently been shown to contain spectral features directly related degree of alteration of primitive meteorites, including unaltered CO and CV meteorites (McAdam, et al., 2015a ,b). Spectral features in the 17.6-27.7-μm region can be indicative of olivine (19.5-μm), hydrated minerals (21-μm) and silica glass (22-μm). Spitzer observed eight large, primitive, main-belt asteroids using both low-resolution modes (short-low, SL and long-low, LL) of the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) covering 8.5-38-μm. Additionally, Spitzer observed 22 dark primitive asteroids in the 8.5-13.5-μm region. Asteroids observed with Spitzer fall into three categories: asteroids with a 12-μm feature of 1-5% depth, interpreted as ~60-70% hydrated minerals (McAdam, et al., 2015a) asteroids with a broader 12-13-μm feature with strengths ranging from 4-6% with potential features between 19-22-μm (where observed) and asteroids with a strong 13-μm feature (5-10%), 15-μm and potentially 19-22-μm features (where observed) interpreted as olivine-rich. However, the uncertain calibration at the edges of the LL spectral orders complicates feature identification. 194 Prokne has a feature ~12-13-μm feature and potentially a broad feature between 20-22-μm. This is consistent with primitive asteroids observed with Spitzer that are interpreted as hydrated mineral-bearing. 38 Leda is largely featureless at the noise limit of the spectrum with a potential feature at 25-μm, unlike asteroids observed by Spitzer. 266 Aline has a weak

  4. High angular resolution observations of star-forming regions with BETTII and SOFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Maxime; Rinehart, Stephen; Mundy, Lee G.; Benford, Dominic J.; Dhabal, Arnab; Fixsen, Dale J.; Leisawitz, David; Maher, Stephen F.; Mentzell, Eric; Silverberg, Robert F.; Staguhn, Johannes; Veach, Todd; Cardiff BETTII Team

    2016-01-01

    High angular resolution observations in the far-infrared are important to understand the star formation process in embedded star clusters where extinction is large and stars form in close proximity. The material taking part in the star forming process is heated by the young stars and emits primarily in the far-IR; hence observations of the far-IR dust emission yields vital information about the gravitational potential, the mass and energy distribution, and core/star formation process. Previous observatories, such as Herschel, Spitzer and WISE lack the angular resolution required to study these dense star forming cores and are further limited by saturation in bright cores.The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is pioneering the path to sub-arcsecond resolution at far-IR wavelengths. This thesis talk discusses the instrumental challenges in building BETTII, as well as results from our SOFIA survey to illustrate the potential of higher-angular resolution observations. The 8m-long two element interferometer is being tested at NASA GSFC and is scheduled for first flight in fall 2016. BETTII will provide 0.5 to 1 arcsecond spatial resolution and spectral resolving power of 10 to 100 between 30 and 90 microns, where most of the dust continuum emission peaks in local star forming regions. It will achieve spatially-resolved spectroscopy of bright, dense cores with unprecedented high definition. This talk focuses on the main challenges and solutions associated with building BETTII: thermal stability, attitude/pointing control, and path length stabilization. In each of these areas we look at the trade-off between design, control, and knowledge in order to achieve the best-possible instrumental capability and sensitivity.As a first step towards resolving cluster cores, we surveyed 10 nearby star-forming clusters with SOFIA FORCAST at 11, 19, 31 and 37 microns. The FORCAST instrument has the highest angular resolution currently available in

  5. Observations of Type Ia Supernova 2014J with FLITECAM/SOFIA

    CERN Document Server

    Vacca, William D; Savage, Maureen; Shenoy, Sachindev; Becklin, E E; McLean, Ian S; Logsdon, Sarah E; Gehrz, R D; Spyromilio, J; Garnavich, P; Marion, G H; Fox, O D

    2015-01-01

    We present medium resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectra, covering 1.1 to 3.4 microns, of the normal Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 2014J in M82 obtained with the FLITECAM instrument aboard SOFIA approximately 17-25 days after maximum B light. Our 2.8-3.4 micron spectra may be the first ~3 micron spectra of a SN Ia ever published. The spectra spanning the 1.5-2.7 micron range are characterized by a strong emission feature at ~1.77 microns with a full width at half maximum of ~11,000-13,000 km/s. We compare the observed FLITECAM spectra to the recent non-LTE delayed detonation models of Dessart et al. (2014) and find that the models agree with the spectra remarkably well in the 1.5-2.7 micron wavelength range. Based on this comparison we identify the ~1.77 micron emission peak as a blend of permitted lines of Co II. Other features seen in the 2.0 - 2.5 micron spectra are also identified as emission from permitted transitions of Co II. However, the models are not as successful at reproducing the spectra in the 1....

  6. The SOFIA/SAFIRE Far-Infrared Spectrometer: Highlighting Submillimeter Astrophysics and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.

    2009-01-01

    The Submillimeter and Far-InfraRed Experiment (SAFIRE) on the SOFIA airborne observatory is an imaging spectrometer for wavelengths between 28 microns and 440 microns. Our design is a dual-band long-slit grating spectrometer, which provides broadband (approx. 4000 km/s) observations in two lines simultaneously over a field of view roughly 10" wide by 320" long. The low backgrounds in spectroscopy require very sensitive detectors with noise equivalent powers of order 10(exp -18) W/square root of Hz. We are developing a kilopixel, filled detector array for SAFIRE in a 32 x 40 format. The detector consists of a transition edge sensor (TES) bolometer array, a per-pixel broadband absorbing backshort array, and a NIST SQUID multiplexer readout array. This general type of array has been used successfully in the GISMO instrument, so we extrapolate to the sensitivity needed for airborne spectroscopy. Much of the cryogenic, electronics, and software infrastructure for SAFIRE have been developed. I provide here an overview of the progress on SAFIRE.

  7. The Physics of Water Masers observable with ALMA and SOFIA: Model Predictions for Evolved Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, M D; Richards, A M S; Humphreys, E M L; Sobolev, A M; Yates, J A

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of models that were designed to study all possible water maser transitions in the frequency range 0-1.91THz, with particular emphasis on maser transitions that may be generated in evolved-star envelopes and observed with the ALMA and SOFIA telescopes. We used tens of thousands of radiative transfer models of both spin species of H2O, spanning a considerable parameter space in number density, kinetic temperature and dust temperature. Results, in the form of maser optical depths, have been summarized in a master table, Table 6. Maser transitions identified in these models were grouped according to loci of inverted regions in the density/kinetic temperature plane, a property clearly related to the dominant mode of pumping. A more detailed study of the effect of dust temperature on maser optical depth enabled us to divide the maser transitions into three groups: those with both collisional and radiative pumping schemes (22,96,209,321,325,395,941 and 1486\\,GHz), a much larger set that are pr...

  8. SOFIA Infrared Spectrophotometry of Comet C/2012 K1 (Pan-STARRS)

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, Charles E; Harker, David E; Ryan, Erin L; Wooden, Diane H; Sitko, Michael L; Russell, Ray W; Reach, William T; de Pater, Imke; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Gehrz, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    We present pre-perihelion infrared 8 to 31 micron spectrophotometric and imaging observations of comet C/2012 K1 (Pan-STARRS), a dynamically new Oort Cloud comet, conducted with NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) facility (+FORCAST) in 2014 June. As a "new" comet (first inner solar system passage), the coma grain population may be extremely pristine, unencumbered by a rime and insufficiently irradiated by the Sun to carbonize its surface organics. The comet exhibited a weak 10 micron silicate feature ~1.18 +/- 0.03 above the underlying best-fit 215.32 +/- 0.95 K continuum blackbody. Thermal modeling of the observed spectral energy distribution indicates that the coma grains are fractally solid with a porosity factor D = 3 and the peak in the grain size distribution, a_peak = 0.6 micron, large. The sub-micron coma grains are dominated by amorphous carbon, with a silicate-to-carbon ratio of 0.80 (+0.25) (- 0.20). The silicate crystalline mass fraction is 0.20 (+0.30) (-0.10), simila...

  9. Globules and pillars seen in the [CII] 158 micron line with SOFIA

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, N; Tremblin, P; Hennemann, M; Minier, V; Hill, T; Comerón, F; Requena-Torres, M A; Kraemer, K E; Simon, R; Röllig, M; Stutzki, J; Djupvik, A A; Zinnecker, H; Marston, A; Csengeri, T; Cormier, D; Lebouteiller, V; Audit, E; Motte, F; Bontemps, S; Sandell, G; Allen, L; Megeath, T; Gutermuth, R A

    2012-01-01

    Molecular globules and pillars are spectacular features, found only in the interface region between a molecular cloud and an HII-region. Impacting Far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation creates photon dominated regions (PDRs) on their surfaces that can be traced by typical cooling lines. With the GREAT receiver onboard SOFIA we mapped and spectrally resolved the [CII] 158 micron atomic fine-structure line and the highly excited 12CO J=11-10 molecular line from three objects in Cygnus X (a pillar, a globule, and a strong IRAS source). We focus here on the globule and compare our data with existing Spitzer data and recent Herschel Open-Time PACS data. Extended [CII] emission and more compact CO-emission was found in the globule. We ascribe this emission mainly to an internal PDR, created by a possibly embedded star-cluster with at least one early B-star. However, external PDR emission caused by the excitation by the Cyg OB2 association cannot be fully excluded. The velocity-resolved [CII] emission traces the emission ...

  10. Infrared Observations of the Quintuplet Proper Members using SOFIA/FORCAST and Gemini/TReCS

    CERN Document Server

    Hankins, Matthew J; Morris, Mark R; Sanchez-Bermudez, Joel; Pott, Jörg-Uwe; Adams, Joseph D; Herter, Terry L

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery, the Quintuplet proper members (QPMs) have been somewhat mysterious in nature. Originally dubbed the "cocoon stars" due to their cool featureless spectra, high-resolution near-infrared imaging observations have shown that at least two of the objects exhibit "pinwheel" nebulae consistent with binary systems with a carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet star and O/B companion. In this paper, we present 19.7, 25.2, 31.5, and 37.1 $\\mu$m observations of the QPMs (with an angular resolution of 3.2-3.8") taken with the Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) in conjunction with high-resolution ($\\sim$0.1-0.2") images at 8.8 and 11.7 $\\mu$m from the Thermal-Region Camera Spectrograph (TReCS). DUSTY models of the thermal dust emission of two of the four detected QPMs, Q2 and Q3, are fitted by radial density profiles which are consistent with constant mass loss rates ($\\rho_d \\propto r^{-2}$). For the two remaining sources, Q1 and Q9, extended structures ($\\sim$ 1") are detected around the...

  11. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy at IRT -Sofia Research Reactor. Basics and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) proved itself to be vital option for severe cancer treatment during the last 20 years. The building of BNCT facility was a main task of the reconstruction of the IRT-Sofia research reactor at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. A number of activities in the development of appropriate infrastructure including accumulation of the existing experience, and creation of a multidisciplinary team and infrastructure, collecting BNCT oriented information in the IT-system was done. The technical design of the BNCT irradiation channel followed the beam tube configuration of the reactor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA, and took also into account the limits of the reactor construction geometry. The results of neutron and gamma transport calculations performed for the reactor model showed that the facility would be able to supply epithermal neutron flux with quality, equal to the best values reached in the world until now. The BNCT will play a significant role in the sustainable utilization of the reactor for cancer treatment of patients from the Balkan region. (authors)

  12. SOFIA/EXES Observations of Water Absorption in the Protostar AFGL 2591 at High Spectral Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Indriolo, Nick; DeWitt, C N; Richter, M J; Boogert, A C A; Harper, G M; Jaffe, D T; Kulas, K R; McKelvey, M E; Ryde, N; Vacca, W

    2015-01-01

    We present high spectral resolution (~3 km/s) observations of the nu_2 ro-vibrational band of H2O in the 6.086--6.135 micron range toward the massive protostar AFGL 2591 using the Echelon-Cross-Echelle Spectrograph (EXES) on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Ten absorption features are detected in total, with seven caused by transitions in the nu_2 band of H2O, two by transitions in the first vibrationally excited nu_2 band of H2O, and one by a transition in the nu_2 band of H2{18}O. Among the detected transitions is the nu_2 1(1,1)--0(0,0) line which probes the lowest lying rotational level of para-H2O. The stronger transitions appear to be optically thick, but reach maximum absorption at a depth of about 25%, suggesting that the background source is only partially covered by the absorbing gas, or that the absorption arises within the 6 micron emitting photosphere. Assuming a covering fraction of 25%, the H2O column density and rotational temperature that best fit the observed abs...

  13. Future utilization of the research reactor IRT in Sofia after its reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reconstruction of the research reactor IRT-2000 in Sofia into a low-power reactor is being carried out from 2001. The future utilization of IRT aims to satisfy the society needs for: development and preservation of nuclear science, skills, and knowledge; implementation of applied methods and research; education of students and training of graduated physicists and engineers in the field of nuclear science and nuclear energy; development of boron neutron capture therapy. It will support the keeping up specialists with researcher's approach and skills who are able to give adequate responses to the challenges of complex modern technologies and the associated environmental problems. It will be used for production of isotopes needed for medical therapy and diagnostics; in element activation analysis having a number of applications in industrial production, medicine, chemistry, criminology, etc. The reconstructed research reactor IRT will use low-enriched uranium fuel IRT-4M, with uranium-235 enrichment below 20%, is in accordance with the current norms on the security of transport and storage of nuclear and other radioactive materials which are vulnerable to theft by terrorists. (author)

  14. Licensing activities for the partial decommissioning of IRT-2000 research reactor in Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project for refurbishment of IRT-2000 research reactor in Sofia into low-power reactor (200 kW) is based on the retention of some IRT-2000 buildings, facilities and equipment. The activities, which determine the partial decommissioning should be realized in accordance with preliminary developed licensing documents as General Plan, Safety Analysis Report and Environment Impact assessment Report. The goal of these documents is to provide and guarantee safe and effective activities with radioactive materials, to define strictly the dismantling procedures, and in the same time to minimize their influence on the environment. The Technical Tasks for General Plan, Safety Analysis Report and Environment Impact Assessment Report have been prepared and will be presented as preliminary licensing documents to the National Regulatory Body for approval before their application. A Quality Management system is being developed nowadays at INRNE. After its certification some requirements of the regulatory body will be completed. This certified QA system is a major part of the licensing procedure for the reconstruction of IRT-2000 research reactor. (author)

  15. First supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy with the SOFIA Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Risacher, Christophe; Stutzki, Juergen; Huebers, Heinz-Wilhelm; Buechel, Denis; Graf, Urs U; Heyminck, Stefan; Honingh, Cornelia E; Jacobs, Karl; Klein, Bernd; Klein, Thomas; Leinz, Christian; Puetz, Patrick; Reyes, Nicolas; Ricken, Oliver; Wunsch, Hans-Joachim; Fusco, Paul; Rosner, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We present the upGREAT THz heterodyne arrays for far-infrared astronomy. The Low Frequency Array (LFA) is designed to cover the 1.9-2.5 THz range using 2x7-pixel waveguide-based HEB mixer arrays in a dual polarization configuration. The High Frequency Array (HFA) will perform observations of the [OI] line at ~4.745 THz using a 7-pixel waveguide-based HEB mixer array. This paper describes the common design for both arrays, cooled to 4.5 K using closed- cycle pulse tube technology. We then show the laboratory and telescope characterization of the first array with its 14 pixels (LFA), which culminated in the successful commissioning in May 2015 aboard the SOFIA airborne observatory observing the [CII] fine structure transition at 1.905 THz. This is the first successful demonstration of astronomical observations with a heterodyne focal plane array above 1 THz and is also the first time high- power closed-cycle coolers for temperatures below 4.5 K are operated on an airborne platform.

  16. Discovery of interstellar mercapto radicals (SH) with the GREAT instrument on SOFIA

    CERN Document Server

    Neufeld, D A; Gerin, M; Godard, B; Herbst, E; Forêts, G Pineau des; Vasyunin, A I; Güsten, R; Wiesemeyer, H; Ricken, O

    2012-01-01

    We report the first detection of interstellar mercapto radicals, obtained along the sight-line to the submillimeter continuum source W49N. We have used the GREAT instrument on SOFIA to observe the 1383 GHz Doublet Pi 3/2 J = 5/2 - 3/2 lambda doublet in the upper sideband of the L1 receiver. The resultant spectrum reveals SH absorption in material local to W49N, as well as in foreground gas, unassociated with W49N, that is located along the sight-line. For the foreground material at velocities in the range 37 - 44 km/s with respect to the local standard of rest, we infer a total SH column density ~ 2.6 E+12 cm-2, corresponding to an abundance of ~ 7 E-9 relative to H2, and yielding an SH/H2S abundance ratio ~ 0.13. The observed SH/H2S abundance ratio is much smaller than that predicted by standard models for the production of SH and H2S in turbulent dissipation regions and shocks, and suggests that the endothermic neutral-neutral reaction SH + H2 -> H2S + H must be enhanced along with the ion-neutral reactions...

  17. Short Information about the Activities of Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy - BAS, Sofia, Bulgaria in the Frame of Contract 13801 for the Period after 15 June 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the period after 15 June 2007 the study of the coolant water chemistry aspects by introduction of gadolinia doped fuel in Kozloduy 1000 MW Units was started. The introduction of gadolinia doped fuel in Kozloduy NPP is planned to be step-by-step realized during four fuel cycles. The special attention is paid to the impact of water chemistry on the corrosion processes in the primary circuit, respectively on the activated corrosion products in coolant, mainly at the beginning of cycles when the relatively low coolant pH values are observed.

  18. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DETERMINANTS OF COMMERCIAL BANKS PROFITABILITY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM BULGARIA AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIRTESCU BOGDAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study focuses on commercial banks which are operating in Bulgaria and Romania, two countries whose banking sectors have registered major structural changes in the transition to a market economy and which are showing some similarities. Similar to other EU countries, the financial system from Bulgaria and Romania is dominated by the banking sector, which holds the largest share of total assets. Thus, we can say that health, strength and performance of the banking sector are of major importance for the sustainable economic development of states, but also for efficient transmission of monetary policy decisions on the real economy. The paper aims to identify the key factors that affect bank profitability and to evaluate empirically their contribution to a sample of 29 commercial banks in Bulgaria and Romania, for the period 2003-2012. Our research is based on data from the Bureau Van Dijk database, the World Bank and the European Central Bank and uses panel data estimation techniques. The dependent variable used in our study is the bank profitability, which is measured by two representative indicators the Return on Average Assets (ROAA and Return on Average Equity (ROAE. Regarding the independent variables, our analysis includes capital adequacy, the loan loss reserve rate, cost to income ratio, the ratio of liquid assets to total assets, the interest expenses to deposits ratio, the non-interest income over total gross revenues, bank size, the GDP per capita growth, inflation rate, domestic bank credit to private sector and banking industry concentration. The results of our empirical study shows that among the variables considered, the loan loss reserve rate, the ratio of cost to income, GDP per capita growth and domestic bank credit to the private sector, have a significant impact on bank profitability, results in line with our expectations, but also with the results of other empirical studies.

  19. Advantages and Disadvantages of Fiscal Discipline in Bulgaria in Times of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil S. Petkov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis of 2008 has posed serious challenges to the Bulgarian economy and was reflected in worsened macroeconomic indicators. The subsequent sovereign debt crisis in Europe further aggravated the situation and blocked its path to recovery. In line with the overall sentiment in the European Union (the EU, Bulgaria made maintaining fiscal stability a priority that it set out to accomplish by following a policy of austerity. The country managed to achieve the desired effect relatively quickly. It became one of the best performers in terms of budget deficit and government debt as a share of GDP (which are among the lowest in the EU. These accomplishments underlie international institutions’ greater confidence in Bulgaria, which has led to an increase in its credit rating. Nevertheless, the state has not managed to reap the maximum benefits that this type of policy offers. Fiscal sustainability was accomplished at the expense of economic growth, the slow pace of which was accompanied by impoverishment of the population, high unemployment, restricted consumption, and operational difficulties faced by real-sector companies. These problems fueled doubts about the adequacy of strict budget discipline, especially in times of crisis. They provoked the author to examine in greater depth the benefits and the drawbacks that such a policy ultimately offers to Bulgaria. The results show that the strict fiscal measures have put additional pressure on the already fragile economic growth and have a high social cost as well. All this justifies the need for the government to take on a new course to achieve economic recovery by means of more active state support that would stimulate a pickup in consumption and production activity.

  20. Current Status of High Performance Large Format Si:As IBC Detectors for SOFIA-like Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Greene, Thomas; McCreight, Craig; McKelvey, Mark; McMurray, Robert, Jr.; Cripe, Jerry; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Airborne and space telescope astronomical observations in the 5-25 micrometer wavelength region, are critical for understanding the physical conditions, composition, chemistry, and excitation of many environments in the interstellar medium, external galaxies, solar system objects, extra-solar systems, and stars. The scientific impact is particularly unique in the 5-8 micrometer and 14-25 micrometer regions which are inaccessible or poorly observed from ground-based observatories. Large-format area mid-infrared (MIR) detectors sensitive over these wavelengths and operable under moderate backgrounds (greater than 10(circumflex)6 e-/s at R=2000, 10(micrometers)) are essential for efficient large-area survey imaging and for taking moderate resolution spectra over a large spectral range. Both SOFIA and passively cooled Explorer observatories could benefit from this technology. Current first-light SOFIA instruments use small-format MIR FPA's of sizes 128x128 and 256x256, With the collaboration of Raytheon Infrared Operations (RIO), NASA-ARC has been testing the first device of this kind, a combination of 1) the ALADDIN III readout multiplexer, cryo-processed for 6K operation, with 2) SIRTF IRAC-like Sides IBC detector material. designed for higher QE and low dark current. Here we report requirements. design, and initial fabrication and testing of the first 1024x1024 Si:As IBC mid-IR detector array for these conditions. This device has exhibited low dark current, moderate noise levels, and greater than 200,000 electron linear well size at 6K operation. We conclude with suggestions for future device development for optimal performance under moderate background, SOFIA- and low Earth orbit observing conditions.

  1. Opportunities of Establishment of Destination Management and Marketing Organizations in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venelin Terziev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines tourism sector development in the Republic of Bulgaria in the context of the country’s strategic priorities till 2020 of knowledge-based economy, sustainable growth and smart specialization, the opportunities for its integration with agri-food sector and potential contribution to balanced rural development. The principles and roles of destination management and marketing organizations are discussed and the opportunities for their application in the national conditions are explored. A framework for of establishment, management and functioning of such organizations is proposed based on integrated and participatory approaches, planning, coordination and communication activities, permanent monitoring and controlling.

  2. Anti-Semitism and Islamofobia in Bulgaria. Actual legal and sociological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ilieva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the lecture held on 23rd September 2011 at the Law faculty of the University of Bologna.SOMMARIO: 1. Introduction – 2. Statistical data – 3. The Muslim community – 4. The Jewish community – 5. General overview of the relevant law provisions in Bulgaria – 6. Anti-Semitism and Islamophobia and the political rights according to the domestic legislation – 7. The Law on Protection against Discrimination, the concept of “positive” discrimination and some new case-laws - 8. Religious Rights and Freedoms – 9. Criminal Law – 10. Some conclusions.

  3. Anti-Semitism and Islamofobia in Bulgaria. Actual legal and sociological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Ilieva

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on the lecture held on 23rd September 2011 at the Law faculty of the University of Bologna.SOMMARIO: 1. Introduction – 2. Statistical data – 3. The Muslim community – 4. The Jewish community – 5. General overview of the relevant law provisions in Bulgaria – 6. Anti-Semitism and Islamophobia and the political rights according to the domestic legislation – 7. The Law on Protection against Discrimination, the concept of “positive” discrimination and some new case-laws - 8. ...

  4. Solar heating systems: Strategy, status and perspectives in the European Union and Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes and shows data concerning the strategy and the action plan for the development of renewable energy sources (including solar energy) of the European Union. The development of the solar heating systems market in the EU countries is indicated, while the main prerequisites for that development are underlined. Regarding the utilization of solar heating systems in Bulgaria, the current condition of their application are presented. The various barriers are mainly stressed upon: institutional, financial, law and market barriers. The factors supporting the development of renewable energy sources, including solar heating systems, are indicated as well

  5. Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apiformes in the Agricultural Landscape of Bulgaria: Species Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszak Józef

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild bees (Apiformes were studied in 4 crop fields and 8 refuge habitats for 2 - 5 years in agricultural landscapes in the Pleven and Plovdiv regions of Bulgaria. In total, 233 bee species were recorded. Bee forage plants visited by the honey bee and wild Apiformes are listed for each refuge habitat. Species composition is given for individual habitats, including fields of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, oilseed rape (Brassica napus, sunflower (Helianthus annuus, and radish (Raphanus sativus. Species richness and dominance structure of bee communities in the 2 regions are compared, and species responsible for significant differences are identified.

  6. The Sardinian type underground well temple at Garlo, Bulgaria: an architectural and astronomical survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsonev, Lyubomir; Kolev, Dimiter

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we describe a rare but relatively well-preserved Sardinian type underground well temple located at the village of Garlo, in Bulgaria. This dates to the fourteenth or thirteenth century BCE, and contains some unique architectural features. We postulate that the Garlo temple was used during the winter solstice for rituals associated with the 'newly-born Sun', underground water and the start of the new annual cycle of life. Solar and water cults are known from ancient Thrace, but previously they have never been combined in this way.

  7. Construction of new nuclear power plant in Bulgaria - incentives and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advantages and disadvantages of constriction of new nuclear power plant in Bulgaria are discussed. Several options for further development are considered: Completion of the Belene NPP; Evolutionary design installations PWR technology, 600 MW (AP-600 Westinghouse design; B-407 Russian design); Standard design of Framatome, 900 MW; Standard design - heavy water technology CANDU-6 (700 MW) and other.The results of the preliminary economic analyses show that the first two options are approximately equal, but the all options are acceptable from investment point of view, considering an average macro economic environment. The need of assessment of all aspects (technical, economical, financial, social, environmental, national infrastructure) of nuclear sector development is outlined

  8. Accounting interpretation of concession rights in the Republic of Bulgaria – topical issues  

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiana Pozharevska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper covers the topical problems for the Republic of Bulgaria on the recognition, presentation and disclosure of concession rights and transactions for accounting purposes. The issues identified by the authors have a regulatory, theoretical character and concern their practical application. The aspects studied within this paper are: recognition of concession rights as intangible assets and their positioning in the total amount of assets of concessionaire enterprises; requirement and readiness for disclosure of information relating to concession agreements. The authors seek to suggest solutions in the specified directions.

  9. Health expectancy calculations: a novel approach to studying population health in Bulgaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Mutafova, M.; van de Water, H P; Perenboom, R J; Boshuizen, H. C.; Maleshkov, C.

    1997-01-01

    The measurement of life expectancy in terms of either good or poor health is a novel approach to studying the health of the population in Bulgaria. The pilot study reported here-carried out among people aged > or = 60 years in a middle-sized Bulgarian town-was designed to obtain information on the years of functional restrictions expected among the elderly. In accordance with the answers to a series of questions (recommended by WHO), subjects were categorized as disabled, handicapped, or havi...

  10. Programming EU funds in Bulgaria: Challenges, Opportunities and the Role of Civil Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Hristova Kurzydlowski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available While expectations were high for Bulgaria’s EU membership, it has been marked by numerous domestic challenges. This article explores the application of the principle of partnership in Bulgaria in programming EU funds for 2007-2013 as a litmus test for the capacity of the civil society and the preparedness of the state’s institutions for full-fledged membership. The article displays evidence that unsuitable adaptation and the remnants of the previous institutional establishment filter the EU leverage in the country. Furthermore, the article maps the role of civil society organisations in the process and identifies the main challenges and opportunities for their inclusion.

  11. New records of some rare rodents (Mammalia: Rodentia) from South-East Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Nedko Nedyalkov

    2013-01-01

    New records of three rare rodent species from SE Bulgaria are reported, as follows: European Snow Vole (Chionomys nivalis) – Madzharovo Town, Eastern Rhodope Mountains (UTM MG01); Gray Dwarf Hamster (Cricetulus migratorius) –Matochina Village (UTM MG 63); and Roach's Mouse-tailed Dormouse (Myomimus roachi) –Malki Voden Village, Eastern Rhodope Mountains (UTM MG11). All three species were found in the food remains of two owl species: the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) and the Tawny Owl (Strix aluco), an...

  12. STUDY ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE DIFFERENT ORIGIN SILKWORM HYBRIDS UNDER THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    ALEXANDRA MATEI; P. TZENOV; Petkov, N.; Petkov, Z.; YOLANDA VASILEVA

    2013-01-01

    Romania, Ukraine, Turkey and Uzbekistan as countries placed in the Black, Caspian Seasand Central Asia (BACSA) region, in comparison with hybrids from China, Japan, Italy andKorea has been carried out in Sericulture Station Vratza – Bulgaria.The study pointed out the superiority of the Japanese hybrid Shunrei + Shogetsu which hadthe highest cocoon yield by one box of eggs (41,10 kg) and the highest raw silk productivity(7,05 kg/box of eggs).The silkworm hybrids produced in BACSA members count...

  13. Agaricus chionodermus Pilát, a species new to Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nikolova Lacheva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first record of Agaricus chionoderma Pilát in Bulgaria. Basidiomata of the species were found on June 2004, September 2010, and September 2011 in the Thracian Lowland floristic region. The article brings closer taxonomic profile, ecological requirements and distribution pattern of the species. Differences from similar species are discussed. It also describes macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the discovered specimens and presents the specification of habitat the fungus concerned. The species are described and illustrated by photographs of macroscopic and microscopic features on the basis of Bulgarian specimens.

  14. METHODS OF CALCULATING THE EMISSIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS FROM PIG MANURE WASTES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimo PENKOV

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to systemize the data and to develop a methodology for a reliable evaluation of the nitrogen emissions and other ecological pollutants from pig manure wastes in the Republic of Bulgaria. The authors find the suggested methodology to be precise enough and easy to be managed as it combines the use of the available official statistical sources and the possibility of its integration into comparatively popular software products (EXCEL. The methodology could be taught in practical seminars for students and specialists in the area of agroecology.

  15. Water quality assessment of aquatic ecosystems using ecological criteria – case study in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Damyanova, Sonya; Ivanova, Iliana; Ignatova, Nadka

    2014-01-01

    Four aquatic ecosystems (two rivers and two dams) situated in the western part of Bulgaria were investigated over a three years’ period. The River Egulya and Petrohan dam are situated in mountainous regions at about 1000 m altitude, and are not influenced by any anthropogenic sources. Petrohan dam is a site for long-term ecosystem research as a part of Bulgarian long-term ecological research network. The other two systems belong to populated industrial areas. The River Martinovska flows throu...

  16. TOURISM INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN THE EMERGING ECONOMIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE (HUNGARY, BULGARIA, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Petronela HALLER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emerging Economies from Central and Eastern Europe take steps to ensure growth through tourism. Although they do not have the cultural, historical and artistic potential of the most famous tourist destinations, these economies promote forms of tourism for which they have suitable conditions. For example, Hungary is famous for health tourism, Bulgaria has made progress in terms of coastal tourism and Romania tries to make known the rural area although it has all conditions for practicing a wide diversified range of tourism forms. In this paper we present statistics showing how the tourism industry looks for three Central and Eastern European countries and we do a brief comparative analysis.

  17. Prevalence of enzootic bovine leukosis in the Republic of Bulgaria in 1997-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Sandev, Nikolay; Ilieva, Darinka; Sizov, Ignat; Rusenova, Nikolina; ILIEV, Emil

    2006-01-01

    The serological investigations using the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test performed in the Republic of Bulgaria in the period 1997-2004 showed a high prevalence of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), from 8.47% in 1997 to 22.26% in 2004. The highest percentage of seroreagents was observed in the regions of Silistra (48.61%), Dobrich (47.57%) and Burgas (47.32%), with the lowest, in the regions of Pazardjik (0.28%), Kyustendil (1.89%) and Smolyan (1.95%). Leukosis infection was found to be mor...

  18. RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY BASED ON PHARMACOECONOMIC DATA AUDIT: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vekov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical foundations of the application of pharmacoeconomic evaluations of pharmacotherapies in order to improve their economic efficiency and support the process of taking decisions on their payment from public funds are examined. An algorithm is presented for the pharmacoeconomic audit, which is applicable for assessing the objectivity and reliability of the proposed pharmacoeconomic data from pharmaceutical manufacturers in the application process for inclusion in the positive list of medicines in Bulgaria and the reimbursement of economically rational pharmacotherapies from the public health fund.

  19. Accurate measurements of fission-fragment yields in 234,235,236,238U(γ,f) with the SOFIA set-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatillon, A.; Taïeb, J.; Martin, J.-F.; Pellereau, E.; Boutoux, G.; Gorbinet, T.; Grente, L.; Bélier, G.; Laurent, B.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Caamaño, M.; Audouin, L.; Casarejos, E.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Farget, F.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Heinz, A.; Jurado, B.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Kurz, N.; Lindberg, S.; Löher, B.; Nociforo, C.; Paradela, C.; Pietri, S.; Ramos, D.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, J.-L.; Rodrìguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Simon, H.; Tassan-Got, L.; Törnqvist, H.; Vargas, J.; Voss, B.; Weick, H.; Yan, Y.

    2016-03-01

    SOFIA (Studies On Fission with Aladin) is a new experimental set-up dedicated to accurate measurement of fission-fragments isotopic yields. It is located at GSI, the only place to use inverse kinematics at relativistic energies in order to study the (γ,f) electromagnetic-induced fission. The SOFIA set-up is a large-acceptance magnetic spectrometer, which allows to fully identify both fission fragments in coincidence on the whole fission-fragment range. This paper will report on fission yields obtained in 234,235,236,238U(γ,f) reactions.

  20. Accurate measurements of fission-fragment yields in $^{234,235,236,238}$U(γ,f) with the SOFIA set-up

    OpenAIRE

    Chatillon A.; Taïeb J.; MARTIN J. - F.; Pellereau E.; Boutoux G.; Gorbinet T.; Grente L.; Bélier G.; Laurent B.; Alvarez-Pol H.; Ayyad Y.; Benlliure J.; Caamaño M.; Audouin L.; Casarejos E.

    2015-01-01

    SOFIA (Studies On Fission with Aladin) is a new experimental set-up dedicated to accurate measurement of fission-fragments isotopic yields. It is located at GSI, the only place to use inverse kinematics at relativistic energies in order to study the (γ,f) electromagnetic-induced fission. The SOFIA set-up is a large-acceptance magnetic spectrometer, which allows to fully identify both fission fragments in coincidence on the whole fission-fragment range. This paper will report on fission yields...

  1. Accurate measurements of fission-fragment yields in 234,235,236,238U(γ,f with the SOFIA set-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatillon A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SOFIA (Studies On Fission with Aladin is a new experimental set-up dedicated to accurate measurement of fission-fragments isotopic yields. It is located at GSI, the only place to use inverse kinematics at relativistic energies in order to study the (γ,f electromagnetic-induced fission. The SOFIA set-up is a large-acceptance magnetic spectrometer, which allows to fully identify both fission fragments in coincidence on the whole fission-fragment range. This paper will report on fission yields obtained in 234,235,236,238U(γ,f reactions.

  2. A map of D/H on Mars using high-resolution spectroscopy with EXES aboard SOFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encrenaz, T.; Richter, M.; DeWitt, C.; Greathouse, T.; Fouchet, T.; Montmessin, F.; Lefèvre, F.; Bézard, B.; Atreya, S.; Case, M.; Ryde, N.

    2015-10-01

    We have obtained a map of D/H on Mars on April 8, 2014, when the planet was close to opposition (15.3" in diameter) and close to northern summer solstice (Ls = 113°). Data were recorded with the EXES (Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph) imaging spectrometer aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). A preliminary reduction indicates an increase of the D/H ratio from south to north, with a disk-integrated value of about 6.5 times the terrestrial value.

  3. Nuclear inventory and post decay power of spent fuel assemblies from the research reactor IRT-2000 Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to sign an agreement for spent fuel shipment and following the international requirements for the generation of computerized system for management of nuclear materials, the nuclear inventory, the post decay power and some other important physical characteristics have been determined for 73 spent fuel assemblies to be transported off the IRT-2000 Sofia site. The results obtained for the fuel burn up, the post decay power, the 137Cs activity and the total amount of Nd isotopes are shown graphically as an illustration. (author)

  4. Neutron depolarization facility at the research reactor IRT-Sofia. Study of amorphous ferromagnetic ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the setup for neutron depolarization studies and results of its test on the research reactor IRT-Sofia are briefly described. The characteristics of this facility permit it to be used effectively in physical experiments. As an example the results of the study of amorphous ferromagnetic ribbons are presented in order to demonstrate the sensitivity of the technique. The samples used are of magnetic amorphous alloys in the form of ribbons fabricated by means of rapid quenching of the melt ejected upon a water cooled copper drum rotating at a frequency 1 kHz. A set of ribbon pieces of the amorphous alloy Fe48.5Ni34P17.5 stacked in a container made by copper strips are used as a reference sample. In all measurements the incident polarized neutron beam is perpendicular to the ribbon plane so that the polarization vector lies in the plane. The results are analyzed by means of the Maleyev-Ruban's formula which gives the relationship between the initial polarization and the final polarization of the neutron beam passing through the sample. The dependence of the depolarization of the polarized neutron beam transmitted through the reference sample on the sample thickness is presented. The depolarization of samples of different compositions as a function of thickness is shown. Spectral analysis of the polarization of the neutron beam transmitted through the sample magnetized by an external field B=100 Oe which is applied perpendicular to the incident polarization vector and the neutron velocity is carried out. It is concluded that the 'intrinsic' depolarization is constant and wavelength independent. 11 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs. (orig.)

  5. A map of D/H on Mars in the thermal infrared using EXES aboard SOFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encrenaz, T.; DeWitt, C.; Richter, M. J.; Greathouse, T. K.; Fouchet, T.; Montmessin, F.; Lefèvre, F.; Forget, F.; Bézard, B.; Atreya, S. K.; Case, M.; Ryde, N.

    2016-02-01

    On a planetary scale, the D/H ratio on Mars is a key diagnostic for understanding the past history of water on the planet; locally, it can help to constrain the sources and sinks of water vapor through the monitoring of condensation and sublimation processes. To obtain simultaneous measurements of H2O and HDO lines, we have used the Echelle Cross Echelle Spectrograph (EXES) instrument aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) facility to map the abundances of these two species over the Martian disk. High-resolution spectra (R = 6 × 104) were recorded in the 1383-1390 cm-1 range (7.2 μm) on April 08, 2014. Mars was very close to opposition and near northern summer solstice (Ls = 113°). Maps of the H2O and HDO mixing ratios were retrieved from the line depth ratios of weak H2O and HDO transitions divided by a weak CO2 line. As expected for this season, the H2O and HDO maps show a distinct enhancement toward polar regions, and their mixing ratios are consistent with previous measurements and with predictions by the global climate models, except at the north pole where the EXES values are weaker. We derive a disk-integrated D/H ratio of 6.8 (+1.6, -1.0) × 10-4. It is higher than the value in Earth's oceans by a factor 4.4 (+1.0, -0.6). The D/H map also shows an enhancement from southern to northern latitudes, with values ranging from about 3.5 times to 6.0 times the VSMOW (Vienna standard mean ocean water) value. The D/H distribution shows a depletion over the Tharsis mountains and is consistent with observed latitudinal variations. The variations in D/H with latitude and altitude agree with the models and with the isotope fractionation expected from condensation and sublimation processes.

  6. Macro- and microelement determination of some species of the family Fumaria L. distributed in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineral composition of different species of the family Fumaria L. is of interest as it is widely used in traditional popular medicine and participates in metabolism of the human body.The micro- and macroelement determination was carried out by means of nondestructive neutron activation analysis. The measured probes and standards were irradiated in Sofia IRT-reactor for the time periods according to radioactive isotope activations. The elements Mn, Sr, Zr were determined using radioisitope X-ray fluorescence analysis for both the plants and the soils. Cd 109 source, Si(Li) detectoprt and Nockie multichannel analyser were used. It was found that particularly useful for the quantities of drugs are the elements: Ca, Cu, K, Co and Fe

  7. Building of scientific information system for sustainable development of BNCT in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building a boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility is foreseen within the reconstruction of the Research Reactor IRT (IRT) of the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of the Bulgaria Academy of Sciences (INRNE). The development of BNCT at IRT plays a very significant role in the plan for sustainable application of the reactor. A centralized scientific information system on BNCT is being built at the INRNE with the purpose to collect and sort new information as knowledge accumulated during more than thirty years history of BNCT. This BNCT information system will help the creation and consolidation of a well informed and interconnected interdisciplinary team of physicists, chemists, biologists, and radio-oncologists for establishing BNCT cancer treatment in Bulgaria. It will strengthen more intensive development of the national network as well as its enlargement to the Balkan region countries. Furthermore, to acquaint the public at large with the opportunity for BNCT cancer treatment will be addressed. Human, social, and economics results due to BNCT for many patients from Balkan region are expected.

  8. RATE OF RETURN ON INVESTMENT IN A DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING FARM IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetana HARIZANOVA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the rate of return on investment in a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria. To achieve the aim, it was investigated a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria first category with average number of 83 cows in the main herd. Based on information collected from the farm in 2012 and on own calculations it was defined the different types of investments necessary to create a farm. It was calculated also the rate of return of cash inflows, rate of return of cash outflows and investments per cow. It was found that the analyzed farm has implemented 12.5% rate of return on investment in 2012. Investments per cow are 4422 euros. The largest share of investments has the investments in productive animals (43.6%. 64.6% of the revenues are from the sale of milk. The largest share of the cash outflows have the purchase of feed and forage production - 58.3%. Subsidies play an important role for profitable operation of the analyzed farm.

  9. CLASSIFICATION OF SEMI-NATURAL GRASSLANDS IN NORTH-EASTERN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVA APOSTOLOVA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the syntaxonomic diversity of the semi-natural grasslands in NorthEastern Bulgaria following the principles of the Ziirich-Montpellier School. A total number of 172 releves, collected during 2002-2004, is used. TWINSPAN clustering is applied for determination vegetation types. The diagnostic species groups for the associations and subassociations are created by Cocktail method using the phi-coefficient with values above 0.3 within the JUICE software. As a result class Fesluco-Brometea is established with the alliances Festucion valesiacae, Pimpinello-Thymion and Chrysopogoni-Danthonion. The originally described Botriochloetum ischaemi Pop 1977 association is considered as typical on the subassociation level and a part of our releves are referred to it. Following the nomenclature rules we determined the subassotiation typicum. One new subassociation named Thymefosum pannonici of more xerophytic character, as compared to typical one, and well represented by differential species is established. The geographical distribution of Agropyro-Thymetum zygoidi and Agrostideto-Chrysopogonetum grylli associations is extended to the territory of Bulgaria. Class Molinio-Arrhenalherefea is represented by Cynosurion alliance and Festuco-Agrostidetum association is established by its probably most eastern area of distribution.

  10. FORECAST FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TOTAL ENERGY BALANCE IN BULGARIA TILL 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velkov, L.; Papazyan, M.; Kanchovsky, S.; Kanev, D.

    2007-07-01

    The paper comprises a long-term energy forecast for the Republic of Bulgaria in the prospective by the year 2025. This forecast aims to ensure a normal functioning of the national economy and meeting the energy demand in the households, while keeping in conformity with the environmental requirements. It evaluates the possibility and the necessity to decrease the energy dependency on foreign suppliers, without making any compromise concerning the security of supplies and the competitiveness of the national energy market. The forecast evaluates also which policy will permit for Bulgaria to fulfill the commitments undertaken as per the Kyoto Protocol and shows the role of the energy efficiency enhancement and the use of the RES potential, as well as the role of the development of a safe and reliable nuclear energy sector. The paper provides also a detailed analysis of the main trends in the development of the total energy balance of the country in the period 1997-2004, as it is considered that the trends, which appear in this period will have an important impact on the development of the energy sector in the next years. (auth)

  11. Assessing the competitiveness of SMR with the INCAS model: the Bulgaria Case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An economic model (INCAS - Integrated model for the Competitiveness Assessment of SMRs) allows the comparison of the economic performance of SMRs (Small-to-Medium size modular Reactors) with that of Large Reactors (LRs). INCAS performs an investment project simulation and assessment of SMRs and LRs deployment scenarios. The paper aims at testing INCAS model evaluating the different scenarios of an undergoing project of next nuclear reactors in the Republic of Bulgaria. In Bulgaria the nuclear power is already present in the energy sector and the paper analyses the possible increase of energy production for 2,5 GWe of nuclear capacity. The country is represented through analysis of two main perspectives: characterization of Bulgarian energy sector with particular emphases on the nuclear power and analysis of the financial factors relevant to a new nuclear power plant construction. Comparative financial analysis are carried out for six alternative scenarios involving LR or SMR respectively. The results show that despite their small size, the SMRs succeed to overcome the disadvantages of the economies of scale they cannot profit from, and they demonstrate better performance in most of the quantitative indicators. A greater flexibility combined with auto-financing makes SMRs more able to offer better adjustment to the electricity demand growth at lower costs

  12. Plans for environmental restoration of uranium mining and milling sites in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992, uranium mining and milling industry in Bulgaria was closed down by Decree No. 163 of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Bulgaria which defined the procedure for development of liquidation plans, their approval and the procedure for funding from the national budget. The 1994 Decree No. 56 of the Council of Ministers assigned the organization of the liquidation and rehabilitation activities to the Committee of Energy (later, in 1996, transformed to the Ministry of Energy and Energy Resources). An Interdepartmental Board of Experts including representatives of all concerned ministries and agencies was established to coordinate the above activities and to approve work plans. The main stages of liquidation of the uranium industry and its after-effects were defined as follows: (1) environmental status (maintenance of a minimized service mode in order to preserve the state of the site- environment system); (2) technical liquidation; (3) technical recultivation; (4) biological recultivation; (5) purification of contaminated waters; and (6) monitoring. In 1992 and 1993, preparation for the above activities was carried out by development of detailed preliminary studies and work plans for the first stage - the stage of technical liquidation. Their implementation was launched by evacuation of mining and drilling machinery, haulage and processing of finished products etc. (author)

  13. The use of plants in ritual context during Antiquity in Bulgaria: overview of the archaeobotanical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Hristova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Botanical remains from sanctuaries and necropolises provide valuable information about ancient religious practices. The current paper discusses old and new archaeobotanical data from Bulgaria and the use of plants in ritual context from Antiquity. The time span of the 44 considered sites (sanctuaries and necropolises is between the 6th century BC and the 3rd century AD. Most of the sanctuaries in Bulgaria, where archaeobotanical remains have been studied, date to the Bronze and Iron Ages, and a large proportion represents the so called “pit fields”. Information concerning later periods is almost completely lacking. Some evidence on plant offerings is available from the necropolises of the Hellenistic and Roman periods. Although the archaeobotanical data from these sites are quite scarce, their increasing number allows the observation of some common tendencies. Cereals and pulses are most commonly identified at sanctuaries, while fruits are typical remains in the necropolises. Very often imported species (like stone pine, pistachio and olive are found which testifies to existing contacts with adjacent regions (mainly the Mediterranean area and North Africa.

  14. Building of scientific information system for sustainable development of BNCT in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitev, M. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Boul. Tsarigradsko shossee 72, Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: mlmitev@inrne.bas.bg; Ilieva, K.; Apostolov, T. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Boul. Tsarigradsko shossee 72, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2009-07-15

    Building a boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) facility is foreseen within the reconstruction of the Research Reactor IRT (IRT) of the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of the Bulgaria Academy of Sciences (INRNE). The development of BNCT at IRT plays a very significant role in the plan for sustainable application of the reactor. A centralized scientific information system on BNCT is being built at the INRNE with the purpose to collect and sort new information as knowledge accumulated during more than thirty years history of BNCT. This BNCT information system will help the creation and consolidation of a well informed and interconnected interdisciplinary team of physicists, chemists, biologists, and radio-oncologists for establishing BNCT cancer treatment in Bulgaria. It will strengthen more intensive development of the national network as well as its enlargement to the Balkan region countries. Furthermore, to acquaint the public at large with the opportunity for BNCT cancer treatment will be addressed. Human, social, and economics results due to BNCT for many patients from Balkan region are expected.

  15. The abandoned undergound Cherno more coal mine (SE Bulgaria) - a source of low grade geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flooded abandoned coal mines are a potential source of geothermal energy, which could be used for heating and cooling of energy efficient buildings. Cherno More Coal Mine is located in SE Bulgaria and has been closed for more than 20 years. It represents a large human-induced subsurface reservoir which consists of three interconnected coalfields (“Brigadir”, “9.IX.” and “Blagoev”). Their total volume of about 2.0x106 m3 has been calculated considering the size of the stone drifts. The mine water temperature is measured to be about 16°C in the only accessible vertical shaft (“9.IX.” coalfield). This is the first study of an abandoned coal mine in Bulgaria aiming at assessing its low-valued energy potential and evaluating the opportunity for heating and cooling buildings. The geological and hydrogeological characteristics of Cherno More Mine have been analyzed by using existing archive data and conducting additional chemical analysis of water samples and temperature measurements in the mine. The obtained data were used to develop a regional groundwater model of the area and a local hydrothermal model for a thermally-insulated furniture factory located in the vicinity of the vertical shaft. The simulated temperature distribution in the mine during exploitation showed no impact on the production temperature by reinjected water under defined steady state conditions, which created a reliable basis for mine water energy use

  16. Gas demand growth and trade in South-East Europe: What perspectives for Bulgaria?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas demand and trade are said to grow in South-East Europe, and inter-regional gas transit is believed to gain importance. Despite a 5 to 10 year delay in economics and energy reforms compared to EU accession countries, prospects for economic recovery and a sustained growth of gas demand around 3.9%/year to 2020 in the region and 6.7% in Bulgaria appear real. Growth is contained by investment needs, vested interests in, and competition from, coal and nuclear as well as concerns about future gas prices, and import dependence. The densification of national and regional gas systems will proceed. Inter-regional (North-South and East-West) high-capacity gas pipeline will emerge as a tempting business perspective. While these perspectives are medium- and long-term, competition among pipeline projects is already waging at present. Bulgaria, Romania and Greece position themselves so as to safeguard future transit revenues, the latter country, in cooperation with Turkey, appearing to move fast with the support of the EU. A region wide optimisation of infrastructure projects appears desirable, however national strategic interests may conflict. (author)

  17. Probabilistic safety analyses developments resurgence in Bulgaria-Kozloduy nuclear power plant example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinova, Bozhana, E-mail: Bozhana.Marinova@riskeng.b [Risk engineering Plc, Sofia (Bulgaria); Groudev, Pavlin, E-mail: pavlinpg@inrne.bas.b [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria); Papazov, Valentin, E-mail: valentin.papazov@worleyparsons.co [Kozloduy NPP Plc, Kozloduy (Bulgaria)

    2010-04-15

    This paper presents some of the main technical features and insights of the Kozloduy nuclear power plant (NPP) units 5 and 6 probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) level 1. Probabilistic analyses and their applications in Bulgaria were given further impetus in recent years. More than 17 years after the first PSA study in Bulgaria in 1992 today probabilistic analyses receive increasing attention and application than ever before. The Bulgarian regulatory body (BNRA) is also interested in expanding their capability of reviewing and using PSA in plant safety assessments. In November 2008 within the framework of the program financed by European Union (PHARE), a project for assisting the BNRA in establishing the regulatory requirements on the base of PSA was completed. One of the objectives of this project was performance of the independent review of Kozloduy NPP units 5 and 6 PSA. This review was a new impulse for the authors to present in more details of Kozloduy NPP probabilistic assessment studies in the present paper.

  18. Safety Assessment for the Kozloduy National Disposal Facility in Bulgaria - 13507

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biurrun, E.; Haverkamp, B. [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Eschenstr. 55, D-31224 Peine (Germany); Lazaro, A.; Miralles, A. [Westinghouse Electric Spain SAR, Padilla 17, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Stefanova, I. [SERAW, 52 A Dimitrov Blvd, 6 Fl., 1797 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-07-01

    Due to the early decommissioning of four Water-Water Energy Reactors (WWER) 440-V230 reactors at the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) near the city of Kozloduy in Bulgaria, large amounts of low and intermediate radioactive waste will arise much earlier than initially scheduled. In or-der to manage the radioactive waste from the early decommissioning, Bulgaria has intensified its efforts to provide a near surface disposal facility at Radiana with the required capacity. To this end, a project was launched and assigned in international competition to a German-Spanish consortium to provide the complete technical planning including the preparation of the Intermediate Safety Assessment Report. Preliminary results of operational and long-term safety show compliance with the Bulgarian regulatory requirements. The long-term calculations carried out for the Radiana site are also a good example of how analysis of safety assessment results can be used for iterative improvements of the assessment by pointing out uncertainties and areas of future investigations to reduce such uncertainties in regard to the potential radiological impact. The computer model used to estimate the long-term evolution of the future repository at Radiana predicted a maximum total annual dose for members of the critical group, which is carried to approximately 80 % by C-14 for a specific ingestion pathway. Based on this result and the outcome of the sensitivity analysis, existing uncertainties were evaluated and areas for reasonable future investigations to reduce these uncertainties were identified. (authors)

  19. Radiation skin injury caused by percutaneous coronary intervention. Report of two cases in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiation-induced skin injury has been recognized for the past decade as a potential complication of fluoroscopically guided interventions (FGI). In our country the awareness of the possibility of appearance of skin injury as a consequence of FGIispoor. The number of interventional procedures is nearly 79 000 or 1.9% of all x-ray procedures performed in Bulgaria in 2013. There is a great probability patients to have radiation induced skin injuries but not to be diagnosed. This is the first report of two cases of radiation induced skin injuries in Bulgaria occurring in 2014. Case 1: 62-year-old man with chronic total occlusion (CTO), underwent two percutaneouscoronaryinterventions (PCIs) and one short coronary angiography (CA). The 2nd and the 3rd procedures were done the same day within one hour. Skin lesion of National Cancer Institute (NCI) toxicity grade of I was detected by the nurse 3 weeks after the last two procedures. The patient received total dose area product (DAP)> 56269 μGy.m2. Case 2: 76-year-old man, developed skin lesion of NCI skin toxicity grade IV about 11 months after a prolonged selective coronary arteriography by percutaneous right radial artery approach. It started with erythematous patch in the right side of the back 2 days after the procedure. The patient received DAP 86802 μGy.m2. PCI in CTO and FGI with higher complexity and prolonged fluoroscopy time require awareness and knowledge on radiation safety

  20. Diversity and biosynthetic potential of culturable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria isolated from Magura Cave, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomova Iva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocapacity of bacteria inhabiting karstic caves to produce valuable biologically active compounds is still slightly investigated. A total of 46 culturable heterotrophic bacteria were isolated under aerobic conditions from the Gallery with pre-historical drawings in Magura Cave, Bulgaria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of bacterial isolates aff iliated with Proteobacteria (63%, followed by Actinobacteria (10.9%, Bacteroidetes (10.9%, and Firmicutes (6.5%. A strong domination of Gram-negative bacteria (total 81% belonging to nine genera: Serratia, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Sphingobacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Commamonas, Acinetobacter, Obesumbacterium, and Myroides, was observed. Gram-positive isolates were represented by the genera Bacillus, Arthrobacter, and Micrococcus. One isolate showed a signif icant phylogenetic distance to the closest neighbor and could represent а novel species. Heterotrophic bacterial isolates from Magura Cave were investigated for hydrolytic enzymes production, antimicrobial and hemolytic activity. Predominance of producers of protease (87%, followed by xanthan lyase (64%, lipase (40%, β-glycosidase (40%, and phytase (21% was observed. Over 75% of the isolates demonstrated antimicrobial and hemolytic activity. The results suggest that heterotrophic bacteria isolated from Magura Cave could be a valuable source of industrially relevant psychrotolerant enzymes and bioactive metabolites. This study is a f irst report on the taxonomic composition and biological activity of culturable bacteria inhabiting a cave in Bulgaria.

  1. SOFIA, a Next-Generation Facility for Fission Yields Measurements and Fission Study. First Results and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audouin, L.; Pellereau, E.; Taieb, J.; Boutoux, G.; Béliera, G.; Chatillon, A.; Ebran, A.; Gorbinet, T.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Tassan-Got, L.; Jurado, B.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Caamano, M.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Paradela, C.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, J.-L.; Vargas, J.; Casarejos, E.; Heinz, A.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Kurz, N.; Nociforo, C.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rossi, D.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Simon, H.; Voss, B.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Fission fragments play an important role in nuclear reactors evolution and safety. However, fragments yields are poorly known : data are essentially limited to mass yields from thermal neutron-induced fissions on a very few nuclei. SOFIA (Study On FIssion with Aladin) is an innovative experimental program on nuclear fission carried out at the GSI facility, which aims at providing isotopic yields on a broad range of fissioning systems. Relativistic secondary beams of actinides and pre-actinides are selected by the Fragment Separator (FRS) and their fission is triggered by electromagnetic interaction. The resulting excitation energy is comparable to the result of an interaction with a low-energy neutron, thus leading to useful data for reactor simulations. For the first time ever, both fission fragments are completely identified in charge and mass in a new recoil spectrometer, allowing for precise yields measurements. The yield of prompt neutrons can then be deduced, and the fission mechanism can be ascribed, providing new constraints for fission models. During the first experiment, all the technical challenges were matched : we have thus set new experimental standards in the measurements of relativistic heavy ions (time of flight, position, energy loss).This communication presents a first series of results obtained on the fission of 238U; many other fissioning systems have also been measured and are being analyzed presently. A second SOFIA experiment is planned in September 2014, and will be focused on the measurement of the fission of 236U, the analog of 235U+n.

  2. Contribution to the design, fulfillment, and data analysis of fission fragment yields of the SOFIA experiment at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotopic fission yields of U 238 following the SOFIA experiment, conducted at the GSI facility (Darmstadt), are presented here. This experiment takes advantage of the inverse kinematics technique at relativistic energies. Benefits are several: fission fragments are highly focused (high geometrical efficiency) and are also completely stripped, which greatly simplifies their nuclear charge measurement. The first detector of the SOFIA setup is an active target in which fission occurs via electromagnetic excitation, followed by an ionization chamber to measure the nuclear charge and the horizontal angle of both fission fragments. The masses are deduced by the bending radius measurement of the fragments, deflected by a strong magnet (ALADIN), thanks to two position detectors (MWPC), and also by a highly resolved time-of-flight measurement (40 ps FWHM) so that heavy neighboring isotopes can be separated. The data analysis shows that the main goals are achieved since the isotopic separation is reached over the whole range of the fission fragments. A strong even-odd effect is seen in the charge spectrum, which also exhibits a mean heavy charge close to Z = 54. Surprisingly, the neutron even-odd effect of the light region is seen to be very close to the one in thermal neutron induced fission. The peak-to-valley ratio of the mass spectrum confirms that the mean excitation energy at fission is close to the expected one (14 MeV). The GEF code is used for comparison and always gives results very close to ours. (author)

  3. INCIDENCE OF SECONDARY ROOT CARIES LESIONS IN PATIENTS REFERRED FOR TREATMENT IN THE FACULTY OF DENTAL MEDICINE – SOFIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Marinova-Takorova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the presented study was to determine the incidence of secondary root caries lesions in patients referred for treatment in the Faculty of Dental Medicine – Sofia. Material/Methods: The subjects who took part in the study were patients referred for treatment of caries lesions in the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Sofia. They were interviewed for smoking, presence of systematic diseases and medications and debris and plaque were removed from natural teeth prior to examination. Dental examination was carried out with a dental mirror and a probe. Decayed, missed and filled teeth (DMFT were recorded. Root caries lesions, restorations of those lesions and secondary caries lesions were recorded separately. Results: A total number of 603 patients were examined. The frequency of appearance of root caries in the investigated population was 33.5% (202 patients. The whole number of root caries lesions was 857. Three hundred forty three (41.4% of those lesions were restored. Presence of secondary caries lesions was observed in 138 cases (39.1%. Conclusions: Based on the data obtained from the presented study it may be concluded that most of the root caries lesions remain untreated (58.8%. Secondary carious was diagnosed in 39.1% of the root caries restorations. The patients with secondary caries lesions presented with higher incidence of concomitant diseases and lower incidence of smoking.

  4. Sustainability assessment and comparison of waste management systems: The Cities of Sofia and Niš case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Biljana; Stefanović, Gordana; Kyoseva, Vanya; Yordanova, Dilyana; Dombalov, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Sustainability assessment of a waste management system is a very complex problem for numerous reasons. Firstly, it is a problem of environmental assessment, economic viability and social acceptability, and also a choice of the most practical waste treatment technique, taking into account all the specific areas in which a waste management system is implemented. For these reasons, among others, it is very important to benchmark, cooperate and exchange experiences in areas with similar characteristics. In this study, a comparison of waste management scenarios in the Cities of Niš and Sofia was performed. Based on the amount and composition of municipal solid waste, and taking into account local specifics (economic conditions, social acceptance, etc.), different scenarios were developed: landfilling without energy recovery, landfilling with energy recovery, mechanical-biological treatment, anaerobic digestion with biogas utilization and incineration with energy recovery. Scenario ranking was done using multi-criteria analysis and 12 indicators were chosen as the criteria. The obtained results show that the most sustainable scenario in both case studies is the mechanical-biological treatment (recycling, composting and Refuse Derived Fuel production). Having in mind that this scenario is the current waste management system in Sofia, these results can help decision-makers in the City of Niš in choosing a successful and sustainable waste management system. PMID:27357562

  5. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY EDUCATION: THE RELEVANCY TO THE BUSINESS PRACTICES IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Slavova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades corporate social responsibility (CSR has forcefully and irreversibly become a part of the corporate actions of a growing number of companies and continues to provoke the interest of governments, international institutions, scientists and researchers. The new imperatives on CSR have increased the requirements of companies towards the education and preparation of experts with the requisite skills and competences. The objective of the paper is to discuss how business universities meet the demand for new business models and management skills in order to help companies in Bulgaria to develop socially responsible practices.The study is based on a web-content analysis of the curricula and study programs of all Bulgarian universities training business and management students in Bachelor and Master programs. The obtained results regarding the current status of CSR education are interpreted in the context of CSR in businesses in Bulgaria. To this end, results were used from a large-scale study by the authors on the status and trends of development of CSR in Bulgaria, thus uncovering the needs of companies operating on the Bulgarian market in terms of employees with CSR skills and competences, and showing the gap between the demand and supply of CSR education for business and management graduates in Bulgarian universities (Bachelor and Master programs. The conclusions delineate the directions in which teaching CSR-related issues should develop in higher education institutions in Bulgaria.

  6. Insurance against Climate Change : Financial Disaster Risk Management and Insurance Options for Climate Change Adaptation in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    Bulgaria is exposed to nearly all types of climate extremes, including floods, droughts, and others, as well as earthquakes. The combination of insurance products, early warning systems, information campaigns, infrastructure adaptation measures, and strict regulations can be very useful in tackling the negative climate change impacts. This note provides an overview of the insurance sector ...

  7. Views and beliefs of social studies teachers on citizenship education: a comparative study of the Netherlands, Bulgaria and Croatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita; Cunningham, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a comparative study of high school social science teachers in three European countries: the Netherlands, Bulgaria, and Croatia, and presents data from teacher interviews using Q methodology. An aim of the study is to make explicit the link between teachers’ views on citizenship

  8. Work with young people - a priority in the activities if WIN Bulgaria for popularization of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main goals of WIN Bulgaria is is the promotion of the developments in the nuclear technologies in the education system and to direct and coordinate the participation of young people in the learning and applying of these technologies

  9. Bulgaria - Environmental Sequencing Strategies for EU Accession : Priority Public Investments for Wastewater Treatment and Landfill of Waste

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Despite Bulgaria's progress to act in accordance with European Union (EU) environmental directives, full compliance with the Union's environmental acquis remains a challenge and requires a substantial investment program in environmental infrastructure and implementation activities in pollution abatement, waste management, and financing the associated operation and maintenance costs. The re...

  10. A group find of the bronze coins struck under Philip II and Alexander III from Svoboda near Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Militký, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2013), s. 147-160. ISSN 0546-9414 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-24707S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Macedonia * Bulgaria * Philip II * hoard Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  11. 8-isorpostanes – markers for oxidative stress in obstructive sleep apnea patients with systolic dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Cherneva RV; Georgiev OB; Petrova DS; Manov EI; Ruseva SR; Mitev VI; Petrova JI

    2013-01-01

    Radostina Vlaeva Cherneva,1 Ognian Borisov Georgiev,1 Daniela Stoichkova Petrova,1 Emil Ivanov Manov,2 Sylvia Rumenova Ruseva,3 Vanio Ivanov Mitev,3 Julia Ivanova Petrova4 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Medical University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Medical University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria; 3Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laboratory of Synthesis and Analysis of Bioactive Substanc...

  12. 8-isorpostanes – markers for oxidative stress in obstructive sleep apnea patients with systolic dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Cherneva, Radostina

    2013-01-01

    Radostina Vlaeva Cherneva,1 Ognian Borisov Georgiev,1 Daniela Stoichkova Petrova,1 Emil Ivanov Manov,2 Sylvia Rumenova Ruseva,3 Vanio Ivanov Mitev,3 Julia Ivanova Petrova4 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Medical University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Medical University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria; 3Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laboratory of Synthesis and Analysis of Bioactive Substanc...

  13. International Expert Team Concludes IAEA Peer Review of Bulgaria's Regulatory Framework for Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An international team of senior nuclear safety and radiation protection experts today concluded a 12-day mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear and radiation safety in Bulgaria. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission, conducted at the request of the Government of Bulgaria, identified a series of good practices and made recommendations to help enhance the overall performance of the regulatory system. IRRS missions, which were initiated in 2006, are peer reviews based on the IAEA Safety Standards; they are not inspections or audits. ''Bulgaria has a clear national policy and strategy for safety, which are well in line with international standards and practices and contribute to a high level of nuclear safety,'' said Mission Team Leader Marta Ziakova, Chairperson of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic. The mission team, which conducted the review from 8 to 19 April, was made up of 16 senior regulatory experts from 16 nations, and six IAEA staff. ''The results of the IRRS mission will be valuable for the future development and reinforcement of the Bulgarian Nuclear Safety Agency (BNRA). The use of international standards and good practices helps to improve global harmonization in all areas of nuclear safety and radiation protection,'' said Sergey Tzotchev, Chairman of the BNRA. Among the main observations in its preliminary report, the IRRS mission team found that BNRA operates as an independent regulatory body and conducts its regulatory processes in an open and transparent manner. In line with the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, the mission reviewed the regulatory implications for Bulgaria of the March 2011 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in Japan. It found that the BNRA's response to the lessons learned from that accident was both prompt and effective. Strengths and good practices identified by the IRRS team include the following: A no-blame policy is enshrined in law for

  14. Exploring the effects of energy consumption on output per worker: A study of Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, we explore the long-run cointegration between output, capital and energy consumption, in per worker terms, for Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania. We use the augmented Solow (1956) model and the ARDL bounds procedure (Pesaran et al., 2001) to examine the short-run and long-run effects of energy and capital on output (in per worker terms). We also conduct causality test using the Toda and Yamamoto (1995) non-causality procedure. Our results show the existence of long-run cointegration between output per worker and energy per worker for all the four countries. We find that energy per worker have a dynamic short-run positive effect in Albania (0.37%), Bulgaria (0.25%), Hungary (0.36%) and Romania (0.68%), and a long-run positive effect in Bulgaria (0.32%) and Romania (0.63%) which duly indicate that energy consumption has a momentous long-run effect in these two countries. The causality results indicate a unidirectional causation from output per worker to energy per worker for all the four countries, and from capital per worker to energy per worker for Albania and Romania. Consequently, a balance between effective energy consumption and sound energy conservation policies are likely to support economic growth in the four countries. - Highlights: • Energy has a short-run positive effect in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania. • A long-run positive elasticity is noted in Bulgaria and Romania. • Output per worker cause energy per worker in the four countries. • A unidirectional causality from capital to energy is noted for Albania and Romania

  15. Modelling the water budget and the riverflows of the Maritsa basin in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Artinyan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model coupled with a macroscale distributed hydrological model was used in order to simulate the water cycle for a large region in Bulgaria. To do so, an atmospheric forcing was built for two hydrological years (1 October 1995 to 30 September 1997, at an eight km resolution. It was based on the data available at the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH of Bulgaria. Atmospheric parameters were carefully checked and interpolated with a high level of detail in space and time (3-h step. Comparing computed Penman evapotranspiration versus observed pan evaporation validated the quality of the implemented forcing. The impact of the human activities on the rivers (especially hydropower or irrigation was taken into account. Some improvements of the hydrometeorological model were made: for better simulation of summer riverflow, two additional reservoirs were added to simulate the slow component of the runoff. Those reservoirs were calibrated using the observed data of the 1st year, while the 2nd year was used for validation. 56 hydrologic stations and 12 dams were used for the model calibration while 41 rivergages were used for the validation of the model. The results compare well with the daily-observed discharges, with good results obtained over more than 25% of the rivergages. The simulated snow depth was compared to daily measurements at 174 stations and the evolution of the snow water equivalent was validated at 5 sites. The process of melting and refreezing of snow was found to be important on this region. The comparison of the normalized values of simulated versus measured soil moisture showed good correlation. The surface water budget shows large spatial variations due to the elevation influence on the precipitations, soil properties and vegetation variability. An inter annual difference was observed in the water cycle as the first year was more influenced by Mediterranean climate, while the

  16. Modelling the water budget and the riverflows of the Maritsa basin in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artinyan, E.; Habets, F.; Noilhan, J.; Ledoux, E.; Dimitrov, D.; Martin, E.; Le Moigne, P.

    2007-03-01

    A soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model coupled with a macroscale distributed hydrological model was used in order to simulate the water cycle for a large region in Bulgaria. To do so, an atmospheric forcing was built for two hydrological years (1 October 1995 to 30 September 1997), at an eight km resolution. It was based on the data available at the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH) of Bulgaria. Atmospheric parameters were carefully checked and interpolated with a high level of detail in space and time (3-h step). Comparing computed Penman evapotranspiration versus observed pan evaporation validated the quality of the implemented forcing. The impact of the human activities on the rivers (especially hydropower or irrigation) was taken into account. Some improvements of the hydrometeorological model were made: for better simulation of summer riverflow, two additional reservoirs were added to simulate the slow component of the runoff. Those reservoirs were calibrated using the observed data of the 1st year, while the 2nd year was used for validation. 56 hydrologic stations and 12 dams were used for the model calibration while 41 rivergages were used for the validation of the model. The results compare well with the daily-observed discharges, with good results obtained over more than 25% of the rivergages. The simulated snow depth was compared to daily measurements at 174 stations and the evolution of the snow water equivalent was validated at 5 sites. The process of melting and refreezing of snow was found to be important on this region. The comparison of the normalized values of simulated versus measured soil moisture showed good correlation. The surface water budget shows large spatial variations due to the elevation influence on the precipitations, soil properties and vegetation variability. An inter annual difference was observed in the water cycle as the first year was more influenced by Mediterranean climate, while the second year was

  17. Total Petroleum Systems of the Carpathian - Balkanian Basin Province of Romania and Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlewicz, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey defined the Moesian Platform Composite Total Petroleum System and the Dysodile Schist-Tertiary Total Petroleum System, which contain three assessment units, in the Carpathian-Balkanian Basin Province of Romania and Bulgaria. The Moesian Platform Assessment Unit, contained within the Moesian Platform Composite Total Petroleum System, is composed of Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks within the Moesian platform region of southern Romania and northern Bulgaria and also within the Birlad depression in the northeastern platform area. In Romania, hydrocarbon sources are identified as carbonate rocks and bituminous claystones within the Middle Devonian, Middle Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous, and Neogene stratigraphic sequences. In the Birlad depression, Neogene pelitic strata have the best potential for generating hydrocarbons. In Bulgaria, Middle and Upper Jurassic shales are the most probable hydrocarbon sources. The Romania Flysch Zone Assessment Unit in the Dysodile Schist-Tertiary Total Petroleum System encompasses three structural and paleogeographic subunits within the Pre-Carpathian Mountains region: (1) the Getic depression, a segment of the Carpathian foredeep; (2) the flysch zone of the eastern Carpathian Mountains (also called the Marginal Fold nappe); and (3) the Miocene zone (also called the Sub-Carpathian nappe). Source rocks are interpreted to be Oligocene dysodile schist and black claystone, along with Miocene black claystone and marls. Also part of the Dysodile Schist-Tertiary Total Petroleum System is the Romania Ploiesti Zone Assessment Unit, which includes a zone of diapir folds. This zone lies between the Rimnicu Sarat and Dinibovita valleys and between the folds of the inner Carpathian Mountains and the external flanks of the Carpathian foredeep. The Oligocene Dysodile Schist is considered the main hydrocarbon source rock and Neogene black marls and claystones are likely secondary sources; all are thought to be at their maximum

  18. Modelling of accidental released toxic gases for emergency responders in Austria, Kosovo and Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Sirma; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Gashi, Salih; Thaci, Bashkim; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Spassova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. A number of models for the prediction and simulation of hazard areas affected by accidental releases of toxic gases are available worldwide. Modelling accidental releases may be required for a variety of reasons: for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), for preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management (e.g. in the frame of the SEVESO directive). Depending on the demand and the particular purposes, the choice of the appropriate model is up to the authorities. The one year project was funded by the Austrian Science and research liaison Office (ASO, www.aso.zsi.at) as a part of the program: Research Cooperation and Networking between Austria, the public higher education institutions in Kosovo and South Eastern Europe. The project was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG, http://www.zamg.ac.at) in cooperation with the University of Prishtina (Kosovo, www.uni-pr.edu and the National Institute of meteorology and Hydrology (NIHM Bulgaria, www.meteo.bg). One of the main purposes of the project was to provide the both partners with basic knowledge in modelling with accidental release of toxic gases, based on the practical experience of the meteorologists from the ZAMG in the area. This knowledge can be used as scientific response to society driven current or upcoming problems especially in Kosovo. The activities involved know-how transfer on European standards and practice among the project partners, as well as joint efforts to adapt and disseminate the scientific methods and results in Kosovo. Within the project, the partners from Kosovo and Bulgaria were introduced to the atmospheric dispersion model (ALOHA - Areal

  19. Sociology - Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Genov, Nikolai

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the pre-1989 situation; Redefinition of the discipline since 1990; Core theoretical and methodological orientations; Thematic orientation and funding; Public space and academic debates; Views on further development.

  20. Coulex fission of 234U, 235U, 237Np, and 238Np studied within the SOFIA experimental program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SOFIA (Studies On FIssion with Aladin) is an experimental project which aims at systematically measuring the fission fragments' isotopic yields as well as their total kinetic energy, for a wide variety of fissioning nuclei. The PhD work presented in this dissertation takes part in the SOFIA project, and covers the fission of nuclei in the region of the actinides: 234U, 235U, 237Np and 238Np. The experiment is led at the heavy-ion accelerator GSI in Darmstadt, Germany. This facility provides intense relativistic primary beam of 238U. A fragmentation reaction of the primary beam permits to create a secondary beam of radioactive ions, some of which the fission is studied. The ions of the secondary beam are sorted and identified through the FR-S (Fragment Separator), a high resolution recoil spectrometer which is tuned to select the ions of interest.The selected - fissile - ions then fly further to Cave-C, an experimental area where the fission experiment itself takes place. At the entrance of the cave, the secondary beam is excited by Coulomb interaction when flying through an target; the de-excitation process involves low-energy fission. Both fission fragments fly forward in the laboratory frame, due to the relativistic boost inferred from the fissioning nucleus.A complete recoil spectrometer has been designed and built by the SOFIA collaboration in the path of the fission fragments, around the existing ALADIN magnet. The identification of the fragments is performed by means of energy loss, time of flight and deviation in the magnet measurements. Both fission fragments are fully (in mass and charge) and simultaneously identified.This document reports on the analysis performed for (1) the identification of the fissioning system, (2) the identification of both fission fragments, on an event-by-event basis, and (3) the extraction of fission observables: yields, TKE, total prompt neutron multiplicity. These results, concerning the actinides, are discussed, and the