WorldWideScience

Sample records for center energy benchmarking

  1. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center Benchmark Report: Framework and Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-23

    This report documents the CEMAC methodologies for developing and reporting annual global clean energy manufacturing benchmarks. The report reviews previously published manufacturing benchmark reports and foundational data, establishes a framework for benchmarking clean energy technologies, describes the CEMAC benchmark analysis methodologies, and describes the application of the methodologies to the manufacturing of four specific clean energy technologies.

  2. National Energy Software Center: benchmark problem book. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1985-12-01

    Computational benchmarks are given for the following problems: (1) Finite-difference, diffusion theory calculation of a highly nonseparable reactor, (2) Iterative solutions for multigroup two-dimensional neutron diffusion HTGR problem, (3) Reference solution to the two-group diffusion equation, (4) One-dimensional neutron transport transient solutions, (5) To provide a test of the capabilities of multi-group multidimensional kinetics codes in a heavy water reactor, (6) Test of capabilities of multigroup neutron diffusion in LMFBR, and (7) Two-dimensional PWR models.

  3. Benchmarking of energy time series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, M.A.

    1990-04-01

    Benchmarking consists of the adjustment of time series data from one source in order to achieve agreement with similar data from a second source. The data from the latter source are referred to as the benchmark(s), and often differ in that they are observed at a lower frequency, represent a higher level of temporal aggregation, and/or are considered to be of greater accuracy. This report provides an extensive survey of benchmarking procedures which have appeared in the statistical literature, and reviews specific benchmarking procedures currently used by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The literature survey includes a technical summary of the major benchmarking methods and their statistical properties. Factors influencing the choice and application of particular techniques are described and the impact of benchmark accuracy is discussed. EIA applications and procedures are reviewed and evaluated for residential natural gas deliveries series and coal production series. It is found that the current method of adjusting the natural gas series is consistent with the behavior of the series and the methods used in obtaining the initial data. As a result, no change is recommended. For the coal production series, a staged approach based on a first differencing technique is recommended over the current procedure. A comparison of the adjustments produced by the two methods is made for the 1987 Indiana coal production series. 32 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing sheds light on several fundamental questions about the global clean technology manufacturing enterprise: How does clean energy technology manufacturing impact national economies? What are the economic opportunities across the manufacturing supply chain? What are the global dynamics of clean energy technology manufacturing?

  5. Restaurant Energy Use Benchmarking Guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedrick, R.; Smith, V.; Field, K.

    2011-07-01

    A significant operational challenge for food service operators is defining energy use benchmark metrics to compare against the performance of individual stores. Without metrics, multiunit operators and managers have difficulty identifying which stores in their portfolios require extra attention to bring their energy performance in line with expectations. This report presents a method whereby multiunit operators may use their own utility data to create suitable metrics for evaluating their operations.

  6. Coral benchmarks in the center of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licuanan, W Y; Robles, R; Dygico, M; Songco, A; van Woesik, R

    2017-01-30

    There is an urgent need to quantify coral reef benchmarks that assess changes and recovery rates through time and serve as goals for management. Yet, few studies have identified benchmarks for hard coral cover and diversity in the center of marine diversity. In this study, we estimated coral cover and generic diversity benchmarks on the Tubbataha reefs, the largest and best-enforced no-take marine protected area in the Philippines. The shallow (2-6m) reef slopes of Tubbataha were monitored annually, from 2012 to 2015, using hierarchical sampling. Mean coral cover was 34% (σ±1.7) and generic diversity was 18 (σ±0.9) per 75m by 25m station. The southeastern leeward slopes supported on average 56% coral cover, whereas the northeastern windward slopes supported 30%, and the western slopes supported 18% coral cover. Generic diversity was more spatially homogeneous than coral cover. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy efficient data centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-03-30

    Data Center facilities, prevalent in many industries and institutions are essential to California's economy. Energy intensive data centers are crucial to California's industries, and many other institutions (such as universities) in the state, and they play an important role in the constantly evolving communications industry. To better understand the impact of the energy requirements and energy efficiency improvement potential in these facilities, the California Energy Commission's PIER Industrial Program initiated this project with two primary focus areas: First, to characterize current data center electricity use; and secondly, to develop a research ''roadmap'' defining and prioritizing possible future public interest research and deployment efforts that would improve energy efficiency. Although there are many opinions concerning the energy intensity of data centers and the aggregate effect on California's electrical power systems, there is very little publicly available information. Through this project, actual energy consumption at its end use was measured in a number of data centers. This benchmark data was documented in case study reports, along with site-specific energy efficiency recommendations. Additionally, other data center energy benchmarks were obtained through synergistic projects, prior PG&E studies, and industry contacts. In total, energy benchmarks for sixteen data centers were obtained. For this project, a broad definition of ''data center'' was adopted which included internet hosting, corporate, institutional, governmental, educational and other miscellaneous data centers. Typically these facilities require specialized infrastructure to provide high quality power and cooling for IT equipment. All of these data center types were considered in the development of an estimate of the total power consumption in California. Finally, a research ''roadmap'' was developed

  8. The State of Energy and Performance Benchmarking for Enterprise Servers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanara, Andrew; Haines, Evan; Howard, Arthur

    To address the server industry’s marketing focus on performance, benchmarking organizations have played a pivotal role in developing techniques to determine the maximum achievable performance level of a system. Generally missing has been an assessment of energy use to achieve that performance. The connection between performance and energy consumption is becoming necessary information for designers and operators as they grapple with power constraints in the data center. While industry and policy makers continue to strategize about a universal metric to holistically measure IT equipment efficiency, existing server benchmarks for various workloads could provide an interim proxy to assess the relative energy efficiency of general servers. This paper discusses ideal characteristics a future energy-performance benchmark might contain, suggests ways in which current benchmarks might be adapted to provide a transitional step to this end, and notes the need for multiple workloads to provide a holistic proxy for a universal metric.

  9. Energy benchmarking of South Australian WWTPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krampe, J

    2013-01-01

    Optimising the energy consumption and energy generation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is a topic with increasing importance for water utilities in times of rising energy costs and pressures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Assessing the energy efficiency and energy optimisation of a WWTP are difficult tasks as most plants vary greatly in size, process layout and other influencing factors. To overcome these limits it is necessary to compare energy efficiency with a statistically relevant base to identify shortfalls and optimisation potential. Such energy benchmarks have been successfully developed and used in central Europe over the last two decades. This paper demonstrates how the latest available energy benchmarks from Germany have been applied to 24 WWTPs in South Australia. It shows how energy benchmarking can be used to identify shortfalls in current performance, prioritise detailed energy assessments and help inform decisions on capital investment.

  10. Argonne Code Center: Benchmark problem book.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1977-06-01

    This book is an outgrowth of activities of the Computational Benchmark Problems Committee of the Mathematics and Computation Division of the American Nuclear Society. This is the second supplement of the original benchmark book which was first published in February, 1968 and contained computational benchmark problems in four different areas. Supplement No. 1, which was published in December, 1972, contained corrections to the original benchmark book plus additional problems in three new areas. The current supplement. Supplement No. 2, contains problems in eight additional new areas. The objectives of computational benchmark work and the procedures used by the committee in pursuing the objectives are outlined in the original edition of the benchmark book (ANL-7416, February, 1968). The members of the committee who have made contributions to Supplement No. 2 are listed below followed by the contributors to the earlier editions of the benchmark book.

  11. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency: Metrics and Benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    International SEMATECH Manufacturing Initiative; Mathew, Paul A.; Tschudi, William; Sartor, Dale; Beasley, James

    2010-07-07

    Cleanrooms are among the most energy-intensive types of facilities. This is primarily due to the cleanliness requirements that result in high airflow rates and system static pressures, as well as process requirements that result in high cooling loads. Various studies have shown that there is a wide range of cleanroom energy efficiencies and that facility managers may not be aware of how energy efficient their cleanroom facility can be relative to other cleanroom facilities with the same cleanliness requirements. Metrics and benchmarks are an effective way to compare one facility to another and to track the performance of a given facility over time. This article presents the key metrics and benchmarks that facility managers can use to assess, track, and manage their cleanroom energy efficiency or to set energy efficiency targets for new construction. These include system-level metrics such as air change rates, air handling W/cfm, and filter pressure drops. Operational data are presented from over 20 different cleanrooms that were benchmarked with these metrics and that are part of the cleanroom benchmark dataset maintained by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Overall production efficiency metrics for cleanrooms in 28 semiconductor manufacturing facilities in the United States and recorded in the Fabs21 database are also presented.

  12. Argonne Code Center: benchmark problem book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    This report is a supplement to the original report, published in 1968, as revised. The Benchmark Problem Book is intended to serve as a source book of solutions to mathematically well-defined problems for which either analytical or very accurate approximate solutions are known. This supplement contains problems in eight new areas: two-dimensional (R-z) reactor model; multidimensional (Hex-z) HTGR model; PWR thermal hydraulics--flow between two channels with different heat fluxes; multidimensional (x-y-z) LWR model; neutron transport in a cylindrical ''black'' rod; neutron transport in a BWR rod bundle; multidimensional (x-y-z) BWR model; and neutronic depletion benchmark problems. This supplement contains only the additional pages and those requiring modification. (RWR)

  13. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing: Summary of Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing will help policymakers and industry gain deeper understanding of global manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Increased knowledge of the product supply chains can inform decisions related to manufacturing facilities for extracting and processing raw materials, making the array of required subcomponents, and assembling and shipping the final product. This brochure summarized key findings from the analysis and includes important figures from the report. The report was prepared by the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) analysts at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  14. Benchmarking the Degree of Implementation of Learner-Centered Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Phyllis; Pontiggia, Laura

    2011-01-01

    We describe an objective way to measure whether curricula, educational programs, and institutions are learner-centered. This technique for benchmarking learner-centeredness uses rubrics to measure courses on 29 components within Weimer's five dimensions. We converted the scores on the rubrics to four-point indices and constructed histograms that…

  15. Reliability adjustment: a necessity for trauma center ranking and benchmarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Zain G; Dimick, Justin B; Efron, David T; Haut, Elliott R; Schneider, Eric B; Zafar, Syed Nabeel; Schwartz, Diane; Cornwell, Edward E; Haider, Adil H

    2013-07-01

    Currently, trauma center quality benchmarking is based on risk adjusted observed-expected (O/E) mortality ratios. However, failure to account for number of patients has been recently shown to produce unreliable mortality estimates, especially for low-volume centers. This study explores the effect of reliability adjustment (RA), a statistical technique developed to eliminate bias introduced by low volume on risk-adjusted trauma center benchmarking. Analysis of the National Trauma Data Bank 2010 was performed. Patients 16 years or older with blunt or penetrating trauma and an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 9 or greater were included. Based on the statistically accepted standards of the Trauma Quality Improvement Program methodology, risk-adjusted mortality rates were generated for each center and used to rank them accordingly. Hierarchical logistic regression modeling was then performed to adjust these rates for reliability using an empiric Bayes approach. The impact of RA was examined by (1) recalculating interfacility variations in adjusted mortality rates and (2) comparing adjusted hospital mortality quintile rankings before and after RA. A total of 557 facilities (with 278,558 patients) were included. RA significantly reduced the variation in risk-adjusted mortality rates between centers from 14-fold (0.7-9.8%) to only 2-fold (4.4-9.6%) after RA. This reduction in variation was most profound for smaller centers. A total of 68 "best" hospitals and 18 "worst" hospitals based on current risk adjustment methods were reclassified after performing RA. "Reliability adjustment" dramatically reduces variations in risk-adjusted mortality arising from statistical noise, especially for lower volume centers. Moreover, the absence of RA had a profound impact on hospital performance assessment, suggesting that nearly one of every six hospitals in National Trauma Data Bank would have been inappropriately placed among the very best or very worst quintile of rankings. RA should be

  16. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.5 Determination of energy cost benchmarks. (a) The Administrator shall establish, using the...

  17. Worldwide benchmark for energy efficiency in the brewing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouda, P.; Pennartz, A.M.G. Pennartz [KWA Business Consultants, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Reuchlin, H. [Dutch Brewer' s Association, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    Prompted by an agreement with the government the Dutch brewers set out to develop a method to establish a worldwide benchmark in specific energy consumption for the brewing industry. In total more than 100 breweries from 38 countries participated in this energy benchmark. The study shows that 10 % of the participating breweries have a specific energy consumption lower than 193 MJ/hl.

  18. Hospital Energy Benchmarking Guidance - Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.

    2009-09-08

    This document describes an energy benchmarking framework for hospitals. The document is organized as follows. The introduction provides a brief primer on benchmarking and its application to hospitals. The next two sections discuss special considerations including the identification of normalizing factors. The presentation of metrics is preceded by a description of the overall framework and the rationale for the grouping of metrics. Following the presentation of metrics, a high-level protocol is provided. The next section presents draft benchmarks for some metrics; benchmarks are not available for many metrics owing to a lack of data. This document ends with a list of research needs for further development.

  19. First TPC-Energy Benchmark: Lessons Learned in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Erik; Cao, Paul; Nikolaiev, Mike

    TPC-Energy specification augments the existing TPC Benchmarks with Energy Metrics. The TPC-Energy specification is designed to help hardware buyers identify energy efficient equipment that meets both their computational and budgetary requirements. In this paper we discuss our experience is publishing industry's first-ever TPC-Energy metric publication.

  20. Data Center Energy Retrofits

    OpenAIRE

    PervilÀ, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    Within the field of computer science, data centers (DCs) are a major consumer of energy. A large part of that energy is used for cooling down the exhaust heat of the servers contained in the DCs. This thesis describes both the aggregate numbers of DCs and key flagship installations in detail. We then introduce the concept of Data Center Energy Retrofits, a set of low cost, easy to install techniques that may be used by the majority of DCs for reducing their energy consumption. The main c...

  1. Carolinas Energy Career Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Classens, Anver; Hooper, Dick; Johnson, Bruce

    2013-03-31

    Central Piedmont Community College (CPCC), located in Charlotte, North Carolina, established the Carolinas Energy Career Center (Center) - a comprehensive training entity to meet the dynamic needs of the Charlotte region's energy workforce. The Center provides training for high-demand careers in both conventional energy (fossil) and renewable energy (nuclear and solar technologies/energy efficiency). CPCC completed four tasks that will position the Center as a leading resource for energy career training in the Southeast: • Development and Pilot of a New Advanced Welding Curriculum, • Program Enhancement of Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) Technology, • Student Support through implementation of a model targeted toward Energy and STEM Careers to support student learning, • Project Management and Reporting. As a result of DOE funding support, CPCC achieved the following outcomes: • Increased capacity to serve and train students in emerging energy industry careers; • Developed new courses and curricula to support emerging energy industry careers; • Established new training/laboratory resources; • Generated a pool of highly qualified, technically skilled workers to support the growing energy industry sector.

  2. International benchmarking of tertiary trauma centers: productivity and throughput approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthes Gerrit

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Care process in tertiary trauma centers consists of a chain of care phases in different departments from the emergency department (ED to post-operative rehabilitation. The historical evolution of healthcare systems and organizations has led to variations in trauma patient processes in different countries. The present study is aimed at revealing differences in the throughput and productivity of trauma patient processes between German (UKB and Finnish (HUS tertiary trauma centers. Problems related to the comparison of different healthcare systems were also identified. The share of patients discharged was used as a control measure. Results The biggest differences between the hospitals were found in the use of resources in the ED and in post-operative care. Despite problems in defining comparable patients and resources, ED productivity was significantly higher in UKB. Post-operative care was, on average, 41% shorter in HUS. However, the share of patients discharged was significantly higher in UKB (96.5% vs. 68.9%. Differences were also found in the pre-operative length of stay of patients with proximal femoral fractures (UKB: 0.97 days, HUS: 1.57 days. The productivity of the operating unit was quite similar in the hospitals. In terms of ED mortality, no statistically significant differences were found. Conclusions The results of the present study showed significant differences in the use of resources and throughput times in trauma patient processes between Finnish and German hospitals. However, due to system-level differences between German and Finnish healthcare, the results cannot be directly transformed into development proposals for the organizations. On the other hand, in spite of certain differences regarding the healthcare systems, the demographic data of the trauma patients and medical procedures are comparable. Based on the present study, the ED process of severe trauma, pre-operative care, and operating unit processes

  3. Techbelt Energy Innovation Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, Hazel [Youngstown State Univ., OH (United States); Nestic, Dave [TechBelt Energy Innovation Center, Warren, OH (United States); Hripko, Michael [Youngstown State Univ., OH (United States); Abraham, Martin [Youngstown State Univ., OH (United States)

    2017-06-30

    This project consisted of three main components 1) The primary goal of the project was to renovate and upgrade an existing commercial building to the highest possible environmentally sustainable level for the purpose of creating an energy incubator. This initiative was part of the Infrastructure Technologies Program, through which a sustainable energy demonstration facility was to be created and used as a research and community outreach base for sustainable energy product and process incubation; 2) In addition, fundamental energy related research on wind energy was performed; a shrouded wind turbine on the Youngstown State University campus was commissioned; and educational initiatives were implemented; and 3) The project also included an education and outreach component to inform and educate the public in sustainable energy production and career opportunities. Youngstown State University and the Tech Belt Energy Innovation Center (TBEIC) renovated a 37,000 square foot urban building which is now being used as a research and development hub for the region’s energy technology innovation industry. The building houses basic research facilities and business development in an incubator format. In addition, the TBEIC performs community outreach and education initiatives in advanced and sustainable energy. The building is linked to a back warehouse which will eventually be used as a build-out for energy laboratory facilities. The projects research component investigated shrouded wind turbines, and specifically the “Windcube” which was renamed the “Wind Sphere” during the course of the project. There was a specific focus on the development in the theory of shrouded wind turbines. The goal of this work was to increase the potential efficiency of wind turbines by improving the lift and drag characteristics. The work included computational modeling, scale models and full-sized design and construction of a test turbine. The full-sized turbine was built on the YSU

  4. Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  5. Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihaut, Jim

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  6. Benchmarking Benchmarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Blitz (David)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBenchmarking benchmarks is a bundle of six studies that are inspired by the prevalence of benchmarking in academic finance research as well as in investment practice. Three studies examine if current benchmark asset pricing models adequately describe the cross-section of stock returns.

  7. Benchmarking Benchmarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Blitz (David)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBenchmarking benchmarks is a bundle of six studies that are inspired by the prevalence of benchmarking in academic finance research as well as in investment practice. Three studies examine if current benchmark asset pricing models adequately describe the cross-section of stock returns. W

  8. Automatic generation of reaction energy databases from highly accurate atomization energy benchmark sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margraf, Johannes T; Ranasinghe, Duminda S; Bartlett, Rodney J

    2017-03-31

    In this contribution, we discuss how reaction energy benchmark sets can automatically be created from arbitrary atomization energy databases. As an example, over 11 000 reaction energies derived from the W4-11 database, as well as some relevant subsets are reported. Importantly, there is only very modest computational overhead involved in computing >11 000 reaction energies compared to 140 atomization energies, since the rate-determining step for either benchmark is performing the same 140 quantum chemical calculations. The performance of commonly used electronic structure methods for the new database is analyzed. This allows investigating the relationship between the performances for atomization and reaction energy benchmarks based on an identical set of molecules. The atomization energy is found to be a weak predictor for the overall usefulness of a method. The performance of density functional approximations in light of the number of empirically optimized parameters used in their design is also discussed.

  9. Metrics and Benchmarks for Energy Efficiency in Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumsey Engineers; Mathew, Paul; Mathew, Paul; Greenberg, Steve; Sartor, Dale; Rumsey, Peter; Weale, John

    2008-04-10

    A wide spectrum of laboratory owners, ranging from universities to federal agencies, have explicit goals for energy efficiency in their facilities. For example, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT 2005) requires all new federal buildings to exceed ASHRAE 90.1-2004 [1] by at least 30%. A new laboratory is much more likely to meet energy efficiency goals if quantitative metrics and targets are specified in programming documents and tracked during the course of the delivery process. If not, any additional capital costs or design time associated with attaining higher efficiencies can be difficult to justify. This article describes key energy efficiency metrics and benchmarks for laboratories, which have been developed and applied to several laboratory buildings--both for design and operation. In addition to traditional whole building energy use metrics (e.g. BTU/ft{sup 2}.yr, kWh/m{sup 2}.yr), the article describes HVAC system metrics (e.g. ventilation W/cfm, W/L.s{sup -1}), which can be used to identify the presence or absence of energy features and opportunities during design and operation.

  10. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  11. Metrics and Benchmarks for Energy Efficiency in Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Paul

    2007-10-26

    A wide spectrum of laboratory owners, ranging from universities to federal agencies, have explicit goals for energy efficiency in their facilities. For example, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT 2005) requires all new federal buildings to exceed ASHRAE 90.1-2004 1 by at least 30 percent. The University of California Regents Policy requires all new construction to exceed California Title 24 2 by at least 20 percent. A new laboratory is much more likely to meet energy efficiency goals if quantitative metrics and targets are explicitly specified in programming documents and tracked during the course of the delivery process. If efficiency targets are not explicitly and properly defined, any additional capital costs or design time associated with attaining higher efficiencies can be difficult to justify. The purpose of this guide is to provide guidance on how to specify and compute energy efficiency metrics and benchmarks for laboratories, at the whole building as well as the system level. The information in this guide can be used to incorporate quantitative metrics and targets into the programming of new laboratory facilities. Many of these metrics can also be applied to evaluate existing facilities. For information on strategies and technologies to achieve energy efficiency, the reader is referred to Labs21 resources, including technology best practice guides, case studies, and the design guide (available at www.labs21century.gov/toolkit).

  12. MCA Center of Excellence Through Benchmarking and INMM Involvement - Key Tools for Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JAY, JEFFERY

    2005-10-07

    Nuclear Materials Management Department, a BWXT-corporate partner with Westinghouse Savannah River Company, has established a vision for positioning the organization as a Global Center of Excellence for Strategic Materials Management. NMM's Road to Excellence results from a changing business environment where flexibility and adaptability have become key demands from the Department of Energy customer. Flexibility and adaptability are integral components of the department's MC&A Center of Excellence philosophy in the pursuit of improvement technologies that meet domestic and international safeguards requirements. The customer challenge has put the organization in the forefront of change where benchmarking with other MC&A programs, applying human performance technologies and leveraging INMM leadership and participation opportunities are key ingredients to influencing improvements and changes in existing MC&A standards, policies and practices. The paper challenges MC&A professionals, MC&A program owners and organizational leaders to engage in the debate of new ideas, partnering arrangements and timely deployment of technologies (human performance and technical-based applications) to exponentially improve safeguards programs. Research and development efforts in support of safeguards improvements need to seriously consider deployment to field practitioners within a 2-3 year time frame from inception. INMM plays a crucial role in accelerating such opportunities and establishing improved performance standards above our normal governmental and organizational bureaucracies.

  13. Dependable Benchmarking for Storage Systems in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fleri Soler, Edward

    2017-01-01

    In high-energy physics, storage systems play a crucial role to store and secure very valuable data produced by complex experiments. The effectiveness and efficiency of data acquisition systems of such experiments depends directly on those of these storage systems. Coping with present day rates and reliability requirements of such experiments implies operating high-performance hardware under the best possible conditions, with a broad set of hardware and software parameters existing along the hierarchical levels, from networks down to drives. An extensive number of tests are required for the tuning of parameters to achieve optimised I/O operations. Current approaches to I/O optimisation generally consist of manual test execution and result taking. This approach lacks appropriate modularity, durability and reproducibility, attainable through dedicated testing facilities. The aim of this project is to conceive a user-friendly, dedicated storage benchmarking tool for the improved comparison of I/O parameters in re...

  14. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  15. Review of recent benchmark experiments on integral test for high energy nuclear data evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Susumu; Konno, Chikara; Fukahori, Tokio; Hayashi, Katsumi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    A survey work of recent benchmark experiments on an integral test for high energy nuclear data evaluation was carried out as one of the work of the Task Force on JENDL High Energy File Integral Evaluation (JHEFIE). In this paper the results are compiled and the status of recent benchmark experiments is described. (author)

  16. Marine Renewable Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigeant, Paul [Univ. of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, MA (United States); Miller, John [Univ. of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, MA (United States); Howes, Brian [Univ. of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, MA (United States); McGowan, Jon G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Baldwin, Kenneth [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Grilli, Annette [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States); Terray, Eugene [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    2013-10-08

    Project Goals: The funding provided by this contract supported the following activities: A) Test Site Development; B) Seed Grant Funded Technology Development; C) Stakeholder Activities The first year of funding was dedicated to the formation of the NE MREC University Consortium which was comprised of University of Massachusetts Dartmouth (UMD) and Amherst (UMA), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), University of New Hampshire (UNH), and the University of Rhode Island (URI). The consortium worked together to encourage research and promote benefits of obtaining energy from ocean wind, waves, tides and currents. In addition, NE MREC’s goal was to fund projects aimed at potential test sites with the first year funding going to studies of the potential for tidal device testing in Muskeget Channel, at the General Sullivan Bridge in New Hampshire, and for wave device testing at the proposed National Offshore Renewable Energy Innovation Zone (NOREIZ) located off the Massachusetts coast. The project spanned 4.5 years and addressed three specific tasks that are interrelated but also served as independent investigations.

  17. Review of California and National Methods for Energy PerformanceBenchmarking of Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matson, Nance E.; Piette, Mary Ann

    2005-09-05

    This benchmarking review has been developed to support benchmarking planning and tool development under discussion by the California Energy Commission (CEC), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and others in response to the Governor's Executive Order S-20-04 (2004). The Executive Order sets a goal of benchmarking and improving the energy efficiency of California's existing commercial building stock. The Executive Order requires the CEC to propose ''a simple building efficiency benchmarking system for all commercial buildings in the state''. This report summarizes and compares two currently available commercial building energy-benchmarking tools. One tool is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Energy Star National Energy Performance Rating System, which is a national regression-based benchmarking model (referred to in this report as Energy Star). The second is Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Cal-Arch, which is a California-based distributional model (referred to as Cal-Arch). Prior to the time Cal-Arch was developed in 2002, there were several other benchmarking tools available to California consumers but none that were based solely on California data. The Energy Star and Cal-Arch benchmarking tools both provide California with unique and useful methods to benchmark the energy performance of California's buildings. Rather than determine which model is ''better'', the purpose of this report is to understand and compare the underlying data, information systems, assumptions, and outcomes of each model.

  18. Benchmarking of electric power in industrial buildings using characteristic values; Benchmarking elektrischer Energie in Zweckbauten - Aussagefaehigkeit von Energiekennzahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, G.

    2001-07-01

    Benchmarking using characteristic values is an option for getting a first idea, especially in large building complexes. However, buildings may be difficult to compare as the connected loads and usage patterns may vary considerably even in identical buildings. The author suggests to use as many published characteristic values as possible, but this may be difficult as well as the types of data may vary. [German] Benchmarking mittels Energiekennzahlen ist auch fuer den Bereich der elektrischen Energie ein probates Mittel zur ersten Darstellung des energetischen Zustandes von Objekten insbesondere in groesseren Gebaeudebestaenden. Gerade fuer Stromkennzahlen ist jedoch die Vergleichbarkeit von Objekten von besonderer Schwierigkeit, da auch bei gleicher Gebaeudeart die Ausstattung mit elektrischen Verbrauchern und das Nutzerverhalten oft sehr unterschiedlich ist. Um einen grossen Stichprobenumfang zu erhalten, schlagen wir vor, moeglichst viele der in der Literatur vorhandenen Kennzahlen fuer den Vergleich heranzuziehen. Die unterschiedlichen Angaben - Energiebedarfszahlen und Energieverbrauchszahlen sowie arithmetische Mittelwerte, gewogene Mittelwerte und Modalwerte - erschweren jedoch die Vergleichbarkeit erheblich. (orig.)

  19. Energy benchmarking of commercial buildings: a low-cost pathway toward urban sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Matt; Brown, Marilyn A.; Sun, Xiaojing

    2013-09-01

    US cities are beginning to experiment with a regulatory approach to address information failures in the real estate market by mandating the energy benchmarking of commercial buildings. Understanding how a commercial building uses energy has many benefits; for example, it helps building owners and tenants identify poor-performing buildings and subsystems and it enables high-performing buildings to achieve greater occupancy rates, rents, and property values. This paper estimates the possible impacts of a national energy benchmarking mandate through analysis chiefly utilizing the Georgia Tech version of the National Energy Modeling System (GT-NEMS). Correcting input discount rates results in a 4.0% reduction in projected energy consumption for seven major classes of equipment relative to the reference case forecast in 2020, rising to 8.7% in 2035. Thus, the official US energy forecasts appear to overestimate future energy consumption by underestimating investments in energy-efficient equipment. Further discount rate reductions spurred by benchmarking policies yield another 1.3-1.4% in energy savings in 2020, increasing to 2.2-2.4% in 2035. Benchmarking would increase the purchase of energy-efficient equipment, reducing energy bills, CO2 emissions, and conventional air pollution. Achieving comparable CO2 savings would require more than tripling existing US solar capacity. Our analysis suggests that nearly 90% of the energy saved by a national benchmarking policy would benefit metropolitan areas, and the policy’s benefits would outweigh its costs, both to the private sector and society broadly.

  20. Energy cost reduction in the pulp and paper industry - an energy benchmarking perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, D.W.; Towers, M.T.; Browne, T.C. [Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    With the increasing cost of energy and the rising concerns over the environment, interest in energy saving methods is growing in the industry sector. In the pulp and paper sector, energy represents a significant part of costs and the aims of this paper are first, to demonstrate that there is a potential for energy use reduction in the pulp and paper industry and secondly, to show how it can be achieved. Benchmarking studies have been carried out for both the kraft market pulp and newsprint sectors; in both cases the energy consumption of existing Canadian mills was compared to that of a modern mill using the best current technologies. Results showed that in both sectors, the application of best practices could result in significant savings. This study demonstrated that the application of current technologies in existing mills would yield significant energy use reductions.

  1. Building Energy Benchmarking in India: an Action Plan for Advancing the State-of-the-Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarraf, Saket [Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology (CEPT) Univ., Ahmedabad (India); Anand, Shilpi [Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology (CEPT) Univ., Ahmedabad (India); Shukla, Yash [Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology (CEPT) Univ., Ahmedabad (India); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singh, Reshma [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This document describes an action plan for advancing the state of the art of commercial building energy benchmarking in the Indian context. The document is primarily intended for two audiences: (a) Research and development (R&D) sponsors and researchers can use the action plan to frame, plan, prioritize and scope new energy benchmarking R&D in order to ensure that their research is market relevant; (b) Policy makers and program implementers engaged in the deployment of benchmarking and building efficiency rating programmes can use the action plan for policy formulation and enforcement .

  2. Midwest Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttica, John; Haefke, Cliff

    2013-12-31

    The Midwest Clean Energy Application Center (CEAC) was one of eight regional centers that promoted and assisted in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), waste heat to power (WHP), and district energy (DE) technologies and concepts throughout the United States between October 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. The key services the CEACs provided included: Market Opportunity Analyses – Supporting analyses of CHP market opportunities in diverse markets including industrial, federal, institutional, and commercial sectors. Education and Outreach – Providing information on the energy and non-energy benefits and applications of CHP to state and local policy makers, regulators, energy end-users, trade associations and others. Information was shared on the Midwest CEAC website: www.midwestcleanergy.org. Technical Assistance – Providing technical assistance to end-users and stakeholders to help them consider CHP, waste heat to power, and/or district energy with CHP in their facility and to help them through the project development process from initial CHP screening to installation. The Midwest CEAC provided services to the Midwest Region that included the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

  3. Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly Gibson; Mark Norfolk

    2012-07-30

    The program goal of the Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center (OAEMC) is to support advanced energy manufacturing and to create responsive manufacturing clusters that will support the production of advanced energy and energy-efficient products to help ensure the nation's energy and environmental security. This goal cuts across a number of existing industry segments critical to the nation's future. Many of the advanced energy businesses are starting to make the transition from technology development to commercial production. Historically, this transition from laboratory prototypes through initial production for early adopters to full production for mass markets has taken several years. Developing and implementing manufacturing technology to enable production at a price point the market will accept is a key step. Since these start-up operations are configured to advance the technology readiness of the core energy technology, they have neither the expertise nor the resources to address manufacturing readiness issues they encounter as the technology advances toward market entry. Given the economic realities of today's business environment, finding ways to accelerate this transition can make the difference between success and failure for a new product or business. The advanced energy industry touches a wide range of industry segments that are not accustomed to working together in complex supply chains to serve large markets such as automotive and construction. During its first three years, the Center has catalyzed the communication between companies and industry groups that serve the wide range of advanced energy markets. The Center has also found areas of common concern, and worked to help companies address these concerns on a segment or industry basis rather than having each company work to solve common problems individually. EWI worked with three industries through public-private partnerships to sew together disparate segments helping to promote

  4. Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly Gibson; Mark Norfolk

    2012-07-30

    The program goal of the Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center (OAEMC) is to support advanced energy manufacturing and to create responsive manufacturing clusters that will support the production of advanced energy and energy-efficient products to help ensure the nation's energy and environmental security. This goal cuts across a number of existing industry segments critical to the nation's future. Many of the advanced energy businesses are starting to make the transition from technology development to commercial production. Historically, this transition from laboratory prototypes through initial production for early adopters to full production for mass markets has taken several years. Developing and implementing manufacturing technology to enable production at a price point the market will accept is a key step. Since these start-up operations are configured to advance the technology readiness of the core energy technology, they have neither the expertise nor the resources to address manufacturing readiness issues they encounter as the technology advances toward market entry. Given the economic realities of today's business environment, finding ways to accelerate this transition can make the difference between success and failure for a new product or business. The advanced energy industry touches a wide range of industry segments that are not accustomed to working together in complex supply chains to serve large markets such as automotive and construction. During its first three years, the Center has catalyzed the communication between companies and industry groups that serve the wide range of advanced energy markets. The Center has also found areas of common concern, and worked to help companies address these concerns on a segment or industry basis rather than having each company work to solve common problems individually. EWI worked with three industries through public-private partnerships to sew together disparate segments helping to promote

  5. IDEA Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Robert

    2013-09-30

    The DOE Clean Energy Application Centers were launched with a goal of focusing on important aspects of our nation’s energy supply including Efficiency, Reliability and Resiliency. Clean Energy solutions based on Combined Heat & Power (CHP), District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery are at the core of ensuring a reliable and efficient energy infrastructure for campuses, communities, and industry and public enterprises across the country. IDEA members which include colleges and universities, hospitals, airports, downtown utilities as well as manufacturers, suppliers and service providers have long-standing expertise in the planning, design, construction and operations of Clean Energy systems. They represent an established base of successful projects and systems at scale and serve important and critical energy loads. They also offer experience, lessons learned and best practices which are of immense value to the sustained growth of the Clean Energy sector. IDEA has been able to leverage the funds from the project award to raise the visibility, improve the understanding and increase deployment CHP, District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery solutions across the regions of our nation, in collaboration with the regional CEAC’s. On August 30, 2012, President Obama signed an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency (EE), including CHP and set a national goal of 40 GW of new CHP installation over the next decade IDEA is pleased to have been able to support this Executive Order in a variety of ways including raising awareness of the goal through educational workshops and Conferences and recognizing the installation of large scale CHP and district energy systems A supporting key area of collaboration has involved IDEA providing technical assistance on District Energy/CHP project screenings and feasibility to the CEAC’s for multi building, multi-use projects. The award was instrumental in the development of a first-order screening

  6. A review of benchmarking, rating and labelling concepts within the framework of building energy certification schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lombard, Luis; Gonzalez, Rocio [Grupo de Termotecnia, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Ortiz, Jose [BRE (Building Research Establishment), Garston, Watford WD25 9XX (United Kingdom); Maestre, Ismael R. [Dpto. de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Algeciras, Universidad de Cadiz, Av. Ramon Puyol s/n, Algeciras 11202 Cadiz (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    Energy certification schemes for buildings emerged in the early 1990s as an essential method for improving energy efficiency, minimising energy consumption and enabling greater transparency with regards to the use of energy in buildings. However, from the beginning their definition and implementation process were diffuse and, occasionally, have confused building sector stakeholders. A multiplicity of terms and concepts such as energy performance, energy efficiency, energy ratings, benchmarking, labelling, etc., have emerged with sometimes overlapping meanings. This has frequently led to misleading interpretations by regulatory bodies, energy agencies and final consumers. This paper analyses the origin and the historic development of energy certification schemes in buildings along with the definition and scope of a building energy certificate and critical aspects of its implementation. Concepts such as benchmarking tools, energy ratings and energy labelling are clarified within the wider topic of certification schemes. Finally, a seven steps process is proposed as a guide for implementing building energy certification. (author)

  7. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  8. Bilgi ve Belge Hizmetlerinde Mükemmeli Yakalamak: Örnekedinme / Benchmarking Practices in the Information and Documentation Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Kurulgan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Prior to 1980’s most of the Information and Documentation Centers(IDC had adopted customer satisfaction as the quality criterion of their services. During the 80’s IDC’s became aware of Total QualityManagement as one of the primary influencing factors in increasing the efficiency of information services and began its implementation. For over 20 years they have been using instruments and processes toimprove services offered to users. One of these is benchmarking.Different benchmarking processes such as those of competitive,cooperative, internal, quantitative and qualitative types were all utilized by IDC’s. This study briefly explains the benchmarking process and examines various practices of benchmarking in Information and Documentation Centers in the World and in Turkey.

  9. A new methodology for building energy benchmarking: An approach based on clustering concept and statistical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuefeng

    Though many building energy benchmarking programs have been developed during the past decades, they hold certain limitations. The major concern is that they may cause misleading benchmarking due to not fully considering the impacts of the multiple features of buildings on energy performance. The existing methods classify buildings according to only one of many features of buildings -- the use type, which may result in a comparison between two buildings that are tremendously different in other features and not properly comparable as a result. This research aims to tackle this challenge by proposing a new methodology based on the clustering concept and statistical analysis. The clustering concept, which reflects on machine learning algorithms, classifies buildings based on a multi-dimensional domain of building features, rather than the single dimension of use type. Buildings with the greatest similarity of features that influence energy performance are classified into the same cluster, and benchmarked according to the centroid reference of the cluster. Statistical analysis is applied to find the most influential features impacting building energy performance, as well as provide prediction models for the new design energy consumption. The proposed methodology as applicable to both existing building benchmarking and new design benchmarking was discussed in this dissertation. The former contains four steps: feature selection, clustering algorithm adaptation, results validation, and interpretation. The latter consists of three parts: data observation, inverse modeling, and forward modeling. The experimentation and validation were carried out for both perspectives. It was shown that the proposed methodology could account for the total building energy performance and was able to provide a more comprehensive approach to benchmarking. In addition, the multi-dimensional clustering concept enables energy benchmarking among different types of buildings, and inspires a new

  10. Thermal Performance Benchmarking; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Gilbert

    2015-06-09

    This project proposes to seek out the SOA power electronics and motor technologies to thermally benchmark their performance. The benchmarking will focus on the thermal aspects of the system. System metrics including the junction-to-coolant thermal resistance and the parasitic power consumption (i.e., coolant flow rates and pressure drop performance) of the heat exchanger will be measured. The type of heat exchanger (i.e., channel flow, brazed, folded-fin) and any enhancement features (i.e., enhanced surfaces) will be identified and evaluated to understand their effect on performance. Additionally, the thermal resistance/conductivity of the power module’s passive stack and motor’s laminations and copper winding bundles will also be measured. The research conducted will allow insight into the various cooling strategies to understand which heat exchangers are most effective in terms of thermal performance and efficiency. Modeling analysis and fluid-flow visualization may also be carried out to better understand the heat transfer and fluid dynamics of the systems.

  11. Design and implementation of a web-based reporting and benchmarking center for inpatient glucometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Greg; Schnipper, Jeffrey Lawrence; Messler, Jordan; Ramos, Pedro; Kulasa, Kristen; Nolan, Ann; Rogers, Kendall

    2014-07-01

    Insulin is a top source of adverse drug events in the hospital, and glycemic control is a focus of improvement efforts across the country. Yet, the majority of hospitals have no data to gauge their performance on glycemic control, hypoglycemia rates, or hypoglycemic management. Current tools to outsource glucometrics reports are limited in availability or function. Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM) faculty designed and implemented a web-based data and reporting center that calculates glucometrics on blood glucose data files securely uploaded by users. Unit labels, care type (critical care, non-critical care), and unit type (eg, medical, surgical, mixed, pediatrics) are defined on upload allowing for robust, flexible reporting. Reports for any date range, care type, unit type, or any combination of units are available on demand for review or downloading into a variety of file formats. Four reports with supporting graphics depict glycemic control, hypoglycemia, and hypoglycemia management by patient day or patient stay. Benchmarking and performance ranking reports are generated periodically for all hospitals in the database. In all, 76 hospitals have uploaded at least 12 months of data for non-critical care areas and 67 sites have uploaded critical care data. Critical care benchmarking reveals wide variability in performance. Some hospitals achieve top quartile performance in both glycemic control and hypoglycemia parameters. This new web-based glucometrics data and reporting tool allows hospitals to track their performance with a flexible reporting system, and provides them with external benchmarking. Tools like this help to establish standardized glucometrics and performance standards.

  12. Energy saving in WWTP: Daily benchmarking under uncertainty and data availability limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrossa, D; Schutz, G; Cornelissen, A; Hernández-Sancho, F; Hansen, J

    2016-07-01

    Efficient management of Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) can produce significant environmental and economic benefits. Energy benchmarking can be used to compare WWTPs, identify targets and use these to improve their performance. Different authors have performed benchmark analysis on monthly or yearly basis but their approaches suffer from a time lag between an event, its detection, interpretation and potential actions. The availability of on-line measurement data on many WWTPs should theoretically enable the decrease of the management response time by daily benchmarking. Unfortunately this approach is often impossible because of limited data availability. This paper proposes a methodology to perform a daily benchmark analysis under database limitations. The methodology has been applied to the Energy Online System (EOS) developed in the framework of the project "INNERS" (INNovative Energy Recovery Strategies in the urban water cycle). EOS calculates a set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for the evaluation of energy and process performances. In EOS, the energy KPIs take in consideration the pollutant load in order to enable the comparison between different plants. For example, EOS does not analyse the energy consumption but the energy consumption on pollutant load. This approach enables the comparison of performances for plants with different loads or for a single plant under different load conditions. The energy consumption is measured by on-line sensors, while the pollutant load is measured in the laboratory approximately every 14 days. Consequently, the unavailability of the water quality parameters is the limiting factor in calculating energy KPIs. In this paper, in order to overcome this limitation, the authors have developed a methodology to estimate the required parameters and manage the uncertainty in the estimation. By coupling the parameter estimation with an interval based benchmark approach, the authors propose an effective, fast and reproducible

  13. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Tom

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: • Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants • Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business • Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings • Lower regional energy costs • Strengthened energy security • Enhanced consumer choice • Reduced price risks for end-users • Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops

  14. Report of results of benchmarking survey of central heating operations at NASA centers and various corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Thomas R.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, Total Quality Management has swept across the country. Many companies and the Government have started looking at every aspect on how business is done and how money is spent. The idea or goal is to provide a service that is better, faster and cheaper. The first step in this process is to document or measure the process or operation as it stands now. For Lewis Research Center, this report is the first step in the analysis of heating plant operations. This report establishes the original benchmark that can be referred to in the future. The report also provides a comparison to other organization's heating plants to help in the brainstorming of new ideas. The next step is to propose and implement changes that would meet the goals as mentioned above. After the changes have been implemented the measuring process starts over again. This provides for a continuous improvement process.

  15. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  16. Benchmark Energiebelasting glastuinbouw : vergelijking energie-intensiteit met de industrie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, M.J.; Nelissen, D.; Schepers, B.L.; Velden, van der N.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Onderzoek naar de energie-intensiteit en de lastendruk van de Energiebelasting voor de glastuinbouwsector in vergelijking tot andere energie-intensieve sectoren van de Nederlandse economie. Dit in het kader vanwege de aanvraag voor goedkeuring van tuinbouw-tarief voor 2011 en 2012 bij de Europese Co

  17. BEST Winery Guidebook: Benchmarking and Energy and Water SavingsTool for the Wine Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Radspieler, Anthony; Healy,Patrick; Zechiel, Susanne

    2005-10-15

    Not all industrial facilities have the staff or the opportunity to perform a detailed audit of their operations. The lack of knowledge of energy efficiency opportunities provides an important barrier to improving efficiency. Benchmarking has demonstrated to help energy users understand energy use and the potential for energy efficiency improvement, reducing the information barrier. In California, the wine making industry is not only one of the economic pillars of the economy; it is also a large energy consumer, with a considerable potential for energy-efficiency improvement. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Fetzer Vineyards developed an integrated benchmarking and self-assessment tool for the California wine industry called ''BEST''(Benchmarking and Energy and water Savings Tool) Winery. BEST Winery enables a winery to compare its energy efficiency to a best practice winery, accounting for differences in product mix and other characteristics of the winery. The tool enables the user to evaluate the impact of implementing energy and water efficiency measures. The tool facilitates strategic planning of efficiency measures, based on the estimated impact of the measures, their costs and savings. BEST Winery is available as a software tool in an Excel environment. This report serves as background material, documenting assumptions and information on the included energy and water efficiency measures. It also serves as a user guide for the software package.

  18. Benchmarking of energy consumption of continuous galvanizing lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, B.; Chavan, R.

    2005-11-01

    A case study revealed that more than 13,500 MMBtu of energy is wasted annually when a single galvanizing line is off-production for hardware replacement for duration of a few hours every 2 weeks. This energy if utilized for production will yield about 13,000 tons of Galvanized Sheet Steel annually from a single galvanizing line. Thus for the 57 [1] hot dip galvanizing lines in US this figure results in a production loss of 741,000 tons/year. An attempt has been made to develop a spreadsheet that will take into account all the major energy consuming equipment in a typical hot dip continuous line. It maintains a track of the current production and energy consumption. It can simulate a scenario where either the number of shutdowns or the hours per shutdown will be reduced as a consequence of better material developed by the researchers. Different charts pertaining to energy consumed by different equipment group, total cost of energy spent on natural gas and electricity, MMBtu/Ton, Tons/Year and Production time before shutdowns assists the engineers decide the best operating stretch to suite their production rate and optimize energy consumption to some extent. Validation data gathered from the three well established galvanizing lines powers this spreadsheet to forecast annual increase in production and thus helps judge the performance of the new hardware.

  19. Benchmarking Hong Kong and China energy codes for residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.L.; Chen, Hua [The Department of Building Services Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom (China)

    2008-07-01

    Mandatory energy codes to curb energy use of residential buildings have been formally launched in China for more than two decades but little has been publicized in literature. Similar codes are not available for residential buildings in Hong Kong, but most residential buildings in Hong Kong, especially public housing estates, are HK-BEAM certified to demonstrate their compliance with regulatory and basic design requirements. Given HK-BEAM is internationally recognized and there are doubts about the effectiveness of the China codes, how the energy efficiency of the HK-BEAM certified buildings compare with buildings in compliance with the China codes is of interest to most building designers and policy makers. This paper describes how the energy efficiency of a case study building in compliance with the China codes compare with the one in compliance with HK-BEAM. The energy simulation by HTB2 and BECRES reveal that the case study building in compliance with the China codes is 51.1% better in energy use. In the study, the relative impact of each compliance criterion on energy use and cooling load has been quantified by sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity values indicate that energy use is most sensitive to air-conditioning operation hours, indoor design temperature, coefficient of performance (COP) of the room air-conditioners (RAC) units, and the envelop characteristics. The results of this study indicate that a HK-BEAM certified building cannot satisfy the China codes requirements. This provides good reference to the policy makers, the building owners, and to the China and Hong Kong Governments when considering reciprocal recognition of building energy codes. (author)

  20. NYIT Energy Information Center. A first report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magat, G.

    1976-08-16

    The Energy Information Center was created to serve (1) the research and information dissemination purposes of the Center for Energy Policy and Reearch, and (2) the information outreach programs of the Energy Advisory Service established by the Center. The Center is primarily concerned with (a) energy conservation, (b) alternative energy sources, (c) energy usage, and (d) energy policy, and insofar as they relate to these matters, it is concerned secondarily with fossil energy, nuclear energy, and international energy developments. Accordingly, the Energy Information Center acquires materials in such fields as engineering, economics, and the political, social, and behavioral sciences. In addition to serving the research and information dissemination needs of the Center for Energy Policy and Research, the Energy Information Center also supports the Center's Energy Advisory Service outreach program in which information and technical assistance in the use of energy conserving techniques and equipment is made available to industrial and commercial organizations, public officials, homeowners, and the general public throughout the New York New Jersey, and Connecticut area.

  1. Energy benchmarking in wastewater treatment plants: the importance of site operation and layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloir, C; Stanford, C; Soares, A

    2015-01-01

    Energy benchmarking is a powerful tool in the optimization of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in helping to reduce costs and greenhouse gas emissions. Traditionally, energy benchmarking methods focused solely on reporting electricity consumption, however, recent developments in this area have led to the inclusion of other types of energy, including electrical, manual, chemical and mechanical consumptions that can be expressed in kWh/m3. In this study, two full-scale WWTPs were benchmarked, both incorporated preliminary, secondary (oxidation ditch) and tertiary treatment processes, Site 1 also had an additional primary treatment step. The results indicated that Site 1 required 2.32 kWh/m3 against 0.98 kWh/m3 for Site 2. Aeration presented the highest energy consumption for both sites with 2.08 kWh/m3 required for Site 1 and 0.91 kWh/m3 in Site 2. The mechanical energy represented the second biggest consumption for Site 1 (9%, 0.212 kWh/m3) and chemical input was significant in Site 2 (4.1%, 0.026 kWh/m3). The analysis of the results indicated that Site 2 could be optimized by constructing a primary settling tank that would reduce the biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids and NH4 loads to the oxidation ditch by 55%, 75% and 12%, respectively, and at the same time reduce the aeration requirements by 49%. This study demonstrated that the effectiveness of the energy benchmarking exercise in identifying the highest energy-consuming assets, nevertheless it points out the need to develop a holistic overview of the WWTP and the need to include parameters such as effluent quality, site operation and plant layout to allow adequate benchmarking.

  2. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (French Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a French translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  3. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is an Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  4. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Vietnamese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  5. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Mandarin translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  6. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Portuguese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This is a Portuguese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  7. Institutional aspects of the energy centers concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser, George H.

    1977-03-01

    Information is presented concerning the socio-economic impacts of nuclear energy centers; equity considerations relating to taxation and revenue distribution; report on jurisdictional authorities of state and local government related to centralized and decentralized alternative energy systems; federal-state conflicts and cooperation in the siting of nuclear energy facilities; the energy park experience in Pennsylvania; and a socio-economic institution summary of energy centers in Washington State.

  8. Benchmark of Space Charge Simulations and Comparison with Experimental Results for High Intensity, Low Energy Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Cousineau, Sarah M

    2005-01-01

    Space charge effects are a major contributor to beam halo and emittance growth leading to beam loss in high intensity, low energy accelerators. As future accelerators strive towards unprecedented levels of beam intensity and beam loss control, a more comprehensive understanding of space charge effects is required. A wealth of simulation tools have been developed for modeling beams in linacs and rings, and with the growing availability of high-speed computing systems, computationally expensive problems that were inconceivable a decade ago are now being handled with relative ease. This has opened the field for realistic simulations of space charge effects, including detailed benchmarks with experimental data. A great deal of effort is being focused in this direction, and several recent benchmark studies have produced remarkably successful results. This paper reviews the achievements in space charge benchmarking in the last few years, and discusses the challenges that remain.

  9. Results of the GABLS3 diurnal-cycle benchmark for wind energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Rodrigo, J.; Allaerts, D.; Avila, M.; Barcons, J.; Cavar, D.; Chávez Arroyo, RA; Churchfield, M.; Kosovic, B.; Lundquist, JK; Meyers, J.; Muñoz Esparza, D.; Palma, JMLM; Tomaszewski, JM; Troldborg, N.; van der Laan, MP; Veiga Rodrigues, C.

    2017-05-01

    We present results of the GABLS3 model intercomparison benchmark revisited for wind energy applications. The case consists of a diurnal cycle, measured at the 200-m tall Cabauw tower in the Netherlands, including a nocturnal low-level jet. The benchmark includes a sensitivity analysis of WRF simulations using two input meteorological databases and five planetary boundary-layer schemes. A reference set of mesoscale tendencies is used to drive microscale simulations using RANS k-ɛ and LES turbulence models. The validation is based on rotor-based quantities of interest. Cycle-integrated mean absolute errors are used to quantify model performance. The results of the benchmark are used to discuss input uncertainties from mesoscale modelling, different meso-micro coupling strategies (online vs offline) and consistency between RANS and LES codes when dealing with boundary-layer mean flow quantities. Overall, all the microscale simulations produce a consistent coupling with mesoscale forcings.

  10. Strategies for energy benchmarking in cleanrooms and laboratory-type facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartor, Dale; Piette, Mary Ann; Tschudi, William; Fok, Stephen

    2000-06-01

    Buildings with cleanrooms and laboratories are growing in terms of total floor area and energy intensity. This building type is common in institutions such as universities and in many industries such as microelectronics and biotechnology. These buildings, with high ventilation rates and special environmental considerations, consume from 4 to 100 times more energy per square foot than conventional commercial buildings. Owners and operators of such facilities know they are expensive to operate, but have little way of knowing if their facilities are efficient or inefficient. A simple comparison of energy consumption per square foot is of little value. A growing interest in benchmarking is also fueled by: A new U.S. Executive Order removing the exemption of federal laboratories from energy efficiency goals, setting a 25% savings target, and calling for baseline guidance to measure progress; A new U.S. EPA and U.S. DOE initiative, Laboratories for the 21st Century, establishing voluntary performance goals and criteria for recognition; and A new PG and E market transformation program to improve energy efficiency in high tech facilities, including a cleanroom energy use benchmarking project. This paper identifies the unique issues associated with benchmarking energy use in high-tech facilities. Specific options discussed include statistical comparisons, point-based rating systems, model-based techniques, and hierarchical end-use and performance-metrics evaluations.

  11. Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan; Fuqiu , Zhou; Huawen, Xiong; Xuemin, Zeng; Lan, Wang

    2008-07-30

    The Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool (BEST) Cement is a process-based tool based on commercially available efficiency technologies used anywhere in the world applicable to the cement industry. This version has been designed for use in China. No actual cement facility with every single efficiency measure included in the benchmark will likely exist; however, the benchmark sets a reasonable standard by which to compare for plants striving to be the best. The energy consumption of the benchmark facility differs due to differences in processing at a given cement facility. The tool accounts for most of these variables and allows the user to adapt the model to operational variables specific for his/her cement facility. Figure 1 shows the boundaries included in a plant modeled by BEST Cement. In order to model the benchmark, i.e., the most energy efficient cement facility, so that it represents a facility similar to the user's cement facility, the user is first required to input production variables in the input sheet (see Section 6 for more information on how to input variables). These variables allow the tool to estimate a benchmark facility that is similar to the user's cement plant, giving a better picture of the potential for that particular facility, rather than benchmarking against a generic one. The input variables required include the following: (1) the amount of raw materials used in tonnes per year (limestone, gypsum, clay minerals, iron ore, blast furnace slag, fly ash, slag from other industries, natural pozzolans, limestone powder (used post-clinker stage), municipal wastes and others); the amount of raw materials that are preblended (prehomogenized and proportioned) and crushed (in tonnes per year); (2) the amount of additives that are dried and ground (in tonnes per year); (3) the production of clinker (in tonnes per year) from each kiln by kiln type; (4) the amount of raw materials, coal and clinker that is ground by mill type (in tonnes per

  12. Long term Combination of Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring (TIGA) Analysis Center Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teferle, F. N.; Hunegnaw, A.

    2015-12-01

    The International GNSS Service (IGS) Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring (TIGA) Working Group (WG) has recently finallized their reprocessing campaign, using all relevant Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from 1995 to 2014. This re-processed dataset will provide high quality estimates of land motions, enabling regional and global high-precision geophysical/geodeticstudies. Several of the individual TIGA Analysis Centers (TACs) have completed processing the full history of GPS observations recorded by the IGS global network, as well as, many other GPS stationsat or close to tide gauges, which are available from the TIGA data centre at the University of La Rochelle (www.sonel.org). The TAC solutions contain a total of over 700 stations. Following the recentimprovements in processing models and strategies, this is the first complete reprocessing attempt by the TIGA WG to provide homogeneous position time series. The TIGA Combination Centre (TCC) atthe University of Luxembourg (UL) has computed a first multi-year weekly combined solution using two independent combination software packages: CATREF and GLOBK. These combinations allow anevaluation of any effects from the combination software and of the individual TAC contributions and their influences on the combined solution. In this study we will present the first UL TIGA multi-yearcombination results and discuss these in terms of geocentric sea level changes.

  13. High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) is the primary archive for NASA missions dealing with extremely energetic phenomena, from...

  14. Accelerator Center for Energy Research (ACER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Accelerator Center for Energy Research (ACER) exploits radiation chemistry techniques to study chemical reactions (and other phenomena) by subjecting samples to...

  15. Stockbridge Munsee Community Health and Wellness Center and the Mohican Family Center Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRocher, Andy [Stockbridge-Munsee Health and Wellness Center, Bowler, WI (United States); Barrnett, Michael [Stockbridge-Munsee Health and Wellness Center, Bowler, WI (United States)

    2014-03-14

    The results of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study of Stockbridge Munsee Community’s Health and Wellness Center (HWC) indicate that a variety of renewable energy options and energy conservation measures (ECMs) exist for the facility. A requirement of the Request for Proposal for this study was to assess renewable energy options that could offset 30 to 100 percent of the HWC’s energy use. This study identifies that a geothermal system is the most cost effective renewable energy option available to decrease the HWC’s energy consumption by 30 to 100 percent. Currently the HWC performs in the lowest 8 percent of buildings in its building category, as scored in the EPA portfolio manager benchmarking tool. Multiple ECM opportunities have been identified with paybacks of less than five years to yield an estimated 25-percent decrease in annual energyconsumption. The ECMs within this payback period are estimated to save $26,800 per year with an implementation cost of just $4,650 (0.2 year payback). For the Mohican Family Center document: The results of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study of Stockbridge Munsee Community’s Mohican Family Center (MFC) indicate that a variety of renewable energy options and energy conservation measures (ECMs) exist for the facility. A requirement of the Request for Proposal for this study was to assess renewable energy options that could offset 30 to 100 percent of the MFC’s energy use. This study identifies that a geothermal system is the most cost effective renewable energy option available to decrease the MFC’s energy consumption by 30 to 100 percent. Currently the MFC performs better than 80 percent of buildings in its building category, as scored in the EPA portfolio manager benchmarking tool. Multiple ECM opportunities have been identified with short term paybacks to yield an estimated 13-percent decrease in energy consumption. The ECMs within this payback period are estimated

  16. ENERGY STAR Certified Data Center Storage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Data Center Storage that are effective as of...

  17. Benchmarking the energy situation of Danish municipalities - Rural production and urban efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Groth, Niels Boje

    Energy is a key issue for sustainable urban development, mainly related to the twin challenges of climate change and resource scarcity (Droege 2011). Despite agendas set on national and international level, local authorities are the key actors in this transformation (Lewis et al. 2013). European....... Against this background, a model was developed in the ongoing European FP7 project PLEEC (www.pleecproject.eu) to measure the energy situation in cities, called “Energy-Smart City”, compiling over 50 energy-related indicators. In this paper we adapt the model to the Danish context and benchmark the 98...

  18. Benchmarking Energy Efficiency World-wide in the Beer Industry 2003. Feedback report to the participating breweries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouda, P.

    2004-10-27

    Following the success of the first Worldwide Energy Efficiency Benchmark (WEEB) in the brewing Industry in 2000 using the data from 1999, a second WEEB was set up in 2004 using the data from 2003. The results of the energy benchmark 2003 are presented in this report. The Dutch and Belgium brewers commissioned the study and a consortium of KWA Business Consultants (Amersfoort, The Netherlands) and Brewing Research International (Surrey, UK) performed a world-wide benchmarking study on energy efficiency in the brewing industry. 158 breweries from all over the world, representing 26% of the world's beer production, took part in this project (all with an output of at least 0.5 million hectolitres beer per year). This report consists out of two parts: a description of the methodology, used for benchmarking the energy efficiency in the brewing industry; and the results of the benchmark in world wide figures.

  19. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Policymakers and industry leaders seek CEMAC insights to inform choices to promote economic growth and the transition to a clean energy economy.

  20. Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool. Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Flapper, Joris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kramer, Klaas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop a computer-based benchmarking and energy and water savings tool (BEST-Dairy) for use in the California dairy industry – including four dairy processes – cheese, fluid milk, butter, and milk powder.

  1. Holistic Approach to Data Center Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Steven W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-18

    This presentation discusses NREL's Energy System Integrations Facility and NREL's holistic design approach to sustainable data centers that led to the world's most energy-efficient data center. It describes Peregrine, a warm water liquid cooled supercomputer, waste heat reuse in the data center, demonstrated PUE and ERE, and lessons learned during four years of operation.

  2. Combination of Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring (TIGA) Analysis Center from repro2 solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunegnaw, Addisu; Teferle, Felix Norman

    2016-04-01

    Recently the International GNSS Service (IGS) Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring (TIGA) Working Group (WG) has completed their repro2 solutions by re-analyzing the full history of all relevant Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from 1995 to 2015. This re-processed data set will provide high-quality estimates of vertical land movements for more than 500 stations, enabling regional and global high-precision geophysical/geodetic studies. All the TIGA Analysis Centres (TACs) have processed the observations recorded by GPS stations at or close to tide gauges, which are available from the TIGA Data Center at the University of La Rochelle (www.sonel.org) besides those of the global IGS core network used for its reference frame implementations. Following the recent improvements in processing models, strategies (http://acc.igs.org/reprocess2.html), this is the first complete re-processing attempt by the TIGA WG to provide homogeneous position time series relevant to sea level changes. In this study we report on a first multi-year daily combined solution from the TIGA Combination Centre (TCC) at the University of Luxembourg (UL) with respect to the latest International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF2014). Using two independent combination software packages, CATREF and GLOBK, we have computed a first daily combined solution from TAC solutions already available to the TIGA WG. These combinations allow an evaluation of any effects from the combination software and of the individual TAC parameters and their influences on the combined solution with respect to the latest ITRF2014. Some results of the UL TIGA multi-year combinations in terms of geocentric sea level changes will be presented and discussed.

  3. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool. Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Flapper, Joris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kramer, Klaas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop a computer-based benchmarking and energy and water savings tool (BEST-Dairy) for use in the California dairy industry - including four dairy processes - cheese, fluid milk, butter, and milk powder. BEST-Dairy tool developed in this project provides three options for the user to benchmark each of the dairy product included in the tool, with each option differentiated based on specific detail level of process or plant, i.e., 1) plant level; 2) process-group level, and 3) process-step level. For each detail level, the tool accounts for differences in production and other variables affecting energy use in dairy processes. The dairy products include cheese, fluid milk, butter, milk powder, etc. The BEST-Dairy tool can be applied to a wide range of dairy facilities to provide energy and water savings estimates, which are based upon the comparisons with the best available reference cases that were established through reviewing information from international and national samples. We have performed and completed alpha- and beta-testing (field testing) of the BEST-Dairy tool, through which feedback from voluntary users in the U.S. dairy industry was gathered to validate and improve the tool's functionality. BEST-Dairy v1.2 was formally published in May 2011, and has been made available for free downloads from the internet (i.e., http://best-dairy.lbl.gov). A user's manual has been developed and published as the companion documentation for use with the BEST-Dairy tool. In addition, we also carried out technology transfer activities by engaging the dairy industry in the process of tool development and testing, including field testing, technical presentations, and technical assistance throughout the project. To date, users from more than ten countries in addition to those in the U.S. have downloaded the BEST-Dairy from the LBNL website. It is expected that the use of BEST-Dairy tool will advance understanding of energy and

  4. Indicators System Creation For The Energy Efficiency Benchmarking Of Municipal Power System Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydenko L.V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The issues of the dataware of the comparative analysis procedure (benchmarking for municipal power system facilities energy efficiency level estimation with a view of the hierarchical structure of the heat supply system are considered. The aim of the paper is the system of indicators formation for characterizing the efficiency of energy usage as on objects on lowest so on highest levels of power systems, proceeding from features of their functioning. Benchmarking methodology allows carrying out the estimation of energy efficiency level on the base of a plurality of parameters without their generalization in one indicator, but requires ensuring their comparability. Using the methodology of available statistical information that did not require deep specification and additional inspection structuring objectives and tasks of energy efficiency estimation problem has been proposed for ensuring the opportunity of benchmarking procedure implementation. This makes it possible to form the subset of indicators that ensure enough specification of the object of study, taking into account the degree of abstraction for every hierarchical level or sub problem. For a comparative analysis of energy using efficiency in municipal power systems at the highest levels of the hierarchy a plurality of indicators of the energy efficiency has been formed. Indicators have been determined with consideration of the structural elements of heat supply systems, but allowing taking into account the efficiency of the initial state of the objects, their functioning, and the questions of energy resources accounting organization. Usage of the proposed indicators provides implementation of energy using efficiency monitoring in the municipal power system and allows getting complete overview of the problem.

  5. Benchmarking energy use and costs in salt-and-dry fish processing and lobster processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The Canadian fish processing sector was the focus of this benchmarking analysis, which was conducted jointly by the Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation and the Fisheries Council of Canada, who retained Corporate Renaissance Group (CRG) to establish benchmarks for salt-and-dry processing operations in Nova Scotia and lobster processing operations in Prince Edward Island. The analysis was limited to the ongoing operations of the processing plants, and started with the landing of the fish/lobster and ended with freezer/cooler storage of the final products. Fuel used by the fishing fleet and in delivery trucks was not included in this study. The initial phase of each study involved interviews with management personnel at a number of plants in order to lay out process flow diagrams which were used to identify the series of stages of production for which energy consumption could be separately analyzed. Detailed information on annual plant production and total plant energy consumption and costs for the year by fuel type were collected, as well as inventories of energy-consuming machinery and equipment. At the completion of the data collection process, CRG prepared a summary of energy use, production data, assumptions and a preliminary analysis of each plant's energy use profile. Energy consumption and costs per short ton were calculated for each stage of production. Information derived from the calculations includes revised estimates of energy consumption by stage of production; energy costs per ton of fish; total energy consumption and costs associated with production of a standard product; and a detailed inter-plant comparison of energy consumption and costs per ton among the participating plants. Details of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and potential energy savings were also presented. 7 tabs., 3 figs.

  6. Energy efficient thermal management of data centers

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Pramod

    2012-01-01

    Energy Efficient Thermal Management of Data Centers examines energy flow in today's data centers. Particular focus is given to the state-of-the-art thermal management and thermal design approaches now being implemented across the multiple length scales involved. The impact of future trends in information technology hardware, and emerging software paradigms such as cloud computing and virtualization, on thermal management are also addressed. The book explores computational and experimental characterization approaches for determining temperature and air flow patterns within data centers. Thermodynamic analyses using the second law to improve energy efficiency are introduced and used in proposing improvements in cooling methodologies. Reduced-order modeling and robust multi-objective design of next generation data centers are discussed. This book also: Provides in-depth treatment of energy efficiency ideas based on  fundamental heat transfer, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, controls, and computer science Focus...

  7. Implementing the Data Center Energy Productivity Metric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sego, Landon H.; Marquez, Andres; Rawson, Andrew; Cader, Tahir; Fox, Kevin M.; Gustafson, William I.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2012-10-01

    As data centers proliferate in both size and number, their energy efficiency is becoming increasingly important. We discuss the properties of a number of the proposed metrics of energy efficiency and productivity. In particular, we focus on the Data Center Energy Productivity (DCeP) metric, which is the ratio of useful work produced by the data center to the energy consumed performing that work. We describe our approach for using DCeP as the principal outcome of a designed experiment using a highly instrumented, high performance computing data center. We found that DCeP was successful in clearly distinguishing between different operational states in the data center, thereby validating its utility as a metric for identifying configurations of hardware and software that would improve (or even maximize) energy productivity. We also discuss some of the challenges and benefits associated with implementing the DCeP metric, and we examine the efficacy of the metric in making comparisons within a data center and among data centers.

  8. Best Practices Guide for Energy-Efficient Data Center Design: Revised March 2011 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-03-01

    This guide provides an overview of best practices for energy-efficient data center design which spans the categories of Information Technology (IT) systems and their environmental conditions, data center air management, cooling and electrical systems, on-site generation, and heat recovery. IT system energy efficiency and environmental conditions are presented first because measures taken in these areas have a cascading effect of secondary energy savings for the mechanical and electrical systems. This guide concludes with a section on metrics and benchmarking values by which a data center and its systems energy efficiency can be evaluated. No design guide can offer 'the most energy-efficient' data center design but the guidelines that follow offer suggestions that provide efficiency benefits for a wide variety of data center scenarios.

  9. NSIDC Data Center: Energy Reduction Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-05-01

    The Green Data Center Project was a successful effort to significantly reduce the energy use of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Through a full retrofit of a traditional air conditioning system, the cooling energy required to meet the data center’s constant load has been reduced by over 70% for summer months and over 90% for cooler winter months. This significant reduction is achievable through the use of airside economization and a new indirect evaporative cooling cycle. One of the goals of this project was to create awareness of simple and effective energy reduction strategies for data centers. Although this particular project was able to maximize the positive effects of airside economization and indirect evaporative cooling because of its geographic location, similar strategies may also be relevant for many other sites and data centers in the United States.

  10. NREL Benchmarks the Installed Cost of Residential Solar Photovoltaics with Energy Storage for the First Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-13

    Fact sheet summarizing technical report TP-7A40-67474. New National Renewable Energy Laboratory research fills a gap in the existing knowledge about barriers to PV-plus-storage systems by providing detailed component- and system-level installed cost benchmarks for systems in the first quarter of 2016. The report is meant to help technology manufacturers, installers, and other stakeholders identify cost-reduction opportunities and inform decision makers about regulatory, policy, and market characteristics that impede PV-plus-storage deployment.

  11. Data Center Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: Anderson Readiness Center; Salem, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Van Geet, O.

    2014-06-01

    This report summarizes the results from the data center energy efficiency and renewable energy site assessment conducted for the Oregon Army National Guard in Salem, Oregon. A team led by NREL conducted the assessment of the Anderson Readiness Center data centers March 18-20, 2014 as part of ongoing efforts to reduce energy use and incorporate renewable energy technologies where feasible. Although the data centers in this facility account for less than 5% of the total square footage, they are estimated to be responsible for 70% of the annual electricity consumption.

  12. Center for Advanced Energy Studies Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Kostelnik

    2005-09-01

    The world is facing critical energy-related challenges regarding world and national energy demands, advanced science and energy technology delivery, nuclear engineering educational shortfalls, and adequately trained technical staff. Resolution of these issues is important for the United States to ensure a secure and affordable energy supply, which is essential for maintaining U.S. national security, continued economic prosperity, and future sustainable development. One way that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is addressing these challenges is by tasking the Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) with developing the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). By 2015, CAES will be a self-sustaining, world-class, academic and research institution where the INL; DOE; Idaho, regional, and other national universities; and the international community will cooperate to conduct critical energy-related research, classroom instruction, technical training, policy conceptualization, public dialogue, and other events.

  13. Northwest Region Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoding, David

    2013-09-30

    The main objective of the Northwest Clean Energy Application Center (NW CEAC) is to promote and support implementation of clean energy technologies. These technologies include combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, waste heat recovery with a primary focus on waste heat to power, and other related clean energy systems such as stationary fuel cell CHP systems. The northwest states include AK, ID, MT, OR, and WA. The key aim/outcome of the Center is to promote and support implementation of clean energy projects. Implemented projects result in a number of benefits including increased energy efficiency, renewable energy development (when using opportunity fuels), reduced carbon emissions, improved facility economics helping to preserve jobs, and reduced criteria pollutants calculated on an output-based emissions basis. Specific objectives performed by the NW CEAC fall within the following five broad promotion and support categories: 1) Center management and planning including database support; 2) Education and Outreach including plan development, website, target market workshops, and education/outreach materials development 3) Identification and provision of screening assessments & feasibility studies as funded by the facility or occasionally further support of Potential High Impact Projects; 4) Project implementation assistance/trouble shooting; and 5) Development of a supportive clean energy policy and initiative/financing framework.

  14. The New Center for Advanced Energy Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.J. Bond; K. Kostelnik; R.A. Wharton; A. Kadak

    2006-06-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundation to enable future economic growth. The next generation energy workforce in the U.S. is a critical element in meeting both national and global energy needs. The Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) was established in 2005 in response to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. CAES, located at the new Idaho National Laboratory (INL), will address critical energy education, research, policy study and training needs. CAES is a unique joint partnership between the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA), the State of Idaho, an Idaho University Consortium (IUC), and a National University Consortium (NUC). CAES will be based in a new facility that will foster collaborative academic and research efforts among participating institutions.

  15. A Benchmarking Study of High Energy Carbon Ion Induced Neutron Using Several Monte Carlo Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Oh, J. H.; Jung, N. S.; Lee, H. S. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Y. S.; Kwon, D. Y.; Kim, Y. M. [Catholic Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Oranj, L. Mokhtari [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In this study, the benchmarking study was done for the representative particle interaction of the heavy ion accelerator, especially carbon-induced reaction. The secondary neutron is an important particle in the shielding analysis to define the source term and penetration ability of radiation fields. The performance of each Monte Carlo codes were verified for selected codes: MCNPX 2.7, PHITS 2.64 and FLUKA 2011.2b.6. For this benchmarking study, the experimental data of Kurosawa et al. in the SINBAD database of NEA was applied. The calculated results of the differential neutron yield produced from several materials irradiated by high energy carbon beam reproduced the experimental data well in small uncertainty. But the MCNPX results showed large discrepancy with experimental data, especially at the forward angle. The calculated results were lower a little than the experimental and it was clear in the cases of lower incident carbon energy, thinner target and forward angle. As expected, the influence of different model was found clearly at forward direction. In the shielding analysis, these characteristics of each Monte Carlo codes should be considered and utilized to determine the safety margin of a shield thickness.

  16. Climate Change Mitigation through Energy Benchmarking in the GCC Green Buildings Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Alhorr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC of countries resides at or close to the top of the global table of CO2 emissions per capita and its economy relies heavily on its fossil fuels. This provides a context for green building programs that initially aim to create an understanding of emission pathways within the GCC and hence develop approaches to their reduction in the built environment. A set of criteria will allow specific analysis to be undertaken linked to the spatial dimensions of the sector under study. In this paper, approaches to modelling energy consumption and CO2 emissions are presented. As investment in the built environment continues, natural resources dwindle and the cost of energy increases, delivering low-energy buildings will become mandatory. In this study, a hybrid modelling approach (bottom-top & top-bottom is presented. Energy benchmarks are developed for different buildings’ uses and compared with international standards. The main goals are to establish design benchmarks and develop a modelling tool that contains specific information for all buildings types (existing and new, as well as planned and projected growths within the various city districts, then integrate this database within a geospatial information system that will allow us to answer a range of “what-if”-type questions about various intervention strategies, emissions savings, and acceptability of pre-defined course of actions in the city sector under consideration. The spatial carbon intensity may be adjusted over a certain period, (e.g., through local generation (microgeneration or due to an increasing proportion of lower carbon-energy in the generation mix and this can be related to the sector and city overall consumption.

  17. Benchmarking of Monte Carlo simulation of bremsstrahlung from thick targets at radiotherapy energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faddegon, Bruce A.; Asai, Makoto; Perl, Joseph; Ross, Carl; Sempau, Josep; Tinslay, Jane; Salvat, Francesc [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); National Research Council Canada, Institute for National Measurement Standards, 1200 Montreal Road, Building M-36, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya and Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Facultat de Fisica (ECM), Universitat de Barcelona, Societat Catalana de Fisica (IEC), Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    Several Monte Carlo systems were benchmarked against published measurements of bremsstrahlung yield from thick targets for 10-30 MV beams. The quantity measured was photon fluence at 1 m per unit energy per incident electron (spectra), and total photon fluence, integrated over energy, per incident electron (photon yield). Results were reported at 10-30 MV on the beam axis for Al and Pb targets and at 15 MV at angles out to 90 degree sign for Be, Al, and Pb targets. Beam energy was revised with improved accuracy of 0.5% using an improved energy calibration of the accelerator. Recently released versions of the Monte Carlo systems EGSNRC, GEANT4, and PENELOPE were benchmarked against the published measurements using the revised beam energies. Monte Carlo simulation was capable of calculation of photon yield in the experimental geometry to 5% out to 30 degree sign , 10% at wider angles, and photon spectra to 10% at intermediate photon energies, 15% at lower energies. Accuracy of measured photon yield from 0 to 30 degree sign was 5%, 1 s.d., increasing to 7% for the larger angles. EGSNRC and PENELOPE results were within 2 s.d. of the measured photon yield at all beam energies and angles, GEANT4 within 3 s.d. Photon yield at nonzero angles for angles covering conventional field sizes used in radiotherapy (out to 10 degree sign ), measured with an accuracy of 3%, was calculated within 1 s.d. of measurement for EGSNRC, 2 s.d. for PENELOPE and GEANT4. Calculated spectra closely matched measurement at photon energies over 5 MeV. Photon spectra near 5 MeV were underestimated by as much as 10% by all three codes. The photon spectra below 2-3 MeV for the Be and Al targets and small angles were overestimated by up to 15% when using EGSNRC and PENELOPE, 20% with GEANT4. EGSNRC results with the NIST option for the bremsstrahlung cross section were preferred over the alternative cross section available in EGSNRC and over EGS4. GEANT4 results calculated with the &apos

  18. Energy Consumption in Cloud Computing Data Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchechukwu Awada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of cloud computing has attracted computing as a utility and enables penetrative applications from scientific, consumer and business domains. However, this implementation faces tremendous energy consumption, carbon dioxide emission and associated costs concerns. With energy consumption becoming key issue for the operation and maintenance of cloud datacenters, cloud computing providers are becoming profoundly concerned.  In this paper, we present formulations and solutions for Green Cloud Environments (GCE to minimize its environmental impact and energy consumption under new models by considering static and dynamic portions of cloud components. Our proposed methodology captures cloud computing data centers and presents a generic model for them. To implement this objective, an in-depth knowledge of energy consumption patterns in cloud environment is necessary. We investigate energy consumption patterns and show that by applying suitable optimization policies directed through our energy consumption models, it is possible to save 20% of energy consumption in cloud data centers. Our research results can be integrated into cloud computing systems to monitor energy consumption and support static and dynamic system level-optimization.

  19. Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batten, Belinda [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Polagye, Brian [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); LiVecchi, Al [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-30

    In 2008, the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Wind and Water Power Program issued a funding opportunity announcement to establish university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers. Oregon State University and the University of Washington combined their capabilities in wave and tidal energy to establish the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center, or NNMREC. NNMREC’s scope included research and testing in the following topic areas: • Advanced Wave Forecasting Technologies; • Device and Array Optimization; • Integrated and Standardized Test Facility Development; • Investigate the Compatibility of Marine Energy Technologies with Environment, Fisheries and other Marine Resources; • Increased Reliability and Survivability of Marine Energy Systems; • Collaboration/Optimization with Marine Renewable and Other Renewable Energy Resources. To support the last topic, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was brought onto the team, particularly to assist with testing protocols, grid integration, and testing instrumentation. NNMREC’s mission is to facilitate the development of marine energy technology, to inform regulatory and policy decisions, and to close key gaps in scientific understanding with a focus on workforce development. In this, NNMREC achieves DOE’s goals and objectives and remains aligned with the research and educational mission of universities. In 2012, DOE provided NNMREC an opportunity to propose an additional effort to begin work on a utility scale, grid connected wave energy test facility. That project, initially referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center, is now referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center South Energy Test Site (PMEC-SETS) and involves work directly toward establishing the facility, which will be in Newport Oregon, as well as supporting instrumentation for wave energy converter testing. This report contains a breakdown per subtask of the funded project. Under each subtask, the following

  20. Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batten, Belinda; Polagye, Brian

    2016-06-30

    In 2008, the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Wind and Water Power Program issued a funding opportunity announcement to establish university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers. Oregon State University and the University of Washington combined their capabilities in wave and tidal energy to establish the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center, or NNMREC. NNMREC’s scope included research and testing in the following topic areas: • Advanced Wave Forecasting Technologies; • Device and Array Optimization; • Integrated and Standardized Test Facility Development; • Investigate the Compatibility of Marine Energy Technologies with Environment, Fisheries and other Marine Resources; • Increased Reliability and Survivability of Marine Energy Systems; • Collaboration/Optimization with Marine Renewable and Other Renewable Energy Resources. To support the last topic, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was brought onto the team, particularly to assist with testing protocols, grid integration, and testing instrumentation. NNMREC’s mission is to facilitate the development of marine energy technology, to inform regulatory and policy decisions, and to close key gaps in scientific understanding with a focus on workforce development. In this, NNMREC achieves DOE’s goals and objectives and remains aligned with the research and educational mission of universities. In 2012, DOE provided NNMREC an opportunity to propose an additional effort to begin work on a utility scale, grid connected wave energy test facility. That project, initially referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center, is now referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center South Energy Test Site (PMEC-SETS) and involves work directly toward establishing the facility, which will be in Newport Oregon, as well as supporting instrumentation for wave energy converter testing. This report contains a breakdown per subtask of the funded project. Under each subtask, the following

  1. Wallowa County Integrated Biomass Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoffersen, Nils [Wallowa Resources Community Solutions Inc., Wallowa, OR (United States)

    2014-05-02

    The Integrated Biomass Energy Center (IBEC) is an approximately 0.1 MW CHP integrated biorefinery in Northeastern Oregon which will demonstrate and validate small-scale combined heat and power from lignin intermediates/residues. IBEC will be co-located with feedstock suppliers and thermal and power customers for distributed generation. The project was developed by Wallowa Resources Community Solutions Inc.

  2. Installed Cost Benchmarks and Deployment Barriers for Residential Solar Photovoltaics with Energy Storage: Q1 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardani, Kristen; O' Shaughnessy, Eric; Fu, Ran; McClurg, Chris; Huneycutt, Joshua; Margolis, Robert

    2016-12-01

    In this report, we fill a gap in the existing knowledge about PV-plus-storage system costs and value by providing detailed component- and system-level installed cost benchmarks for residential systems. We also examine other barriers to increased deployment of PV-plus-storage systems in the residential sector. The results are meant to help technology manufacturers, installers, and other stakeholders identify cost-reduction opportunities and inform decision makers about regulatory, policy, and market characteristics that impede solar plus storage deployment. In addition, our periodic cost benchmarks will document progress in cost reductions over time. To analyze costs for PV-plus-storage systems deployed in the first quarter of 2016, we adapt the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's component- and system-level cost-modeling methods for standalone PV. In general, we attempt to model best-in-class installation techniques and business operations from an installed-cost perspective. In addition to our original analysis, model development, and review of published literature, we derive inputs for our model and validate our draft results via interviews with industry and subject-matter experts. One challenge to analyzing the costs of PV-plus-storage systems is choosing an appropriate cost metric. Unlike standalone PV, energy storage lacks universally accepted cost metrics, such as dollars per watt of installed capacity and lifetime levelized cost of energy. We explain the difficulty of arriving at a standard approach for reporting storage costs and then provide the rationale for using the total installed costs of a standard PV-plus-storage system as our primary metric, rather than using a system-size-normalized metric.

  3. Benchmark values for molecular three-center integrals arising in the Dirac equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baǧcı, A.; Hoggan, P. E.

    2015-10-01

    Previous papers by the authors report that they obtained compact, arbitrarily accurate expressions for two-center, one- and two-electron relativistic molecular integrals expressed over Slater-type orbitals. In the present study, accuracy limits of expressions given are examined for three-center nuclear attraction integrals, which are one-electron, three-center integrals with no analytically closed-form expression. In this work new molecular auxiliary functions are used. They are obtained via Neumann expansion of the Coulomb interaction. The numerical global adaptive method is used to evaluate these integrals for arbitrary values of orbital parameters and quantum numbers. Several methods, such as Laplace expansion of Coulomb interaction, single-center expansion, and the Fourier transformation method, have previously been used to evaluate these integrals considering the values of principal quantum numbers in the set of positive integer numbers. This study of three-center integrals places no restrictions on quantum numbers in all ranges of orbital parameters.

  4. Benchmark values for molecular three-center integrals arising in Dirac equation

    CERN Document Server

    Bagci, A

    2015-01-01

    The authors in their previous papers obtained compact, arbitrarily accurate expressions for two center one and two electron Dirac integrals expressed over Slater orbitals with noninteger principal quantum numbers. In this present study, the accuracy limits of given expressions is examined for three-center nuclear attraction integrals, which are the first integral set do not have analytically closed form relations. They are expressed through new molecular auxiliary functions obtained via Neumann expansion of Coulomb interaction. The numerical global adaptive method is used to evaluate these integrals for arbitrarily values of orbital parameters, principal quantum numbers in Slater orbitals. Several methods, such as Laplace expansion of Coulomb interaction, single center expansions, Fourier transformation methods, have been developed for evaluation of three-center integrals when integer principal quantum number is used. This is the first attempts to study the three-center integrals with noninteger Slater orbita...

  5. Benchmark values for molecular three-center integrals arising in the Dirac equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağcı, A; Hoggan, P E

    2015-10-01

    Previous papers by the authors report that they obtained compact, arbitrarily accurate expressions for two-center, one- and two-electron relativistic molecular integrals expressed over Slater-type orbitals. In the present study, accuracy limits of expressions given are examined for three-center nuclear attraction integrals, which are one-electron, three-center integrals with no analytically closed-form expression. In this work new molecular auxiliary functions are used. They are obtained via Neumann expansion of the Coulomb interaction. The numerical global adaptive method is used to evaluate these integrals for arbitrary values of orbital parameters and quantum numbers. Several methods, such as Laplace expansion of Coulomb interaction, single-center expansion, and the Fourier transformation method, have previously been used to evaluate these integrals considering the values of principal quantum numbers in the set of positive integer numbers. This study of three-center integrals places no restrictions on quantum numbers in all ranges of orbital parameters.

  6. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Arabic Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-06-01

    This is the Arabic translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  7. Benchmarking ab initio binding energies of hydrogen-bonded molecular clusters based on FTIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Nicolai Christian; Du, Lin; Reiman, Heidi;

    2014-01-01

    Models of formation and growth of atmospheric aerosols are highly dependent on accurate cluster binding energies. These are most often calculated by ab initio electronic structure methods but remain associated with significant uncertainties. We present a computational benchmarking study......) and compare this range to predictions from several widely used electronic structure methods, including five density functionals, Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, and five coupled cluster methods up to CCSDT quality, considering also the D3 dispersion correctional scheme. With some exceptions, we find...... that most electronic structure methods overestimate ΔG°295 K. The effects of vibrational anharmonicity is approximated using scaling factors, reducing ΔG°295 K by ca. 1.8 kJ mol(-1), whereby ΔG°295 K predictions well within the experimental range can be obtained....

  8. Benchmark values for molecular three-center integrals arising in the Dirac equation

    OpenAIRE

    Bagci, A.; Hoggan, P. E.

    2015-01-01

    The authors in their previous papers obtained compact, arbitrarily accurate expressions for two-center one- and two-electron relativistic molecular integrals expressed over Slater-type orbitals. In this present study, the accuracy limits of given expressions is examined for three-center nuclear attraction integrals, which are the first integral set do not have analytically closed form relations. They are expressed through new molecular auxiliary functions obtained via Neumann expansion of Cou...

  9. Thermochemical benchmarking of hydrocarbon bond separation reaction energies: Jacob's ladder is not reversed!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Helge; Grimme, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    We reinvestigate the performance of Kohn-Sham density functional (DF) methods for a thermochemical test set of bond separation reactions of alkanes (BSR36) published recently by Steinmann et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 2950 (2009)]. According to our results, the tested approximations perform for this rather special benchmark as usual. We show that the choice of reference enthalpies plays a crucial role in the assessment. Due to the large stoichiometric factors involved, errors of various origin are strongly amplified. Inconsistent reference data are avoided by computing reference energies at the CCSD(T)/CBS level. These are compared to results for a variety of standard DFs. Two different versions of London dispersion corrections (DFT-D2 and DFT-D3) are applied and found to be very significant. The most accurate results are obtained with B2GPPLYP-D2 (MAD = 0.4 kcal mol-1) B2PLYP-D2 (MAD = 0.5 kcal mol-1) and B97-D2 (MAD = 0.9 kcal mol-1 methods. Dispersion corrections not only improve the computed BSR energies but also diminish the accuracy differences between the DFs. The previous DFT-D2 version performs better due to error compensation of medium-range correlation effects between the semi-classical and the density-based description. We strongly recommend not to overinterpret results regarding DF accuracy when based on a single set of chemical reactions and to use high-level theoretical data for benchmarking purposes.

  10. Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillingham, Gavin

    2013-09-30

    The Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center was initiated to significantly improve market and regulatory conditions for the implementation of combined heat and power technologies. The GC CEAC was responsible for the development of CHP in Texas, Louisiana and Oklahoma. Through this program we employed a variety of outreach and education techniques, developed and deployed assessment tools and conducted market assessments. These efforts resulted in the growth of the combined heat and power market in the Gulf Coast region with a realization of more efficient energy generation, reduced emissions and a more resilient infrastructure. Specific t research, we did not formally investigate any techniques with any formal research design or methodology.

  11. Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator Index (NERI): A benchmarking tool for assessing nuclear capacity in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saum-Manning,L.

    2008-07-13

    Declining natural resources, rising oil prices, looming climate change and the introduction of nuclear energy partnerships, such as GNEP, have reinvigorated global interest in nuclear energy. The convergence of such issues has prompted countries to move ahead quickly to deal with the challenges that lie ahead. However, developing countries, in particular, often lack the domestic infrastructure and public support needed to implement a nuclear energy program in a safe, secure, and nonproliferation-conscious environment. How might countries become ready for nuclear energy? What is needed is a framework for assessing a country's readiness for nuclear energy. This paper suggests that a Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator (NERI) Index might serve as a meaningful basis for assessing a country's status in terms of progress toward nuclear energy utilization under appropriate conditions. The NERI Index is a benchmarking tool that measures a country's level of 'readiness' for nonproliferation-conscious nuclear energy development. NERI first identifies 8 key indicators that have been recognized by the International Atomic Energy Agency as key nonproliferation and security milestones to achieve prior to establishing a nuclear energy program. It then measures a country's progress in each of these areas on a 1-5 point scale. In doing so NERI illuminates gaps or underdeveloped areas in a country's nuclear infrastructure with a view to enable stakeholders to prioritize the allocation of resources toward programs and policies supporting international nonproliferation goals through responsible nuclear energy development. On a preliminary basis, the indicators selected include: (1) demonstrated need; (2) expressed political support; (3) participation in nonproliferation and nuclear security treaties, international terrorism conventions, and export and border control arrangements; (4) national nuclear-related legal and regulatory mechanisms; (5

  12. Strategic Energy Planning for Renewable Energy Demonstration Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Becky [Cabazon Band of Mission Indians; Crandell, George

    2014-04-10

    The focus of this project is to support the addition of renewable energy technologies to the existing CBMI resource recovery park, known as the Cabazon Resource Recovery Park (CRRP) in Mecca, California. The concept approved for this project was to determine if the resources and the needs existed for the addition of a Renewable Energy Demonstration Center (REDC) at the CRRP. The REDC concept is envisioned to support the need of startup renewable companies for a demonstration site that reduces their development costs.

  13. United States Data Center Energy Usage Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehabi, Arman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sartor, Dale [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Herrlin, Magnus [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Koomey, Jonathan [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Masanet, Eric [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Horner, Nathaniel [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Azevedo, Inês [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lintner, William [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report estimates historical data center electricity consumption back to 2000, relying on previous studies and historical shipment data, and forecasts consumption out to 2020 based on new trends and the most recent data available. Figure ES-1 provides an estimate of total U.S. data center electricity use (servers, storage, network equipment, and infrastructure) from 2000-2020. In 2014, data centers in the U.S. consumed an estimated 70 billion kWh, representing about 1.8% of total U.S. electricity consumption. Current study results show data center electricity consumption increased by about 4% from 2010-2014, a large shift from the 24% percent increase estimated from 2005-2010 and the nearly 90% increase estimated from 2000-2005. Energy use is expected to continue slightly increasing in the near future, increasing 4% from 2014-2020, the same rate as the past five years. Based on current trend estimates, U.S. data centers are projected to consume approximately 73 billion kWh in 2020.

  14. Evaluation of U.S. Building Energy Benchmarking and Transparency Programs: Attributes, Impacts, and Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mims, Natalie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Stuart, Elizabeth [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Kramer, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Faesy, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.

    2017-04-30

    In the last decade, a new policy area has emerged to boost energy efficiency in buildings that focuses on the simple action of measuring energy use as compared to buildings of similar type and size, and making that data publicly available. These efforts, referred to as benchmarking and transparency (B&T) policies, seek to unlock new energy efficiency opportunities in the country’s existing buildings by promoting data-driven decision-making and creating stronger market signals. This report focuses on the 24 state and local jurisdictions that (as of December 31, 2016) require owners of privately owned commercial buildings, multifamily buildings, or both to comply with a B&T policy. The report provides a summary of U.S. B&T policy design and implementation characteristics, reports results and impacts for jurisdictions with B&T policies, and discusses opportunities for increasing the efficacy of B&T policies, as well as suggested areas for further research. Among the findings, all but one of the B&T policy evaluation studies reviewed indicate some reduction (from 1.6% to 14%) in energy use, energy costs, or energy intensity over the two- to four-year period of the analyses. More specifically, most of the studies reviewed indicate 3% to 8% reductions in gross energy consumption or energy use intensity over a two- to four-year period of B&T policy implementation. Two additional evaluation studies indicate that there is a causal relationship between B&T policies and energy savings or energy cost savings. These documented impacts should be reviewed with some caution. While consistently showing energy savings benefits associated with B&T policies, these savings estimates should be considered preliminary because of the limited period of analyses and inconsistencies in analysis methods for the various studies. A nationally standardized method for data collection, reporting, and evaluation of B&T policies—developed with an advisory group of state and local jurisdictions

  15. Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Thomas, J.; Papanikolas, John, P.

    2011-11-11

    SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER INSTRUMENTATION FACILITY The mission of the Solar Energy Research Center (UNC SERC) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) is to establish a world leading effort in solar fuels research and to develop the materials and methods needed to fabricate the next generation of solar energy devices. We are addressing the fundamental issues that will drive new strategies for solar energy conversion and the engineering challenges that must be met in order to convert discoveries made in the laboratory into commercially available devices. The development of a photoelectrosynthesis cell (PEC) for solar fuels production faces daunting requirements: (1) Absorb a large fraction of sunlight; (2) Carry out artificial photosynthesis which involves multiple complex reaction steps; (3) Avoid competitive and deleterious side and reverse reactions; (4) Perform 13 million catalytic cycles per year with minimal degradation; (5) Use non-toxic materials; (6) Cost-effectiveness. PEC efficiency is directly determined by the kinetics of each reaction step. The UNC SERC is addressing this challenge by taking a broad interdisciplinary approach in a highly collaborative setting, drawing on expertise across a broad range of disciplines in chemistry, physics and materials science. By taking a systematic approach toward a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of each step, we will be able to gain unique insight and optimize PEC design. Access to cutting-edge spectroscopic tools is critical to this research effort. We have built professionally-staffed facilities equipped with the state-of the-art instrumentation funded by this award. The combination of staff, facilities, and instrumentation specifically tailored for solar fuels research establishes the UNC Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility as a unique, world-class capability. This congressionally directed project funded the development of two user facilities: TASK 1: SOLAR

  16. Benchmarking the Use of Learner-Centered Teaching Practices in Missouri Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Vivian Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Learner-Centered (LC) teaching focuses on shifting the role of an instructor from a provider of information to a facilitator of learning. Several Missouri community colleges have declared themselves LC institutions through use of the term in their mission statements and/or strategic goals. Although a metric for demonstrating this commitment, in…

  17. Mississippi State University Sustainable Energy Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, W. Glenn [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2014-09-26

    The Sustainable Energy Research Center (SERC) project at Mississippi State University included all phases of biofuel production from feedstock development, to conversion to liquid transportation fuels, to engine testing of the fuels. The feedstocks work focused on non-food based crops and yielded an increased understanding of many significant Southeastern feedstocks. an emphasis was placed on energy grasses that could supplement the primary feedstock, wood. Two energy grasses, giant miscanthus and switchgrass, were developed that had increased yields per acre. Each of these grasses was patented and licensed to companies for commercialization. The fuels work focused on three different technologies that each led to a gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel product. The three technologies were microbial oil, pyrolysis oil, and syngas-to liquid-hydrocarbons

  18. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Vietnamese Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    This is the Vietnamese language translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) fact sheet. The Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  19. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Chinese Translation) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    This is the Chinese language translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) fact sheet. The Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  20. Bibliometric analysis of energy research at the world level and benchmarking of CANMET energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, E.; Cote, G.

    2009-02-15

    CANMET, part of Natural Resources Canada, is a Canadian organization specializing in energy research, working on the development of renewable energy technologies and processes. Science Metrix conducted a study for Natural Resources Canada in 2009, resulting in the preparation of a report. In this document, Science-Metrix analyzes the involvement in energy research in different countries and at the world level and compares the scientific contribution of CANMET to that of other organizations around the world specialized in the same field. The study is based on the contents of papers prepared by CANMET researchers published between 1996 and 2007 and on the definitions of several bibliometric indicators. 1 tab., 15 figs.

  1. Environmental benchmarking of energy-related kraft mill modifications using LCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudreault, C.; Wising, U.; Martin, G.; Samson, R.; Stuart, P. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2008-12-15

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) tools were used to assess energy efficiency modifications at an integrated kraft pulp and paper mill. The tools were used to build a life cycle model of mill processes and products suitable for benchmarking environmental performance. An iterative process was used for all mill processes in the LCA system boundaries. Process options involving the use of waste paper were considered. Forest operations data included processes from planting seedlings to loading logs onto trucks as well as the manufacturing of fuel, chemicals, and amounts electricity needed. The state-specific fuel mix for electricity supply was applied to mill processes. Emission and resources were classified into categories and potential impacts were evaluated. The study showed that on-site mill operations were the main contributors to the ecotoxicity indicator and human health particulates indicator (HHP). Non mill-related activities accounted for most of the environmental impacts from fossil fuel usage. Paper end-of-life was the principal contributor to the eutrophication indicator. The study showed that converting steam production from coal to bark significantly reduced the environmental impacts of the mill. However the integration of a cogeneration plant did not significantly improve energy efficiency. 20 refs., 7 tabs., 11 figs.

  2. Follow-Up After Cardiac Surgery Should be Extended to at Least 120 Days When Benchmarking Cardiac Surgery Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Laura S; Sloth, Erik; Hjortdal, Vibeke E; Jakobsen, Carl-Johan

    2015-08-01

    Short-term (30 days) mortality frequently is used as an outcome measure after cardiac surgery, although it has been proposed that the follow-up period should be extended to 120 days to allow for more accurate benchmarking. The authors aimed to evaluate whether mortality rates 120 days after surgery were comparable to general mortality and to compare causes of death between the cohort and the general population. A multicenter descriptive cohort study using prospectively entered registry data. University hospital. The cohort was obtained from the Western Denmark Heart Registry and matched to the Danish National Hospital Register as well as the Danish Register of Causes of Death. A weighted, age-matched general population consisting of all Danish patients who died within the study period was identified through the central authority on Danish statistics. A total of 11,988 patients (>15 years) who underwent cardiac-surgery at Aarhus, Aalborg and Odense University Hospitals from April 1, 2006 to December 31, 2012 were included. Coronary artery bypass grafting, valve surgery and combinations. Mortality after cardiac surgery matches with mortality in the general population after 140 days. Mortality curves run almost parallel from this point onwards, regardless of The European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation (EuroSCORE) and intervention. The causes of death in the cohort differed statistically significantly from the background population (pcardiac (38%); 53% of which was categorized as heart failure. A total of 54% of these patients were assessed preoperatively as having normal or mildly impaired heart function (EuroSCORE). This study supported an extended follow-up period after cardiac surgery when benchmarking cardiac surgery centers. Regardless of preoperative heart function, heart failure was the consistent leading cause of death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Patient-Centered Cancer Care Programs in Italy: Benchmarking Global Patient Education Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truccolo, Ivana; Cipolat Mis, Chiara; Cervo, Silvia; Dal Maso, Luigino; Bongiovanni, Marilena; Bearz, Alessandra; Sartor, Ivana; Baldo, Paolo; Ferrarin, Emanuela; Fratino, Lucia; Mascarin, Maurizio; Roncadin, Mario; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta; Muzzatti, Barbara; De Paoli, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    In Italy, educational programs for cancer patients are currently provided by the national government, scientific societies, and patient advocate organizations. Several gaps limit their effectiveness, including the lack of coordinated efforts, poor involvement of patient feedback in the planning of programs, as well as a lack of resources on innovative cancer-related topics. This process is parallel to a strong shift in the attitude of patients towards health in general and taking charge of their own health conditions in particular. The National Cancer Institute in the USA and the Organization of European Cancer Institutes encourage comprehensive cancer centers in providing educational programs conceived to overcome these gaps. The goal of this paper is to identify and describe the key elements necessary to develop a global patient education program and provide recommendations for strategies with practical examples for implementation in the daily activities of cancer institutes. A multidisciplinary committee was established for patient education, including patient representatives as equal partners, to define, implement, verify, and evaluate the fundamental steps for establishing a comprehensive education program. Six essential topics were identified for the program: appropriate communication of cancer epidemiology, clinical trial information, new therapeutic technologies, support in the use of medicines, psycho-oncological interventions, age-personalized approaches, and training programs for healthcare providers. Integration of these topics along with patient feedback is the key to a successful model for educational programs. An integrated educational program can transform a comprehensive cancer center to an institution that provides research and care for and with patients.

  4. 75 FR 47301 - Cedro Hill Wind LLC; Butler Ridge Wind Energy Center, LLC; High Majestic Wind Energy Center, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ...; EG10-36-000; EG10-37-000; EG10-38-000] Cedro Hill Wind LLC; Butler Ridge Wind Energy Center, LLC; High Majestic Wind Energy Center, LLC; Wessington Wind Energy Center, LLC; Juniper Canyon Wind Power LLC; Loraine Windpark Project, LLC; White Oak Energy LLC; Meadow Lake Wind Farm III LLC; Meadow Lake Wind Farm...

  5. Renewable Energy at NASA's Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowall, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Johnson Space Center has implemented a great number of renewable energy systems. Renewable energy systems are necessary to research and implement if we humans are expected to continue to grow and thrive on this planet. These systems generate energy using renewable sources - water, wind, sun - things that we will not run out of. Johnson Space Center is helping to pave the way by installing and studying various renewable energy systems. The objective of this report will be to examine the completed renewable energy projects at NASA's Johnson Space Center for a time span of ten years, beginning in 2003 and ending in early 2014. This report will analyze the success of each project based on actual vs. projected savings and actual vs. projected efficiency. Additionally, both positive and negative experiences are documented so that lessons may be learned from past experiences. NASA is incorporating renewable energy wherever it can, including into buildings. According to the 2012 JSC Annual Sustainability Report, there are 321,660 square feet of green building space on JSC's campus. The two projects discussed here are major contributors to that statistic. These buildings were designed to meet various Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Certification criteria. LEED Certified buildings use 30 to 50 percent less energy and water compared to non-LEED buildings. The objectives of this project were to examine data from the renewable energy systems in two of the green buildings onsite - Building 12 and Building 20. In Building 12, data was examined from the solar photovoltaic arrays. In Building 20, data was examined from the solar water heater system. By examining the data from the two buildings, it could be determined if the renewable energy systems are operating efficiently. Objectives In Building 12, the data from the solar photovoltaic arrays shows that the system is continuously collecting energy from the sun, as shown by the graph below. Building 12

  6. Energy Materials Center at Cornell: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abruña, Héctor [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Mutolo, Paul F [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2015-01-02

    The mission of the Energy Materials Center at Cornell (emc2) was to achieve a detailed understanding, via a combination of synthesis of new materials, experimental and computational approaches, of how the nature, structure, and dynamics of nanostructured interfaces affect energy conversion and storage with emphasis on fuel cells, batteries and supercapacitors. Our research on these systems was organized around a full system strategy for; the development and improved performance of materials for both electrodes at which storage or conversion occurs; understanding their internal interfaces, such as SEI layers in batteries and electrocatalyst supports in fuel cells, and methods for structuring them to enable high mass transport as well as high ionic and electronic conductivity; development of ion-conducting electrolytes for batteries and fuel cells (separately) and other separator components, as needed; and development of methods for the characterization of these systems under operating conditions (operando methods) Generally, our work took industry and DOE report findings of current materials as a point of departure to focus on novel material sets for improved performance. In addition, some of our work focused on studying existing materials, for example observing battery solvent degradation, fuel cell catalyst coarsening or monitoring lithium dendrite growth, employing in operando methods developed within the center.

  7. Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Thomas, J.; Papanikolas, John, P.

    2011-11-11

    SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER INSTRUMENTATION FACILITY The mission of the Solar Energy Research Center (UNC SERC) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) is to establish a world leading effort in solar fuels research and to develop the materials and methods needed to fabricate the next generation of solar energy devices. We are addressing the fundamental issues that will drive new strategies for solar energy conversion and the engineering challenges that must be met in order to convert discoveries made in the laboratory into commercially available devices. The development of a photoelectrosynthesis cell (PEC) for solar fuels production faces daunting requirements: (1) Absorb a large fraction of sunlight; (2) Carry out artificial photosynthesis which involves multiple complex reaction steps; (3) Avoid competitive and deleterious side and reverse reactions; (4) Perform 13 million catalytic cycles per year with minimal degradation; (5) Use non-toxic materials; (6) Cost-effectiveness. PEC efficiency is directly determined by the kinetics of each reaction step. The UNC SERC is addressing this challenge by taking a broad interdisciplinary approach in a highly collaborative setting, drawing on expertise across a broad range of disciplines in chemistry, physics and materials science. By taking a systematic approach toward a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of each step, we will be able to gain unique insight and optimize PEC design. Access to cutting-edge spectroscopic tools is critical to this research effort. We have built professionally-staffed facilities equipped with the state-of the-art instrumentation funded by this award. The combination of staff, facilities, and instrumentation specifically tailored for solar fuels research establishes the UNC Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility as a unique, world-class capability. This congressionally directed project funded the development of two user facilities: TASK 1: SOLAR

  8. Quantum computing applied to calculations of molecular energies: CH2 benchmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veis, Libor; Pittner, Jiří

    2010-11-21

    Quantum computers are appealing for their ability to solve some tasks much faster than their classical counterparts. It was shown in [Aspuru-Guzik et al., Science 309, 1704 (2005)] that they, if available, would be able to perform the full configuration interaction (FCI) energy calculations with a polynomial scaling. This is in contrast to conventional computers where FCI scales exponentially. We have developed a code for simulation of quantum computers and implemented our version of the quantum FCI algorithm. We provide a detailed description of this algorithm and the results of the assessment of its performance on the four lowest lying electronic states of CH(2) molecule. This molecule was chosen as a benchmark, since its two lowest lying (1)A(1) states exhibit a multireference character at the equilibrium geometry. It has been shown that with a suitably chosen initial state of the quantum register, one is able to achieve the probability amplification regime of the iterative phase estimation algorithm even in this case.

  9. Direct measurements of quantum kinetic energy tensor in stable and metastable water near the triple point: an experimental benchmark

    CERN Document Server

    Andreani, Carla; Senesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the first direct and quantitative measurements of the nuclear momentum distribution anisotropy and the quantum kinetic energy tensor in stable and metastable (supercooled) water near its triple point using Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS). From the experimental spectra accurate lineshapes of the hydrogen momentum distributions are derived using an anisotropic Gaussian and a model independent framework. The experimental results, benchmarked with those obtained for the solid phase, provide the state of the art directional values of the hydrogen mean kinetic energy in metastable water. The determinations of the direction kinetic energies in the supercooled phase, benchmarked with ice at the same temperature, provide accurate and quantitative measurements of these dynamical observables in metastable and stable phases, {i.e.} key insight in the physical mechanisms of the hydrogen quantum state in both disordered and polycrystalline systems. The remarkable findings of this study establis...

  10. Tiger Team Assessment, Energy Technology Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The Office Special Projects within the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) has the responsibility to conduct Tiger Team Assessments for the Secretary of Energy. This report presents the assessment of the buildings, facilities, and activities under the DOE/Rockwell Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700 for the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) and of other DOE-owned buildings and facilities at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) site in southeastern Ventura County, California, not covered under Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700, but constructed over the years under various other contracts between DOE and Rockwell International. ETEC is an engineering development complex operated for DOE by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. ETEC is located within SSFL on land owned by Rockwell. The balance of the SSFL complex is owned and operated by Rocketdyne, with the exception of a 42-acre parcel owned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The primary mission of ETEC is to provide engineering, testing, and development of components related to liquid metals technology and to conduct applied engineering development of emerging energy technologies.

  11. Benchmarking DFT and semiempirical methods on structures and lattice energies for ten ice polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Maas, Tilo; Grimme, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Water in different phases under various external conditions is very important in bio-chemical systems and for material science at surfaces. Density functional theory methods and approximations thereof have to be tested system specifically to benchmark their accuracy regarding computed structures and interaction energies. In this study, we present and test a set of ten ice polymorphs in comparison to experimental data with mass densities ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 g/cm3 and including explicit corrections for zero-point vibrational and thermal effects. London dispersion inclusive density functionals at the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), meta-GGA, and hybrid level as well as alternative low-cost molecular orbital methods are considered. The widely used functional of Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof (PBE) systematically overbinds and overall provides inconsistent results. All other tested methods yield reasonable to very good accuracy. BLYP-D3atm gives excellent results with mean absolute errors for the lattice energy below 1 kcal/mol (7% relative deviation). The corresponding optimized structures are very accurate with mean absolute relative deviations (MARDs) from the reference unit cell volume below 1%. The impact of Axilrod-Teller-Muto (atm) type three-body dispersion and of non-local Fock exchange is small but on average their inclusion improves the results. While the density functional tight-binding model DFTB3-D3 performs well for low density phases, it does not yield good high density structures. As low-cost alternative for structure related problems, we recommend the recently introduced minimal basis Hartree-Fock method HF-3c with a MARD of about 3%.

  12. Estimating the Technical Improvement of Energy Efficiency in the Automotive Industry—Stochastic and Deterministic Frontier Benchmarking Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seog-Chan Oh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The car manufacturing industry, one of the largest energy consuming industries, has been making a considerable effort to improve its energy intensity by implementing energy efficiency programs, in many cases supported by government research or financial programs. While many car manufacturers claim that they have made substantial progress in energy efficiency improvement over the past years through their energy efficiency programs, the objective measurement of energy efficiency improvement has not been studied due to the lack of suitable quantitative methods. This paper proposes stochastic and deterministic frontier benchmarking models such as the stochastic frontier analysis (SFA model and the data envelopment analysis (DEA model to measure the effectiveness of energy saving initiatives in terms of the technical improvement of energy efficiency for the automotive industry, particularly vehicle assembly plants. Illustrative examples of the application of the proposed models are presented and demonstrate the overall benchmarking process to determine best practice frontier lines and to measure technical improvement based on the magnitude of frontier line shifts over time. Log likelihood ratio and Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient tests are conducted to determine the significance of the SFA model and its consistency with the DEA model. ENERGY STAR® EPI (Energy Performance Index are also calculated.

  13. Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, S; Strauss, M J; Snow, J; Rizatdinova, F; Abbott, B; Babu, K; Gutierrez, P; Kao, C; Khanov, A; Milton, K A; Neaman, H; H Severini, P Skubic

    2012-02-29

    The DOE EPSCoR implementation grant, with the support from the State of Oklahoma and from the three universities, Oklahoma State University, University of Oklahoma and Langston University, resulted in establishing of the Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP) in 2004. Currently, OCHEP continues to flourish as a vibrant hub for research in experimental and theoretical particle physics and an educational center in the State of Oklahoma. All goals of the original proposal were successfully accomplished. These include foun- dation of a new experimental particle physics group at OSU, the establishment of a Tier 2 computing facility for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Tevatron data analysis at OU and organization of a vital particle physics research center in Oklahoma based on resources of the three universities. OSU has hired two tenure-track faculty members with initial support from the grant funds. Now both positions are supported through OSU budget. This new HEP Experimental Group at OSU has established itself as a full member of the Fermilab D0 Collaboration and LHC ATLAS Experiment and has secured external funds from the DOE and the NSF. These funds currently support 2 graduate students, 1 postdoctoral fellow, and 1 part-time engineer. The grant initiated creation of a Tier 2 computing facility at OU as part of the Southwest Tier 2 facility, and a permanent Research Scientist was hired at OU to maintain and run the facility. Permanent support for this position has now been provided through the OU university budget. OCHEP represents a successful model of cooperation of several universities, providing the establishment of critical mass of manpower, computing and hardware resources. This led to increasing Oklahoma's impact in all areas of HEP, theory, experiment, and computation. The Center personnel are involved in cutting edge research in experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects of High Energy Physics with the research areas ranging

  14. Hanford Nuclear Energy Center: a conceptual study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, H. (comp.)

    1978-09-30

    The objective of the study is to develop an improved understanding of the nuclear energy center (NEC) concept and to identify research and development needed to evaluate the concept fully. A specific context was selected for the study--the Hanford site. Thus, the study primarily addresses the HNEC concept, but the findings are extrapolated to generic NECs where possible. The major emphasis in the HNEC study was to explore potential technical and environmental problems in a specific context and in sufficient detail to evaluate potential problems and propose practical solutions. The areas of concern are typical of those considered in preparing environmental and safety analysis reports, including: topics dealing with engineering choices (e.g., site selection, heat sink management, electrical transmission, and reliability of generation); environmental matters (e.g., terrestrial and radiological effects); socioeconomic factors (e.g., community impacts); and licensing considerations.

  15. Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Martin [Youngstown State Univ., OH (United States)

    2016-01-31

    The main goal of the Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems is to produce a methodology that evaluates a variety of energy systems. Task I. Improved Energy Efficiency for Industrial Processes: This task, completed in partnership with area manufacturers, analyzes the operation of complex manufacturing facilities to provide flexibilities that allow them to improve active-mode power efficiency, lower standby-mode power consumption, and use low cost energy resources to control energy costs in meeting their economic incentives; (2) Identify devices for the efficient transformation of instantaneous or continuous power to different devices and sections of industrial plants; and (3) use these manufacturing sites to demonstrate and validate general principles of power management. Task II. Analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell operating on landfill gas: This task consists of: (1) analysis of a typical landfill gas; (2) establishment of a comprehensive design of the fuel cell system (including the SOFC stack and BOP), including durability analysis; (3) development of suitable reforming methods and catalysts that are tailored to the specific SOFC system concept; and (4) SOFC stack fabrication with testing to demonstrate the salient operational characteristics of the stack, including an analysis of the overall energy conversion efficiency of the system. Task III. Demonstration of an urban wind turbine system: This task consists of (1) design and construction of two side-by-side wind turbine systems on the YSU campus, integrated through power control systems with grid power; (2) preliminary testing of aerodynamic control effectors (provided by a small business partner) to demonstrate improved power control, and evaluation of the system performance, including economic estimates of viability in an urban environment; and (3) computational analysis of the wind turbine system as an enabling activity for development of smart rotor blades that contain integrated sensor

  16. Wave Energy Research, Testing and Demonstration Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batten, Belinda [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to build upon the research, development and testing experience of the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (NNMREC) to establish a non-grid connected open-ocean testing facility for wave energy converters (WECs) off the coast of Newport, Oregon. The test facility would serve as the first facility of its kind in the continental US with a fully energetic wave resource where WEC technologies could be proven for west coast US markets. The test facility would provide the opportunity for self-contained WEC testing or WEC testing connected via an umbilical cable to a mobile ocean test berth (MOTB). The MOTB would act as a “grid surrogate” measuring energy produced by the WEC and the environmental conditions under which the energy was produced. In order to realize this vision, the ocean site would need to be identified through outreach to community stakeholders, and then regulatory and permitting processes would be undertaken. Part of those processes would require environmental baseline studies and site analysis, including benthic, acoustic and wave resource characterization. The MOTB and its myriad systems would need to be designed and constructed.The first WEC test at the facility with the MOTB was completed within this project with the WET-NZ device in summer 2012. In summer 2013, the MOTB was deployed with load cells on its mooring lines to characterize forces on mooring systems in a variety of sea states. Throughout both testing seasons, studies were done to analyze environmental effects during testing operations. Test protocols and best management practices for open ocean operations were developed. As a result of this project, the non-grid connected fully energetic WEC test facility is operational, and the MOTB system developed provides a portable concept for WEC testing. The permitting process used provides a model for other wave energy projects, especially those in the Pacific Northwest that have similar

  17. High Performance Homes That Use 50% Less Energy Than the DOE Building America Benchmark Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes lessons learned from designing, building, and monitoring five affordable, energy-efficient test houses in a single development in the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) service area. This work was done through a collaboration of Habitat for Humanity Loudon County, the US Department of Energy (DOE), TVA, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The houses were designed by a team led by ORNL and were constructed by Habitat's volunteers in Lenoir City, Tennessee. ZEH5, a two-story house and the last of the five test houses to be built, provided an excellent model for conducting research on affordable high-performance houses. The impressively low energy bills for this house have generated considerable interest from builders and homeowners around the country who wanted a similar home design that could be adapted to different climates. Because a design developed without the project constraints of ZEH5 would have more appeal for the mass market, plans for two houses were developed from ZEH5: a one-story design (ZEH6) and a two-story design (ZEH7). This report focuses on ZEH6, identical to ZEH5 except that the geothermal heat pump is replaced with a SEER 16 air source unit (like that used in ZEH4). The report also contains plans for the ZEH6 house. ZEH5 and ZEH6 both use 50% less energy than the DOE Building America protocol for energyefficient buildings. ZEH5 is a 4 bedroom, 2.5 bath, 2632 ft2 house with a home energy rating system (HERS) index of 43, which qualifies it for federal energy-efficiency incentives (a HERS rating of 0 is a zero-energy house, and a conventional new house would have a HERS rating of 100). This report is intended to help builders and homeowners build similar high-performance houses. Detailed specifications for the envelope and the equipment used in ZEH5 are compared with the Building America Benchmark building, and detailed drawings, specifications, and lessons learned in the construction and analysis of data gleaned

  18. Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Martin [Youngstown State Univ., OH (United States)

    2016-01-31

    The main goal of the Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems is to produce a methodology that evaluates a variety of energy systems. Task I. Improved Energy Efficiency for Industrial Processes: This task, completed in partnership with area manufacturers, analyzes the operation of complex manufacturing facilities to provide flexibilities that allow them to improve active-mode power efficiency, lower standby-mode power consumption, and use low cost energy resources to control energy costs in meeting their economic incentives; (2) Identify devices for the efficient transformation of instantaneous or continuous power to different devices and sections of industrial plants; and (3) use these manufacturing sites to demonstrate and validate general principles of power management. Task II. Analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell operating on landfill gas: This task consists of: (1) analysis of a typical landfill gas; (2) establishment of a comprehensive design of the fuel cell system (including the SOFC stack and BOP), including durability analysis; (3) development of suitable reforming methods and catalysts that are tailored to the specific SOFC system concept; and (4) SOFC stack fabrication with testing to demonstrate the salient operational characteristics of the stack, including an analysis of the overall energy conversion efficiency of the system. Task III. Demonstration of an urban wind turbine system: This task consists of (1) design and construction of two side-by-side wind turbine systems on the YSU campus, integrated through power control systems with grid power; (2) preliminary testing of aerodynamic control effectors (provided by a small business partner) to demonstrate improved power control, and evaluation of the system performance, including economic estimates of viability in an urban environment; and (3) computational analysis of the wind turbine system as an enabling activity for development of smart rotor blades that contain integrated sensor

  19. Morgantown Energy Technology Center, technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This document has been prepared by the DOE Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities funded through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE`s cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry`s competitiveness in global environmental markets. METC`s R&D programs are focused on commercialization of technologies that will be carried out in the private sector. META has solicited two PRDAs for EM. The first, in the area of groundwater and soil technologies, resulted in twenty-one contact awards to private sector and university technology developers. The second PRDA solicited novel decontamination and decommissioning technologies and resulted in eighteen contract awards. In addition to the PRDAs, METC solicited the first EM ROA in 1993. The ROA solicited research in a broad range of EM-related topics including in situ remediation, characterization, sensors, and monitoring technologies, efficient separation technologies, mixed waste treatment technologies, and robotics. This document describes these technology development activities.

  20. The possibility to use `energy plus transmutation' set-up for neutron production and transport benchmark studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Wagner; A Krása; M Majerla; F Křížek; O Svoboda; A Kugler; J Adam; V M Tsoupko-Sitnikov; M I Krivopustov; I V Zhuk; W Westmeier

    2007-02-01

    The set-up `energy plus transmutation', consisting of a thick lead target and a natural uranium blanket, was irradiated by relativistic proton beams with the energy from 0.7 GeV up to 2 GeV. Neutron field was measured in different places of this set-up using different activation detectors. The possibilities of using the obtained data for benchmark studies are analyzed in this paper. Uncertainties of experimental data are shown and discussed. The experimental data are compared with results of simulation with MCNPX code.

  1. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  2. Efficiency Benchmarking of an Energy Stable High-Order Finite Difference Discretization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weide, Edwin Theodorus Antonius; Giangaspero, G.; Svärd, M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, results are presented for a number of benchmark cases, proposed at the 2nd International Workshop on High-Order CFD Methods in Cologne, Germany, in 2013. A robust high-order-accurate finite difference method was used that was developed during the last 10–15 years. The robustness stems

  3. GeodeticBenchmark_GEOMON

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The GeodeticBenchmark_GEOMON data layer consists of geodetic control monuments (points) that have a known position or spatial reference. The locations of these...

  4. Energy efficiency benchmarks and the performance of LEED rated buildings for Information Technology facilities in Bangalore, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabapathy, Ashwin; Ragavan, Santhosh K.V.; Vijendra, Mahima; Nataraja, Anjana G. [Enzen Global Solutions Pvt Ltd, 90, Hosur Road, Madiwala, Bangalore 560 068 (India)

    2010-11-15

    This paper provides a summary of an energy benchmarking study that uses performance data of a sample of Information Technology facilities in Bangalore. Information provided by the sample of occupiers was used to develop an Energy Performance Index (EPI) and an Annual Average hourly Energy Performance Index (AAhEPI), which takes into account the variations in operation hours and days for these facilities. The EPI and AAhEPI were modelled to identify the factors that influence energy efficiency. Employment density, size of facility, operating hours per week, type of chiller and age of facility were found to be significant factors in regression models with EPI and AAhEPI as dependent variables. Employment density, size of facility and operating hours per week were standardised and used in a separate regression analysis. Parameter estimates from this regression were used to normalize the EPI and AAhEPI for variance in the independent variables. Three benchmark ranges - the bottom third, middle third and top third - were developed for the two normalised indices. The normalised EPI and AAhEPI of LEED rated building, which were also part of the sample, indicate that, on average, LEED rated buildings outperform the other buildings. (author)

  5. 75 FR 17169 - Nextera Energy Duane Arnold, LLC, Duane Arnold Energy Center; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... COMMISSION Nextera Energy Duane Arnold, LLC, Duane Arnold Energy Center; Exemption 1.0 Background NextEra Energy Duane Arnold, LLC, formerly FPL Energy Duane Arnold, LLC (the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR- 49, which authorizes operation of the Duane Arnold Energy Center (Duane...

  6. Stennis Space Center observes 2009 Energy Awareness Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center employees Maria Etheridge (l to r), Linda Sauland Maurice Prevost visit a Coast Electric Power Association display featuring energy-efficient light bulbs during 2009 Energy Awareness Day activities on Oct. 20. The exhibit was one of several energy-efficiency and energy-awareness displays on-site for employees to visit. Vendors included Mississippi Power Company, Coast Electric Power Association, Mississippi Development Authority - Energy Division,Jacobs FOSC Environmental, Southern Energy Technologies, and Siemens Building Technologies.

  7. Data Center Energy Efficiency Measurement Assessment Kit Guide and Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-26

    A portable and temporary wireless mesh assessment kit can be used to speed up and reduce the costs of a data center energy use assessment and overcome the issues with respect to shutdowns. The assessment kit is comprised of temperature, relative humidity, and pressure sensors. Also included are power meters that can be installed on computer room air conditioners (CRACs) without intrusive interruption of data center operations. The assessment kit produces data required for a detailed energy assessment of the data center.

  8. Demonstration of Data Center Energy Use Prediction Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Henry; Greenberg, Steve; Tschudi, William

    2013-09-30

    This report documents a demonstration of a software modeling tool from Romonet that was used to predict energy use and forecast energy use improvements in an operating data center. The demonstration was conducted in a conventional data center with a 15,500 square foot raised floor and an IT equipment load of 332 kilowatts. It was cooled using traditional computer room air handlers and a compressor-based chilled water system. The data center also utilized an uninterruptible power supply system for power conditioning and backup. Electrical energy monitoring was available at a number of locations within the data center. The software modeling tool predicted the energy use of the data center?s cooling and electrical power distribution systems, as well as electrical energy use and heat removal for the site. The actual energy used by the computer equipment was recorded from power distribution devices located at each computer equipment row. The model simulated the total energy use in the data center and supporting infrastructure and predicted energy use at energy-consuming points throughout the power distribution system. The initial predicted power levels were compared to actual meter readings and were found to be within approximately 10 percent at a particular measurement point, resulting in a site overall variance of 4.7 percent. Some variances were investigated, and more accurate information was entered into the model. In this case the overall variance was reduced to approximately 1.2 percent. The model was then used to predict energy use for various modification opportunities to the data center in successive iterations. These included increasing the IT equipment load, adding computer room air handler fan speed controls, and adding a water-side economizer. The demonstration showed that the software can be used to simulate data center energy use and create a model that is useful for investigating energy efficiency design changes.

  9. Portability and the National Energy Software Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, M K

    1978-01-01

    The software portability problem is examined from the viewpoint of experience gained in the operation of a software exchange and information center. First, the factors contributing to the program interchange to date are identified, then major problem areas remaining are noted. The import of the development of programing language and documentation standards is noted, and the program packaging procedures and dissemination practices employed by the Center to facilitate successful software transport are described. Organization, or installation, dependencies of the computing environment, often hidden from the program author, and data interchange complexities are seen as today's primary issues, with dedicated processors and network communications offering an alternative solution.

  10. Portability and the National Energy Software Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    The software portability problem is examined from the viewpoint of experience gained in the operation of a software exchange and information center. First, the factors contributing to the program interchange to date are identified, then major problem areas remaining are noted. The import of the development of programming language and documentation standards is noted, and the program packaging procedures and dissemination practices employed by the Center to facilitate successful software transport are described. Organization, or installation, dependencies of the computing environment, often hidden from the program author, and data interchange complexities are seen as today's primary issues with dedicated processors and network communications offering an alternative solution.

  11. A benchmark test suite for proton transfer energies and its use to test electronic structure model chemistries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachimuthu, Santhanamoorthi; Gao, Jiali; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2012-05-01

    We present benchmark calculations of nine selected points on potential energy surfaces describing proton transfer processes in three model systems, H5O2+, CH3OH…H+…OH2, and CH3COOH…OH2. The calculated relative energies of these geometries are compared to those calculated by various wave function and density functional methods, including the polarized molecular orbital (PMO) model recently developed in our research group and other semiempirical molecular orbital methods. We found that the SCC-DFTB and PMO methods (the latter available so far only for molecules consisting of only O and H and therefore only for the first of the three model systems) give results that are, on average, within 2 kcal/mol of the benchmark results. Other semiempirical molecular orbital methods have mean unsigned errors (MUEs) of 3-8 kcal/mol, local density functionals have MUEs in the range 0.7-3.7 kcal/mol, and hybrid density functionals have MUEs of only 0.3-1.0 kcal/mol, with the best density functional performance obtained by hybrid meta-GGAs, especially M06 and PW6B95.

  12. Successful interventions to reduce first-case tardiness in Dutch university medical centers: results of a nationwide operating room benchmark study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen-Berkx, Elizabeth; Elkhuizen, Sylvia G; Kalkman, Cor J; Buhre, Wolfgang F; Kazemier, Geert

    2014-06-01

    First-case tardiness is still a common source of frustration. In this study, a nationwide operating room (OR) Benchmark database was used to assess the effectiveness of interventions implemented to reduce tardiness and calculate its economic impact. Data from 8 University Medical Centers over 7 years were included: 190,295 elective inpatient first cases. Data were analyzed with SPSS statistics and multidisciplinary focus-group study meetings. Analysis of variance with contrast analysis measured the influence of interventions. Seven thousand ninety-four hours were lost annually to first-case tardiness, which has a considerable economic impact. Four University Medical Centers implemented interventions and effectuated a significant reduction in tardiness, eg providing feedbacks directly when ORs started too late, new agreements between OR and intensive care unit departments concerning "intensive care unit bed release" policy, and a shift in responsibilities regarding transport of patients to the OR. Nationwide benchmarking can be applied to identify and measure the effectiveness of interventions to reduce first-case tardiness in a university hospital OR environment. The implemented interventions in 4 centers were successful in significantly reducing first-case tardiness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Final environmental assessment: Sacramento Energy Service Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The Sacramento Area Office (SAO) of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) needs to increase the security of operations, to eliminate overcrowding at the current leased location of the existing facilities, to provide for future growth, to improve efficiency, and to reduce operating costs. The proposed action is to construct an approximate 40,000-square foot building and adjacent parking lot with a Solar Powered Electric Vehicle Charging Station installed to promote use of energy efficient transportation. As funding becomes available and technology develops, additional innovative energy-efficient measures will be incorporated into the building. For example the proposed construction of the Solar Powered Electric Vehicle Charging.

  14. Energy management of internet data centers in smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Tao; Cao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This book reports the latest findings on intelligent energy management of Internet data centers in smart-grid environments. The book gathers novel research ideas in Internet data center energy management, especially scenarios with cyber-related vulnerabilities, power outages and carbon emission constraints. The book will be of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in communication and networking areas who wish to learn the core principles, methods, algorithms, and applications of energy management of Internet data centers in smart grids.

  15. Energy Efficiency Evaluation and Benchmarking of AFRL’s Condor High Performance Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    PS3 we used a modified implementation of the one described by Kistler, et. al. (2009). The approach described was targeted for the IBM BladeCenter QS22...www.green500.org). Our implementation has been modified to run on the Cell BE available in the PS3, a variant similar to the IBM BladeCenter QS21. As

  16. DRI Renewable Energy Center (REC) (NV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekman, S. Kent; Broch, Broch; Robbins, Curtis; Jacobson, Roger; Turner, Robert

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of this project was to utilize a flexible, energy-efficient facility, called the DRI Renewable Energy Experimental Facility (REEF) to support various renewable energy research and development (R&D) efforts, along with education and outreach activities. The REEF itself consists of two separate buildings: (1) a 1200-ft2 off-grid capable house and (2) a 600-ft2 workshop/garage to support larger-scale experimental work. Numerous enhancements were made to DRI's existing renewable power generation systems, and several additional components were incorporated to support operation of the REEF House. The power demands of this house are satisfied by integrating and controlling PV arrays, solar thermal systems, wind turbines, an electrolyzer for renewable hydrogen production, a gaseous-fuel internal combustion engine/generator set, and other components. Cooling needs of the REEF House are satisfied by an absorption chiller, driven by solar thermal collectors. The REEF Workshop includes a unique, solar air collector system that is integrated into the roof structure. This system provides space heating inside the Workshop, as well as a hot water supply. The Workshop houses a custom-designed process development unit (PDU) that is used to convert woody biomass into a friable, hydrophobic char that has physical and chemical properties similar to low grade coal. Besides providing sufficient space for operation of this PDU, the REEF Workshop supplies hot water that is used in the biomass treatment process. The DRI-REEF serves as a working laboratory for evaluating and optimizing the performance of renewable energy components within an integrated, residential-like setting. The modular nature of the system allows for exploring alternative configurations and control strategies. This experimental test bed is also highly valuable as an education and outreach tool both in providing an infrastructure for student research projects, and in highlighting renewable

  17. Benchmark Modeling of the Near-Field and Far-Field Wave Effects of Wave Energy Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth E; Haller, Merrick C; Ozkan-Haller, H Tuba

    2013-01-26

    This project is an industry-led partnership between Columbia Power Technologies and Oregon State University that will perform benchmark laboratory experiments and numerical modeling of the near-field and far-field impacts of wave scattering from an array of wave energy devices. These benchmark experimental observations will help to fill a gaping hole in our present knowledge of the near-field effects of multiple, floating wave energy converters and are a critical requirement for estimating the potential far-field environmental effects of wave energy arrays. The experiments will be performed at the Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory (Oregon State University) and will utilize an array of newly developed Buoys' that are realistic, lab-scale floating power converters. The array of Buoys will be subjected to realistic, directional wave forcing (1:33 scale) that will approximate the expected conditions (waves and water depths) to be found off the Central Oregon Coast. Experimental observations will include comprehensive in-situ wave and current measurements as well as a suite of novel optical measurements. These new optical capabilities will include imaging of the 3D wave scattering using a binocular stereo camera system, as well as 3D device motion tracking using a newly acquired LED system. These observing systems will capture the 3D motion history of individual Buoys as well as resolve the 3D scattered wave field; thus resolving the constructive and destructive wave interference patterns produced by the array at high resolution. These data combined with the device motion tracking will provide necessary information for array design in order to balance array performance with the mitigation of far-field impacts. As a benchmark data set, these data will be an important resource for testing of models for wave/buoy interactions, buoy performance, and far-field effects on wave and current patterns due to the presence of arrays. Under the proposed project we will initiate

  18. Library Benchmarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiji Suwarno

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The term benchmarking has been encountered in the implementation of total quality (TQM or in Indonesian termed holistic quality management because benchmarking is a tool to look for ideas or learn from the library. Benchmarking is a processof measuring and comparing for continuous business process of systematic and continuous measurement, the process of measuring and comparing for continuous business process of an organization to get information that can help these organization improve their performance efforts.

  19. Financial Benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis is focused on financial benchmarking of TULIPA PRAHA s.r.o. The aim of this work is to evaluate financial situation of the company, identify its strengths and weaknesses and to find out how efficient is the performance of this company in comparison with top companies within the same field by using INFA benchmarking diagnostic system of financial indicators. The theoretical part includes the characteristic of financial analysis, which financial benchmarking is based on a...

  20. Energy Demands and Efficiency Strategies in Data Center Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehabi, Arman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Information technology (IT) is becoming increasingly pervasive throughout society as more data is digitally processed, stored, and transferred. The infrastructure that supports IT activity is growing accordingly, and data center energy demands haveincreased by nearly a factor of four over the past decade. Data centers house IT equipment and require significantly more energy to operate per unit floor area thanconventional buildings. The economic and environmental ramifications of continued data center growth motivate the need to explore energy-efficient methods to operate these buildings. A substantial portion of data center energy use is dedicated to removing the heat that is generated by the IT equipment. Using economizers to introduce large airflow rates of outside air during favorable weather could substantially reduce the energy consumption of data center cooling. Cooling buildings with economizers is an established energy saving measure, but in data centers this strategy is not widely used, partly owing to concerns that the large airflow rates would lead to increased indoor levels of airborne particles, which could damage IT equipment. The environmental conditions typical of data centers and the associated potential for equipment failure, however, are not well characterized. This barrier to economizer implementation illustrates the general relationship between energy use and indoor air quality in building design and operation. This dissertation investigates how building design and operation influence energy use and indoor air quality in data centers and provides strategies to improve both design goals simultaneously.As an initial step toward understanding data center air quality, measurements of particle concentrations were made at multiple operating northern California data centers. Ratios of measured particle concentrations in conventional data centers to the corresponding outside concentrations were significantly lower than those reported in the literature

  1. Energy use baselining study for the National Naval Medical Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, G.B.; Halverson, M.A.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides an energy consumption profile for fourteen buildings at the National Naval Medical Center (NNMC) in Bethesda, Maryland. Recommendations are also made for viable energy efficiency projects funded with assistance from the servicing utility (Potomic Electric Power Company) in the form of rebates and incentives available in their Demand Side Management (DSM) program and through Shared Energy Savings (SES) projects. This report also provides estimates of costs and potential energy savings of the recommended projects.

  2. Best Practices Guide for Energy-Efficient Data Center Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O. VanGeet: NREL

    2010-02-24

    This guide provides an overview of best practices for energy-efficient data center design which spans the categories of Information Technology (IT) systems and their environmental conditions, data center air management, cooling and electrical systems, on-site generation, and heat recovery.

  3. A comparison of global optimization algorithms with standard benchmark functions and real-world applications using Energy Plus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamph, Jerome Henri; Robinson, Darren; Wetter, Michael

    2009-09-01

    There is an increasing interest in the use of computer algorithms to identify combinations of parameters which optimise the energy performance of buildings. For such problems, the objective function can be multi-modal and needs to be approximated numerically using building energy simulation programs. As these programs contain iterative solution algorithms, they introduce discontinuities in the numerical approximation to the objective function. Metaheuristics often work well for such problems, but their convergence to a global optimum cannot be established formally. Moreover, different algorithms tend to be suited to particular classes of optimization problems. To shed light on this issue we compared the performance of two metaheuristics, the hybrid CMA-ES/HDE and the hybrid PSO/HJ, in minimizing standard benchmark functions and real-world building energy optimization problems of varying complexity. From this we find that the CMA-ES/HDE performs well on more complex objective functions, but that the PSO/HJ more consistently identifies the global minimum for simpler objective functions. Both identified similar values in the objective functions arising from energy simulations, but with different combinations of model parameters. This may suggest that the objective function is multi-modal. The algorithms also correctly identified some non-intuitive parameter combinations that were caused by a simplified control sequence of the building energy system that does not represent actual practice, further reinforcing their utility.

  4. Energy-ratio function for center-of-gravity feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, T.-T.

    1972-01-01

    An energy-ratio function is introduced which greatly facilitates analysis and signal design for center-of-gravity feedback communication schemes. Using this function, we show that center-of-gravity feedback using regular-simplex signals achieves Shannon's lower bound on average energy per transmission for zero error probability if M, the number of messages, is 3, 4, or 5 and there is no constraint on system bandwidth.

  5. Northeastern Center for Chemical Energy Storage (NECCES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittingham, M. Stanley [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The chemical reactions that occur in batteries are complex, spanning a wide range of time and length scales from atomic jumps to the entire battery structure. The NECCES team of experimentalists and theorists made use of, and developed new methodologies to determine how model compound electrodes function in real time, as batteries are cycled. The team determined that kinetic control of intercalation reactions (reactions in which the crystalline structure is maintained) can be achieved by control of the materials morphology and explains and allows for the high rates of many intercalation reactions where the fundamental properties might indicate poor behavior in a battery application. The small overvoltage required for kinetic control is technically effective and economically feasible. A wide range of state-of-the-art operando techniques was developed to study materials under realistic battery conditions, which are now available to the scientific community. The team also investigated the key reaction steps in conversion electrodes, where the crystal structure is destroyed on reaction with lithium and rebuilt on lithium removal. These so-called conversion reactions have in principle much higher capacities, but were found to form very reactive discharge products that reduce the overall energy efficiency on cycling. It was found that by mixing either the anion, as in FeOF, or the cation, as in Cu1-yFeyF2, the capacity on cycling could be improved. The fundamental understanding of the reactions occurring in electrode materials gained in this study will allow for the development of much improved battery systems for energy storage. This will benefit the public in longer lived electronics, higher electric vehicle ranges at lower costs, and improved grid storage that also enables renewable energy supplies such as wind and solar.

  6. Development of benchmark reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, H.; Gaganidze, E.; Hirose, T.; Ando, M.; Zinkle, S. J.; Lindau, R.; Diegele, E.

    2017-09-01

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel is the benchmark structural material for in-vessel components of fusion reactor. The current status of RAFM developments and evaluations is reviewed based on two leading RAFM steels, F82H and EUROFER-97. The applicability of various joining technologies for fabrication of fusion first wall and blanket structures, such as weld or diffusion bonding, is overviewed as well. The technical challenges and potential risks of utilizing RAFM steels as the structural material of in-vessel components are discussed, and possible mitigation methodology is introduced. The discussion suggests that deuterium-tritium fusion neutron irradiation effects currently need to be treated as an ambiguity factor which could be incorporated within the safety factor. The safety factor will be defined by the engineering design criteria which are not yet developed with regard to irradiation effects and some high temperature process, and the operating time condition of the in-vessel component will be defined by the condition at which those ambiguities due to neutron irradiation become too large to be acceptable, or by the critical condition at which 14 MeV fusion neutron irradiation effects is expected to become different from fission neutron irradiation effects.

  7. Implementing the Data Center Energy Productivity Metric in a High Performance Computing Data Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sego, Landon H.; Marquez, Andres; Rawson, Andrew; Cader, Tahir; Fox, Kevin M.; Gustafson, William I.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2013-06-30

    As data centers proliferate in size and number, the improvement of their energy efficiency and productivity has become an economic and environmental imperative. Making these improvements requires metrics that are robust, interpretable, and practical. We discuss the properties of a number of the proposed metrics of energy efficiency and productivity. In particular, we focus on the Data Center Energy Productivity (DCeP) metric, which is the ratio of useful work produced by the data center to the energy consumed performing that work. We describe our approach for using DCeP as the principal outcome of a designed experiment using a highly instrumented, high-performance computing data center. We found that DCeP was successful in clearly distinguishing different operational states in the data center, thereby validating its utility as a metric for identifying configurations of hardware and software that would improve energy productivity. We also discuss some of the challenges and benefits associated with implementing the DCeP metric, and we examine the efficacy of the metric in making comparisons within a data center and between data centers.

  8. Center for Renewable Energy and Alternative Transportation Technologies (CREATT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackin, Thomas

    2012-06-30

    The Center for Renewable Energy and Alternative Transportation Technologies (CREATT) was established to advance the state of the art in knowledge and education on critical technologies that support a renewable energy future. Our research and education efforts have focused on alternative energy systems, energy storage systems, and research on battery and hybrid energy storage systems.This report details the Center's progress in the following specific areas: Development of a battery laboratory; Development of a demonstration system for compressed air energy storage; Development of electric propulsion test systems; Battery storage systems; Thermal management of battery packs; and Construction of a micro-grid to support real-world performance monitoring of a renewable energy system.

  9. On the energy conservation electrostatic PIC/MC simulating: benchmark and application to the radio frequency discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Hong-Yu, Wang; Peng, Sun; Ling-Bao, Kong

    2014-01-01

    We benchmark and analyze the error of energy conservation (EC) scheme for particle in cell/Monte-Carlo Couple (PIC/MCC) algorithms by a radio frequency discharging simulation. The plasma heating behaviors and electron distributing functions obtained by 1D simulation are analyzed. Both explicit and implicit algorithms are checked. The results showed that the EC scheme can eliminated the self-heating with wide grid spacing in both cases with a small reduction of the accuracies. In typical parameters, the EC implicit scheme has higher precision than EC explicit scheme. Some "numerical cooling" behaviors are observed and analyzed. Some other error are analyzed also. The analysis showed EC implicit scheme can be used to qualitative estimation of some discharge problems with much less computational resource costs without much loss of accuracies.

  10. Benchmark selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2002-01-01

    Within a production theoretic framework, this paper considers an axiomatic approach to benchmark selection. It is shown that two simple and weak axioms; efficiency and comprehensive monotonicity characterize a natural family of benchmarks which typically becomes unique. Further axioms are added...

  11. Determination of kinetic energy applied by center pivot sprinklers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The kinetic energy of discrete drops impacting a bare soil surface is generally observed to lead to a drastic reduction in water infiltration rate due to soil surface seal formation. Under center pivot sprinkler irrigation, kinetic energy transferred to the soil prior to crop canopy development can...

  12. Droplet Kinetic Energy from Center-Pivot Sprinklers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The kinetic energy of discrete water drops impacting a bare soil surface is generally observed to lead to a drastic reduction in water infiltration rate due to soil surface seal formation. Under center-pivot sprinkler irrigation, kinetic energy transferred to the soil prior to crop canopy developmen...

  13. Benchmarking foreign electronics technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostian, C.W.; Hodges, D.A.; Leachman, R.C.; Sheridan, T.B.; Tsang, W.T.; White, R.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report has been drafted in response to a request from the Japanese Technology Evaluation Center`s (JTEC) Panel on Benchmarking Select Technologies. Since April 1991, the Competitive Semiconductor Manufacturing (CSM) Program at the University of California at Berkeley has been engaged in a detailed study of quality, productivity, and competitiveness in semiconductor manufacturing worldwide. The program is a joint activity of the College of Engineering, the Haas School of Business, and the Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy, under sponsorship of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and with the cooperation of semiconductor producers from Asia, Europe and the United States. Professors David A. Hodges and Robert C. Leachman are the project`s Co-Directors. The present report for JTEC is primarily based on data and analysis drawn from that continuing program. The CSM program is being conducted by faculty, graduate students and research staff from UC Berkeley`s Schools of Engineering and Business, and Department of Economics. Many of the participating firms are represented on the program`s Industry Advisory Board. The Board played an important role in defining the research agenda. A pilot study was conducted in 1991 with the cooperation of three semiconductor plants. The research plan and survey documents were thereby refined. The main phase of the CSM benchmarking study began in mid-1992 and will continue at least through 1997. reports are presented on the manufacture of integrated circuits; data storage; wireless technology; human-machine interfaces; and optoelectronics. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. University of Utah, Energy Commercialization Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, James [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-01-17

    During the Energy Commercialization Center’s (ECC) three years in operation, the only thing constant was change. The world of commercialization and cleantech evolved significantly during the time the ECC was formed and operating, including: the availability of cleantech funding lessoned, the growth of incubators and accelerators skyrocketed, the State of Utah created an office dedicated to energy development, the University of Utah was both praised and criticized for its success in commercialization, and the Federal government temporarily shut down. During the three-year grant there were three principle investigators on the grant, as well as three directors for the University’s Commercialization Office. Change can be hard for an organization,but as we instruct the companies we support, “Fail fast and fail often, because it is the fastest path to success.” Although there were some unanticipated challenges along the way, the local ecosystem is stronger because of the ECC’s efforts. Perhaps the greatest lesson learned was the importance of aligned incentives between key stakeholders in the commercialization process and the need for resources at the company and individual entrepreneur levels. The universities have systems and incentives to commercialize technologies, but creating value and companies generally rest with the individuals and entrepreneurs. Unfortunately the ECC was unable to create a viable mechanism to transfer the commercialization process that successfully aligned incentives and achieve a more effective ecosystem within the Rocky Mountain West. However, the ECC was successful in adding value to the individual ecosystems, and connecting national resources to regional and local needs. Regarding the ECC’s effectiveness in developing a cleantech commercialization ecosystem, initial inroads and relationships were established with key stakeholders. However, incentives, perceived or real competition, differences in commercialization processes, and

  15. University of Utah, Energy Commercialization Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, James [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-01-17

    During the Energy Commercialization Center’s (ECC) three years in operation, the only thing constant was change. The world of commercialization and cleantech evolved significantly during the time the ECC was formed and operating, including: the availability of cleantech funding lessoned, the growth of incubators and accelerators skyrocketed, the State of Utah created an office dedicated to energy development, the University of Utah was both praised and criticized for its success in commercialization, and the Federal government temporarily shut down. During the three-year grant there were three principle investigators on the grant, as well as three directors for the University’s Commercialization Office. Change can be hard for an organization,but as we instruct the companies we support, “Fail fast and fail often, because it is the fastest path to success.” Although there were some unanticipated challenges along the way, the local ecosystem is stronger because of the ECC’s efforts. Perhaps the greatest lesson learned was the importance of aligned incentives between key stakeholders in the commercialization process and the need for resources at the company and individual entrepreneur levels. The universities have systems and incentives to commercialize technologies, but creating value and companies generally rest with the individuals and entrepreneurs. Unfortunately the ECC was unable to create a viable mechanism to transfer the commercialization process that successfully aligned incentives and achieve a more effective ecosystem within the Rocky Mountain West. However, the ECC was successful in adding value to the individual ecosystems, and connecting national resources to regional and local needs. Regarding the ECC’s effectiveness in developing a cleantech commercialization ecosystem, initial inroads and relationships were established with key stakeholders. However, incentives, perceived or real competition, differences in commercialization processes, and

  16. Center for Renewable Energy Science and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billo, Richard; Rajeshwar, Krishnan

    2013-01-15

    The CREST research team conducted research that optimized catalysts used for the conversion of southwestern lignite into synthetic crude oil that can be shipped to nearby Texas refineries and power plants for development of transportation fuels and power generation. Research was also undertaken to convert any potential by-products of this process such as CO2 to useful chemicals and gases which could be recycled and used as feedstock to the synthetic fuel process. These CO2 conversion processes used light energy to drive the endogonic reduction reactions involved. The project was divided into two tasks: A CO2 Conversion Task, and a Catalyst Optimization Task. The CO2 Conversion task was aimed at developing molecular and solid state catalysts for the thermal, electro- and photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to reduced products such as simple feedstock compounds (e.g. CO, H2, CHOOH, CH2O, CH3OH and CH4). For example, the research team recycled CO that was developed from this Task and used it as a feedstock for the production of synthetic crude in the Catalyst Optimization Task. In the Catalyst Optimization Task, the research team conducted bench-scale experiments with the goal of reducing overall catalyst cost in support of several synthetic crude processes that had earlier been developed. This was accomplished by increasing the catalyst reactivity thus reducing required concentrations or by using less expensive metals. In this task the team performed parametric experiments in small scale batch reactors in an effort to improve catalyst reactivity and to lower cost. They also investigated catalyst robustness by testing lignite feedstocks that vary in moisture, h, and volatile content.

  17. Cancer Center Website Rankings in the USA: Expanding Benchmarks and Standards for Effective Public Outreach and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Timothy R; Walker, Daniel M; Ford, Eric W

    2017-06-01

    The 68 National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated comprehensive and cancer centers have been tasked with leading the campaign in the fight against cancer, as well as providing education and outreach to the public. Therefore, it is important for these organizations to have an effective online presence to disseminate information and engage patients. The purpose of this study was to assess both the functionality and usability of cancer centers' websites. The 68 center web domains were evaluated using two separate but complementary approaches. First, a webcrawler was used to score each website on five dimensions: accessibility, content, marketing, technology, and usability. Rankings on each dimension and an average ranking were calculated for all 68 centers. Second, a three-reader system was used to determine a list of all functionalities present on the websites. Both webcrawler scores and functionality prevalence were compared across center type. No differences were observed in webcrawler scores between comprehensive and cancer centers. Mean scores on all dimensions ranged between 5.47 and 7.09. For the functionality assessment, 64 unique functions were determined and categorized into 12 domains, with the average center possessing less than 50 % of the functions. This census assessment of NCI centers' websites suggests the need for improvement to capitalize on new dissemination platforms available online. Progress in development of this technology can help achieve the goals of public education and outreach to a broad audience. This paper presents performance guidelines evaluated against best-demonstrated practice to facilitate social media use improvement.

  18. Finite Element Method Modeling of Sensible Heat Thermal Energy Storage with Innovative Concretes and Comparative Analysis with Literature Benchmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Ferone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficient systems for high performance buildings are required to improve the integration of renewable energy sources and to reduce primary energy consumption from fossil fuels. This paper is focused on sensible heat thermal energy storage (SHTES systems using solid media and numerical simulation of their transient behavior using the finite element method (FEM. Unlike other papers in the literature, the numerical model and simulation approach has simultaneously taken into consideration various aspects: thermal properties at high temperature, the actual geometry of the repeated storage element and the actual storage cycle adopted. High-performance thermal storage materials from the literatures have been tested and used here as reference benchmarks. Other materials tested are lightweight concretes with recycled aggregates and a geopolymer concrete. Their thermal properties have been measured and used as inputs in the numerical model to preliminarily evaluate their application in thermal storage. The analysis carried out can also be used to optimize the storage system, in terms of thermal properties required to the storage material. The results showed a significant influence of the thermal properties on the performances of the storage elements. Simulation results have provided information for further scale-up from a single differential storage element to the entire module as a function of material thermal properties.

  19. Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive and Database (SINBAD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Bernadette Lugue [ORNL; Grove, Robert E [ORNL; Kodeli, I. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Sartori, Enrico [ORNL; Gulliford, J. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    2011-01-01

    The Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive and Database (SINBAD) collection of benchmarks was initiated in the early 1990 s. SINBAD is an international collaboration between the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development s Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank (OECD/NEADB) and the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SINBAD is a major attempt to compile experiments and corresponding computational models with the goal of preserving institutional knowledge and expertise that need to be handed down to future scientists. SINBAD is also a learning tool for university students and scientists who need to design experiments or gain expertise in modeling and simulation. The SINBAD database is currently divided into three categories fission, fusion, and accelerator benchmarks. Where possible, each experiment is described and analyzed using deterministic or probabilistic (Monte Carlo) radiation transport software.

  20. DFT functional benchmarking on the energy splitting of chromium spin states and mechanistic study of acetylene cyclotrimerization over the Phillips Cr(II)/silica catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Cheng, Ruihua; He, Xuelian; Wu, Xiaojun; Liu, Boping

    2012-07-19

    In this work, a two-state reaction mechanism for the acetylene cyclotrimerization over a cluster model for the Phillips Cr(II)/silica catalyst were systematically investigated using density functional theory (DFT). Since spin crossover phenomenon was confirmed in the catalytic cycle, an accurate prediction of the energy gap between low- and high-spin states is crucial for the description of a reaction involving a two-state reactivity. Therefore, a massive DFT functional benchmarking test has been conducted on the cluster model by taking a CASPT2 energy gap as a reference. Consequently, B3PW91* with 28% Hartree-Fock exchange energy was selected for the following mechanistic investigation. Each of the possible potential energy surface including singlet, triplet, and quintet surfaces was explored. On the quintet surface, the reaction begins with a coordination of an acetylene on the chromium center to generate a π-coordinated complex. The following oxidative coupling through further coordination with a second acetylene was predicted to be a two-step reaction to generate a chromacyclopentadiene species. This transformation was found to be energetically prohibitive by the presence of the transition state (5)TS[C-E] (ΔG(‡) = 31.1 kcal/mol). On the triplet surface, however, the coordination of an acetylene generates a chromacyclopropene species without showing any activation barrier. The second acetylene incorporation proceeding via a coordination on the chromium center followed by an insertion into a Cr-C σ-bond of the chromacyclopropene was predicted to be a facile reaction pathway (ΔG(‡) = 10.2 kcal/mol). The third acetylene was captured by the cluster model through the formation of a hydrogen bond. The later transformation on the triplet surface was found to be an intermolecular [4 + 2] cycloaddition to finish the cyclization. The lack of the aromaticity of the benzene ring in (3)L results in an uncompleted reaction pathway on a single triplet surface

  1. From design to management: a benchmarking process for the energy efficiency of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Kimpian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental quality and energy efficiency are strategic objectives which can highlight the ‘effectiveness’ of design and technological choices, as well as the impact of management strategies and user behaviour. Studies show it is possible to narrow the gap between expected and actual energy consumption if technical performance, occupant behaviour, and management systems are considered together. In the United Kingdom, industries and universities have created ‘Carbon Buzz’ based on the principles of Evidence Based Design. Following on from this project, Rome Tre University, together with UCL and Aedas R&D, are developing a platform using structured data and comparisons to create a link between energy performance and CO2 emissions, and choices regarding design, technology, and management.

  2. Glances at renewable and sustainable energy principles, approaches and methodologies for an ambiguous benchmark

    CERN Document Server

    Jenssen, Till

    2013-01-01

    Differing interpretations, perspectives and expectations on the term sustainability exist. To take sustainability as an action guiding mandate for implementation it needs to be concrete and measurable as well it should weigh pros and cons. But how can such an integrated measurement in the field of renewable energy be conducted balancing the trade-offs between opposing indicators? Glances at Renewable and Sustainable Energy provides a thorough overview on the generic principles of sustainability assessment, including projective, thresholding and systemic principles and summarizes five common ap

  3. User's Manual for BEST-Dairy: Benchmarking and Energy/water-Saving Tool (BEST) for the Dairy Processing Industry (Version 1.2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, T.; Ke, J.; Sathaye, J.

    2011-04-20

    This User's Manual summarizes the background information of the Benchmarking and Energy/water-Saving Tool (BEST) for the Dairy Processing Industry (Version 1.2, 2011), including'Read Me' portion of the tool, the sections of Introduction, and Instructions for the BEST-Dairy tool that is developed and distributed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  4. Benchmark theoretical study of the ionization energies, electron affinities and singlet-triplet energy gaps of azulene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and perylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huzak, M. [Theoretical Chemistry and Molecular Modelling, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Hajgato, B. [General Chemistry Division, Free University of Brussels (VUB), Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Deleuze, M.S., E-mail: michael.deleuze@uhasselt.be [Theoretical Chemistry and Molecular Modelling, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2012-10-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electronic properties of aromatic hydrocarbons are computed at benchmark levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron correlation has a very strong influence on the computed results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The role of structural relaxation and zero-point vibrations is highlighted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We approach chemical accuracy, using the principles of a focal point analysis. -- Abstract: The vertical and adiabatic singlet-triplet energy gaps, electron affinities and ionization energies of azulene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene, and perylene are computed by applying the principles of a focal point analysis onto a series of single-point calculations at the level of Hartree-Fock theory, second-, third-, and fourth-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory, as well as coupled cluster theory including single, double and perturbative triple excitations, in conjunction with correlation consistent basis sets of improving quality. Results are supplemented with an extrapolation to the limit of an asymptotically complete basis set. According to our best estimates, azulene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene, and perylene exhibit adiabatic singlet-triplet energy gaps of 1.79, 2.92, 2.22, 2.79 and 1.71 eV, respectively. In the same order, the corresponding adiabatic electron affinities (EAs) amount to 0.71, -0.08, -0.40, 0.24, and 0.87 eV, whereas benchmark values equal to 7.43, 8.01, 7.48, 7.66 and 7.15 eV, are found for the adiabatic ionization energies.

  5. Hadron Production Model Developments and Benchmarking in the 0.7 - 12 GeV Energy Region

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, N V; Striganov, S I

    2014-01-01

    Driven by the needs of the intensity frontier projects with their Megawatt beams, e.g., ESS, FAIR and Project X, and their experiments, the event generators of the MARS15 code have been recently improved. After thorough analysis and benchmarking against data, including the newest ones by the HARP collaboration, both the exclusive and inclusive particle production models were further developed in the crucial for the above projects - but difficult from a theoretical standpoint - projectile energy region of 0.7 to 12 GeV. At these energies, modelling of prompt particle production in nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleon inelastic reactions is now based on a combination of phase-space and isobar models. Other reactions are still modeled in the framework of the Quark-Gluon String Model. Pion, kaon and strange particle production and propagation in nuclear media are improved. For the alternative inclusive mode, experimental data on large-angle (> 20 degrees) pion production in hadron-nucleus interactions are parameteriz...

  6. Benchmarking of activation reaction distribution in an intermediate energy neutron field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Morev, Mikhail N; Hirota, Masahiro; Abe, Takuya; Koike, Yuya; Iwai, Satoshi; Iimoto, Takeshi; Kosako, Toshiso

    2011-07-01

    Neutron-induced reaction rate depth profiles inside concrete shield irradiated by intermediate energy neutron were calculated using a Monte-Carlo code and compared with an experiment. An irradiation field of intermediate neutron produced in the forward direction from a thick (stopping length) target bombarded by 400 MeV nucleon(-1) carbon ions was arranged at the heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba. Ordinary concrete shield of 90 cm thickness was installed 50 cm downstream the iron target. Activation detectors of aluminum, gold and gold covered with cadmium were inserted at various depths. Irradiated samples were extracted after exposure and gamma-ray spectrometry was performed for each sample. Comparison of experimental and calculated shows good agreement for both low- and high-energy neutron-induced reaction except for (27)Al(n,X)(24)Na reaction at the surface.

  7. Analytic Methods for Benchmarking Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc; Saur, Genevieve; Ramsden, Todd; Eichman, Joshua

    2015-05-28

    This presentation summarizes NREL's hydrogen and fuel cell analysis work in three areas: resource potential, greenhouse gas emissions and cost of delivered energy, and influence of auxiliary revenue streams. NREL's hydrogen and fuel cell analysis projects focus on low-­carbon and economic transportation and stationary fuel cell applications. Analysis tools developed by the lab provide insight into the degree to which bridging markets can strengthen the business case for fuel cell applications.

  8. Energy key performance indicators : a european benchmark and assessment of meaningful indicators for the use of energy in large corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrichs, Katja

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to identify and analyze energy key performance indicators among large European companies. Energy usage has become a very meaningful topic for both internal management as well as external stakeholders of a company. A review of current literature suggests that while environmental indicators in general have found broad attention and plenty of theories concerning good and meaningful indicators are published, no study investigating actually applied energy indicators ...

  9. Benchmarking of thermal hydraulic loop models for Lead-Alloy Cooled Advanced Nuclear Energy System (LACANES), phase-I: Isothermal steady state forced convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Hyun; Batta, A.; Casamassima, V.; Cheng, X.; Choi, Yong Joon; Hwang, Il Soon; Lim, Jun; Meloni, P.; Nitti, F. S.; Dedul, V.; Kuznetsov, V.; Komlev, O.; Jaeger, W.; Sedov, A.; Kim, Ji Hak; Puspitarini, D.

    2011-08-01

    As highly promising coolant for new generation nuclear reactors, liquid Lead-Bismuth Eutectic has been extensively worldwide investigated. With high expectation about this advanced coolant, a multi-national systematic study on LBE was proposed in 2007, which covers benchmarking of thermal hydraulic prediction models for Lead-Alloy Cooled Advanced Nuclear Energy System (LACANES). This international collaboration has been organized by OECD/NEA, and nine organizations - ENEA, ERSE, GIDROPRESS, IAEA, IPPE, KIT/IKET, KIT/INR, NUTRECK, and RRC KI - contribute their efforts to LACANES benchmarking. To produce experimental data for LACANES benchmarking, thermal-hydraulic tests were conducted by using a 12-m tall LBE integral test facility, named as Heavy Eutectic liquid metal loop for integral test of Operability and Safety of PEACER (HELIOS) which has been constructed in 2005 at the Seoul National University in the Republic of Korea. LACANES benchmark campaigns consist of a forced convection (phase-I) and a natural circulation (phase-II). In the forced convection case, the predictions of pressure losses based on handbook correlations and that obtained by Computational Fluid Dynamics code simulation were compared with the measured data for various components of the HELIOS test facility. Based on comparative analyses of the predictions and the measured data, recommendations for the prediction methods of a pressure loss in LACANES were obtained. In this paper, results for the forced convection case (phase-I) of LACANES benchmarking are described.

  10. 天然气净化业务能效对标方法探索%Energy efficiency benchmarking methods in natural gas purification business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟小静; 黄朝齐; 龚毅然; 陈世明; 王灵军

    2014-01-01

    According to the requirements of PetroChina Exploration and Production Branch , Southwest Oil & Gasfield Company carried out energy efficiency benchmarking for gas purifica-tion business .The method of “subdivision unit ,and ratings contrast”was used to basically over-come the differences between purification devices ,and eliminate the impact level of non-compara-ble factors ,w hich provides a feasible idea for energy efficiency benchmarking of oil and gas field upstream business .The technology difficulties and solution ideas of energy efficiency benchmark-ing in gas purification business were summarized .%按照中国石油勘探与生产分公司要求,西南油气田公司开展了天然气净化业务能效对标试点,采用“细分单元、分级对比”的方法,基本实现了克服天然气净化装置间的差异性、消除不可比因素的影响程度,为油气田上游业务能效对标工作的开展提供了一种可行的思路,并总结了天然气净化业务能效对标技术难点与解决思路。

  11. Regency Centers Develops Leadership in Energy-Efficient Renovations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-03-01

    Regency Centers (Regency) partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% versus requirements set by Standard 90.1-2004 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  12. Regency Centers Develops Leadership in Energy-Efficient Renovations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-03-01

    Regency Centers (Regency) partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% versus requirements set by Standard 90.1-2004 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  13. NASA Johnson Space Center's Energy and Sustainability Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the efforts that NASA is making to assure a sustainable environment and energy savings at the Johnson Space Center. Sustainability is defined as development that meets the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The new technologies that are required for sustainable closed loop life support for space exploration have uses on the ground to reduce energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and water use. Some of these uses are reviewed.

  14. Toxicological Benchmarks for Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E. Opresko, D.M. Suter, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    -tailed hawk, osprey) (scientific names for both the mammalian and avian species are presented in Appendix B). [In this document, NOAEL refers to both dose (mg contaminant per kg animal body weight per day) and concentration (mg contaminant per kg of food or L of drinking water)]. The 20 wildlife species were chosen because they are widely distributed and provide a representative range of body sizes and diets. The chemicals are some of those that occur at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. The NOAEL-based benchmarks presented in this report represent values believed to be nonhazardous for the listed wildlife species; LOAEL-based benchmarks represent threshold levels at which adverse effects are likely to become evident. These benchmarks consider contaminant exposure through oral ingestion of contaminated media only. Exposure through inhalation and/or direct dermal exposure are not considered in this report.

  15. Benchmark Test of Differential Emission Measure Codes and Multi-thermal Energies in Solar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Boerner, Paul; Caspi, Amir; McTiernan, James M.; Ryan, Daniel; Warren, Harry

    2015-10-01

    We compare the ability of 11 differential emission measure (DEM) forward-fitting and inversion methods to constrain the properties of active regions and solar flares by simulating synthetic data using the instrumental response functions of the Solar Dynamics Observatory/ Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) and EUV Variability Experiment (SDO/EVE), the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite/ X-ray Sensor (GOES/XRS). The codes include the single-Gaussian DEM, a bi-Gaussian DEM, a fixed-Gaussian DEM, a linear spline DEM, the spatial-synthesis DEM, the Monte-Carlo Markov Chain DEM, the regularized DEM inversion, the Hinode/ X-Ray Telescope (XRT) method, a polynomial spline DEM, an EVE+GOES, and an EVE+RHESSI method. Averaging the results from all 11 DEM methods, we find the following accuracies in the inversion of physical parameters: the EM-weighted temperature Tw^{fit}/Tw^{sim}=0.9±0.1, the peak emission measure EMp^{fit}/EMp^{sim}=0.6±0.2, the total emission measure EMt^{fit}/EMt^{sim}=0.8±0.3, and the multi-thermal energies E_{th}^{fit}/EM_{th}^{approx}=1.2±0.4. We find that the AIA spatial-synthesis, the EVE+GOES, and the EVE+RHESSI method yield the most accurate results.

  16. Industrial Assessment Centers - Small Manufacturers Reduce Energy & Increase Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-11-06

    Since 1976, the Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), administered by the US Department of Energy, have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce energy use and increase their productivity and competitiveness. The 24 IACs, located at premier engineering universities around the country (see below), send faculty and engineering students to local small and medium-sized manufacturers to provide no-cost assessments of energy use, process performance and waste and water flows. Under the direction of experienced professors, IAC engineering students analyze the manufacturer’s facilities, energy bills and energy, waste and water systems, including compressed air, motors/pumps, lighting, process heat and steam. The IACs then follow up with written energy-saving and productivity improvement recommendations, with estimates of related costs and payback periods.

  17. Benchmark study for charge deposition by high energy electrons in thick slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, I.

    2002-01-01

    The charge deposition profiles created when highenergy (1, 10, and 100 MeV) electrons impinge ona thick slab of elemental aluminum, copper, andtungsten are presented in this paper. The chargedeposition profiles were computed using existing representative Monte Carlo codes: TIGER3.0 (1D module of ITS3.0) and MCNP version 4B. The results showed that TIGER3.0 and MCNP4B agree very well (within 20% of each other) in the majority of the problem geometry. The TIGER results were considered to be accurate based on previous studies. Thus, it was demonstrated that MCNP, with its powerful geometry capability and flexible source and tally options, could be used in calculations of electron charging in high energy electron-rich space radiation environments.

  18. Optoelectronic scanning system upgrade by energy center localization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Fuentes, W.; Sergiyenko, O.; Rodriguez-Quiñonez, J. C.; Rivas-López, M.; Hernández-Balbuena, D.; Básaca-Preciado, L. C.; Lindner, L.; González-Navarro, F. F.

    2016-11-01

    A problem of upgrading an optoelectronic scanning system with digital post-processing of the signal based on adequate methods of energy center localization is considered. An improved dynamic triangulation analysis technique is proposed by an example of industrial infrastructure damage detection. A modification of our previously published method aimed at searching for the energy center of an optoelectronic signal is described. Application of the artificial intelligence algorithm of compensation for the error of determining the angular coordinate in calculating the spatial coordinate through dynamic triangulation is demonstrated. Five energy center localization methods are developed and tested to select the best method. After implementation of these methods, digital compensation for the measurement error, and statistical data analysis, a non-parametric behavior of the data is identified. The Wilcoxon signed rank test is applied to improve the result further. For optical scanning systems, it is necessary to detect a light emitter mounted on the infrastructure being investigated to calculate its spatial coordinate by the energy center localization method.

  19. Energy Frontier Research Centers: Impact Report, January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-01-31

    Since its inception in 2009, the U. S. Department of Energy’s Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) program has become an important research modality in the Department’s portfolio, enabling high impact research that addresses key scientific challenges for energy technologies. Funded by the Office of Science’s Basic Energy Sciences program, the EFRCs are located across the United States and are led by universities, national laboratories, and private research institutions. These multi-investigator, multidisciplinary centers bring together world-class teams of researchers, often from multiple institutions, to tackle the toughest scientific challenges preventing advances in energy technologies. The EFRCs’ fundamental scientific advances are having a significant impact that is being translated to industry. In 2009 five-year awards were made to 46 EFRCs, including 16 that were fully funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). An open recompetition of the program in 2014 resulted in fouryear awards to 32 centers, 22 of which are renewals of existing EFRCs and 10 of which are new EFRCs. In 2016, DOE added four new centers to accelerate the scientific breakthroughs needed to support the Department’s environmental management and nuclear cleanup mission, bringing the total number of active EFRCs to 36. The impact reports in this document describe some of the many scientific accomplishments and greater impacts of the class of 2009 – 2018 EFRCs and early outcomes from a few of the class of 2014 – 2018 EFRCs.

  20. Energy Demands and Efficiency Strategies in Data Center Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehabi, Arman

    2009-01-01

    Information technology (IT) is becoming increasingly pervasive throughout society as more data is digitally processed, stored, and transferred. The infrastructure that supports IT activity is growing accordingly, and data center energy demands have increased by nearly a factor of four over the past decade. This dissertation investigates how…

  1. New R & D center to address energy problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The joint launching ceremony for the Research and Development Center for Energy Plants, the CAS Institute of Botany (IBCAS), and the R&D Laboratory for Sweet Sorghum co-established by IBCAS and the Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory (TLL) in Singapore was held on 10 December at IOB in Beijing.

  2. 78 FR 28214 - Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, LLC's application...

  3. Validation and Benchmarking of a Practical Free Magnetic Energy and Relative Magnetic Helicity Budget Calculation in Solar Magnetic Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Moraitis, K; Georgoulis, M K; Archontis, V

    2014-01-01

    In earlier works we introduced and tested a nonlinear force-free (NLFF) method designed to self-consistently calculate the free magnetic energy and the relative magnetic helicity budgets of the corona of observed solar magnetic structures. The method requires, in principle, only a single, photospheric or low-chromospheric, vector magnetogram of a quiet-Sun patch or an active region and performs calculations in the absence of three-dimensional magnetic and velocity-field information. In this work we strictly validate this method using three-dimensional coronal magnetic fields. Benchmarking employs both synthetic, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations and nonlinear force-free field extrapolations of the active-region solar corona. We find that our time-efficient NLFF method provides budgets that differ from those of more demanding semi-analytical methods by a factor of ~3, at most. This difference is expected from the physical concept and the construction of the method. Temporal correlations show mo...

  4. MSU-Northern Bio-Energy Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegel, Greg [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Alcorn-Windy Boy, Jessica [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Abedin, Md. Joynal [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Maglinao, Randy [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2014-09-30

    MSU-Northern established the Bio-Energy Center (the Center) into a Regional Research Center of Excellence to address the obstacles concerning biofuels, feedstock, quality, conversion process, economic viability and public awareness. The Center built its laboratories and expertise in order to research and support product development and commercialization for the bio-energy industry in our region. The Center wanted to support the regional agricultural based economy by researching biofuels based on feedstock’s that can be grown in our region in an environmentally responsible manner. We were also interested in any technology that will improve the emissions and fuel economy performance of heavy duty diesel engines. The Center had a three step approach to accomplish these goals: 1. Enhance the Center’s research and testing capabilities 2. Develop advanced biofuels from locally grown agricultural crops. 3. Educate and outreach for public understanding and acceptance of new technology. The Center was very successful in completing the tasks as outlined in the project plan. Key successes include discovering and patenting a new chemical conversion process for converting camelina oil to jet fuel, as well as promise in developing a heterogeneous Grubs catalyst to support the new chemical conversion process. The Center also successfully fragmented and deoxygenated naturally occurring lignin with a Ni-NHC catalyst, showing promise for further exploration of using lignin for fuels and fuel additives. This would create another value-added product for lignin that can be sourced from beetle kill trees or waste products from cellulose ethanol fuel facilities.

  5. Benchmark Test of Differential Emission Measure Codes and Multi-Thermal Energies in Solar Active Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Aschwanden, M J; Caspi, A; McTiernan, J M; Ryan, D; Warren, H P

    2015-01-01

    We compare the ability of 11 Differential Emission Measure (DEM) forward-fitting and inversion methods to constrain the properties of active regions and solar flares by simulating synthetic data using the instrumental response functions of SDO/AIA, SDO/EVE, RHESSI, and GOES/XRS. The codes include the single-Gaussian DEM, a bi-Gaussian DEM, a fixed-Gaussian DEM, a linear spline DEM, the spatial synthesis DEM, the Monte-Carlo Markov chain DEM, the regularized DEM inversion, the Hinode/XRT method, a polynomial spline DEM, an EVE+GOES, and an EVE+RHESSI method. Averaging the results from all 11 DEM methods, we find the following accuracies in the inversion of physical parameters: the EM-weighted temperature $T_w^{fit}/T_w^{sim}=0.9\\pm0.1$, the peak emission measure $EM_p^{fit}/EM_p^{sim}=0.6\\pm0.2$, the total emission measure $EM_t^{fit}/EM_t^{sim}=0.8\\pm0.3$, and the multi-thermal energies $E_{th}^{fit}/EM_{th}^{sim}=1.2\\pm0.4$. We find that the AIA spatial synthesis, the EVE+GOES, and the EVE+RHESSI method yiel...

  6. Force Field Benchmark of Organic Liquids. 2. Gibbs Energy of Solvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Tuguldur, Badamkhatan; van der Spoel, David

    2015-06-22

    Quantitative prediction of physical properties of liquids is a longstanding goal of molecular simulation. Here, we evaluate the predictive power of the Generalized Amber Force Field (Wang et al. J. Comput. Chem. 2004, 25, 1157-1174) for the Gibbs energy of solvation of organic molecules in organic solvents using the thermodynamics integration (TI) method. The results are compared to experimental data, to a model based on quantitative structure property relations (QSPR), and to the conductor-like screening models for realistic solvation (COSMO-RS) model. Although the TI calculations yield slightly better correlation to experimental results than the other models, in all fairness we should conclude that the difference between the models is minor since both QSPR and COSMO-RS yield a slightly lower RMSD from that of the experiment (<3.5 kJ/mol). By analyzing which molecules (either as solvents or solutes) are outliers in the TI calculations, we can pinpoint where additional parametrization efforts are needed. For the force field based TI calculations, deviations from the experiment occur in particular when compounds containing nitro or ester groups are solvated into other liquids, suggesting that the interaction between these groups and solvents may be too strong. In the COSMO-RS calculations, outliers mainly occur when compounds containing (in particular aromatic) rings are solvated despite using a ring correction term in the calculations.

  7. Energy Frontier Research Center, Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd R. Allen

    2011-12-01

    This is a document required by Basic Energy Sciences as part of a mid-term review, in the third year of the five-year award period and is intended to provide a critical assessment of the Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels (strategic vision, scientific plans and progress, and technical accomplishments).

  8. U.S.– India Joint Center for Building Energy Research and Development (CBERD) Caring for the Energy Health of Healthcare Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Reshma [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Granderson, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Srivastava, Rohini [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Shukla, Rash [Center for Environmental Planning and Technology (India)

    2016-03-01

    The U.S.-India Joint Center for Building Energy Research & Development (CBERD), created through the Partnership to Accelerate Clean Energy (PACE) agreement between the United States and India, is a research and development (R&D) center with over 30 institutional and industry partners from both nations. This five-year presidential initiative is jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Government of India. CBERD aims to build upon a foundation of collaborative knowledge, tools, and technologies, and human capabilities that will increase development of high-performance buildings. To reach this goal, the R&D focuses on energy use reduction throughout the entire life cycle of buildings—i.e., design, construction, and operations. During the operations phase of buildings, even with best-practice energy-efficient design, actual energy use can be much higher than the design intent. Every day, much of the energy consumed by buildings serves no purpose (Roth et al. 2005). Building energy information systems (EIS) are commercially available systems that building owners and facility managers use to assess their building operations, measure, visualize, analyze, and report energy cost and consumption. Energy information systems can enable significant energy savings by tracking energy use, identifying consumption patterns, and benchmarking performance against similar buildings, thereby identifying improvement opportunities. The CBERD team has identified potential energy savings of approximately 2 quads of primary energy in the United States, while industry building energy audits in India have indicated potential energy savings of up to 30 percent in commercial buildings such as offices. Additionally, the CBERD team has identified healthcare facilities (e.g., hospitals, clinics), hotels, and offices as the three of the highest-growth sectors in India that have significant energy consumption, and that would benefit the most from implementation of EIS.

  9. Alternative Energy Center, Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillman, Howard D.; Marshall, JaNice C.

    2007-09-07

    The Lansing Community College Alternative Energy Center was created with several purposes in mind. The first purpose was the development of educational curricula designed to meet the growing needs of advanced energy companies that would allow students to articulate to other educational institutions or enter this growing workforce. A second purpose was the professional development of faculty and teachers to prepare them to train tomorrow's workforce and scholars. Still another purpose was to design, construct, and equip an alternative energy laboratory that could be used for education, demonstration, and public outreach. Last, the Center was to engage in community outreach and education to enhance industry partnerships, inform decision makers, and increase awareness and general knowledge of hydrogen and other alternative energy technologies and their beneficial impacts on society. This project has enabled us to accomplish all of our goals, including greater faculty understanding of advanced energy concepts, who are now able to convey this knowledge to students through a comprehensive alternative energy curriculum, in a facility well-equipped with advanced technologies, which is also being used to better educate the public on the advantages to society of exploring alternative energy technologies.

  10. A benchmark study of electronic excitation energies, transition moments, and excited-state energy gradients on the nicotine molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidi, Franco, E-mail: franco.egidi@sns.it; Segado, Mireia; Barone, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri, 7 I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Koch, Henrik [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Cappelli, Chiara [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Pisa, via G. Moruzzi, 3 I-56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2014-12-14

    In this work, we report a comparative study of computed excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and excited-state energy gradients of (S)-nicotine, chosen as a test case, using multireference methods, coupled cluster singles and doubles, and methods based on time-dependent density functional theory. This system was chosen because its apparent simplicity hides a complex electronic structure, as several different types of valence excitations are possible, including n-π{sup *}, π-π{sup *}, and charge-transfer states, and in order to simulate its spectrum it is necessary to describe all of them consistently well by the chosen method.

  11. Physics potential of Z' and W' searches with the ATLAS Detector as a function of the LHC center-of-mass energy

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS physics potential in the searches for high mass dilepon and lepton-neutrino resonances, are evaluated as a function of the LHC center-of-mass energy $sqrt{s}$, for a few values of the total integrated luminosity. The evaluation is done using benchmark models in which new heavy gauge bosons (denoted as $W'$, $Z'$) have the same couplings as their Standard Model counterparts.

  12. Benchmarking transition energies and emission strengths for X-ray astrophysics with measurements at the Livermore EBITs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hell, Natalie [Friedrich Alexander Univ., Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    K-shell transitions in astrophysically abundant metals and L-shell transitions in Fe group elements show characteristic signatures in the soft X-ray spectrum in the energy range 0.1–10 keV. These signatures have great diagnostic value for plasma parameters such as electron and ion temperatures and densities, and can thus help understand the physics controlling the energetic processes in astrophysical sources. This diagnostic power increases with advances in spectral resolution and effective area of the employed X-ray observatories. However, to make optimal use of the diagnostic potential – whether through global spectral modeling or through diagnostics from local modeling of individual lines – the underlying atomic physics has to be complete and well known. With the next generation of soft X-ray observatories featuring micro-calorimeters such as the SXS on Astro- H/Hitomi and the X-IFU on Athena, broadband high-resolution spectroscopy with large effective area will become more commonly available in the next decade. With these spectrometers, the accuracy of the plasma parameters derived from spectral modeling will be limited by the uncertainty of the reference atomic data rather than by instrumental factors, as is sometimes already the case for the high-resolution grating observations with Chandra-HETG and XMM-Newton-RGS. To take full advantage of the measured spectra, assessment of the accuracy of and improvements to the available atomic reference data are therefore important. Dedicated measurements in the laboratory are essential to benchmark the theoretical calculations providing the bulk of the reference data used in astrophysics. Experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion traps (EBIT-I and SuperEBIT) have a long history of providing this service. In this work, I present new measurements of transition energies and absolute electron impact excitation cross sections geared towards currently open atomic physics data needs.

  13. Interactive benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, Lartey; Nielsen, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    distance functions. The frontier is given by an explicit quantile, e.g. “the best 90 %”. Using the explanatory model of the inefficiency, the user can adjust the frontiers by submitting state variables that influence the inefficiency. An efficiency study of Danish dairy farms is implemented......We discuss individual learning by interactive benchmarking using stochastic frontier models. The interactions allow the user to tailor the performance evaluation to preferences and explore alternative improvement strategies by selecting and searching the different frontiers using directional...... in the suggested benchmarking tool. The study investigates how different characteristics on dairy farms influences the technical efficiency....

  14. Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program, Center for Housing Innovation, University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.Z.

    1990-01-01

    This research program addresses the need to increase the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers have responsibility for the program: the Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. The two organizations provide complementary architectural, systems engineering, and industrial engineering capabilities. In 1989 we worked on these tasks: (1) the formation of a steering committee, (2) the development of a multiyear research plan, (3) analysis of the US industrialized housing industry, (4) assessment of foreign technology, (5) assessment of industrial applications, (6) analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools, and (7) assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. The current research program, under the guidance of a steering committee composed of industry and government representatives, focuses on three interdependent concerns -- (1) energy, (2) industrial process, and (3) housing design. Building homes in a factory offers the opportunity to increase energy efficiency through the use of new materials and processes, and to increase the value of these homes by improving the quality of their construction. Housing design strives to ensure that these technically advanced homes are marketable and will meet the needs of the people who will live in them.

  15. Energy conservation strategies for sports centers: Pt. B. Swimming pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trianti-Stourna, E.; Theofylaktos, C.; Santamouris, M.; Lazaropoulou, G.; Papanikolaou, N. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Applied Physics; Spyropoulou, K. [Spyropoulou and Associares, Architects and Planners, Athens (Greece); Droutsa, K.; Balaras, C.A.; Asimakopoulos, D.N. [IMPAE, National Observatory of Athens (Greece)

    1998-04-01

    This paper summarizes the results from a number of energy audits and the analysis performed in order to improve indoor conditions and optimize energy use, in Hellenic indoor swimming pools, performed for the European Commission, in the framework of the SAVE program. The aim of this work was to investigate the technical, functional and administrative obstacles for energy conservation in sports centers (including sports halls) and to propose practical and cost-effective solutions for improving their energy efficiency, indoor thermal and visual comfort throughout the year. The work concentrated on retrofitting of existing buildings, although the proposed design and management principles could also be followed in new projects in the area of sports and recreation facilities. (orig.)

  16. Energy conservation strategies for sports centers: Pt. A. Sports halls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trianti-Stourna, E.; Theofylaktos, C.; Santamouris, M.; Lazaropoulou, G.; Papanikolaou, N. [Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Applied Physics; Spyropoulou, K. [Spyropoulou and Associates, Architects and Planners, Athens (Greece); Droutsa, K.; Balaras, C.A.; Asimakopoulos, D.N. [IMPAE, National Observatory of Athens (Greece)

    1998-04-01

    This paper summarizes the results from a number of energy audits and the analysis performed in order to improve indoor conditions and optimize energy use, in Hellenic sports halls, performed for the European Commission, in the framework of the SAVE program. The aim of this work was to investigate the technical, functional and administrative obstacles for energy conservation in sports centers (including swimming pools) and to propose practical and cost-effective solutions for improving their energy efficiency, indoor thermal and visual comfort throughout the year. The work concentrated on retrofitting of existing buildings, although the proposed design and management principles could also be followed in new projects in the area of sports and recreation facilities. (orig.)

  17. Energy Management Programs at the John F. Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Management internship over the summer of 2011 involved a series of projects related to energy management on the John. F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This internship saved KSC $14.3 million through budgetary projections, saved KSC $400,000 through implementation of the recycling program, updated KSC Environmental Management System's (EMS) water and energy-related List of Requirements (LoR) which changed 25.7% of the list, provided a incorporated a 45% design review of the Ordnance Operations Facility (OOF) which noted six errors within the design plans, created a certification system and timeline for implementation regarding compliance to the federal Guiding Principles, and gave off-shore wind as the preferred alternative to on-site renewable energy generation.

  18. Solar energy facility at North Hampton Recreation Center, Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy facility located at the North Hampton Park Recreation and Health Center, Dallas, Texas is presented. The solar energy system is installed in a single story (two heights), 16,000 sq ft building enclosing a gymnasium, locker area, and health care clinic surrounded by a recreational area and athletic field. The solar energy system is designed to provide 80 percent of the annual space heating, 48 percent of the annual space cooling, and 90 percent of the domestic hot water requirements. The system's operation modes and performance data acquisition system are described. The system's performance during the months of June, July, August, September, and October of 1979 are presented and show a negative savings of energy. Experience to date indicates however that the system concept has promise of acceptable performance. It is concluded that if proper control and sequencing components was maintained, then the system performance would improve to an acceptable level.

  19. Assessment of PWR plutonium burners for nuclear energy centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankel, A J; Shapiro, N L

    1976-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the performance and safety characteristics of PWR plutonium burners, to identify modifications to current PWR designs to enhance plutonium utilization, to study the problems of deploying plutonium burners at Nuclear Energy Centers, and to assess current industrial capability of the design and licensing of such reactors. A plutonium burner is defined to be a reactor which utilizes plutonium as the sole fissile addition to the natural or depleted uranium which comprises the greater part of the fuel mass. The results of the study and the design analyses performed during the development of C-E's System 80 plant indicate that the use of suitably designed plutonium burners at Nuclear Energy Centers is technically feasible.

  20. Analytical solutions for benchmarking cold regions subsurface water flow and energy transport models: one-dimensional soil thaw with conduction and advection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylyk, Barret L.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M; MacQuarrie, Kerry T. B.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous cold regions water flow and energy transport models have emerged in recent years. Dissimilarities often exist in their mathematical formulations and/or numerical solution techniques, but few analytical solutions exist for benchmarking flow and energy transport models that include pore water phase change. This paper presents a detailed derivation of the Lunardini solution, an approximate analytical solution for predicting soil thawing subject to conduction, advection, and phase change. Fifteen thawing scenarios are examined by considering differences in porosity, surface temperature, Darcy velocity, and initial temperature. The accuracy of the Lunardini solution is shown to be proportional to the Stefan number. The analytical solution results obtained for soil thawing scenarios with water flow and advection are compared to those obtained from the finite element model SUTRA. Three problems, two involving the Lunardini solution and one involving the classic Neumann solution, are recommended as standard benchmarks for future model development and testing.

  1. Deep Energy Retrofit Guidance for the Building America Solutions Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. DOE Building America program has established a research agenda targeting market-relevant strategies to achieve 40% reductions in existing home energy use by 2030. Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs) are part of the strategy to meet and exceed this goal. DERs are projects that create new, valuable assets from existing residences, by bringing homes into alignment with the expectations of the 21st century. Ideally, high energy using, dated homes that are failing to provide adequate modern services to their owners and occupants (e.g., comfortable temperatures, acceptable humidity, clean, healthy), are transformed through comprehensive upgrades to the building envelope, services and miscellaneous loads into next generation high performance homes. These guidance documents provide information to aid in the broader market adoption of DERs. They are intended for inclusion in the online resource the Building America Solutions Center (BASC). This document is an assemblage of multiple entries in the BASC, each of which addresses a specific aspect of Deep Energy Retrofit best practices for projects targeting at least 50% energy reductions. The contents are based upon a review of actual DERs in the U.S., as well as a mixture of engineering judgment, published guidance from DOE research in technologies and DERs, simulations of cost-optimal DERs, Energy Star and Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE) product criteria, and energy codes.

  2. Results of the 2016 UT modeling benchmark proposed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) obtained with models implemented in CIVA software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toullelan, Gwénaël; Chatillon, Sylvain; Raillon, Raphaële; Mahaut, Steve; Lonné, Sébastien; Bannouf, Souad

    2017-02-01

    For several years, the World Federation of NDE Centers, WFNDEC, proposes benchmark studies in which simulated results (in either ultrasonic, X-rays or eddy current NDT configurations) obtained with various models are compared to experiments. This year the proposed UT benchmark proposed by CEA concerns inspection configurations with multi-skips echoes i.e. the incident beam undergoes several skips on the surface and bottom of the specimen before interacting with the defect. This technique is commonly used to inspect thin specimen and/or in case of limited access inspection. This technique relies on the use of T45° mode in order to avoid mode conversion and to facilitate the interpretation of the echoes. The inspections were carried out with two probes of different aperture working at 5MHz.

  3. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center, Juneau, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); LoVullo, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kandt, Alicen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-21

    This report summarizes results from the energy efficiency, water efficiency, and renewable energy site assessment of the Mendenhall Glacier Visitor Center and site in Juneau, Alaska. The assessment is an American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Level 2 audit and meets Energy Independence and Security Act requirements. A team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted the assessment with U.S. Forest Service personnel August 19-20, 2015, as part of ongoing efforts by USFS to reduce energy and water use.

  4. Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) Strategic Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Kostelnik; Keith Perry

    2007-07-01

    Twenty-first century energy challenges include demand growth, national energy security, and global climate protection. The Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) is a public/private partnership between the State of Idaho and its academic research institutions, the federal government through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) managed by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). CAES serves to advance energy security for our nation by expanding the educational opportunities at the Idaho universities in energy-related areas, creating new capabilities within its member institutions, and delivering technological innovations leading to technology-based economic development for the intermountain region. CAES has developed this strategic plan based on the Balanced Scorecard approach. A Strategy Map (Section 7) summarizes the CAES vision, mission, customers, and strategic objectives. Identified strategic objectives encompass specific outcomes related to three main areas: Research, Education, and Policy. Technical capabilities and critical enablers needed to support these objectives are also identified. This CAES strategic plan aligns with and supports the strategic objectives of the four CAES institutions. Implementation actions are also presented which will be used to monitor progress towards fulfilling these objectives.

  5. PNNL Information Technology Benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DD Hostetler

    1999-09-08

    Benchmarking is a methodology for searching out industry best practices that lead to superior performance. It is exchanging information, not just with any organization, but with organizations known to be the best within PNNL, in industry, or in dissimilar industries with equivalent functions. It is used as a continuous improvement tool for business and technical processes, products, and services. Information technology--comprising all computer and electronic communication products and services--underpins the development and/or delivery of many PNNL products and services. This document describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) approach to information technology (IT) benchmarking. The purpose is to engage other organizations in the collaborative process of benchmarking in order to improve the value of IT services provided to customers. TM document's intended audience consists of other US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories and their IT staff. Although the individual participants must define the scope of collaborative benchmarking, an outline of IT service areas for possible benchmarking is described.

  6. Optimal Power Cost Management Using Stored Energy in Data Centers

    CERN Document Server

    Urgaonkar, Rahul; Neely, Michael J; Sivasubramaniam, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Since the electricity bill of a data center constitutes a significant portion of its overall operational costs, reducing this has become important. We investigate cost reduction opportunities that arise by the use of uninterrupted power supply (UPS) units as energy storage devices. This represents a deviation from the usual use of these devices as mere transitional fail-over mechanisms between utility and captive sources such as diesel generators. We consider the problem of opportunistically using these devices to reduce the time average electric utility bill in a data center. Using the technique of Lyapunov optimization, we develop an online control algorithm that can optimally exploit these devices to minimize the time average cost. This algorithm operates without any knowledge of the statistics of the workload or electricity cost processes, making it attractive in the presence of workload and pricing uncertainties. An interesting feature of our algorithm is that its deviation from optimality reduces as the...

  7. CENTER FOR PULSED POWER DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PLASMA STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Professor Bruce R. Kusse; Professor David A. Hammer

    2007-04-18

    This annual report summarizes the activities of the Cornell Center for Pulsed-Power-Driven High-Energy-Density Plasma Studies, for the 12-month period October 1, 2005-September 30, 2006. This period corresponds to the first year of the two-year extension (awarded in October, 2005) to the original 3-year NNSA/DOE Cooperative Agreement with Cornell, DE-FC03-02NA00057. As such, the period covered in this report also corresponds to the fourth year of the (now) 5-year term of the Cooperative Agreement. The participants, in addition to Cornell University, include Imperial College, London (IC), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), the University of Rochester (UR), the Weizmann Institute of Science (WSI), and the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI), Moscow. A listing of all faculty, technical staff and students, both graduate and undergraduate, who participated in Center research activities during the year in question is given in Appendix A.

  8. U.S. DOE Intermountain Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, Patti

    2013-09-30

    The Intermountain Clean Energy Application Center helped promote, assist, and transform the market for combined heat and power (CHP), including waste heat to power and district energy with CHP, in the intermountain states of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. We accomplished these objectives through a combination of the following methods, which proved in concert to be a technically and economically effective strategy: o Identifying and facilitating high-impact CHP projects o Helping industrial, commercial, institutional, federal, and other large energy users in evaluating the economic and technical viability of potential CHP systems o Disseminating essential information about CHP including benefits, technologies, applications, project development, project financing, electric and gas utility incentives, and state policies o Coordinating and collaborating on CHP advancement with regional stakeholders including electric utilities, gas utilities, state energy offices, municipal development and planning personnel, trade associations, industry groups, non-profits, energy users, and others Outcomes of the project included increased understanding of and deployment of efficient and well-designed CHP systems in the states of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. Increased CHP deployment helps the United States to enhance energy efficiency, strengthen the competitiveness of American industries, promote economic growth, foster a robust and resilient energy infrastructure, reduce emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases, and increase the use of market-ready advanced technologies. Specific outcomes included direct assistance to energy-intensive industrial facilities and other businesses, workshops and CHP tours, communication materials, and state policy education, all contributing to implementation of CHP systems in the intermountain region.

  9. Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems (HP-ICES) are energy systems for communities which provide heating, cooling and/or other thermal energy services through the use of heat pumps. Since heat pumps primarily transfer energy from existing and otherwise probably unused sources, rather than convert it from electrical or chemical to thermal form, HP-ICES offer significant potential for energy savings. Secondary benefits of HP-ICES include reduction of adverse environmental effects as compared to conventional systems, reliable production of services in contrast to the increasingly frequent utility curtailments and interruptions, and delivery of services to consumers at costs lower than those for conventional systems (including acquisition, operation, and maintenance costs). The objective of this multiphase project is development and demonstration of HP-ICES concepts leading to one or more operational systems by the end of 1984. The results of the system development phase of the HP-ICES Project are reported. Information is presented on: central heat pump and distributed heat pump ICES; potential applications; waste heat availability; system performance and economics; environmental impacts; site requirements; component testing requirements; mathematical analysis of heat balance and cost relations; and performance and economic analyses of HP-ICES located near Seattle, Washington and San Antonio, Texas. (LCL)

  10. Energy Frontier Research Centers: Science for Our Nation's Energy Future, September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-09-01

    As world demand for energy rapidly expands, transforming the way energy is collected, stored, and used has become a defining challenge of the 21st century. At its heart, this challenge is a scientific one, inspiring the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) to establish the Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) program in 2009. The EFRCs represent a unique approach, bringing together creative, multidisciplinary scientific teams to perform energy-relevant basic research with a complexity beyond the scope of single-investigator projects. These centers take full advantage of powerful new tools for characterizing, understanding, modeling, and manipulating matter from atomic to macroscopic length scales. They also train the next-generation scientific workforce by attracting talented students and postdoctoral researchers interested in energy science. The EFRCs have collectively demonstrated the potential to substantially advance the scientific understanding underpinning transformational energy technologies. Both a BES Committee of Visitors and a Secretary of Energy Advisory Board Task Force have found the EFRC program to be highly successful in meeting its goals. The scientific output from the EFRCs is impressive, and many centers have reported that their results are already impacting both technology research and industry. This report on the EFRC program includes selected highlights from the initial 46 EFRCs and the current 36 EFRCs.

  11. Summer Center for Climate, Energy, and Environmental Decision Making (SUCCEED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, K.; Hoss, F.; Welle, P.; Larkin, S.

    2013-12-01

    Science, Technology, and Math (STEM) fields are responsible for more than half of our sustained economic expansion, and over the past 25 years the science and engineering workforce has remained at over 5% of all U.S. jobs. However, America lags behind other nations when it comes to STEM education; globally, American students rank 23th in math and 31st in science. While our youngest students show an interest in STEM subjects, roughly 40% of college students planning to major in STEM switch to other subjects. Women and minorities, 50% and 43% of school-age children, are disproportionally underrepresented in STEM fields (25% and 15%, respectively). Studies show that improved teacher curriculum combined with annual student-centered learning summer programs can promote and sustain student interest in STEM fields. Many STEM fields appear superficially simple, and yet can be truly complex and controversial topics. Carnegie Mellon University's Center for Climate and Energy Decision Making focuses on two such STEM fields: climate and energy. In 2011, we created SUCCEED: the Summer Center for Climate, Energy, and Environmental Decision Making. SUCCEED consisted of two pilot programs: a 2-day workshop for K-12 teacher professional development and a free 5-day summer school targeted at an age gap in the university's outreach, students entering 10th grade. In addition to teaching lessons climate, energy, and environment, the program aimed to highlight different STEM careers so students could better understand the breadth of choices available. SUCCEED, repeated in 2012, was wildly successful. A pre/post test demonstrated a significant increase in understanding of STEM topics. Furthermore, SUCCEED raised excitement for STEM; teachers were enthusiastic about accurate student-centered learning plans and students wanted to know more. To grow these efforts, an additional component has been added to the SUCCEED 2013 effort: online publicly available curricula. Using the curricula form

  12. Completion of Green Building by Korea Institute of Energy Research - Energy{center_dot}Conservation{center_dot}Environmental Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Dong [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), which was fully aware that the effective utilization of energy could not only save energy but also reduce the environmental pollution due to a combustion exhaust gas, has built and operated 'the Ultra Energy Saving Building' whose energy consumption was only a fifth of general buildings as a example. KIER has started to research the project for the technology development and spread of Green Building in 'Enertech 21' - the most important research program of 1994 year - and has constructed the central building of the Institute with only the current available technology since the early of 1997 year, via researches by a step. Finally, KIER held the ceremony for the completion of Green Building in March sixth. This building is not just the first green building in Korea but also the representative building of energy environment research center, which will be marked out for a model for the domestic construction and construction industry in future. Therefore, this building has functions of exhibition, publicity, education, and experimentation for the building researchers as well as the office and researching place that is original function of this building. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. U.S. DOE Southeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panzarella, Isaac [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Mago, Pedro [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Kalland, Stephen [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2013-12-31

    Between 2010 and 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded the Southeast Clean Energy Application Center (SE-CEAC), co-located at the North Carolina Solar Center at NC State University (NCSU) and at Mississippi State University. The SE-CEAC was one of eight regional CEACs established to promote and assist in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), district energy (DE) and waste heat to power (WHP) throughout the U.S. CHP locates power generation at the point of demand and makes productive use of the residual thermal energy for process and space heating in factories and businesses, thus lowering the cost of meeting electricity and heat requirements and increasing energy efficiency. The overall goal of the SE-CEAC was to support end-user implementation and overall market transformation for CHP and related clean energy technologies. Five objectives were targeted to achieve the goal: 1. Market Analysis and Information Dissemination 2. Outreach and Education for Potential CHP End-users 3. Policy Support for State and Regional Stakeholders 4. Technical Assistance to Support CHP Deployment 5. Collaboration with DOE and other CEACs Throughout the project, the CEACs provided key services of education and outreach, technical assistance and market analysis in support of project objectives. These services were very effective at achieving key objectives of assisting prospective CHP end-users and informing policy makers, utilities and others about the benefits of CHP. There is a marked increase in the awareness of CHP technologies and applications as an energy resource among end-users, policymakers, utility regulators, electric utilities and natural gas utilities in the Southeast region as a result. At the end of 2013, a number of best-practice policies for CHP were applied or under consideration in various Southeast states. The SE-CEAC met its targets for providing technical assistance with over 50 analyses delivered for 412 MW of potential end

  14. U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Region Clean Energy Application Center (PCEAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipman, Tim; Kammen, Dan; McDonell, Vince; Samuelsen, Scott; Beyene, Asfaw; Ganji, Ahmad

    2013-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Region Clean Energy Application Center (PCEAC) was formed in 2009 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the California Energy Commission to provide education, outreach, and technical support to promote clean energy -- combined heat and power (CHP), district energy, and waste energy recovery (WHP) -- development in the Pacific Region. The region includes California, Nevada, Hawaii, and the Pacific territories. The PCEAC was operated as one of nine regional clean energy application centers, originally established in 2003/2004 as Regional Application Centers for combined heat and power (CHP). Under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, these centers received an expanded charter to also promote district energy and waste energy recovery, where economically and environmentally advantageous. The centers are working in a coordinated fashion to provide objective information on clean energy system technical and economic performance, direct technical assistance for clean energy projects and additional outreach activities to end users, policy, utility, and industry stakeholders. A key goal of the CEACs is to assist the U.S. in achieving the DOE goal to ramp up the implementation of CHP to account for 20% of U.S. generating capacity by 2030, which is estimated at a requirement for an additional 241 GW of installed clean technologies. Additional goals include meeting the Obama Administration goal of 40 GW of new CHP by 2020, key statewide goals such as renewable portfolio standards (RPS) in each state, California’s greenhouse gas emission reduction goals under AB32, and Governor Brown’s “Clean Energy Jobs Plan” goal of 6.5 GW of additional CHP over the next twenty years. The primary partners in the PCEAC are the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and the Energy and Resources Group (ERG) at UC Berkeley, the Advanced Power and Energy Program (APEP) at UC Irvine, and the Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC

  15. Neutron transmission benchmark problems for iron and concrete shields in low, intermediate and high energy proton accelerator facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hayashi, Katsumi [and others

    1996-09-01

    Benchmark problems were prepared for evaluating the calculation codes and the nuclear data for accelerator shielding design by the Accelerator Shielding Working Group of the Research Committee on Reactor Physics in JAERI. Four benchmark problems: transmission of quasi-monoenergetic neutrons generated by 43 MeV and 68 MeV protons through iron and concrete shields at TIARA of JAERI, neutron fluxes in and around an iron beam stop irradiated by 500 MeV protons at KEK, reaction rate distributions inside a thick concrete shield irradiated by 6.2 GeV protons at LBL, and neutron and hadron fluxes inside an iron beam stop irradiated by 24 GeV protons at CERN are compiled in this document. Calculational configurations and neutron reaction cross section data up to 500 MeV are provided. (author)

  16. Ready to Retrofit: The Process of Project Team Selection, Building Benchmarking, and Financing Commercial Building Energy Retrofit Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Mark D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Parrish, Kristen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This guide presents a process for three key activities for the building owner in preparing to retrofit existing commercial buildings: selecting project teams, benchmarking the existing building, and financing the retrofit work. Although there are other essential steps in the retrofit process, the three activities presented in this guide are the critical elements where the building owner has the greatest influence on the outcome of the project.

  17. MSU-Northern Bio-Energy Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegel, Greg [Montana State Univ. Northern, Havre, MT (United States); Windy Boy, Jessica [Montana State Univ. Northern, Havre, MT (United States). Bio-Energy Center of Excellence; Maglinao, Randy Latayan [Montana State Univ. Northern, Havre, MT (United States). Bio-Energy Center of Excellence; Abedin, Md. Joynal [Montana State Univ. Northern, Havre, MT (United States). Bio-Energy Center of Excellence

    2017-03-02

    The goal of this project was to establish the Bio-Energy Center (the Center) of Montana State University Northern (MSUN) as a Regional Research Center of Excellence in research, product development, and commercialization of non-food biomass for the bio-energy industry. A three-step approach, namely, (1) enhance the Center’s research and testing capabilities, (2) develop advanced biofuels from locally grown agricultural crops, and (3) educate the community through outreach programs for public understanding and acceptance of new technologies was identified to achieve this goal. The research activities aimed to address the obstacles concerning the production of biofuels and other bio-based fuel additives considering feedstock quality, conversion process, economic viability, and public awareness. First and foremost in enhancing the capabilities of the Center is the improvement of its laboratories and other physical facilities for investigating new biomass conversion technologies and the development of its manpower complement with expertise in chemistry, engineering, biology, and energy. MSUN renovated its Auto Diagnostics building and updated its mechanical and electrical systems necessary to house the state-of-the-art 525kW (704 hp) A/C Dynamometer. The newly renovated building was designated as the Advanced Fuels Building. Two laboratories, namely Biomass Conversion lab and Wet Chemistry lab were also added to the Center’s facilities. The Biomass Conversion lab was for research on the production of advanced biofuels including bio-jet fuel and bio-based fuel additives while the Wet Chemistry lab was used to conduct catalyst research. Necessary equipment and machines, such as gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry, were purchased and installed to help in research and testing. With the enhanced capabilities of the Center, research and testing activities were very much facilitated and more precise. New biofuels derived from Camelina sativa (camelina), a locally

  18. Energy Frontier Research Center, Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd R. Allen, Director

    2011-04-01

    The Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, has funded the INL as one of the Energy Frontier Research Centers in the area of material science of nuclear fuels. This document is the required annual report to the Office of Science that outlines the accomplishments for the period of May 2010 through April 2011. The aim of the Center for Material Science of Nuclear Fuels (CMSNF) is to establish the foundation for predictive understanding of the effects of irradiation-induced defects on thermal transport in oxide nuclear fuels. The science driver of the center’s investigation is to understand how complex defect and microstructures affect phonon mediated thermal transport in UO2, and achieve this understanding for the particular case of irradiation-induced defects and microstructures. The center’s research thus includes modeling and measurement of thermal transport in oxide fuels with different levels of impurities, lattice disorder and irradiation-induced microstructure, as well as theoretical and experimental investigation of the evolution of disorder, stoichiometry and microstructure in nuclear fuel under irradiation. With the premise that thermal transport in irradiated UO2 is a phonon-mediated energy transport process in a crystalline material with defects and microstructure, a step-by-step approach will be utilized to understand the effects of types of defects and microstructures on the collective phonon dynamics in irradiated UO2. Our efforts under the thermal transport thrust involved both measurement of diffusive phonon transport (an approach that integrates over the entire phonon spectrum) and spectroscopic measurements of phonon attenuation/lifetime and phonon dispersion. Our distinct experimental efforts dovetail with our modeling effort involving atomistic simulation of phonon transport and prediction of lattice thermal conductivity using the Boltzmann transport framework.

  19. Photovoltaic test facility at Florida solar energy center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atmanam, G.; Maytrott, C.; Wedekind, D.

    1984-05-01

    A photovoltaic flexible test facility has been developed at the Florida Solar Energy Center. The primary objective was to provide a test bed so that a variety of advanced technology subsystems (arrays and power conditioners) can be characterized and evaluated expeditiously in grid-interactive photovoltaic system operation. Also the systems' and subsystems' safety and reliability can be tested under imposed utility fault and extreme conditions. Such conditions include the utility outage, utility underand over-voltage and possible transient surges. The facility is designed to incorporate two complete parallel photovoltaic systems, one including the roof-mounted array and the other the tracking/adjustable array. The initial performance and test results are presented here along with a description of the facility.

  20. An organizational survey of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, D.A.; Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

    1991-09-01

    An Organizational Survey (OS) was administrated at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) that queried employees on the subjects of organizational culture, various aspects of communications, employee commitment, work group cohesion, coordination of work, environmental, safety, and health concerns, hazardous nature of work, safety and overall job satisfaction. The purpose of the OS is to measure in a quantitative and objective way the notion of culture''; that is, the values attitudes, and beliefs of the individuals working within the organization. In addition, through the OS, a broad sample of individuals can be reached that would probably not be interviewed or observed during the course of a typical assessment. The OS also provides a descriptive profile of the organization at one point in time that can then be compared to a profile taken at a different point in time to assess changes in the culture of the organization.

  1. An organizational survey of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, D.A.; Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

    1991-09-01

    An Organizational Survey (OS) was administrated at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) that queried employees on the subjects of organizational culture, various aspects of communications, employee commitment, work group cohesion, coordination of work, environmental, safety, and health concerns, hazardous nature of work, safety and overall job satisfaction. The purpose of the OS is to measure in a quantitative and objective way the notion of ``culture``; that is, the values attitudes, and beliefs of the individuals working within the organization. In addition, through the OS, a broad sample of individuals can be reached that would probably not be interviewed or observed during the course of a typical assessment. The OS also provides a descriptive profile of the organization at one point in time that can then be compared to a profile taken at a different point in time to assess changes in the culture of the organization.

  2. Assessment of water resources for nuclear energy centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuels, G.

    1976-09-01

    Maps of the conterminous United States showing the rivers with sufficient flow to be of interest as potential sites for nuclear energy centers are presented. These maps show the rivers with (1) mean annual flows greater than 3000 cfs, with the flow rates identified for ranges of 3000 to 6000, 6000 to 12,000, 12,000 to 24,000, and greater than 24,000 cfs; (2) monthly, 20-year low flows greater than 1500 cfs, with the flow rates identified for ranges of 1500 to 3000, 3000 to 6000, 6000 to 12,000, and greater than 12,000 cfs; and (3) annual, 20-year low flows greater than 1500 cfs, with the flow rates identified for ranges of 1500 to 3000, 3000 to 6000, 6000 to 12,000, and greater than 12,000 cfs. Criteria relating river flow rates required for various size generating stations both for sites located on reservoirs and for sites without local storage of cooling water are discussed. These criteria are used in conjunction with plant water consumption rates (based on both instantaneous peak and annual average usage rates) to estimate the installed generating capacity that may be located at one site or within a river basin. Projections of future power capacity requirements, future demand for water (both withdrawals and consumption), and regions of expected water shortages are also presented. Regional maps of water availability, based on annual, 20-year low flows, are also shown. The feasibility of locating large energy centers in these regions is discussed.

  3. Heat-pump-centered integrated community energy systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    A Heat Pump Centered-Integrated Community Energy System (HP-ICES) concept was explored and developed that is based on use of privately owned ice-making heat pumps in each building or complex within a community. These heat pumps will provide all of the space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water needs. All of the community input energy required is provided by electrical power, thereby eliminating a community's dependence on gas or oil supplies. The heat pumps will operate in both air and water source modes, deriving performance advantages of both. The possible forms of an HP-ICES system, the technical and economic limitations, environmental impacts and other factors are discussed from a general viewpoint. The concept is applied to a specific planned community and its performance and economic features are examined in detail. It is concluded that the HP-ICES concept is technically viable, but that its economic desirability as compared with conventional heat pump systems is hampered by much higher initial costs, and that the economic feasibility of HP-ICES systems will depend on future fuel source costs and supply and on electric power rates. (LCL)

  4. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) conducted December 7--11, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team specialists are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with PETC. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at PETC, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site Survey activities at PETC. The S A Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). When completed, the Plan's results will be incorporated into the PETC Survey findings for inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 64 refs., 23 figs., 29 tabs.

  5. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: Seneca Rocks Discovery Center, Seneca Rocks, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, Kosol [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Salasovich, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kandt, Alicen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-22

    As part of ongoing efforts by the U.S. Forest Service to reduce energy use and incorporate renewable energy technologies into its facilities, the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory performed an energy efficiency and renewable energy site assessment of the Seneca Rocks Discovery Center in Seneca Rocks, West Virginia. This report documents the findings of this assessment, and provides site-specific information for the implementation of energy and water conservation measures, and renewable energy measures.

  6. Planning nuclear energy centers under technological and demand uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P.M.; Palmedo, P.F.

    1976-01-01

    The question considered is whether new nuclear power plants should be located in nuclear energy centers, or ''power parks'' with co-located fabrication and reprocessing facilities. That issue has been addressed in a recent study by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and remains under investigation at Brookhaven and elsewhere. So far, however, the advisability of this policy has been analyzed primarily within the framework of a single view of the future. Suggestions of the types of questions that should be asked regarding this policy if it is properly to be viewed as an example of decision making under uncertainty are made. It is concluded that ''A consideration of the various uncertainties involved in the question of dispersed vs. remote siting of energy facilities introduces a number of new elements into the analysis. On balance those considerations provide somewhat greater support for the clustered concept. The NEC approach seems to provide somewhat greater flexibility in accomodating possible future electricity generating technologies. Increased regulatory and construction efficiencies possible in an NEC reduces the impact of demand uncertainty as does the lower costs associated with construction acceleration or deceleration.'' It is also noted that, in the final analysis, ''it is the public's perception of the relative costs and benefits of a measure that determine the acceptability or unacceptability of a particular innovation,'' not the engineer's cost/benefit analysis. It is further noted that if the analysis can identify limits on analytical methods and models, it will not make the job of energy decision-making any easier, but it may make the process more responsive to its impact on society. (MCW)

  7. HEASARC - The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, Alan P.

    2011-01-01

    The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) is NASA's archive for high-energy astrophysics and cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, supporting the broad science goals of NASA's Physics of the Cosmos theme. It provides vital scientific infrastructure to the community by standardizing science data formats and analysis programs, providing open access to NASA resources, and implementing powerful archive interfaces. Over the next five years the HEASARC will ingest observations from up to 12 operating missions, while serving data from these and over 30 archival missions to the community. The HEASARC archive presently contains over 37 TB of data, and will contain over 60 TB by the end of 2014. The HEASARC continues to secure major cost savings for NASA missions, providing a reusable mission-independent framework for reducing, analyzing, and archiving data. This approach was recognized in the NRC Portals to the Universe report (2007) as one of the HEASARC's great strengths. This poster describes the past and current activities of the HEASARC and our anticipated developments in coming years. These include preparations to support upcoming high energy missions (NuSTAR, Astro-H, GEMS) and ground-based and sub-orbital CMB experiments, as well as continued support of missions currently operating (Chandra, Fermi, RXTE, Suzaku, Swift, XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL). In 2012 the HEASARC (which now includes LAMBDA) will support the final nine-year WMAP data release. The HEASARC is also upgrading its archive querying and retrieval software with the new Xamin system in early release - and building on opportunities afforded by the growth of the Virtual Observatory and recent developments in virtual environments and cloud computing.

  8. Benchmark calculations of excess electrons in water cluster cavities: balancing the addition of atom-centered diffuse functions versus floating diffuse functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changzhe; Bu, Yuxiang

    2016-09-14

    Diffuse functions have been proved to be especially crucial for the accurate characterization of excess electrons which are usually bound weakly in intermolecular zones far away from the nuclei. To examine the effects of diffuse functions on the nature of the cavity-shaped excess electrons in water cluster surroundings, both the HOMO and LUMO distributions, vertical detachment energies (VDEs) and visible absorption spectra of two selected (H2O)24(-) isomers are investigated in the present work. Two main types of diffuse functions are considered in calculations including the Pople-style atom-centered diffuse functions and the ghost-atom-based floating diffuse functions. It is found that augmentation of atom-centered diffuse functions contributes to a better description of the HOMO (corresponding to the VDE convergence), in agreement with previous studies, but also leads to unreasonable diffuse characters of the LUMO with significant red-shifts in the visible spectra, which is against the conventional point of view that the more the diffuse functions, the better the results. The issue of designing extra floating functions for excess electrons has also been systematically discussed, which indicates that the floating diffuse functions are necessary not only for reducing the computational cost but also for improving both the HOMO and LUMO accuracy. Thus, the basis sets with a combination of partial atom-centered diffuse functions and floating diffuse functions are recommended for a reliable description of the weakly bound electrons. This work presents an efficient way for characterizing the electronic properties of weakly bound electrons accurately by balancing the addition of atom-centered diffuse functions and floating diffuse functions and also by balancing the computational cost and accuracy of the calculated results, and thus is very useful in the relevant calculations of various solvated electron systems and weakly bound anionic systems.

  9. Radiography benchmark 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaenisch, G.-R., E-mail: Gerd-Ruediger.Jaenisch@bam.de; Deresch, A., E-mail: Gerd-Ruediger.Jaenisch@bam.de; Bellon, C., E-mail: Gerd-Ruediger.Jaenisch@bam.de [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Schumm, A.; Lucet-Sanchez, F.; Guerin, P. [EDF R and D, 1 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France)

    2015-03-31

    The purpose of the 2014 WFNDEC RT benchmark study was to compare predictions of various models of radiographic techniques, in particular those that predict the contribution of scattered radiation. All calculations were carried out for homogenous materials and a mono-energetic X-ray point source in the energy range between 100 keV and 10 MeV. The calculations were to include the best physics approach available considering electron binding effects. Secondary effects like X-ray fluorescence and bremsstrahlung production were to be taken into account if possible. The problem to be considered had two parts. Part I examined the spectrum and the spatial distribution of radiation behind a single iron plate. Part II considered two equally sized plates, made of iron and aluminum respectively, only evaluating the spatial distribution. Here we present the results of above benchmark study, comparing them to MCNP as the assumed reference model. The possible origins of the observed deviations are discussed.

  10. Energy Frontier Research Centers: Helping Win the Energy Innovation Race (2011 EFRC Summit Keynote Address, Secretary of Energy Chu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Steven (DOE Secretary of Energy)

    2011-05-25

    Secretary of Energy Steven Chu gave the keynote address at the 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum. In his talk, Secretary Chu highlighted the need to "unleash America's science and research community" to achieve energy breakthroughs. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several “grand challenges” and use-inspired “basic research needs” recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  11. Kvantitativ benchmark - Produktionsvirksomheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole H.; Andersen, Vibeke

    Rapport med resultatet af kvantitativ benchmark over produktionsvirksomhederne i VIPS projektet.......Rapport med resultatet af kvantitativ benchmark over produktionsvirksomhederne i VIPS projektet....

  12. Benchmarking in Student Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, Robert E.; Schwarzmueller, Gary J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of benchmarking in student affairs, focusing on issues related to student housing. Provides examples of how benchmarking has influenced administrative practice at many institutions. (EV)

  13. A wind energy benchmark for ABL modelling of a diurnal cycle with a nocturnal low-level jet: GABLS3 revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Rodrigo, J.; Churchfield, M.; Kosović, B.

    2016-09-01

    The third GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary Layer Studies (GABLS3) model intercomparison study, around the Cabauw met tower in the Netherlands, is revisited as a benchmark for wind energy atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) models. The case was originally developed by the boundary layer meteorology community, interested in analysing the performance of single-column and large-eddy simulation atmospheric models dealing with a diurnal cycle leading to the development of a nocturnal low-level jet. The case addresses fundamental questions related to the definition of the large-scale forcing, the interaction of the ABL with the surface and the evaluation of model results with observations. The characterization of mesoscale forcing for asynchronous microscale modelling of the ABL is discussed based on momentum budget analysis of WRF simulations. Then a single-column model is used to demonstrate the added value of incorporating different forcing mechanisms in microscale models. The simulations are evaluated in terms of wind energy quantities of interest.

  14. Energy Frontier Research Center Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Allen

    2014-04-01

    Scientific Successes • The first phonon density of states (PDOS) measurements for UO2 to include anharmonicity were obtained using time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), and an innovative, experimental-based anharmonic smoothing technique has enabled quantitative benchmarking of ab initio PDOS simulations. • Direct comparison between anharmonicity-smoothed ab initio PDOS simulations for UO2 and experimental measurements has demonstrated the need for improved understanding of UO2 at the level of phonon dispersion, and, further, that advanced lattice dynamics simulations including finite temperatures approaches will be required for handling this strongly correlated nuclear fuel. • PDOS measurements performed on polycrystalline samples have identified the phonon branches and energy ranges most highly impacted by fission-product and hyper-stoichiometry lattice defects in UO2. These measurements have revealed the broad-spectrum impact of oxygen hyper-stoichiometry on thermal transport. The reduction in thermal conductivity caused by hyper-stoichiometry is many times stronger than that caused by substitutional fission-product impurities. • Laser-based thermo-reflectance measurements on UO2 samples irradiated with light (i.e. He) ions to introduce point defects have been coupled with MD simulations and lattice parameter measurements to determine the role of uranium and oxygen point defects in reducing thermal conductivity. • A rigorous perturbation theory treatment of phonon lifetimes in UO2 based on a 3D discretization of the Brillouin zone coupled with experimentally measured phonon dispersion has been implemented that produces improved predictions of the temperature dependent thermal conductivity. • Atom probe investigations of the influence of grain boundary structure on the segregation behavior of Kr in UO2 have shown that smaller amounts of Kr are present at low angle grain boundaries than at large angle grain

  15. National Energy Software Center: compilation of program abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.M.; Butler, M.K.; De Bruler, M.M.

    1979-05-01

    This is the third complete revision of program abstracts undertaken by the Center. Programs of the IBM 7040, 7090, and CDC 3600 vintage have been removed. Historical data and information on abstract format, program package contents, and subject classification are given. The following subject areas are included in the library: cross section and resonance integral calculations; spectrum calculations, generation of group constants, lattice and cell problems; static design studies; depletion, fuel management, cost analysis, and power plant economics; space-independent kinetics; space--time kinetics, coupled neutronics--hydrodynamics--thermodynamics and excursion simulations; radiological safety, hazard and accident analysis; heat transfer and fluid flow; deformation and stress distribution computations, structural analysis and engineering design studies; gamma heating and shield design; reactor systems analysis; data preparation; data management; subsidiary calculations; experimental data processing; general mathematical and computing system routines; materials; environmental and earth sciences; electronics, engineering equipment, and energy systems studies; chemistry; particle accelerators and high-voltage machines; physics; magnetic fusion research; data. (RWR)

  16. Contributions of parent molecule fixed and excess energies to product energy partitioning in four-center elimination reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, R. M.; Santamaría, J.

    1989-03-01

    In four-center elimination reactions such as hydrogen halide elimination from halogenated hydrocarbons the energy barrier is higher than the difference in enthalpy of formation between the parent molecule and its fragments (HX and olefin). This determines that the energy available to products has two origins: the reverse reaction barrier (fixed energy), and the excess energy (energy above the barrier). Both types of energy are partitioned among products following different laws: more or less statistical for excess energy and non-statistical for fixed energy. In a study of CF 3-CH 3 decomposition, we describe a practical method, based on the variation of product energy partitioning with excess energy, to determine the partitioning of the fixed energy among different types of product energy, thus defining the exact nature of the reverse reaction energy barrier. We applied this model to other types of reactions, such as three-center molecular eliminations.

  17. 77 FR 19278 - Leaf River Energy Center LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Leaf River Energy Center LLC; Notice of Application On March 20, 2012, Leaf River Energy Center LLC (Leaf River), 53 Riverside Avenue, Westport, Connecticut 06880, filed with the...-000, to authorize Leaf River to reallocate the aggregate total facility certificated storage...

  18. 77 FR 62499 - Leaf River Energy Center LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Leaf River Energy Center LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on September 24, 2012, Leaf River Energy Center LLC (Leaf River), 53 Riverside Avenue, Westport, Connecticut... necessity to expand the certificated storage capacities of three of its four existing caverns at its...

  19. 75 FR 27999 - CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... gas supplies can be redirected from Dunn Junction Compressor Station to the Dunn Compressor Station... Energy Regulatory Commission CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company; Notice of Application May 12, 2010. Take notice that on May 11, 2010, CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company (CEGT), 1111...

  20. Clean Energy Solutions Center and SE4All: Partnering to Support Country Actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    Since 2012, the Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) and Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) have partnered to deliver information, knowledge and expert assistance to policymakers and practitioners in countries actively working to achieve SE4All objectives. Through SE4All efforts, national governments are implementing integrated country actions to strategically transform their energy markets. This fact sheet details the Solutions Center and SE4All partnership and available areas of technical assistance.

  1. Operating costs and energy demand of wastewater treatment plants in Austria: benchmarking results of the last 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinger, J; Lindtner, S; Krampe, J

    2016-12-01

    This work presents operating costs and energy consumption of Austrian municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) (≥10,000 PE-design capacity) that have been classified into different size groups. Different processes as well as cost elements are investigated and processes with high relevance regarding operating costs and energy consumption are identified. Furthermore, the work shows the cost-relevance of six investigated cost elements. The analysis demonstrates the size-dependency of operating costs and energy consumption. For the examination of the energy consumption the investigated WWTPs were further classified into WWTPs with aerobic sludge stabilisation and WWTPs with mesophilic sludge digestion. The work proves that energy consumption depends mainly on the type of sludge stabilisation. The results of the investigation can help to determine reduction potential in operating costs and energy consumption of WWTPs and form a basis for more detailed analysis which helps to identify cost and energy saving potential.

  2. Benchmarking and Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    nchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of benchmarking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques....... In this paper, we review the modern foundations for frontier-based regulation and we discuss its actual use in several jurisdictions....

  3. Staff roster for 1979: National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of resumes from the current staff of the National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems. The Center, founded in January 1976, is one of four areas within the Department of Energy and Environment at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The emphasis of programs at the Center is on energy policy and planning studies at the regional, national, and international levels, involving quantitative, interdisciplinary studies of the technological, economic, social, and environmental aspects of energy systems. To perform these studies the Center has assembled a staff of experts in the areas of science, technology, economics planning, health and safety, information systems, and quantitative analysis.

  4. Benchmarking v ICT

    OpenAIRE

    Blecher, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe benefits of benchmarking IT in wider context and benchmarking scope at all. I specify benchmarking as a process and mention basic rules and guidelines. Further I define IT benchmarking domains and describe possibilities of their use. Best known type of IT benchmark is cost benchmark which represents only a subset of benchmark opportunities. In this paper, is cost benchmark rather an imaginary first step to benchmarking contribution to company. IT benchmark...

  5. Medicare Contracting - Redacted Benchmark Metric Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has compiled aggregate national benchmark cost and workload metrics using data submitted to CMS by the AB MACs and the...

  6. DSP Platform Benchmarking : DSP Platform Benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Xinyuan, Luo

    2009-01-01

    Benchmarking of DSP kernel algorithms was conducted in the thesis on a DSP processor for teaching in the course TESA26 in the department of Electrical Engineering. It includes benchmarking on cycle count and memory usage. The goal of the thesis is to evaluate the quality of a single MAC DSP instruction set and provide suggestions for further improvement in instruction set architecture accordingly. The scope of the thesis is limited to benchmark the processor only based on assembly coding. The...

  7. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah. Power demand, load center assessment and transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.R.; Thaik, A.; Pingel, P.

    1982-02-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramification of constructing a nuclear energy center in an arid western region. In this phase of the study. The projected power demands and load center locations were reviewed and assessed. Alternative transmission systems were analysed and a conceptual transmission for bulk power transportation is proposed with potential line routes. Environmental impacts of the proposed transmission were also identified.

  8. Mapping and benchmarking regional disparities in China’s energy supply, transformation, and end-use in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischke, Peggy; Xiong, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    to East- China. (iii) East-China also dominated the country’s industrial energy consumption, accounting for about 70% of oil, about 58% of coal and about 53% of electricity consumption in industry. This paper highlights the need to combine national and regional energy planning to account for this spatial...

  9. Server Consolidation: An Approach to make Data Centers Energy Efficient and Green

    CERN Document Server

    Uddin, Mueen

    2010-01-01

    Data centers are the building blocks of IT business organizations providing the capabilities of centralized repository for storage, management, networking and dissemination of data. With the rapid increase in the capacity and size of data centers, there is a continuous increase in the demand for energy consumption. These data centers not only consume a tremendous amount of energy but are riddled with IT inefficiencies. All data center are plagued with thousands of servers as major components. These servers consume huge energy without performing useful work. In an average server environment, 30% of the servers are "dead" only consuming energy, without being properly utilized. Their utilization ratio is only 5 to 10 percent. This paper focuses on the use of an emerging technology called virtualization to achieve energy efficient data centers by providing a solution called server consolidation. It increases the utilization ratio up to 50% saving huge amount of energy. Server consolidation helps in implementing g...

  10. The Woodlands Metro Center energy study. Case studies of project planning and design for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The Woodlands is a HUD Title VII New Town located near Houston, including 22,000 acres; the plan for the new town consists of 6 residential villages, a town center (Metro), and a Trade Center for larger-scale industrial use. Included within the program for each village are schools and commercial activities, as well as employment activities. The Woodlands is planned to be developed over a 26-year period (commenced in 1972) with an ultimate population of 150,000. Following a summary chapter, Chapter II presents background material on The Woodlands and results of the study are summarized. Chapter III describes the project team and its organizational structure. Chapter IV outlines and documents the methodology that was employed in developing, analyzing, and evaluating the case study. The next chapter describes and analyzes the conventional plan, documents the process by which energy-conserving methods were selected, and evaluates the application of these methods to the Metro Center Study area. Chapter VI discusses constraints to implementation and is followed by a final chapter that presents the general conclusions from the case study and suggests directions for further investigation.

  11. Annual abstracts of the National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-12-01

    The National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems at Brookhaven has been in operation since January 1976. This 1978 Annual Abstracts report illustrates the scope of activities of the Center involving the integrated analyses of technological, economic, environmental, and social aspects of energy at the regional, national, and international levels. The major ongoing activities of the Center include: analysis of energy-economic relationships; regional energy and environmental policy; comparative health effects of alternative energy systems; technology assessment and energy R and D priorities; development of energy-economic-environmental models and data bases; R and D strategies for the International Energy Agency; and energy technologies for developing countries. The objectives of the Center and major accomplishments of 1978 are described in the Annual Highlights of the National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems, BNL 50969, which also describes the energy data bases and analytical models used in the course of policy analyses. The multi-disciplinary approach used in the Center, and the close interaction with other analytical groups in universities and industry, provides a unique perspective on the energy situation. This is evidenced by the broad range of activities cited in this Annual Abstracts report.

  12. Benchmarking concentrating photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Fabian; Muthirayan, Buvaneshwari; Meuret, Youri; Thienpont, Hugo

    2010-08-01

    Integral to photovoltaics is the need to provide improved economic viability. To achieve this goal, photovoltaic technology has to be able to harness more light at less cost. A large variety of concentrating photovoltaic concepts has provided cause for pursuit. To obtain a detailed profitability analysis, a flexible evaluation is crucial for benchmarking the cost-performance of this variety of concentrating photovoltaic concepts. To save time and capital, a way to estimate the cost-performance of a complete solar energy system is to use computer aided modeling. In this work a benchmark tool is introduced based on a modular programming concept. The overall implementation is done in MATLAB whereas Advanced Systems Analysis Program (ASAP) is used for ray tracing calculations. This allows for a flexible and extendable structuring of all important modules, namely an advanced source modeling including time and local dependence, and an advanced optical system analysis of various optical designs to obtain an evaluation of the figure of merit. An important figure of merit: the energy yield for a given photovoltaic system at a geographical position over a specific period, can be calculated.

  13. The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC): Providing Analysis and Insights on Clean Technology Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Nicholi S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Policymakers and industry leaders seek CEMAC insights to inform choices to promote economic growth and the transition to a clean energy economy.

  14. The Efficiency and Effectiveness of the K-12 Energy Technology Education Promotion Centers in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    In order to promote energy literacy for graders K-12, the Ministry of Education (MOE) in Taiwan initiated a K-12 Energy Technology Education Project in September 2010. This 40-month project has one project office affiliated to a university, and 18 promotion centers affiliated to 18 schools--including 5 regional centers for upper-secondary schools…

  15. 76 FR 2903 - Interconnection of the Proposed Hyde County Wind Energy Center Project (DOE/EIS-0461), and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Area Power Administration Interconnection of the Proposed Hyde County Wind Energy Center Project (DOE... statements (EISs) for the Hyde County Wind Energy Center Project and the Crowned Ridge Wind Energy Center... Energy Resources (NextEra) applied to interconnect its proposed 150-megawatt (MW) Hyde County Wind Energy...

  16. Prediction-based manufacturing center self-adaptive demand side energy optimization in cyber physical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinyao; Wang, Xue; Wu, Jiangwei; Liu, Youda

    2014-05-01

    Cyber physical systems(CPS) recently emerge as a new technology which can provide promising approaches to demand side management(DSM), an important capability in industrial power systems. Meanwhile, the manufacturing center is a typical industrial power subsystem with dozens of high energy consumption devices which have complex physical dynamics. DSM, integrated with CPS, is an effective methodology for solving energy optimization problems in manufacturing center. This paper presents a prediction-based manufacturing center self-adaptive energy optimization method for demand side management in cyber physical systems. To gain prior knowledge of DSM operating results, a sparse Bayesian learning based componential forecasting method is introduced to predict 24-hour electric load levels for specific industrial areas in China. From this data, a pricing strategy is designed based on short-term load forecasting results. To minimize total energy costs while guaranteeing manufacturing center service quality, an adaptive demand side energy optimization algorithm is presented. The proposed scheme is tested in a machining center energy optimization experiment. An AMI sensing system is then used to measure the demand side energy consumption of the manufacturing center. Based on the data collected from the sensing system, the load prediction-based energy optimization scheme is implemented. By employing both the PSO and the CPSO method, the problem of DSM in the manufacturing center is solved. The results of the experiment show the self-adaptive CPSO energy optimization method enhances optimization by 5% compared with the traditional PSO optimization method.

  17. Benchmarking set for domestic smart grid management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, M.G.C.; Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a benchmark for domestic smart grid management. It consists of an in-depth description of a domestic smart grid, in which local energy consumers, producers and buffers can be controlled. First, from this description a general benchmark framework is derived, which can be used

  18. A simulation study on proton computed tomography (CT) stopping power accuracy using dual energy CT scans as benchmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David Christoffer; Seco, Joao; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild

    2015-01-01

    Background. Accurate stopping power estimation is crucial for treatment planning in proton therapy, and the uncertainties in stopping power are currently the largest contributor to the employed dose margins. Dual energy x-ray computed tomography (CT) (clinically available) and proton CT (in...

  19. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center. 2015 Research Highlights -- Carbon Fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sujit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    CEMAC has conducted four major studies on the manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Three of these focused on the end product: solar photovoltaic modules, wind turbines, and automotive lithium-ion batteries. The fourth area focused on a key material for manufacturing clean energy technologies, carbon fiber.

  20. Aquatic Life Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aquatic Life Benchmarks is an EPA-developed set of criteria for freshwater species. These benchmarks are based on toxicity values reviewed by EPA and used in the...

  1. Energy modeling of two office buildings with data center for green building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Yiqun; Yin, Rongxin; Huang, Zhizhong [Institute of Building Performance and Technology, Sino-German College of Applied Sciences, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2008-07-01

    Energy simulation models are developed with EnergyPlus for two office buildings in a R and D center in Shanghai, China to evaluate the energy cost savings of green building design options compared with the baseline building. As a R and D center of an international IT corporation, there are data centers in the two buildings, which make them different from typical office buildings. The data centers house high energy consuming IT equipments and need 24 h air-conditioning every day all year round. In order to achieve energy cost savings, multiple energy efficiency strategies are employed for design proposed building, encompassing high performance building envelope, lighting system, and HVAC system. Through energy modeling, the design proposed options are compared to an ASHRAE 90.1-2004 compliant budget model to highlight energy cost savings versus ''standard practice'' and show the potential LEED trademark Credit EA1 - Optimize Energy Performance. Meanwhile, they are also compared to China Code model to figure out the energy cost savings versus the most popular practice conforming to China Public Building Energy Saving Design Standard. The whole building energy simulation results show that the yearly energy cost saving of the proposed design will be approximately 27% from China Code building and 21% from ASHRAE budget building, which can achieve 4 points for LEED credit due to energy performance optimization. (author)

  2. Groundwater flow with energy transport and water-ice phase change: Numerical simulations, benchmarks, and application to freezing in peat bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, J.M.; Voss, C.I.; Siegel, D.I.

    2007-01-01

    In northern peatlands, subsurface ice formation is an important process that can control heat transport, groundwater flow, and biological activity. Temperature was measured over one and a half years in a vertical profile in the Red Lake Bog, Minnesota. To successfully simulate the transport of heat within the peat profile, the U.S. Geological Survey's SUTRA computer code was modified. The modified code simulates fully saturated, coupled porewater-energy transport, with freezing and melting porewater, and includes proportional heat capacity and thermal conductivity of water and ice, decreasing matrix permeability due to ice formation, and latent heat. The model is verified by correctly simulating the Lunardini analytical solution for ice formation in a porous medium with a mixed ice-water zone. The modified SUTRA model correctly simulates the temperature and ice distributions in the peat bog. Two possible benchmark problems for groundwater and energy transport with ice formation and melting are proposed that may be used by other researchers for code comparison. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Benchmarking a DSP processor

    OpenAIRE

    Lennartsson, Per; Nordlander, Lars

    2002-01-01

    This Master thesis describes the benchmarking of a DSP processor. Benchmarking means measuring the performance in some way. In this report, we have focused on the number of instruction cycles needed to execute certain algorithms. The algorithms we have used in the benchmark are all very common in signal processing today. The results we have reached in this thesis have been compared to benchmarks for other processors, performed by Berkeley Design Technology, Inc. The algorithms were programm...

  4. 75 FR 64748 - Nextera Energy Duane Arnold, LLC; Duane Arnold Energy Center; Notice of Availability of the Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... operation for the Duane Arnold Energy Center (DAEC). The DAEC is located in Linn County, Iowa, approximately... the adverse environmental impacts of license renewal for DAEC are not great enough to deny the...

  5. Dissociation Energies of Sulfur-Centered Hydrogen-Bonded Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sanat; Bhattacharyya, Surjendu; Wategaonkar, Sanjay

    2015-11-01

    In this work we have determined dissociation energies of O-H···S hydrogen bond in the H2S complexes of various phenol derivatives using 2-color-2-photon photofragmentation spectroscopy in combination with zero kinetic energy photoelectron (ZEKE-PE) spectroscopy. This is the first report of direct determination of dissociation energy of O-H···S hydrogen bond. The ZEKE-PE spectra of the complexes revealed a long progression in the intermolecular stretching mode with significant anharmonicity. Using the anharmonicity information and experimentally determined dissociation energy, we also validated Birge-Sponer (B-S) extrapolation method, which is an approximate method to estimate dissociation energy. Experimentally determined dissociation energies were compared with a variety of ab initio calculations. One of the important findings is that ωB97X-D functional, which is a dispersion corrected DFT functional, was able to predict the dissociation energies in both the cationic as well as the ground electronic state very well for almost every case.

  6. The COST Benchmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Tiesyte, Dalia; Tradisauskas, Nerius

    2006-01-01

    , and more are underway. As a result, there is an increasing need for an independent benchmark for spatio-temporal indexes. This paper characterizes the spatio-temporal indexing problem and proposes a benchmark for the performance evaluation and comparison of spatio-temporal indexes. Notably, the benchmark...

  7. Spin-unrestricted random-phase approximation with range separation: Benchmark on atomization energies and reaction barrier heights

    CERN Document Server

    Mussard, Bastien; Angyan, Janos; Toulouse, Julien

    2015-01-01

    We consider several spin-unrestricted random-phase approximation (RPA) variants for calculating correlation energies, with and without range separation, and test them on datasets of atomization energies and reaction barrier heights. We show that range separation greatly improves the accuracy of all RPA variants for these properties. Moreover, we show that a RPA variant with exchange, hereafter referred to as RPAx-SO2, first proposed by Sz-abo and Ostlund [A. Szabo and N. S. Ostlund, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 4351 (1977)] in a spin-restricted closed-shell formalism, and extended here to a spin-unrestricted formalism, provides on average the most accurate range-separated RPA variant for atomization energies and reaction barrier heights. Since this range-separated RPAx-SO2 method had already been shown to be among the most accurate range-separated RPA variants for weak intermolecular interactions [J. Toulouse, W. Zhu, A. Savin, G. Jansen, and J. G. {\\'A}ngy{\\'a}n, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 084119 (2011)], this works confirms...

  8. Future Energy Benchmark for Desalination: is it Better to have a Power (electricity) Plant with ro or Med/msf?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ng, Kim Choon; Thu, Kyaw

    2016-06-01

    Power and desalination cogeneration plants are common in many water scared courtiers. Designers and planners for cogeneration face tough challenges in deciding the options:- Is it better to operate a power plant (PP) with the reverse osmosis (i.e., PP+RO) or the thermally-driven multi-effect distillation/multi-stage flashed (PP+MED/MSF) methods. From literature, the RO methods are known to be energy efficient whilst the MED/MSF are known to have excellent thermodynamic synergies as only low pressure and temperature steam are used. Not with-standing the challenges of severe feed seawater of the Gulf, such as the frequent harmful algae blooms (HABs) and high silt contents, this presentation presents a quantitative analyses using the exergy and energetic approaches in evaluating the performances of a real cogeneration plant that was recently proposed in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia. We demonstrate that the process choice of PP+RO versus PP+MED depends on the inherent efficiencies of individual process method which is closely related to innovative process design. In this connection, a method of primary fuel cost apportionment for a co-generation plant with a MED desalination is presented. We show that an energy approach, that captures the quality of expanding steam, is a better method over the conventional work output (energetic) and the energy method seems to be over-penalizing a thermally-driven MED by as much as 22% in the operating cost of water.

  9. Spin-unrestricted random-phase approximation with range separation: Benchmark on atomization energies and reaction barrier heights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mussard, Bastien, E-mail: bastien.mussard@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Institut du Calcul et de la Simulation, F-75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris (France); Reinhardt, Peter; Toulouse, Julien, E-mail: julien.toulouse@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris (France); Ángyán, János G. [CRM2, Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-lés-Nancy (France); CRM2, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS, F-54506 Vandoevre-lés-Nancy (France)

    2015-04-21

    We consider several spin-unrestricted random-phase approximation (RPA) variants for calculating correlation energies, with and without range separation, and test them on datasets of atomization energies and reaction barrier heights. We show that range separation greatly improves the accuracy of all RPA variants for these properties. Moreover, we show that a RPA variant with exchange, hereafter referred to as RPAx-SO2, first proposed by Szabo and Ostlund [J. Chem. Phys. 67, 4351 (1977)] in a spin-restricted closed-shell formalism, and extended here to a spin-unrestricted formalism, provides on average the most accurate range-separated RPA variant for atomization energies and reaction barrier heights. Since this range-separated RPAx-SO2 method had already been shown to be among the most accurate range-separated RPA variants for weak intermolecular interactions [J. Toulouse et al., J. Chem. Phys. 135, 084119 (2011)], this works confirms range-separated RPAx-SO2 as a promising method for general chemical applications.

  10. Future Energy Benchmark for Desalination: Is it Better to have a Power (Electricity) Plant With RO or MED/MSF?

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2016-06-23

    Power and desalination cogeneration plants are common in many water scared courtiers. Designers and planners for cogeneration face tough challenges in deciding the options:- Is it better to operate a power plant (PP) with the reverse osmosis (i.e., PP+RO) or the thermally-driven multi-effect distillation/multi-stage flashed ( PP+MED/MSF) methods. From literature, the RO methods are known to be energy efficient whilst the MED/MSF are known to have excellent thermodynamic synergies as only low pressure and temperature steam are used. Not with-standing the challenges of severe feed seawater of the Gulf, such as the frequent harmful algae blooms (HABs) and high silt contents, this presentation presents a quantitative analyses using the exergy and energetic approaches in evaluating the performances of a real cogeneration plant that was recently proposed in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia. We demonstrate that the process choice of PP+RO versus PP+MED depends on the inherent efficiencies of individual process method which is closely related to innovative process design. In this connection, a method of primary fuel cost apportionment for a co-generation plant with a MED desalination is presented. We show that an energy approach, that captures the quality of expanding steam, is a better method over the conventional work output (energetic) and the energy method seems to be over-penalizing a thermally-driven MED by as much as 22% in the operating cost of water.

  11. Study on Energy Efficiency Benchmarking of the Steel Industry Between China and the U.S%中美钢铁工业能效对标研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春霞; 上官方钦; 郦秀萍; Lynn Price; Nathaniel Aden; Ali Hasanbeigi

    2013-01-01

    A methodology for the energy efficiency benchmarking of steel industry among different countries was put forward, and the key factors such as boundary definitions, energy efficiency index, energy conversion factors, EAF share, etc. were discussed in the methodology. Applying the above methodology, the energy efficiencies of steel industries between China and the U. S. were analyzed and compared. It is shown that, viewed from the whole steel industry, the energy intensity of China is 24. 30 kg/t-crude steel higher than that of the U. S. based on the same conditions of boundary, energy conversion factors and EAF share, while viewed from the energy efficiencies of the key steel enterprises of China, the energy intensity of Chinese steel enterprises is 59. 70kg/t-crude steel lower than that of the U. S..%分析了中美钢铁工业的发展进程,提出了一种适用于不同国家间的钢铁工业能源效率对标的方法,考虑了影响能效的关键因素,如边界、能效指标、能源折算系数、电炉钢比等.采用该对标方法,对中美两国钢铁工业的能效进行了分析比较.结果表明:从两国钢铁工业整体能效对比分析来看,在设定相同的钢铁工业边界、能源折算系数和电炉钢比等条件下,中国钢铁工业的平均能源强度要比美国高约24.30 kg/t;但从代表中国钢铁工业水平的重点钢铁企业与美国钢铁工业的能效对比分析来看,中国重点钢铁企业的能源强度要比美国钢铁工业约低59.70kg/t.

  12. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) 2015 Research Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, Michael; Mone, Christopher; Chung, Donald; Elgqvist, Emma; Das, Sujit; Mann, Margaret; Gossett, Scott

    2016-03-01

    CEMAC has conducted four major studies on the manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Three of these focused on the end product: solar photovoltaic modules, wind turbines, and automotive lithium-ion batteries. The fourth area focused on a key material for manufacturing clean energy technologies, carbon fiber. This booklet summarizes key findings of CEMAC work to date, describes CEMAC's research methodology, and describes work to come.

  13. Benchmark calculations on the electron detachment energies of MO3* and M2O6* (M = Cr, Mo, W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenggang; Dixon, David A

    2007-11-22

    Neutral and anionic molecules of the monomers and dimers of the group VIB transition metal oxides (MO3 and M2O6) were studied with density functional theory (DFT) and coupled cluster CCSD(T) theory. Franck-Condon simulations of the photoelectron spectra were carried out for the transition from the ground state of the anion to that of the neutral molecule. Molecular structures from the DFT and CCSD(T) methods are compared. Electron detachment energies reported in the literature were evaluated. The calculated adiabatic and vertical electron detachment energies (ADEs and VDEs) were compared with the experimental results. CCSD(T) gives results within 0.12 eV for the ADEs. CCSD(T) predicts VDEs that are in error by as much as 0.3 eV for M = Cr. DFT hybrid functionals were found to give poor results for the ADEs and VDEs for M = Cr due to the substantial amount of multireference character in the wavefunction, whereas the pure DFT functionals give superior results. For M = Mo and W, excellent agreement was found for both CCSD(T) and many DFT fucntionals. The BP86 functional yields the best overall results for the VDEs of all the metal oxide clusters considered. Heats of formation calculated at the CCSD(T) level extrapolated to the complete basis set limit are also in good agreement with available experimental data.

  14. Benchmarking semantic web technology

    CERN Document Server

    García-Castro, R

    2009-01-01

    This book addresses the problem of benchmarking Semantic Web Technologies; first, from a methodological point of view, proposing a general methodology to follow in benchmarking activities over Semantic Web Technologies and, second, from a practical point of view, presenting two international benchmarking activities that involved benchmarking the interoperability of Semantic Web technologies using RDF(S) as the interchange language in one activity and OWL in the other.The book presents in detail how the different resources needed for these interoperability benchmarking activities were defined:

  15. Solar energy grid integration systems : final report of the Florida Solar Energy Center Team.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropp, Michael (Northern Plains Power Technologies, Brookings, SD); Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Schaffer, Alan (Lakeland Electric Utilities, Lakeland, FL); Katz, Stanley (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Perkinson, Jim (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Bower, Ward Isaac; Prestero, Mark (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Casey, Leo (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Moaveni, Houtan (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Click, David (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Davis, Kristopher (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Reedy, Robert (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2012-03-01

    Initiated in 2008, the Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) program is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the program have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding utility-scale penetration and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), its partners, and Sandia National Laboratories have successfully collaborated to complete the work under the third and final stage of the SEGIS initiative. The SEGIS program was a three-year, three-stage project that include conceptual design and market analysis in Stage 1, prototype development and testing in Stage 2, and moving toward commercialization in Stage 3. Under this program, the FSEC SEGIS team developed a comprehensive vision that has guided technology development that sets one methodology for merging photovoltaic (PV) and smart-grid technologies. The FSEC team's objective in the SEGIS project is to remove barriers to large-scale general integration of PV and to enhance the value proposition of photovoltaic energy by enabling PV to act as much as possible as if it were at the very least equivalent to a conventional utility power plant. It was immediately apparent that the advanced power electronics of these advanced inverters will go far beyond conventional power plants, making high penetrations of PV not just acceptable, but desirable. This report summarizes a three-year effort to develop, validate and commercialize Grid-Smart Inverters for wider photovoltaic utilization, particularly in the utility sector.

  16. 78 FR 54669 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed RES Americas Moapa Solar Energy Center...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Vegas Review Journal and the Moapa Valley Progress and on the following Web site: www.MoapaSolarEnergy... of a solar energy ground lease and agreements entered into by the Tribe with Moapa Solar LLC... caption ``DEIS Comments, Proposed Moapa Solar Energy Center'' on the first page of your written...

  17. Deep Energy Retrofit Guidance for the Building America Solutions Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. DOE Building America program has established a research agenda targeting market-relevant strategies to achieve 40% reductions in existing home energy use by 2030. Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs) are part of the strategy to meet and exceed this goal. DERs are projects that create new, valuable assets from existing residences, by bringing homes into alignment with the expectations of the 21st century. Ideally, high energy using, dated homes that are failing to provide adequate modern services to their owners and occupants (e.g., comfortable temperatures, acceptable humidity, clean, healthy), are transformed through comprehensive upgrades to the building envelope, services and miscellaneous loads into next generation high performance homes. These guidance documents provide information to aid in the broader market adoption of DERs.

  18. Solar energy for district heating and group centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlman, E.; Zinko, H.; Hultmark, G.; Isakson, P.; Karlsson, B.; Margen, P.

    1984-01-01

    The report presents the technique and the state of the art concerning solar energy in a district heating system by the turn of the year 1983/84. The market potential and the cost accounting and the development are discussed. An estimate of the energy production of solar collector systems is presented. 11 different pilot and demonstration plants for solar district heating are described, particularly the plants at Tumba, Knivsta, Studsvik, Torvalla, Ingelstad and Lyckebo. The experience and the general trend is expressed as a change towards large units and a reduction of cost. Continued research and development is recommended.

  19. Measurement of the center-of-mass energies at BESIII via the di-muon process

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ai, X C; Albayrak, O; Albrecht, M; Ambrose, D J; Amoroso, A; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Ferroli, R Baldini; Ban, Y; Bennett, D W; Bennett, J V; Bertani, M; Bettoni, D; Bian, J M; Bianchi, F; Boger, E; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov$^{23, G; d,; e}$,; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, H Y; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, X K; Cibinetto, G; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dbeyssi, A; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; De Mori, F; Ding, Y; Dong, C; Dong, J; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Du, S X; Duan, P F; Fan, J Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fang, X; Fang, Y; Fava, L; Feldbauer, F; Felici, G; Feng, C Q; Fioravanti, E; Fritsch$^{14, M; 22}$,; Fu, C D; Gao, Q; Gao, X L; Gao, X Y; Gao, Y; Gao, Z; Garzia, I; Goetzen, K; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, Y; Guo, Y P; Haddadi, Z; Hafner, A; Han, S; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, X Q; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Hu, Y; Huang, G M; Huang, G S; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, Y; Hussain, T; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L W; Jiang, X S; Jiang, X Y; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Johansson, T; Julin, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kang, X L; Kang, X S; Kavatsyuk, M; Ke, B C; Kiese, P; Kliemt, R; Kloss, B; Kolcu, O B; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kühn, W; Kupsc, A; Lange, J S; Lara, M; Larin, P; Leng, C; Li, C; Li, Cheng; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, F Y; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, Jin; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, P R; Li, T; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X M; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Lin, D X; Liu, B J; Liu, C X; Liu, D; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, J Y; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, L D; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lou$^{1, X C; a,; h}$,; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Y; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lyu, X R; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, Q M; Ma, T; Ma, X N; Ma, X Y; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Marcello, S; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Mo, Y J; Morales, C Morales; Moriya, K; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nerling, F; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Nisar, S; Niu, S L; Niu, X Y; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Pan, Y; Patteri, P; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Pettersson, J; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prasad, V; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, N; Qin, X S; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Redmer, C F; Ripka, M; Rong, G; Rosner, Ch; Ruan, X D; Santoro, V; Sarantsev, A; Savri'e, M; Schoenning, K; Schumann, S; Shan, W; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, P X; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Song, W M; Song, X Y; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Tiemens, M; Ullrich, M; Uman, I; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S G; Wang, W; Wang, W P; Wang, X F; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z H; Wang, Z Y; Weber, T; Wei, D H; Wei, J B; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, S P; Wiedner, U; Wolke, M; Wu, L H; Wu, Z; Xia, L; Xia, L G; Xia, Y; Xiao, D; Xiao, H; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, L; Xu, Q J; Xu, X P; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, W C; Yan, Y H; Yang, H J; Yang, H X; Yang, L; Yang, Y; Yang, Y X; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yin, J H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Yuncu, A; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zeng, Z; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J J; Zhang, J L; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, K; Zhang, L; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y T; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, J W; Zhao, J Y; Zhao, J Z; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, W J; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhou, X Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zotti, L; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2015-01-01

    From 2011 to 2014, the BESIII experiment collected about 5 fb$^{-1}$ data at center-of-mass energies around 4 GeV for the studies of the charmonium-like and higher excited charmonium states. By analyzing the di-muon process $e^{+}e^{-}\\rightarrow\\gamma_{\\rm ISR/FSR}\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$, the center-of-mass energies of the data samples are measured with a precision of 0.8 MeV. The center-of-mass energy is found to be stable for most of time during the data taking.

  20. Benchmarking in University Toolbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kuźmicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the face of global competition and rising challenges that higher education institutions (HEIs meet, it is imperative to increase innovativeness and efficiency of their management. Benchmarking can be the appropriate tool to search for a point of reference necessary to assess institution’s competitive position and learn from the best in order to improve. The primary purpose of the paper is to present in-depth analysis of benchmarking application in HEIs worldwide. The study involves indicating premises of using benchmarking in HEIs. It also contains detailed examination of types, approaches and scope of benchmarking initiatives. The thorough insight of benchmarking applications enabled developing classification of benchmarking undertakings in HEIs. The paper includes review of the most recent benchmarking projects and relating them to the classification according to the elaborated criteria (geographical range, scope, type of data, subject, support and continuity. The presented examples were chosen in order to exemplify different approaches to benchmarking in higher education setting. The study was performed on the basis of the published reports from benchmarking projects, scientific literature and the experience of the author from the active participation in benchmarking projects. The paper concludes with recommendations for university managers undertaking benchmarking, derived on the basis of the conducted analysis.

  1. Benchmarking: A tool to enhance performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munro, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kristal, J. [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management, Washington, DC (United States); Thompson, G.; Johnson, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Office of Environmental Management is bringing Headquarters and the Field together to implement process improvements throughout the Complex through a systematic process of organizational learning called benchmarking. Simply stated, benchmarking is a process of continuously comparing and measuring practices, processes, or methodologies with those of other private and public organizations. The EM benchmarking program, which began as the result of a recommendation from Xerox Corporation, is building trust and removing barriers to performance enhancement across the DOE organization. The EM benchmarking program is designed to be field-centered with Headquarters providing facilitatory and integrative functions on an ``as needed`` basis. One of the main goals of the program is to assist Field Offices and their associated M&O/M&I contractors develop the capabilities to do benchmarking for themselves. In this regard, a central precept is that in order to realize tangible performance benefits, program managers and staff -- the ones closest to the work - must take ownership of the studies. This avoids the ``check the box`` mentality associated with some third party studies. This workshop will provide participants with a basic level of understanding why the EM benchmarking team was developed and the nature and scope of its mission. Participants will also begin to understand the types of study levels and the particular methodology the EM benchmarking team is using to conduct studies. The EM benchmarking team will also encourage discussion on ways that DOE (both Headquarters and the Field) can team with its M&O/M&I contractors to conduct additional benchmarking studies. This ``introduction to benchmarking`` is intended to create a desire to know more and a greater appreciation of how benchmarking processes could be creatively employed to enhance performance.

  2. Energies and 2'-Hydroxyl Group Orientations of RNA Backbone Conformations. Benchmark CCSD(T)/CBS Database, Electronic Analysis, and Assessment of DFT Methods and MD Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mládek, Arnošt; Banáš, Pavel; Jurečka, Petr; Otyepka, Michal; Zgarbová, Marie; Šponer, Jiří

    2014-01-14

    Sugar-phosphate backbone is an electronically complex molecular segment imparting RNA molecules high flexibility and architectonic heterogeneity necessary for their biological functions. The structural variability of RNA molecules is amplified by the presence of the 2'-hydroxyl group, capable of forming multitude of intra- and intermolecular interactions. Bioinformatics studies based on X-ray structure database revealed that RNA backbone samples at least 46 substates known as rotameric families. The present study provides a comprehensive analysis of RNA backbone conformational preferences and 2'-hydroxyl group orientations. First, we create a benchmark database of estimated CCSD(T)/CBS relative energies of all rotameric families and test performance of dispersion-corrected DFT-D3 methods and molecular mechanics in vacuum and in continuum solvent. The performance of the DFT-D3 methods is in general quite satisfactory. The B-LYP-D3 method provides the best trade-off between accuracy and computational demands. B3-LYP-D3 slightly outperforms the new PW6B95-D3 and MPW1B95-D3 and is the second most accurate density functional of the study. The best agreement with CCSD(T)/CBS is provided by DSD-B-LYP-D3 double-hybrid functional, although its large-scale applications may be limited by high computational costs. Molecular mechanics does not reproduce the fine energy differences between the RNA backbone substates. We also demonstrate that the differences in the magnitude of the hyperconjugation effect do not correlate with the energy ranking of the backbone conformations. Further, we investigated the 2'-hydroxyl group orientation preferences. For all families, we conducted a QM and MM hydroxyl group rigid scan in gas phase and solvent. We then carried out set of explicit solvent MD simulations of folded RNAs and analyze 2'-hydroxyl group orientations of different backbone families in MD. The solvent energy profiles determined primarily by the sugar pucker match well with the

  3. 75 FR 82091 - NextEra Energy Duane Arnold, LLC; Duane Arnold Energy Center; Notice of Issuance of Renewed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ...Era Energy Duane Arnold, LLC (licensee), the operator of the Duane Arnold Energy Center (DAEC). Renewed facility operating license No. DPR-49 authorizes operation of DAEC by the licensee at reactor core power levels not in excess of 1912 megawatts thermal in accordance with the provisions of the...

  4. Development of a California commercial building benchmarking database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2002-05-17

    Building energy benchmarking is a useful starting point for commercial building owners and operators to target energy savings opportunities. There are a number of tools and methods for benchmarking energy use. Benchmarking based on regional data can provides more relevant information for California buildings than national tools such as Energy Star. This paper discusses issues related to benchmarking commercial building energy use and the development of Cal-Arch, a building energy benchmarking database for California. Currently Cal-Arch uses existing survey data from California's Commercial End Use Survey (CEUS), a largely underutilized wealth of information collected by California's major utilities. Doe's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is used by a similar tool, Arch, and by a number of other benchmarking tools. Future versions of Arch/Cal-Arch will utilize additional data sources including modeled data and individual buildings to expand the database.

  5. Energy Efficient Multiresource Allocation of Virtual Machine Based on PSO in Cloud Data Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-ping Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, massive energy consumption in cloud data center tends to be an escalating threat to the environment. To reduce energy consumption in cloud data center, an energy efficient virtual machine allocation algorithm is proposed in this paper based on a proposed energy efficient multiresource allocation model and the particle swarm optimization (PSO method. In this algorithm, the fitness function of PSO is defined as the total Euclidean distance to determine the optimal point between resource utilization and energy consumption. This algorithm can avoid falling into local optima which is common in traditional heuristic algorithms. Compared to traditional heuristic algorithms MBFD and MBFH, our algorithm shows significantly energy savings in cloud data center and also makes the utilization of system resources reasonable at the same time.

  6. Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. C. Venema

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative. The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide trend was added.

    Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii the error in linear trend estimates and (iii traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve

  7. Shielding integral benchmark archive and database (SINBAD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, B.L.; Grove, R.E. [Radiation Safety Information Computational Center RSICC, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6171 (United States); Kodeli, I. [Josef Stefan Inst., Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gulliford, J.; Sartori, E. [OECD NEA Data Bank, Bd des Iles, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2011-07-01

    The shielding integral benchmark archive and database (SINBAD) collection of experiments descriptions was initiated in the early 1990s. SINBAD is an international collaboration between the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank (OECD/NEADB) and the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SINBAD was designed to compile experiments and corresponding computational models with the goal of preserving institutional knowledge and expertise that need to be handed down to future scientists. SINBAD can serve as a learning tool for university students and scientists who need to design experiments or gain expertise in modeling and simulation. The SINBAD database is currently divided into three categories - fission, fusion, and accelerator experiments. Many experiments are described and analyzed using deterministic or stochastic (Monte Carlo) radiation transport software. The nuclear cross sections also play an important role as they are necessary in performing computational analysis. (authors)

  8. Energy, momentum, and center of mass in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Mu-Tao

    2016-01-01

    These notions in the title are of fundamental importance in any branch of physics. However, there have been great difficulties in finding physically acceptable definitions of them in general relativity since Einstein's time. I shall explain these difficulties and progresses that have been made. In particular, I shall introduce new definitions of center of mass and angular momentum at both the quasi-local and total levels, which are derived from first principles in general relativity and by the method of geometric analysis. With these new definitions, the classical formula p=mv is shown to be consistent with Einstein's field equation for the first time. This paper is based on joint work [14][15] with Po-Ning Chen and Shing-Tung Yau.

  9. Radiation Detection Computational Benchmark Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Ben S.

    2013-09-24

    Modeling forms an important component of radiation detection development, allowing for testing of new detector designs, evaluation of existing equipment against a wide variety of potential threat sources, and assessing operation performance of radiation detection systems. This can, however, result in large and complex scenarios which are time consuming to model. A variety of approaches to radiation transport modeling exist with complementary strengths and weaknesses for different problems. This variety of approaches, and the development of promising new tools (such as ORNL’s ADVANTG) which combine benefits of multiple approaches, illustrates the need for a means of evaluating or comparing different techniques for radiation detection problems. This report presents a set of 9 benchmark problems for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, identifying appropriate tools for classes of problems, and testing and guiding the development of new methods. The benchmarks were drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for scenarios which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22. From a technical perspective, the benchmarks were chosen to span a range of difficulty and to include gamma transport, neutron transport, or both and represent different important physical processes and a range of sensitivity to angular or energy fidelity. Following benchmark identification, existing information about geometry, measurements, and previous calculations were assembled. Monte Carlo results (MCNP decks) were reviewed or created and re-run in order to attain accurate computational times and to verify agreement with experimental data, when present. Benchmark information was then conveyed to ORNL in order to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations. The results of those ADVANTG calculations were then sent to PNNL for

  10. 新常态下发电厂能效对标实践与探讨%Practice and Discussion on Energy Efficiency Benchmarking of Power Plant under the New Normal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝庆一; 阮亚良

    2016-01-01

    With the increasingly serious situation of power generation and supply and constantly higher re-quirements on energy saving and emission reduction, it is imperative for a power plant to conduct energy effi-ciency benchmarking management. Energy efficiency benchmarking can enhance the implementation of throughflow retrofit and other technical measures for energy-saving. The paper elaborates on the implementa-tion of energy efficiency benchmarking in a company; besides, it discusses the roles that the economic dis-patching of auxiliary load and direct power supply to major consumers play in lowering costs of power plant.%随着发供电形势日益严峻和节能减排要求不断提高,发电厂开展能效对标管理工作势在必行。能效对标可推动机组设备通流改造等一系列节能技改措施的落实,重点介绍了某公司能效对标的实施情况,在此基础上探讨了厂内负荷经济调度和大用户直供电等措施在降低电厂成本方面的作用。

  11. Towards the Net-Zero Data Center: Development and Application of an Energy Reuse Metric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, M. K.; VanGeet, O.; Tschudi, W.; Azevedo, D.

    2011-01-01

    Data Centers are an ever increasing user of energy in our economy. While the performance per watt of our IT equipment continues to increase exponentially, this energy performance improvement is still outstripped by increasing demand. Because of this, the efficiency of data centers must continue to improve. Beyond just efficiency, many data centers now are working towards reuse of their waste energy in other areas in the data center or on the site or campus. How to account for this, through metrics and measurements, is the topic of this paper. The Energy Reuse Effectiveness metric or ERE is discussed; both the development and application of the metric are looked at in detail. The use of ERE in conjunction with PUE (Power Usage Effectiveness) is also considered.

  12. Formation Mechanism and Binding Energy for Body-Centered Cubic Structure of He+9 Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-Ping; GOU Qing-Quan; LI Ping

    2004-01-01

    The formation mechanism for the body-centered cubic structure of He+9 cluster is proposed and its total energy curve is calculated by the method of a Modified Arrangement Channel Quantum Mechanics. The energy is the function of separation R between the nuclei at the center and an apex of the body-centered cubic structure. The result of the calculation shows that the curve has a minimal energy -25.6669 (a.u.) at R = 2.550ao. The binding energy of He+9 with respect to He+ + 8He was calculated to be 0.8857 a.u. This means that the cluster of He+9 may be formed in the body-centered cubic structure of R = 2.55a0.

  13. International Energy Agency, Heat Pump Center: The role of CNR/PFE in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallavalle, F.; Piantoni, E.; Recchi, V.

    The official integration of Italy to the International Energy Agency (IEA) heat pump centers program is discussed. The National Research Center coordinates the Italian activities related to the IEA. The operating programs of several types of heat pumps, coordinated by different countries are described. The heat pump markets in European countries and in the United States are briefly commented on.

  14. Gaugino production in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Fuks, Benjamin; Lamprea, David R; Rothering, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by hints for a light Standard Model-like Higgs boson and a shift in experimental attention towards electroweak supersymmetry particle production at the CERN LHC, we update in this paper our precision predictions at next-to-leading order of perturbative QCD matched to resummation at the next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy for direct gaugino pair production in proton-proton collisions with a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. Tables of total cross sections are presented together with the corresponding scale and parton density uncertainties for benchmark points adopted recently by the experimental collaborations, and figures are presented for up-to-date model lines attached to them. Since the experimental analyses are currently obtained with parton showers matched to multi-parton matrix elements, we also analyze the precision of this procedure by comparing invariant-mass and transverse-momentum distributions obtained in this way to those obtained with threshold and transverse-momentum resummation.

  15. Gaugino production in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuks, Benjamin; Klasen, Michael; Lamprea, David R.; Rothering, Marcel

    2012-10-01

    Motivated by hints for a light Standard Model-like Higgs boson and a shift in experimental attention towards electroweak supersymmetry particle production at the CERN LHC, we update in this paper our precision predictions at next-to-leading order of perturbative QCD matched to resummation at the next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy for direct gaugino pair production in proton-proton collisions with a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. Tables of total cross sections are presented together with the corresponding scale and parton density uncertainties for benchmark points adopted recently by the experimental collaborations, and figures are presented for up-to-date model lines attached to them. Since the experimental analyses are currently obtained with parton showers matched to multi-parton matrix elements, we also analyze the precision of this procedure by comparing invariant-mass and transverse-momentum distributions obtained in this way to those obtained with threshold and transverse-momentum resummation.

  16. The Conic Benchmark Format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Henrik A.

    This document constitutes the technical reference manual of the Conic Benchmark Format with le extension: .cbf or .CBF. It unies linear, second-order cone (also known as conic quadratic) and semidenite optimization with mixed-integer variables. The format has been designed with benchmark libraries...... in mind, and therefore focuses on compact and easily parsable representations. The problem structure is separated from the problem data, and the format moreover facilitate benchmarking of hotstart capability through sequences of changes....

  17. National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems: program summaries for 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This Center, founded in January 1976, is one of four areas comprising the Department of Energy and Environment at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The major ongoing activities of the Center concern integrated, quantitative analyses of technological, economic, and environmental aspects of energy at the regional, national, and international levels. The objectives, activities, and sources of support of each of the programs are described and the major accomplishments during the year are outlined. Some of the planned future activities of the Center are indicated, and recent publications are listed.

  18. 77 FR 46768 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Moapa Solar Energy Center...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... Solar Energy Center on the Moapa River Indian Reservation, Clark County NV AGENCY: Bureau of Indian... (EIS) that evaluates a solar energy generation center on the Moapa River Indian Reservation. This... Proposed Action consists of constructing and operating a solar generation energy center, consisting of...

  19. Clean Energy Application Centers: Annual Metrics Report for Fiscal Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Between fiscal year (FY) 2010 and 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded nine Clean Energy Application Centers (CEACs) with national coverage to promote and assist in transforming the market for Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat to Power CHP, and district energy (DE) with CHP1. Prior to that, similar services were provided by eight Regional Application Centers (RACs). The key services that the CEACs provided were market assessments, education and outreach, and technical assistance. There were eight regional CEACs, each of which served a specific area of the country, and a separate center operated by the International District Energy Association (IDEA) which supported the regional centers with technical assistance, education, training, publicity, and outreach related to district energy with CHP. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has performed four previous studies of CEAC activities. The first one examined what the centers had done each year from the initiation of the program through FY 2008; the second addressed center activities for FY 2009; the third one focused on what was accomplished in FY 2010; and the fourth looked at the CEACs’ FY 2011 accomplishments, with a heightened emphasis on the adoption of CHP\\DE technologies and the activities thought to be most closely related to CHP/DE development and use. The most recent study, documented in this report, examines CEAC activities in FY 2012.

  20. 煤炭建设项目节能评估报告对标指标选取%Comments on Benchmarking Index Selection of Energy Saving Evaluation Report for Coal Construction Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜明; 王和德

    2012-01-01

    根据国家发展和改革委员会发布的《固定资产投资项目节能评估和审查暂行办法》的相关规定,结合项目实际对煤炭建设项目节能评估报告书在对标内容中对标指标的分类、选取依据做了总结说明。%According to the related stipulations of "Temporary Method of Energy Saving Evaluation and Investigation for Fixed Assets Investment Project" Issued by the National Development and Reform Commission, in combination with the project actu- al conditions, the paper had a conclusion statement on the grading and selection basis of the benchmarking indexes in the benchmarking contents of the energy saving evaluation report of the coal construction project.

  1. The High-Energy Astrophysics Learning Center, Version 1. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Laura A.; Allen, Jesse S.; Lochner, James C.

    The High-Energy Astrophysics (HEA) Learning Center gives students, teachers, and the general public a window into the world of high-energy astrophysics. The universe is revealed through x-rays and gamma rays where matter exists under extreme conditions. Information is available on astrophysics at a variety of reading levels, and is illustrated…

  2. Droplet kinetic energy of moving spray-plate center-pivot irrigation sprinklers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The kinetic energy of discrete water drops impacting a bare soil surface generally leads to a drastic reduction in water infiltration rate due to formation of a seal on the soil surface. Under center-pivot sprinkler irrigation, kinetic energy transferred to the soil prior to crop canopy development ...

  3. Characterizing droplet kinetic energy applied by moving spray-plate center pivot irrigation sprinklers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The kinetic energy of discrete drops impacting a bare soil surface is generally observed to lead to a drastic reduction in water infiltration rate due to soil surface seal formation. Under center pivot sprinkler irrigation, kinetic energy transferred to the soil prior to crop canopy development can...

  4. Very-high energy observations of the galactic center region by VERITAS in 2010-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, A.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Chen, W. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Barnacka, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Berger, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Bird, R. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Biteau, J. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cardenzana, J. V; Dickinson, H. J.; Eisch, J. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Chen, X. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dumm, J., E-mail: beilicke@physics.wustl.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); and others

    2014-08-01

    The Galactic center is an interesting region for high-energy (0.1-100 GeV) and very-high-energy (E > 100 GeV) γ-ray observations. Potential sources of GeV/TeV γ-ray emission have been suggested, e.g., the accretion of matter onto the supermassive black hole, cosmic rays from a nearby supernova remnant (e.g., Sgr A East), particle acceleration in a plerion, or the annihilation of dark matter particles. The Galactic center has been detected by EGRET and by Fermi/LAT in the MeV/GeV energy band. At TeV energies, the Galactic center was detected with moderate significance by the CANGAROO and Whipple 10 m telescopes and with high significance by H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and VERITAS. We present the results from three years of VERITAS observations conducted at large zenith angles resulting in a detection of the Galactic center on the level of 18 standard deviations at energies above ∼2.5 TeV. The energy spectrum is derived and is found to be compatible with hadronic, leptonic, and hybrid emission models discussed in the literature. Future, more detailed measurements of the high-energy cutoff and better constraints on the high-energy flux variability will help to refine and/or disentangle the individual models.

  5. 76 FR 142 - Notice of Prevention of Significant Deterioration Final Determination for Russell City Energy Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... AGENCY Notice of Prevention of Significant Deterioration Final Determination for Russell City Energy... Petitions for Review of a Federal Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Permit issued to Russell... agreement dated February 4, 2008, issued a PSD permit to Russell City Energy Center, LLC, on February 3...

  6. Model Validation at the 204 MW New Mexico Wind Energy Center: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Ellis, A.; Mechenbier, J.; Hochheimer, J.; Young, R.; Miller, N.; Delmerico, R.; Zavadil, R.; Smith, J. C.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, we describe methods to derive and validate equivalent models for a large wind farm. FPL Energy's 204-MW New Mexico Wind Energy Center, which is interconnected to the Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM) transmission system, was used as a case study. The methods described are applicable to any large wind power plant.

  7. Addressing data center efficiency. Lessons learned from process evaluations of utility energy efficiency programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, A.J.; Holmes, J. [Energy Market Innovations, Inc, 83 Columbia St., Suite 303, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    This paper summarizes the unique challenges related to addressing energy efficiency in the data center industry and lessons learned from original research and two process evaluations of energy efficiency programs with components that specifically target data centers. The lessons learned include: creating program opportunities specifically focused on data centers; clearly identifying target data centers able to implement energy efficiency programs; understanding decision making in these facilities; and effectively communicating the program opportunities to the target market. The growing energy use of data centers has drawn international attention from policy makers, regulators, industry consortiums, and electric utilities. Any program effective at improving the energy performance of data centers must include specific strategies and processes aimed at confronting a number of challenges specific to this industry, including: the concentrated and rapidly growing energy use of these facilities; the rapid pace of innovation; the extremely high reliability requirements; and the significant split incentives due to the typical data center management structure. The process evaluations covered in this paper are the Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) High-Tech program and the Silicon Valley Power (SVP) Public Benefits Program. While the PG and E evaluation was a more complete process evaluation, the SVP evaluation focused specifically on participation from co-location facilities. These process evaluations together included interviews with program participants, nonparticipants and utility staff and also included outreach to a large variety of industry stakeholders. In addition, the PG and E evaluation included detailed process-mapping used to identify the necessity and importance of all program processes. The insights gathered from these evaluations are not only applicable to US electrical utilities but can also be applied to any international organization looking to create

  8. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 1. Northeast Solar Energy Center Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Northeast Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK).

  9. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 3. Southern Solar Energy Center Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Southern Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK)

  10. ICSBEP Benchmarks For Nuclear Data Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, J. Blair

    2005-05-01

    The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) was initiated in 1992 by the United States Department of Energy. The ICSBEP became an official activity of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) — Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1995. Representatives from the United States, United Kingdom, France, Japan, the Russian Federation, Hungary, Republic of Korea, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia), Kazakhstan, Spain, Israel, Brazil, Poland, and the Czech Republic are now participating. South Africa, India, China, and Germany are considering participation. The purpose of the ICSBEP is to identify, evaluate, verify, and formally document a comprehensive and internationally peer-reviewed set of criticality safety benchmark data. The work of the ICSBEP is published as an OECD handbook entitled "International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments." The 2004 Edition of the Handbook contains benchmark specifications for 3331 critical or subcritical configurations that are intended for use in validation efforts and for testing basic nuclear data. New to the 2004 Edition of the Handbook is a draft criticality alarm / shielding type benchmark that should be finalized in 2005 along with two other similar benchmarks. The Handbook is being used extensively for nuclear data testing and is expected to be a valuable resource for code and data validation and improvement efforts for decades to come. Specific benchmarks that are useful for testing structural materials such as iron, chromium, nickel, and manganese; beryllium; lead; thorium; and 238U are highlighted.

  11. Air Force Civil Engineer Center Management of Energy Savings Performance Contracts Needs Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-04

    generated a database of trained Air Force personnel. Air Force Energy Office officials stated that they did not reach out to DOE-FEMP to track Air Force...completed, and terminated Air Force energy -savings performance-contract projects. The database should include, but not be limited to, appropriate...Force Civil Engineer Center Management of Energy Savings Performance Contracts Needs Improvement M A Y 4 , 2 0 1 6 Report No. DODIG-2016-087 Mission

  12. Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency: Public Law 109-431

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alliance to Save Energy; ICF Incorporated; ERG Incorporated; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Brown, Richard E; Brown, Richard; Masanet, Eric; Nordman, Bruce; Tschudi, Bill; Shehabi, Arman; Stanley, John; Koomey, Jonathan; Sartor, Dale; Chan, Peter; Loper, Joe; Capana, Steve; Hedman, Bruce; Duff, Rebecca; Haines, Evan; Sass, Danielle; Fanara, Andrew

    2007-08-02

    This report was prepared in response to the request from Congress stated in Public Law 109-431 (H.R. 5646),"An Act to Study and Promote the Use of Energy Efficient Computer Servers in the United States." This report assesses current trends in energy use and energy costs of data centers and servers in the U.S. (especially Federal government facilities) and outlines existing and emerging opportunities for improved energy efficiency. It also makes recommendations for pursuing these energy-efficiency opportunities broadly across the country through the use of information and incentive-based programs.

  13. Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency: Public Law 109-431: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alliance to Save Energy; ICF Incorporated; ERG Incorporated; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Brown, Richard E; Brown, Richard; Masanet, Eric; Nordman, Bruce; Tschudi, Bill; Shehabi, Arman; Stanley, John; Koomey, Jonathan; Sartor, Dale; Chan, Peter; Loper, Joe; Capana, Steve; Hedman, Bruce; Duff, Rebecca; Haines, Evan; Sass, Danielle; Fanara, Andrew

    2007-08-02

    This report is the appendices to a companion report, prepared in response to the request from Congress stated in Public Law 109-431 (H.R. 5646),"An Act to Study and Promote the Use of Energy Efficient Computer Servers in the United States." This report assesses current trends in energy use and energy costs of data centers and servers in the U.S. (especially Federal government facilities) and outlines existing and emerging opportunities for improved energy efficiency. It also makes recommendations for pursuing these energy-efficiency opportunities broadly across the country through the use of information and incentive-based programs.

  14. Internet based benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Nielsen, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the design of interactive, internet based benchmarking using parametric (statistical) as well as nonparametric (DEA) models. The user receives benchmarks and improvement potentials. The user is also given the possibility to search different efficiency frontiers and hereby to explore...

  15. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  16. Handleiding benchmark VO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blank, j.l.t.

    2008-01-01

    OnderzoeksrapportenArchiefTechniek, Bestuur en Management> Over faculteit> Afdelingen> Innovation Systems> IPSE> Onderzoek> Publicaties> Onderzoeksrapporten> Handleiding benchmark VO Handleiding benchmark VO 25 november 2008 door IPSE Studies Door J.L.T. Blank. Handleiding voor het lezen van de i

  17. Benchmark af erhvervsuddannelserne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Wittrup, Jesper

    I dette arbejdspapir diskuterer vi, hvorledes de danske erhvervsskoler kan benchmarkes, og vi præsenterer resultaterne af en række beregningsmodeller. Det er begrebsmæssigt kompliceret at benchmarke erhvervsskolerne. Skolerne udbyder en lang række forskellige uddannelser. Det gør det vanskeligt...

  18. Benchmarking af kommunernes sagsbehandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    Fra 2007 skal Ankestyrelsen gennemføre benchmarking af kommuernes sagsbehandlingskvalitet. Formålet med benchmarkingen er at udvikle praksisundersøgelsernes design med henblik på en bedre opfølgning og at forbedre kommunernes sagsbehandling. Dette arbejdspapir diskuterer metoder for benchmarking...

  19. 76 FR 32188 - Hatch Solar Energy Center 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hatch Solar Energy Center 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Hatch Solar Energy Center 1, LLC's application for...

  20. How Activists Use Benchmarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Non-governmental organisations use benchmarks as a form of symbolic violence to place political pressure on firms, states, and international organisations. The development of benchmarks requires three elements: (1) salience, that the community of concern is aware of the issue and views...... are put to the test. The first is a reformist benchmarking cycle where organisations defer to experts to create a benchmark that conforms with the broader system of politico-economic norms. The second is a revolutionary benchmarking cycle driven by expert-activists that seek to contest strong vested...... interests and challenge established politico-economic norms. Differentiating these cycles provides insights into how activists work through organisations and with expert networks, as well as how campaigns on complex economic issues can be mounted and sustained....

  1. Simulation of Thermal Distribution and Airflow for Efficient Energy Consumption in a Small Data Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Data centers have become ubiquitous in the last few years in an attempt to keep pace with the processing and storage needs of the Internet and cloud computing. The steady growth in the heat densities of IT servers leads to a rise in the energy needed to cool them, and constitutes approximately 40% of the power consumed by data centers. However, many data centers feature redundant air conditioning systems that contribute to inefficient air distribution, which significantly increases energy consumption. This remains an insufficiently explored problem. In this paper, a typical, small data center with tiles for an air supply system with a raised floor is used. We use a fluent (Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD to simulate thermal distribution and airflow, and investigate the optimal conditions of air distribution to save energy. The effects of the airflow outlet angle along the tile, the cooling temperature and the rate of airflow on the beta index as well as the energy utilization index are discussed, and the optimal conditions are obtained. The reasonable airflow distribution achieved using 3D CFD calculations and the parameter settings provided in this paper can help reduce the energy consumption of data centers by improving the efficiency of the air conditioning.

  2. Verification and validation benchmarks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2007-02-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V&V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V&V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the level of

  3. Evaluation of the Low-Energy Design Process and Energy Performance of the Zion National Park Visitor Center: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Pless, S.; Judkoff, R.

    2005-10-01

    Paper discusses NREL's role in the participation of the design process of the Zion National Park Visitor Center Complex and the results documented from monitoring the energy performance of the building for several years. Paper includes PV system and Trombe wall description and lessons learned in the design, construction, and commissioning of the building.

  4. The MCNP6 Analytic Criticality Benchmark Suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Monte Carlo Codes Group

    2016-06-16

    Analytical benchmarks provide an invaluable tool for verifying computer codes used to simulate neutron transport. Several collections of analytical benchmark problems [1-4] are used routinely in the verification of production Monte Carlo codes such as MCNP® [5,6]. Verification of a computer code is a necessary prerequisite to the more complex validation process. The verification process confirms that a code performs its intended functions correctly. The validation process involves determining the absolute accuracy of code results vs. nature. In typical validations, results are computed for a set of benchmark experiments using a particular methodology (code, cross-section data with uncertainties, and modeling) and compared to the measured results from the set of benchmark experiments. The validation process determines bias, bias uncertainty, and possibly additional margins. Verification is generally performed by the code developers, while validation is generally performed by code users for a particular application space. The VERIFICATION_KEFF suite of criticality problems [1,2] was originally a set of 75 criticality problems found in the literature for which exact analytical solutions are available. Even though the spatial and energy detail is necessarily limited in analytical benchmarks, typically to a few regions or energy groups, the exact solutions obtained can be used to verify that the basic algorithms, mathematics, and methods used in complex production codes perform correctly. The present work has focused on revisiting this benchmark suite. A thorough review of the problems resulted in discarding some of them as not suitable for MCNP benchmarking. For the remaining problems, many of them were reformulated to permit execution in either multigroup mode or in the normal continuous-energy mode for MCNP. Execution of the benchmarks in continuous-energy mode provides a significant advance to MCNP verification methods.

  5. Wireless Sensor Network for Improving the Energy Efficiency of Data Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavi, Rod [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tschudi, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Data centers occupy less than 2% of the federally owned portfolio under the jurisdiction, custody or control of the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA), but represent nearly 5% of the agency’s overall energy budget. Assuming that energy use in GSA’s data centers tracks with industry averages, GSA can anticipate that data center energy use will grow at an annual rate of 15%, a doubling of energy use every five years.1 In fact, energy is the single largest operating expense for most data centers. Improving the energy performance of data center systems supports progress toward meeting federally mandated greenhouse gas emission-­reduction goals, while reducing operating and energy costs and allowing for greater flexibility in future expansion by eliminating the need to provide additional power and cooling. Studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have shown that energy use can be reduced by 25% through implementation of best practices and commercially available technologies. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a strategy to cost- effectively improve the efficiency of data center cooling, which is the single largest non-­IT load. The technology that was evaluated consists of a network of wireless sensors—including branch circuit power monitors, temperature sensors, humidity sensors, and pressure sensors, along with an integrated software product to help analyze the collected data. The technology itself does not save energy; however, its information collection and analysis features enable users to understand operating conditions and identify problem areas. In addition, data obtained by this technology can be input into assessment tools that can identify additional best practice measures. Energy savings result from the implementation of the best practices. The study was conducted to validate the premise that providing data center operators with detailed, real- time measurement

  6. A Method for Estimating Potential Energy and Cost Savings for Cooling Existing Data Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Geet, Otto

    2017-04-24

    NREL has developed a methodology to prioritize which data center cooling systems could be upgraded for better efficiency based on estimated cost savings and economics. The best efficiency results are in cool or dry climates where 'free' economizer or evaporative cooling can provide most of the data center cooling. Locations with a high cost of energy and facilities with high power usage effectiveness (PUE) are also good candidates for data center cooling system upgrades. In one case study of a major cable provider's data centers, most of the sites studied had opportunities for cost-effective cooling system upgrades with payback period of 5 years or less. If the cable provider invested in all opportunities for upgrades with payback periods of less than 15 years, it could save 27% on annual energy costs.

  7. Very-high energy observations of the Galactic center region by VERITAS in 2010-2012

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2014-01-01

    The Galactic center is an interesting region for high-energy (0.1-100 GeV) and very-high-energy (E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray observations. Potential sources of GeV/TeV gamma-ray emission have been suggested, e.g., the accretion of matter onto the supermassive black hole, cosmic rays from a nearby supernova remnant (e.g. SgrA East), particle acceleration in a plerion, or the annihilation of dark matter particles. The Galactic center has been detected by EGRET and by Fermi/LAT in the MeV/GeV energy band. At TeV energies, the Galactic center was detected with moderate significance by the CANGAROO and Whipple 10 m telescopes and with high significance by H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and VERITAS. We present the results from three years of VERITAS observations conducted at large zenith angles resulting in a detection of the Galactic center on the level of 18 standard deviations at energies above ~2.5TeV. The energy spectrum is derived and is found to be compatible with hadronic, leptonic and hybrid emission models discussed in the ...

  8. U.S. Department of Energy's Genomics: GTL Bioenergy Research Centers White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-08-01

    The Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers will be dedicated to fundamental research on microbe and plant systems with the goal of developing knowledge that will advance biotechnology-based strategies for biofuels production. The aim is to spur substantial progress toward cost-effective production of biologically based renewable energy sources. This document describes the rationale for the establishment of the centers and their objectives in light of the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission and goals.

  9. Benchmarking local healthcare-associated infections: available benchmarks and interpretation challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Saed, Aiman; Balkhy, Hanan H; Weber, David J

    2013-10-01

    Growing numbers of healthcare facilities are routinely collecting standardized data on healthcare-associated infection (HAI), which can be used not only to track internal performance but also to compare local data to national and international benchmarks. Benchmarking overall (crude) HAI surveillance metrics without accounting or adjusting for potential confounders can result in misleading conclusions. Methods commonly used to provide risk-adjusted metrics include multivariate logistic regression analysis, stratification, indirect standardization, and restrictions. The characteristics of recognized benchmarks worldwide, including the advantages and limitations are described. The choice of the right benchmark for the data from the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states is challenging. The chosen benchmark should have similar data collection and presentation methods. Additionally, differences in surveillance environments including regulations should be taken into consideration when considering such a benchmark. The GCC center for infection control took some steps to unify HAI surveillance systems in the region. GCC hospitals still need to overcome legislative and logistic difficulties in sharing data to create their own benchmark. The availability of a regional GCC benchmark may better enable health care workers and researchers to obtain more accurate and realistic comparisons.

  10. Geothermal Heat Pump Benchmarking Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-01-17

    A benchmarking study was conducted on behalf of the Department of Energy to determine the critical factors in successful utility geothermal heat pump programs. A Successful program is one that has achieved significant market penetration. Successfully marketing geothermal heat pumps has presented some major challenges to the utility industry. However, select utilities have developed programs that generate significant GHP sales. This benchmarking study concludes that there are three factors critical to the success of utility GHP marking programs: (1) Top management marketing commitment; (2) An understanding of the fundamentals of marketing and business development; and (3) An aggressive competitive posture. To generate significant GHP sales, competitive market forces must by used. However, because utilities have functioned only in a regulated arena, these companies and their leaders are unschooled in competitive business practices. Therefore, a lack of experience coupled with an intrinsically non-competitive culture yields an industry environment that impedes the generation of significant GHP sales in many, but not all, utilities.

  11. Rate of F center formation in sapphire under low-energy low-fluence Ar+ irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epie, E. N.; Wijesundera, D. N.; Tilakaratne, B. P.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chu, W. K.

    2016-03-01

    Ionoluminescence, optical absorption spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry channelling (RBS-C) have been used to study the rate of F center formation with fluence in 170 keV Ar+ irradiated single crystals of α-Al2O3 (sapphire) at room temperature. Implantation fluences range between 1013 cm-2 and 5 ×1014 cm-2. F center density (NF) has been found to display an initial rapid linear increase with Ar+ fluence followed by saturation to a maximum value of 1.74 ×1015 cm-2. Experimental results show a 1-1 correlation between radiation damage in the oxygen sublattice and F center density. This suggest F center kinetics in sapphire under low-energy low-fluence Ar irradiation is a direct consequence of dynamic competition between oxygen defect creation and recombination. An attempt has also been made to extend this discussion to F center kinetics in sapphire under swift heavy ion irradiation.

  12. Can combining economizers with improved filtration save energy and protect equipment in data centers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehabi, Arman; Ganguly, Srirupa; Gundel, Lara A.; Horvath, Arpad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Tschudi, William; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Nazaroff, William W

    2009-06-05

    Economizer use in data centers is an energy efficiency strategy that could significantly limit electricity demand in this rapidly growing economic sector. Widespread economizer implementation, however, has been hindered by potential equipment reliability concerns associated with exposing information technology equipment to particulate matter of outdoor origin. This study explores the feasibility of using economizers in data centers to save energy while controlling particle concentrations with high-quality air filtration. Physical and chemical properties of indoor and outdoor particles were analyzed at an operating northern California data center equipped with an economizer under varying levels of air filtration efficiency. Results show that when improved filtration is used in combination with an economizer, the indoor/outdoor concentration ratios for most measured particle types were similar to levels when using conventional filtration without economizers. An energy analysis of the data center reveals that, even during the summer months, chiller savings from economizer use greatly outweigh any increase in fan power associated with improved filtration. These findings indicate that economizer use combined with improved filtration could reduce data center energy demand while providing a level of protection from particles of outdoor origin similar to that observed with conventional design.

  13. Can combining economizers with improved filtration save energy and protect equipment in data centers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehabi, Arman; Ganguly, Srirupa; Gundel, Lara A.; Horvath, Arpad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Tschudi, William; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Nazaroff, William W

    2009-06-05

    Economizer use in data centers is an energy efficiency strategy that could significantly limit electricity demand in this rapidly growing economic sector. Widespread economizer implementation, however, has been hindered by potential equipment reliability concerns associated with exposing information technology equipment to particulate matter of outdoor origin. This study explores the feasibility of using economizers in data centers to save energy while controlling particle concentrations with high-quality air filtration. Physical and chemical properties of indoor and outdoor particles were analyzed at an operating northern California data center equipped with an economizer under varying levels of air filtration efficiency. Results show that when improved filtration is used in combination with an economizer, the indoor/outdoor concentration ratios for most measured particle types were similar to levels when using conventional filtration without economizers. An energy analysis of the data center reveals that, even during the summer months, chiller savings from economizer use greatly outweigh any increase in fan power associated with improved filtration. These findings indicate that economizer use combined with improved filtration could reduce data center energy demand while providing a level of protection from particles of outdoor origin similar to that observed with conventional design.

  14. Review of the Lujan neutron scattering center: basic energy sciences prereport February 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, Alan J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rhyne, James J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lewis, Paul S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The Lujan Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center) at LANSCE is a designated National User Facility for neutron scattering and nuclear physics studies with pulsed beams of moderated neutrons (cold, thermal, and epithermal). As one of five experimental areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), the Lujan Center hosts engineers, scientists, and students from around the world. The Lujan Center consists of Experimental Room (ER) 1 (ERl) built by the Laboratory in 1977, ER2 built by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) in 1989, and the Office Building (622) also built by BES in 1989, along with a chem-bio lab, a shop, and other out-buildings. According to a 1996 Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between the Defense Programs (DP) Office of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) and the Office of Science (SC, then the Office of Energy Research), the Lujan Center flight paths were transferred from DP to SC, including those in ERI. That MOA was updated in 2001. Under the MOA, NNSA-DP delivers neutron beam to the windows of the target crypt, outside of which BES becomes the 'landlord.' The leveraging nature of the Lujan Center on the LANSCE accelerator is a substantial annual leverage to the $11 M BES operating fund worth approximately $56 M operating cost of the linear accelerator (LINAC)-in beam delivery.

  15. Illustrations of the Relativistic Conservation Law for the Center of Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, T H

    2005-01-01

    The relativistic conservation law involving the center of energy is reviewed and illustrated using simple examples from classical electromagnetic theory. It is emphasized that this conservation law is parallel to the conservation laws for energy, linear momentum, and energy, in arising from the generators of the Poincare group for electromagnetic theory; yet this relativistic law reflecting the continuous flow of energy goes virtually unmentioned in the text books. The illustrations here present situations both where external forces are present and are absent. The cases of a parallel plate capacitor, a flattened slip-joint solenoid, and two interacting charges are included.

  16. Benchmarking biofuels; Biobrandstoffen benchmarken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croezen, H.; Kampman, B.; Bergsma, G.

    2012-03-15

    A sustainability benchmark for transport biofuels has been developed and used to evaluate the various biofuels currently on the market. For comparison, electric vehicles, hydrogen vehicles and petrol/diesel vehicles were also included. A range of studies as well as growing insight are making it ever clearer that biomass-based transport fuels may have just as big a carbon footprint as fossil fuels like petrol or diesel, or even bigger. At the request of Greenpeace Netherlands, CE Delft has brought together current understanding on the sustainability of fossil fuels, biofuels and electric vehicles, with particular focus on the performance of the respective energy carriers on three sustainability criteria, with the first weighing the heaviest: (1) Greenhouse gas emissions; (2) Land use; and (3) Nutrient consumption [Dutch] Greenpeace Nederland heeft CE Delft gevraagd een duurzaamheidsmeetlat voor biobrandstoffen voor transport te ontwerpen en hierop de verschillende biobrandstoffen te scoren. Voor een vergelijk zijn ook elektrisch rijden, rijden op waterstof en rijden op benzine of diesel opgenomen. Door onderzoek en voortschrijdend inzicht blijkt steeds vaker dat transportbrandstoffen op basis van biomassa soms net zoveel of zelfs meer broeikasgassen veroorzaken dan fossiele brandstoffen als benzine en diesel. CE Delft heeft voor Greenpeace Nederland op een rijtje gezet wat de huidige inzichten zijn over de duurzaamheid van fossiele brandstoffen, biobrandstoffen en elektrisch rijden. Daarbij is gekeken naar de effecten van de brandstoffen op drie duurzaamheidscriteria, waarbij broeikasgasemissies het zwaarst wegen: (1) Broeikasgasemissies; (2) Landgebruik; en (3) Nutriëntengebruik.

  17. Accelerating Energy Efficiency in Indian Data Centers. Final Report for Phase I Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguly, Suprotim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Raje, Sanyukta [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kumar, Satish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sartor, Dale [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Greenberg, Steve [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report documents Phase 1 of the “Accelerating Energy Efficiency in Indian Data Centers” initiative to support the development of an energy efficiency policy framework for Indian data centers. The initiative is being led by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)-U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and under the guidance of Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). It is also part of the larger Power and Energy Efficiency Working Group of the US-India Bilateral Energy Dialogue. The initiative consists of two phases: Phase 1 (November 2014 – September 2015) and Phase 2 (October 2015 – September 2016).

  18. Regression Cloud Models and Their Applications in Energy Consumption of Data Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanshuang Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As cloud data center consumes more and more energy, both researchers and engineers aim to minimize energy consumption while keeping its services available. A good energy model can reflect the relationships between running tasks and the energy consumed by hardware and can be further used to schedule tasks for saving energy. In this paper, we analyzed linear and nonlinear regression energy model based on performance counters and system utilization and proposed a support vector regression energy model. For performance counters, we gave a general linear regression framework and compared three linear regression models. For system utilization, we compared our support vector regression model with linear regression and three nonlinear regression models. The experiments show that linear regression model is good enough to model performance counters, nonlinear regression is better than linear regression model for modeling system utilization, and support vector regression model is better than polynomial and exponential regression models.

  19. Benchmarking expert system tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Gary

    1988-01-01

    As part of its evaluation of new technologies, the Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis Div. at NASA-Johnson has made timing tests of several expert system building tools. Among the production systems tested were Automated Reasoning Tool, several versions of OPS5, and CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System), an expert system builder developed by the AI section. Also included in the test were a Zetalisp version of the benchmark along with four versions of the benchmark written in Knowledge Engineering Environment, an object oriented, frame based expert system tool. The benchmarks used for testing are studied.

  20. Reorganization energy of the CuA center in purple azurin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, Ole; Hwang, Hee Jung; Pecht, Israel

    2007-01-01

    shown that lowering the pH from 8.0 to 4.0 results in a similar (~0.4 eV) decrease in reorganization energy for both blue (type 1) and purple (CuA) azurins, even though the reorganization energies of the two different copper centers are different at a given pH. These results suggest that the MV state...

  1. Solar-energy heats a transportation test center--Pueblo, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Petroleum-base, thermal energy transport fluid circulating through 583 square feet of flat-plate solar collectors accumulates majority of energy for space heating and domestic hot-water of large Test Center. Report describes operation, maintenance, and performance of system which is suitable for warehouses and similar buildings. For test period from February 1979 to January 1980, solar-heating fraction was 31 percent, solar hot-water fraction 79 percent.

  2. An Assessment of Energy-Related Career Paths of Senior Industrial Assessment Center Program Alumni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.A.

    2003-10-20

    The purpose of this study was to assess the career paths of alumni from the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) program. IAC was originally named the Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADC) program when it began in association with four schools in 1976. The current IAC program provides funding to 26 engineering colleges, located in centers across the United States, to conduct energy, waste, and productivity assessments for small- to medium-sized manufacturing establishments within their respective regions. Through part-time employment with the university, students receive training and in turn conduct assessments for local manufacturers, under the direct supervision of engineering faculty. Annually, IAC participants conduct over 700 assessments, and each assessment generates recommendations for energy savings, energy cost savings, and waste and productivity cost savings customized for individual clients. An earlier study determined that energy savings could be attributed to alumni of the IAC program who take their IAC experiences with them to the professional workplace. During their careers, the alumni conduct additional energy assessments as well as influence energy efficiency through design, teaching and training, and other activities. Indeed, a significant level of program benefits can be attributed to the alumni. This project addressed such specific questions as: How many years after graduation are IAC alumni involved in energy-efficiency activities? What different methods do they use to influence energy-efficiency decisions? To answer these questions, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UT) surveyed IAC senior alumni, defined as those who graduated in 1995 or earlier. Section 2 describes the survey used in this research. The actual survey can be found in Appendix A. Section 3 describes our approach to data collection. Section 4 presents descriptive statistics about the senior alumni who responded to the survey. Section 5

  3. Financial Integrity Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data compiles standard financial integrity benchmarks that allow the City to measure its financial standing. It measure the City's debt ratio and bond ratings....

  4. Diagnostic Algorithm Benchmarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A poster for the NASA Aviation Safety Program Annual Technical Meeting. It describes empirical benchmarking on diagnostic algorithms using data from the ADAPT Electrical Power System testbed and a diagnostic software framework.

  5. Benchmarking for Cost Improvement. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) conducted the Benchmarking for Cost Improvement initiative with three objectives: Pilot test benchmarking as an EM cost improvement tool; identify areas for cost improvement and recommend actions to address these areas; provide a framework for future cost improvement. The benchmarking initiative featured the use of four principal methods (program classification, nationwide cost improvement survey, paired cost comparison and component benchmarking). Interested parties contributed during both the design and execution phases. The benchmarking initiative was conducted on an accelerated basis. Of necessity, it considered only a limited set of data that may not be fully representative of the diverse and complex conditions found at the many DOE installations. The initiative generated preliminary data about cost differences and it found a high degree of convergence on several issues. Based on this convergence, the report recommends cost improvement strategies and actions. This report describes the steps taken as part of the benchmarking initiative and discusses the findings and recommended actions for achieving cost improvement. The results and summary recommendations, reported below, are organized by the study objectives.

  6. Electricity consumption in school buildings - benchmark and web tools; Elforbrug i skoler - benchmark og webvaerktoej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this project has been to produce benchmarks for electricity consumption in Danish schools in order to encourage electricity conservation. An internet programme has been developed with the aim of facilitating schools' access to benchmarks and to evaluate energy consumption. The overall purpose is to create increased attention to the electricity consumption of each separate school by publishing benchmarks which take the schools' age and number of pupils as well as after school activities into account. Benchmarks can be used to make green accounts and work as markers in e.g. energy conservation campaigns, energy management and for educational purposes. The internet tool can be found on www.energiguiden.dk. (BA)

  7. On Big Data Benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Rui; Lu, Xiaoyi

    2014-01-01

    Big data systems address the challenges of capturing, storing, managing, analyzing, and visualizing big data. Within this context, developing benchmarks to evaluate and compare big data systems has become an active topic for both research and industry communities. To date, most of the state-of-the-art big data benchmarks are designed for specific types of systems. Based on our experience, however, we argue that considering the complexity, diversity, and rapid evolution of big data systems, fo...

  8. Benchmarking in Foodservice Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    51. Lingle JH, Schiemann WA. From balanced scorecard to strategic gauges: Is measurement worth it? Mgt Rev. 1996; 85(3):56-61. 52. Struebing L...studies lasted from nine to twelve months, and could extend beyond that time for numerous reasons (49). Benchmarking was not industrial tourism , a...not simply data comparison, a fad, a means for reducing resources, a quick-fix program, or industrial tourism . Benchmarking was a complete process

  9. Cloud County Community College Wind Energy Technology Project and Renewable Energy Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Bruce [Cloud County Community College, Concordia, KS (United States)

    2016-02-26

    Cloud County Community College's (CCCC) Wind Energy Technology (WET) program is a leader in the renewable energy movement across Kansas and the USA. The field of renewable energy is a growing industry which continues to experience high demand for career opportunities. This CCCC/DOE project entailed two phases: 1) the installation of two Northwind 100 wind turbines, and 2) the continued development of the WET program curriculum, including enhancement of the CCCC Blade Repair Certificate program. This report provides a technical account of the total work performed, and is a comprehensive description of the results achieved.

  10. 76 FR 56194 - CenterPoint Energy-Illinois Gas Transmission Company; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission CenterPoint Energy--Illinois Gas Transmission Company; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on September 1, 2011, pursuant to section 284.224 of the Commission's regulations, 18 CFR 284.224, CenterPoint Energy- Illinois Gas Transmission Company (``IGTC''),...

  11. 75 FR 11164 - Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC; Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... distribution line. The general location of the project facilities is shown in Appendix 1.\\1\\ \\1\\ The appendices... Energy Regulatory Commission Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC; Notice of Intent to Prepare an... Compressor Project (Project) involving construction and operation of facilities by Pine Prairie Energy Center...

  12. Pilot project for a commercial buildings Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADC) program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capehart, B.L.

    1996-02-01

    Commercial energy use costs businesses around $70 billion annually. Many of these businesses are small and medium sized organizations that do not have the resources to help themselves, or to pay for professional engineering services to help reduce their energy costs and improve their economic competitiveness. Energy cost reduction actions with payback times of around two years could save the commercial sector 15--20%, or $10--$15 billion per year. This project was initially intended to evaluate the feasibility of performing commercial energy audits as an adjunct to the industrial audit program run by the US Department of Energy Industrial Office. This program is housed in 30 universities throughout the United States. Formerly known as Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers (EADC`s), the university programs are now called Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC`s) to reflect their expansion from energy use analyses to include waste and productivity analyses. The success of the EADC/IAC program in helping the manufacturing sector provides an excellent model for a similar program in the commercial buildings sector. This project has investigated using the EADC/IAC approach to performing energy audits for the commercial sector, and has determined that such an approach is feasible and cost effective.

  13. High Energy Theory Workshops and Visitors at the Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics FY16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Aaron [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-09-08

    This award provided partial support for the Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics to host the 5-day workshop "Emergent themes in String Theory" this winter, March 15 - 19, 2016. on the University of Michigan campus. In addition, this award provided limited support for the Young High Energy Theorist (YHET) visitor program at the University of Michigan.

  14. Wind Energy Forecasting: A Collaboration of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and Xcel Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, K.; Wan, Y. H.; Wiener, G.; Liu, Y.

    2011-10-01

    The focus of this report is the wind forecasting system developed during this contract period with results of performance through the end of 2010. The report is intentionally high-level, with technical details disseminated at various conferences and academic papers. At the end of 2010, Xcel Energy managed the output of 3372 megawatts of installed wind energy. The wind plants span three operating companies1, serving customers in eight states2, and three market structures3. The great majority of the wind energy is contracted through power purchase agreements (PPAs). The remainder is utility owned, Qualifying Facilities (QF), distributed resources (i.e., 'behind the meter'), or merchant entities within Xcel Energy's Balancing Authority footprints. Regardless of the contractual or ownership arrangements, the output of the wind energy is balanced by Xcel Energy's generation resources that include fossil, nuclear, and hydro based facilities that are owned or contracted via PPAs. These facilities are committed and dispatched or bid into day-ahead and real-time markets by Xcel Energy's Commercial Operations department. Wind energy complicates the short and long-term planning goals of least-cost, reliable operations. Due to the uncertainty of wind energy production, inherent suboptimal commitment and dispatch associated with imperfect wind forecasts drives up costs. For example, a gas combined cycle unit may be turned on, or committed, in anticipation of low winds. The reality is winds stayed high, forcing this unit and others to run, or be dispatched, to sub-optimal loading positions. In addition, commitment decisions are frequently irreversible due to minimum up and down time constraints. That is, a dispatcher lives with inefficient decisions made in prior periods. In general, uncertainty contributes to conservative operations - committing more units and keeping them on longer than may have been necessary for purposes of maintaining reliability

  15. 42 CFR 457.420 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 457.420 Section 457.420 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.420 Benchmark health benefits coverage....

  16. Preliminary assessment of nuclear energy centers and energy systems complexes in the western United States. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlieb, P.; Robinson, J.H.; Smith, D.R.

    1978-02-01

    The Nuclear Energy Center siting opportunities in the eleven western states have been systematically examined. The study area has been divided into 10-mile by 10-mile grid cells, and each cell has been evaluated in terms of overall suitability and site-related costs. Composite suitability consists of a weighted sum of ten important nuclear power plant siting issues; the particular weights used for this study were decided by a Delphi session of twenty individuals with energy facility siting expertise, with at least one representative from each of the eleven western states. Site-related costs consist of the additional expenditures required for seismic hardening (in seismically active areas), electric power transmission lines (for sites significantly far from load centers), and wet/dry cooling system costs (limited water availability and/or high summer temperatures).

  17. Measurements of the center-of-mass energies at BESIII via the di-muon process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablikim, M.; N. Achasov, M.; C. Ai, X.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; J. Ambrose, D.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini, Ferroli R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Y. Deng, Z.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Q. Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kühn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Cheng, Li; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Fang, Liu; Feng, Liu; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. Y.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A. A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, B. K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, A. Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; , S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-06-01

    From 2011 to 2014, the BESIII experiment collected about 5 fb-1 data at center-of-mass energies around 4 GeV for the studies of the charmonium-like and higher excited charmonium states. By analyzing the di-muon process e+e- → γISR/FSRμ+μ-, the center-of-mass energies of the data samples are measured with a precision of 0.8 MeV. The center-of-mass energy is found to be stable for most of the time during data taking. Supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (2015CB856700), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11125525, 11235011, 11322544, 11335008, 11425524, Y61137005C), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Large-Scale Scientific Facility Program, CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP), Collaborative Innovation Center for Particles and Interactions (CICPI), Joint Large-Scale Scientific Facility Funds of NSFC and CAS (11179007, U1232201, U1332201), CAS (KJCX2-YW-N29, KJCX2-YW-N45), 100 Talents Program of CAS, National 1000 Talents Program of China, INPAC and Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, German Research Foundation DFG (Collaborative Research Center CRC-1044), Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italy, Ministry of Development of Turkey (DPT2006K-120470), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (14-07-91152), Swedish Research Council, U. S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-04ER41291, DE-FG02-05ER41374, DE-FG02-94ER40823, DESC0010118), U.S. National Science Foundation, University of Groningen (RuG) and Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (GSI), Darmstadt, WCU Program of National Research Foundation of Korea (R32-2008-000-10155-0).

  18. Benchmarking File System Benchmarking: It *IS* Rocket Science

    OpenAIRE

    Seltzer, Margo I.; Tarasov, Vasily; Bhanage, Saumitra; Zadok, Erez

    2011-01-01

    The quality of file system benchmarking has not improved in over a decade of intense research spanning hundreds of publications. Researchers repeatedly use a wide range of poorly designed benchmarks, and in most cases, develop their own ad-hoc benchmarks. Our community lacks a definition of what we want to benchmark in a file system. We propose several dimensions of file system benchmarking and review the wide range of tools and techniques in widespread use. We experimentally show that even t...

  19. Binding Energy of an Off-Center D- in a Spherical Quantum Dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dong-Ming; XIE Wen-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Using the method of matrix diagonalization, we investigate an off-center D- in a spherical quantum dot (QD) subjected to a parabolic potential confinement. We discuss the effect of the position of an impurity in the QD on the binding energy of the D- system. Furthermore, we compare a negatively charged donor D- with a neutral donor D0 confined by a spherical QD with a parabolic potential. The results have dearly demonstrate the so-called quantum size effect. The binding energy/s dependent on the confining potential hω0 and the impurity ion distance D.

  20. Solar heating and cooling demonstration project at the Florida solar energy center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The retrofitted solar heating and cooling system installed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described. The system was designed to supply approximately 70 percent of the annual cooling and 100 percent of the heating load. The project provides unique high temperature, nonimaging, nontracking, evacuated tube collectors. The design of the system was kept simple and employs five hydronic loops. They are energy collection, chilled water production, space cooling, space heating and energy rejection. Information is provided on the system's acceptance test results operation, controls, hardware and installation, including detailed drawings.

  1. The KMAT: Benchmarking Knowledge Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Martha

    Provides an overview of knowledge management and benchmarking, including the benefits and methods of benchmarking (e.g., competitive, cooperative, collaborative, and internal benchmarking). Arthur Andersen's KMAT (Knowledge Management Assessment Tool) is described. The KMAT is a collaborative benchmarking tool, designed to help organizations make…

  2. Fire analog: a comparison between fire plumes and energy center cooling tower plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orgill, M.M.

    1977-10-01

    Thermal plumes or convection columns associated with large fires are compared to thermal plumes from cooling towers and proposed energy centers to evaluate the fire analog concept. Energy release rates of mass fires are generally larger than for single or small groups of cooling towers but are comparable to proposed large energy centers. However, significant physical differences exist between cooling tower plumes and fire plumes. Cooling tower plumes are generally dominated by ambient wind, stability and turbulence conditions. Fire plumes, depending on burning rates and other factors, can transform into convective columns which may cause the fire behavior to become more violent. This transformation can cause strong inflow winds and updrafts, turbulence and concentrated vortices. Intense convective columns may interact with ambient winds to create significant downwind effects such as wakes and Karman vortex streets. These characteristics have not been observed with cooling tower plumes to date. The differences in physical characteristics between cooling tower and fire plumes makes the fire analog concept very questionable even though the approximate energy requirements appear to be satisfied in case of large energy centers. Additional research is suggested in studying the upper-level plume characteristics of small experimental fires so this information can be correlated with similar data from cooling towers. Numerical simulation of fires and proposed multiple cooling tower systems could also provide comparative data.

  3. Solar heating and cooling demonstration project at the Florida Solar Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hankins, J.D.

    1980-02-01

    The retrofitted solar heating and cooling system installed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described. Information is provided on the system's test, operation, controls, hardware and installation, including detailed drawings. The Center's office building, approximately 5000 square feet of space, with solar air conditioning and heating as a demonstration of the technical feasibility is located just north of Port Canaveral, Florida. The system was designed to supply approximately 70% of the annual cooling and 100% of the heating load. The project provides unique high-temperature, non-imaging, non-tracking, evacuated-tube collectors. The design of the system was kept simple and employs five hydronic loops. They are energy collection, chilled water production, space cooling, space heating and energy rejection.

  4. Energy Efficient Security Preserving VM Live Migration In Data Centers For Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korir Sammy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Virtualization is an innovation that has widely been utilized in modern data centers for cloud computing to realize energy-efficient operations of servers. Virtual machine (VM migration brings multiple benefits such as resource distribution and energy aware consolidation. Server consolidation achieves energy efficiency by enabling multiple instances of operating systems to run simultaneously on a single machine. With virtualization, it is possible to consolidate severs through VM live migration. However, migration of virtual machines brings extra energy consumption and serious security concerns that derail full adoption of this technology. In this paper, we propose a secure energy-aware provisioning of cloud computing resources on consolidated and virtualized platforms. Energy efficiency is achieved through just-right dynamic Round-Robin provisioning mechanism and the ability to power down sub-systems of a host system that are not required by VMs mapped to it. We further propose solutions to security challenges faced during VM live migration. We validate our approach by conducting a set of rigorous performance evaluation study using CloudSim toolkit. The experimental results show that our approach achieves reduced energy consumption in data centers while not compromising on security.

  5. Experimental investigation of using ambient energy to cool Internet Data Center with thermosyphon heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, F.; Tian, X.; Ma, G. [Beijing Univ. of Technology, Beijing (China). College of Environmental and Energy Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The energy consumption of the air-conditioning system at the Internet Data Center (IDC) in Beijing comprises 40 per cent of the building's total energy consumption. Of all the energy energy management strategies available at the IDC, the most unique one is the use of ambient energy to cool the IDC by the thermosyphon heat exchanger. Atmospheric energy can reduce the air conditioner's running time while maintaining the humidity and cleanliness of the IDC. In this study, an IDC test model was set up to analyze the heat dissipating characteristics and the energy consumption of the thermosyphon heat exchanger and the air conditioner in the IDC for winter conditions. The heat dissipating capacity of the building envelope was measured and calculated. The energy consumption of the air conditioner was compared under different indoor and outdoor temperatures. The study showed that the heat dissipating need of the IDC cannot be met just by the heat dissipation of the building envelope in winter conditions. The heat dissipating capacity of the IDC building envelope comprises 19.5 per cent of the total heat load. The average energy consumption of the air conditioner is 3.5 to 4 kWh per day. The temperature difference between indoor and outdoor temperature in the IDC with the thermosyphon heat exchanger was less than 20 degrees C, and the energy consumption of the thermosyphon heat exchanger comprised only 41 per cent of that of the air conditioner. 8 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  6. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. METC is currently a research and development facility, managed by DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. Its goal is to focus energy research and development to develop engineered fossil fuel systems, that are economically viable and environmentally sound, for commercial application. There is clear evidence that, since the 1991 Tiger Team Assessment, substantial progress has been made by both FE and METC in most aspects of their ES&H program. The array of new and restructured organizations, systems, and programs at FE and METC; increased assignments of staff to support these initiatives; extensive training activities; and the maturing planning processes, all reflect a discernable, continuous improvement in the quality of the ES&H performance.

  7. A Taxonomy and Survey of Energy-Efficient Data Centers and Cloud Computing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Beloglazov, Anton; Lee, Young Choon; Zomaya, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, the development of computing systems has been focused on performance improvements driven by the demand of applications from consumer, scientific and business domains. However, the ever increasing energy consumption of computing systems has started to limit further performance growth due to overwhelming electricity bills and carbon dioxide footprints. Therefore, the goal of the computer system design has been shifted to power and energy efficiency. To identify open challenges in the area and facilitate future advancements it is essential to synthesize and classify the research on power and energy-efficient design conducted to date. In this work we discuss causes and problems of high power / energy consumption, and present a taxonomy of energy-efficient design of computing systems covering the hardware, operating system, virtualization and data center levels. We survey various key works in the area and map them to our taxonomy to guide future design and development efforts. This chapter is conclu...

  8. Benchmarking in Mobarakeh Steel Company

    OpenAIRE

    Sasan Ghasemi; Mohammad Nazemi; Mehran Nejati

    2008-01-01

    Benchmarking is considered as one of the most effective ways of improving performance in companies. Although benchmarking in business organizations is a relatively new concept and practice, it has rapidly gained acceptance worldwide. This paper introduces the benchmarking project conducted in Esfahan's Mobarakeh Steel Company, as the first systematic benchmarking project conducted in Iran. It aims to share the process deployed for the benchmarking project in this company and illustrate how th...

  9. Benchmarking in Mobarakeh Steel Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Ghasemi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Benchmarking is considered as one of the most effective ways of improving performance incompanies. Although benchmarking in business organizations is a relatively new concept and practice, ithas rapidly gained acceptance worldwide. This paper introduces the benchmarking project conducted in Esfahan’s Mobarakeh Steel Company, as the first systematic benchmarking project conducted in Iran. It aimsto share the process deployed for the benchmarking project in this company and illustrate how the projectsystematic implementation led to succes.

  10. Detection of photosynthetic energy storage in a photosystem I reaction center preparation by photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, T G; Carpentier, R; Leblanc, R M

    1990-06-01

    Thermal emission and photochemical energy storage were examined in photosystem I reaction center/core antenna complexes (about 40 Chl a/P700) using photoacoustic spectroscopy. Satisfactory signals could only be obtained from samples bound to hydroxyapatite and all samples had a low signal-to-noise ratio compared to either PS I or PS II in thylakoid membranes. The energy storage signal was saturated at low intensity (half saturation at 1.5 W m(-2)) and predicted a photochemical quantum yield of >90%. Exogenous donors and acceptors had no effect on the signal amplitudes indicating that energy storage is the result of charge separation between endogenous components. Fe(CN)6 (-3) oxidation of P700 and dithionite-induced reduction of acceptors FA-FB inhibited energy storage. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that energy storage in PS I arises from charge separation between P700 and Fe-S centers FA-FB that is stable on the time scale of the photoacoustic modulation. High intensity background light (160 W m(-2)) caused an irreversible loss of energy storage and correlated with a decrease in oxidizable P700; both are probably the result of high light-induced photoinhibition. By analogy to the low fluorescence yield of PS I, the low signal-to-noise ratio in these preparations is attributed to the short lifetime of Chl singlet excited states in PS I-40 and its indirect effect on the yield of thermal emission.

  11. Energy Assurance Technical Training and Awareness Program/Energy Infrastructure Training and Analysis Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbara McCabe

    2005-11-15

    This report covers the work completed during Year One (Year One has a 16 month project period) of a five- year Cooperative Agreement (DE-FC26-03NT41895) between the International Union of Operating Engineers (IUOE) National Hazmat Program (OENHP) and the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). This final technical report is being submitted, as required by the Cooperative Agreement, within 90 (calendar) days after the project period ends (December 31, 2004). The resources allocated to Year One of the Cooperative Agreement were adequate for the completion of the required deliverables. All deliverables have been completed and sent to AAD Document Control as directed in the cooperative agreement. The allocation for Year One required 20-25 trainers to be trained in each of five Train-the-Trainer courses and a total of 6,000 workers trained throughout the country. Through cost savings employed for the scheduling and conduct of Train-the-Trainer, instructor refreshers, and direct training classes, 3171 workers have been trained to date. This total incorporates 159 trainers and members from management, local, county, state and federal organizations identified in the Strategic Plan. The largest percentage of personnel trained is heavy equipment operators, and building engineers, which is the largest targeted population identified under this cooperative agreement. The OENHP, using existing curriculum as appropriate, has modified and developed new training modules that have been used to establish four different levels of training courses. The four courses are: (1) EA 500 Energy Assurance Train-the-Trainer, (2) EA 400 Energy Assurance Instructor Refresher, (3) EA 300 Energy Assurance, and (4) EA 100 Energy Assurance Awareness. Training modules cover topics, such as, but not limited to, facility vulnerability and vulnerability assessment, physical security- heating, ventilation, air conditioning, terrorism awareness, weapons of mass

  12. Nuclear Energy Center study. Phase II. Site suitability analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, W.S.; Sharp, J.M.; Benator, B.I.

    1978-06-01

    A site screening study was conducted to identify a site or sites for detailed, site-specific study as a nuclear energy center. Using technical criteria of water requirements, geotechnical constraints, and projected load center and transmission considerations as well as environmental and institutional considerations, five potential study sites in the State of South Carolina were identified, evaluated against established criteria, and ranked according to their acceptability as potential nuclear energy center study sites. Consideration of what is ''representative'' of a site as well as the ranking score was factored into site recommendations, since the site deemed easiest to license and permit may not be the most desirable site for future study of the technical and institutional feasibility and practicality of a specific site. The sites near Lake Hartwell and the Savannah River Plant (SRP) of the Department of Energy were selected as potential study sites after consideration of the above criteria. Because the Lake Hartwell site offers the opportunity to consider institutional issues which may be more representative of other possible NEC sites, it is recommended that the Lake Hartwell site be studied to establish the feasibility and practicality of the nuclear energy concept on a site-specific basis.

  13. Formation of photosystem II reaction centers that work as energy sinks in lichen symbiotic Trebouxiophyceae microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéra, Alfredo; Gasulla, Francisco; Barreno, Eva

    2016-04-01

    Lichens are poikilohydric symbiotic organisms that can survive in the absence of water. Photosynthesis must be highly regulated in these organisms, which live under continuous desiccation-rehydration cycles, to avoid photooxidative damage. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence induction curves in the lichen microalgae of the Trebouxiophyceae Asterochloris erici and in Trebouxia jamesii (TR1) and Trebouxia sp. (TR9) phycobionts, isolated from the lichen Ramalina farinacea, shows differences with higher plants. In the presence of the photosynthetic electron transport inhibitor DCMU, the kinetics of Q(A) reduction is related to variable fluorescence by a sigmoidal function that approaches a horizontal asymptote. An excellent fit to these curves was obtained by applying a model based on the following assumptions: (1) after closure, the reaction centers (RCs) can be converted into "energy sink" centers (sRCs); (2) the probability of energy leaving the sRCs is very low or zero and (3) energy is not transferred from the antenna of PSII units with sRCs to other PSII units. The formation of sRCs units is also induced by repetitive light saturating pulses or at the transition from dark to light and probably requires the accumulation of reduced Q(A), as well as structural changes in the reaction centers of PSII. This type of energy sink would provide a very efficient way to protect symbiotic microalgae against abrupt changes in light intensity.

  14. A framework of benchmarking land models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y. Q.; Randerson, J.; Abramowitz, G.; Bacour, C.; Blyth, E.; Carvalhais, N.; Ciais, P.; Dalmonech, D.; Fisher, J.; Fisher, R.; Friedlingstein, P.; Hibbard, K.; Hoffman, F.; Huntzinger, D.; Jones, C. D.; Koven, C.; Lawrence, D.; Li, D. J.; Mahecha, M.; Niu, S. L.; Norby, R.; Piao, S. L.; Qi, X.; Peylin, P.; Prentice, I. C.; Riley, W.; Reichstein, M.; Schwalm, C.; Wang, Y. P.; Xia, J. Y.; Zaehle, S.; Zhou, X. H.

    2012-02-01

    Land models, which have been developed by the modeling community in the past two decades to predict future states of ecosystems and climate, have to be critically evaluated for their performance skills of simulating ecosystem responses and feedback to climate change. Benchmarking is an emerging procedure to measure and evaluate performance of models against a set of defined standards. This paper proposes a benchmarking framework for evaluation of land models. The framework includes (1) targeted aspects of model performance to be evaluated; (2) a set of benchmarks as defined references to test model performance; (3) metrics to measure and compare performance skills among models so as to identify model strengths and deficiencies; and (4) model improvement. Component 4 may or may not be involved in a benchmark analysis but is an ultimate goal of general modeling research. Land models are required to simulate exchange of water, energy, carbon and sometimes other trace gases between the atmosphere and the land-surface, and should be evaluated for their simulations of biophysical processes, biogeochemical cycles, and vegetation dynamics across timescales in response to both weather and climate change. Benchmarks that are used to evaluate models generally consist of direct observations, data-model products, and data-derived patterns and relationships. Metrics of measuring mismatches between models and benchmarks may include (1) a priori thresholds of acceptable model performance and (2) a scoring system to combine data-model mismatches for various processes at different temporal and spatial scales. The benchmark analyses should identify clues of weak model performance for future improvement. Iterations between model evaluation and improvement via benchmarking shall demonstrate progress of land modeling and help establish confidence in land models for their predictions of future states of ecosystems and climate.

  15. A framework of benchmarking land models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Q. Luo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Land models, which have been developed by the modeling community in the past two decades to predict future states of ecosystems and climate, have to be critically evaluated for their performance skills of simulating ecosystem responses and feedback to climate change. Benchmarking is an emerging procedure to measure and evaluate performance of models against a set of defined standards. This paper proposes a benchmarking framework for evaluation of land models. The framework includes (1 targeted aspects of model performance to be evaluated; (2 a set of benchmarks as defined references to test model performance; (3 metrics to measure and compare performance skills among models so as to identify model strengths and deficiencies; and (4 model improvement. Component 4 may or may not be involved in a benchmark analysis but is an ultimate goal of general modeling research. Land models are required to simulate exchange of water, energy, carbon and sometimes other trace gases between the atmosphere and the land-surface, and should be evaluated for their simulations of biophysical processes, biogeochemical cycles, and vegetation dynamics across timescales in response to both weather and climate change. Benchmarks that are used to evaluate models generally consist of direct observations, data-model products, and data-derived patterns and relationships. Metrics of measuring mismatches between models and benchmarks may include (1 a priori thresholds of acceptable model performance and (2 a scoring system to combine data-model mismatches for various processes at different temporal and spatial scales. The benchmark analyses should identify clues of weak model performance for future improvement. Iterations between model evaluation and improvement via benchmarking shall demonstrate progress of land modeling and help establish confidence in land models for their predictions of future states of ecosystems and climate.

  16. A framework for benchmarking land models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y. Q.; Randerson, J. T.; Abramowitz, G.; Bacour, C.; Blyth, E.; Carvalhais, N.; Ciais, P.; Dalmonech, D.; Fisher, J. B.; Fisher, R.; Friedlingstein, P.; Hibbard, K.; Hoffman, F.; Huntzinger, D.; Jones, C. D.; Koven, C.; Lawrence, D.; Li, D. J.; Mahecha, M.; Niu, S. L.; Norby, R.; Piao, S. L.; Qi, X.; Peylin, P.; Prentice, I. C.; Riley, W.; Reichstein, M.; Schwalm, C.; Wang, Y. P.; Xia, J. Y.; Zaehle, S.; Zhou, X. H.

    2012-10-01

    Land models, which have been developed by the modeling community in the past few decades to predict future states of ecosystems and climate, have to be critically evaluated for their performance skills of simulating ecosystem responses and feedback to climate change. Benchmarking is an emerging procedure to measure performance of models against a set of defined standards. This paper proposes a benchmarking framework for evaluation of land model performances and, meanwhile, highlights major challenges at this infant stage of benchmark analysis. The framework includes (1) targeted aspects of model performance to be evaluated, (2) a set of benchmarks as defined references to test model performance, (3) metrics to measure and compare performance skills among models so as to identify model strengths and deficiencies, and (4) model improvement. Land models are required to simulate exchange of water, energy, carbon and sometimes other trace gases between the atmosphere and land surface, and should be evaluated for their simulations of biophysical processes, biogeochemical cycles, and vegetation dynamics in response to climate change across broad temporal and spatial scales. Thus, one major challenge is to select and define a limited number of benchmarks to effectively evaluate land model performance. The second challenge is to develop metrics of measuring mismatches between models and benchmarks. The metrics may include (1) a priori thresholds of acceptable model performance and (2) a scoring system to combine data-model mismatches for various processes at different temporal and spatial scales. The benchmark analyses should identify clues of weak model performance to guide future development, thus enabling improved predictions of future states of ecosystems and climate. The near-future research effort should be on development of a set of widely acceptable benchmarks that can be used to objectively, effectively, and reliably evaluate fundamental properties of land models

  17. A framework for benchmarking land models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Q. Luo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Land models, which have been developed by the modeling community in the past few decades to predict future states of ecosystems and climate, have to be critically evaluated for their performance skills of simulating ecosystem responses and feedback to climate change. Benchmarking is an emerging procedure to measure performance of models against a set of defined standards. This paper proposes a benchmarking framework for evaluation of land model performances and, meanwhile, highlights major challenges at this infant stage of benchmark analysis. The framework includes (1 targeted aspects of model performance to be evaluated, (2 a set of benchmarks as defined references to test model performance, (3 metrics to measure and compare performance skills among models so as to identify model strengths and deficiencies, and (4 model improvement. Land models are required to simulate exchange of water, energy, carbon and sometimes other trace gases between the atmosphere and land surface, and should be evaluated for their simulations of biophysical processes, biogeochemical cycles, and vegetation dynamics in response to climate change across broad temporal and spatial scales. Thus, one major challenge is to select and define a limited number of benchmarks to effectively evaluate land model performance. The second challenge is to develop metrics of measuring mismatches between models and benchmarks. The metrics may include (1 a priori thresholds of acceptable model performance and (2 a scoring system to combine data–model mismatches for various processes at different temporal and spatial scales. The benchmark analyses should identify clues of weak model performance to guide future development, thus enabling improved predictions of future states of ecosystems and climate. The near-future research effort should be on development of a set of widely acceptable benchmarks that can be used to objectively, effectively, and reliably evaluate fundamental properties

  18. Center for Energy Research and Training (CERT) infrastructure support under USDOE/MEIAP. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, A.K.; Rojeski, P. Jr.

    1993-10-01

    As one of the several institutions of higher education, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University at Greensboro has received support from the office of Minority Education Institution Assistance Program (MEIAP) of the US Department of Energy primarily to provide infrastructure support to promote and enhance interdisciplinary energy-related research. In this effort, the university was authorized to prepare a plan to create a Center for Energy Research and Training (CERT), which was initiated on September 30, 1987. The goals and objectives for CERT are as specified below: (1) To encourage research by the faculty in many academic disciplines and to enhance their success in finding and obtaining funds for interdisciplinary and multi-school research. (2) To enhance students` energy education with increased opportunities for: theoretical and practical contact with energy issues and technologies; new courses and improved course content; internships and graduate funding; and ability and desire to pursue careers in energy field. (3) To establish training and service programs for off-campus constituents in energy issues, use, and management. (4) To develop cooperative relationships with industry, businesses, universities, and other private and professional organizations and with the State Energy Office. (5) To cooperate in establishing communications and collaborative research projects with various national research laboratories and other federal agencies. (6) To develop a permanent university infrastructure for energy research, training, and community service. Summaries of activities from September, 1992 to September, 1993 are presented.

  19. Benchmarking Pthreads performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, J M; de Supinski, B R

    1999-04-27

    The importance of the performance of threads libraries is growing as clusters of shared memory machines become more popular POSIX threads, or Pthreads, is an industry threads library standard. We have implemented the first Pthreads benchmark suite. In addition to measuring basic thread functions, such as thread creation, we apply the L.ogP model to standard Pthreads communication mechanisms. We present the results of our tests for several hardware platforms. These results demonstrate that the performance of existing Pthreads implementations varies widely; parts of nearly all of these implementations could be further optimized. Since hardware differences do not fully explain these performance variations, optimizations could improve the implementations. 2. Incorporating Threads Benchmarks into SKaMPI is an MPI benchmark suite that provides a general framework for performance analysis [7]. SKaMPI does not exhaustively test the MPI standard. Instead, it

  20. A knowledge continuity management program for the energy, infrastructure and knowledge systems center, Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menicucci, David F.

    2006-07-01

    A growing recognition exists in companies worldwide that, when employees leave, they take with them valuable knowledge that is difficult and expensive to recreate. The concern is now particularly acute as the large ''baby boomer'' generation is reaching retirement age. A new field of science, Knowledge Continuity Management (KCM), is designed to capture and catalog the acquired knowledge and wisdom from experience of these employees before they leave. The KCM concept is in the final stages of being adopted by the Energy, Infrastructure, and Knowledge Systems Center and a program is being applied that should produce significant annual cost savings. This report discusses how the Center can use KCM to mitigate knowledge loss from employee departures, including a concise description of a proposed plan tailored to the Center's specific needs and resources.

  1. Deviating From the Benchmarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam; Carneiro, Anabela

    survival? The analysis is based on a matched employer-employee dataset and covers about 17,500 startups in manufacturing and services. We adopt a new procedure to estimate individual benchmarks for the quantity and quality of initial human resources, acknowledging correlations between hiring decisions...... the benchmark can be substantial, are persistent over time, and hinder the survival of firms. The implications may, however, vary according to the sector and the ownership structure at entry. Given the stickiness of initial choices, wrong human capital decisions at entry turn out to be a close to irreversible...

  2. Benchmarking for Best Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Zairi, Mohamed

    1998-01-01

    Benchmarking for Best Practice uses up-to-the-minute case-studies of individual companies and industry-wide quality schemes to show how and why implementation has succeeded. For any practitioner wanting to establish best practice in a wide variety of business areas, this book makes essential reading. .It is also an ideal textbook on the applications of TQM since it describes concepts, covers definitions and illustrates the applications with first-hand examples. Professor Mohamed Zairi is an international expert and leading figure in the field of benchmarking. His pioneering work in this area l

  3. Benchmarking ENDF/B-VII.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Marck, Steven C.

    2006-12-01

    The new major release VII.0 of the ENDF/B nuclear data library has been tested extensively using benchmark calculations. These were based upon MCNP-4C3 continuous-energy Monte Carlo neutronics simulations, together with nuclear data processed using the code NJOY. Three types of benchmarks were used, viz., criticality safety benchmarks, (fusion) shielding benchmarks, and reference systems for which the effective delayed neutron fraction is reported. For criticality safety, more than 700 benchmarks from the International Handbook of Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments were used. Benchmarks from all categories were used, ranging from low-enriched uranium, compound fuel, thermal spectrum ones (LEU-COMP-THERM), to mixed uranium-plutonium, metallic fuel, fast spectrum ones (MIX-MET-FAST). For fusion shielding many benchmarks were based on IAEA specifications for the Oktavian experiments (for Al, Co, Cr, Cu, LiF, Mn, Mo, Si, Ti, W, Zr), Fusion Neutronics Source in Japan (for Be, C, N, O, Fe, Pb), and Pulsed Sphere experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (for 6Li, 7Li, Be, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Ti, Fe, Pb, D 2O, H 2O, concrete, polyethylene and teflon). For testing delayed neutron data more than thirty measurements in widely varying systems were used. Among these were measurements in the Tank Critical Assembly (TCA in Japan) and IPEN/MB-01 (Brazil), both with a thermal spectrum, and two cores in Masurca (France) and three cores in the Fast Critical Assembly (FCA, Japan), all with fast spectra. In criticality safety, many benchmarks were chosen from the category with a thermal spectrum, low-enriched uranium, compound fuel (LEU-COMP-THERM), because this is typical of most current-day reactors, and because these benchmarks were previously underpredicted by as much as 0.5% by most nuclear data libraries (such as ENDF/B-VI.8, JEFF-3.0). The calculated results presented here show that this underprediction is no longer there for ENDF/B-VII.0. The average over 257

  4. The Resource Configuration Method with Lower Energy Consumption Based on Prediction in Cloud Data Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Liang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The cloud computing data center have numerous hosts as well as application requests. In future, the short response time and user Qos are required, and the lower electricity power consumption to build the low-carbon green network is an irrevocable trend. The paper first puts forward a reconfiguration framework based on the request prediction of Double Exponential Smoothing, On the basis, work out in advance the allocation scheme which can improve the resource utilization ratio as well as lower energy consumption. The paper also present a concept of Utility Ratio Matrix (URM to represent allocations of hosts and Virtual Machines (VMs and a reconfiguration algorithm. The algorithm can separate the reconfiguration computing from the real allocation so that it can avoid a time delay, and can also reduce the energy consumption in data center. The corresponding analysis and experimental results show the feasibility of the reconfiguration algorithm in this paper.

  5. Socioeconomic impacts: study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, R.; Taylor, J.; Burnett, K.; Greenberg, B.

    1982-02-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the impacts on socioeconomic conditions in the surrounding communities and possible ways of financing and mitigating these impacts were examined. The general conclusion reached is that the socioeconomic impacts of a nuclear energy center in the Green River area of Southeastern Utah would not impose an absolute bar to NEC development. The economy of the NEC impact area would be substantially transformed by the NEC. In particular, Green River city itself would change from its current status as a relatively stable rural economy with an agricultural, mining, and recreation base to a major city with over 20,000 permanent relatively high income residents. The NEC, by itself, would provide a tax base more than adequate to finance required expansion of public facilities and public human service provisions.

  6. Utility survey on nuclear power plant siting and nuclear energy centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, D. F.; Bauman, H. F.

    1977-06-28

    Most of the large U.S. utilities were surveyed by telephone and mail on questions concerning nuclear power plant siting and nuclear energy centers (NECs). The main purpose of the survey was for guidance of ERDA's NEC program. The questions covered the following topics: availability of sites; impact of environmental and other restraints; plans for development of multi-unit sites; interest in NEC development; interest in including fuel-cycle facilities in NECs; and opinions on the roles desired for the state and Federal governments in power plant siting. The main conclusion of the survey was that, while many utilities were considering multiple-unit sites of 2 to 5 units, none were planning larger energy centers at the present time. However, several expressed interest in NECs as a long-range future development.

  7. Department of Energy Nanoscale Science Research Centers: Approach to Nanomaterial ES&H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-05-12

    The following non-mandatory guidance is intended for the Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) funded by the Basic Energy Sciences program office under the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. It describes practices thought appropriate to the management of environmental, safety and health (ES&H) concerns associated with laboratory-scale operations involving the design, synthesis, or characterization of engineered nanomaterials, In general, it is intended to apply to precursors, intermediates, and wastes used during, or resulting from synthesizing such nanomaterials. In general, it is not intended to apply to materials for which an occupational exposure limit has been established.

  8. Photoprotection of reaction centers: thermal dissipation of absorbed light energy vs charge separation in lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Ulrich; Soni, Vineet; Strasser, Reto J

    2011-05-01

    During desiccation, fluorescence emission and stable light-dependent charge separation in the reaction centers (RCs) of photosystem II (PSII) declined strongly in three different lichens: in Parmelia sulcata with an alga as the photobiont, in Peltigera neckeri with a cyanobacterium and in the tripartite lichen Lobaria pulmonaria. Most of the decline of fluorescence was caused by a decrease in the quantum efficiency of fluorescence emission. It indicated the activation of photoprotective thermal energy dissipation. Photochemical activity of the RCs was retained even after complete desiccation. It led to light-dependent absorption changes and found expression in reversible increases in fluorescence or in fluorescence quenching. Lowering the temperature changed the direction of fluorescence responses in P. sulcata. The observations are interpreted to show that reversible light-induced increases in fluorescence emission in desiccated lichens indicate the functionality of the RCs of PSII. Photoprotection is achieved by the drainage of light energy to dissipating centers outside the RCs before stable charge separation can take place. Reversible quenching of fluorescence by strong illumination is suggested to indicate the conversion of the RCs from energy conserving to energy dissipating units. This permits them to avoid photoinactivation. On hydration, re-conversion occurs to energy-conserving RCs.

  9. General procedure for the calculation of accurate defect excitation energies from DFT-1/2 band structures: The case of the NV- center in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucatto, Bruno; Assali, Lucy V. C.; Pela, Ronaldo Rodrigues; Marques, Marcelo; Teles, Lara K.

    2017-08-01

    A major challenge in creating a quantum computer is to find a quantum system that can be used to implement the qubits. For this purpose, deep centers are prominent candidates, and ab initio calculations are one of the most important tools to theoretically study their properties. However, these calculations are highly involved, due to the large supercell needed, and the computational cost can be even larger when one goes beyond the Kohn-Sham scheme to correct the band gap problem and achieve good accuracy. In this work, we present a method that overcomes these problems and provides the optical transition energies as a difference of Kohn-Sham eigenvalues; even more, provides a complete and accurate band structure of the defects in a semiconductor. Despite the original motivations, the presented methodology is a general procedure, which can be used to systematically study the optical transitions between localized levels within the band gap of any system. The method is an extension of the low-cost and parameter-free DFT-1/2 approximate quasiparticle correction, and allows it to be applied in the study of complex defects. As a benchmark, we apply the method to the NV- center in diamond. The agreement with experiments is remarkable, with an accuracy of 0.1 eV. The band structure agrees with the expected qualitative features of this system, and thus provides a good intuitive physical picture by itself.

  10. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah: institutional and licensing issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilman, C.B.; Herman, A.A. Jr.; Vito, D.J.

    1982-04-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramification of construcing a nuclear energy center in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the institutional and licensing issues impacting a NEC were analyzed. The most prominent issue facing such a concept is the ownership form of NEC. In addition, legislation and regulation also have a substantial impact regardless of the ownership format.

  11. The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research: A New Paradigm for Battery Research and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Crabtree, George

    2014-01-01

    The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) seeks transformational change in transportation and the electricity grid driven by next generation high performance, low cost electricity storage. To pursue this transformative vision JCESR introduces a new paradigm for battery research: integrating discovery science, battery design, research prototyping and manufacturing collaboration in a single highly interactive organization. This new paradigm will accelerate the pace of discovery and i...

  12. Binding Energy of D- and D0 Centers Confined by Spherical Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Yuan-Peng; XIE Wen-Fang

    2008-01-01

    We study a negative donor center, a neutral donor in a spherical Gaussian potential quantum dot by using the matrix diagonalization of Hamiltonian within the effective-mass approximation. We calculate the energy E(D-) as functions of Gaussian potential size and depth, the same calculations as performed with the parabolic approximation. The dependence of the ground state of the neutral shallow donor and the negatively charged donor on the dot size and the potential depth is investigated.

  13. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region; Clean Energy Solutions Center (CESC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-11

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to governments in the Asia/Pacific region, including the benefits of that assistance.

  14. Collaborative Benchmarking: Discovering and Implementing Best Practices to Strengthen SEAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building State Capacity and Productivity Center, 2013

    2013-01-01

    To help state educational agencies (SEAs) learn about and adapt best practices that exist in other SEAs and other organizations, the Building State Capacity and Productivity Center (BSCP Center) working closely with the Regional Comprehensive Centers will create multi-state groups, through a "Collaborative Benchmarking Best Practices Process" that…

  15. HPCS HPCchallenge Benchmark Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    measured HPCchallenge Benchmark performance on various HPC architectures — from Cray X1s to Beowulf clusters — in the presentation and paper...from Cray X1s to Beowulf clusters — using the updated results at http://icl.cs.utk.edu/hpcc/hpcc_results.cgi Even a small percentage of random

  16. Benchmarking Danish Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Bentzen, Eric; Aagaard Andreassen, Mette

    2003-01-01

    compatible survey. The International Manufacturing Strategy Survey (IMSS) doesbring up the question of supply chain management, but unfortunately, we did not have access to thedatabase. Data from the members of the SCOR-model, in the form of benchmarked performance data,may exist, but are nonetheless...

  17. Benchmarks: WICHE Region 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarks: WICHE Region 2012 presents information on the West's progress in improving access to, success in, and financing of higher education. The information is updated annually to monitor change over time and encourage its use as a tool for informed discussion in policy and education communities. To establish a general context for the…

  18. Surveys and Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bers, Trudy

    2012-01-01

    Surveys and benchmarks continue to grow in importance for community colleges in response to several factors. One is the press for accountability, that is, for colleges to report the outcomes of their programs and services to demonstrate their quality and prudent use of resources, primarily to external constituents and governing boards at the state…

  19. Benchmarking and Performance Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TANTAU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the chosen topic is explained by the meaning of the firm efficiency concept - the firm efficiency means the revealed performance (how well the firm performs in the actual market environment given the basic characteristics of the firms and their markets that are expected to drive their profitability (firm size, market power etc.. This complex and relative performance could be due to such things as product innovation, management quality, work organization, some other factors can be a cause even if they are not directly observed by the researcher. The critical need for the management individuals/group to continuously improve their firm/company’s efficiency and effectiveness, the need for the managers to know which are the success factors and the competitiveness determinants determine consequently, what performance measures are most critical in determining their firm’s overall success. Benchmarking, when done properly, can accurately identify both successful companies and the underlying reasons for their success. Innovation and benchmarking firm level performance are critical interdependent activities. Firm level variables, used to infer performance, are often interdependent due to operational reasons. Hence, the managers need to take the dependencies among these variables into account when forecasting and benchmarking performance. This paper studies firm level performance using financial ratio and other type of profitability measures. It uses econometric models to describe and then propose a method to forecast and benchmark performance.

  20. Report on the establishment and operation of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Daycare Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-16

    We have completed an inspection of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) Daycare Center (Center). The purpose of the inspection was to review for efficiency, economy and compliance with laws and regulations, FERC's establishment and operation of the Center. The inspection objectives were to review: (1) FERC's compliance with Federal laws and requirements of the General Services Administration and the District of Columbia; (2) the source and amount of funds for establishing and operating the Center; and (3) the organizational relationships between FERC, the Center and the contractor operating the Center.

  1. Benchmarking European Gas Transmission System Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter; Trinkner, Urs

    This is the final report for the pan-European efficiency benchmarking of gas transmission system operations commissioned by the Netherlands Authority for Consumers and Markets (ACM), Den Haag, on behalf of the Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) under the supervision of the authors....

  2. Benchmark Experiment for Beryllium Slab Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE; Yang-bo; BAO; Jie; HAN; Rui; RUAN; Xi-chao; REN; Jie; HUANG; Han-xiong; ZHOU; Zu-ying

    2015-01-01

    In order to validate the evaluated nuclear data on beryllium,a benchmark experiment has been performed at China Institution of Atomic Energy(CIAE).Neutron leakage spectra from pure beryllium slab samples(10cm×10cm×11cm)were measured at 61°and 121°using timeof-

  3. Benchmarking European Gas Transmission System Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter; Trinkner, Urs

    This is the final report for the pan-European efficiency benchmarking of gas transmission system operations commissioned by the Netherlands Authority for Consumers and Markets (ACM), Den Haag, on behalf of the Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) under the supervision of the authors....

  4. Building America Case Study: New Town Builders' Power of Zero Energy Center, Denver, Colorado (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    New Town Builders, a builder of energy efficient homes in Denver, Colorado, offers a zero energy option for all the homes it builds. To attract a wide range of potential homebuyers to its energy efficient homes, New Town Builders created a 'Power of Zero Energy Center' linked to its model home in the Stapleton community of Denver. This case study presents New Town Builders' marketing approach, which is targeted to appeal to homebuyers' emotions rather than overwhelming homebuyers with scientific details about the technology. The exhibits in the Power of Zero Energy Center focus on reduced energy expenses for the homeowner, improved occupant comfort, the reputation of the builder, and the lack of sacrificing the homebuyers' desired design features to achieve zero net energy in the home. The case study also contains customer and realtor testimonials related to the effectiveness of the Center in influencing homebuyers to purchase a zero energy home.

  5. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: New Town Builders' Power of Zero Energy Center - Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-10-01

    New Town Builders, a builder of energy efficient homes in Denver, Colorado, offers a zero energy option for all the homes it builds. To attract a wide range of potential homebuyers to its energy efficient homes, New Town Builders created a "Power of Zero Energy Center" linked to its model home in the Stapleton community. This case study presents New Town Builders' marketing approach, which is targeted to appeal to homebuyers' emotions rather than overwhelming homebuyers with scientific details about the technology. The exhibits in the Power of Zero Energy Center focus on reduced energy expenses for the homeowner, improved occupant comfort, the reputation of the builder, and the lack of sacrificing the homebuyers' desired design features to achieve zero net energy in the home. This case study also contains customer and realtor testimonials related to the effectiveness of the Center in influencing homebuyers to purchase a zero energy home.

  6. Effect of strain and temperature on the threshold displacement energy in body-centered cubic iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Benjamin; Asta, Mark; Hosemann, Peter; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels

    2016-06-01

    The threshold displacement energy (TDE) is the minimum amount of kinetic energy required to displace an atom from its lattice site. The magnitude of the TDE displays significant variance as a function of the crystallographic direction, system temperature and applied strain, among a variety of other factors. It is critically important to determine an accurate value of the TDE in order to calculate the total number of displacements due to a given irradiation condition, and thus to understand the materials response to irradiation. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to calculate the threshold displacement energy in body-centered cubic iron as a function of strain and temperature. With applied strain, a decrease of the TDE of up to approximately 14 eV was observed. A temperature increase from 300 K to 500 K can result in an increase of the TDE of up to approximately 9 eV.

  7. 基于人工神经网络方法的通信基站能耗标杆建立与分析%Establishment and Analysis of Energy Consumption Benchmark for Communication Base Station Based on Artificial Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨天剑; 张静

    2015-01-01

    随着通信基站用电量的不断增加, 基站耗能的管控变得越来越重要, 基于对公共建筑建立能耗标杆的方法的研究, 进行方法引用从而建立通信基站能耗标杆. 引用人工神经网络方法来预测基站全年能耗, 预测精度达到最大相对误差为7.55%的水平, 同时, 根据人工神经网络的重要性分析得到影响基站能耗的最重要因素分别为主设备功率、 空调能效比和气温, 从而给出节能应从这三方面抓起的管理建议.%With the increasing demand of power in communication base stations, energy consumption manage-ment becomes more important.Based on the method used in establishing benchmark in public building field, en-ergy consumption benchmark of communication base station is built.Artificial neural network method is used to predict annual power consumption of base stations, and has better prediction accuracy with 7.55%of relative er-ror.The most important factors that affecting energy consumption are the power of main devices, power usage ef-fectiveness and temperature, based on which, suggestions on energy management are given.

  8. Full dimensional (15-dimensional) quantum-dynamical simulation of the protonated water-dimer III: Mixed Jacobi-valence parametrization and benchmark results for the zero point energy, vibrationally excited states, and infrared spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrell, Oriol; Brill, Michael; Gatti, Fabien; Lauvergnat, David; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

    2009-06-21

    Quantum dynamical calculations are reported for the zero point energy, several low-lying vibrational states, and the infrared spectrum of the H(5)O(2)(+) cation. The calculations are performed by the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method. A new vector parametrization based on a mixed Jacobi-valence description of the system is presented. With this parametrization the potential energy surface coupling is reduced with respect to a full Jacobi description, providing a better convergence of the n-mode representation of the potential. However, new coupling terms appear in the kinetic energy operator. These terms are derived and discussed. A mode-combination scheme based on six combined coordinates is used, and the representation of the 15-dimensional potential in terms of a six-combined mode cluster expansion including up to some 7-dimensional grids is discussed. A statistical analysis of the accuracy of the n-mode representation of the potential at all orders is performed. Benchmark, fully converged results are reported for the zero point energy, which lie within the statistical uncertainty of the reference diffusion Monte Carlo result for this system. Some low-lying vibrationally excited eigenstates are computed by block improved relaxation, illustrating the applicability of the approach to large systems. Benchmark calculations of the linear infrared spectrum are provided, and convergence with increasing size of the time-dependent basis and as a function of the order of the n-mode representation is studied. The calculations presented here make use of recent developments in the parallel version of the MCTDH code, which are briefly discussed. We also show that the infrared spectrum can be computed, to a very good approximation, within D(2d) symmetry, instead of the G(16) symmetry used before, in which the complete rotation of one water molecule with respect to the other is allowed, thus simplifying the dynamical problem.

  9. Benchmarking i den offentlige sektor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Dietrichson, Lars; Sandalgaard, Niels

    2008-01-01

    I artiklen vil vi kort diskutere behovet for benchmarking i fraværet af traditionelle markedsmekanismer. Herefter vil vi nærmere redegøre for, hvad benchmarking er med udgangspunkt i fire forskellige anvendelser af benchmarking. Regulering af forsyningsvirksomheder vil blive behandlet, hvorefter...

  10. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1994 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opresko, D.M.; Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01

    The process by which ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated is two-tiered. The first tier is a screening assessment where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to toxicological benchmarks which represent concentrations of chemicals in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.) that are presumed to be nonhazardous to the surrounding biota. The second tier is a baseline ecological risk assessment where toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. The report presents toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 76 chemicals on 8 representative mammalian wildlife species and 31 chemicals on 9 avian wildlife species. The chemicals are some of those that occur at United States Department of Energy waste sites; the wildlife species were chosen because they are widely distributed and provide a representative range of body sizes and diets. Further descriptions of the chosen wildlife species and chemicals are provided in the report. The benchmarks presented in this report represent values believed to be nonhazardous for the listed wildlife species. These benchmarks only consider contaminant exposure through oral ingestion of contaminated media; exposure through inhalation or direct dermal exposure are not considered in this report.

  11. Johnson Space Center's Solar and Wind-Based Renewable Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, A.; Ewert, M.; Rowlands, J.; Post, K.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas has a Sustainability Partnership team that seeks ways for earth-based sustainability practices to also benefit space exploration research. A renewable energy gathering system was installed in 2007 at the JSC Child Care Center (CCC) which also offers a potential test bed for space exploration power generation and remote monitoring and control concepts. The system comprises: 1) several different types of photovoltaic panels (29 kW), 2) two wind-turbines (3.6 kW total), and 3) one roof-mounted solar thermal water heater and tank. A tie to the JSC local electrical grid was provided to accommodate excess power. The total first year electrical energy production was 53 megawatt-hours. A web-based real-time metering system collects and reports system performance and weather data. Improvements in areas of the CCC that were detected during subsequent energy analyses and some concepts for future efforts are also presented.

  12. Benchmarking of LSTM Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Breuel, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    LSTM (Long Short-Term Memory) recurrent neural networks have been highly successful in a number of application areas. This technical report describes the use of the MNIST and UW3 databases for benchmarking LSTM networks and explores the effect of different architectural and hyperparameter choices on performance. Significant findings include: (1) LSTM performance depends smoothly on learning rates, (2) batching and momentum has no significant effect on performance, (3) softmax training outperf...

  13. Self-interacting Dark Matter Benchmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplinghat, M.; Tulin, S.; Yu, H-B

    2017-01-01

    Dark matter self-interactions have important implications for the distributions of dark matter in the Universe, from dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters. We present benchmark models that illustrate characteristic features of dark matter that is self-interacting through a new light mediator. These models have self-interactions large enough to change dark matter densities in the centers of galaxies in accord with observations, while remaining compatible with large-scale structur...

  14. The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research: A New Paradigm for Battery Research and Development

    CERN Document Server

    Crabtree, George

    2014-01-01

    The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) seeks transformational change in transportation and the electricity grid driven by next generation high performance, low cost electricity storage. To pursue this transformative vision JCESR introduces a new paradigm for battery research: integrating discovery science, battery design, research prototyping and manufacturing collaboration in a single highly interactive organization. This new paradigm will accelerate the pace of discovery and innovation and reduce the time from conceptualization to commercialization. JCESR applies its new paradigm exclusively to beyond-lithium-ion batteries, a vast, rich and largely unexplored frontier. This review presents JCESR's motivation, vision, mission, intended outcomes or legacies and first year accomplishments.

  15. State and local fiscal impacts associated with nuclear energy centers: some initial considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, D.J.

    1976-04-01

    The concept of the nuclear energy center is designed to consolidate a number of electrical power reactors and/or related fuel cycle activities on a single site. Such a siting strategy would concentrate a great deal of economic activity in one area and, as a consequence, generate significant impacts on state and local governments by increasing tax bases and public service demands and by altering intergovernmental fiscal relations. This study was designed to place rough empirical measures on relevant impact variables and to highlight areas for which a need for further research was indicated.

  16. Center for Coal-Derived Low Energy Materials for Sustainable Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewell, Robert; Robl, Tom; Rathbone, Robert

    2012-06-30

    The overarching goal of this project was to create a sustained center to support the continued development of new products and industries that manufacture construction materials from coal combustion by-products or CCB’s (e.g., cements, grouts, wallboard, masonry block, fillers, roofing materials, etc). Specific objectives includes the development of a research kiln and associated system and the formulation and production of high performance low-energy, low-CO2 emitting calcium sulfoaluminate (CAS) cement that utilize coal combustion byproducts as raw materials.

  17. Heat pump centered integrated community energy systems: system development. Georgia Institute of Technology final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, D.W.; Trammell, B.C.; Dixit, B.S.; McCurry, D.C.; Rindt, B.A.

    1979-12-01

    Heat Pump Centered-Integrated Community Energy Systems (HP-ICES) show the promise of utilizing low-grade thermal energy for low-quality energy requirements such as space heating and cooling. The Heat Pump - Wastewater Heat Recovery (HP-WHR) scheme is one approach to an HP-ICES that proposes to reclaim low-grade thermal energy from a community's wastewater effluent. This report develops the concept of an HP-WHR system, evaluates the potential performance and economics of such a system, and examines the potential for application. A thermodynamic performance analysis of a hypothetical system projects an overall system Coefficient of Performance (C.O.P.) of from 2.181 to 2.264 for waste-water temperatures varying from 50/sup 0/F to 80/sup 0/F. Primary energy source savings from the nationwide implementation of this system is projected to be 6.0 QUADS-fuel oil, or 8.5 QUADS - natural gas, or 29.7 QUADS - coal for the period 1980 to 2000, depending upon the type and mix of conventional space conditioning systems which could be displaced with the HP-WHR system. Site-specific HP-WHR system designs are presented for two application communities in Georgia. Performance analyses for these systems project annual cycle system C.O.P.'s of 2.049 and 2.519. Economic analysis on the basis of a life cycle cost comparison shows one site-specific system design to be cost competitive in the immediate market with conventional residential and light commercial HVAC systems. The second site-specific system design is shown through a similar economic analysis to be more costly than conventional systems due mainly to the current low energy costs for natural gas. It is anticipated that, as energy costs escalate, this HP-WHR system will also approach the threshold of economic viability.

  18. Aggregation of U.S. Population Centers Using Climate Parameters Related to Building Energy Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Brandt; Carroll, William L.; Martin, Marlo R.

    1986-05-01

    A technique for aggregating population centers into groups based on selected climate parameters is presented. Climate information on the 125 largest Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs) in the United States is used to assign each SMSA to a particular group. The technique select one SMSA in each region as a `climate center,' whose climate is used to represent the entire region.The 125 SMSAs contain over 140 million population and include every metropolitan area of 250 thousand or more. The climate variables used to group SMSAs of similar climate are heating and cooling degree days, T-a measure of solar radiation, and latent enthalpy hours, a measure of moisture that must be removed from outside air in order to bring it to a standard comfort condition. Climate information is derived from SOLMET and TMY weather data. Characterization of U.S. climates in terms of these variables and relationships between pairs of variables is discussed.An interactive agglomeration computer program, GLOM aggregates the SMSAs into climate regions. The user provides aggregation rules based on specified ranges of the climate variables and a selection of initial climate centers. Considerable latitude is given to the user to manipulate and/or modify the computer-based groupings. The result is a series of SMSA groupings suitable for a wide variety of analyses in which climates with large populations can be evaluated using a minimum of representative centers for direct analysis. Statistical analysis is performed on each group to determine the population-weighted averages and ranges of climate parameters for SMSAs in the group and the relationship of each SMSA to group average climate characteristics and to the climate center of the group.This information is useful in choosing climate centers for research that will have the greatest relevance for the greatest number of people. The technique has been used to determine climate regions and centers for the DOE Passive Cooling Technology

  19. The Very High Energy source catalog at the ASI Science Data Center

    CERN Document Server

    Carosi, Alessandro; Antonelli, Lucio Angelo; Giommi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The increasing number of Very High Energy (VHE) sources discovered by the current generation of Cherenkov telescopes made particularly relevant the creation of a dedicated source catalogs as well as the cross-correlation of VHE and lower energy bands data in a multi-wavelength framework. The "TeGeV Catalog" hosted at the ASI Science Data Center (ASDC) is a catalog of VHE sources detected by ground-based Cherenkov detectors. The TeGeVcat collects all the relevant information publicly available about the observed GeV/TeV sources. The catalog contains also information about public light curves while the available spectral data are included in the ASDC SED Builder tool directly accessible from the TeGeV catalog web page. In this contribution we will report a comprehensive description of the catalog and the related tools.

  20. The very high energy source catalog at the ASI Science Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosi, Alessandro; Lucarelli, Fabrizio; Antonelli, Lucio A.; Giommi, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    The increasing number of Very High Energy (VHE) sources discovered by the current generation of Cherenkov telescopes made particularly relevant the creation of a dedicated source catalogs as well as the cross-correlation of VHE and lower energy bands data in a multi-wavelength framework. The "TeGeV Catalog" hosted at the ASI Science Data Center (ASDC) is a catalog of VHE sources detected by ground-based Cherenkov detectors. The TeGeVcat collects all the relevant information publicly available about the observed GeV/TeV sources. The catalog contains also information about public light curves while the available spectral data are included in the ASDC SED Builder tool directly accessible from the TeGeV catalogue web page. In this contribution we will report a comprehensive description of the catalog and the related tools.

  1. Benchmarking Asteroid-Deflection Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Tane; Bruck Syal, Megan; Owen, John Michael; Miller, Paul L.

    2016-10-01

    An asteroid impacting Earth could have devastating consequences. In preparation to deflect or disrupt one before it reaches Earth, it is imperative to have modeling capabilities that adequately simulate the deflection actions. Code validation is key to ensuring full confidence in simulation results used in an asteroid-mitigation plan. We are benchmarking well-known impact experiments using Spheral, an adaptive smoothed-particle hydrodynamics code, to validate our modeling of asteroid deflection. We describe our simulation results, compare them with experimental data, and discuss what we have learned from our work. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-695540

  2. Study on thermal environment and energy consumption in underground shopping centers. Chikagai no netsu kankyo to energy shohi ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, H. (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School); Ojima, T. (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-12-30

    In this study, the actual condition of the energy consumption has been surveyed to compare the environmental loads in underground shopping centers with those in buildings on the ground, aiming at clarifying the actual thermal environment in underground shopping centers located in the Kanto area and the features of the thermal environment therein. The energy consumption was calculated by primary energy conversion on the basis of the average data obtained for the past three years. The survey of energy consumption in 32 underground shopping centers in Japan shows that all such places, commonly from Hokkaido to Kyushu, were the spaces consuming a large amount of energy. In the underground shopping centers, total energy was consumed four times as large as that in ordinary offices, energy for cooling energy consumption larger by 4 times, by 6 times for air cooling and six times, and energy for heating more than four times. They required energy twice to three times as large as that in department stores. The reason for it is considered that in underground, not only the 24-hour ventilation and air condition are required because of the public environment but external and internal heat loads are dealt with. 4 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Building America Research Benchmark Definition: Updated December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Engebrecht, C.

    2010-01-01

    The Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without chasing a 'moving target.'

  4. NASA Software Engineering Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarick, Heather L.; Godfrey, Sara H.; Kelly, John C.; Crumbley, Robert T.; Wifl, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    To identify best practices for the improvement of software engineering on projects, NASA's Offices of Chief Engineer (OCE) and Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) formed a team led by Heather Rarick and Sally Godfrey to conduct this benchmarking study. The primary goals of the study are to identify best practices that: Improve the management and technical development of software intensive systems; Have a track record of successful deployment by aerospace industries, universities [including research and development (R&D) laboratories], and defense services, as well as NASA's own component Centers; and Identify candidate solutions for NASA's software issues. Beginning in the late fall of 2010, focus topics were chosen and interview questions were developed, based on the NASA top software challenges. Between February 2011 and November 2011, the Benchmark Team interviewed a total of 18 organizations, consisting of five NASA Centers, five industry organizations, four defense services organizations, and four university or university R and D laboratory organizations. A software assurance representative also participated in each of the interviews to focus on assurance and software safety best practices. Interviewees provided a wealth of information on each topic area that included: software policy, software acquisition, software assurance, testing, training, maintaining rigor in small projects, metrics, and use of the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) framework, as well as a number of special topics that came up in the discussions. NASA's software engineering practices compared favorably with the external organizations in most benchmark areas, but in every topic, there were ways in which NASA could improve its practices. Compared to defense services organizations and some of the industry organizations, one of NASA's notable weaknesses involved communication with contractors regarding its policies and requirements for acquired software. One of NASA's strengths

  5. Vibronic interaction in crystals with the Jahn-Teller centers in the elementary energy bands concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Bercha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The order-disorder type phase transition caused by the vibronic interaction (collective Jahn-Teller effect in a monoclinic CuInP2S6 crystal is analyzed. For this purpose, a trigonal protostructure model of CuInP2S6 is created, through a slight change in the crystal lattice parameters of the CuInP2S6 paraelectric phase. In parallel to the group-theoretical analysis, the DFT-based ab initio band structure calculations of the CuInP2S6 protostructure, para-, and ferriphases are performed. Using the elementary energy bands concept, a part of the band structure from the vicinity of the forbidden energy gap, which is created by the d-electron states of copper has been related with a certain Wyckoff position where the Jahn-Teller's centers are localized. A construction procedure of the vibronic potential energy matrix is generalized for the case of crystal using the elementary energy bands concept and the group theoretical method of invariants. The procedure is illustrated by the creation of the adiabatic potentials of the Γ5-Γ5 vibronic coupling for the protostructure and paraphase of the CuInP2S6 crystal. A structure of the obtained adiabatic potentials is analyzed, followed by conclusions on their transformation under a phase transition and the discussion on the possibility for the spontaneous polarization to arise in this crystal.

  6. Upper bound on the center-of-mass energy of the collisional Penrose process

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, Shahar

    2016-01-01

    Following the interesting work of Ba\\~nados, Silk, and West [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 103}, 111102 (2009)], it is repeatedly stated in the physics literature that the center-of-mass energy, ${\\cal E}_{\\text{c.m}}$, of two colliding particles in a maximally rotating black-hole spacetime can grow unboundedly. For this extreme scenario to happen, the particles have to collide at the black-hole horizon. In this paper we show that Thorne's famous hoop conjecture precludes this extreme scenario from occurring in realistic black-hole spacetimes. In particular, it is shown that a new (and larger) horizon is formed {\\it before} the infalling particles reach the horizon of the original black hole. As a consequence, the center-of-mass energy of the collisional Penrose process is {\\it bounded} from above by the simple scaling relation ${\\cal E}^{\\text{max}}_{\\text{c.m}}/2\\mu\\propto(M/\\mu)^{1/4}$, where $M$ and $\\mu$ are respectively the mass of the central black hole and the proper mass of the colliding particles.

  7. Using ant colony optimization on the quadratic assignment problem to achieve low energy cost in geo-distributed data centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Richard

    There are many problems associated with operating a data center. Some of these problems include data security, system performance, increasing infrastructure complexity, increasing storage utilization, keeping up with data growth, and increasing energy costs. Energy cost differs by location, and at most locations fluctuates over time. The rising cost of energy makes it harder for data centers to function properly and provide a good quality of service. With reduced energy cost, data centers will have longer lasting servers/equipment, higher availability of resources, better quality of service, a greener environment, and reduced service and software costs for consumers. Some of the ways that data centers have tried to using to reduce energy costs include dynamically switching on and off servers based on the number of users and some predefined conditions, the use of environmental monitoring sensors, and the use of dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS), which enables processors to run at different combinations of frequencies with voltages to reduce energy cost. This thesis presents another method by which energy cost at data centers could be reduced. This method involves the use of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) on a Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) in assigning user request to servers in geo-distributed data centers. In this paper, an effort to reduce data center energy cost involves the use of front portals, which handle users' requests, were used as ants to find cost effective ways to assign users requests to a server in heterogeneous geo-distributed data centers. The simulation results indicate that the ACO for Optimal Server Activation and Task Placement algorithm reduces energy cost on a small and large number of users' requests in a geo-distributed data center and its performance increases as the input data grows. In a simulation with 3 geo-distributed data centers, and user's resource request ranging from 25,000 to 25,000,000, the ACO algorithm was able

  8. A Benchmarking System for Domestic Water Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter V. L. Hunt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The national demand for water in the UK is predicted to increase, exacerbated by a growing UK population, and home-grown demands for energy and food. When set against the context of overstretched existing supply sources vulnerable to droughts, particularly in increasingly dense city centres, the delicate balance of matching minimal demands with resource secure supplies becomes critical. When making changes to "internal" demands the role of technological efficiency and user behaviour cannot be ignored, yet existing benchmarking systems traditionally do not consider the latter. This paper investigates the practicalities of adopting a domestic benchmarking system (using a band rating that allows individual users to assess their current water use performance against what is possible. The benchmarking system allows users to achieve higher benchmarks through any approach that reduces water consumption. The sensitivity of water use benchmarks are investigated by making changes to user behaviour and technology. The impact of adopting localised supplies (i.e., Rainwater harvesting—RWH and Grey water—GW and including "external" gardening demands are investigated. This includes the impacts (in isolation and combination of the following: occupancy rates (1 to 4; roof size (12.5 m2 to 100 m2; garden size (25 m2 to 100 m2 and geographical location (North West, Midlands and South East, UK with yearly temporal effects (i.e., rainfall and temperature. Lessons learnt from analysis of the proposed benchmarking system are made throughout this paper, in particular its compatibility with the existing Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH accreditation system. Conclusions are subsequently drawn for the robustness of the proposed system.

  9. David Grant Medical Center energy use baseline and integrated resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, E.E.; Hoshide, R.K.; Dittmer, A.L.

    1993-04-01

    The US Air Mobility Command (AMC) has tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) with supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy resource opportunities (EROs) at the David Grant Medical Center (DGMC). This report describes the methodology used to identify and evaluate the EROs at DGMC, provides a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis for each ERO, and prioritizes any life-cycle cost-effective EROs based on their net present value (NPV), value index (VI), and savings to investment ratio (SIR or ROI). Analysis results are presented for 17 EROs that involve energy use in the areas of lighting, fan and pump motors, boiler operation, infiltration, electric load peak reduction and cogeneration, electric rate structures, and natural gas supply. Typical current energy consumption is approximately 22,900 MWh of electricity (78,300 MBtu), 87,600 kcf of natural gas (90,300 MBtu), and 8,300 gal of fuel oil (1,200 MBtu). A summary of the savings potential by energy-use category of all independent cost-effective EROs is shown in a table. This table includes the first cost, yearly energy consumption savings, and NPV for each energy-use category. The net dollar savings and NPV values as derived by the life-cycle cost analysis are based on the 1992 federal discount rate of 4.6%. The implementation of all EROs could result in a yearly electricity savings of more than 6,000 MWh or 26% of current yearly electricity consumption. More than 15 MW of billable load (total billed by the utility for a 12-month period) or more than 34% of current billed demand could also be saved. Corresponding natural gas savings would be 1,050 kcf (just over 1% of current consumption). Total yearly net energy cost savings for all options would be greater than $343,340. This value does not include any operations and maintenance (O M) savings.

  10. David Grant Medical Center energy use baseline and integrated resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, E.E.; Hoshide, R.K.; Dittmer, A.L.

    1993-04-01

    The US Air Mobility Command (AMC) has tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) with supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program`s (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy resource opportunities (EROs) at the David Grant Medical Center (DGMC). This report describes the methodology used to identify and evaluate the EROs at DGMC, provides a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis for each ERO, and prioritizes any life-cycle cost-effective EROs based on their net present value (NPV), value index (VI), and savings to investment ratio (SIR or ROI). Analysis results are presented for 17 EROs that involve energy use in the areas of lighting, fan and pump motors, boiler operation, infiltration, electric load peak reduction and cogeneration, electric rate structures, and natural gas supply. Typical current energy consumption is approximately 22,900 MWh of electricity (78,300 MBtu), 87,600 kcf of natural gas (90,300 MBtu), and 8,300 gal of fuel oil (1,200 MBtu). A summary of the savings potential by energy-use category of all independent cost-effective EROs is shown in a table. This table includes the first cost, yearly energy consumption savings, and NPV for each energy-use category. The net dollar savings and NPV values as derived by the life-cycle cost analysis are based on the 1992 federal discount rate of 4.6%. The implementation of all EROs could result in a yearly electricity savings of more than 6,000 MWh or 26% of current yearly electricity consumption. More than 15 MW of billable load (total billed by the utility for a 12-month period) or more than 34% of current billed demand could also be saved. Corresponding natural gas savings would be 1,050 kcf (just over 1% of current consumption). Total yearly net energy cost savings for all options would be greater than $343,340. This value does not include any operations and maintenance (O&M) savings.

  11. Benchmarking: applications to transfusion medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelseth, Torunn Oveland; Molnar, Laura; Arnold, Emmy; Heddle, Nancy M

    2012-10-01

    Benchmarking is as a structured continuous collaborative process in which comparisons for selected indicators are used to identify factors that, when implemented, will improve transfusion practices. This study aimed to identify transfusion medicine studies reporting on benchmarking, summarize the benchmarking approaches used, and identify important considerations to move the concept of benchmarking forward in the field of transfusion medicine. A systematic review of published literature was performed to identify transfusion medicine-related studies that compared at least 2 separate institutions or regions with the intention of benchmarking focusing on 4 areas: blood utilization, safety, operational aspects, and blood donation. Forty-five studies were included: blood utilization (n = 35), safety (n = 5), operational aspects of transfusion medicine (n = 5), and blood donation (n = 0). Based on predefined criteria, 7 publications were classified as benchmarking, 2 as trending, and 36 as single-event studies. Three models of benchmarking are described: (1) a regional benchmarking program that collects and links relevant data from existing electronic sources, (2) a sentinel site model where data from a limited number of sites are collected, and (3) an institutional-initiated model where a site identifies indicators of interest and approaches other institutions. Benchmarking approaches are needed in the field of transfusion medicine. Major challenges include defining best practices and developing cost-effective methods of data collection. For those interested in initiating a benchmarking program, the sentinel site model may be most effective and sustainable as a starting point, although the regional model would be the ideal goal.

  12. Measurement, Standards, and Peer Benchmarking: One Hospital's Journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brian S; Arbore, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Peer-to-peer benchmarking is an important component of rapid-cycle performance improvement in patient safety and quality-improvement efforts. Institutions should carefully examine critical success factors before engagement in peer-to-peer benchmarking in order to maximize growth and change opportunities. Solutions for Patient Safety has proven to be a high-yield engagement for Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, with measureable improvement in both organizational process and culture.

  13. 2001 benchmarking guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppszallern, S

    2001-01-01

    Our fifth annual guide to benchmarking under managed care presents data that is a study in market dynamics and adaptation. New this year are financial indicators on HMOs exiting the market and those remaining. Hospital financial ratios and details on department performance are included. The physician group practice numbers show why physicians are scrutinizing capitated payments. Overall, hospitals in markets with high managed care penetration are more successful in managing labor costs and show productivity gains in imaging services, physical therapy and materials management.

  14. Benchmarking Query Execution Robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Janet L.; Kuno, Harumi; Graefe, Goetz

    Benchmarks that focus on running queries on a well-tuned database system ignore a long-standing problem: adverse runtime conditions can cause database system performance to vary widely and unexpectedly. When the query execution engine does not exhibit resilience to these adverse conditions, addressing the resultant performance problems can contribute significantly to the total cost of ownership for a database system in over-provisioning, lost efficiency, and increased human administrative costs. For example, focused human effort may be needed to manually invoke workload management actions or fine-tune the optimization of specific queries.

  15. Energy-Efficient Management of Data Center Resources for Cloud Computing: A Vision, Architectural Elements, and Open Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Buyya, Rajkumar; Abawajy, Jemal

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing is offering utility-oriented IT services to users worldwide. Based on a pay-as-you-go model, it enables hosting of pervasive applications from consumer, scientific, and business domains. However, data centers hosting Cloud applications consume huge amounts of energy, contributing to high operational costs and carbon footprints to the environment. Therefore, we need Green Cloud computing solutions that can not only save energy for the environment but also reduce operational costs. This paper presents vision, challenges, and architectural elements for energy-efficient management of Cloud computing environments. We focus on the development of dynamic resource provisioning and allocation algorithms that consider the synergy between various data center infrastructures (i.e., the hardware, power units, cooling and software), and holistically work to boost data center energy efficiency and performance. In particular, this paper proposes (a) architectural principles for energy-efficient management of ...

  16. Baseline and benchmark model development for hotels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Edward T., Jr.

    The hotel industry currently faces rising energy costs and requires the tools to maximize energy efficiency. In order to achieve this goal a clear definition of the current methods used to measure and monitor energy consumption is made. Uncovering the limitations to the most common practiced analysis strategies and presenting methods that can potentially overcome those limitations is the main purpose. Techniques presented can be used for measurement and verification of energy efficiency plans and retrofits. Also, modern energy modeling tool are introduced to demonstrate how they can be utilized for benchmarking and baseline models. This will provide the ability to obtain energy saving recommendations and parametric analysis to explore energy savings potential. These same energy models can be used in design decisions for new construction. An energy model is created of a resort style hotel that over one million square feet and has over one thousand rooms. A simulation and detailed analysis is performed on a hotel room. The planning process for creating the model and acquiring data from the hotel room to calibrate and verify the simulation will be explained. An explanation as to how this type of modeling can potentially be beneficial for future baseline and benchmarking strategies for the hotel industry. Ultimately the conclusion will address some common obstacles the hotel industry has in reaching their full potential of energy efficiency and how these techniques can best serve them.

  17. US-China Clean Energy Research Center on Building Energy Efficiency: Materials that Improve the Cost-Effectiveness of Air Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The US–China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC) was launched in 2009 by US Energy Secretary Steven Chu, Chinese Minister of Science and Technology Wan Gang, and Chinese National Energy Agency Administrator Zhang Guobao. This 5-year collaboration emerged from the fact that the United States and China are the world’s largest energy producers, energy consumers, and greenhouse gas emitters, and that their joint effort could have significant positive repercussions worldwide. CERC’s main goal is to develop and deploy clean energy technologies that will help both countries meet energy and climate challenges. Three consortia were established to address the most pressing energy-related research areas: Advanced Coal Technology, Clean Vehicles, and Building Energy Efficiency (BEE). The project discussed in this report was part of the CERC-BEE consortia; its objective was to lower energy use in buildings by developing and evaluating technologies that improve the cost-effectiveness of air barrier systems for building envelopes.

  18. Radionuclide Emission Estimation for the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley J Schrader

    2010-02-01

    An Radiological Safety Analysis Computer Program (RSAC)-7 model dose assessment was performed to evaluate maximum Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) boundary effective dose equivalent (EDE, in mrem/yr) for potential individual releases of radionuclides from the facility. The CAES is a public/private partnership between the State of Idaho and its academic research institutions, the federal government through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) managed by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). CAES serves to advance energy security for our nation by expanding educational opportunities at Idaho universities in energy-related areas, creating new capabilities within its member institutions, and delivering technological innovations leading to technology-based economic development for the intermountain region. CAES has developed a strategic plan (INL/EXT-07-12950) based on the balanced scorecard approach. At the present time it is unknown exactly what processes will be used in the facility in support of this strategic plan. What is known is that the Idaho State University (ISU) Radioactive Materials License (Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC] license 11-27380-01) is the basis for handling radioactive material in the facility. The material in this license is shared between the ISU campus and the CAES facility. There currently are no agreements in place to limit the amount of radioactive material at the CAES facility or what is done to the material in the facility. The scope of this analysis is a summary look at the basis dose for each radionuclide included under the license at a distance of 100, 500, and 1,000 m. Inhalation, ingestion and ground surface dose was evaluated using the NRC design basis guidelines. The results can be used to determine a sum of the fractions approach to facility safety. This sum of the fractions allows a facility threshold value (TV) to be established and potential activities to be evaluated against

  19. Establishment of a National Wind Energy Center at University of Houston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Su Su [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The DOE-supported project objectives are to: establish a national wind energy center (NWEC) at University of Houston and conduct research to address critical science and engineering issues for the development of future large MW-scale wind energy production systems, especially offshore wind turbines. The goals of the project are to: (1) establish a sound scientific/technical knowledge base of solutions to critical science and engineering issues for developing future MW-scale large wind energy production systems, (2) develop a state-of-the-art wind rotor blade research facility at the University of Houston, and (3) through multi-disciplinary research, introducing technology innovations on advanced wind-turbine materials, processing/manufacturing technology, design and simulation, testing and reliability assessment methods related to future wind turbine systems for cost-effective production of offshore wind energy. To achieve the goals of the project, the following technical tasks were planned and executed during the period from April 15, 2010 to October 31, 2014 at the University of Houston: (1) Basic research on large offshore wind turbine systems (2) Applied research on innovative wind turbine rotors for large offshore wind energy systems (3) Integration of offshore wind-turbine design, advanced materials and manufacturing technologies (4) Integrity and reliability of large offshore wind turbine blades and scaled model testing (5) Education and training of graduate and undergraduate students and post- doctoral researchers (6) Development of a national offshore wind turbine blade research facility The research program addresses both basic science and engineering of current and future large wind turbine systems, especially offshore wind turbines, for MW-scale power generation. The results of the research advance current understanding of many important scientific issues and provide technical information for solving future large wind turbines with advanced design

  20. Energy peak: back to the Galactic Center GeV gamma-ray excess

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Doojin

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel mechanism enabling us to have a continuum bump as a signature of gamma-ray excess in indirect detection experiments of dark matter (DM), postulating a generic dark sector having (at least) two DM candidates. With the assumption of non-zero mass gap between the two DM candidates, the heavier one directly communicates to the partner of the lighter one. Such a partner then decays into a lighter DM particle along with a dark "pion" or "axion-like" particle (ALP), which further decays into a pair of photons, via a more-than-one step cascade decay process. Since the cascade is initiated by the dark partner obtaining a non-trivial fixed boost factor, a continuum gamma-ray energy spectrum naturally arises. We apply the main idea to the energy spectrum of the GeV gamma-rays from around the Galactic Center (GC), and find that the relevant observational data is well-reproduced by the theory expectation predicted by the proposed mechanism. Remarkably, the relevant energy spectrum has a robust peak at h...

  1. Entropy-based benchmarking methods

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We argue that benchmarking sign-volatile series should be based on the principle of movement and sign preservation, which states that a bench-marked series should reproduce the movement and signs in the original series. We show that the widely used variants of Denton (1971) method and the growth preservation method of Causey and Trager (1981) may violate this principle, while its requirements are explicitly taken into account in the pro-posed entropy-based benchmarking methods. Our illustrati...

  2. Low energy isomers of (H2O)25 from a hierarchical method based on Monte Carlo temperature basin paving and molecular tailoring approaches benchmarked by MP2 calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Nityananda; Gadre, Shridhar R; Rakshit, Avijit; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta; Miliordos, Evangelos; Xantheas, Sotiris S

    2014-10-28

    We report new global minimum candidate structures for the (H2O)25 cluster that are lower in energy than the ones reported previously and correspond to hydrogen bonded networks with 42 hydrogen bonds and an interior, fully coordinated water molecule. These were obtained as a result of a hierarchical approach based on initial Monte Carlo Temperature Basin Paving sampling of the cluster's Potential Energy Surface with the Effective Fragment Potential, subsequent geometry optimization using the Molecular Tailoring Approach with the fragments treated at the second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation (MTA-MP2) and final refinement of the entire cluster at the MP2 level of theory. The MTA-MP2 optimized cluster geometries, constructed from the fragments, were found to be within <0.5 kcal/mol from the minimum geometries obtained from the MP2 optimization of the entire (H2O)25 cluster. In addition, the grafting of the MTA-MP2 energies yields electronic energies that are within <0.3 kcal/mol from the MP2 energies of the entire cluster while preserving their energy rank order. Finally, the MTA-MP2 approach was found to reproduce the MP2 harmonic vibrational frequencies, constructed from the fragments, quite accurately when compared to the MP2 ones of the entire cluster in both the HOH bending and the OH stretching regions of the spectra.

  3. 76 FR 77578 - In the Matter of: Brendan Technologies, Inc., CenterStaging Corp., PGMI, Inc., Thermal Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Brendan Technologies, Inc., CenterStaging Corp., PGMI, Inc., Thermal Energy... concerning the securities of Brendan Technologies, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since... information concerning the securities of Thermal Energy Storage, Inc. because it has not filed any...

  4. How to operate an Energy Advisory Service. Volume II. New York Institute of Technology Energy Information Center and Referral Service resource material. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spak, G.T.

    1978-06-01

    The NYIT Energy Information Center is a comprehensive information service covering every aspect of energy conservation and related technology, including conservation programs and practices, alternative energy systems, energy legislation, and public policy development in the United States and abroad. Materials in the Center can be located through a Card Catalog System and a Vertical File System. The Card Catalog System has entries which organize books and other printed materials according to authors/titles and according to the subject headings developed by the Library of Congress. The Vertical System contains pamphlets, newsclips, reprints, studies, announcements, product specifications and other ephemeral literature, and is organized according to subject headings based on the emerging vocabulary of the energy literature. The key to vertical file resources is the Thesaurus of Descriptors which is given. The Thesaurus includes all subject headings found in the Vertical File as well as other cross referenced terms likely to come to mind when seeking information on a specific energy area.

  5. HPC Benchmark Suite NMx Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation Inc., (IAI) and University of Central Florida (UCF) propose to develop a comprehensive numerical test suite for benchmarking current and...

  6. The Nuclear Energy Knowledge and Validation Center – Summary of Activities Conducted in FY15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hong, Bonnie Colleen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Nuclear Energy Knowledge and Validation Center (NEKVaC) is a new initiative by the Department of Energy and the Idaho National Laboratory to coordinate and focus the resources and expertise that exist with the DOE Complex toward solving issues in modern nuclear code validation. In time, code owners, users, and developers will view the Center as a partner and essential resource for acquiring the best practices and latest techniques for validating codes, for guidance in planning and executing experiments, for facilitating access to, and maximizing the usefulness of, existing data, and for preserving knowledge for continual use by nuclear professionals and organizations for their own validation needs. The scope of the center covers many inter-related activities which will need to be cultivated carefully in the near-term and managed properly once the Center is fully functional. Three areas comprise the principal mission: 1) identification and prioritization of projects that extend the field of validation science and its application to modern codes, 2) adapt or develop best practices and guidelines for high fidelity multiphysics/multiscale analysis code development and associated experiment design, and 3) define protocols for data acquisition and knowledge preservation and provide a portal for access to databases currently scattered among numerous organizations. These mission areas, while each having a unique focus, are inter-dependent and complementary. Likewise, all activities supported by the NEKVaC, both near-term and long-term), must possess elements supporting all three. This cross-cutting nature is essential to ensuring that activities and supporting personnel do not become ‘stove-piped’, i.e. focused so much on a specific function that the activity itself becomes the objective rather than the achieving the larger vision. Achieving the broader vision will require a healthy and accountable level of activity in each of the areas. This will take time and

  7. DOE Energy Frontiers Research Center for Heterogeneous Functional Materials; the “HeteroFoaM Center”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifsnider, Kenneth Leonard [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2016-11-03

    Synopsis of five year accomplishments: Devices that convert and store energy are generally made from heterogeneous constituent materials that act and interact to selectively conduct, transport, and separate mass, heat, and charge. Controlling these actions and interactions enables the technical breakthroughs that have made fuel cells, batteries, and solid state membranes, for example, essential parts of our society. In the biological sense, these materials are ‘vascular’ rather than primitive ‘cellular’ materials, in which the arrangements and configurations of the constituents (including their void phases) play essential and definitive roles in their functional capabilities. In 2009 a group of investigators, with lifetime investments of effort in the understanding of heterogeneous materials, recognized that the design of such material systems is not an optimization problem as such. Local interactions of the constituents create “emergent” properties and responses that are not part of the formal set of constituent characteristics, in much the same sense that society and culture is created by the group interactions of the people involved. The design of emergent properties is an open question in all formal science, but for energy materials the lack of this foundation science relegates development tasks to Edisonian trial and error, with anecdotal success and frequent costly failures. That group defined, for the first time, multi-scale heterogeneous functional materials with functional disordered and void phase regions as “HeteroFoaM,” and formed the first multidisciplinary research team to define and codify the foundation science of that material class. The primary goal of the HeteroFoaM Center was, and is, to create and establish the multi-scale fundamental knowledge and related methodology required for the rational and systematic multiphysics design of heterogeneous functional materials and their interfaces and surfaces for applications in energy

  8. Selection of heat disposal methods for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.R.; Kannberg, L.D.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Rickard, W.H.; Watson, D.G.

    1976-06-01

    Selection of the best method for disposal of the waste heat from a large power generation center requires a comprehensive comparison of the costs and environmental effects. The objective is to identify the heat dissipation method with the minimum total economic and environmental cost. A 20 reactor HNEC will dissipate about 50,000 MWt of waste heat; a 40 reactor HNEC would release about 100,000 MWt. This is a much larger discharge of heat than has occurred from other concentrated industrial facilities and consequently a special analysis is required to determine the permissibility of such a large heat disposal and the best methods of disposal. It is possible that some methods of disposal will not be permissible because of excessive environmental effects or that the optimum disposal method may include a combination of several methods. A preliminary analysis is presented of the Hanford Nuclear Energy Center heat disposal problem to determine the best methods for disposal and any obvious limitations on the amount of heat that can be released. The analysis is based, in part, on information from an interim conceptual study, a heat sink management analysis, and a meteorological analysis.

  9. High-energy gamma-ray emission from the Galactic Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer-Hasselwander, H.A.; Bertsch, D.L.; Dingus, B.L.

    1998-01-01

    interactions within 85 pc from the center of the Galaxy at 8.5 kpc distance. The spatial distribution of the emission does not correlate with the details of the CO-line surveys. Thus, in spite of the existence of a strong emission peak, earlier conclusions based on an apparent 'gamma-ray deficit', postulating......The EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory has observed the Galactic Center (GC) region with good coverage at a number of epochs. A strong excess of emission is observed, peaking at energies > 500 MeV in an error circle of 0.2 degree radius including the position l = 0 degrees and b...... = 0 degrees. The close coincidence of this excess with the GC direction and the fact that it is the strongest emission maximum within 15 degrees from the GC is taken as compelling evidence for the source's location in the GC region. The history of the emission intensity, observed over 5 years, leaves...

  10. Combining active-space coupled-cluster methods with moment energy corrections via the CC(P;Q) methodology, with benchmark calculations for biradical transition states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jun; Piecuch, Piotr

    2012-04-01

    We have recently suggested the CC(P;Q) methodology that can correct energies obtained in the active-space coupled-cluster (CC) or equation-of-motion (EOM) CC calculations, which recover much of the nondynamical and some dynamical electron correlation effects, for the higher-order, mostly dynamical, correlations missing in the active-space CC/EOMCC considerations. It is shown that one can greatly improve the description of biradical transition states, both in terms of the resulting energy barriers and total energies, by combining the CC approach with singles, doubles, and active-space triples, termed CCSDt, with the CC(P;Q)-style correction due to missing triple excitations defining the CC(t;3) approximation.

  11. Adaptive TrimTree: Green Data Center Networks through Resource Consolidation, Selective Connectedness and Energy Proportional Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Zafar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A data center is a facility with a group of networked servers used by an organization for storage, management and dissemination of its data. The increase in data center energy consumption over the past several years is staggering, therefore efforts are being initiated to achieve energy efficiency of various components of data centers. One of the main reasons data centers have high energy inefficiency is largely due to the fact that most organizations run their data centers at full capacity 24/7. This results into a number of servers and switches being underutilized or even unutilized, yet working and consuming electricity around the clock. In this paper, we present Adaptive TrimTree; a mechanism that employs a combination of resource consolidation, selective connectedness and energy proportional computing for optimizing energy consumption in a Data Center Network (DCN. Adaptive TrimTree adopts a simple traffic-and-topology-based heuristic to find a minimum power network subset called ‘active network subset’ that satisfies the existing network traffic conditions while switching off the residual unused network components. A ‘passive network subset’ is also identified for redundancy which consists of links and switches that can be required in future and this subset is toggled to sleep state. An energy proportional computing technique is applied to the active network subset for adapting link data rates to workload thus maximizing energy optimization. We have compared our proposed mechanism with fat-tree topology and ElasticTree; a scheme based on resource consolidation. Our simulation results show that our mechanism saves 50%–70% more energy as compared to fat-tree and 19.6% as compared to ElasticTree, with minimal impact on packet loss percentage and delay. Additionally, our mechanism copes better with traffic anomalies and surges due to passive network provision.

  12. Increasing awareness among fluid milk processors of the economic feasibility of energy efficiency projects, and encouraging their adoption through access to benchmarking and other decision-support tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a study done by Thoma et al. (2010) the energy used in fluid milk processing in the United States of America is responsible for approximately 2 million metric tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions within the total life cycle of milk. These emissions come from electricity use (about 75 perc...

  13. FERMI-LAT OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-ENERGY γ-RAY EMISSION TOWARD THE GALACTIC CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajello, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Albert, A.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Atwood, W. B.; Caputo, R. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bechtol, K. [Dept. of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bissaldi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bonino, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier, CNRS/IN2P3, Montpellier (France); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Buehler, R., E-mail: tporter@stanford.edu, E-mail: smurgia@uci.edu [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); and others

    2016-03-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has provided the most detailed view to date of the emission toward the Galactic center (GC) in high-energy γ-rays. This paper describes the analysis of data taken during the first 62 months of the mission in the energy range 1–100 GeV from a 15° × 15° region about the direction of the GC. Specialized interstellar emission models (IEMs) are constructed to enable the separation of the γ-ray emissions produced by cosmic ray particles interacting with the interstellar gas and radiation fields in the Milky Way into that from the inner ∼1 kpc surrounding the GC, and that from the rest of the Galaxy. A catalog of point sources for the 15° × 15° region is self-consistently constructed using these IEMs: the First Fermi-LAT Inner Galaxy Point Source Catalog (1FIG). The spatial locations, fluxes, and spectral properties of the 1FIG sources are presented, and compared with γ-ray point sources over the same region taken from existing catalogs. After subtracting the interstellar emission and point-source contributions a residual is found. If templates that peak toward the GC are used to model the positive residual the agreement with the data improves, but none of the additional templates tried account for all of its spatial structure. The spectrum of the positive residual modeled with these templates has a strong dependence on the choice of IEM.

  14. Creative user-centered visualization design for energy analysts and modelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah; Dykes, Jason; Jones, Sara; Dillingham, Iain; Dove, Graham; Duffy, Alison; Kachkaev, Alexander; Slingsby, Aidan; Wood, Jo

    2013-12-01

    We enhance a user-centered design process with techniques that deliberately promote creativity to identify opportunities for the visualization of data generated by a major energy supplier. Visualization prototypes developed in this way prove effective in a situation whereby data sets are largely unknown and requirements open - enabling successful exploration of possibilities for visualization in Smart Home data analysis. The process gives rise to novel designs and design metaphors including data sculpting. It suggests: that the deliberate use of creativity techniques with data stakeholders is likely to contribute to successful, novel and effective solutions; that being explicit about creativity may contribute to designers developing creative solutions; that using creativity techniques early in the design process may result in a creative approach persisting throughout the process. The work constitutes the first systematic visualization design for a data rich source that will be increasingly important to energy suppliers and consumers as Smart Meter technology is widely deployed. It is novel in explicitly employing creativity techniques at the requirements stage of visualization design and development, paving the way for further use and study of creativity methods in visualization design.

  15. High energy gamma-radiation from the galactic center due to neutralino annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Berezinsky, Veniamin Sergeevich; Mignola, G

    1994-01-01

    We study the NGS (Non-dissipative Gravitational Singularity) model, which successfully describes the non-linear stage of evolution of perturbations (see [1], [2] and references therein). This model predicts DM density distribution $\\rho(r) \\sim r^{-\\alpha}$ with $\\alpha \\simeq 1.8$ which holds from very small distances $r_{\\rm min} \\simeq 0.01~{\\rm pc}$ up to very large distances $r_{\\rm max} \\simeq 5~{\\rm Mpc}$. Assuming the neutralino to be a CDM particle, we calculate the annihilation of neutralinos in the vicinity of the singularity (Galactic Center). If neutralinos are the dominant component of DM in our Galaxy, the produced energy is enough to provide the whole observed activity of the GC. Neutralinos of the most general composition and of mass in the range $20~{\\rm GeV} \\leq m_\\c \\leq 1~{\\rm TeV}$ are considered. We find the neutralino compositions which give the relic density needed for the Mixed Dark Matter (MDM) model and we evaluate for these compositions the high-energy ($E_{\\gamma} > 100 ~{\\rm Me...

  16. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) conducted November 30 through December 4, 1987. In addition, the preliminary findings of the Laramie Project Office (LPO) Survey, which was conducted as part of the METC Survey on January 25 through 29, 1988, are presented in Appendices E and F. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with METC. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at METC, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities at METC. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). When completed, the results will be incorporated into the METC Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the Survey METC. 60 refs., 28 figs., 43 tabs.

  17. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah. Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.T. (ed.)

    1982-09-01

    This document summarizes a conceptual study on the feasibility and practicality of developing a nuclear energy center (NEC) at a representative Western site. The site selected for this conceptual study, an area of about 50 square miles, is located 15 miles south of Green River, Utah. The conceptual NEC would consist of nine nuclear electric generating units, arranged on the site in three clusters of three reactors each (triads), separated by about 2 1/2 miles. Of the total electric output of 11,250 MWe that the NEC could produce, about 82% is assumed to be transmitted out of Utah to Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and California. The technical engineering issues studied included geology and seismology, plant design, low-level radioactive waste disposal, transmission, and construction schedules and costs. Socioeconomic issues included were demographics, land use, community service needs, and fiscal impacts. Environmental considerations included terrestrial and aquatic ecology, visual impact, and secondary population impacts. Radiological issues were concerned with the safety and risks of an NEC and an on-site low-level waste facility. Institutional issues included methods of ownership, taxation, implications of energy export, and water allocation. The basic finding was that an NEC would be technically feasible, but a number of socioeconomic and institutional issues would require resolution before a Western regional NEC could be considered a viable power plant siting option.

  18. Nuclear Energy Knowledge and Validation Center (NEKVaC) Needs Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gougar, Hans [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has made significant progress developing simulation tools to predict the behavior of nuclear systems with greater accuracy and of increasing our capability to predict the behavior of these systems outside of the standard range of applications. These analytical tools require a more complex array of validation tests to accurately simulate the physics and multiple length and time scales. Results from modern simulations will allow experiment designers to narrow the range of conditions needed to bound system behavior and to optimize the deployment of instrumentation to limit the breadth and cost of the campaign. Modern validation, verification and uncertainty quantification (VVUQ) techniques enable analysts to extract information from experiments in a systematic manner and provide the users with a quantified uncertainty estimate. Unfortunately, the capability to perform experiments that would enable taking full advantage of the formalisms of these modern codes has progressed relatively little (with some notable exceptions in fuels and thermal-hydraulics); the majority of the experimental data available today is the "historic" data accumulated over the last decades of nuclear systems R&D. A validated code-model is a tool for users. An unvalidated code-model is useful for code developers to gain understanding, publish research results, attract funding, etc. As nuclear analysis codes have become more sophisticated, so have the measurement and validation methods and the challenges that confront them. A successful yet cost-effective validation effort requires expertise possessed only by a few, resources possessed only by the well-capitalized (or a willing collective), and a clear, well-defined objective (validating a code that is developed to satisfy the need(s) of an actual user). To that end, the Idaho National Laboratory established the Nuclear Energy Knowledge and Validation Center to address the challenges of modern code validation and to

  19. Building America Research Benchmark Definition, Updated December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-01-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year, whole-house energy savings goals of 40%–70% and on-site power production of up to 30%, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Residential Buildings Program and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the Building America (BA) Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams.

  20. A Measurement Management Technology for Improving Energy Efficiency in Data Centers and Telecommunication Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrik Hamann, Levente Klein

    2012-06-28

    Data center (DC) electricity use is increasing at an annual rate of over 20% and presents a concern for the Information Technology (IT) industry, governments, and the society. A large fraction of the energy use is consumed by the compressor cooling to maintain the recommended operating conditions for IT equipment. The most common way to improve the DC efficiency is achieved by optimally provisioning the cooling power to match the global heat dissipation in the DC. However, at a more granular level, the large range of heat densities of today's IT equipment makes the task of provisioning cooling power optimized to the level of individual computer room air conditioning (CRAC) units much more challenging. Distributed sensing within a DC enables the development of new strategies to improve energy efficiency, such as hot spot elimination through targeted cooling, matching power consumption at rack level with workload schedule, and minimizing power losses. The scope of Measurement and Management Technologies (MMT) is to develop a software tool and the underlying sensing technology to provide critical decision support and control for DC and telecommunication facilities (TF) operations. A key aspect of MMT technology is integration of modeling tools to understand how changes in one operational parameter affect the overall DC response. It is demonstrated that reduced ordered models for DC can generate, in less than 2 seconds computational time, a three dimensional thermal model in a 50 kft{sup 2} DC. This rapid modeling enables real time visualization of the DC conditions and enables 'what if' scenarios simulations to characterize response to 'disturbances'. One such example is thermal zone modeling that matches the cooling power to the heat generated at a local level by identifying DC zones cooled by a specific CRAC. Turning off a CRAC unit can be simulated to understand how the other CRAC utilization changes and how server temperature responds

  1. Aerodynamic benchmarking of the DeepWind design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedon, Gabriele; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Aagaard Madsen, Helge;

    The aerodynamic benchmarking for the DeepWind rotor is conducted comparing different rotor geometries and solutions and keeping the comparison as fair as possible. The objective for the benchmarking is to find the most suitable configuration in order to maximize the power production and minimize...... the blade solicitation and the cost of energy. Different parameters are considered for the benchmarking study. The DeepWind blade is characterized by a shape similar to the Troposkien geometry but asymmetric between the top and bottom parts. The blade shape is considered as a fixed parameter...

  2. Benchmark job – Watch out!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    On 12 December 2016, in Echo No. 259, we already discussed at length the MERIT and benchmark jobs. Still, we find that a couple of issues warrant further discussion. Benchmark job – administrative decision on 1 July 2017 On 12 January 2017, the HR Department informed all staff members of a change to the effective date of the administrative decision regarding benchmark jobs. The benchmark job title of each staff member will be confirmed on 1 July 2017, instead of 1 May 2017 as originally announced in HR’s letter on 18 August 2016. Postponing the administrative decision by two months will leave a little more time to address the issues related to incorrect placement in a benchmark job. Benchmark job – discuss with your supervisor, at the latest during the MERIT interview In order to rectify an incorrect placement in a benchmark job, it is essential that the supervisor and the supervisee go over the assigned benchmark job together. In most cases, this placement has been done autom...

  3. Benchmark for Strategic Performance Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohlke, Annette

    1997-01-01

    Explains benchmarking, a total quality management tool used to measure and compare the work processes in a library with those in other libraries to increase library performance. Topics include the main groups of upper management, clients, and staff; critical success factors for each group; and benefits of benchmarking. (Author/LRW)

  4. Internal Benchmarking for Institutional Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Sharron L.

    2012-01-01

    Internal benchmarking is an established practice in business and industry for identifying best in-house practices and disseminating the knowledge about those practices to other groups in the organization. Internal benchmarking can be done with structures, processes, outcomes, or even individuals. In colleges or universities with multicampuses or a…

  5. Entropy-based benchmarking methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temurshoev, Umed

    2012-01-01

    We argue that benchmarking sign-volatile series should be based on the principle of movement and sign preservation, which states that a bench-marked series should reproduce the movement and signs in the original series. We show that the widely used variants of Denton (1971) method and the growth pre

  6. Center for Electrocatalysis, Transport Phenomena, and Materials (CETM) for Innovative Energy Storage - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States)

    2015-11-30

    EFRC vision. The direct use of organic hydrides in fuel cells as virtual hydrogen carriers that generate stable organic molecules, protons, and electrons upon electro-oxidation and can be electrochemically charged by re-hydrogenating the oxidized carrier was the major focus of the Center for Electrocatalysis, Transport Phenomena and Materials for Innovative Energy Storage (EFRC-ETM). Compared to a hydrogen-on-demand design that includes thermal decomposition of organic hydrides in a catalytic reactor, the proposed approach is much simpler and does not require additional dehydrogenation catalysts or heat exchangers. Further, this approach utilizes the advantages of a flow battery (i.e., separation of power and energy, ease of transport and storage of liquid fuels) with fuels that have system energy densities similar to current hydrogen PEM fuel cells. EFRC challenges. Two major EFRC challenges were electrocatalysis and transport phenomena. The electrocatalysis challenge addresses fundamental processes which occur at a single molecular catalyst (microscopic level) and involve electron and proton transfer between the hydrogen rich and hydrogen depleted forms of organic liquid fuel and the catalyst. To form stable, non-radical dehydrogenation products from the organic liquid fuel, it is necessary to ensure fast transport of at least two electrons and two protons (per double bond formation). The same is true for the reverse hydrogenation reaction. The transport phenomena challenge addresses transport of electrons to/from the electrocatalyst and the current collector as well as protons across the polymer membrane. Additionally it addresses prevention of organic liquid fuel, water and oxygen transport through the PEM. In this challenge, the transport of protons or molecules involves multiple sites or a continuum (macroscopic level) and water serves as a proton conducting medium for the majority of known sulfonic acid based PEMs. Proton transfer in the presence of

  7. Solar 2 Green Energy, Arts & Education Center. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, Jamie C; Collins, Christopher J

    2011-07-18

    The Solar 2 Green Energy, Arts and Education Center is an 8,000 sq.ft. demonstration project that will be constructed to Platinum LEED certification and will be the first carbon-neutral, net-zero energy use public building in New York City, giving it local and national appeal. Employing green building features and holistic engineering practices throughout its international award-winning design, Solar 2 will be powered by a 90kW photovoltaic (PV) array in conjunction with a geothermal heating and cooling system and a high efficient design that seeks to reduce the overall energy load of the building. Solar 2 will replace our current 500 sq.ft. prototype facility - known as Solar 1 - as the educational and cultural centerpiece of a five-block public greenway on the East River in Stuyvesant Cove Park, located along two acres of public riverfront on a newly reclaimed, former brownfield in lower Manhattan. Designed as a public-use complex for year-round environmental education exhibits and onsite activities for all ages and backgrounds, Solar 2 will demonstrate energy-efficiency technologies and sustainable environmental practices available now to all urban residents, eco-tourists, teachers, and students alike. Showcasing one of Solar 2's most striking design elements is the PV roof array with a cafe and river vistas for miles of New York City's skylines. Capping the building as a solar-powered landmark, and visible from the FDR Drive, the PV array is also designed to provide visitors below a view of the solar roof when standing outside, as well as directly underneath it. Recognized by an international jury of architects, civil engineers and urban designers by the Swiss-based Holcim Foundation, the Solar 2 design was awarded the prestigious Holcim North American 2008 Gold Award for Sustainable Construction for innovative, future-oriented and tangible sustainable construction projects, selected from more than 1900 entries. Funding from the Department of Energy

  8. Combustion energy frontier research center (CEFRC) final report (August 1, 2009 – July 31, 2016)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Chung [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2017-05-05

    The Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center (CEFRC) was established to tackle the single overarching grand challenge of energy sustainability, energy security and global warming: to develop a “validated, predictive, multi-scale, combustion modeling capability to optimize the design and operation of evolving fuels in advanced engines for transportation applications,” as identified in the DOE report on “Basic Energy Needs for Clean and Efficient Combustion of 21st Century Transportation Fuels”. The challenge is particularly daunting since energy conversion efficiencies and exhaust emissions are governed by coupled chemical and transport processes at multiple length scales ranging from electron excitation to molecular rearrangements to nanoscale particulate formation to turbulent fuel/air mixing. To tackle this challenge, the CEFRC assembled a world-class team of 15 principal investigators, with the objectives to: 1) develop and test theoretical models to predict elementary reaction rates, molecule thermalization rates, chemical bond dissociation energies, and nonequilibrium transport properties using quantum chemistry calculations that account for strong electron correlation and multiple electronic potential energy surfaces; 2) develop automated kinetic mechanism generation, reduction, and error control methods for predicting alternative fuel including biofuel oxidation, fuel droplet decomposition, and NOx and particulate formation; 3) validate and improve the predictions of these models by measuring ignition delay times, species profiles, flame structures, burning limits, turbulence-kinetic coupling, and NOx and soot emissions at high-pressures and near-limit conditions, by using advanced experimental diagnostic techniques including multiple laser techniques, molecular beam sampling and synchrotron photoionization, and by conducting the measurements in high-pressure shock tubes, jet-stirred and flow reactors, flame bombs, counterflow flames, and advanced

  9. Low-Carbon City Policy Databook: 72 Policy Recommendations for Chinese Cities from the Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for Low Carbon Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division. China Energy Group; Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division. China Energy Group; Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division. China Energy Group; Ohshita, Stephanie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division. China Energy Group; Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division. China Energy Group; Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division. China Energy Group; Hong, Lixuan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division. China Energy Group; He, Gang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division. China Energy Group; Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division. China Energy Group; Min, Hu [Energy Foundation China, Beijing (China)

    2016-07-01

    This report is designed to help city authorities evaluate and prioritize more than 70 different policy strategies that can reduce their city’s energy use and carbon-based greenhouse gas emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). Local government officials, researchers, and planners can utilize the report to identify policies most relevant to local circumstances and to develop a low carbon city action plan that can be implemented in phases, over a multi-year timeframe. The policies cover nine city sectors: industry, public and commercial buildings, residential buildings, transportation, power and heat, street lighting, water & wastewater, solid waste, and urban green space. See Table 1 for a listing of the policies. Recognizing the prominence of urban industry in the energy and carbon inventories of Chinese cities, this report includes low carbon city policies for the industrial sector. The policies gathered here have proven effective in multiple locations around the world and have the potential to achieve future energy and carbon savings in Chinese cities.

  10. The distribution of the electric energy consumed in the World Trade Center building; La distribucion de la energia electrica consumida en el edificio World Trade Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona de la Fuente, Alvaro; Carrillo Borja, Angel [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This document describes the distribution of the electric energy in the World Trade Center building. Also called the Business International Capital, it is a modern international concept that integrates under the same roof services and supports required by the foreign commerce, with a great 50 stories high building, information network, a business center, a commercial center, an international center for exhibits and conventions and a luxury hotel. It is a modern building equipped with a numberless technological advancements an a total installed electrical load of 35000 kVA. The distribution structures utilized for high buildings are described, the structure that was decided to adopt in the World Trade Center, the requirement for the execution of the distribution electric work, the Luz y Fuerza installations in the buildings conglomerate, the operation and maintenance of the distribution network of this building and the basic needs for new installations of this type of buildings [Espanol] En el presente documento se describe la distribucion de la energia electrica del edificio World Trade Center de la ciudad de Mexico. Llamado tambien la capital internacional de los negocios es un moderno concepto internacional que integra bajo un mismo techo servicios y apoyos que se requieren para el comercio exterior contando con una gran torre de 50 pisos, red de informacion, un centro de negocios, un centro comercial, un centro internacional de exposiciones y convenciones y un hotel de lujo. Es un edificio moderno equipado con un sinnumero de adelantos tecnologicos y con una carga total instalada de 35000 kVA. Se describen las estructuras de distribucion utilizadas en edificios altos, la estructura que se decidio implantar en el World Trade Center, los requerimientos para la ejecucion de la obra electrica de distribucion, las instalaciones de Luz y Fuerza en el conjunto de dicho edificio, la operacion y mantenimiento de la red de distribucion de este edificio, y las necesidades

  11. Applications of Integral Benchmark Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuseppe Palmiotti; Teruhiko Kugo; Fitz Trumble; Albert C. (Skip) Kahler; Dale Lancaster

    2014-10-09

    The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) provide evaluated integral benchmark data that may be used for validation of reactor physics / nuclear criticality safety analytical methods and data, nuclear data testing, advanced modeling and simulation, and safety analysis licensing activities. The handbooks produced by these programs are used in over 30 countries. Five example applications are presented in this paper: (1) Use of IRPhEP Data in Uncertainty Analyses and Cross Section Adjustment, (2) Uncertainty Evaluation Methods for Reactor Core Design at JAEA Using Reactor Physics Experimental Data, (3) Application of Benchmarking Data to a Broad Range of Criticality Safety Problems, (4) Cross Section Data Testing with ICSBEP Benchmarks, and (5) Use of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments to Support the Power Industry.

  12. Benchmarking & European Sustainable Transport Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    , Benchmarking is one of the management tools that have recently been introduced in the transport sector. It is rapidly being applied to a wide range of transport operations, services and policies. This paper is a contribution to the discussion of the role of benchmarking in the future efforts...... to support Sustainable European Transport Policies. The key message is that transport benchmarking has not yet been developed to cope with the challenges of this task. Rather than backing down completely, the paper suggests some critical conditions for applying and adopting benchmarking for this purpose. One...... way forward is to ensure a higher level of environmental integration in transport policy benchmarking. To this effect the paper will discuss the possible role of the socalled Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism developed by the European Environment Agency. The paper provides an independent...

  13. Benchmarking and Sustainable Transport Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Wyatt, Andrew; Gordon, Lucy

    2004-01-01

    is generally not advised. Several other ways in which benchmarking and policy can support one another are identified in the analysis. This leads to a range of recommended initiatives to exploit the benefits of benchmarking in transport while avoiding some of the lurking pitfalls and dead ends......Order to learn from the best. In 2000 the European Commission initiated research to explore benchmarking as a tool to promote policies for ‘sustainable transport’. This paper reports findings and recommendations on how to address this challenge. The findings suggest that benchmarking is a valuable...... tool that may indeed help to move forward the transport policy agenda. However, there are major conditions and limitations. First of all it is not always so straightforward to delimit, measure and compare transport services in order to establish a clear benchmark. Secondly ‘sustainable transport...

  14. Petrologic and petrophysical evaluation of the Dallas Center Structure, Iowa, for compressed air energy storage in the Mount Simon Sandstone.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Jason E.; Bauer, Stephen J.; Broome, Scott Thomas; Dewers, Thomas A.; Rodriguez, Mark A

    2013-03-01

    The Iowa Stored Energy Plant Agency selected a geologic structure at Dallas Center, Iowa, for evaluation of subsurface compressed air energy storage. The site was rejected due to lower-than-expected and heterogeneous permeability of the target reservoir, lower-than-desired porosity, and small reservoir volume. In an initial feasibility study, permeability and porosity distributions of flow units for the nearby Redfield gas storage field were applied as analogue values for numerical modeling of the Dallas Center Structure. These reservoir data, coupled with an optimistic reservoir volume, produced favorable results. However, it was determined that the Dallas Center Structure cannot be simplified to four zones of high, uniform permeabilities. Updated modeling using field and core data for the site provided unfavorable results for air fill-up. This report presents Sandia National Laboratories petrologic and petrophysical analysis of the Dallas Center Structure that aids in understanding why the site was not suitable for gas storage.

  15. Building America Research Benchmark Definition: Updated August 15, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.

    2007-09-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams. The Benchmark is generally consistent with mid-1990s standard practice, as reflected in the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Technical Guidelines (RESNET 2002), with additional definitions that allow the analyst to evaluate all residential end-uses, an extension of the traditional HERS rating approach that focuses on space conditioning and hot water. Unlike the reference homes used for HERS, EnergyStar, and most energy codes, the Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without the complication of chasing a 'moving target'.

  16. Building America Research Benchmark Definition, Updated December 15, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.

    2007-01-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams. The Benchmark is generally consistent with mid-1990s standard practice, as reflected in the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Technical Guidelines (RESNET 2002), with additional definitions that allow the analyst to evaluate all residential end-uses, an extension of the traditional HERS rating approach that focuses on space conditioning and hot water. Unlike the reference homes used for HERS, EnergyStar, and most energy codes, the Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without the complication of chasing a ''moving target''.

  17. Building America Research Benchmark Definition: Updated December 20, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.

    2008-01-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams. The Benchmark is generally consistent with mid-1990s standard practice, as reflected in the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Technical Guidelines (RESNET 2002), with additional definitions that allow the analyst to evaluate all residential end-uses, an extension of the traditional HERS rating approach that focuses on space conditioning and hot water. Unlike the reference homes used for HERS, EnergyStar, and most energy codes, the Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without the complication of chasing a 'moving target'.

  18. Assessment of evaluated (n,d) energy-angle elastic scattering distributions using MCNP simulations of critical measurements and simplified calculation benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozier, K.S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Different evaluated (n,d) energy-angle elastic scattering distributions produce k-effective differences in MCNP5 simulations of critical experiments involving heavy water (D{sub 2}O) of sufficient magnitude to suggest a need for new (n,d) scattering measurements and/or distributions derived from modern theoretical nuclear models, especially at neutron energies below a few MeV. The present work focuses on the small reactivity change of < 1 mk that is observed in the MCNP5 D{sub 2}O coolant-void-reactivity calculation bias for simulations of two pairs of critical experiments performed in the ZED-2 reactor at the Chalk River Laboratories when different nuclear data libraries are used for deuterium. The deuterium data libraries tested include Endf/B-VII.0, Endf/B-VI.4, JENDL-3.3 and a new evaluation, labelled Bonn-B, which is based on recent theoretical nuclear-model calculations. Comparison calculations were also performed for a simplified, two-region, spherical model having an inner, 250-cm radius, homogeneous sphere of UO{sub 2}, without and with deuterium, and an outer 20-cm-thick deuterium reflector. A notable observation from this work is the reduction of about 0.4 mk in the MCNP5 ZED-2 CVR calculation bias that is obtained when the O-in-UO{sub 2} thermal scattering data comes from Endf-B-VII.0. (author)

  19. 2013 FEMA Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  20. Carbon in Underland (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaolo, Donald J. (Director, Center for Nanoscale Control of Geologic CO2); NCGC Staff

    2011-05-01

    'Carbon in Underland' was submitted by the Center for Nanoscale Control of Geologic CO2 (NCGC) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. This video was selected as one of five winners by a distinguished panel of judges for its 'entertaining animation and engaging explanations of carbon sequestration'. NCGC, an EFRC directed by Donald J. DePaolo at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is a partnership of scientists from seven institutions: LBNL (lead) Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis, Ohio State University, and Washington University in St. Louis. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges. The mission of the Center for Nanoscale Control of Geologic CO{sub 2} is 'to use new investigative tools, combined with experiments and computer simulations, to build a fundamental understanding of molecular-to-pore-scale processes in fluid-rock systems, and to demonstrate the ability to control critical aspects of flow, transport, and mineralization in porous rock media as applied to geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Research topics are: bio-inspired, CO{sub 2} (store), greenhouse gas, and interfacial characterization.