WorldWideScience

Sample records for center dust gas

  1. Dust In Hell: Discovery Of Dust In Hot Gas Around Group-Centered Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temi, Pasquale; Brighenti, F.; Mathews, W. G.

    2007-05-01

    Observations with the Spitzer infrared telescope reveal extended internally produced dust in the hot gas (KT 1 KeV) atmospheres surrounding two optically normal galaxies, NGC 5044 and NGC 4636. We interpret this as a dusty buoyant outflow resulting from energy released by gas accretion onto supermassive black holes in the galaxy cores. Both galaxies have highly disturbed, transient activities in the hot gas and contain strong dust emission at 70 and 160 microns in excess of what expected from normal stellar mass loss. The 70 micron image is clearly extended. The lifetime of dust in hot (KT=1KeV) interstellar gas to destruction by sputtering (ion impacts), 10 million years, establishes the time when the dust first entered the hot gas. Remarkably, in NGC 5044 we observe interstellar PAH dust-molecular emission at 8 microns out to about 5 Kpc that is spatially coincident with extended Halpha+[NII] emission from warm gas. We propose that this dust comes from the destruction and heating of dusty disks in the nuclei of these galaxies, followed by buoyant transport. A simple calculation shows that dust-assisted cooling in outflowing buoyant gas in NGC 5044 can cool the gas within a few Kpc in about 10 million years, explaining the optical line emission observed.

  2. Dust Temperatures in the Galactic Center Lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla-Garcia, Luis G.; Morris, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The Galactic Center Lobe (GCL), located toward positive latitudes above the Galactic center and extending to a distance of ~150 pc, is apparently a bubble of hot gas that is manifested at all wavelengths from radio to X-rays. In mid- to far-infrared dust emission, the GCL shows several superposed, elongated structures oriented perpendicular to the Galactic plane. Among them are the dust ridge centered on AFGL5376 and another defining the Double Helix Nebula (DHN). Using temperature maps constructed from a combination of archival WISE and SPITZER data, we have found that these features exhibit dramatic spatial variations in their dust temperatures, with the DHN and the AFGL5376 ridge being much warmer, and therefore substantially brighter in the 20 - 25 µm range, than several other linear features. Furthermore, the cooler linear structures tend to have rather constant dust temperatures, in sharp contrast to the highly variable emission within the warmer features. We will summarize the implications of these results for the nature of the dust heating sources. The candidate heating mechanisms are direct photon heating by stars in the central cluster, thermal heating by exposure to a hot coronal gas, and the impact of ions driven by magnetosonic waves or shocks.

  3. Disk evolution: dust and gas*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Disks are a natural by-product of start formation. Just like the formation if a star is a lengthy process that goes through many stages, disks around young stars evolve my processing matter through the disk and dumping it onto the star. The solid and gaseous components of disks do not always evolve together - dust-gas separation can take place, dust grains may grow. In this chapter we attempt a brief overview of processes that shape this evolution, in a way that is useful as a background to the other chapters in this lecture series. As such, the chapter does not aim for completeness or being up to date with some of the most recent developments.

  4. The Dust & Gas Properties of M83

    CERN Document Server

    Foyle, K; Mentuch, E; Bendo, G; Dariush, A; Parkin, T; Pohlen, M; Sauvage, M; Smith, M W L; Roussel, H; Baes, M; Boquien, M; Boselli, A; Clements, D L; Cooray, A; Davies, J I; Eales, S A; Madden, S; Page, M J; Spinoglio,

    2012-01-01

    We examine the dust and gas properties of the nearby, barred galaxy M83, which is part of the Very Nearby Galaxy Survey. Using images from the PACS and SPIRE instruments of Herschel, we examine the dust temperature and dust mass surface density distribution. We find that the nuclear, bar and spiral arm regions exhibit higher dust temperatures and masses compared to interarm regions. However, the distribution of dust temperature and mass are not spatially coincident. Assuming a trailing spiral structure, the dust temperature peaks in the spiral arms lie ahead of the dust surface density peaks. The dust mass surface density correlates well with the distribution of molecular gas as traced by CO (J=3-2) images (JCMT) and the star formation rate as traced by H?2 with a correction for obscured star formation using 24 micron emission. Using HI images from THINGS to trace the atomic gas component, we make total gas mass surface density maps and calculate the gas-to-dust ratio. We find a mean gas-to-dust ratio of 84 \\...

  5. Dust and Gas in BCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, James R.

    2004-09-01

    The objective is to learn about the formation of stars under conditions which are similar the those under which the first generation of stars formed. The regions of study are blue compact dwarf galaxies. These are low mass regions which are undergoing their first, or more likely second, episode of star formation. Typical metallicities range from 1/5 to 1/50 solar. The latter value is typical of the metallicity following the first round of star formation. The scientific questions which will be addressed include: What is the iozionation state of the gas as assessed primarially by the NeII, NeIII and NeV, and the SIII and SIV lines. Why are the PAH feature often absent in the ISO spectra of BCDs. Are the star formation regions matter bound, as suggested by the presence of NeIII, but not NeII. Why is NeIII sometimes seen to be very extended. What is the MIR SED of BCDs, as measured by low resolution spectra. What are the implications for determining the redshift of medium redshift of ULIRGs using the PAH features if the PAH feature disappear at high z,and therefore low Z. What are the implications for the infrared background radiation. What is the extinction curve for dust formed under thse low metallicity conditions. The data to answer these, and other related questions, will require both high and low resolution spectra. Most objects will be imaged by the peak-up prior to taking the spectra. Objects with known MIR fluxes will be observed directly without the preceeding images. If the "success rate" with imaging is very high we will consider eliminating the reimages.

  6. The marriage of gas and dust

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Dust-gas mixtures are the simplest example of a two fluid mixture. We show that when simulating such mixtures with particles or with particles coupled to grids a problem arises due to the need to resolve a very small length scale when the coupling is strong. Since this is occurs in the limit when the fluids are well coupled, we show how the dust-gas equations can be reformulated to describe a single fluid mixture. The equations are similar to the usual fluid equations supplemented by a diffusion equation for the dust-to-gas ratio or alternatively the dust fraction. This solves a number of numerical problems as well as making the physics clear.

  7. The Marriage of Gas and Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D. J.; Laibe, G.

    2015-10-01

    Dust-gas mixtures are the simplest example of a two fluid mixture. We show that when simulating such mixtures with particles or with particles coupled to grids a problem arises due to the need to resolve a very small length scale when the coupling is strong. Since this is occurs in the limit when the fluids are well coupled, we show how the dust-gas equations can be reformulated to describe a single fluid mixture. The equations are similar to the usual fluid equations supplemented by a diffusion equation for the dust-to-gas ratio or alternatively the dust fraction. This solves a number of numerical problems as well as making the physics clear.

  8. Old supernova dust factory revealed at the Galactic center

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Ryan M; Morris, Mark R; Li, Zhiyuan; Adams, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Dust formation in supernova ejecta is currently the leading candidate to explain the large quantities of dust observed in the distant, early Universe. However, it is unclear whether the ejecta-formed dust can survive the hot interior of the supernova remnant (SNR). We present infrared observations of ~0.02 $M_\\odot$ of warm (~100 K) dust seen near the center of the ~10,000 yr-old Sgr A East SNR at the Galactic center. Our findings signify the detection of dust within an older SNR that is expanding into a relatively dense surrounding medium ($n_e$ ~ 100 $\\mathrm{cm}^{-3}$) and has survived the passage of the reverse shock. The results suggest that supernovae may indeed be the dominant dust production mechanism in the dense environment of early Universe galaxies.

  9. The Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collette, A.; Gruen, E.; Horanyi, M.; Munsat, T.; Poppe, A. R.; Robertson, S. H.; Srama, R.; Shu, A. J.; Sternovsky, Z.; Wang, X.; Ccldas Team

    2010-12-01

    The Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) is a member of the NASA Lunar Science Institute, focused on experimental and theoretical investigations of the lunar surface, including dusty plasma and impact processes, the origins of the lunar atmosphere, and the development of new instrument concepts, with a complementary program of education and community development. The tenuous lunar atmosphere is a surface-bound exosphere (SBE) similar to that found throughout the solar system, for example on Mercury, various icy satellites, over the rings of Saturn, on large asteroids, and on Kuiper Belt objects. Its time-dependent constituents arise from a dynamic balance between sources that may be sporadic (solar wind, sputtering, micrometeoroid impacts, outgassing) and loss mechanisms (escape, ionization), creating a natural dusty plasma laboratory. CCLDAS supports a diverse experimental program, performed in conjunction with theory and simulation, to investigate the near-surface lunar plasma environment, dust charging and mobilization, and the effects of micrometeoroids. The flagship device at CCLDAS is a dust accelerator, currently under construction, which will allow simulation of micrometeoroid impacts at speeds relevant to the lunar environment. The accelerator will be available for direct science investigation as well as instrument calibration; in addition to our own research program, the experimental facilities are open to the lunar and space physics community. One use will be to support the calibration of the Lunar Dust EXperiment (LDEX) instrument, scheduled for launch in 2013 onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft. LDEX will measure the density and temporal variation of micron and submicron sized dust particles released from the lunar surface and elevated to > 30 km altitude by micrometeoroid bombardment and/or electrostatic forces. The new Lunar Environment and Impact Laboratory (LEIL) at CCLDAS

  10. The Interstellar Gas Dust Streams and Seeds of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleg, Khavroshkin; Vladislav, Tsyplakov

    systems solar system and interacting with lunar surface. Characteristic of binary stars systems and picked out periods of lunar seismicity are publish. Genesis of Life. If the solar system is reached by the gas-dust streams from binary stars, then all bodes in space have particles of star dust on their surfaces and/or atmospheres. Solar system has made 8-10 revolutions around galactic center and thus captured dust from many thousands stars. As these stars caught in turn dust particles from other stars too then probably our solar system has mainly dust samples from all objects of our galaxy. The age of galaxy and old stars is approximately more than15 billion years and that of the Earth is only 4, 5 Gyr. Genesis of Life for the Earth has not more than 3 billion years. Thus comparative analysis of simple balance of these times shows that the genesis of Life for Earth is the result of galactic processes/objects and not of the solar system of course. Peculiarity of Genesis. After formation of the solar system all old and new captured dust particles are first accumulated in the Oort cloud and then they are carried by comets to planets. The modern state of the Earth exists for more than 3 billion years, so possibilities for appearing Life were always. These processes had happened a few times during this period of the Earth state. The sizes of the universe and galaxies at t0 essays. Schmidt United Institute of Physics of the Earth Press, Moscow, 2003. 471 p., (in Russian). М., ОИФЗ РАН, 2003, 471с. 7. O.B.Khavroshkin, V.V.Tsyplakov. Hidden astrophysical periodicities of lunar seismisity // Herald of the DGGGMS RAS: Electr. Sci.-Inf. J., 4(14)` 2000 • http://www.scgis.ru/russian/cp1251/h_dgggms/4-2000/scpub-3.pdf

  11. Two-fluid Instability of Dust and Gas in the Dust Layer of a Protoplanetary Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Ishitsu, Naoki; Sekiya, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Instabilities of the dust layer in a protoplanetary disk are investigated. It is known that the streaming instability develops and dust density concentration occurs in a situation where the initial dust density is uniform. This work considers the effect of initial dust density gradient vertical to the midplane. Dust and gas are treated as different fluids. Pressure of dust fluid is assumed to be zero. The gas friction time is assumed to be constant. Axisymmetric two-dimensional numerical simulation was performed using the spectral method. We found that an instability develops with a growth rate on the order of the Keplerian angular velocity even if the gas friction time multiplied by the Keplerian angular velocity is as small as 0.001. This instability is powered by two sources: (1) the vertical shear of the azimuthal velocity, and (2) the relative motion of dust and gas coupled with the dust density fluctuation due to advection. This instability diffuses dust by turbulent advection and the maximum dust densi...

  12. The dust and gas content of the Crab Nebula

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, P.; Barlow, M.

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed MOCASSIN photoionization plus dust radiative transfer models for the Crab Nebula core-collapse supernova (CCSN) remnant, using either smooth or clumped mass distributions, in order to determine the chemical composition and masses of the nebular gas and dust. We computed models for several different geometries suggested for the nebular matter distribution but found that the observed gas and dust spectra are relatively insensitive to these geometries, being determined mainly...

  13. Dust Migration and Morphology in Optically Thin Circumstellar Gas Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, T; Takeuchi, Taku; Artymowicz, Pawel

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of gas-dust coupling in the presence of stellar radiation pressure in circumstellar gas disks, which are in a transitional stage between the gas-dominated, optically thick, primordial nebulae, and the dust-dominated, optically thin Vega-type disks. Dust undergo radial migration, seeking a stable equilibrium orbit in corotation with gas. The migration of dust gives rise to radial fractionation of dust and creates a variety of possible observed disk morphologies, which we compute by considering the equilibrium between the dust production and the dust-dust collisions removing particles from their equilibrium orbits. Sand-sized and larger grains are distributed throughout most of the gas disk, with concentration near the gas pressure maximum in the inner disk. Smaller grains (typically in the range of 10 to 200 micron) concentrate in a prominent ring structure in the outer region of the gas disk (presumably at radius 100 AU), where gas density is rapidly declining with radius. The width an...

  14. Dust and Gas in the disc of HL Tauri: Surface density, dust settling, and dust-to-gas ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Pinte, Christophe; Menard, Francois; Hales, Antonio; Hill, Tracey; Cortes, Paulo; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar

    2016-01-01

    The recent ALMA observations of the disc surrounding HL Tau reveal a very complex dust spatial distribution. We present a radiative transfer model accounting for the observed gaps and bright rings as well as radial changes of the emissivity index. We find that the dust density is depleted by at least a factor 10 in the main gaps compared to the surrounding rings. Ring masses range from 10-100 M$_{\\oplus}$ in dust, and, we find that each of the deepest gaps is consistent with the removal of up to 40 M$_{\\oplus}$ of dust. If this material has accumulated into rocky bodies, these would be close to the point of runaway gas accretion. Our model indicates that the outermost ring is depleted in millimetre grains compared to the central rings. This suggests faster grain growth in the central regions and/or radial migration of the larger grains. The morphology of the gaps observed by ALMA - well separated and showing a high degree of contrast with the bright rings over all azimuths - indicates that the millimetre dust...

  15. Hydrodynamic model of a self-gravitating optically thick gas and dust cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, E. V.; Zankovich, A. M.; Kovalenko, I. G.; Firsov, K. M.

    2015-10-01

    We propose an original mechanism of sustained turbulence generation in gas and dust clouds, the essence of which is the consistent provision of conditions for the emergence and maintenance of convective instability in the cloud. We considered a quasi-stationary one-dimensional model of a selfgravitating flat cloud with stellar radiation sources in its center. The material of the cloud is considered a two-component two-speed continuous medium, the first component of which, gas, is transparent for stellar radiation and is supposed to rest being in hydrostatic equilibrium, and the second one, dust, is optically dense and is swept out by the pressure of stellar radiation to the periphery of the cloud. The dust is specified as a set of spherical grains of a similar size (we made calculations for dust particles with radii of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 μm). The processes of scattering and absorption of UV radiation by dust particles followed by IR reradiation, with respect to which the medium is considered to be transparent, are taken into account. Dust-driven stellar wind sweeps gas outwards from the center of the cloud, forming a cocoon-like structure in the gas and dust. For the radiation flux corresponding to a concentration of one star with a luminosity of about 5 ×104 L ⊙ per square parsec on the plane of sources, sizes of the gas cocoon are equal to 0.2-0.4 pc, and for the dust one they vary from tenths of a parsec to six parsecs. Gas and dust in the center of the cavity are heated to temperatures of about 50-60 K in the model with graphite particles and up to 40 K in the model with silicate dust, while the background equilibrium temperature outside the cavity is set equal to 10 K. The characteristic dust expansion velocity is about 1-7 kms-1. Three structural elements define the hierarchy of scales in the dust cocoon. The sizes of the central rarefied cavity, the dense shell surrounding the cavity, and the thin layer inside the shell in which dust is settling provide

  16. The Evolution of Gas and Dust in Protoplanetary Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Birnstiel, T

    2011-01-01

    Dust constitutes only about one percent of the mass of circumstellar disks, yet it is of crucial importance for the modeling of planet formation, disk chemistry, radiative transfer and observations. The initial growth of dust from sub-micron sized grains to planetesimals and also the radial transport of dust in disks around young stars is the topic of this thesis. Circumstellar dust is subject to radial drift, vertical settling, turbulent mixing, collisional growth, fragmentation and erosion. We approach this subject from three directions: analytical calculations, numerical simulations, and comparison to observations. We describe the physical and numerical concepts that go into a model which is able to simulate the radial and size evolution of dust in a gas disk which is viscously evolving over several million years. The resulting dust size distributions are compared to our analytical predictions and a simple recipe for obtaining steady-state dust size distributions is derived. With the numerical model at han...

  17. 3 MV hypervelocity dust accelerator at the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hypervelocity dust accelerator for studying micrometeorite impacts has been constructed at the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) at the University of Colorado. Based on the Max-Planck-Institüt für Kernphysik (MPI-K) accelerator, this accelerator is capable of emitting single particles of a specific mass and velocity selected by the user. The accelerator consists of a 3 MV Pelletron generator with a dust source, four image charge pickup detectors, and two interchangeable target chambers: a large high-vacuum test bed and an ultra-high vacuum impact study chamber. The large test bed is a 1.2 m diameter, 1.5 m long cylindrical vacuum chamber capable of pressures as low as 10−7 torr while the ultra-high vacuum chamber is a 0.75 m diameter, 1.1 m long chamber capable of pressures as low as 10−10 torr. Using iron dust of up to 2 microns in diameter, final velocities have been measured up to 52 km/s. The spread of the dust particles and the effect of electrostatic focusing have been measured using a long exposure CCD and a quartz target. Furthermore, a new technique of particle selection is being developed using real time digital filtering techniques. Signals are digitized and then cross-correlated with a shaped filter, resulting in a suppressed noise floor. Improvements over the MPI-K design, which include a higher operating voltage and digital filtering for detection, increase the available parameter space of dust emitted by the accelerator. The CCLDAS dust facility is a user facility open to the scientific community to assist with instrument calibrations and experiments.

  18. Mechanism research of gas and coal dust explosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan-song; HAN Li-li; WANG Lei

    2009-01-01

    Combined with the experimental results from the large tunnel of the Chongqing Research Institute, the mechanism of gas and coal dust explosion was studied. Some concepts about gas and coal dust explosion were introduced such as the form condition and influential factors. Gas and coal dust explosion propagation was researched and the lifting process of coal dust was simulated. When an explosion occurred due to great mix-ture of gas and air, the maximum explosion pressure appeared in the neighborhood of the explosion source point. Before it propagated to the tunnel of the deposited coal dust, the maximum explosion pressure appeared to be in declining trend. Part of the energy was lost in the process of raising the deposited coal dust through a shock wave, so the maxi-mum explosion pressure was smallest on the foreside of the deposited coal dust sector. On the deposited coal dust sector, the explosion pressure rapidly increased and dropped off after achieving the largest peak value. Because of coal dust participation in the explo-sion, the flame velocity rose rapidly on the deposited coal dust and achieved a basic sta-ble value; coal dust was ignited to explode by initial laminar flame, and the laminar flame transformed into turbulent flame. The turbulence transformed the flame fold into a funnel shape and the shock wave interacted with the flame, so the combustion rate rose and the pressure wave was further enhanced. The regeneration mechanism between the flame combustion rate and the aerodynamic flowing structure achieved the final critical state for forming the detonation.

  19. 'Heating' of dust particle motion in plasma of gas discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The phenomenon of acceleration of dust particles motion in plasma of gas discharge is studied. The dust particle kinetic energy exceeds own temperature of dust particle and also temperatures of electrons and ions. The mechanism of energy transfer from an external source to dusty particles in plasma is investigated and its influence on the spectrum of particles motion is discussed. The subsequent steps of the increase of the average kinetic energy of charged dust particles in gas discharge plasmas are suggested. Equations of 3D dust particles motion in gas discharge with account of charge fluctuations, features of near electrode layer and their influence on dust particle charge are formulated. The molecular dynamics simulations of dust particle system are performed. The combination of stochastic particle charge fluctuation and electric field gradient in near-electrode plasma results in the dust particle forced vertical oscillations. Resonance arises due to the intersection of a range of vertical oscillations natural frequencies with a range of charge fluctuation frequencies. The joint action of the parametric resonance and the forced oscillations explains the high kinetic temperature of dust particles. The mechanism of energy transfer from discharge to dust particles motion is divided into several parts. Warming up of dust particles vertical oscillations is considered separately from the heating of horizontal oscillation, as these processes are determined by several different phenomena due to near electrode layer anisotropy. The energy transfer from vertical to horizontal oscillations is investigated separately. The outflow of energy from the dust particles oscillations due to friction on the neutral gas is also taken into account. The estimated frequency, amplitude and kinetic temperature are close to the experimental values. The question of the lawfulness of using the term 'temperature' to describe the kinetic energy of dust

  20. Connecting The Interstellar Gas And Dust Properties Of Distant Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Varsha

    The properties of interstellar gas and dust in distant galaxies are fundamental parameters in constraining galaxy evolution models. Quasar absorption systems (QASs), which trace intervening galaxies along the sightlines to luminous background quasars, provide invaluable tools to directly study gas and dust in distant normal galaxies. Recent studies of QASs have found interesting trends in both gas and dust properties, such as correlations in metallicity with redshift and dust depletions. Our Spitzer spectroscopic studies also indicate that silicate dust grains are present in QASs, and in fact, at a level higher than expected for diffuse gas in the Milky Way. Moreover, the silicate dust grains in these distant galaxies may be substantially more crystalline than those in the Milky Way interstellar medium. We now propose a comprehensive study of the gas and dust properties of all QASs with strong Ly-alpha and/or metal absorption lines that have adequate archival IR data to probe the study of dust. Our analysis will include data primarily from the NASA-supported Spitzer, Herschel, HST, and Keck Observatory archives, along with a small amount of VLT/SDSS archival data. Our specific goals are as follows: (1) We will measure a large range of metal absorption lines in high-resolution quasar spectra from Keck, HST, and VLT archives to uniformly determine the metallicity, dust depletions, ionization, and star formation rates in the foreground QASs. In particular, we will study the variations in these quantities with gas velocity, using Voigt profile fitting techniques to determine the velocity structure. This analysis will also allow us to quantify the kinematics of the absorbing gas. (2) We will use archival Spitzer IRS quasar spectra to search for and measure the strengths of the 10 and 18 micron silicate dust absorption features for a much larger sample of QASs than previously studied. (3) We will fit the observed silicate absorption features in the Spitzer archival

  1. Cold dust clumps in dynamically hot gas

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, S; Madden, S C; Meixner, M; Hony, S; Panuzzo, P; Sauvage, M; Roman-Duval, J; Gordon, K D; Engelbracht, C; Israel, F P; Misselt, K; Okumura, K; Li, A; Bolatto, A; Skibba, R; Galliano, F; Matsuura, M; Bernard, J -P; Bot, C; Galametz, M; Hughes, A; Kawamura, A; Onishi, T; Paradis, D; Poglitsch, A; Reach, W T; Robitaille, T; Rubio, M; Tielens, A G G M

    2010-01-01

    We present clumps of dust emission from Herschel observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and their physical and statistical properties. We catalog cloud features seen in the dust emission from Herschel observations of the LMC, the Magellanic type irregular galaxy closest to the Milky Way, and compare these features with HI catalogs from the ATCA+Parkes HI survey. Using an automated cloud-finding algorithm, we identify clouds and clumps of dust emission and examine the cumulative mass distribution of the detected dust clouds. The mass of cold dust is determined from physical parameters that we derive by performing spectral energy distribution fits to 250, 350, and 500 micronm emission from SPIRE observations using DUSTY and GRASIL radiative transfer calculation with dust grain size distributions for graphite/silicate in low-metallicity extragalactic environments. The dust cloud mass spectrum follows a power law distribution with an exponent of gamma=-1.8 for clumps larger than 400 solar mass and is si...

  2. Consistent dust and gas models for protoplanetary disks. I. Disk shape, dust settling, opacities, and PAHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitke, P.; Min, M.; Pinte, C.; Thi, W.-F.; Kamp, I.; Rab, C.; Anthonioz, F.; Antonellini, S.; Baldovin-Saavedra, C.; Carmona, A.; Dominik, C.; Dionatos, O.; Greaves, J.; Güdel, M.; Ilee, J. D.; Liebhart, A.; Ménard, F.; Rigon, L.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Aresu, G.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.

    2016-02-01

    We propose a set of standard assumptions for the modelling of Class II and III protoplanetary disks, which includes detailed continuum radiative transfer, thermo-chemical modelling of gas and ice, and line radiative transfer from optical to cm wavelengths. The first paper of this series focuses on the assumptions about the shape of the disk, the dust opacities, dust settling, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In particular, we propose new standard dust opacities for disk models, we present a simplified treatment of PAHs in radiative equilibrium which is sufficient to reproduce the PAH emission features, and we suggest using a simple yet physically justified treatment of dust settling. We roughly adjust parameters to obtain a model that predicts continuum and line observations that resemble typical multi-wavelength continuum and line observations of Class II T Tauri stars. We systematically study the impact of each model parameter (disk mass, disk extension and shape, dust settling, dust size and opacity, gas/dust ratio, etc.) on all mainstream continuum and line observables, in particular on the SED, mm-slope, continuum visibilities, and emission lines including [OI] 63 μm, high-J CO lines, (sub-)mm CO isotopologue lines, and CO fundamental ro-vibrational lines. We find that evolved dust properties, i.e. large grains, often needed to fit the SED, have important consequences for disk chemistry and heating/cooling balance, leading to stronger near- to far-IR emission lines in general. Strong dust settling and missing disk flaring have similar effects on continuum observations, but opposite effects on far-IR gas emission lines. PAH molecules can efficiently shield the gas from stellar UV radiation because of their strong absorption and negligible scattering opacities in comparison to evolved dust. The observable millimetre-slope of the SED can become significantly more gentle in the case of cold disk midplanes, which we find regularly in our T Tauri models

  3. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of gas and dust mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, Richard A; Clarke, Cathie J

    2015-01-01

    We present a 'two-fluid' implementation of dust in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) in the test particle limit. The scheme is able to handle both short and long stopping times and reproduces the short friction time limit, which is not properly handled in other implementations. We apply novel tests to verify its accuracy and limitations, including multi-dimensional tests that have not been previously applied to the drag-coupled dust problem and which are particularly relevant to self-gravitating protoplanetary discs. Our tests demonstrate several key requirements for accurate simulations of gas-dust mixtures. Firstly, in standard SPH particle jitter can degrade the dust solution, even when the gas density is well reproduced. The use of integral gradients, a Wendland kernel and a large number of neighbours can control this, albeit at a greater computational cost. Secondly, when it is necessary to limit the artificial viscosity we recommend using the Cullen & Dehnen (2010) switch, since the alternative,...

  4. Temperatures of dust and gas in S~140

    CERN Document Server

    Koumpia, E; Ossenkopf, V; van der Tak, F F S; Mookerjea, B; Fuente, A; Kramer, C

    2015-01-01

    In dense parts of interstellar clouds (> 10^5 cm^-3), dust & gas are expected to be in thermal equilibrium, being coupled via collisions. However, previous studies have shown that the temperatures of the dust & gas may remain decoupled even at higher densities. We study in detail the temperatures of dust & gas in the photon-dominated region S 140, especially around the deeply embedded infrared sources IRS 1-3 and at the ionization front. We derive the dust temperature and column density by combining Herschel PACS continuum observations with SOFIA observations at 37 $\\mu$m and SCUBA at 450 $\\mu$m. We model these observations using greybody fits and the DUSTY radiative transfer code. For the gas part we use RADEX to model the CO 1-0, CO 2-1, 13CO 1-0 and C18O 1-0 emission lines mapped with the IRAM-30m over a 4' field. Around IRS 1-3, we use HIFI observations of single-points and cuts in CO 9-8, 13CO 10-9 and C18O 9-8 to constrain the amount of warm gas, using the best fitting dust model derived wit...

  5. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of gas and dust mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, R. A.; Sijacki, D.; Clarke, C. J.

    2015-10-01

    We present a `two-fluid' implementation of dust in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) in the test particle limit. The scheme is able to handle both short and long stopping times and reproduces the short friction time limit, which is not properly handled in other implementations. We apply novel tests to verify its accuracy and limitations, including multidimensional tests that have not been previously applied to the drag-coupled dust problem and which are particularly relevant to self-gravitating protoplanetary discs. Our tests demonstrate several key requirements for accurate simulations of gas-dust mixtures. First, in standard SPH particle jitter can degrade the dust solution, even when the gas density is well reproduced. The use of integral gradients, a Wendland kernel and a large number of neighbours can control this, albeit at a greater computational cost. Secondly, when it is necessary to limit the artificial viscosity we recommend using the Cullen & Dehnen switch, since the alternative, using α ˜ 0.1, can generate a large velocity noise up to σv ≲ 0.3cs in the dust particles. Thirdly, we find that an accurate dust density estimate requires >400 neighbours, since, unlike the gas, the dust particles do not feel regularization forces. This density noise applies to all particle-based two-fluid implementations of dust, irrespective of the hydro solver and could lead to numerically induced fragmentation. Although our tests show accurate dusty gas simulations are possible, care must be taken to minimize the contribution from numerical noise.

  6. Consistent dust and gas models for protoplanetary disks. I. Disk shape, dust settling, opacities, and PAHs

    CERN Document Server

    Woitke, P; Pinte, C; Thi, W -F; Kamp, I; Rab, C; Anthonioz, F; Antonellini, S; Baldovin-Saavedra, C; Carmona, A; Dominik, C; Dionatos, O; Greaves, J; Güdel, M; Ilee, J D; Liebhart, A; Ménard, F; Rigon, L; Waters, L B F M; Aresu, G; Meijerink, R; Spaans, M

    2015-01-01

    We propose a set of standard assumptions for the modelling of Class II and III protoplanetary disks, which includes detailed continuum radiative transfer, thermo-chemical modelling of gas and ice, and line radiative transfer from optical to cm wavelengths. We propose new standard dust opacities for disk models, we present a simplified treatment of PAHs sufficient to reproduce the PAH emission features, and we suggest using a simple treatment of dust settling. We roughly adjust parameters to obtain a model that predicts typical Class II T Tauri star continuum and line observations. We systematically study the impact of each model parameter (disk mass, disk extension and shape, dust settling, dust size and opacity, gas/dust ratio, etc.) on all continuum and line observables, in particular on the SED, mm-slope, continuum visibilities, and emission lines including [OI] 63um, high-J CO lines, (sub-)mm CO isotopologue lines, and CO fundamental ro-vibrational lines. We find that evolved dust properties (large grains...

  7. SVOC partitioning between the gas phase and settled dust indoors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, W. W.

    2010-01-01

    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are a major class of indoor pollutants. Understanding SVOC partitioning between the gas phase and settled dust is important for characterizing the fate of these species indoors and the pathways by which humans are exposed to them. Such knowledge also helps...... in crafting measurement programs for epidemiological studies designed to probe potential associations between exposure to these compounds and adverse health effects. In this paper, we analyze published data from nineteen studies that cumulatively report measurements of dustborne and airborne SVOCs in more...... for estimating the partitioning of an SVOC between the gas phase and settled dust indoors. The results demonstrate, in central tendency, that a compound's octanol-air partition coefficient is a strong predictor of its abundance in settled dust relative to its gas phase concentration. Using median measured...

  8. The dust and gas content of the Crab Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, P J

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed MOCASSIN photoionization plus dust radiative transfer models for the Crab Nebula core-collapse supernova (CCSN) remnant, using either smooth or clumped mass distributions, in order to determine the chemical composition and masses of the nebular gas and dust. We computed models for several different geometries suggested for the nebular matter distribution but found that the observed gas and dust spectra are relatively insensitive to these geometries, being determined mainly by the spectrum of the pulsar wind nebula which ionizes and heats the nebula. Smooth distribution models are ruled out since they require 16-49 Msun of gas to fit the integrated optical nebular line fluxes, whereas our clumped models require 7.0 Msun of gas. neither of which can be matched by current CCSN yield predictions. A global gas-phase C/O ratio of 1.65 by number is derived, along with a He/H number ratio of 1.85, A carbonaceous dust composition is favoured by the observed gas-phase C/O ratio: amorphous carbon clu...

  9. Stars, gas, and dust in the Andromeda Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the results of an extensive observational study are presented of the properties of the stellar disk and bulge, the dust, and the gas in the Andromeda nebula (M31). A detailed analysis of the RAS results on M31 is given. In addition, new complete multi-color data on the optical light distribution are described. Together with a high-resolution radio continuum survey at 21 cm. The general morphological aspects of the different compounds are discussed. The analysis further focusses on the correlations between various components, in particular on that between gas and dust. (Auth.)

  10. NARROW DUST JETS IN A DIFFUSE GAS COMA: A NATURAL PRODUCT OF SMALL ACTIVE REGIONS ON COMETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combi, M. R.; Tenishev, V. M.; Rubin, M.; Fougere, N.; Gombosi, T. I., E-mail: mcombi@umich.edu [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States)

    2012-04-10

    Comets often display narrow dust jets but more diffuse gas comae when their eccentric orbits bring them into the inner solar system and sunlight sublimates the ice on the nucleus. Comets are also understood to have one or more active areas covering only a fraction of the total surface active with sublimating volatile ices. Calculations of the gas and dust distribution from a small active area on a comet's nucleus show that as the gas moves out radially into the vacuum of space it expands tangentially, filling much of the hemisphere centered on the active region. The dust dragged by the gas remains more concentrated over the active area. This explains some puzzling appearances of comets having collimated dust jets but more diffuse gaseous atmospheres. Our test case is 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the Rosetta mission target comet, whose activity is dominated by a single area covering only 4% of its surface.

  11. Astrochemistry of dust, ice and gas: introduction and overview

    OpenAIRE

    van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    2014-01-01

    A brief introduction and overview of the astrochemistry of dust, ice and gas and their interplay is presented, aimed at non-specialists. The importance of basic chemical physics studies of critical reactions is illustrated through a number of recent examples. Such studies have also triggered new insight into chemistry, illustrating how astronomy and chemistry can enhance each other. Much of the chemistry in star- and planet-forming regions is now thought to be driven by gas-grain chemistry ra...

  12. Ice nucleation of ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The ice nucleation characteristics of montmorillonite mineral dust aerosols with and without exposure to ammonia gas were measured at different atmospheric temperatures and relative humidities with a continuous flow diffusion chamber. The montmorillonite particles were exposed to pure (100% and diluted ammonia gas (25 ppm at room temperature in a stainless steel chamber. There was no significant change in the mineral dust particle size distribution due to the ammonia gas exposure. 100% pure ammonia gas exposure enhanced the ice nucleating fraction of montmorillonite mineral dust particles 3 to 8 times at 90% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw and 5 to 8 times at 100% RHw for 120 min exposure time within our experimental conditions. The percentages of active ice nuclei were 2 to 9 times higher at 90% RHw and 2 to 13 times higher at 100% RHw in 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite compared to unexposed montmorillonite. All montmorillonite particles are more efficient as ice nuclei with increasing relative humidities and decreasing temperatures. The activation temperature of montmorillonite exposed to 100% pure ammonia was 12°C higher than for unexposed montmorillonite particles at 90% RHw and 10°C higher at 100% RHw. In the 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite experiments, the activation temperature was 7°C warmer than unexposed montmorillonite at 100% RHw. Degassing does not reverse the ice nucleating ability of ammonia exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles. This is the first experimental evidence that ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles can enhance its activation as ice nuclei and that the activation can occur at temperatures warmer than –10°C where natural atmospheric ice nuclei are very scarce.

  13. Ice nucleation of ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salam

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The ice nucleation characteristics of montmorillonite mineral dust aerosols with and without exposure to ammonia gas were measured at different atmospheric temperatures and relative humidities with a continuous flow diffusion chamber. The montmorillonite particles were exposed to pure (100% and diluted ammonia gas (25 ppm at room temperature in a stainless steel chamber. There was no significant change in the mineral dust particle size distribution due to the ammonia gas exposure. 100% pure ammonia gas exposure enhanced the ice nucleating fraction of montmorillonite mineral dust particles 3 to 8 times at 90% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw and 5 to 8 times at 100% RHw for 120 min exposure time compared to unexposed montmorillonite within our experimental conditions. The percentages of active ice nuclei were 2 to 8 times higher at 90% RHw and 2 to 7 times higher at 100% RHw in 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite compared to unexposed montmorillonite. All montmorillonite particles are more efficient as ice nuclei with increasing relative humidities and decreasing temperatures. The activation temperature of montmorillonite exposed to 100% pure ammonia was 15°C higher than for unexposed montmorillonite particles at 90% RHw. In the 25 ppm ammonia exposed montmorillonite experiments, the activation temperature was 10°C warmer than unexposed montmorillonite at 90% RHw. Degassing does not reverse the ice nucleating ability of ammonia exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles suggesting that the ammonia is chemically bound to the montmorillonite particle. This is the first experimental evidence that ammonia gas exposed montmorillonite mineral dust particles can enhance its activation as ice nuclei and that the activation can occur at temperatures warmer than –10°C where natural atmospheric ice nuclei are very scarce.

  14. Gas and dust hydrodynamical simulations of massive lopsided transition discs - II. Dust concentration

    CERN Document Server

    Baruteau, Clément

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of large dust grains in massive lopsided transition discs via 2D hydrodynamical simulations including both gas and dust. Our simulations adopt a ring-like gas density profile that becomes unstable against the Rossby-wave instability and forms a large crescent-shaped vortex. When gas self-gravity is discarded, but the indirect force from the displacement of the star by the vortex is included, we confirm that dust grains with stopping times of order the orbital time, which should be typically a few centimetres in size, are trapped ahead of the vortex in the azimuthal direction, while the smallest and largest grains concentrate towards the vortex centre. We obtain maximum shift angles of about 25 degrees. Gas self-gravity accentuates the concentration differences between small and large grains. At low to moderate disc masses, the larger the grains, the farther they are trapped ahead of the vortex. Shift angles up to 90 degrees are reached for 10 cm-sized grains, and we show that such ...

  15. Molecular gas of Planck cold dust clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuefang

    2015-08-01

    To probe dynamical processes and physical properties of Planck Cold Clumps, survey and mapping of 674 most reliable Planck cold dust clumps with J=1-0 of CO,13CO and C18O were made at PMO 13.7 m telescope. More than 600 molecular cores were obtained, which are mainly located in seven molecular complexes divided by Dame (1987). Parameters of cores in different regions are with some difference, showing different evolutional status and environment of the cores. As a whole they are quiescent. Some are with star forming activities. J=1-0 lines of HCO+ and HCN at CO emission peaks were also observed at PMO, of which 24 were mapped with IRAM 30 m telescope. Several cores were also observed with J=2-1 of CO and 13CO using CSO. Core splits were detected. Combining with infrared data more than 70% of CO cores are identified as starless. Planck cold clumps seem to be ideal samples to search for candidates of massive prestellar cores and pre-clusters.

  16. An extremely low gas-to-dust ratio in the dust-lane lenticular galaxy NGC 5485

    CERN Document Server

    Baes, Maarten; Sarzi, Marc; De Looze, Ilse; Fritz, Jacopo; Gentile, Gianfranco; Hughes, Thomas M; Puerari, Ivânio; Smith, Matthew W L; Viaene, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is mounting that a significant fraction of the early-type galaxy population contains substantial reservoirs of cold interstellar gas and dust. We investigate the gas and dust in NGC 5485, an early-type galaxy with a prominent minor-axis dust lane. Using new Herschel PACS and SPIRE imaging data, we detect 3.8 x 10^6 Msun of cool interstellar dust in NGC 5485, which is in stark contrast with the non-detection of the galaxy in sensitive HI and CO observations from the ATLAS3D consortium. The resulting gas-to-dust ratio upper limit is Mgas/Md < 14.5, almost an order of magnitude lower than the canonical value for the Milky Way. We scrutinize the reliability of the dust, atomic gas and molecular gas mass estimates, but these do not show systematic uncertainties that can explain the extreme gas-to-dust ratio. Also a warm or hot ionized gas medium does not offer an explanation. A possible scenario could be that NGC 5485 merged with an SMC-type metal-poor galaxy with a substantial CO-dark molecular gas co...

  17. Astrochemistry of dust, ice and gas: introduction and overview

    CERN Document Server

    van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2014-01-01

    A brief introduction and overview of the astrochemistry of dust, ice and gas and their interplay is presented, aimed at non-specialists. The importance of basic chemical physics studies of critical reactions is illustrated through a number of recent examples. Such studies have also triggered new insight into chemistry, illustrating how astronomy and chemistry can enhance each other. Much of the chemistry in star- and planet-forming regions is now thought to be driven by gas-grain chemistry rather than pure gas-phase chemistry, and a critical discussion of the state of such models is given. Recent developments in studies of diffuse clouds and PDRs, cold dense clouds, hot cores, protoplanetary disks and exoplanetary atmospheres are summarized, both for simple and more complex molecules, with links to papers presented in this volume. In spite of many lingering uncertainties, the future of astrochemistry is bright: new observational facilities promise major advances in our understanding of the journey of gas, ice...

  18. The Dust-to-Gas Ratio in the Small Magellanic Cloud Tail

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, K D; Müller, E; Misselt, K A; Bolatto, A; Bernard, J -P; Reach, W; Engelbracht, C W; Babler, B; Bracker, S; Block, M; Clayton, G C; Hora, J; Indebetouw, R; Israel, F P; Li, A; Madden, S; Meade, M; Meixner, M; Sewilo, M; Shiao, B; Smith, L J; van Loon, J Th; Whitney, B A

    2008-01-01

    The Tail region of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) was imaged using the MIPS instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of the SAGE-SMC Spitzer Legacy. Diffuse infrared emission from dust was detected in all the MIPS bands. The Tail gas-to-dust ratio was measured to be 1200 +/- 350 using the MIPS observations combined with existing IRAS and HI observations. This gas-to-dust ratio is higher than the expected 500-800 from the known Tail metallicity indicating possible destruction of dust grains. Two cluster regions in the Tail were resolved into multiple sources in the MIPS observations and local gas-to-dust ratios were measured to be ~440 and ~250 suggests dust formation and/or significant amounts of ionized gas in these regions. These results support the interpretation that the SMC Tail is a tidal tail recently stripped from the SMC that includes gas, dust, and young stars.

  19. Gas and dust in the star-forming region rho Oph A: The dust opacity exponent beta and the gas-to-dust mass ratio g2d

    CERN Document Server

    Liseau, R; Lunttila, T; Olberg, M; Rydbeck, G; Bergman, P; Justtanont, K; Olofsson, G; de Vries, B L

    2015-01-01

    We aim at determining the spatial distribution of the gas and dust in star-forming regions and address their relative abundances in quantitative terms. We also examine the dust opacity exponent beta for spatial and/or temporal variations. Using mapping observations of the very dense rho Oph A core, we examined standard 1D and non-standard 3D methods to analyse data of far-infrared and submillimeter (submm) continuum radiation. The resulting dust surface density distribution can be compared to that of the gas. The latter was derived from the analysis of accompanying molecular line emission, observed with Herschel from space and with APEX from the ground. As a gas tracer we used N2H+, which is believed to be much less sensitive to freeze-out than CO and its isotopologues. Radiative transfer modelling of the N2H+(J=3-2) and (J=6-5) lines with their hyperfine structure explicitly taken into account provides solutions for the spatial distribution of the column density N(H2), hence the surface density distribution ...

  20. Airborne Astronomy Symposium on the Galactic Ecosystem: From Gas to Stars to Dust, volume 73

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michael R. (Editor); Davidson, Jacqueline A. (Editor); Erickson, Edwin F. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This symposium was organized to review the science related to NASA's Airborne Astronomy Program on the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The theme selected, 'The Galactic Ecosystem: From Gas to Stars to Dust,' was considered to capture the underlying commonality of much of the research discussed. The 8 sessions were as follows: The Interstellar Medium; The Life Cycle of the ISM in Other Galaxies; Star and Planetary System Formation; Our Planetary System: The Solar System; The Enrichment of the Interstellar Medium; The Galactic Center: A Unique Region of the Galactic Ecosystem; Instrumentation for Airborne Astronomy; KAO History and Education; and Missions and the Future of Infrared Astronomy.

  1. Dust and Gas in the Magellanic Clouds from the HERITAGE Herschel Key Project. II. Gas-to-Dust Ratio Variations across ISM Phases

    CERN Document Server

    Roman-Duval, Julia; Meixner, Margaret; Bot, Caroline; Bolatto, Alberto D; Hughes, Annie; Wong, Tony; Babler, Brian; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Clayton, Geoffrey; Fukui, Yasuo; Galametz, Maud; Galliano, Frederic; Glover, Simon C O; Hony, Sacha; Israel, Frank; Jameson, Katherine; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Lee, Min-Young; Li, Aigen; Madden, Suzanne C; Misselt, Karl; Montiel, Edward; Okumura, K; Onishi, Toshikazu; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Reach, William; Remy-Ruyer, A; Robitaille, Thomas; Rubio, Monica; Sauvage, Marc; Seale, Jonathan; Sewilo, Marta; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Zhukovska, Svitlana

    2014-01-01

    The spatial variations of the gas-to-dust ratio (GDR) provide constraints on the chemical evolution and lifecycle of dust in galaxies. We examine the relation between dust and gas at 10-50 pc resolution in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) based on Herschel far-infrared (FIR), H I 21 cm, CO, and Halpha observations. In the diffuse atomic ISM, we derive the gas-to-dust ratio as the slope of the dust-gas relation and find gas-to-dust ratios of 380+250-130 in the LMC, and 1200+1600-420 in the SMC, not including helium. The atomic-to-molecular transition is located at dust surface densities of 0.05 Mo pc-2 in the LMC and 0.03 Mo pc-2 in the SMC, corresponding to AV ~ 0.4 and 0.2, respectively. We investigate the range of CO-to-H2 conversion factor to best account for all the molecular gas in the beam of the observations, and find upper limits on XCO to be 6x1020 cm-2 K-1 km-1 s in the LMC (Z=0.5Zo) at 15 pc resolution, and 4x 1021 cm-2 K-1 km-1 s in the SMC (Z=0.2Zo) at 45 pc resolution. In the ...

  2. On dust-gas gravitational instabilities in protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Latter, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    In protoplanetary disks the aerodynamical friction between particles and gas induces a variety of instabilities that facilitate planet formation. Of these we examine the so-called `secular gravitational instability' (SGI) in the two-fluid approximation, deriving analytical expressions for its stability criteria and growth rates. Concurrently, we present a physical explanation of the instability that shows how it manifests upon an intermediate range of lengthscales exhibiting geostrophic balance in the gas component. In contrast to a single-fluid treatment, the SGI is quenched within a critical disk radius, as large as 10 AU and 30 AU for cm and mm sized particles respectively, although establishing robust estimates is hampered by uncertainties in the parameters (especially the strength of turbulence) and deficiencies in the razor-thin disk model we employ. It is unlikely, however, that the SGI is relevant for well-coupled dust. We conclude by applying these results to the question of planetesimal formation an...

  3. Squalene and cholesterol in dust from Danish homes and daycare centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Langer, Sarka; Fischer, Andreas;

    2011-01-01

    Given the rate at which humans shed their skin (desquamation), skin flakes that contain squalene and cholesterol are anticipated to be major constituents of indoor dust. These compounds have been detected in more than 97% of the dust samples collected from 500 bedrooms and 151 daycare centers of...... overall ozone removal by indoor surfaces. This is roughly comparable to the fraction of ozone removal that can be ascribed to reactions with indoor terpenes. Squalene containing dust is anticipated to contribute to the scavenging of ozone in all settings occupied by humans....

  4. Experiment study on the propagation laws of gas and coal dust explosion in coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Rong-jun; LI Run-zhi; WANG Lei; WU Zi-ke

    2009-01-01

    The experiment of gas and coal dust explosion propagation in a single laneway was carried out in a large experimental roadway that is nearly the same with actual envi-ronment and geometry conditions. In the experiment, the time when the gas and coal dust explosion flame reaches test points has a logarithmic function relation with the test point distances. The explosion flame propagation velocity rises rapidly in the foreside of the coal dust segment and comes down after that. The length of the flame area is about 2 times that of the original coal dust accumulation area. Shock wave pressure comes down to the rock bottom in the coal dust segment, then reaches the maximum peak rapidly and comes down. The theoretical basis of the research and assemble of across or explosion is sup-plied by the experiment conclusion. Compared with gas explosion, the force and destruc-tion degree of gas and coal dust explosion is much larger.

  5. The opacity of spiral galaxy disks : IX. Dust and gas surface densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, B. W.; Allen, R. J.; de Blok, W. J. G.; Bouchard, A.; Gonzalez-Lopezlira, R. A.; van der Kruit, P. C.; Leroy, A.

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to explore the relation between gas, atomic and molecular, and dust in spiral galaxies. Gas surface densities are from atomic hydrogen and CO line emission maps. To estimate the dust content, we use the disk opacity as inferred from the number of distant galaxies identified in twelve HST/

  6. IUE and IRAS observations of luminous M stars with varying gas-to dust ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Circumstellar gas and dust surrounding M giants and supergiants show luminous M stars to split into two distinct classes. Stars with a high gas to dust ratio all show chromospheric Ca II, H, and K emission. Stars with a high dust to gas ratio do not show chromospheric Ca II emission but are the only ones to show Balmer emission indicative of atmospheric shocks and are also the only ones to show maser emission. In order to determine whether all chromospheric indicators disappear in high dust to gas ratio stars, a survey of stars in both these classes was conducted with the IUE satellite. Long wavelength infrared fluxes for the program stars were obtained from the IRAS point source catalog. There is no obvious difference in the long wavelength observations between the two groups of stars. The long wavelength excess tends to follow the 10 micron excess and not the dust to gas ratio

  7. The Fundamentally Different Dynamics of Dust and Gas in Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Philip F

    2015-01-01

    We study the behavior of large dust grains in turbulent molecular clouds (MCs). In primarily neutral regions, dust grains move as aerodynamic particles, not necessarily with the gas. We therefore directly simulate, for the first time, the behavior of aerodynamic grains in highly supersonic, magnetohydrodynamic turbulence typical of MCs. We show that, under these conditions, grains with sizes a>0.01 micron exhibit dramatic (exceeding factor ~1000) fluctuations in the local dust-to-gas ratio (implying large small-scale variations in abundances, dust cooling rates, and dynamics). The dust can form highly filamentary structures (which would be observed in both dust emission and extinction), which can be much thinner than the characteristic width of gas filaments. Sometimes, the dust and gas filaments are not even in the same location. The 'clumping factor' of the dust (critical for dust evolution) can reach ~100, for grains in the ideal size range. The dust clustering is maximized around scales ~0.2pc*(a/micron)*...

  8. A Parameter Study of the Dust and Gas Temperature in a Field of Young Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, Andrea; Doty, Steven D

    2007-01-01

    We model the thermal effect of young stars on their surrounding environment in order to understand clustered star formation. We take radiative heating of dust, dust-gas collisional heating, cosmic-ray heating, and molecular cooling into account. Using Dusty, a spherical continuum radiative transfer code, we model the dust temperature distribution around young stellar objects with various luminosities and surrounding gas and dust density distributions. We have created a grid of dust temperature models, based on our modeling with Dusty, which we can use to calculate the dust temperature in a field of stars with various parameters. We then determine the gas temperature assuming energy balance. Our models can be used to make large-scale simulations of clustered star formation more realistic.

  9. Removal of dust from flue gas in magnetically stabilized fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinghui Wang; Keting Gui; Mingheng Shi; Changfeng Li

    2008-01-01

    A magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSFB, φ 500mm x 2100mm) was designed to study dust removal from flue gas. Based on the mechanism of dust removal in a fixed bed, the effects on collection efficiency of magnetic field intensity, ratio of flue gas velocity to minimum fluidization velocity, bed height, and particle average diameter, were investigated. Then feasible methods for MSFB to better remove dust were proposed. Over 95% of dust removal with MSFB can be achieved, when stable fluidization is maintained and when magnetic particles are frequently renewed.

  10. Dust trap formation in a non-self-sustained discharge with external gas ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippov, A. V., E-mail: fav@triniti.ru; Babichev, V. N.; Pal’, A. F.; Starostin, A. N.; Cherkovets, V. E.; Rerikh, V. K.; Taran, M. D. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    Results from numerical studies of a non-self-sustained gas discharge containing micrometer dust grains are presented. The non-self-sustained discharge (NSSD) was controlled by a stationary fast electron beam. The numerical model of an NSSD is based on the diffusion drift approximation for electrons and ions and self-consistently takes into account the influence of the dust component on the electron and ion densities. The dust component is described by the balance equation for the number of dust grains and the equation of motion for dust grains with allowance for the Stokes force, gravity force, and electric force in the cathode sheath. The interaction between dust grains is described in the self-consistent field approximation. The height of dust grain levitation over the cathode is determined and compared with experimental results. It is established that, at a given gas ionization rate and given applied voltage, there is a critical dust grain size above which the levitation condition in the cathode sheath cannot be satisfied. Simulations performed for the dust component consisting of dust grains of two different sizes shows that such grains levitate at different heights, i.e., size separation of dust drains levitating in the cathode sheath of an NSSD takes place.

  11. Analysis of the instability due to gas-dust friction in protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Shadmehri, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    We study stability of a dust layer in a gaseous disc subject to the linear axisymmetric perturbations. Instead of considering single-size particles, however, the population of dust particles is assumed to consist of two grain species. Dust grains exchange momentum with the gas via the drag force and their self-gravity is also considered. We show that the presence of two grain sizes can increase the efficiency of the linear growth of drag-driven instability in the protoplanetary discs. A second dust phase with a small mass, comparing to the first dust phase, would reduce the growth timescale even by a factor of two or more especially when its coupling to the gas is weak. It means that once a certain amount of large dust particles form, even though it is much smaller than that of small dust particles, the dust layer becomes more unstable and dust clumping are accelerated. Thus, presence of dust particles with various sizes must be considered in studies of dust clumping in protoplanetary discs where both large a...

  12. DUST AND GAS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS FROM THE HERITAGE HERSCHEL KEY PROJECT. II. GAS-TO-DUST RATIO VARIATIONS ACROSS INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM PHASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman-Duval, Julia; Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bot, Caroline [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Bolatto, Alberto; Jameson, Katherine [Department of Astronomy, Lab for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Hughes, Annie; Hony, Sacha [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Wong, Tony [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bernard, Jean-Philippe [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Clayton, Geoffrey C. [Louisiana State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 233-A Nicholson Hall, Tower Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Galametz, Maud [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Galliano, Frederic; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Lee, Min-Young [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Glover, Simon [Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Israel, Frank [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Li, Aigen, E-mail: duval@stsci.edu [314 Physics Building, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); and others

    2014-12-20

    The spatial variations of the gas-to-dust ratio (GDR) provide constraints on the chemical evolution and lifecycle of dust in galaxies. We examine the relation between dust and gas at 10-50 pc resolution in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) based on Herschel far-infrared (FIR), H I 21 cm, CO, and Hα observations. In the diffuse atomic interstellar medium (ISM), we derive the GDR as the slope of the dust-gas relation and find GDRs of 380{sub −130}{sup +250} ± 3 in the LMC, and 1200{sub −420}{sup +1600} ± 120 in the SMC, not including helium. The atomic-to-molecular transition is located at dust surface densities of 0.05 M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2} in the LMC and 0.03 M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2} in the SMC, corresponding to A {sub V} ∼ 0.4 and 0.2, respectively. We investigate the range of CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor to best account for all the molecular gas in the beam of the observations, and find upper limits on X {sub CO} to be 6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –2} K{sup –1} km{sup –1} s in the LMC (Z = 0.5 Z {sub ☉}) at 15 pc resolution, and 4 × 10{sup 21} cm{sup –2} K{sup –1} km{sup –1} s in the SMC (Z = 0.2 Z {sub ☉}) at 45 pc resolution. In the LMC, the slope of the dust-gas relation in the dense ISM is lower than in the diffuse ISM by a factor ∼2, even after accounting for the effects of CO-dark H{sub 2} in the translucent envelopes of molecular clouds. Coagulation of dust grains and the subsequent dust emissivity increase in molecular clouds, and/or accretion of gas-phase metals onto dust grains, and the subsequent dust abundance (dust-to-gas ratio) increase in molecular clouds could explain the observations. In the SMC, variations in the dust-gas slope caused by coagulation or accretion are degenerate with the effects of CO-dark H{sub 2}. Within the expected 5-20 times Galactic X {sub CO} range, the dust-gas slope can be either constant or decrease by a factor of several across ISM phases. Further modeling

  13. The fundamentally different dynamics of dust and gas in molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Lee, Hyunseok

    2016-03-01

    We study the behaviour of large dust grains in turbulent molecular clouds (MCs). In primarily neutral regions, dust grains move as aerodynamic particles, not necessarily with the gas. We therefore directly simulate, for the first time, the behaviour of aerodynamic grains in highly supersonic, magnetohydrodynamic turbulence typical of MCs. We show that, under these conditions, grains with sizes a ≳ 0.01 micron exhibit dramatic (exceeding factor ˜1000) fluctuations in the local dust-to-gas ratio (implying large small-scale variations in abundances, dust cooling rates, and dynamics). The dust can form highly filamentary structures (which would be observed in both dust emission and extinction), which can be much thinner than the characteristic width of gas filaments. Sometimes, the dust and gas filaments are not even in the same location. The `clumping factor' / 2 of the dust (critical for dust growth/coagulation/shattering) can reach ˜100, for grains in the ideal size range. The dust clustering is maximized around scales ˜ 0.2 pc (a/μm) (ngas/100 cm- 3)- 1, and is `averaged out' on larger scales. However, because the density varies widely in supersonic turbulence, the dynamic range of scales (and interesting grain sizes) for these fluctuations is much broader than in the subsonic case. Our results are applicable to MCs of essentially all sizes and densities, but we note how Lorentz forces and other physics (neglected here) may change them in some regimes. We discuss the potentially dramatic consequences for star formation, dust growth and destruction, and dust-based observations of MCs.

  14. Fragmentation and Evolution of Molecular Clouds. III: The Effect of Dust and Gas Energetics

    CERN Document Server

    Martel, Hugo; Evans, Neal J

    2012-01-01

    Dust and gas energetics are incorporated into a cluster-scale simulation of star formation in order to study the effect of heating and cooling on the star formation process. We build on our previous work by calculating separately the dust and gas temperatures. The dust temperature is set by radiative equilibrium between heating by embedded stars and radiation from dust. The gas temperature is determined using an energy-rate balance algorithm which includes molecular cooling, dust-gas collisional energy transfer, and cosmic-ray ionization. The fragmentation proceeds roughly similarly to simulations in which the gas temperature is set to the dust temperature, but there are differences. The structure of regions around sink particles have properties similar to those of Class 0 objects, but the infall speeds and mass accretion rates were, on average, higher than those seen for regions forming only low-mass stars. The gas and dust temperature have complex distributions not well modeled by approximations that ignore...

  15. Health effects of World Trade Center (WTC) Dust: An unprecedented disaster with inadequate risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Lippmann, Morton; Mitchell D Cohen; Chen, Lung-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) twin towers in New York City collapsed on 9/11/2001, converting much of the buildings’ huge masses into dense dust clouds of particles that settled on the streets and within buildings throughout Lower Manhattan. About 80–90% of the settled WTC Dust, ranging in particle size from ~2.5 μm upward, was a highly alkaline mixture of crushed concrete, gypsum, and synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs) that was readily resuspendable by physical disturbance and low-velocity air ...

  16. Dust and gas density evolution at a radial pressure bump in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Taki, Tetsuo; Ida, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the simultaneous evolution of dust and gas density profiles at a radial pressure bump located in a protoplanetary disk. If dust particles are treated as test particles, a radial pressure bump traps dust particles that drift radially inward. As the dust particles become more concentrated at the gas pressure bump, however, the drag force from dust to gas (back-reaction), which is ignored in a test-particle approach, deforms the pressure bump. We find that the pressure bump is completely deformed by the back-reaction when the dust-to-gas mass ratio reaches $\\sim 1$ for a slower bump restoration. The direct gravitational instability of dust particles is inhibited by the bump destruction. In the dust-enriched region, the radial pressure support becomes $\\sim 10-100$ times lower than the global value set initially. Although the pressure bump is a favorable place for streaming instability (SI), the flattened pressure gradient inhibits SI from forming large particle clumps corresponding to $100-1000$ k...

  17. Herschel-ATLAS: Revealing dust build-up and decline across gas, dust and stellar mass selected samples: I. Scaling relations

    CERN Document Server

    De Vis, P; Maddox, S; Gomez, H L; Clark, C J R; Bauer, A E; Viaene, S; Schofield, S P; Baes, M; Baker, A J; Bourne, N; Driver, S P; Dye, S; Eales, S A; Furlanetto, C; Ivison, R J; Robotham, A S G; Rowlands, K; Smith, D J B; Smith, M W L; Valiante, E; Wright, A H

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the dust, stars and atomic gas (HI) in an HI-selected sample of local galaxies (z80 per cent), low stellar mass sources that appear to be in the earliest stages of their evolution. We compare this sample with dust and stellar mass selected samples to study the dust and gas scaling relations over a wide range of gas fraction (proxy for evolutionary state of a galaxy). The most robust scaling relations for gas and dust are those linked to NUV-r (SSFR) and gas fraction, these do not depend on sample selection or environment. At the highest gas fractions, our additional sample shows the dust content is well below expectations from extrapolating scaling relations for more evolved sources, and dust is not a good tracer of the gas content. The specific dust mass for local galaxies peaks at a gas fraction of ~75 per cent. The atomic gas depletion time is also longer for high gas fraction galaxies, opposite to the trend found for molecular gas depletion timescale. We link this trend to the changi...

  18. Gas absorption and dust extinction towards the Orion Nebula Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Hasenberger, Birgit; Alves, Joao; Wolk, Scott; Meingast, Stefan; Getman, Konstantin; Pillitteri, Ignazio

    2016-01-01

    We characterise the relation between the gas and dust content of the interstellar medium towards young stellar objects in the Orion Nebula Cluster. X-ray observations provide estimates of the absorbing equivalent hydrogen column density N_H based on spectral fits. Near-infrared extinction values are calculated from intrinsic and observed colour magnitudes (J-H) and (H-K_s) as given by the VISTA Orion A survey. A linear fit of the correlation between column density and extinction values A_V yields an estimate of the N_H/A_V ratio. We investigate systematic uncertainties of the results by describing and (if possible) quantifying the influence of circumstellar material and the adopted extinction law, X-ray models, and elemental abundances on the N_H/A_V ratio. Assuming a Galactic extinction law with R_V=3.1 and solar abundances by Anders & Grevesse (1989), we deduce an N_H/A_V ratio of (1.39 +- 0.14) x 10^21 cm^-2 mag^-1 for Class III sources in the Orion Nebula Cluster where the given error does not include...

  19. Gas density drops inside dust cavities of transitional disks around young stars observed with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    van der Marel, Nienke; Bruderer, Simon; Perez, Laura M; Isella, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Transitional disks with large dust cavities are important laboratories to study planet formation and disk evolution. Cold gas may still be present inside these cavities, but the quantification of this gas is challenging. The gas content is important to constrain the origin of the dust cavity. We use Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of 12CO 6--5 and 690 GHz (Band 9) continuum of five well-studied transitional disks. In addition, we analyze previously published Band 7 observations of a disk in 12CO 3--2 line and 345 GHz continuum. The observations are used to set constraints on the gas and dust surface density profiles, in particular the drop delta-gas of the gas density inside the dust cavity. The physical-chemical modeling code DALI is used to analyze the gas and dust images simultaneously. We model SR21, HD135344B, LkCa15, SR24S and RXJ1615-3255 (Band 9) and J1604-2130 (Band 7). The SED and continuum visibility curve constrain the dust surface density. Subsequently, the same m...

  20. The Dust and Gas Content of a Disk Around Young Star HR 4796A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannings, V.; Greaves, J.; Holland, W.

    1999-01-01

    We have used the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) in Hawaii to search at submillimeter wavelengths for continuum emission from dust, and spectral line emission from carbon monoxide (CO) gas, in the neighborhood of HR 4796A.

  1. Multiscale GasKinetics/Particle (MGP) Simulation for Rocket Plume/Lunar Dust Interactions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Multiscale GasKinetic/Particle (MGP) computational method is proposed to simulate the plume-crater-interaction/dust-impingement(PCIDI) problem. The MGP method...

  2. Childhood to adolescence: dust and gas clearing in protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joanna Margaret

    Disks are ubiquitous around young stars. Over time, disks dissipate, revealing planets that formed hidden by their natal dust. Since direct detection of young planets at small orbital radii is currently impossible, other tracers of planet formation must be found. One sign of disk evolution, potentially linked to planet formation, is the opening of a gap or inner hole in the disk. In this thesis, I have identified and characterized several cold disks with large inner gaps but retaining massive primordial outer disks. While cold disks are not common, with ~5% of disks showing signs of inner gaps, they provide proof that at least some disks evolve from the inside-out. These large gaps are equivalent to dust clearing from inside the Earth's orbit to Neptune's orbit or even the inner Kuiper belt. Unlike more evolved systems like our own, the central star is often still accreting and a large outer disk remains. I identified four cold disks in Spitzer 5-40 μm spectra and modeled these disks using a 2-D radiative transfer code to determine the gap properties. Outer gap radii of 20-45 AU were derived. However, spectrophotometric identification is indirect and model-dependent. To validate this interpretation, I observed three disks with a submillimeter interferometer and obtained the first direct images of the central holes. The images agree well with the gap sizes derived from the spectrophotometry. One system, LkH&alpha 330, has a very steep outer gap edge which seems more consistent with gravitational perturbation rather than gradual processes, such as grain growth and settling. Roughly 70% of cold disks show CO v=1&rarr 0 gas emission from the inner 1 AU and therefore are unlikely to have evolved due to photoevaporation. The derived rotation temperatures are significantly lower for the cold disks than disks without gaps. Unresolved (sub)millimeter photometry shows that cold disks have steeper colors, indicating that they are optically thin at these wavelengths, unlike

  3. Cold dust but warm gas in the unusual elliptical galaxy NGC 4125

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, C D; Foyle, K; Parkin, T J; Cooper, E Mentuch; Roussel, H; Sauvage, M; Smith, M W L; Baes, M; Bendo, G; Boquien, M; Boselli, A; Ciesla, L; Clements, D L; Cooray, A; De Looze, I; Galametz, M; Gear, W; Lebouteiller, V; Madden, S; Pereira-Santaella, M; Remy-Ruyer, A

    2013-01-01

    Data from the Herschel Space Observatory have revealed an unusual elliptical galaxy, NGC 4125, which has strong and extended submillimeter emission from cold dust but only very strict upper limits to its CO and HI emission. Depending on the dust emissivity, the total dust mass is 2-5x10^6 Msun. While the neutral gas-to-dust mass ratio is extremely low (= 10^4 K faster than the dust is evaporated. If galaxies like NGC 4125, where the far-infrared emission does not trace neutral gas in the usual manner, are common at higher redshift, this could have significant implications for our understanding of high redshift galaxies and galaxy evolution.

  4. WMO SDS-WAS NAMEE Regional Center: Towards continuous evaluation of dust models in Northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basart, Sara; García-Castillo, Gerardo; Cuevas, Emilio; Terradellas, Enric

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important activities of the Regional Center for Northern Africa, Middle East and Europe of the World Meteorological Organization's Sand and Dust Storm Warning Advisory and Assessment System (WMO SDS-WAS, http://sds-was.aemet.es) is the dust model intercomparison and forecast evaluation, which is deemed an indispensable service to the users and an invaluable tool to assess model skills. Currently, the Regional Center collects daily dust forecasts from models run by nine partners (BSC, ECMWF, NASA, NCEP, SEEVCCC, EMA, CNR-ISAC, NOA and UK Met Office). A multi-model ensemble has also been set up in an effort to provide added-value products to the users. The first problem to address the dust model evaluation is the scarcity of suitable routine observations near the Sahara, the world's largest source of mineral dust. The present contribution presents preliminary results of dust model evaluation using new observational datasets. The current routine evaluation of dust predictions is focused on total-column dust optical depth (DOD) and uses remote-sensing retrievals from sun-photometric (AERONET) and satellite (MODIS) measurements. However, most users of dust forecasts are interested in the concentration near the surface (in the air we breathe) rather than in the total column content. Therefore, evaluation of the predicted surface concentration is also necessary. In this context, the initiative of the African Monsoon Interdisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) International Program to establish permanent measuring stations in the Sahel is extremely important. Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) monitors continuously record PM10 in M'Bour (Senegal); Cinzana (Mali) and Banizoumbou (Niger). This surface model evaluation is complemented with the PM10 observation from the Air Quality Control and Monitoring Network (AQCMN) of the Canary Islands (Spain). The region, located in the sub-tropical Eastern Atlantic (roughly 100 km west of the Moroccan coast), is

  5. Development of an Electrostatic Precipitator to Remove Martian Atmospheric Dust from ISRU Gas Intakes During Planetary Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, J. Sidney; Thompson, Samuel M.; Cox, Nathan D.; Johansen, Michael R.; Williams, Blakeley S.; Hogue, Michael D.; Lowder, M. Loraine; Calle, Carlos I.

    2011-01-01

    Manned exploration missions to Mars will need dependable in situ resource utilization (ISRU) for the production of oxygen and other commodities. One of these resources is the Martian atmosphere itself, which is composed of carbon dioxide (95.3%), nitrogen (2.7%), argon (1.6%), oxygen (0.13%), carbon monoxide (0.07%), and water vapor (0.03%), as well as other trace gases. However, the Martian atmosphere also contains relatively large amounts of dust, uploaded by frequent dust devils and high Winds. To make this gas usable for oxygen extraction in specialized chambers requires the removal of most of the dust. An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) system is an obvious choice. But with an atmospheric pressure just one-hundredth of Earth's, electrical breakdown at low voltages makes the implementation of the electrostatic precipitator technology very challenging. Ion mobility, drag forces, dust particle charging, and migration velocity are also affected because the low gas pressure results in molecular mean free paths that are approximately one hundred times longer than those at Earth .atmospheric pressure. We report here on our efforts to develop this technology at the Kennedy Space Center, using gases with approximately the same composition as the Martian atmosphere in a vacuum chamber at 9 mbars, the atmospheric pressure on Mars. We also present I-V curves and large particle charging data for various versions of wire-cylinder and rod-cylinder geometry ESPs. Preliminary results suggest that use of an ESP for dust collection on Mars may be feasible, but further testing with Martian dust simulant is required.

  6. N131: A dust bubble born from the disruption of a gas filament

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Li, Guang-Xing; Wyrowski, Friedrich; WANG, JUN-JIE; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Xu, Jin-Long; Gong, Yan; Yeh, Cosmos C.; Menten, Karl M.

    2015-01-01

    OB type stars have strong ionizing radiation, and drive energetic winds. The ultraviolet (UV) radiation from ionizing stars may heat dust and ionize gas to sweep up an expanding bubble shell. This shell may be the result of feedback leading to a new generation of stars. N131 is an infrared dust bubble residing in a molecular filament. We study the formation and fragmentation of this bubble with multi-wavelength dust and gas observations. Towards the bubble N131, we analyzed archival multi-wav...

  7. The Small Magellanic Cloud Investigation of Dust and Gas Evolution (SMIDGE):Overview and Science Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Karin; SMIDGE Team

    2016-06-01

    Because of its proximity, the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) has become a cornerstone in our understanding of the low metallicity interstellar medium. Many lines of evidence suggest that dust at low metallicity is substantially different from dust in the Milky Way and other high metallicity galaxies in its abundance, grain size distribution, composition and optical properties. The distinct characteristics of low metallicity dust are expected to alter the structure and properties of gas in the ISM, particularly its molecular phase, where dust shielding and grain surface chemistry play important roles. To investigate the interlocking evolution of dust and gas at low metallicity, we present new observations from the Small Magellanic Cloud Investigation of Dust and Gas Evolution (SMIDGE) survey. SMIDGE uses multiwavelength, high spatial resolution imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope to map dust extinction and extinction curve shape, as well as observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array to map the molecular gas. We present an overview of the survey and data products, outlining the scientific goals and early results from SMIDGE.

  8. Gas absorption and dust extinction towards the Orion Nebula Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenberger, Birgit; Forbrich, Jan; Alves, João; Wolk, Scott J.; Meingast, Stefan; Getman, Konstantin V.; Pillitteri, Ignazio

    2016-08-01

    Aims: We characterise the relation between the gas and dust content of the interstellar medium towards young stellar objects in the Orion Nebula Cluster. Methods: X-ray observations provide estimates of the absorbing equivalent hydrogen column density NH based on spectral fits. Near-infrared extinction values are calculated from intrinsic and observed colour magnitudes (J - H) and (H - Ks) as given by the VISTA Orion A survey. A linear fit of the correlation between column density and extinction values AV yields an estimate of the NH/AV ratio. We investigate systematic uncertainties of the results by describing and (if possible) quantifying the influence of circumstellar material and the adopted extinction law, X-ray models, and elemental abundances on the NH/AV ratio. Results: Assuming a Galactic extinction law with RV = 3.1 and solar abundances by Anders & Grevesse (1989, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 53, 197), we deduce an NH/AV ratio of (1.39 ± 0.14) × 1021 cm-2 mag-1 for Class III sources in the Orion Nebula Cluster where the given error does not include systematic uncertainties. This ratio is consistent with similar studies in other star-forming regions and approximately 31% lower than the Galactic value. We find no obvious trends in the spatial distribution of NH/AV ratios. Changes in the assumed extinction law and elemental abundances are demonstrated to have a relevant impact on deduced AV and NH values, respectively. Large systematic uncertainties associated with metal abundances in the Orion Nebula Cluster represent the primary limitation for the deduction of a definitive NH/AV ratio and the physical interpretation of these results. The catalogue is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/593/A7

  9. Quantifying the gas inside dust cavities in transitional disks: implications for young planets

    CERN Document Server

    van Dishoeck, E F; Bruderer, S; Pinilla, P

    2015-01-01

    ALMA observations of a small sample of transitional disks with large dust cavities observed in Cycle 0 and 1 are summarized. The gas and dust surface density structures are inferred from the continuum and 12CO, 13CO and C18O line data using the DALI physical-chemical code. Thanks to its ability to self-shield, CO can survive inside dust cavities in spite of being exposed to intense UV radiation and can thus be used as a probe of the gas structure. Modeling of the existing data shows that gas is present inside the dust cavities in all cases, but at a reduced level compared with the gas surface density profile of the outer disk. The gas density decrease inside the dust cavity radius by factors of up to 10^4 suggests clearing by one or more planetary-mass companions. The accompanying pressure bumps naturally lead to trapping of the mm-sized dust grains observed in the ALMA images.

  10. The warm molecular gas and dust of Seyfert galaxies: two different phases of accretion?

    CERN Document Server

    Mezcua, M; Fernández-Ontiveros, J A; Tristram, K; Neumayer, N

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of warm molecular gas (1000--3000 K), traced by the near-IR H$_2$ 2.12 $\\mu$m line, has been imaged with a resolution $<0.5$ arcsec in the central 1 kpc of seven nearby Seyfert galaxies. We find that this gas is highly concentrated towards the central 100 pc and that its morphology is often symmetrical. Lanes of warm H$_2$ gas are observed only in three cases (NGC\\,1068, NGC\\,1386 and Circinus) for which the morphology is much wider and extended than the dust filaments. We conclude that there is no one-to-one correlation between dust and warm gas. This indicates that, if the dust filaments and lanes of warm gas are radial streaming motions of fueling material, they must represent \\textit{two different phases of accretion}: the dust filaments represent a colder phase than the gas close to the nucleus (within $\\sim$100 pc). We predict that the morphology of the nuclear dust at these scales should resemble that of the cold molecular gas (e.g. CO at 10-40 K), as we show for CenA and NGC\\,1566 ...

  11. Numerical simulation on submerged gas jet scouring pit morphology in impingement water bath dust removers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Huijie; WU Xuan; ZHAO Yuxiang; WU Wenfei; LI Baowei

    2014-01-01

    The VOF interface tracking method was adopted to simulate the two-dimensional submerged gas jet scouring pit morphology in an impingement water bath dust remover.The interaction of gas/liquid two-phase was obtained by force balance and momentum exchange.On the self-designed impingement water bath dust remover test bench,the submerged gas jet flushing with different gas velocities was simulated. The results show that,the gas inlet velocity is one of the main factors affecting the submerged gas jet scou-ring pit characteristics.The unique nature of gas/liquid two-phase determines their unique way of move-ment,thus affects the morphological character of the scouring pit in the expansion lag phase.Within the study range,the characteristic radius and impact depth of the scouring pit increases with the gas velocity, and so are their growth rates.

  12. The Coupled Physical Structure of Gas and Dust in the IM Lup Protoplanetary Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Cleeves, L Ilsedore; Wilner, David J; Huang, Jane; Loomis, Ryan A; Andrews, Sean M; Czekala, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of gas and solids in protoplanetary disks determines the composition and formation efficiency of planetary systems. A number of disks show starkly different distributions for the gas and small grains compared to millimeter-centimeter sized dust. We present new Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the dust continuum, CO, $^{13}$CO, and C$^{18}$O in the IM Lup protoplanetary disk, one of the first systems where this dust-gas dichotomy was clearly seen. The $^{12}$CO is detected out to a radius of 970 AU, while the millimeter continuum emission is truncated at just 313 AU. Based upon this data, we have built a comprehensive physical and chemical model for the disk structure, which takes into account the complex, coupled nature of the gas and dust and the interplay between the local and external environment. We constrain the distributions of gas and dust, the gas temperatures, the CO abundances, the CO optical depths, and the incident external radiation fiel...

  13. Dust as interstellar catalyst - II. How chemical desorption impacts the gas

    CERN Document Server

    Cazaux, S; Dulieu, F; Hocuk, S

    2015-01-01

    Context. Interstellar dust particles, which represent 1% of the total mass, are recognized to be very powerful interstellar catalysts in star-forming regions. The presence of dust can have a strong impact on the chemical composition of molecular clouds. While observations show that many species that formed onto dust grains populate the gas phase, the process that transforms solid state into gas phase remains unclear. Aims. The aim of this paper is to consider the chemical desorption process, i.e. the process that releases solid species into the gas phase, in astrochemical models. These models allow determining the chemical composition of star-forming environments with an accurate treatment of the solid-phase chemistry. Methods. In paper I we derived a formula based on experimental studies with which we quantified the efficiencies of the chemical desorption process. Here we extend these results to astrophysical conditions. Results. The simulations of astrophysical environments show that the abundances of gas-p...

  14. Inorganic chemical composition and chemical reactivity of settled dust generated by the World Trade Center building collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Ziegler, Thomas L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Theodorakos, Peter M.; Brownfield, Isabelle; Adams, Monique G.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Taggart, Joseph E.; Clark, Roger N.; Wilson, S.; Sutley, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Samples of dust deposited around lower Manhattan by the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center (WTC) collapse have inorganic chemical compositions that result in part from the variable chemical contributions of concrete, gypsum wallboard, glass fibers, window glass, and other materials contained in the buildings. The dust deposits were also modified chemically by variable interactions with rain water or water used in street washing and fire fighting. Chemical leach tests using deionized water as the extraction fluid show the dust samples can be quite alkaline, due primarily to reactions with calcium hydroxide in concrete particles. Calcium and sulfate are the most soluble components in the dust, but many other elements are also readily leached, including metals such as Al, Sb, Mo Cr, Cu, and Zn. Indoor dust samples produce leachates with higher pH, alkalinity, and dissolved solids than outdoor dust samples, suggesting most outdoor dust had reacted with water and atmospheric carbon dioxide prior to sample collection. Leach tests using simulated lung fluids as the extracting fluid suggest that the dust might also be quite reactive in fluids lining the respiratory tract, resulting in dissolution of some particles and possible precipitation of new phases such as phosphates, carbonates, and silicates. Results of these chemical characterization studies can be used by health scientists as they continue to track and interpret health effects resulting from the short-term exposure to the initial dust cloud and the longer-term exposure to dusts resuspended during cleanup.

  15. Gas and dust hydrodynamical simulations of massive lopsided transition discs - I. Gas distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhaohuan; Baruteau, Clément

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by lopsided structures observed in some massive transition discs, we have carried out 2D numerical simulations to study vortex structure in massive discs, including the effects of disc self-gravity and the indirect force which is due to the displacement of the central star from the barycentre of the system by the lopsided structure. When only the indirect force is included, we confirm the finding by Mittal & Chiang that the vortex becomes stronger and can be more than two pressure scale heights wide, as long as the disc-to-star mass ratio is ≳1 per cent. Such wide vortices can excite strong density waves in the disc and therefore migrate inwards rapidly. However, when disc self-gravity is also considered in simulations, self-gravity plays a more prominent role on the vortex structure. We confirm that when the disc Toomre Q parameter is smaller than π/(2h), where h is the disc's aspect ratio, the vortices are significantly weakened and their inward migration slows down dramatically. Most importantly, when the disc is massive enough (e.g. Q ˜ 3), we find that the lopsided gas structure orbits around the star at a speed significantly slower than the local Keplerian speed. This sub-Keplerian pattern speed can lead to the concentration of dust particles at a radius beyond the lopsided gas structure (as shown in Paper II). Overall, disc self-gravity regulates the vortex structure in massive discs and the radial shift between the gas and dust distributions in vortices within massive discs may be probed by future observations.

  16. Materials characterization of dusts generated by the collapse of the World Trade Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, Gregory P.; Sutley, Stephen J.; Brownfield, Isabelle; Lowers, Heather; Bern, Amy M.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Clark, Roger N.; Gent, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    The major inorganic components of the dusts generated from the collapse of the World Trade Center buildings on September 11, 2001 were concrete materials, gypsum, and man-made vitreous fibers. These components were likely derived from lightweight Portland cement concrete floors, gypsum wallboard, and spray-on fireproofing and ceiling tiles, respectively. All of the 36 samples collected by the USGS team had these materials as the three major inorganic components of the dust. Components found at minor and trace levels include chrysotile asbestos, lead, crystalline silica, and particles of iron and zinc oxides. Other heavy metals, such as lead, bismuth, copper, molybdenum, chromium, and nickel, were present at much lower levels occurring in a variety of chemical forms. Several of these materials have health implications based on their chemical composition, morphology, and bioaccessibility.

  17. Atmospheric dust accumulation on native and non-native species: effects on gas exchange parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Juan A; Prado, Fernando E; Piacentini, Ruben D

    2014-05-01

    Plants are continuously exposed to atmospheric particulate matter (dust), and their leaves are the main receptors of deposited dust. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dust deposition on leaf gas exchange parameters of 17 native and non-native tree and shrub species growing in Gran San Miguel de Tucumán in northwestern Argentina. Maximum assimilation rate (), stomatal conductance (), transpiration rate (), internal CO concentration (), and instantaneous water-use efficiency (WUE) were measured in cleaned leaves (CL) and dusted leaves (DL) of different species on November 2010, July 2011, and September 2011. In almost all studied species, gas exchange parameters were significantly affected by dust deposition. Values for , , and of DL were significantly reduced in 11, 12, and 14 species compared with CL. Morphological leaf traits seem to be related to reduction. Indeed, L. and (Mart. ex DC.) Standl. species with pubescent leaves and thick ribs showed the highest reduction percentages. Contrarily, and WUE were increased in DL but were less responsive to dust deposition than other parameters. Increases of and WUE were significant in 5 and 11 species, respectively. Correlation analyses between /, /, and / pairs showed significant positive linear correlations in CL and DL of many studied species, including small and tall plants. These results suggest that leaf stomatal factors and shade-induced effect by accumulated dust are primarily responsible for the observed reductions in photosynthesis rate of DL.

  18. Ionized gas in E/S0 galaxies with dust lanes

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelman, Ido; J., José G Funes S; Kniazev, Alexei Y; Väisänen, Petri

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of multicolour observations of 30 E/S0 galaxies with dust lanes. For each galaxy we obtained broad-band images and narrow-band images using interference filters isolating the H\\alpha +[NII] emission lines to derive the amount and morphology of dust and ionized gas. To improve the wavelength coverage we retrieved data from the SDSS and 2MASS and combined these with our data. Ionized gas is detected in 25 galaxies and shows in most cases a smooth morphology, although knots and filamentary structure are also observed in some objects. The extended gas distribution closely follows the dust structure, with a clear correlation between the mass of both components. An extinction law by the extragalactic dust in the dark lanes is derived and is used to estimate the dust content of the galaxies. The derived extinction law is used to correct the measured colours for intrinsic dust extinction and the data are fitted with a stellar population synthesis model. We find that the H-alpha emission and colo...

  19. The Gas-to-Dust Relation in the Dark Cloud L1523 - Observational Evidence for CO Gas Depletion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Correlation between gas and dust column density has been studied for the dark globule L1523. The 13CO(J= 1→0) emission is used for tracing the gas, and the IR emissions, for tracing the dust constituent. In order to match the beam resolution between the images, a beam de-convolution algorithm based on the Maximum Correlation Method (MCM) was applied on the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) data. The morphology of 13CO column density map shows a close correlation to that of 100μm dust optical depth. The distribution of the optical depth at 100 μm follows that of gas column density more closely than does the flux map at either 60 or 100μm. The ratio of the 13CO column density to the 100μm optical depth shows a decreasing trend with increasing dust optical depth in the central part, indicating possible molecular gas condensation onto dust particles. The excessive decrease in the CO column density in the envelope may most probably be due to the photo-dissociation of CO molecules.

  20. Molecular gas, stars, and dust in sub-L* star-forming galaxies at z~2: evidence for universal star formation and nonuniversal dust-to-gas ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Schaerer, Daniel; Combes, Francoise; Egami, Eiichi; Swinbank, A. Mark; Richard, Johan; Sklias, Panos; Rawle, Tim D.

    2015-08-01

    Only recently have CO measurements become possible in main sequence star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z=1-3, but are still biased toward high star formation rates (SFR) and stellar masses (Ms), because of instrumental sensitivity limitations. It is essential to extend these studies toward the more numerous and typical SFGs, characterized by IR luminosities LIRstar, and dust properties in 8 such sub-L*, lensed SFGs at z=1.5-3.6, achieved thanks to the gravitational lensing and IRAM/PdBI, Herschel, Spitzer, and HST multi-wavelength data. Combined with our compilation of CO-detected galaxies from the literature, we revisit and propose new correlations between IR and CO luminosities, molecular gas, stellar and dust masses, specific SFR, molecular gas depletion timescales (tdepl), molecular gas fractions (fgas), dust-to-gas ratios, and redshift. These correlations betray the interplay between gas, dust, and star formation in galaxies.All the LIR, L'CO(1-0) data are best-fitted with a single relation, which spans 5 orders of magnitude in LIR, covers redshifts from z=0 to z=5.3, and samples spirals, main sequence SFGs, and starbursts. This favors a universal star formation. We find an increase of tdepl with Ms, as now revealed by low-Ms SFGs at z>1 and also observed at z=0, which contrasts with the acknowledged constant tdepl and refutes the linearity of the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation between molecular gas and SFR at galactic scales. A steady increase of fgas with redshift is predicted and is observed from z~0 to z~1.5, but is followed by a mild increase toward higher redshifts, which we further confirm with our highest redshift CO measurement in an L* galaxy at z=3.6. We provide the first fgas measure in z>1 SFGs at the low-Ms end 109.4dust-to-gas ratio among high-redshift SFGs, high-redshift SMGs, local spirals, and local ULIRGs

  1. Elongated dust clouds in a uniform DC positive column of low pressure gas discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usachev, A. D.; Zobnin, A. V.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.; Thoma, M. H.; Pustylnik, M. Y.; Fink, M. A.; Morfill, G. E.

    2016-06-01

    Experimental investigations of the formation of elongated dust clouds and their influence on the plasma glow intensity of the uniform direct current (DC) positive column (PC) have been performed under microgravity conditions. For the axial stabilization of the dust cloud position a polarity switching DC gas discharge with a switching frequency of 250 Hz was used. During the experiment, a spontaneous division of one elongated dust cloud into two smaller steady state dust clouds has been observed. Quantitative data on the dust cloud shape, size and dust number density distribution were obtained. Axial and radial distributions of plasma emission within the 585.2 nm and 703.2 nm neon spectral lines were measured over the whole discharge volume. It has been found that both spectral line intensities at the dust cloud region grew 1.7 times with respect to the undisturbed positive column region; in this the 585.2 nm line intensity increased by 10% compared to the 703.2 nm line intensity. For a semi-quantitative explanation of the observed phenomena the Schottky approach based on the equation of diffusion was used. The model reasonably explains the observed glow enhancement as an increasing of the ionization rate in the discharge with dust cloud, which compensates ion-electron recombination on the dust grain surfaces. In this, the ionization rate increases due to the growing of the DC axial electric field, and the glow grows directly proportional to the electric field. It is shown that the fundamental condition of the radial stability of the dusty plasma cloud is equal to the ionization and recombination rates within the cloud volume that is possible only when the electron density is constant and the radial electric field is absent within the dust cloud.

  2. The Herschel Exploitation of Local Galaxy Andromeda (HELGA) II: Dust and Gas in Andromeda

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, M W L; Gomez, H L; Duval, J Roman; Fritz, J; Braun, R; Baes, M; Blommaert, J A D L; Bendo, G J; Boquien, M; Boselli, A; Clements, D L; Cooray, A R; Cortese, L; de Looze, I; Ford, G P; Gear, W K; Gordon, K D; Gentile, G; Kirk, J; Lebouteiller, V; Madden, S; Mentuch, E; O'Halloran, B; Page, M J; Schulz, B; Spinoglio, L; Verstappen, J; Wilson, C D

    2012-01-01

    We present a dust analysis of Andromeda (M31), using Herschel images sampling the entire far-infrared peak (100-500 micron) observed as part of the HELGA survey. We fit a modified-blackbody model to ~4000 quasi-independant pixels and find that a variable dust-emissivity index (beta) is required to adequately fit the data. We find no significant long-wavelength excess above this model which would suggest the presence of a cold dust component. The gas-to-dust ratio has an exponential dependence with radius, increasing from ~20 in the centre to ~70 in the star-forming ring at 10kpc. The gas-to-dust gradient is consistent with the metallicity gradient if a constant fraction of metals is taken up by the dust grains. In the main 10kpc star-forming ring an average beta of ~1.9 is determined, in good agreement with values determined for the Milky Way. However, in contrast to the Milky Way, we find significant radial variations in beta, which increases from 1.9 at 10kpc to a peak value of ~2.5 at a radius of 3.1kpc an...

  3. The gas-to-dust mass ratio of Centaurus A as seen by Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Parkin, T J; Foyle, K; Baes, M; Bendo, G J; Boselli, A; Boquien, M; Cooray, A; Cormier, D; Davies, J I; Eales, S A; Galametz, M; Gomez, H L; Lebouteiller, V; Madden, S; Mentuch, E; Page, M J; Pohlen, M; Remy, A; Roussel, H; Sauvage, M; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L

    2012-01-01

    We present photometry of the nearby galaxy NGC 5128 (Centaurus A) observed with the PACS and SPIRE instruments on board the Herschel Space Observatory, at 70, 160, 250, 350 and 500 {\\mu}m, as well as new CO J = 3-2 observations taken with the HARP-B instrument on the JCMT. Using a single component modified blackbody, we model the dust spectral energy distribution within the disk of the galaxy using all five Herschel wavebands, and find dust temperatures of ~30 K towards the centre of the disk and a smoothly decreasing trend to ~20 K with increasing radius. We find a total dust mass of (1.59 \\pm 0.05) \\times 10^7 M\\odot, and a total gas mass of (2.7 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^9 M\\odot. The average gas-to-dust mass ratio is 103 \\pm 8 but we find an interesting increase in this ratio to approximately 275 toward the centre of Cen A. We discuss several possible physical processes that may be causing this effect, including dust sputtering, jet entrainment and systematic variables such as the XCO factor. Dust sputtering by ...

  4. Health effects of World Trade Center (WTC) Dust: An unprecedented disaster with inadequate risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, Morton; Cohen, Mitchell D.; Chen, Lung-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) twin towers in New York City collapsed on 9/11/2001, converting much of the buildings’ huge masses into dense dust clouds of particles that settled on the streets and within buildings throughout Lower Manhattan. About 80–90% of the settled WTC Dust, ranging in particle size from ~2.5 μm upward, was a highly alkaline mixture of crushed concrete, gypsum, and synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs) that was readily resuspendable by physical disturbance and low-velocity air currents. High concentrations of coarse and supercoarse WTC Dust were inhaled and deposited in the conductive airways in the head and lungs, and subsequently swallowed, causing both physical and chemical irritation to the respiratory and gastroesophageal epithelia. There were both acute and chronic adverse health effects in rescue/recovery workers; cleanup workers; residents; and office workers, especially in those lacking effective personal respiratory protective equipment. The numerous health effects in these people were not those associated with the monitored PM2.5 toxicants, which were present at low concentrations, that is, asbestos fibers, transition and heavy metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons or PAHs, and dioxins. Attention was never directed at the very high concentrations of the larger-sized and highly alkaline WTC Dust particles that, in retrospect, contained the more likely causal toxicants. Unfortunately, the initial focus of the air quality monitoring and guidance on exposure prevention programs on low-concentration components was never revised. Public agencies need to be better prepared to provide reliable guidance to the public on more appropriate means of exposure assessment, risk assessment, and preventive measures. PMID:26058443

  5. Health effects of World Trade Center (WTC) Dust: An unprecedented disaster's inadequate risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, Morton; Cohen, Mitchell D; Chen, Lung-Chi

    2015-07-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) twin towers in New York City collapsed on 9/11/2001, converting much of the buildings' huge masses into dense dust clouds of particles that settled on the streets and within buildings throughout Lower Manhattan. About 80-90% of the settled WTC Dust, ranging in particle size from ∼2.5 μm upward, was a highly alkaline mixture of crushed concrete, gypsum, and synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs) that was readily resuspendable by physical disturbance and low-velocity air currents. High concentrations of coarse and supercoarse WTC Dust were inhaled and deposited in the conductive airways in the head and lungs, and subsequently swallowed, causing both physical and chemical irritation to the respiratory and gastroesophageal epithelia. There were both acute and chronic adverse health effects in rescue/recovery workers; cleanup workers; residents; and office workers, especially in those lacking effective personal respiratory protective equipment. The numerous health effects in these people were not those associated with the monitored PM2.5 toxicants, which were present at low concentrations, that is, asbestos fibers, transition and heavy metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons or PAHs, and dioxins. Attention was never directed at the very high concentrations of the larger-sized and highly alkaline WTC Dust particles that, in retrospect, contained the more likely causal toxicants. Unfortunately, the initial focus of the air quality monitoring and guidance on exposure prevention programs on low-concentration components was never revised. Public agencies need to be better prepared to provide reliable guidance to the public on more appropriate means of exposure assessment, risk assessment, and preventive measures. PMID:26058443

  6. A STUDY OF DUST AND GAS AT MARS FROM COMET C/2013 A1 (SIDING SPRING)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, Michael S. P.; Farnham, Tony L.; Bodewits, Dennis [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Tricarico, Pasquale [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Farnocchia, Davide, E-mail: msk@astro.umd.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Although the nucleus of comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) will safely pass Mars in 2014 October, the dust in the coma and tail will more closely approach the planet. Using a dynamical model of comet dust, we estimate the impact fluence. Based on our nominal model no impacts are expected at Mars. Relaxing our nominal model's parameters, the fluence is no greater than ∼10{sup –7} grains m{sup –2} for grain radii larger than 10 μm. Mars-orbiting spacecraft are unlikely to be impacted by large dust grains, but Mars may receive as many as ∼10{sup 7} grains, or ∼100 kg of total dust. We also estimate the flux of impacting gas molecules commonly observed in comet comae.

  7. A Study of Dust and Gas at Mars from Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring)

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, Michael S P; Bodewits, Dennis; Tricarico, Pasquale; Farnocchia, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Although the nucleus of comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) will safely pass Mars in October 2014, the dust in the coma and tail will more closely approach the planet. Using a dynamical model of comet dust, we estimate the impact fluence. Based on our nominal model no impacts are expected at Mars. Relaxing our nominal model's parameters, the fluence is no greater than ~10^7 grains/m^2 for grain radii larger than 10 {\\mu}m. Mars orbiting spacecraft are unlikely to be impacted by large dust grains, but Mars may receive as many as ~10^7 grains, or ~100 kg of total dust. We also estimate the flux of impacting gas molecules commonly observed in comet comae.

  8. A Study of Dust and Gas at Mars from Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael S. P.; Farnham, Tony L.; Bodewits, Dennis; Tricarico, Pasquale; Farnocchia, Davide

    2014-09-01

    Although the nucleus of comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) will safely pass Mars in 2014 October, the dust in the coma and tail will more closely approach the planet. Using a dynamical model of comet dust, we estimate the impact fluence. Based on our nominal model no impacts are expected at Mars. Relaxing our nominal model's parameters, the fluence is no greater than ~10-7 grains m-2 for grain radii larger than 10 μm. Mars-orbiting spacecraft are unlikely to be impacted by large dust grains, but Mars may receive as many as ~107 grains, or ~100 kg of total dust. We also estimate the flux of impacting gas molecules commonly observed in comet comae.

  9. Pre- and postperihelon abundances of gas and dust in comet Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Maria; Lutz, Barry L.; Wagner, R. Mark

    1994-01-01

    Photometrically calibrated spectra of comet P/Halley (1986 III) were recorded between 1985 September 12-1986 June 10 using the Ohio State University Image Dissector Scanner on the Perkins 72 inch telescope at the Lowell Observatory. Column densities of CN, C3, CH, C2, and NH2 were calculated from measured fluxes in these spectra, and molecular scale lengths were deduced from the radial distribution of CN, C3, C2, and NH2. Production rates were computed using the new scale lengths and a Haser model analysis. Continuum emission at 4260 A was used to derive gas-to-dust ratios. The data indicate than comet Halley was approximately 2-5 times more abundant in gas and dust at postperihelion than preperihelion. On 1986 June 8 we observed the onset of a cometary ourburst which appeared very strong in dust production. The gas-to-dust ratios appeared to be subject to changes as a result of short-term outbursts but otherwise did not exhibit any systematic dependence on heliocentric distance. Reflectivity gradients of the continuum were also measured from the spectra. While most of the continua were red, blue continua were also observed which may be correlated with dust outbursts.

  10. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. XX. Dust and gas in the foreground Galactic cirrus

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, S; Smith, M W L; Fritz, J; Davies, J I; Haynes, M P; Giovanelli, R; Baes, M; Bocchio, M; Boissier, S; Boquien, M; Boselli, A; Casasola, V; Clark, C J R; De Looze, I; Alighieri, S di Serego; Grossi, M; Jones, A P; Hughes, T M; Hunt, L K; Madden, S; Magrini, L; Pappalardo, C; Ysard, N; Zibetti, S

    2016-01-01

    We study the correlation between far-infared/submm dust emission and atomic gas column density in order to derive the properties of the high Galactic latitude, low density, Milky Way cirrus in the foreground of the Virgo cluster of galaxies. Dust emission maps from 60 to 850 um are obtained from SPIRE observations carried out within the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey, complemented by IRAS-IRIS and Planck-HFI maps. Data from the Arecibo legacy Fast ALFA Survey is used to derive atomic gas column densities for two broad velocity components, low and intermediate velocity clouds. Dust emissivities are derived for each gas component and each far-infared/submm band. For the low velocity clouds, we measure an average emissivity 0.79 +/- 0.08 times 1E-20 MJy sr^-1 cm^2 at 250 um. After fitting a modified blackbody to the available bands, we estimated a dust absorption cross-section 0.49 +/- 0.13 times 1E-25 cm^2 H^-1 at 250 um (with dust temperature T = 20.4 +/- 1.5 K and spectral index beta = 1.53 +/- 0.17). The resu...

  11. Removal of adhesive dusts from flue gas using corona discharges with spraying water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Effective removal of adhesive and fine dusts from flue gas is very difficult. A new method of electrostatic precipitation of the coronadischarges with spraying water(CDSW) was introduced. A new electrode configuration and the circulation spraying of water were employed inthe method. The efficient electrostatic precipitation for adhesive and fine dusts can be accomplished without any drain water during a longoperating period. The fundamental structure, discharge characteristics, mechanism of spraying and precipitation principle of the electrostaticprecipitation using CDSW were described and analyzed. The V-I characteristics, spraying state, supplying water quantity, influence oftemperature and clean of the electrodes were researched in series experiments. The treating effects of circulating spraying using the coronaplasma at the same time of electrostatic precipitation were investigated. The fundamental theories and experimental data were proposed, in orderto effectively remove the adhesive dusts from flue gas using CDSW in practice.

  12. How Does Metallicity Affect the Gas and Dust Properties of Galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Madden, Suzanne C; Remy-Ruyer, Aurelie

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of the ISM properties of a wide range of metal-poor galaxies with normal metal-rich galaxies reveals striking differences. We find that the combination of the low dust abundance and the active star formation results in a very porous ISM filled with hard photons, heating the dust in dwarf galaxies to overall higher temperatures than their metal-rich counterparts. This results in photodissociation of molecular clouds to greater depths, leaving relatively large PDR envelopes and difficult-to-detect CO cores. From detailed modeling of the low-metallicity ISM, we find significant fractions of CO-dark H2 - a reservoir of molecular gas not traced by CO, but present in the [CII] and [CI]-emitting envelopes. Self-consistent analyses of the neutral and ionized gas diagnostics along with the dust SED is the necessary way forward in uncovering the multiphase structure of galaxies

  13. Gas-to-dust ratio in massive star-forming galaxies at z~1.4

    CERN Document Server

    Seko, Akifumi; Yabe, Kiyoto; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Aono, Yuya; Iono, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    We present results of 12CO(J=2-1) observations toward four massive star-forming galaxies at z~1.4 with the Nobeyama 45~m radio telescope. The galaxies are detected with Spitzer/MIPS in 24 um, Herschel/SPIRE in 250 um, and 350 um and they mostly reside in the main sequence. Their gas-phase metallicities derived with N2 method by using the Ha and [NII]6584 emission lines are near the solar value. CO lines are detected toward three galaxies. The molecular gas masses obtained are (9.6-35) x 10^{10} Msun by adopting the Galactic CO-to-H2 conversion factor and the CO(2-1)/CO(1-0) flux ratio of 3. The dust masses derived with the modified blackbody model (assuming the dust temperature of 35 K and the emissivity index of 1.5) are (2.4-5.4) x 10^{8} Msun. The resulting gas-to-dust ratios (not accounting for HI mass) at z~1.4 are 220-1450, which are several times larger than those in local star-forming galaxies. A dependence of the gas-to-dust ratio on the far-infrared luminosity density is not clearly seen.

  14. ALMA Survey of Lupus Protoplanetary Disks. I. Dust and Gas Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, M.; Williams, J. P.; van der Marel, N.; Carpenter, J. M.; Guidi, G.; Hogerheijde, M.; Mathews, G. S.; Manara, C. F.; Miotello, A.; Natta, A.; Oliveira, I.; Tazzari, M.; Testi, L.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; van Terwisga, S. E.

    2016-09-01

    We present the first high-resolution sub-millimeter survey of both dust and gas for a large population of protoplanetary disks. Characterizing fundamental properties of protoplanetary disks on a statistical level is critical to understanding how disks evolve into the diverse exoplanet population. We use the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) to survey 89 protoplanetary disks around stars with {M}* \\gt 0.1 {M}ȯ in the young (1–3 Myr), nearby (150–200 pc) Lupus complex. Our observations cover the 890 μm continuum and the 13CO and C18O 3–2 lines. We use the sub-millimeter continuum to constrain {M}{{dust}} to a few Martian masses (0.2–0.4 M ⊕) and the CO isotopologue lines to constrain {M}{{gas}} to roughly a Jupiter mass (assuming an interstellar medium (ISM)-like [{CO}]/[{{{H}}}2] abundance). Of 89 sources, we detect 62 in continuum, 36 in 13CO, and 11 in C18O at \\gt 3σ significance. Stacking individually undetected sources limits their average dust mass to ≲ 6 Lunar masses (0.03 M ⊕), indicating rapid evolution once disk clearing begins. We find a positive correlation between {M}{{dust}} and M *, and present the first evidence for a positive correlation between {M}{{gas}} and M *, which may explain the dependence of giant planet frequency on host star mass. The mean dust mass in Lupus is 3× higher than in Upper Sco, while the dust mass distributions in Lupus and Taurus are statistically indistinguishable. Most detected disks have {M}{{gas}}≲ 1 {M}{{Jup}} and gas-to-dust ratios \\lt 100, assuming an ISM-like [{CO}]/[{{{H}}}2] abundance; unless CO is very depleted, the inferred gas depletion indicates that planet formation is well underway by a few Myr and may explain the unexpected prevalence of super-Earths in the exoplanet population.

  15. ALMA Survey of Lupus Protoplanetary Disks. I. Dust and Gas Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, M.; Williams, J. P.; van der Marel, N.; Carpenter, J. M.; Guidi, G.; Hogerheijde, M.; Mathews, G. S.; Manara, C. F.; Miotello, A.; Natta, A.; Oliveira, I.; Tazzari, M.; Testi, L.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; van Terwisga, S. E.

    2016-09-01

    We present the first high-resolution sub-millimeter survey of both dust and gas for a large population of protoplanetary disks. Characterizing fundamental properties of protoplanetary disks on a statistical level is critical to understanding how disks evolve into the diverse exoplanet population. We use the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) to survey 89 protoplanetary disks around stars with {M}* \\gt 0.1 {M}⊙ in the young (1-3 Myr), nearby (150-200 pc) Lupus complex. Our observations cover the 890 μm continuum and the 13CO and C18O 3-2 lines. We use the sub-millimeter continuum to constrain {M}{{dust}} to a few Martian masses (0.2-0.4 M ⊕) and the CO isotopologue lines to constrain {M}{{gas}} to roughly a Jupiter mass (assuming an interstellar medium (ISM)-like [{CO}]/[{{{H}}}2] abundance). Of 89 sources, we detect 62 in continuum, 36 in 13CO, and 11 in C18O at \\gt 3σ significance. Stacking individually undetected sources limits their average dust mass to ≲ 6 Lunar masses (0.03 M ⊕), indicating rapid evolution once disk clearing begins. We find a positive correlation between {M}{{dust}} and M *, and present the first evidence for a positive correlation between {M}{{gas}} and M *, which may explain the dependence of giant planet frequency on host star mass. The mean dust mass in Lupus is 3× higher than in Upper Sco, while the dust mass distributions in Lupus and Taurus are statistically indistinguishable. Most detected disks have {M}{{gas}}≲ 1 {M}{{Jup}} and gas-to-dust ratios \\lt 100, assuming an ISM-like [{CO}]/[{{{H}}}2] abundance; unless CO is very depleted, the inferred gas depletion indicates that planet formation is well underway by a few Myr and may explain the unexpected prevalence of super-Earths in the exoplanet population.

  16. Spatial distribution of interstellar dust in the Sun's vicinity. Comparison with neutral sodium-bearing gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergely, J.-L.; Valette, B.; Lallement, R.; Raimond, S.

    2010-07-01

    Aims: 3D tomography of the interstellar dust and gas may be useful in many respects, from the physical and chemical evolution of the interstellar medium itself to foreground decontamination of the cosmic microwave background, or various studies of the environments of specific objects. However, while spectral data cubes of the galactic emission become increasingly precise, the information on the distance to the emitting regions has not progressed as well and relies essentially on the galactic rotation curve. Our goal here is to bring more precise information on the distance to nearby interstellar dust and gas clouds within 250 pc. Methods: We apply the best available calibration methods to a carefully screened set of stellar Strömgren photometry data for targets possessing a Hipparcos parallax and spectral type classification. We combine the derived interstellar extinctions and the parallax distances for about 6000 stars to build a 3D tomography of the local dust. We use an inversion method based on a regularized Bayesian approach and a least squares criterion, optimized for this specific data set. We apply the same inversion technique to a totally independent set of neutral sodium absorption data available for about 1700 target stars. Results: We obtain 3D maps of the opacity and the distance to the main dust-bearing clouds within 250 pc and identify in those maps well-known dark clouds and high galactic more diffuse entities. We calculate the integrated extinction between the Sun and the cube boundary and compare this with the total galactic extinction derived from infrared 2D maps. The two quantities reach similar values at high latitudes, as expected if the local dust content is satisfyingly reproduced and the dust is closer than 250 pc. Those maps show a larger high latitude dust opacity in the North compared to the South, reinforcing earlier evidences. Interestingly the gas maps do not show the same asymmetry, suggesting a polar asymmetry of the dust to gas

  17. The Intricate Role of Cold Gas and Dust in Galaxy Evolution at Early Cosmic Epochs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Dominik Alexander; Capak, Peter; Carilli, Christopher; Walter, Fabian

    2015-08-01

    Cold molecular and atomic gas plays a central role in our understanding of early galaxy formation and evolution. It represents the material that stars form out of, and its mass, distribution, excitation, and dynamics provide crucial insight into the physical processes that support the ongoing star formation and stellar mass buildup. We will discuss the most recent progress in studies of gas-rich galaxies out to the highest redshifts through detailed investigations with the most powerful facilities across the electromagnetic spectrum, with a particular focus on new observations obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and the Atacama Large (sub-) Millimeter Array (ALMA). These studies cover a broad range in galaxy properties, and provide a detailed comparison of the physical conditions in massive, dust-obscured starburst galaxies and star-forming active galactic nuclei hosts within the first billion years of cosmic time. Facilitating the impressive sensitivity of ALMA, this investigation also includes the first direct, systematic study of the star-forming interstellar medium, gas dynamics, and dust obscuration in (much less luminous and massive) "typical" galaxies at such early epochs. These new results show that "typical" z>5 galaxies are significantly metal-enriched, but not heavily dust-obscured, consistent with a decreasing contribution of dust-obscured star formation to the star formation history of the universe towards the earliest cosmic epochs.

  18. Radial distribution of gas and dust in the two spiral galaxies M99 and M100

    CERN Document Server

    Pohlen, M; Smith, M W L; Eales, S A; Boselli, A; Bendo, G J; Gomez, H L; Papageorgiou, A; Auld, R; Baes, M; Bock, J J; Bradford, M; Buat, V; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Chanial, P; Charlot, S; Ciesla, L; Clements, D L; Cooray, A; Cormier, D; Dwek, E; Eales, S A; Elbaz, D; Galametz, M; Galliano, F; Gear, W K; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Hony, S; Isaak, K G; Levenson, L R; Lu, N; Madden, S; O'Halloran, B; Okumura, K; Oliver, S; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Parkin, T J; Perez-Fournon, I; Rangwala, N; Rigby, E E; Roussel, H; Rykala, A; Sacchi, N; Sauvage, M; Schulz, B; Schirm, M R P; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L; Stevens, J A; Srinivasan, S; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Vaccari, M; Vigroux, L; Wilson, C D; Wozniak, H; Wright, G S; Zeiliner, W W

    2010-01-01

    By combining Herschel-SPIRE data with archival Spitzer, HI, and CO maps, we investigate the spatial distribution of gas and dust in the two famous grand-design spirals M99 and M100 in the Virgo cluster. Thanks to the unique resolution and sensitivity of the Herschel-SPIRE photometer, we are for the first time able to measure the distribution and extent of cool, submillimetre (submm)-emitting dust inside and beyond the optical radius. We compare this with the radial variation in both the gas mass and the metallicity. Although we adopt a model-independent, phenomenological approach, our analysis provides important insights. We find the dust extending to at least the optical radius of the galaxy and showing breaks in its radial profiles at similar positions as the stellar distribution. The colour indices f350/f500 and f250/f350 decrease radially consistent with the temperature decreasing with radius. We also find evidence of an increasing gas to dust ratio with radius in the outer regions of both galaxies.

  19. THE GAS/DUST RATIO OF CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS: TESTING MODELS OF PLANETESIMAL FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, David [New York Center for Astrobiology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180-3590 (United States); Gibb, Erika [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, 8001 Natural Bridge Road, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Rettig, Terrence W.; Tilley, David; Balsara, Dinshaw [Center for Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Brittain, Sean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    We present high-resolution, near-infrared NIRSPEC observations of CO absorption toward six class II T Tauri stars: AA Tau, DG Tau, IQ Tau, RY Tau, CW Tau, and Haro 6-5b. {sup 12}CO overtone absorption lines originating from the circumstellar disk of each object were used to calculate line-of-sight gas column densities toward each source. We measured the gas/dust ratio as a function of disk inclination, utilizing measured visual extinctions and inclinations for each star. The majority of our sources show further evidence for a correlation between the gas/dust column density ratio and disk inclination similar to that found by Rettig et al.

  20. THE GAS/DUST RATIO OF CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS: TESTING MODELS OF PLANETESIMAL FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present high-resolution, near-infrared NIRSPEC observations of CO absorption toward six class II T Tauri stars: AA Tau, DG Tau, IQ Tau, RY Tau, CW Tau, and Haro 6-5b. 12CO overtone absorption lines originating from the circumstellar disk of each object were used to calculate line-of-sight gas column densities toward each source. We measured the gas/dust ratio as a function of disk inclination, utilizing measured visual extinctions and inclinations for each star. The majority of our sources show further evidence for a correlation between the gas/dust column density ratio and disk inclination similar to that found by Rettig et al.

  1. Suppression of gas detonation by a dust cloud at reduced mixture pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaev, A. V.; Vasil'ev, A. A.; Pinaev, P. A.

    2015-05-01

    The decay of a detonation wave in a mixture propagating through a dust cloud is experimentally studied for three types of silica sand with particle sizes 250-600, 120-250, and 90-120 , mean volume densities 2.2-3.5 g/l, and initial pressure 0.1-0.01 MPa. A non-monotonic character of reduction of wave velocity in the dust cloud is observed, where a secondary detonation can arise behind the leading front of the wave in the course of its attenuation. This situation is induced by the dual role of sand particles in decelerating the flow and simultaneously generating hot spots that promote reaction excitation. As a result, the mechanism of ignition in the decaying detonation wave becomes different. Critical parameters of the dust cloud providing complete suppression of the detonation wave and the flame propagating behind the latter at a reduced initial pressure of the gas mixture are determined.

  2. BASIN-CENTERED GAS SYSTEMS OF THE U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin A. Popov; Vito F. Nuccio; Thaddeus S. Dyman; Timothy A. Gognat; Ronald C. Johnson; James W. Schmoker; Michael S. Wilson; Charles Bartberger

    2000-11-01

    The USGS is re-evaluating the resource potential of basin-centered gas accumulations in the U.S. because of changing perceptions of the geology of these accumulations, and the availability of new data since the USGS 1995 National Assessment of United States oil and gas resources (Gautier et al., 1996). To attain these objectives, this project used knowledge of basin-centered gas systems and procedures such as stratigraphic analysis, organic geochemistry, modeling of basin thermal dynamics, reservoir characterization, and pressure analysis. This project proceeded in two phases which had the following objectives: Phase I (4/1998 through 5/1999): Identify and describe the geologic and geographic distribution of potential basin-centered gas systems, and Phase II (6/1999 through 11/2000): For selected systems, estimate the location of those basin-centered gas resources that are likely to be produced over the next 30 years. In Phase I, we characterize thirty-three (33) potential basin-centered gas systems (or accumulations) based on information published in the literature or acquired from internal computerized well and reservoir data files. These newly defined potential accumulations vary from low to high risk and may or may not survive the rigorous geologic scrutiny leading towards full assessment by the USGS. For logistical reasons, not all basins received the level of detail desired or required.

  3. Observations and model calculations of trace gas scavenging in a dense Saharan dust plume during MINATROC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de Reus

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An intensive field measurement campaign was performed in July/August 2002 at the Global Atmospheric Watch station Izaña on Tenerife to study the interaction of mineral dust aerosol and tropospheric chemistry (MINATROC. A dense Saharan dust plume, with aerosol masses exceeding 500 µg m-3, persisted for three days. During this dust event strongly reduced mixing ratios of ROx (HO2, CH3O2 and higher organic peroxy radicals, H2O2, NOx (NO and NO2 and O3 were observed. A chemistry boxmodel, constrained by the measurements, has been used to study gas phase and heterogeneous chemistry. It appeared to be difficult to reproduce the observed HCHO mixing ratios with the model, possibly related to the representation of precursor gas concentrations or the absence of dry deposition. The model calculations indicate that the reduced H2O2 mixing ratios in the dust plume can be explained by including the heterogeneous removal reaction of HO2 with an uptake coefficient of 0.2, or by assuming heterogeneous removal of H2O2 with an accommodation coefficient of 5x10-4. However, these heterogeneous reactions cannot explain the low ROx mixing ratios observed during the dust event. Whereas a mean daytime net ozone production rate (NOP of 1.06 ppbv/hr occurred throughout the campaign, the reduced ROx and NOx mixing ratios in the Saharan dust plume contributed to a reduced NOP of 0.14-0.33 ppbv/hr, which likely explains the relatively low ozone mixing ratios observed during this event.

  4. Properties of dust in the Galactic center region probed by AKARI far-infrared spectral mapping - detection of a dust feature

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneda, H; Onaka, T; Kawada, M; Murakami, N; Nakagawa, T; Okada, Y; Takahashi, H

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the properties of interstellar dust in the Galactic center region toward the Arches and Quintuplet clusters. With the Fourier Transform Spectrometer of the AKARI/Far-Infrared Surveyor, we performed the far-infrared (60 - 140 cm^-1) spectral mapping of an area of about 10' x 10' which includes the two clusters to obtain a low-resolution (R = 1.2 cm^-1) spectrum at every spatial bin of 30" x 30". We derive the spatial variations of dust continuum emission at different wavenumbers, which are compared with those of the [O III] 88 micron (113 cm^-1) emission and the OH 119 micron (84 cm^-1) absorption. The spectral fitting shows that two dust modified blackbody components with temperatures of ~20 K and ~50 K can reproduce most of the continuum spectra. For some spectra, however, we find that there exists a significant excess on top of a modified blackbody continuum around 80 - 90 cm^-1 (110 - 130 microns). The warmer dust component is spatially correlated well with the [O III] emission and hence lik...

  5. Herschel-ATLAS: Correlations between Dust and Gas in Local Submm-Selected Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bourne, N; Bendo, G J; Smith, M W L; Clark, C J R; Smith, D J B; Rigby, E E; Baes, M; Leeuw, L L; Maddox, S J; Thompson, M A; Bremer, M N; Cooray, A; Dariush, A; de Zotti, G; Dye, S; Eales, S; Hopwood, R; Ibar, E; Ivison, R J; Jarvis, M J; Michałowski, M J; Rowlands, K; Valiante, E

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of CO molecular gas tracers in a sample of 500{\\mu}m-selected Herschel-ATLAS galaxies at z60{\\mu}m), as a result of colder dust being less strongly associated with dense gas. Conversely, CO(2-1) and HI line fluxes both appear to be better correlated with longer wavelengths, suggesting that cold dust is more strongly associated with diffuse atomic and molecular gas phases, consistent with it being at least partially heated by radiation from old stellar populations. The increased scatter at long wavelengths implies that submillimetre fluxes are a poorer tracer of SFR. Fluxes at 22 and 60{\\mu}m are also better correlated with diffuse gas tracers than dense CO(3-2), probably due to very-small-grain emission in the diffuse interstellar medium, which is not correlated with SFR. The FIR/CO luminosity ratio and the dust mass/CO luminosity ratio both decrease with increasing luminosity, as a result of either correlations between mass and metallicity (changing CO/H2) or between CO luminosity and ...

  6. The Evolution of the Elemental Abundances in the Gas and Dust Phases of the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Dwek, E

    1997-01-01

    We present models for the evolution of the elemental abundances in the gas and dust phases of the interstellar medium (ISM) of our Galaxy by generalizing standard models for its dynamical and chemical evolution. In these models, the stellar birthrate history is determined by the infall rate of primordial gas, and by its functional dependence on the mass surface density of the stars and gas. We adopt a two component model for the Galaxy, consisting of a central bulge and an exponential disk with different infall rates and stellar birthrate histories. Condensation in stellar winds, Type Ia and Type II supernovae, and the accretion of refractory elements onto preexisting grains in dense molecular clouds are the dominant contributors to the abundance of elements locked up in the dust. Grain destruction by sputtering and evaporative grain-grain collisions in supernova remnants are the most important mechanisms that return these elements back to the gas phase. We calculate the dust production rate by the various du...

  7. Dust and gas power-spectrum in M33 (HERM33ES)

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F; Kramer, C; Xilouris, E M; Bertoldi, F; Braine, J; Buchbender, C; Calzetti, D; Gratier, P; Israel, F; Koribalski, B; Lord, S; Quintana-Lacaci, G; Relano, M; Roellig, M; Stacey, G; Tabatabaei, F S; Tilanus, R P J; van der Tak, F; van der Werf, P; Verley, S

    2012-01-01

    Power spectra of de-projected images of late-type galaxies in gas and/or dust emission are very useful diagnostics of the dynamics and stability of their interstellar medium. Previous studies have shown that the power spectra can be approximated as two power-laws, a shallow one at large scales (larger than 500 pc) and a steeper one at small scales, with the break between the two corresponding to the line-of-sight thickness of the galaxy disk. We present a thorough analysis of the power spectra of the dust and gas emission at several wavelengths in the nearby galaxy M33. In particular, we use the recently obtained images at five wavelengths by PACS and SPIRE onboard Herschel. The large dynamical range (2-3 dex in scale) of most images allow us to determine clearly the change in slopes from -1.5 to -4, with some variations with wavelength. The break scale is increasing with wavelength, from 100 pc at 24 and 100micron to 350 pc at 500micron, suggesting that the cool dust lies in a thicker disk than the warm dust...

  8. Spatial distribution of interstellar dust in the Sun vicinity, comparison with neutral sodium-bearing gas

    CERN Document Server

    Vergely, Jean-Luc; Lallement, Rosine; Raimond, Severine

    2010-01-01

    3D tomography of the interstellar dust and gas may be useful in many respects, from the physical and chemical evolution of the ISM itself to foreground decontamination of the CMB, or various studies of the environments of specific objects. Our goal here is to bring more precise information on the distance to nearby interstellar dust and gas clouds within 250 pc. We apply the best available calibration methods to a carefully screened set of stellar Stromgren photometry data for targets possessing a Hipparcos parallax and spectral type classification. We combine the derived interstellar extinctions and the parallax distances for about 6,000 stars to build a 3D tomography of the local dust. We use an inversion method based on a regularized Bayesian approach and a least squares criterion. We obtain 3D maps of the opacity and the distance to the main dust-bearing clouds with 250 pc. We calculate the integrated extinction between the Sun and the cube boundary and compare with the total galactic extinction derived f...

  9. DUST CONTINUUM EMISSION AS A TRACER OF GAS MASS IN GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use a sample of 36 galaxies from the KINGFISH (Herschel IR), HERACLES (IRAM CO), and THINGS (Very Large Array H I) surveys to study empirical relations between Herschel infrared (IR) luminosities and the total mass of the interstellar gas (H2 + H I). Such a comparison provides a simple empirical relationship without introducing the uncertainty of dust model fitting. We find tight correlations, and provide fits to these relations, between Herschel luminosities and the total gas mass integrated over entire galaxies, with the tightest, almost linear, correlation found for the longest wavelength data (SPIRE 500). However, we find that accounting for the gas-phase metallicity (affecting the dust to gas ratio) is crucial when applying these relations to low-mass, and presumably high-redshift, galaxies. The molecular (H2) gas mass is found to be better correlated with the peak of the IR emission (e.g., PACS160), driven mostly by the correlation of stellar mass and mean dust temperature. When examining these relations as a function of galactocentric radius, we find the same correlations, albeit with a larger scatter, up to a radius of r ∼ 0.7 r 25 (containing most of a galaxy's baryonic mass). However, beyond that radius, the same correlations no longer hold, with increasing gas (predominantly H I) mass relative to the infrared emission. The tight relations found for the bulk of the galaxy's baryonic content suggest that total gas masses of disk-like (non-merging/ULIRG) galaxies can be inferred from far-infrared continuum measurements in situations where only the latter are available, e.g., in ALMA continuum observations of high-redshift galaxies

  10. DUST CONTINUUM EMISSION AS A TRACER OF GAS MASS IN GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groves, Brent A.; Schinnerer, Eva; Walter, Fabian [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Leroy, Adam [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Galametz, Maud [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bolatto, Alberto [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Hunt, Leslie [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Dale, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Calzetti, Daniela [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Croxall, Kevin [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 4051 McPherson Laboratory, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert Jr., E-mail: brent@mpia.de [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-20

    We use a sample of 36 galaxies from the KINGFISH (Herschel IR), HERACLES (IRAM CO), and THINGS (Very Large Array H I) surveys to study empirical relations between Herschel infrared (IR) luminosities and the total mass of the interstellar gas (H{sub 2} + H I). Such a comparison provides a simple empirical relationship without introducing the uncertainty of dust model fitting. We find tight correlations, and provide fits to these relations, between Herschel luminosities and the total gas mass integrated over entire galaxies, with the tightest, almost linear, correlation found for the longest wavelength data (SPIRE 500). However, we find that accounting for the gas-phase metallicity (affecting the dust to gas ratio) is crucial when applying these relations to low-mass, and presumably high-redshift, galaxies. The molecular (H{sub 2}) gas mass is found to be better correlated with the peak of the IR emission (e.g., PACS160), driven mostly by the correlation of stellar mass and mean dust temperature. When examining these relations as a function of galactocentric radius, we find the same correlations, albeit with a larger scatter, up to a radius of r ∼ 0.7 r {sub 25} (containing most of a galaxy's baryonic mass). However, beyond that radius, the same correlations no longer hold, with increasing gas (predominantly H I) mass relative to the infrared emission. The tight relations found for the bulk of the galaxy's baryonic content suggest that total gas masses of disk-like (non-merging/ULIRG) galaxies can be inferred from far-infrared continuum measurements in situations where only the latter are available, e.g., in ALMA continuum observations of high-redshift galaxies.

  11. Comet 103P/Hartley 2 at perihelion: gas and dust activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, L. M.; Lin, Z.-Y.; Meech, K.

    2011-08-01

    Context. The comet 103P/Hartley 2, target of the EPOXI mission (NASA), was supposed to be observed for 3 days around its perihelion, from October 27 to 29, 2010, but photometric data were obtained only on October 27 and 29, 2010. On both dates, the comet visibility was not optimal due to its proximity to the Moon, as projected on the plane of the sky, whereas on October 28, the comet could not be observed at all. Aims: The goal of the campaign was to give ground support to the EPOXI mission by establishing a baseline of activity at perihelion to be compared with in situ activity observed by the space mission about 7 days later on Nov. 4, 2010. We aimed to assess gas and dust production rates, to study the gas and dust coma morphology, to investigate the behaviour of the refractory component by analysing the dust colour variations with date and with projected cometocentric distance, ρ, and to determine the slope of the surface brightness profiles, B, as a function of ρ. Methods: Long-slit spectra and optical broad- and narrowband images were acquired with the instrument ACAM mounted on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) at La Palma Observatory. We investigated the evolution of the dust coma morphology from the images acquired with specific continuum cometary filters (in the blue and red wavelength region) with image-enhancing techniques. We studied (1) the gas and dust production rates; (2) the dust radial brightness profiles; (3) the profiles of the CN, C2, C3 and NH2 column densities, and (4) the CN and C3 coma morphologies. The dust and gas profiles were azimuthally averaged, as well as measured in both the E-W direction (~Sun-antisolar direction) and in a direction defined by the slit orientation at PA 70 to 250 degrees. Results: The morphological analysis of the dust coma reveals only one structure. Aside from the dust tail in the west direction, a bright jet is detected in images acquired on October 27 at 03:00-04:00 UT. This jet turns on and off and it is

  12. Ionized Gas Characteristics in the Cavities of the Gas and Dust Disc of the Spiral Galaxy NGC 6946

    OpenAIRE

    Efremov, Yu. N.; Afanasiev, V.L.; Egorov, O. V.

    2011-01-01

    The parameters of the ionized gas in NGC 6946 (in the [NII]6548,6583, H-alpha and [SII]6717,6731 lines) are investigated with the SAO RAS BTA telescope along three positions of the long slit of the SCORPIO focal reducer, passing through a number of large and small cavities of the gaseous disc of the galaxy. Most of these cavities correspond exactly to the cavities in warm dust. We found that everywhere in the direction of NGC 6946 the lines of ionized gas are decomposed into two Gaussians, on...

  13. DUST AND GAS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS FROM THE HERITAGE HERSCHEL KEY PROJECT. I. DUST PROPERTIES AND INSIGHTS INTO THE ORIGIN OF THE SUBMILLIMETER EXCESS EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Karl D.; Roman-Duval, Julia; Meixner, Margaret [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bot, Caroline [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, 475 North Charter Street, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bernard, Jean-Philippe [CESR, Université de Toulouse, UPS, 9 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse, Cedex 4 (France); Bolatto, Alberto; Jameson, Katherine [Department of Astronomy, Lab for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Boyer, Martha L. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Clayton, Geoffrey C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 233-A Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Engelbracht, Charles [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Galametz, Maud [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching-bei-Mnchen (Germany); Galliano, Frederic; Hony, Sacha; Lebouteiller, Vianney [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hughes, Annie [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Indebetouw, Remy [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, and National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Israel, Frank P. [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Kawamura, Akiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); and others

    2014-12-20

    The dust properties in the Large and Small Magellanic clouds (LMC/SMC) are studied using the HERITAGE Herschel Key Project photometric data in five bands from 100 to 500 μm. Three simple models of dust emission were fit to the observations: a single temperature blackbody modified by a power-law emissivity (SMBB), a single temperature blackbody modified by a broken power-law emissivity (BEMBB), and two blackbodies with different temperatures, both modified by the same power-law emissivity (TTMBB). Using these models, we investigate the origin of the submillimeter excess, defined as the submillimeter emission above that expected from SMBB models fit to observations <200 μm. We find that the BEMBB model produces the lowest fit residuals with pixel-averaged 500 μm submillimeter excesses of 27% and 43% for the LMC and SMC, respectively. Adopting gas masses from previous works, the gas-to-dust ratios calculated from our fitting results show that the TTMBB fits require significantly more dust than are available even if all the metals present in the interstellar medium (ISM) were condensed into dust. This indicates that the submillimeter excess is more likely to be due to emissivity variations than a second population of colder dust. We derive integrated dust masses of (7.3 ± 1.7) × 10{sup 5} and (8.3 ± 2.1) × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} for the LMC and SMC, respectively. We find significant correlations between the submillimeter excess and other dust properties; further work is needed to determine the relative contributions of fitting noise and ISM physics to the correlations.

  14. Gas and dust in the Beta Pictoris Moving Group as seen by the Herschel Space Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Riviere-Marichalar, P; Montesinos, B; Duchêne, G; Bouy, H; Pinte, C; Menard, F; Donaldson, J; Eiroa, C; Krivov, A V; Kamp, I; Mendigutía, I; Dent, W R F; Lillo-Box, J

    2014-01-01

    Context. Debris discs are thought to be formed through the collisional grinding of planetesimals, and can be considered as the outcome of planet formation. Understanding the properties of gas and dust in debris discs can help us to comprehend the architecture of extrasolar planetary systems. Herschel Space Observatory far-infrared (IR) photometry and spectroscopy have provided a valuable dataset for the study of debris discs gas and dust composition. This paper is part of a series of papers devoted to the study of Herschel PACS observations of young stellar associations. Aims. This work aims at studying the properties of discs in the Beta Pictoris Moving Group (BPMG) through far-IR PACS observations of dust and gas. Methods. We obtained Herschel-PACS far-IR photometric observations at 70, 100 and 160 microns of 19 BPMG members, together with spectroscopic observations of four of them. Spectroscopic observations were centred at 63.18 microns and 157 microns, aiming to detect [OI] and [CII] emission. We incorpo...

  15. Dust and gas jets: Evidence for a diffuse source in Halley's coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clairemidi, Jacques; Rousselot, Philippe; Vernotte, F.; Moreels, Guy

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of dust-scattered intensity in Halley's inner coma is measured with the Vega three-channel spectrometer at three selected wavelengths: 377, 482, and 607 nm. The variation along a cometo-centric radius may be described by a p(sup -s) law where p is the distance between nucleus and optical axis and s is an exponent which is equal to 1 except in an intermediate 3000 less than p less than 7000 km region where s = 1.5. The shape of the radial distribution may be explained with a model including solar radiation pressure effect and quantum scattering efficiencies calculated from Mie theory. Monochromatic images inside an angular sector having its apex at the nucleus show evidence of two dust jets which extend to 40,000 Km. The pixel-to-pixel ratio of two images of dust intensity at 377 and 482 nm shows that the scattered intensity presents an excess of blue coloration in a zone located around the jets between 10,000 and 25,000 km. This coloration is interpreted as being due to a population of sub-micronic grains which result of the fragmentation of dust particles transported in the jets. It is suggested that the diffuse source where an additional quantity of CO was detected might be connected with the presence of a dust jet. In the present scheme, grain particles with a size of several micron or 10 micron would be transported inside a dust jet to distances of several 10,000 km where they would suffer fragmentation and produce sub-micronic particles and a release of gas which would be at the origin of the diffuse source.

  16. Gas outflow and dust transport of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ian-Lin; Su, Cheng-Chin; Ip, Wing-Huen; Lee, Jui-Chi; Lin, Zhong-Yi; Wu, Jong-Shinn

    2016-04-01

    Because of the diurnal thermal cycle and the irregular shape of the nucleus, gas outflow of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko could be highly anisotropic as possibly indicated by the colliminated dust jet structures on the sunlit side. Based on the preliminary study of the outgassing effect from the early phase of the Rosetta mission, a simple model of surface sublimation can be constructed by taking into account the dependence on the solar insolation. By implementing the time variability of the global gas production rate, a sequence of gas coma models can be generated at different epochs before and after perihelion by using an advanced DSMC code [1, 2] to calculate the gas flow near the cometary nucleus. At selected time intervals, we will also investigate the size change of the cometary ionosphere as the nucleus rotates as well as the ejection of dust particles dragged by the gas flow into bounded and unbounded trajectories. Reference: 1. Wu, J.-S., Tseng, K.-C. and Wu, F.-Y., "Parallel three-dimensional DSMC method using mesh refinement and variable time-step scheme", Comput. Phys. Comm., 162, pp. 166-187, 2004. 2. Su, C.-C., Tseng, K.-C., Cave, H.M., Wu, J.-S., Lian, Y.-Y., Kuo, T.-C. and Jermy, M.C., "Implementation of a Transient Adaptive Sub-Cell Module for the Parallel DSMC Code Using Unstructured Grids," Computers & Fluids, Vol. 39, pp. 1136-1145, 2010.

  17. Constraint on the Gas-to-Dust Ratio in Massive Star-Forming Galaxies at z~1.4

    CERN Document Server

    Seko, Akifumi; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Yabe, Kiyoto; Takeuchi, Tomoe; Iono, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    We carried out 12CO(J=2-1) observations toward three star-forming galaxies on the main sequence at z~1.4 with the Nobeyama 45m radio telescope. These galaxies are detected with Spitzer/MIPS in 24 um, Herschel/SPIRE in 250 um and 350 um, and their gas metallicity, derived from optical emission line ratios based on near infrared spectroscopic observations, is close to the solar metallicity. Although weak signal-like features of CO were seen, we could not detect significant CO emission. The dust mass and the upper limits on the molecular gas mass are (3.4-6.7) x 10^{8} Msun and (9.7-14) x 10^{10} Msun, respectively. The upper limits on the gas-to-dust ratios at z~1.4 are 150-410 which are comparable to the gas-to-dust ratios in local galaxies with similar gas metallicity. A line stacking analysis enables us to detect a significant CO emission and to derive an average molecular gas mass of 1.3 x 10^{11} Msun and gas-to-dust ratio of 250. This gas-to-dust ratio is also near that in local galaxies with solar metall...

  18. Partitioning of phthalates among the gas phase, airborne particles and settled dust in indoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Salthammer, Tunga; Fromme, Hermann

    2008-01-01

    A critical evaluation of human exposure to phthalate esters in indoor environments requires the determination of their distribution among the gas phase, airborne particles and settled dust. If sorption from the gas phase is the dominant mechanism whereby a given phthalate is associated with both....... The particle concentration, C-particle, of a given phthalate was calculated from its total airborne concentration and the concentration of airborne particles (PM4). This required knowledge of the particle-gas partition coefficient, K., which was estimated from either the saturation vapor pressure (p...... concentrations, the gas-phase concentrations of phthalates can also be estimated and, subsequently, the contribution of each of these compartments to indoor phthalate exposures....

  19. M-Band Spectra of Dust Embedded Sources at the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Moultaka, J; Schödel, R

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present paper is to investigate the circumstellar material around the brightest dust-enshrouded sources in the central stellar cluster of the Milky Way. Observations have been carried out at the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope on Paranal, Chile. We have used the long wavelength (LWS3) low resolution (LR) spectroscopic mode of the ISAAC camera at the VLT in the spectral range of the M filter from 4.4micron to 5.1micron. The use of a slit width of 0.6" implied a spectral resolution of R=l/Dl=800 (Dv=375 km/s). These observations resulted in M-band spectra of 15 bright sources in the central stellar cluster of the Milky Way. In addition to gaseous 12^CO (4.666 micron) and 13^CO (4.77 micron) vibration-rotational absorptions, we detect a strong absorption due to a mixture of polar and apolar CO ice (centered at 4.675 micron). In the shorter wavelength absorption wing there is an absorption feature due to XCN at 4.62 micron. The XCN absorption is strongest toward the M2 supergi...

  20. Gas and Dust in Debris Disks: Clues to the Late Stages of Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Aki

    2012-01-01

    The basic character of debris disks was established soon after their discovery in the mid- 1980's. These disks around nearby main sequence stars are composed of material (mostly dust) produced by collisions and/or evaporation of extrasolar asteroids and comets. However, fundamental observational questions about debris disks remain unanswered. How much material do debris disks typically contain and how does it evolve with time? What is the composition of their dust and gas? Are planets present or forming in the disks? Answers to these questions will provide insights into the late stages of planetary system formation and the origins of terrestrial planet atmospheres. In this talk, I will explain our current understanding of the place of debris disks in the planet formation process. Progress toward addressing the questions given above will be discussed, with emphasis on recent studies of the small but important gas component. Finally, I will outline the implications of debris dust for future efforts to directly image and characterize extrasolar terrestrial planets.

  1. Gone with the heat: a fundamental constraint on the imaging of dust and molecular gas in the early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Papadopoulos, Padelis P; Ivison, R J; Galametz, Maud; Smith, M W L; Xilouris, Emmanuel M

    2016-06-01

    Images of dust continuum and carbon monoxide (CO) line emission are powerful tools for deducing structural characteristics of galaxies, such as disc sizes, H2 gas velocity fields and enclosed H2 and dynamical masses. We report on a fundamental constraint set by the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the observed structural and dynamical characteristics of galaxies, as deduced from dust continuum and CO-line imaging at high redshifts. As the CMB temperature rises in the distant Universe, the ensuing thermal equilibrium between the CMB and the cold dust and H2 gas progressively erases all spatial and spectral contrasts between their brightness distributions and the CMB. For high-redshift galaxies, this strongly biases the recoverable H2 gas and dust mass distributions, scale lengths, gas velocity fields and dynamical mass estimates. This limitation is unique to millimetre/submillimetre wavelengths and unlike its known effect on the global dust continuum and molecular line emission of galaxies, it cannot be addressed simply. We nevertheless identify a unique signature of CMB-affected continuum brightness distributions, namely an increasing rather than diminishing contrast between such brightness distributions and the CMB when the cold dust in distant galaxies is imaged at frequencies beyond the Raleigh-Jeans limit. For the molecular gas tracers, the same effect makes the atomic carbon lines maintain a larger contrast than the CO lines against the CMB.

  2. Tracing gas accretion in the Galactic center using isotopic ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Riquelme, D; Martin-Pintado, J; Mauersberger, R; Martin, S; Bronfman, L

    2010-01-01

    Ams: We study the 12C/13C isotopic ratio in the disk of the central molecular zone and in the halo to trace gas accretion toward the Galactic center region in the Milky Way. Methods: Using the IRAM 30m telescope, we observe the J=1-0 rotational transition of HCO+, HCN, HNC and their 13C isotopic substitutions in order to measure the 12C/13C isotopic ratio. We observe 9 positions selected throughout the Galactic center region, including clouds at high latitude; locations where the X1 and X2 orbits associated with the barred potential are expected to intersect; and typical Galactic center molecular clouds. Results: We find a systematically higher 12C/13C isotopic ratio (>40) toward the halo and the X1 orbits than for the Galactic center molecular clouds (20-25). Our results point out to molecular gas which has undergone a different degree of nuclear processing than that observed in the gas towards the inner Galactic center region. Conclusions: The high isotopic ratios are consistent with the accretion of the ga...

  3. Ionized gas characteristics in the cavities of the gas and dust disc of the spiral galaxy NGC 6946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, Yu. N.; Afanasiev, V. L.; Egorov, O. V.

    2011-07-01

    The parameters of the ionized gas in NGC 6946 (in the [NII] λλ6548, 6583, H α and [SII] λλ6717, 6731 lines) are investigated with the SAO RAS BTA telescope along three positions of the long slit of the SCORPIO focal reducer, passing through a number of large and small cavities of the gaseous disc of the galaxy. These cavities correspond exactly to the cavities in warm dust, visible at 5 - 8µm. We found that everywhere in the direction of NGC 6946 the lines of ionized gas are decomposed into two Gaussians, one of which shows almost constant [SII]/H α and [NII]/H α ratios, as well as an almost constant radial velocity within the measurement errors (about -35… - 50 km/s). This component is in fact the foreground radiation from the diffuse ionized gas of our Galaxy, which is not surprising, given the low (12°) latitude of NGC 6946; a similar component is also present in the emission of neutral hydrogen. The analysis of the component of ionized gas, occurring inNGC 6946, has revealed that it shows signs of shock excitation in the cavities of the gaseous disc of the galaxy. This shock excitation is as well typical for the extraplanar diffuse ionized gas (EDIG), observed in a number of spiral galaxies at their high Z-coordinates. This can most likely be explained by low density of the gas in the NGC 6946 disc (with the usual photoionization) inside the cavities, due to what we see the spectral features of the EDIG gas of NGC 6946, projected onto them, and located outside the plane of the galaxy. In the absence of separation of ionized gas into two components by radial velocities, there is an increasing contribution to the integral line parameters by the EDIG of our Galaxy when the gas density in NGC 6946 decreases, which explains some strange results, obtained in the previous studies. Themorphology of warmdust, visible in the infrared range and HI is almost the same (except for the peripheral parts of the galaxy, where there are no sources of dust heating

  4. The first low-mass stars: critical metallicity or dust-to-gas ratio?

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Raffaella; Bianchi, Simone; Valiante, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    We explore the minimal conditions which enable the formation of metal-enriched solar and sub-solar mass stars. We find that in the absence of dust grains, gas fragmentation occurs at densities nH ~ [10^4-10^5]cm^{-3} when the metallicity exceeds Z ~ 10^{-4} Zsun. The resulting fragmentation masses are > 10 Msun. The inclusion of Fe and Si cooling does not affect the thermal evolution as this is dominated by molecular cooling even for metallicities as large as Z = 10^{-2} Zsun. The presence of dust is the key driver for the formation of low-mass stars. We focus on three representative core-collapse supernova (SN) progenitors, and consider the effects of reverse shocks of increasing strength: these reduce the depletion factors, fdep = Mdust/(Mdust+Mmet), alter the shape of the grain size distribution function and modify the relative abundances of grain species and of metal species in the gas phase. We find that the lowest metallicity at which fragmentation occurs is Z=10^{-6} Zsun for gas pre-enriched by the ex...

  5. Spitzer IRS Observations of the Galactic Center: Shocked Gas in the Radio Arc Bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Janet P; Cotera, Angela S; Erickson, Edwin F; Hollenbach, David J; Kaufman, Michael J; Rubin, Robert H

    2007-01-01

    We present Spitzer IRS spectra (R ~600, 10 - 38 micron) of 38 positions in the Galactic Center (GC), all at the same Galactic longitude and spanning plus/minus 0.3 degrees in latitude. Our positions include the Arches Cluster, the Arched Filaments, regions near the Quintuplet Cluster, the ``Bubble'' lying along the same line-of-sight as the molecular cloud G0.11-0.11, and the diffuse interstellar gas along the line-of-sight at higher Galactic latitudes. From measurements of the [O IV], [Ne II], [Ne III], [Si II], [S III], [S IV], [Fe II], [Fe III], and H_2 S(0), S(1), and S(2) lines we determine the gas excitation and ionic abundance ratios. The Ne/H and S/H abundance ratios are ~ 1.6 times that of the Orion Nebula. The main source of excitation is photoionization, with the Arches Cluster ionizing the Arched Filaments and the Quintuplet Cluster ionizing the gas nearby and at lower Galactic latitudes including the far side of the Bubble. In addition, strong shocks ionize gas to O^{+3} and destroy dust grains, ...

  6. GASPS - a Herschel survey of gas and dust in Protoplanetary Disks: Summary and Initial Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Dent, W R F; Kamp, I; Williams, J P; Menard, F; Andrews, S; Ardila, D; Aresu, G; Augereau, J-C; Navascues, D Barrado y; Brittain, S; Carmona, A; Ciardi, D; Danchi, W; Donaldson, J; Duchene, G; Eiroa, C; Fedele, D; Grady, C; de Gregorio-Molsalvo, I; Howard, C; Huelamo, N; Krivov, A; Lebreton, J; Liseau, R; Martin-Zaidi, C; Mathews, G; Meeus, G; Mendigutia, I; Montesinos, B; Morales-Calderon, M; Mora, A; Nomura, H; Pantin, E; Pascucci, I; Phillips, N; Pinte, C; Podio, L; Ramsay, S K; Riaz, B; Riviere-Marichalar, P; Roberge, A; Sandell, G; Solano, E; Tilling, I; Torrelles, J M; Vandenbusche, B; Vicente, S; White, G J; Woitke, P

    2013-01-01

    GASPS is a far-infrared line and continuum survey of protoplanetary and young debris disks using PACS on the Herschel Space Observatory. The survey includes [OI] at 63 microns, as well as 70, 100 and 160um continuum, with the brightest objects also studied in [OI]145um, [CII]157um, H2O and CO. Targets included T Tauri stars and debris disks in 7 nearby young associations, and a sample of isolated Herbig AeBe stars. The aim was to study the global gas and dust content in a wide disk sample, systemically comparing the results with models. In this paper we review the main aims, target selection and observing strategy. We show initial results, including line identifications, sources detected, and a first statistical study. [OI]63um was the brightest line in most objects, by a factor of ~10. Detection rates were 49%, including 100% of HAeBe stars and 43% of T Tauri stars. Comparison with published dust masses show a dust threshold for [OI]63um detection of ~1e-5 M_solar. Normalising to 140pc distance, 32% with mas...

  7. Dust and Gas in the Magellanic Clouds from the HERITAGE Herschel Key Project. I. Dust Properties and Insights into the Origin of the Submm Excess Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, Karl D; Bot, Caroline; Meixner, Margaret; Babler, Brian; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Bolatto, Alberto; Boyer, Martha L; Clayton, Geoffrey C; Engelbracht, Charles; Fukui, Yasuo; Galametz, Maud; Galliano, Frederic; Hony, Sacha; Hughes, Annie; Indebetouw, Remy; Israel, Frank P; Jameson, Katie; Kawamura, Akiko; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Li, Aigen; Madden, Suzanne C; Matsuura, Mikako; Misselt, Karl; Montiel, Edward; Okumura, K; Onishi, Toshikazu; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Paradis, Deborah; Rubio, Monica; Sandstrom, Karin; Sauvage, Marc; Seale, Jonathan; Sewilo, Marta; Tchernyshyov, Kirill; Skibba, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    The dust properties in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are studied using the HERITAGE Herschel Key Project photometric data in five bands from 100 to 500 micron. Three simple models of dust emission were fit to the observations: a single temperature blackbody modified by a power- law emissivity (SMBB), a single temperature blackbody modified by a broken power-law emissivity (BEMBB), and two blackbodies with different temperatures, both modified by the same power-law emissivity (TTMBB). Using these models we investigate the origin of the submm excess; defined as the submillimeter (submm) emission above that expected from SMBB models fit to observations < 200 micron. We find that the BEMBB model produces the lowest fit residuals with pixel-averaged 500 micron submm excesses of 27% and 43% for the LMC and SMC, respectively. Adopting gas masses from previous works, the gas-to-dust ratios calculated from our the fitting results shows that the TTMBB fits require significantly more dust than are available e...

  8. The JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey III: Comparisons of cold dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, molecular gas, and atomic gas in NGC 2403

    CERN Document Server

    Bendo, G J; Warren, B E; Brinks, E; Butner, H M; Chanial, P; Clements, D L; Courteau, S; Irwin, J; Israel, F P; Knapen, J H; Leech, J; Matthews, H E; Muehle, S; Petitpas, G; Serjeant, S; Tan, B K; Tilanus, R P J; Usero, A; Vaccari, M; van der Werf, P; Vlahakis, C; Wiegert, T; Zhu, M

    2009-01-01

    We used 3.6, 8.0, 70, 160 micron Spitzer Space Telescope data, James Clerk Maxwell Telescope HARP-B CO J=(3-2) data, National Radio Astronomy Observatory 12 meter telescope CO J=(1-0) data, and Very Large Array HI data to investigate the relations among PAHs, cold (~20 K) dust, molecular gas, and atomic gas within NGC 2403, an SABcd galaxy at a distance of 3.13 Mpc. The dust surface density is mainly a function of the total (atomic and molecular) gas surface density and galactocentric radius. The gas-to-dust ratio monotonically increases with radius, varying from ~100 in the nucleus to ~400 at 5.5 kpc. The slope of the gas-to-dust ratio is close to that of the oxygen abundance, suggesting that metallicity strongly affects the gas-to-dust ratio within this galaxy. The exponential scale length of the radial profile for the CO J=(3-2) emission is statistically identical to the scale length for the stellar continuum-subtracted 8 micron (PAH 8 micron) emission. However, CO J=(3-2) and PAH 8 micron surface brightne...

  9. Planck intermediate results. XXVIII. Interstellar gas and dust in the Chamaeleon clouds as seen by Fermi LAT and Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Planck,; Ade, P A R; Aghanim, N; Aniano, G; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Levy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Casandjian, J M; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Desert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Digel, S W; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Dore, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Ensslin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Fukui, Y; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Gjerlow, E; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Gorski, K M; Gregorio, A; Grenier, I A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versille, S; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Holmes, W A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Keihanen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vornle, M; Lopez-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macias-Perez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschenes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Norgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Roudier, G; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Scott, D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Strong, A W; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Tibaldo, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    Shortened abstract: Observations of the nearby Chamaeleon clouds in gamma rays with the Fermi Large Area Telescope and in thermal dust emission with Planck and IRAS have been used with the HI and CO radio data to (i) map the gas column densities in the different phases and at the dark neutral medium (DNM) transition between the HI-bright and CO-bright media; (ii) constrain the CO-to-$H_2$ conversion factor, $X_{CO}$; (iii) probe the dust properties per gas nucleon in each gas phase and spatially across the clouds. We have separated clouds in velocity in HI and CO emission and modelled the 0.4-100 GeV intensity, the dust optical depth at 353 GHz, the thermal radiance of the large grains, and an estimate of the dust extinction empirically corrected for the starlight intensity, $A_{VQ}$. The gamma-ray emissivity spectra confirm that the GeV-TeV cosmic rays uniformly permeate all gas phases up to the CO cores. The dust and cosmic rays reveal large amounts of DNM gas, with comparable spatial distributions and twic...

  10. Spectroscopic and x-ray diffraction analyses of asbestos in the World Trade Center dust:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayze, Gregg A.; Clark, Roger N.; Sutley, Stephen J.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Brownfield, Isabelle; Livo, Keith E.; Morath, Laurie C.

    2009-01-01

    On September 17 and 18, 2001, samples of settled dust and airfall debris were collected from 34 sites within a 1-km radius of the WTC collapse site, including a sample from an indoor location unaffected by rainfall, and samples of insulation from two steel beams at Ground Zero. Laboratory spectral and x-ray diffraction analyses of the field samples detected trace levels of serpentine minerals, including chrysotile asbestos, in about two-thirds of the dust samples at concentrations at or below ~1 wt%. One sample of a beam coating material contained up to 20 wt% chrysotile asbestos. Analyses indicate that trace levels of chrysotile were distributed with the dust radially to distances greater than 0.75 km from Ground Zero. The chrysotile content of the dust is variable and may indicate that chrysotile asbestos was not distributed uniformly during the three collapse events.

  11. Dust-grain scattering of X-rays observed during the lunar occultation of a transient X-ray source near the Galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extended X-ray emission surrounding point X-ray sources has been detected in the energy band 1-10 keV during lunar occultation observations of the Galactic center region. These extended X-rays are most likely due to X-ray scattering by interstellar dust grains. The spatial size and the intensity of the extended emission around the transient X-ray source GS 1741.2-2859/1741.6-2849 have been studied extensively. The spatial size is consistent with the typical grain size of about 0.06 micron. The intensity is used to obtain the energy dependence of the scattering optical depth to the source, which suggests the existence of iron in the grains. The ratio of the iron column density contained in the grains to the hydrogen column density of the neutral gas is roughly consistent with the cosmic abundance of iron. 30 refs

  12. Molecular Gas and Dust in the Massive Star Forming Region S 233 IR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-Qing Mao; Qin Zeng

    2004-01-01

    The massive star forming region S 233 IR is observed in the molecular lines CO J = 2-1, 3-2, NH3 (1,1), (2,2) and the 870μm dust continuum. Four submillimeter continuum sources, labelled SMM 1-4, are revealed in the 870μm dust emission. The main core, SMM1, is found to be associated with a deeply embedded near infrared cluster in the northeast; while the weaker source SMM2 coincides with a more evolved cluster in the southwest. The best fit spectral energy distribution of SMM1 gives an emissivity ofβ = 1.6, and temperatures of 32 K and 92 K for the cold- and hot-dust components. An SMM1 core mass of 246 M⊙ and a total mass of 445 M⊙ are estimated from the 870 μm dust continuum emission.SMM1 is found to have a temperature gradient decreasing from inside out, indicative of the presence of interior heating sources. The total outflow gas mass as traced by the CO J - 3-2 emission is estimated to be 35 M⊙. Low velocity outflows are also found in the NH3 (1,1) emission. The non-thermal dominant NH3 line width as well as the substantial core mass suggest that the SMM1 core is a "turbulent,massive dense core", in the process of forming a group or a cluster of stars. The much higher star formation efficiency found in the southwest cluster supports the suggestion that this cluster is more evolved than the northeast one. Large near infrared photometric variations found in the source PCS-IR93, a previously found highly polarized nebulosity, indicate an underlying star showing the FU Orionis type of behavior.

  13. The application of HEPA filter units in gas streams of high dust concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter (HEPA) units are currently employed for cleaning air and gas streams of very low dust concentrations where their high removal efficiencies reliably protect the environment. The high dust concentrations encountered during the modification and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, in the processing of contaminated scrap, or in the incineration of radioactive waste have limited the use of HEPA filters to the role of final stage clean-up filters. Recleaning HEPA filter units in their service locations offers economic advantages compared with conventional combinations of multiple dust removal devices. Fluid dynamic techniques come into consideration for the nondetrimental recleaning of inherently fragile, glass fiber filter media. This is explained by the relatively low mechanical stress induced during the required high-intensity recleaning processes, in comparison to beating or shaking methods. In this work, recleaning via low pressure reverse flow is addressed in detail. The influence of reverse flow intensity and particle size on recleanability is studied in laboratory tests on specimens of HEPA filter media. The minimum required reverse flow intensity is determined on the basis of the residual pressure drop after recleaning. Measurements of local pressures in a single pleat and theoretically calculated flow patterns showed that airflows in conventional deep-pleat pack geometries during reverse flow recleaning are not uniformly distributed. The difference between the air velocities at the pleat inlet and the downstream end can vary by up to a factor of five at typical reverse flow intensities, decreasing the overall effectiveness of particle dislodgement from the filter medium and shortening filter unit service life. Results are presented of field investigations into the recleanability of deep-pleat filter units during actual service conditions for three different dust types. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  14. Temperature structures in Galactic Center clouds - Direct evidence for gas heating via turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Immer, K; Pillai, T; Ginsburg, A; Menten, K M

    2016-01-01

    The Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) at the center of our Galaxy is the best template to study star formation processes under extreme conditions, similar to those in high-redshift galaxies. We observed on-the-fly maps of para-H$_{2}$CO transitions at 218 GHz and 291 GHz towards seven Galactic Center clouds. From the temperature-sensitive integrated intensity line ratios of H$_{2}$CO(3$_{2,1}-$2$_{2,0}$)/H$_{2}$CO(3$_{0,3}-$2$_{0,2}$) and H$_{2}$CO(4$_{2,2}-$3$_{2,1}$)/H$_{2}$CO(4$_{0,4}-$3$_{0,3}$) in combination with radiative transfer models, we produce gas temperature maps of our targets. These transitions are sensitive to gas with densities of $\\sim$10$^{5}$ cm$^{-3}$ and temperatures 40 K) than their dust temperatures ($\\sim$25 K). Our targets have a complex velocity structure that requires a careful disentanglement of the different components. We produce temperature maps for each of the velocity components and show that the temperatures of the components differ, revealing temperature gradients in the clouds...

  15. ALMA observations of warm molecular gas and cold dust in NGC 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle-0 observations of the CO (6-5) line emission (rest-frame frequency = 691.473 GHz) and of the 435 μm dust continuum emission in the nuclear region of NGC 34, a local luminous infrared galaxy at a distance of 84 Mpc (1'' = 407 pc) which contains a Seyfert 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) and a nuclear starburst. The CO emission is well resolved by the ALMA beam (0.''26 × 0.''23), with an integrated flux of f CO(6-5) = 1004 (± 151) Jy km s–1. Both the morphology and kinematics of the CO (6-5) emission are rather regular, consistent with a compact rotating disk with a size of 200 pc. A significant emission feature is detected on the redshifted wing of the line profile at the frequency of the H13CN (8-7) line, with an integrated flux of 17.7 ± 2.1(random) ± 2.7(systematic) Jy km s–1. However, it cannot be ruled out that the feature is due to an outflow of warm dense gas with a mean velocity of 400 km s–1. The continuum is resolved into an elongated configuration, and the observed flux corresponds to a dust mass of M dust = 106.97±0.13 M ☉. An unresolved central core (radius ≅ 50 pc) contributes 28% of the continuum flux and 19% of the CO (6-5) flux, consistent with insignificant contributions of the AGN to both emissions. Both the CO (6-5) and continuum spatial distributions suggest a very high gas column density (≳ 104 M ☉ pc–2) in the nuclear region at radius ≲ 100 pc.

  16. ALMA observations of warm molecular gas and cold dust in NGC 34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, C. K.; Cao, C.; Lu, N.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Zhao, Y.-H.; Appleton, P.; Armus, L.; Lord, S.; Murphy, E. J.; Schulz, B. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gao, Y. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Van der Werf, P.; Meijerink, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Evans, A. S.; Stierwalt, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Chu, J.; Sanders, D. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96816 (United States); Haan, S. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, ATNF, P.O. Box 76, Epping 1710 (Australia); Charmandaris, V., E-mail: caochen@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece)

    2014-05-20

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle-0 observations of the CO (6-5) line emission (rest-frame frequency = 691.473 GHz) and of the 435 μm dust continuum emission in the nuclear region of NGC 34, a local luminous infrared galaxy at a distance of 84 Mpc (1'' = 407 pc) which contains a Seyfert 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) and a nuclear starburst. The CO emission is well resolved by the ALMA beam (0.''26 × 0.''23), with an integrated flux of f {sub CO(6-5)} = 1004 (± 151) Jy km s{sup –1}. Both the morphology and kinematics of the CO (6-5) emission are rather regular, consistent with a compact rotating disk with a size of 200 pc. A significant emission feature is detected on the redshifted wing of the line profile at the frequency of the H{sup 13}CN (8-7) line, with an integrated flux of 17.7 ± 2.1(random) ± 2.7(systematic) Jy km s{sup –1}. However, it cannot be ruled out that the feature is due to an outflow of warm dense gas with a mean velocity of 400 km s{sup –1}. The continuum is resolved into an elongated configuration, and the observed flux corresponds to a dust mass of M {sub dust} = 10{sup 6.97±0.13} M {sub ☉}. An unresolved central core (radius ≅ 50 pc) contributes 28% of the continuum flux and 19% of the CO (6-5) flux, consistent with insignificant contributions of the AGN to both emissions. Both the CO (6-5) and continuum spatial distributions suggest a very high gas column density (≳ 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2}) in the nuclear region at radius ≲ 100 pc.

  17. The relation between gas and dust in the Taurus Molecular Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Pineda, Jorge L; Chapman, Nicholas; Snell, Ronald L; Li, Di; Cambresy, Laurent; Brunt, Chris

    2010-01-01

    (abridged) We report a study of the relation between dust and gas over a 100deg^2 area in the Taurus molecular cloud. We compare the H2 column density derived from dust extinction with the CO column density derived from the 12CO and 13CO J= 1-0 lines. We derive the visual extinction from reddening determined from 2MASS data. The comparison is done at an angular size of 200", corresponding to 0.14pc at a distance of 140pc. We find that the relation between visual extinction Av and N(CO) is linear between Av~3 and 10 mag in the region associated with the B213--L1495 filament. In other regions the linear relation is flattened for Av > 4 mag. We find that the presence of temperature gradients in the molecular gas affects the determination of N(CO) by ~30--70% with the largest difference occurring at large column densities. Adding a correction for this effect and accounting for the observed relation between the column density of CO and CO2 ices and Av, we find a linear relationship between the column of carbon mon...

  18. ALMA Survey of Lupus Protoplanetary Disks I: Dust and Gas Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Ansdell, Megan; van der Marel, Nienke; Carpenter, John M; Guidi, Greta; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Mathews, Geoff S; Manara, Carlo F; Miotello, Anna; Natta, Antonella; Oliveira, Isa; Tazzari, Marco; Testi, Leonardo; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; van Terwisga, Sierk E

    2016-01-01

    We present the first high-resolution sub-mm survey of both dust and gas for a large population of protoplanetary disks. Characterizing fundamental properties of protoplanetary disks on a statistical level is critical to understanding how disks evolve into the diverse exoplanet population. We use ALMA to survey 89 protoplanetary disks around stars with $M_{\\ast}>0.1$ $M_{\\odot}$ in the young ($\\sim$1-3 Myr), nearby ($\\sim$150-200 pc) Lupus complex. Our observations cover the 890 $\\mu$m continuum and the $^{13}$CO and C$^{18}$O 3-2 lines. We use the sub-mm continuum to constrain $M_{\\rm dust}$ to a few Martian masses (0.2-0.4 $M_{\\oplus}$) and the CO isotopologue lines to constrain $M_{\\rm gas}$ to roughly a Jupiter mass (assuming ISM-like $\\rm {[CO]/[H_2]}$ abundance). Of 89 sources, we detect 62 in the continuum, 36 in $^{13}$CO, and 11 in C$^{18}$O at $>3\\sigma$ significance. Several new "transition disks" are found with relatively bright continuum and CO isotopologue emission. Stacking the individually unde...

  19. Gone with the heat: A fundamental constraint on the imaging of dust and molecular gas in the early Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Ivison, R J; Galametz, Maud; Smith, M W L; Xilouris, Emmanuel M

    2016-01-01

    Images of dust continuum and CO line emission are powerful tools for deducing structural characteristics of galaxies, such as disk sizes, H$_2$ gas velocity fields and enclosed H$_2$ and dynamical masses. We report on a fundamental constraint set by the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the observed structural and dynamical characteristics of galaxies, as deduced from dust continuum and CO-line imaging at high redshifts. As the CMB temperature rises in the distant Universe, the ensuing thermal equilibrium between the CMB and the cold dust and H$_2$ gas progressively erases all spatial and spectral contrasts between their brightness distributions and the CMB. For high-redshift galaxies, this strongly biases the recoverable H$_2$ gas and dust mass distributions, scale lengths, gas velocity fields and dynamical mass estimates. This limitation is unique to mm/submm wavelengths and unlike its known effect on the global dust continuum and molecular line emission of galaxies, it cannot be addressed simply. We nev...

  20. Children's phthalate intakes and resultant cumulative exposures estimated from urine compared with estimates from dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption in their homes and daycare centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bekö

    Full Text Available Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP, di(n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, di(isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP and di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw. For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum, which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDI(cum. Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child's total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values.

  1. Determining the mid-plane conditions of circumstellar discs using gas and dust modelling: a study of HD 163296

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneberg, Dominika M.; Panić, Olja; Haworth, Thomas J.; Clarke, Cathie J.; Min, Michiel

    2016-09-01

    The mass of gas in protoplanetary discs is a quantity of great interest for assessing their planet formation potential. Disc gas masses are, however, traditionally inferred from measured dust masses by applying an assumed standard gas-to-dust ratio of g/d = 100. Furthermore, measuring gas masses based on CO observations has been hindered by the effects of CO freeze-out. Here we present a novel approach to study the mid-plane gas by combining C18O line modelling, CO snowline observations and the spectral energy distribution and selectively study the inner tens of au where freeze-out is not relevant. We apply the modelling technique to the disc around the Herbig Ae star HD 163296 with particular focus on the regions within the CO snowline radius, measured to be at 90 au in this disc. Our models yield the mass of C18O in this inner disc region of M_{C^{18}O}({dust masses in discs within the CO snowline location without making assumptions about the gas-to-dust ratio.

  2. The extinction and dust-to-gas structure of the planetary nebula NGC 7009 observed with MUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J. R.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Barlow, M. J.; Ueta, T.; Wesson, R.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Dust plays a significant role in planetary nebulae. Dust ejected with the gas in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase is subject to the harsh environment of the planetary nebula (PN) while the star is evolving towards a white dwarf. Dust surviving the PN phase contributes to the dust content of the interstellar medium. Aims: The morphology of the internal dust extinction has been mapped for the first time in a PN, the bright nearby Galactic nebula NGC 7009. The morphologies of the gas, dust extinction and dust-to-gas ratio are compared to the structural features of the nebula. Methods: Emission line maps in H Balmer and Paschen lines were formed from analysis of MUSE cubes of NGC 7009 observed during science verification of the instrument. The measured electron temperature and density from the same cube were employed to predict the theoretical H line ratios and derive the extinction distribution across the nebula. After correction for the interstellar extinction to NGC 7009, the internal AV/NH has been mapped for the first time in a PN. Results: The extinction map of NGC 7009 has considerable structure, broadly corresponding to the morphological features of the nebula. The dust-to-gas ratio, AV/NH, increases from 0.7 times the interstellar value to >5 times from the centre towards the periphery of the ionized nebula. The integrated AV/NH is about 2× the mean ISM value. A large-scale feature in the extinction map is a wave, consisting of a crest and trough, at the rim of the inner shell. The nature of this feature is investigated and instrumental and physical causes considered; no convincing mechanisms were identified to produce this feature, other than AGB mass loss variations. Conclusions: Extinction mapping from H emission line imaging of PNe with MUSE provides a powerful tool for revealing the properties of internal dust and the dust-to-gas ratio. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern

  3. Ionized Gas Characteristics in the Cavities of the Gas and Dust Disc of the Spiral Galaxy NGC 6946

    CERN Document Server

    Efremov, Yu N; Egorov, O V

    2011-01-01

    The parameters of the ionized gas in NGC 6946 (in the [NII]6548,6583, H-alpha and [SII]6717,6731 lines) are investigated with the SAO RAS BTA telescope along three positions of the long slit of the SCORPIO focal reducer, passing through a number of large and small cavities of the gaseous disc of the galaxy. Most of these cavities correspond exactly to the cavities in warm dust. We found that everywhere in the direction of NGC 6946 the lines of ionized gas are decomposed into two Gaussians, one of which shows almost constant [SII]/H-alpha and [NII]/H-alpha ratios, as well as an almost constant radial velocity within the measurement errors (about -35 - -50 km/s). This component is in fact the foreground radiation from the diffuse ionized gas of our Galaxy; a similar component is also present in the emission of neutral hydrogen. The analysis of the component of ionized gas, occurring in NGC 6946, has revealed that it shows signs of shock excitation in the cavities of the gaseous disc of the galaxy. It is as well...

  4. Planck intermediate results XXVIII. Interstellar gas and dust in the Chamaeleon clouds as seen by Fermi LAT and Planck

    OpenAIRE

    Ade, P. A. R.; Rachen, J. P.; Zonca, A.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The nearby Chamaeleon clouds have been observed in Υ rays by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and in thermal dust emission by Planck and IRAS. Cosmic rays and large dust grains, if smoothly mixed with gas, can jointly serve with the Hi and 12CO radio data to (i) map the hydrogen column densities, NH, in the different gas phases, in particular at the dark neutral medium (DNM) transition between the H I-bright and CO-bright media; (ii) constrain the CO-to-H2 conversion factor, XCO; and (iii...

  5. A resolved analysis of cold dust and gas in the nearby edge-on spiral NGC 891

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, T M; Fritz, J; Smith, M W L; Parkin, T J; Gentile, G; Bendo, G J; Wilson, C D; Allaert, F; Bianchi, S; De Looze, I; Verstappen, J; Viaene, S; Boquien, M; Boselli, A; Clements, D L; Davies, J I; Galametz, M; Madden, S C; Remy-Ruyer, A; Spinoglio, L

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the connection between dust and gas in the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 891. High resolution Herschel PACS and SPIRE 70, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 $\\mu$m images are combined with JCMT SCUBA 850 $\\mu$m observations to trace the far-infrared/submillimetre spectral energy distribution (SED). Maps of the HI 21 cm line and CO(J=3-2) emission trace the atomic and molecular hydrogen gas, respectively. We fit one-component modified blackbody models to the integrated SED, finding a global dust mass of 8.5$\\times$10$^{7}$ M$_{\\odot}$ and an average temperature of 23$\\pm$2 K. We also fit the pixel-by-pixel SEDs to produce maps of the dust mass and temperature. The dust mass distribution correlates with the total stellar population as traced by the 3.6 $\\mu$m emission. The derived dust temperature, which ranges from approximately 17 to 24 K, is found to correlate with the 24 $\\mu$m emission. Allowing the dust emissivity index to vary, we find an average value of $\\beta$ = 1.9$\\pm$0.3. We confirm an i...

  6. Insights from Synthetic Star-forming Regions: II. Verifying Dust Surface Density, Dust Temperature & Gas Mass Measurements with Modified Blackbody Fitting

    CERN Document Server

    Koepferl, Christine M; Dale, James E

    2016-01-01

    We use a large data-set of realistic synthetic observations (PaperI) to assess how observational techniques affect the measurement of physical properties of star-forming regions. In this paper (PaperII), we explore the reliability of the measured total gas mass, dust surface density and dust temperature maps derived from modified blackbody fitting of synthetic Herschel observations. We found from our pixel-by-pixel analysis of the measured dust surface density and dust temperature a worrisome error spread especially close to star-formation sites and low-density regions, where for those "contaminated" pixels the surface densities can be under/overestimated by up to three orders of magnitude. In light of this, we recommend to treat the pixel-based results from this technique with caution in regions with active star formation. In regions of high background typical in the inner Galactic plane, we are not able to recover reliable surface density maps of individual synthetic regions, since low-mass regions are lost...

  7. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban street dusts and their source materials by capillary gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hideshige; Onda, Tomoko; Ogura, Norio (Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology (Japan))

    1990-08-01

    Molecular distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust samples collected from the Tokyo metropolitan area were determined by capillary gas chromatography following HPLC fractionation. Sixty-four compounds including three- to six-ring PAHs and sulfur heterocyclics were identified by capillary GC/MS. Total PAH concentrations were in the range of a few micrograms per gram of dust. The source materials (automobile exhaust, asphalt, fuel-oil combustion products) were also analyzed. The PAH profile, especially relative abundance of alkyl-PAHs and sulfur-containing heterocyclics, indicated that PAHs in the street dusts on the heavily trafficked streets are strongly affected by automobile exhaust and those in the residential area have a somewhat more significant contribution from combustion products in stationary sources. With both types of dusts, asphalt is through to contribute only a minor part of their PAHs.

  8. Dust-to-gas ratio, XCO factor and CO-dark gas in the Galactic anticentre: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.-Q.; Liu, X.-W.; Yuan, H.-B.; Huang, Y.; Xiang, M.-S.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the correlation between extinction and H I and CO emission at intermediate and high Galactic latitudes (|b| > 10°) within the footprint of the Xuyi Schmidt Telescope Photometric Survey of the Galactic anticentre (XSTPS-GAC) on small and large scales. In Paper I, we present a three-dimensional (3D) dust extinction map within the footprint of XSTPS-GAC, covering a sky area of over 6000 deg2 at a spatial angular resolution of 6 arcmin. In the current work, the map is combined with data from gas tracers, including H I data from the Galactic Arecibo L-band Feed Array H I survey and CO data from the Planck mission, to constrain the values of dust-to-gas ratio DGR = AV/N(H) and CO-to-H2 conversion factor XCO = N(H2)/WCO for the entire GAC footprint excluding the Galactic plane, as well as for selected star-forming regions (such as the Orion, Taurus and Perseus clouds) and a region of diffuse gas in the northern Galactic hemisphere. For the whole GAC footprint, we find DGR = (4.15 ± 0.01) × 10-22 mag cm2 and XCO = (1.72 ± 0.03) × 1020 cm- 2 (K km s- 1)- 1. We have also investigated the distribution of `CO-dark' gas (DG) within the footprint of GAC and found a linear correlation between the DG column density and the V-band extinction: N(DG) ˜eq 2.2 × 10^{21} (A_V - AcV) cm^{-2}. The mass fraction of DG is found to be fDG ˜ 0.55 towards the Galactic anticentre, which is respectively about 23 and 124 per cent of the atomic and CO-traced molecular gas in the same region. This result is consistent with the theoretical work of Papadopoulos et al. but much larger than that expected in the H2 cloud models by Wolfire et al.

  9. Phthalate and PAH concentrations in dust collected from Danish homes and daycare centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Sarka; Weschler, Charles J.; Fischer, Andreas;

    2010-01-01

    (diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) and three PAHs (pyrene, benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)). The three PAHs and DEHP were detected in dust samples from all sites, while...

  10. Andromeda's dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draine, B. T.; Aniano, G. [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Krause, Oliver; Groves, Brent; Sandstrom, Karin; Klaas, Ulrich; Linz, Hendrik; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schinnerer, Eva; Schmiedeke, Anika; Walter, Fabian [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Braun, Robert [CSIRO—Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NWS 1710 (Australia); Leroy, Adam, E-mail: draine@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: ganiano@ias.u-psud.fr [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory imaging of M31 is used, with a physical dust model, to construct maps of dust surface density, dust-to-gas ratio, starlight heating intensity, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundance, out to R ≈ 25 kpc. The global dust mass is M {sub d} = 5.4 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, the global dust/H mass ratio is M {sub d}/M {sub H} = 0.0081, and the global PAH abundance is (q {sub PAH}) = 0.039. The dust surface density has an inner ring at R = 5.6 kpc, a maximum at R = 11.2 kpc, and an outer ring at R ≈ 15.1 kpc. The dust/gas ratio varies from M {sub d}/M {sub H} ≈ 0.026 at the center to ∼0.0027 at R ≈ 25 kpc. From the dust/gas ratio, we estimate the interstellar medium metallicity to vary by a factor ∼10, from Z/Z {sub ☉} ≈ 3 at R = 0 to ∼0.3 at R = 25 kpc. The dust heating rate parameter (U) peaks at the center, with (U) ≈ 35, declining to (U) ≈ 0.25 at R = 20 kpc. Within the central kiloparsec, the starlight heating intensity inferred from the dust modeling is close to what is estimated from the stars in the bulge. The PAH abundance reaches a peak q {sub PAH} ≈ 0.045 at R ≈ 11.2 kpc. When allowance is made for the different spectrum of the bulge stars, q {sub PAH} for the dust in the central kiloparsec is similar to the overall value of q {sub PAH} in the disk. The silicate-graphite-PAH dust model used here is generally able to reproduce the observed dust spectral energy distribution across M31, but overpredicts 500 μm emission at R ≈ 2-6 kpc, suggesting that at R = 2-6 kpc, the dust opacity varies more steeply with frequency (with β ≈ 2.3 between 200 and 600 μm) than in the model.

  11. Dust and Gas in the Local Environments of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Schady, P; Page, M J; De Pasquale, M; Morris, D C; Romano, P; Roming, P W A; Immler, S; Berk, D E Vanden

    2007-01-01

    Using a sample of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows detected by both the X-Ray and the UV/Optical Telescopes (XRT and UVOT) on Swift, we modelled the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to determine gas column densities and dust extinction in the GRB local environment. In six out of seven cases we find an X-ray absorber associated with the GRB host galaxy with column density (assuming solar abundances) ranging from (0.8 - 7.7)x10^{21}cm^{-2}. We determine the rest-frame visual extinction A_V using the SMC, LMC and Galactic extinction curves to model the dust in the GRB host galaxy, and this ranges from A_V = 0.12\\pm 0.04 to A_V = 0.65^{+0.08}_{-0.07}. The afterglow SEDs were typically best fit by a model with an SMC extinction curve. In only one case was the GRB afterglow better modelled by a Galactic extinction curve, which has a prominent absorption feature at 2175angstrom. We investigate the selection effects present in our sample and how these might distort the true distribution of A_V in GRB host galaxie...

  12. Submillimeter View of Gas and Dust in the Forming Super Star Cluster in NGC 5253

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Jean L

    2015-01-01

    A giant molecular cloud has been detected surrounding the supernebula in NGC 5253, revealing details of the formation and feedback process in a very massive star cluster. "Cloud D" was recently mapped in CO J=3-2 with the Submillimeter Array. The cloud surrounds a currently forming massive cluster of mass ~10$^6$ $\\rm M_\\odot$ and luminosity ~10$^9$ $\\rm L_\\odot$. Cloud D is hot, clearly associated with the cluster, yet kinematically relatively quiescent. The dust mass is ~15,000 $\\rm M_\\odot$, giving a gas-to-dust ratio of ~50, nearly an order of magnitude lower than expected for this low metallicity galaxy. We posit that enrichment by the cluster, leading to a stalled cluster wind, has created the unusual conditions in Cloud D. The absence of current mechanical impact of the young cluster on the cloud, in spite of the presence of thousands of O stars, may permit future generations of stars to form near the massive cluster.

  13. Planck intermediate results XXVIII. Interstellar gas and dust in the Chamaeleon clouds as seen by Fermi LAT and Planck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Aniano, G.;

    2015-01-01

    the clouds. We have separated clouds at local, intermediate, and Galactic velocities in H i and 12CO line emission to model in parallel the γ-ray intensity recorded between 0.4 and 100 GeV; the dust optical depth at 353 GHz, τ353; the thermal radiance of the large grains; and an estimate of the dust...... extinction, AVQ, empirically corrected for the starlight intensity. The dust and gamma-models have been coupled to account for the DNM gas. The consistent γ-emissivity spectra recorded in the different phases confirm that the GeV-TeV cosmic rays probed by the LAT uniformly permeate all gas phases up...

  14. Embedded protostars in the dust, ice, and gas in time (DIGIT) Herschel key program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Joel D.; Evans II, Neal J.; K. Jørgensen, Jes;

    2013-01-01

    We present 50-210 um spectral scans of 30 Class 0/I protostellar sources, obtained with Herschel-PACS, and 0.5-1000 um SEDs, as part of the Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time (DIGIT) Key Program. Some sources exhibit up to 75 H2O lines ranging in excitation energy from 100-2000 K, 12 transitions of OH...

  15. THE DIFFERENT EVOLUTION OF GAS AND DUST IN DISKS AROUND SUN-LIKE AND COOL STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planet formation is profoundly impacted by the properties of protoplanetary disks and their central star. However, how disk properties vary with stellar parameters remains poorly known. Here, we present the first comprehensive, comparative Spitzer/IRS study of the dust and gas properties of disks around young Sun-like stars (K1-M5) and cool stars/brown dwarfs (M5-M9). The comparison of these two large samples of over 60 sources reveal major differences in the evolution of both the dust and gas components. We report the first detection of organic molecules in disks around brown dwarfs. The detection rate statistics and the line flux ratios of HCN and C2H2 show a striking difference between the two samples, demonstrating a significant underabundance of HCN relative to C2H2 in the disk surface of cool stars. We propose this to originate from the large difference in the UV irradiation around the two types of sources. The statistical comparison of the 10 μm silicate emission features also reveals a difference between the two samples. Cool stars and brown dwarfs show weaker features arising from more processed silicate grains in the disk atmosphere. These findings complement previous indications of flatter disk structures and longer disk lifetimes around cool stars. Our results highlight important differences in the chemical and physical evolution of protoplanetary disks as a function of stellar mass, temperature, and radiation field which should be taken into account in planet formation models. We note that the different chemistry of preplanetary materials in the disk may also influence the bulk composition and volatile content of the forming planets. In particular, if exogenous HCN has played a key role in the synthesis of prebiotic molecules on Earth as proposed, then prebiotic chemistry may unfold differently on planets around cool stars.

  16. CO2 sequestration using accelerated gas-solid carbonation of pre-treated EAF steel-making bag house dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naas, Muftah H; El Gamal, Maisa; Hameedi, Suhaib; Mohamed, Abdel-Mohsen O

    2015-06-01

    Mineral CO2 sequestration is a promising process for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, alkaline calcium-rich dust particles collected from bag filters of electric arc furnaces (EAF) for steel making were utilized as a viable raw material for mineral CO2 sequestration. The dust particles were pre-treated through hydration, drying and screening. The pre-treated particles were then subjected to direct gas-solid carbonation reaction in a fluidized-bed reactor. The carbonated products were characterized to determine the overall sequestration capacity and the mineralogical structures. Leaching tests were also performed to measure the extracted minerals from the carbonated dust and evaluate the carbonation process on dust stabilization. The experimental results indicated that CO2 could be sequestered using the pre-treated bag house dust. The maximum sequestration of CO2 was 0.657 kg/kg of dust, based on the total calcium content. The highest degree of carbonation achieved was 42.5% and the carbonation efficiency was 69% at room temperature.

  17. Star-forming dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster: the link between molecular gas, atomic gas, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, M.; Corbelli, E.; Bizzocchi, L.; Giovanardi, C.; Bomans, D.; Coelho, B.; De Looze, I.; Gonçalves, T. S.; Hunt, L. K.; Leonardo, E.; Madden, S.; Menéndez-Delmestre, K.; Pappalardo, C.; Riguccini, L.

    2016-05-01

    We present 12CO(1-0) and 12CO(2-1) observations of a sample of 20 star-forming dwarfs selected from the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey, with oxygen abundances ranging from 12 + log (O / H) ~ 8.1 to 8.8. CO emission is observed in ten galaxies and marginally detected in another one. CO fluxes correlate with the FIR 250 μm emission, and the dwarfs follow the same linear relation that holds for more massive spiral galaxies extended to a wider dynamical range. We compare different methods to estimate H2 molecular masses, namely a metallicity-dependent CO-to-H2 conversion factor and one dependent on H-band luminosity. The molecular-to-stellar mass ratio remains nearly constant at stellar masses ≲ 109 M⊙, contrary to the atomic hydrogen fraction, MHI/M∗, which increases inversely with M∗. The flattening of the MH2/M∗ ratio at low stellar masses does not seem to be related to the effects of the cluster environment because it occurs for both Hi-deficient and Hi-normal dwarfs. The molecular-to-atomic ratio is more tightly correlated with stellar surface density than metallicity, confirming that the interstellar gas pressure plays a key role in determining the balance between the two gaseous components of the interstellar medium. Virgo dwarfs follow the same linear trend between molecular gas mass and star formation rate as more massive spirals, but gas depletion timescales, τdep, are not constant and range between 100 Myr and 6 Gyr. The interaction with the Virgo cluster environment is removing the atomic gas and dust components of the dwarfs, but the molecular gas appears to be less affected at the current stage of evolution within the cluster. However, the correlation between Hi deficiency and the molecular gas depletion time suggests that the lack of gas replenishment from the outer regions of the disc is lowering the star formation activity. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30-m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany

  18. Determining the mid-plane conditions of circumstellar discs using gas and dust modelling: a study of HD 163296

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneberg, Dominika M.; Panić, Olja; Haworth, Thomas J.; Clarke, Cathie J.; Min, Michiel

    2016-09-01

    The mass of gas in protoplanetary discs is a quantity of great interest for assessing their planet formation potential. Disc gas masses are, however, traditionally inferred from measured dust masses by applying an assumed standard gas-to-dust ratio of g/d = 100. Furthermore, measuring gas masses based on CO observations has been hindered by the effects of CO freeze-out. Here we present a novel approach to study the mid-plane gas by combining C18O line modelling, CO snowline observations and the spectral energy distribution and selectively study the inner tens of au where freeze-out is not relevant. We apply the modelling technique to the disc around the Herbig Ae star HD 163296 with particular focus on the regions within the CO snowline radius, measured to be at 90 au in this disc. Our models yield the mass of C18O in this inner disc region of M_{C^{18}O}({<}90 au)˜ 2× 10^{-8} M⊙. We find that most of our models yield a notably low g/d < 20, especially in the disc mid-plane (g/d < 1). Our only models with a more interstellar medium (ISM)-like g/d require C18O to be underabundant with respect to the ISM abundances and a significant depletion of sub-micron grains, which is not supported by scattered light observations. Our technique can be applied to a range of discs and opens up a possibility of measuring gas and dust masses in discs within the CO snowline location without making assumptions about the gas-to-dust ratio.

  19. 16 Years of Ulysses Interstellar Dust Measurements in the Solar System: I. Mass Distribution and Gas-to-Dust Mass Ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, Harald; Gruen, Eberhard; Sterken, Veerle J

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1990s, contemporary interstellar dust (ISD) penetrating deep into the heliosphere was identified with the in-situ dust detector on board the Ulysses spacecraft. Between 1992 and the end of 2007 Ulysses monitored the ISD stream. The interstellar grains act as tracers of the physical conditions in the local interstellar medium surrounding our solar system. Earlier analyses of the Ulysses ISD data measured between 1992 and 1998 implied the existence of 'big' ISD grains [up to 10^-13kg]. The derived gas-to-dust-mass ratio was smaller than the one derived from astronomical observations, implying a concentration of ISD in the very local interstellar medium. We analyse the entire data set from 16 yr of Ulysses ISD measurements in interplanetary space. This paper concentrates on the overall mass distribution of ISD. An accompanying paper investigates time-variable phenomena in the Ulysses ISD data, and in a third paper we present the results from dynamical modelling of the ISD flow applied to Ulysses. We...

  20. THE GALACTIC CENTER CLOUD G2 AND ITS GAS STREAMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfuhl, Oliver; Gillessen, Stefan; Eisenhauer, Frank; Genzel, Reinhard; Plewa, Philipp M.; Ott, Thomas; Ballone, Alessandro; Schartmann, Marc; Burkert, Andreas [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, P.O. Box 1312, Giessenbachstr., D-85741 Garching (Germany); Fritz, Tobias K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Sari, Re' em; Steinberg, Elad [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Madigan, Ann-Marie [Department of Astronomy, B-20 Hearst Field Annex 3411, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    We present new, deep near-infrared SINFONI @ VLT integral field spectroscopy of the gas cloud G2 in the Galactic Center, from late 2013 August, 2014 April, and 2014 July. G2 is visible in recombination line emission. The spatially resolved kinematic data track the ongoing tidal disruption. The cloud reached minimum distance to the MBH of 1950 Schwarzschild radii. As expected for an observation near the pericenter passage, roughly half of the gas in 2014 is found at the redshifted, pre-pericenter side of the orbit, while the other half is at the post-pericenter, blueshifted side. We also present an orbital solution for the gas cloud G1, which was discovered a decade ago in L'-band images when it was spatially almost coincident with Sgr A*. The orientation of the G1 orbit in the three angles is almost identical to that of G2, but it has a lower eccentricity and smaller semi-major axis. We show that the observed astrometric positions and radial velocities of G1 are compatible with the G2 orbit, assuming that (1) G1 was originally on the G2 orbit preceding G2 by 13 yr, and (2) a simple drag force acted on it during pericenter passage. Taken together with the previously described tail of G2, which we detect in recombination line emission and thermal broadband emission, we propose that G2 may be a bright knot in a much more extensive gas streamer. This matches purely gaseous models for G2, such as a stellar wind clump or the tidal debris from a partial disruption of a star.

  1. The selective effect of environment on the atomic and molecular gas-to-dust ratio of nearby galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Cortese, L; Boselli, A; Catinella, B; Ciesla, L; Hughes, T M; Baes, M; Bendo, G J; Boquien, M; de Looze, I; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L; Viaene, S

    2016-01-01

    We combine dust, atomic (HI) and molecular (H$_{2}$) hydrogen mass measurements for 176 galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey to investigate the effect of environment on the gas-to-dust mass ($M_{\\rm gas}/M_{\\rm dust}$) ratio of nearby galaxies. We find that, at fixed stellar mass, the average $M_{\\rm gas}/M_{\\rm dust}$ ratio varies by no more than a factor of $\\sim$2 when moving from field to cluster galaxies, with Virgo galaxies being slightly more dust rich (per unit of gas) than isolated systems. Remarkably, once the molecular and atomic hydrogen phases are investigated separately, we find that \\hi-deficient galaxies have at the same time lower $M_{\\rm HI}/M_{\\rm dust}$ ratio but higher $M_{\\rm H_{2}}/M_{\\rm dust}$ ratio than \\hi-normal systems. In other words, they are poorer in atomic but richer in molecular hydrogen if normalized to their dust content. By comparing our findings with the predictions of theoretical models, we show that the opposite behavior observed in the $M_{\\rm HI}/M_{\\rm dust}$ a...

  2. The Carina Nebula and Gum 31 molecular complex: I. Molecular gas distribution, column densities and dust temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Rebolledo, David; Green, Anne; Braiding, Catherine; Molinari, Sergio; Wong, Graeme; Blackwell, Rebecca; Elia, Davide; Schisano, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    We report high resolution observations of the $^{12}$CO$(1\\rightarrow0)$ and $^{13}$CO$(1\\rightarrow0)$ molecular lines in the Carina Nebula and the Gum 31 region obtained with the 22-m Mopra telescope as part of the The Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey. We cover 8 deg$^2$ from $l = 285^{\\circ}$ to 290$^{\\circ}$, and from $b = -1.5^{\\circ}$ to +0.5$^{\\circ}$. The molecular gas column density distributions from both tracers have a similar range of values. By fitting a grey-body function to the observed infrared spectral energy distribution from Herschel maps, we derive gas column densities and dust temperatures. The gas column density has values in the range from $6.3\\times\\ 10^{20}$ to $1.4\\times 10^{23}$ cm$^{-2}$, while the dust temperature has values in the range from 17 to 43 K. The gas column density derived from the dust emission is approximately described by a log-normal function for a limited range of column densities. A high-column density tail is clearly evident for the gas column density dis...

  3. Precession of cylindrical dust particles in the plasma sheath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banu, N. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Ticoş, C. M., E-mail: catalin.ticos@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 077125 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-10-15

    The vertical precession of cylindrical dust particles levitated in the sheath of an rf plasma is experimentally investigated. Typically, the dust particles have two equilibrium positions depending on the orientation of their longitudinal axis: horizontal and vertical. A transition between these two states is induced by rapidly increasing the neutral gas pressure in the plasma chamber. During this transition, the cylindrical dust particles make an angle with the horizontal and rotate about their center of mass. The rotation speed increases as the dust rods aligned with the vertical axis. All dust particles will eventually end up in the vertical state while spinning fast about their longitudinal axis. Dust-dust interaction and the attracting ion wakes are possible mechanisms for inducing the observed dust precession.

  4. The Relationship Between the Dust and Gas-Phase CO Across the California Molecular Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, S; Lada, E A; Román-Zúñiga, C; Bieging, J H; Lombardi, M; Forbrich, J; Alves, J F

    2015-01-01

    A deep, wide-field, near-infrared imaging survey was used to construct an extinction map of the southeastern part of the California Molecular Cloud (CMC) with $\\sim$ 0.5 arc min resolution. The same region was also surveyed in the $^{12}$CO(2-1), $^{13}$CO(2-1), C$^{18}$O(2-1) emission lines at the same angular resolution. Strong spatial variations in the abundances of $^{13}$CO and C$^{18}$O were found to be correlated with variations in gas temperature, consistent with temperature dependent CO depletion/desorption on dust grains. The $^{13}$CO to C$^{18}$O abundance ratio was found to increase with decreasing extinction, suggesting selective photodissociation of C$^{18}$O by the ambient UV radiation field. The cloud averaged X-factor is found to be $$ $=$ 2.53 $\\times$ 10$^{20}$ ${\\rm cm}^{-2}~({\\rm K~km~s}^{-1})^{-1}$, somewhat higher than the Milky Way average. On sub-parsec scales we find no single empirical value of the X-factor that can characterize the molecular gas in cold (T$_{\\rm k}$ $\\lesssim$ 15 ...

  5. A Comprehensive Study of the Cold Dust and Gas in Galactic Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Sylvain

    Galaxies do not evolve statically or in isolation, but instead are being structurally rearranged by stellar and gas motions and are interacting dynamically with their halos and environments. Galactic winds (GWs), or large-scale outflows of material from disks and spheroids, are a primary means by which this structural evolution and ongoing interplay occur. Major outstanding questions remain, however, about the precise impact that GWs make. Both from the ground and from space, our recent effort has focused on the all-important cold gas and dust components of GWs. They are the key to understanding GWs for at least three reasons: i. Outflows have to affect the cold gas and dust out of which stars form if they are to inhibit star formation in the host galaxy. ii. We have found in recent years that the cold gas phase is the energetically dominant phase of many GWs. iii. The kinematics and dynamics of the cold gas phase show trends with AGN luminosity that suggest that we are finally seeing the long-sought ``smoking gun'' of quasar feedback. However, these conclusions rest on very limited samples and are thus tentative. Remarkably, the Herschel and Spitzer Science Archives are treasure troves of high-quality images and spectra on GWs that could drastically improve this sad state of affairs, once these data are analyzed. Here we propose to carry out for the first time a single, self-consistent analysis of all of these data, and combine the results with our extensive ancillary ground-based data (Gemini, VLT, JVLA, ALMA, IRAM, and Keck) to capture all of the gas phases involved in GWs. This multiwavelength approach is unique and goes much beyond individual targeted programs in this area. We are interested in studying all GWs, regardless of redshifts: For the nearest (select group of the nearest and best known starburst and AGN-driven GWs to provide further insight into the physical entrainment and mass-loading mechanisms of these outflows. The entire Herschel

  6. Carbon formation and metal dusting in hot-gas cleanup systems of coal gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortorelli, P.F.; DeVan, H.J.; Judkins, R.R. [and others

    1995-06-01

    The product gas resulting from the partial oxidation of carboniferous materials in a gasifier consists predominantly of CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and, for air-blown units, N{sub 2} in various proportions at temperatures ranging from about 400 to 1000{degree}C. Depending on the source of the fuel, smaller concentrations of H{sub 2}S, COS, and NH{sub 3} can also be present. The gas phase is typically characterized by high carbon and sulfur, but low oxygen, activities and, consequently, severe degradation of the structural and functional materials used in the gasifier can occur. Therefore, there are numerous concerns about materials performance in coal gasification systems, particularly at the present time when demonstration-scale projects are in or nearing the construction and operation phases. This study focused on the subset of materials degradation phenomena resulting from carbon formation and carburization processes, which are related to potential operating problems in certain gasification components and subsystems. More specifically, it examined the current state of knowledge regarding carbon deposition and a carbon-related degradation phemonenon known as metal dusting as they affect the long-term operation of the gas clean-up equipment downstream of the gasifier and addressed possible means to mitigate the degradation processes. These effects would be primarily associated with the filtering and cooling of coal-derived fuel gases from the gasifier exit temperature to as low as 400{degree}C. However, some of the consideratins are sufficiently general to cover conditions relevant to other parts of gasification systems.

  7. Four highly luminous massive star forming regions in the Norma Spiral Arm.: I. Molecular gas and dust observations

    CERN Document Server

    Garay, Guido; Bronfman, Leonardo; May, Jorge; Chavarria, Luis; Nyman, Lars-Ake

    2009-01-01

    We report molecular line and dust continuum observations, made with the SEST telescope, towards four young high-mass star forming regions associated with highly luminous (L> 6x10^5 Lsun) IRAS sources (15290-5546, 15502-5302, 15567-5236 and 16060-5146). Molecular emission was mapped in lines of CS (J=2-1, 3-2 and 5-4), SiO (J=2-1 and 3-2), CH3OH (Jk=3k-2k and 2k-1k), and C34S (J=3-2). In addition, single spectra at the peak position were taken in the CO, 13CO and C18O (J=1-0) lines. We find that the luminous star forming regions are associated with molecular gas and dust structures with radii of typically 0.5 pc, masses of ~5x10^3 Msun, column densities of ~5x10^{23} cm^{-2}, molecular hydrogen densities of typically ~2x10^5 cm^{-3} and dust temperatures of ~40 K. The 1.2 mm dust continuum observations further indicate that the cores are centrally condensed, having radial density profiles with power-law indices in the range 1.6-1.9. We find that under these conditions dynamical friction by the gas plays an imp...

  8. H_2^{16}O and H_2^{18}O Maser Emission from Gas-Dust Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Nesterenok, Aleksandr; 10.1134/S1063773711070036

    2011-01-01

    The collisional pumping of H_2^{16}O and H_2^{18}O masers in hot dense gas-dust clouds has been simulated numerically. New data on the rate coefficients for collisional transitions from Faure et al. (2007) were used in the calculations. The possibility of detecting H_2^{18}O emission in 22.2-GHz H_2^{16}O maser sources is investigated. The medium is shown to become optically thick in the H_2^{16}O lines for which an inverted level population is observed at H_2O column densities of ~10^{19}-10^{20} cm^{-2}. A simultaneous observation of H_2^{18}O emission and H_2^{16}O maser emission in the same source will allow the physical conditions in the gas-dust cloud to be refined.

  9. Gas and dust spectra of the D' type symbiotic star HD330036

    CERN Document Server

    Angeloni, R; Ciroi, S; Rafanelli, P

    2007-01-01

    We present a comprehensive and self-consistent modelling of the D' type symbiotic star (SS) HD330036 from radio to UV. Within a colliding-wind scenario, we analyse the continuum, line and dust spectra by means of SUMA, a code that simulates the physical conditions of an emitting gaseous cloud under the coupled effect of ionization from an external radiation source and shocks. We find that the UV lines are emitted from high density gas between the stars downstream of the reverse shock, while the optical lines are emitted downstream of the shock propagating outwards the system. As regards with the continuum SED, three shells are identified in the IR, at 850K, 320 K and 200 K with radii r = 2.8 10^13 cm, 4 10^14$ cm, and 10^15 cm, respectively, adopting a distance to Earth d=2.3 kpc: interestingly, all these shells appear to be circumbinary. The analysis of the unexploited ISO-SWS spectrum reveals that both PAHs and crystalline silicates coexist in HD330036, with PAHs associated to the internal shell at 850 K, a...

  10. Determining the midplane conditions of circumstellar discs using gas and dust modelling: a study of HD 163296

    CERN Document Server

    Boneberg, Dominika M; Haworth, Thomas J; Clarke, Cathie J; Min, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    The mass of gas in protoplanetary discs is a quantity of great interest for assessing their planet formation potential. Disc gas masses are however traditionally inferred from measured dust masses by applying an assumed standard gas to dust ratio of $g/d=100$. Furthermore, measuring gas masses based on CO observations has been hindered by the effects of CO freeze-out. Here we present a novel approach to study the midplane gas by combining C$^{18}$O line modelling, CO snowline observations and the spectral energy distribution (SED) and selectively study the inner tens of au where freeze-out is not relevant. We apply the modelling technique to the disc around the Herbig Ae star HD 163296 with particular focus on the regions within the CO snowline radius, measured to be at 90 au in this disc. Our models yield the mass of C$^{18}$O in this inner disc region of $M_{\\text{C}^{18}\\text{O}}(<90\\,\\text{au})\\sim 2\\times10^{-8}$ M$_\\odot$. We find that most of our models yield a notably low $g/d<20$, especially in...

  11. Modelling observations of the inner gas and dust coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko using ROSINA/COPS and OSIRIS data: First results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, R.; Su, C. C.; Liao, Y.; Thomas, N.; Altwegg, K.; Sierks, H.; Ip, W.-H.; Keller, H. U.; Knollenberg, J.; Kührt, E.; Lai, I. L.; Rubin, M.; Skorov, Y.; Wu, J. S.; Jorda, L.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Gracia-Berná, A.; Gicquel, A.; Naletto, G.; Shi, X.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2016-05-01

    Context. This paper describes the initial modelling of gas and dust data acquired in August and September 2014 from the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft when it was in close proximity to the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Aims: This work is an attempt to provide a self-consistent model of the innermost gas and dust coma of the comet, as constrained by the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) data set for the gas and by the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) data set for the dust. Methods: The model uses a previously developed shape model for the nucleus, and from this the water sublimation rate and gas temperatures at the surface are computed with a simple thermal model. The gas expansion is modelled with a 3D parallel implementation of a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo algorithm. A dust drag algorithm is then used to produce dust densities in the coma, which are then converted to brightnesses using Mie theory and a line-of-sight integration. Results: We show that a purely insolation-driven model for surface outgassing does not produce a reasonable fit to ROSINA/COPS data. A stronger source in the "neck" region of the nucleus (region Hapi) is needed to match the observed modulation of the gas density in detail. This agrees with OSIRIS data, which shows that the dust emission from the "neck" was dominant in the August-September 2014 time frame. The current model matches this observation reasonably if a power index of 2-3 for the dust size distribution is used. A better match to the OSIRIS data is seen by using a single large particle size for the coma. Conclusions: We have shown possible solutions to the gas and dust distributions in the inner coma, which are consistent with ROSINA and OSIRIS data.

  12. Spatially resolved stellar, dust and gas properties of the post-interacting Whirlpool Galaxy system

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Erin Mentuch; Foyle, Kelly; Bendo, George; Koda, Jin; Baes, Marten; Boquien, Médéric; Boselli, Alessandro; Ciesla, Laure; Cooray, Asantha; Eales, Steve; Galametz, Maud; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Parkin, Tara; Roussel, Hélène; Sauvage, Marc; Spinoglio, Luigi; Smith, Matthew W L

    2012-01-01

    Using infrared imaging from the Herschel Space Observatory, observed as part of the VNGS, we investigate the spatially resolved dust properties of the interacting Whirlpool galaxy system (NGC 5194 and NGC 5195), on physical scales of 1 kpc. Spectral energy distribution modelling of the new infrared images in combination with archival optical, near- through mid-infrared images confirms that both galaxies underwent a burst of star formation ~370-480 Myr ago and provides spatially resolved maps of the stellar and dust mass surface densities. The resulting average dust-to-stellar mass ratios are comparable to other spiral and spheroidal galaxies studied with Herschel, with NGC 5194 at log M(dust)/M(star)= -2.5+/-0.2 and NGC 5195 at log M(dust)/M(star)= -3.5+/-0.3. The dust-to-stellar mass ratio is constant across NGC 5194 suggesting the stellar and dust components are coupled. In contrast, the mass ratio increases with radius in NGC 5195 with decreasing stellar mass density. Archival mass surface density maps of ...

  13. Cloudy - simulating the non-equilibrium microphysics of gas and dust, and its observed spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    Cloudy is an open-source plasma/spectral simulation code, last described in the open-access journal Revista Mexicana (Ferland et al. 2013, 2013RMxAA..49..137F). The project goal is a complete simulation of the microphysics of gas and dust over the full range of density, temperature, and ionization that we encounter in astrophysics, together with a prediction of the observed spectrum. Cloudy is one of the more widely used theory codes in astrophysics with roughly 200 papers citing its documentation each year. It is developed by graduate students, postdocs, and an international network of collaborators. Cloudy is freely available on the web at trac.nublado.org, the user community can post questions on http://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/cloudy_simulations/info, and summer schools are organized to learn more about Cloudy and its use (http://cloud9.pa.uky.edu gary/cloudy/CloudySummerSchool/). The code’s widespread use is possible because of extensive automatic testing. It is exercised over its full range of applicability whenever the source is changed. Changes in predicted quantities are automatically detected along with any newly introduced problems. The code is designed to be autonomous and self-aware. It generates a report at the end of a calculation that summarizes any problems encountered along with suggestions of potentially incorrect boundary conditions. This self-monitoring is a core feature since the code is now often used to generate large MPI grids of simulations, making it impossible for a user to verify each calculation by hand. I will describe some challenges in developing a large physics code, with its many interconnected physical processes, many at the frontier of research in atomic or molecular physics, all in an open environment.

  14. A Study of Dust and Gas at Mars from Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring)

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, Michael S. P.; Farnham, Tony L.; Bodewits, Dennis; Tricarico, Pasquale; Farnocchia, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Although the nucleus of comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) will safely pass Mars in October 2014, the dust in the coma and tail will more closely approach the planet. Using a dynamical model of comet dust, we estimate the impact fluence. Based on our nominal model no impacts are expected at Mars. Relaxing our nominal model's parameters, the fluence is no greater than ~10^-7 grains/m^2 for grain radii larger than 10 {\\mu}m. Mars orbiting spacecraft are unlikely to be impacted by large dust grains...

  15. Reduction behavior of zinc ferrite in EAF-dust recycling with CO gas as a reducing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Cheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Chen, W-S; Tsai, Min-Shing; Wang, Ya-Nang

    2014-10-01

    EAF-dust containing metal oxides can be regarded as an important source for zinc and iron. In this study, the reduction behavior of zinc ferrite with CO gas as a reducing agent under different temperatures was investigated to develop a new process for the recovery of zinc and iron from EAF-dust. The results of the phase studies with synthetic franklinite show that zinc substituted wustite, and spinel with low zinc content formed at lower temperatures from 450 to 850 °C due to incomplete zinc-iron-separation. Zinc ferrite was completely reduced to metallic zinc and iron at 950 °C. After evaporation and condensation, metallic zinc was collected in the form of zinc powder while iron, the reduction residue, was obtained in the form of direct reduced iron (DRI). The mass balance indicates a high zinc recovery ratio of over 99%. The new treatment process by thermal reduction with CO gas as a reducing agent achieved higher recovery and metallization grade of both zinc and iron from EAF-dust at lower temperatures than other commercial processes. The metallic products can be used directly as semi-products or as raw materials for refinery.

  16. On the nature of diffuse ionized gas in galaxies -- I The contribution of dust scattering to diffuse line emission

    CERN Document Server

    Ascasibar, Y; Casado, J; Scannapieco, C; Díaz, A I

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the contribution of dust scattering to the diffuse H-alpha emission observed in nearby galaxies. As initial conditions for the spatial distribution of HII regions, gas, and dust, we take three Milky Way-like galaxies from state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamical simulations that implement different prescriptions for star formation, feedback, and chemical enrichment. Radiative transfer has been solved a posteriori, using the publicly-available Monte Carlo code Sunrise to take into account dust absorption and scattering of the H-alpha photons, originating exclusively from the HII regions. No contribution from recombinations in the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) component is explicitly or implicitly included in our model. Our main result is that the flux arising from scattered light is of the order of 1-2 per cent of the H-alpha flux coming directly from the HII regions. Building upon previous studies, we conclude that the DIG contributes lass than 50 per cent of the total H-alpha emi...

  17. The thermal treatment of electric arc furnace dust under low gas phase pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Derda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of laboratory tests on the process of thermal reduction of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD in the temperature range from 1273 to 1473 K. Before proceeding to the experimental tests, a thermodynamic analysis was made using the computer program FactSage® with the aim of determining the optimal conditions for the dust components reduction reaction to proceed. The results of tests carried out, respectively, under atmospheric pressure conditions and under reduced pressure conditions are presented, where carbon in the form of graphite and blast-furnace dust (containing approx. 40 % of carbon was used as the reducer. The test results represent the effect of reduced pressure on the potential for intensifying the process of zinc removal from the dust. The degree of zinc extraction was considerably higher compared to the results of tests carried out under atmospheric pressure conditions.

  18. Multiscale GasKinetics/Particle (MGP) Simulation for Rocket Plume/Lunar Dust Interactions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An efficient and accurate software package named ZMGP (ZONA Multi-scale Gaskinetic/Particle simulation package) is proposed as a 3D tool to predict the lunar dust...

  19. The selective effect of environment on the atomic and molecular gas-to-dust ratio of nearby galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, L.; Bekki, K.; Boselli, A.; Catinella, B.; Ciesla, L.; Hughes, T. M.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Boquien, M.; de Looze, I.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.; Viaene, S.

    2016-07-01

    We combine dust, atomic (H I) and molecular (H2) hydrogen mass measurements for 176 galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey to investigate the effect of environment on the gas-to-dust mass (Mgas/Mdust) ratio of nearby galaxies. We find that, at fixed stellar mass, the average Mgas/Mdust ratio varies by no more than a factor of ˜2 when moving from field to cluster galaxies, with Virgo galaxies being slightly more dust rich (per unit of gas) than isolated systems. Remarkably, once the molecular and atomic hydrogen phases are investigated separately, we find that H I-deficient galaxies have at the same time lower M_{H I}/M_dust ratio but higher M_H2/M_dust ratio than H I-normal systems. In other words, they are poorer in atomic but richer in molecular hydrogen if normalized to their dust content. By comparing our findings with the predictions of theoretical models, we show that the opposite behaviour observed in the M_{H I}/M_dust and M_H2/M_dust ratios is fully consistent with outside-in stripping of the interstellar medium (ISM), and is simply a consequence of the different distribution of dust, H I and H2 across the disc. Our results demonstrate that the small environmental variations in the total Mgas/Mdust ratio, as well as in the gas-phase metallicity, do not automatically imply that environmental mechanisms are not able to affect the dust and metal content of the ISM in galaxies.

  20. Mapping Magnetic Fields in the Cold Dust at the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Chuss, D T; Hildebrand, R H; Dowell, C D; Vaillancourt, J E; Davidson, J A; Dotson, J L; Chuss, David T.; Novak, Giles; Hildebrand, Roger H.; Vaillancourt, John E.; Davidson, Jaqueline A.; Dotson, Jessie L.

    2003-01-01

    We report the detection of polarized emission in the vicinity of the Galactic center for 158 positions within eight different pointings of the Hertz polarimeter operating on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. These pointings include positions 2 arcminutes offset to the E, NE, and NW of M-0.02-0.07; positions to the SE and NW of the 20 km/s cloud (M-0.13-0.08), CO+0.02-0.02, M+0.07-0.08, and M+0.11-0.08. We use these data in conjunction with previous far-infrared and submillimeter polarization results to find that the direction of the inferred magnetic field is related to the density of the molecular material in the following way: in denser regions, the field is generally parallel to the Galactic plane, whereas in regions with lower densities, the field is generally perpendicular to the plane. This finding is consistent with a model in which an initially poloidal field has been sheared into a toroidal configuration in regions that are dense enough such that the gravitational energy density is greater than ...

  1. FIR extended emission from cold gas and dust in Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies: the anomalous cases of POX 186 and UM 461

    CERN Document Server

    Doublier, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    FIR observation of BCD galaxies with Herschel has revealed a wealth of new insights in these objects which are thought to resemble high-redshift forming galaxies. Dust and cold gas showed to be colder, in more or less quantities than expected and of uncertain origin. However, not unlike in the local universe, not all the dust or the cold gas is accounted for, making it more challenging. SPICA and its factor 10 to 100 in sensitivity will allow to image the faint extended cold gas/dusty disks in BCDGs in addition to detect faint C and O lines only marginally or not at all detected by Herschel/

  2. Repeatability of the Dust and Gas Morphological Structures in the Coma of Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejoly, Cassandra; Samarasinha, N. H.; Ojha, L.; Schleicher, D. G.

    2013-10-01

    Comet 1P/Halley is the most famous comet in history and has been observed for over two millennia, making it one of the most extensively studied comets. The morphology in the coma of comet 1P/Halley originates due to the activity at the nucleus and could be used as a probe of the nuclear rotation and the activity. We will present the results from a study summarizing the evolution of coma morphology of comet 1P/Halley observed from ground between October 1985 and June 1986. The results to be presented include analysis of dust features as well as gas (CN) features in the coma and comparisons will be made between their spatial and temporal evolution. About 80 CN images and 300 continuum images from the Small Bodies Node of the NASA Planetary Data System were analyzed using image enhancement techniques that were not available n the 1980s. This enables us to see coma structure never observed before in comet 1P/Halley. Because of the comet's proximity to Earth, most of our best signal-to-noise images were taken in the March-April interval of 1986. Despite the limited coverage of preceding and following months, there is a sufficient number of images to monitor morphological evolution over many months. The initial synodic periods as a function of time used to phase the images together were extrapolated from the lightcurves of the active coma (Schleicher et al. 1990, AJ, 100, 896-912). We will present the periods of repeatability of individual coma features measured using the position angle at different spatial distances from the nucleus in adjacent cycles. Separate features appear to have slightly different periods of repeatability, perhaps depending on the corresponding source regions on the nucleus and/or projection effects. The periods of repeatability of coma morphologies will be presented as a function of time from the perihelion. These results will ultimately be used in detailed modeling of the coma morphologies of comet 1P/Halley over the 1985-1986 apparition in

  3. Measures of galaxy dust and gas mass with Herschel photometry and prospects for ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Berta, S; Genzel, R; Foerster-Schreiber, N M; Tacconi, L J

    2015-01-01

    (Abridged) Combining the deepest Herschel extragalactic surveys (PEP, GOODS-H, HerMES), and Monte Carlo mock catalogs, we explore the robustness of dust mass estimates based on modeling of broad band spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with two popular approaches: Draine & Li (2007, DL07) and a modified black body (MBB). As long as the observed SED extends to at least 160-200 micron in the rest frame, M(dust) can be recovered with a >3 sigma significance and without the occurrence of systematics. An average offset of a factor ~1.5 exists between DL07- and MBB-based dust masses, based on consistent dust properties. At the depth of the deepest Herschel surveys (in the GOODS-S field) it is possible to retrieve dust masses with a S/N>=3 for galaxies on the main sequence of star formation (MS) down to M(stars)~1e10 [M(sun)] up to z~1. At higher redshift (z1, the delta(GDR) dependence on metallicity is consistent with the local relation. We combine far-IR Herschel data and sub-mm ALMA expected fluxes to study ...

  4. Distributions of the particle/gas and dust/gas partition coefficients for seventy-two semi-volatile organic compounds in indoor environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenjuan; Mandin, Corinne; Blanchard, Olivier; Mercier, Fabien; Pelletier, Maud; Le Bot, Barbara; Glorennec, Philippe; Ramalho, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    Particle/gas and dust/gas partition coefficients (Kp and Kd) are two key parameters that address the partitioning of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between gas-phase, airborne particles, and settled dust in indoor environment. A number of empirical equations to calculate the values of Kp and Kd have been reported in the literature. Therefore, the difficulty lies in the selection of a specific empirical equation in a given situation. In this study, we retrieved from the literature 38 empirical equations for calculating Kp and Kd values from the SVOC saturation vapor pressure and octanol/air partition coefficient. These values were calculated for 72 SVOCs: 9 phthalates, 9 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 11 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 22 biocides, 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 3 alkylphenols, 2 synthetic musks, tributylphosphate, and bisphenol A. The mean and median values of log10Kp or log10Kd for most SVOCs were of the same order of magnitude. The distribution of log10Kp values was fitted to either a normal distribution (for 27 SVOCs) or a log-normal distribution (for 45 SVOCs). This work provides a reference distribution of the log10Kp for 72 SVOCs, and its use may reduce the bias associated with the selection of a specific value or equation. PMID:27016817

  5. Dust-to-gas ratio, $X_{\\rm CO}$ factor and CO-dark gas in the Galactic anticentre: an observational study

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, B -Q; Yuan, H -B; Huang, Y; Xiang, M -S

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the correlation between extinction and H~{\\sc i} and CO emission at intermediate and high Galactic latitudes ($|b|>10\\degr$) within the footprint of the Xuyi Schmidt Telescope Photometric Survey of the Galactic anticentre (XSTPS-GAC) on small and large scales. In Paper I (Chen et al. 2014), we present a three-dimensional dust extinction map within the footprint of XSTPS-GAC, covering a sky area of over 6,000\\,deg$^2$ at a spatial angular resolution of 6\\,arcmin. In the current work, the map is combined with data from gas tracers, including H~{\\sc i} data from the Galactic Arecibo L-band Feed Array H~{\\sc i} survey and CO data from the Planck mission, to constrain the values of dust-to-gas ratio $DGR=A_V/N({\\rm H})$ and CO-to-$\\rm H_2$ conversion factor $X_{\\rm CO}=N({\\rm H_2})/W_{\\rm CO}$ for the entire GAC footprint excluding the Galactic plane, as well as for selected star-forming regions (such as the Orion, Taurus and Perseus clouds) and a region of diffuse gas in the northern Galactic hemis...

  6. ATCA survey of ammonia in the galactic center: The temperatures of dense gas clumps between Sgr A* and Sgr B2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Jürgen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Weiß, Axel; Henkel, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Staveley-Smith, Lister [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Meier, David S., E-mail: jott@nrao.edu, E-mail: aweiss@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: chenkel@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: Lister.Staveley-Smith@uwa.edu.au, E-mail: dmeier@nmt.edu [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2014-04-10

    We present a large-scale, interferometric survey of ammonia (1, 1) and (2, 2) toward the Galactic center observed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The survey covers Δℓ ∼ 1° (∼150 pc at an assumed distance of 8.5 kpc) and Δb ∼ 0.°2 (∼30 pc) which spans the region between the supermassive black hole Sgr A* and the massive star forming region Sgr B2. The resolution is ∼20'' (∼0.8 pc) and emission at scales ≳ 2' (≳ 3.2 pc) is filtered out due to missing interferometric short spacings. Consequently, the data represent the denser, compact clouds and disregards the large-scale, diffuse gas. Many of the clumps align with the 100 pc dust ring and mostly anti-correlate with 1.2 cm continuum emission. We present a kinetic temperature map of the dense gas. The temperature distribution peaks at ∼38 K with a width at half maximum between 18 K and 61 K (measurements sensitive within T {sub kin} ∼ 10-80 K). Larger clumps are on average warmer than smaller clumps which suggests internal heating sources. Our observations indicate that the circumnuclear disk ∼1.5 pc around Sgr A* is supplied with gas from the 20 km s{sup –1} molecular cloud. This gas is substantially cooler than gas ∼3-15 pc away from Sgr A*. We find a strong temperature gradient across Sgr B2. Ammonia column densities correlate well with SCUBA 850 μm fluxes, but the relation is shifted from the origin, which may indicate a requirement for a minimum amount of dust to form and shield ammonia. Around the Arches and Quintuplet clusters we find shell morphologies with UV-influenced gas in their centers, followed by ammonia and radio continuum layers.

  7. Studies of dust and gas in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salgado Cambiazo, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focus on the study of the Interstellar Medium (ISM) of the Milky Way and consists of two parts: in the first one we present a study of the dust properties in HII regions and their surrounding PDRs. We focus our studies on two compact HII regions: W3(A) and the Orion Nebula (Chapters 2 an

  8. On the properties of dust and gas in the environs of V838 Monocerotis

    CERN Document Server

    Exter, K M; Swinyard, B M; Matsuura, M; Mayer, A; De Beck, E; Decin, L

    2016-01-01

    Herschel FIR imaging and spectroscopy were taken at several epochs to probe the central point source and the extended environment of V838 Mon. PACS and SPIRE maps were used to obtain photometry of the near and far dust around V838 Mon. Fitting reveals 0.5-0.6 solar masses of ~19K dust in the environs (~2.7pc) surrounding the star. The surface-integrated infrared flux (signifying the thermal light echo) and derived dust properties do not vary significantly between the epochs. We also fit the SED of the point source. As the peak of the SED lies outside the Herschel spectral range, it is only by incorporating data from other observatories and epochs that we can perform useful fitting; with this we explicitly assume no evolution of the point source between the epochs. We find warm dust with a temperature of ~300K distributed over a radius of 150-200AU. PACS and SPIRE spectra were also used to detect emission lines from the extended environment around the star. We fit the far-infrared lines of CO arising from the ...

  9. Gas and dust productions of comet 103P/Hartley 2 from millimetre observations: interpreting rotation-induced time variations

    CERN Document Server

    Boissier, J; Biver, N; Colom, P; Crovisier, J; Moreno, R; Zakharov, V; Groussin, O; Jorda, L; Lis, D C

    2013-01-01

    Comet 103P/Hartley 2 made a close approach to the Earth in October 2010. It was the target of an extensive observing campaign and was visited by the Deep Impact spacecraft (mission EPOXI). We present observations of HCN and CH3OH emission lines conducted with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer on 22-23, 28 October and 4, 5 November 2010 at 1.1, 1.9 and 3.4 mm wavelengths. The thermal emission from the dust coma and nucleus is detected simultaneously. Interferometric images with unprecedented spatial resolution are obtained. A sine-wave variation of the thermal continuum is observed in the 23 October data, that we associate with the nucleus thermal light curve. The nucleus contributes up to 30-55 % of the observed continuum. The large dust-to-gas ratio (in the range 2-6) can be explained by the unusual activity of the comet for its size, which allows decimeter size particles and large boulders to be entrained by the gas. The rotational temperature of CH3OH is measured. We attribute the increase from 35 to...

  10. Unveiling the gas and dust disk structure in HD 163296 using ALMA observations

    CERN Document Server

    de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Dent, W; Pinte, C; López, C; Klaassen, P; Hales, A; Cortés, P; Rawlings, M G; Tachihara, K; Testi, L; Takahashi, S; Chapillon, E; Mathews, G; Juhasz, A; Akiyama, E; Higuchi, A E; Saito, M; Nyman, L - Å; Phillips, N; Rodń, J; Corder, S; Van Kempen, T

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to study the structure of the protoplanetary disk surrounding the Herbig Ae star HD 163296. Methods: We have used high-resolution and high-sensitivity ALMA observations of the CO(3-2) emission line and the continuum at 850 microns, as well as the 3- dimensional radiative transfer code MCFOST to model the data presented in this work. Results: The CO(3-2) emission unveils for the first time at sub-millimeter frequencies the vertical structure details of a gaseous disk in Keplerian rotation, showing the back- and the front-side of a flared disk. Continuum emission at 850 microns reveals a compact dust disk with a 240 AU outer radius and a surface brightness profile that shows a very steep decline at radius larger than 125 AU. The gaseous disk is more than two times larger than the dust disk, with a similar critical radius but with a shallower radial profile. Radiative transfer models of the continuum data confirms the need for a sharp outer edge to the dust disk. The models for the ...

  11. Flue gas dust composition and fouling tendency in recovery boilers; Flygaskans sammansaettning och nedsmutsande tendens i sodapannan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forssen, Mikael; Backman, Rainer; Wallen, Jonas; Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi (Finland)

    2000-02-01

    In this work eight Swedish black liquors have been characterized for the following properties: Combustability and bed behavior; Dust formation tendency; Fouling tendency of dust; SO{sub 2} formation tendency; and, NO formation tendency. The research was made using; (i) chemical analysis of the samples, (ii) special laboratory scale combustion and pyrolysis tests and (iii) an advanced computer model (Recovery Boiler Chemistry Advisor) for calculating the chemical composition and melting properties of the flue gas dust (fly ash). All tests and analysis were successfully performed and the results were reproducible and reliable. The results were classified for each of the five properties from one to five, and summarised into a table. The liquors showed good or extremely good combustability, also the behavior of the bed was normal or extremely good. None of the liquors had extremely high or low values in their swelling tendency or in their total combustion times. The liquors showed bigger differences in their tendency to form dust. Most of the liquors were 'good' because of the lower than normal tendency to form dust during combustion. Only one of the liquors, liquor B, was rated as 'bad', one of the liquors, liquor E, was rated 'extremely good', in other words liquor B had the highest tendency to form dust whereas liquor E had the lowest tendency to form dust. The advanced computer modelling work gave the composition, and the melting properties for the two dust components, carry-over and the condensed dust. The fouling tendency of the liquors were extremely good (low), the differences were so small that no distinction could be made between the liquors. Compared to earlier studies, the sticky temperature, T{sub 15}, for the eight liquors were extremely high, for both modelling cases when the combustion was assumed to take place either in a 'cold' or in a 'hot' furnace. This is partly explained by the fact that the

  12. Kinetic Modeling of the Neutral Gas, Ions, and Charged Dust in Europa's Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenishev, V.; Borovikov, D.; Rubin, M.; Jia, X.; Combi, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The interaction of the Jovian magnetosphere with Europa has been a subject of active research during the last few decades both through in-situ and remote sensing observations as well as theoretical considerations. Linking the magnetosphere and the moon's surface and interior, Europa's exosphere has become one of the primary objects of study in the field. Understanding the physical processes occurring in the exosphere and its chemical composition is required for the understanding of the interaction between Europa and Jupiter. Europa's surface-bound exosphere originates mostly from ion sputtering of the water ice surface. Minor neutral species and ions of exospheric origin are produced via photolytic and electron impact reactions. The interaction of the Jovian magnetosphere and Europa affects the exospheric population of both neutrals and ions via source and loss processes. Moreover, the Lorentz force causes the newly created exospheric ions to move preferably aligned with the magnetic field lines. Contrary to the ions, heavier and slow-moving charged dust grains are mostly affected by gravity and the electric field component of the Lorentz force. As a result, escaping dust forms a narrow tail aligned in the direction of the convection electric field. Here we present results of a kinetic model of the neutral species (H2O, OH, O2, O, and H), ions (O+, O2+, H+, H2+, H2O+, and OH+), and neutral and charged dust in Europa's exosphere. In our model H2O and O2 are produced via sputtering and other exospheric neutral and ions species are produced via photolytic and electron impact reactions. For the charged dust we compute the equilibrium grain charge by balancing the electron and ion collecting currents according to the local plasma flow conditions at the grain's location. For the tracking of the ions, charged dust, and the calculation of the grains' charge we use plasma density and velocity, and the magnetic field derived from our multi-fluid MHD model of Europa

  13. Discontinuity of Gas-dynamic Variables in the Center of the Compression Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Viktorovich Bulat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research-the study of the flow in the center of the centered isentropic compression waves. Gas-dynamic discontinuities cover shocks, shockwaves, interfaces and sliding surfaces and also the center of the centered compression wave one-dimensional and two-dimensional. For a long time there has been no analysis of the shockwave structures arising in the center of compression waves. At the same time, the problem of development of supersonic and hypersonic air inlets demands to consider the process of the stream isentropic compression. This problem is connected (three-dimensional case to the problem of arising inside the streams of hinged shocks as opposite to the usual discontinuities not resulted by interaction of supersonic streams, waves and discontinuities, but like from nowhere. This study sets the problem for study in the terms of the developed theory of the interference of gas-dynamic discontinuities of the area of existing solutions for the structures of possible types. We have obtained the relations describing the parameters in the center of the compression wave. We have considered the neutral polar of neither compression meeting the case when in the center of the compression wave there neither shocks nor depression waves. The analysis of properties of the centered compression wave adds to the theory of stationary gas-dynamic discontinuities. We have specified the borders of the shock structure existence area optimal for development of supersonic diffusers.

  14. The CO-to-H2 Conversion Factor and Dust-to-Gas Ratio on Kiloparsec Scales in Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sandstrom, K M; Walter, F; Bolatto, A D; Croxall, K V; Draine, B T; Wilson, C D; Wolfire, M; Calzetti, D; Kennicutt, R C; Aniano, G; Meyer, J Donovan; Usero, A; Bigiel, F; Brinks, E; de Blok, W J G; Crocker, A; Dale, D; Engelbracht, C W; Galametz, M; Groves, B; Hunt, L K; Koda, J; Kreckel, K; Linz, H; Meidt, S; Pellegrini, E; Rix, H -W; Roussel, H; Schinnerer, E; Schruba, A; Schuster, K -F; Skibba, R; van der Laan, T; Appleton, P; Armus, L; Brandl, B; Gordon, K; Hinz, J; Krause, O; Montiel, E; Sauvage, M; Schmiedeke, A; Smith, J D T; Vigroux, L

    2012-01-01

    We present maps of the CO-to-H2 conversion factor (alpha_co) and dust-to-gas ratio (DGR) in 26 nearby, star-forming galaxies with ~kiloparsec spatial resolution. We have simultaneously solved for alpha_co and DGR by assuming that the DGR is approximately constant on kpc scales. With this assumption, we can combine maps of dust mass surface density, CO integrated intensity and HI column density to solve for both alpha_co and DGR with no assumptions about their value or dependence on metallicity or other parameters. Such a study has just become possible with the availability of high resolution far-IR maps from the Herschel key program KINGFISH, 12CO J=(2-1) maps from the IRAM 30m large program HERACLES and HI 21-cm line maps from THINGS. We use a fixed ratio between the (2-1) and (1-0) lines to present our alpha_co results on the more typically used 12CO J=(1-0) scale and show using literature measurements that variations in the line ratio do not effect our results. In total, we derive 782 individual solutions ...

  15. An anomalous extinction law in the Cep OB3b young cluster: Evidence for dust processing during gas dispersal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Thomas S.; Prchlik, Jakub J.; Megeath, S. Thomas [University of Toledo, Ritter Astrophysical Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Gutermuth, Robert A. [Five College Astronomy Department, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); Pipher, Judith L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Naylor, Tim [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Jeffries, R. D. [Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, UK ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-10

    We determine the extinction law through Cep OB3b, a young cluster of 3000 stars undergoing gas dispersal. The extinction is measured toward 76 background K giants identified with MMT/Hectospec spectra. Color excess ratios were determined toward each of the giants using V and R photometry from the literature, g, r, i, and z photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and J, H, and K{sub s} photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. These color excess ratios were then used to construct the extinction law through the dusty material associated with Cep OB3b. The extinction law through Cep OB3b is intermediate between the R{sub V} = 3.1 and R{sub V} = 5 laws commonly used for the diffuse atomic interstellar medium and dense molecular clouds, respectively. The dependence of the extinction law on line-of-sight A{sub V} is investigated and we find the extinction law becomes shallower for regions with A{sub V} > 2.5 mag. We speculate that the intermediate dust law results from dust processing during the dispersal of the molecular cloud by the cluster.

  16. ALMA reveals the anatomy of the mm-sized dust and molecular gas in the HD 97048 disk

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Catherine; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Dent, William R F; Maud, Luke; Aikawa, Yuri; Millar, Tom J; Nomura, Hideko

    2016-01-01

    Transitional disks show a lack of excess emission at infrared wavelengths due to a large dust cavity, that is often corroborated by spatially-resolved observations at ~ mm wavelengths. We present the first spatially-resolved ~ mm-wavelength images of the disk around the Herbig Ae/Be star, HD 97048. Scattered light images show that the disk extends to ~ 640 au. The ALMA data reveal a circular-symmetric dusty disk extending to ~ 350 au, and a molecular disk traced in CO J=3-2 emission, extending to ~ 750 au. The CO emission arises from a flared layer with an opening angle ~ 30 deg - 40 deg. HD 97048 is another source for which the large (~ mm-sized) dust grains are more centrally concentrated than the small (~ {\\mu}m-sized) grains and molecular gas, likely due to radial drift. The images and visibility data modelling suggests a decrement in continuum emission within ~ 50 au, consistent with the cavity size determined from mid-infrared imaging (34 +/- 4 au). The extracted continuum intensity profiles show ring-l...

  17. Observing gas and dust in simulations of star formation with Monte Carlo radiation transport on Voronoi meshes

    CERN Document Server

    Hubber, D A; Dale, J

    2015-01-01

    Ionising feedback from massive stars dramatically affects the interstellar medium local to star forming regions. Numerical simulations are now starting to include enough complexity to produce morphologies and gas properties that are not too dissimilar from observations. The comparison between the density fields produced by hydrodynamical simulations and observations at given wavelengths relies however on photoionisation/chemistry and radiative transfer calculations. We present here an implementation of Monte Carlo radiation transport through a Voronoi tessellation in the photoionisation and dust radiative transfer code MOCASSIN. We show for the first time a synthetic spectrum and synthetic emission line maps of an hydrodynamical simulation of a molecular cloud affected by massive stellar feedback. We show that the approach on which previous work is based, which remapped hydrodynamical density fields onto Cartesian grids before performing radiative transfer/photoionisation calculations, results in significant ...

  18. A Systematic Investigation of Cold Gas and Dust in "Normal" Star-Forming Galaxies and Starbursts at Redshifts 5-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Carilli, Chris Luke; Capak, Peter L.; COSMOS, HerMES

    2016-01-01

    Cold molecular and atomic gas plays a central role in our understanding of early galaxy formation and evolution. It represents the material that stars form out of, and its mass, distribution, excitation, and dynamics provide crucial insight into the physical processes that support the ongoing star formation and stellar mass buildup. We present some of the most recent progress in studies of gas-rich galaxies out to the highest redshifts through detailed investigations of the cold gas and dust with the most powerful facilities, i.e., the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), the NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA) and the Atacama Large (sub-) Millimeter Array (ALMA). Facilitating the impressive sensitivity of ALMA, this investigation encompasses a systematic study of the star-forming interstellar medium, gas dynamics, and dust obscuration in massive dusty starbursts and (much less luminous and massive) "typical" galaxies at such early epochs. These new results show that "typical" z>5 galaxies are significantly metal-enriched, but not heavily dust-obscured, consistent with a decreasing contribution of dust-obscured star formation to the star formation history of the universe towards the earliest cosmic epochs.

  19. Kinetic simulation of neutral/ionized gas and electrically charged dust in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cometary coma is a unique phenomenon in the solar system being a planetary atmosphere influenced by little or no gravity. As a comet approaches the sun, the water vapor with some fraction of other gases sublimate, generating a cloud of gas, ice and other refractory materials (rocky and organic dust) ejected from the surface of the nucleus. Sublimating gas molecules undergo frequent collisions and photochemical processes in the near-nucleus region. Owing to its negligible gravity, comets produce a large and highly variable extensive dusty coma with a size much larger than the characteristic size of the cometary nucleus.The Rosetta spacecraft is en route to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for a rendezvous, landing, and extensive orbital phase beginning in 2014. Both, interpretation of measurements and safety consideration of the spacecraft require modeling of the comet's dusty gas environment.In this work we present results of a numerical study of multispecies gaseous and electrically charged dust environment of comet Chyuryumov-Gerasimenko. Both, gas and dust phases of the coma are simulated kinetically. Photolytic reactions are taken into account. Parameters of the ambient plasma as well as the distribution of electric/magnetic fields are obtained from an MHD simulation of the coma connected to the solar wind. Trajectories of ions and electrically charged dust grains are simulated by accounting for the Lorentz force and the nucleus gravity.

  20. Depletions of Elements from the Gas Phase: A Guide on Dust Compositions

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Edward B

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of stars recorded by orbiting observatories since the 1970's have revealed absorption features produced by atoms in their favored ionization stages in the neutral ISM of our Galaxy. Most elements show abundances relative to hydrogen that are below their values in stars, indicating their removal by condensation into solid form. The relative amounts of these depletions vary from one location to the next, and different elements show varying degrees of depletion. In a study of abundances along 243 different sight lines reported in more than 100 papers, Jenkins (2009) characterized the systematic patterns for the depletions of 17 different elements, and these results in turn were used to help us understand the compositions of dust grains. Since the conclusions are based on differential depletions along different sightlines, they are insensitive to errors in the adopted values for the total element abundances. Some of the more remarkable conclusions to emerge from this study are that (1) oxygen ...

  1. Planck early results. XIX. All-sky temperature and dust optical depth from Planck and IRAS. Constraints on the "dark gas" in our Galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, M.; Delabrouille, J.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.;

    2011-01-01

    density of observed gas is linear in the lowest column density regions at high Galactic latitudes. At high NH, the correlation is consistent with that of the lowest NH, for a given choice of the CO-to-H2 conversion factor. In the intermediate NH range, a departure from linearity is observed, with the dust....... Taking into account the spectral shape of the dust optical depth, the emissivity is consistent with previous values derived fromFIRAS measurements at high latitudes within 10%. The threshold for the existence of the dark gas is found at NHtot = (8.0±0.58)×1020 H cm-2 (AV = 0.4mag). Assuming the same high...... frequency emissivity for the dust in the atomic and the molecular phases leads to an average XCO = (2.54 ± 0.13) × 1020 H2 cm-2/(K km s -1). The mass of dark gas is found to be 28% of the atomic gas and 118% of the CO emitting gas in the solar neighbourhood. The Galactic latitude distribution shows that its...

  2. Gas and dust around A-type stars at tens of Myr:signatures of cometary breakup

    CERN Document Server

    Greaves, J S; Matthews, B C; Marshall, J P; Dent, W R F; Woitke, P; Wyatt, M C; Matra, L; Jackson, A

    2016-01-01

    Discs of dusty debris around main-sequence star indicate fragmentation of orbiting planetesimals, and for a few A-type stars, a gas component is also seen that may come from collisionally-released volatiles. Here we find the sixth example of a CO-hosting disc, around the 30Myr old A0-star HD 32297. Two more of these CO-hosting stars, HD 21997 and 49 Cet, have also been imaged in dust with SCUBA-2 within the SONS project. A census of 27 A-type debris hosts within 125 pc now shows 7/16 detections of carbon-bearing gas within the 5-50 Myr epoch, with no detections in 11 older systems. Such a prolonged period of high fragmentation rates corresponds quite well to the epoch when most of the Earth was assembled from planetesimal collisions. Recent models propose that collisional products can be spatially asymmetric if they originate at one location in the disc, with CO particularly exhibiting this behaviour as it can photodissociate in less than an orbital period. Of the six CO-hosting systems, only beta Pic is in c...

  3. On dynamics of imploding shock waves in a mixture of gas and dust particles

    CERN Document Server

    Anand, R K

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the generalized analytical solutions for one-dimensional adiabatic flow behind the imploding shock waves propagating in a dusty gas are obtained using the geometrical shock dynamics theory. The dusty gas is assumed to be a mixture of a perfect gas and spherically small solid particles, in which solid particles are continuously distributed. Shock jump relations given by Anand for a dusty gas are taken into consideration to explore the effects due to an increase in (i) the propagation distance from the centre of convergence, (ii) the mass fraction of solid particles in the mixture and (iii) the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas, on the shock velocity, pressure, temperature, density, velocity of mixture, speed of sound, adiabatic compressibility of mixture and the change-in-entropy across the shock front. The results provided a clear picture of whether and how the presence of solid particles influences the flow field behind the imploding shock front.

  4. A Major Asymmetric Dust Trap in a Transition Disk

    CERN Document Server

    van der Marel, Nienke; Bruderer, Simon; Birnstiel, Til; van Kempen, Tim A; Schmalzl, Markus; Brown, Joanna M; Herczeg, Gregory J; Mathews, Geoffrey S; Geers, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The statistics of discovered exoplanets suggest that planets form efficiently. However, there are fundamental unsolved problems, such as excessive inward drift of particles in protoplanetary disks during planet formation. Recent theories invoke dust traps to overcome this problem. We report the detection of a dust trap in the disk around the star Oph IRS 48 using observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The 0.44-millimeter-wavelength continuum map shows high-contrast crescent-shaped emission on one side of the star originating from millimeter-sized grains, whereas both the mid-infrared image (micrometer-sized dust) and the gas traced by the carbon monoxide 6-5 rotational line suggest rings centered on the star. The difference in distribution of big grains versus small grains/gas can be modeled with a vortex-shaped dust trap triggered by a companion.

  5. Decontamination by foams: A promising treatment for the removal of radioactive dust from gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foams provide a promising method for the treatment of gas streams containing radioactive aerosol particles. A review of the literature has been undertaken to define and assess the mechanics of aerosol behaviour in contact with foams. Applications are also examined in which foams have been used to treat aerosols. Key issues are identified which require further study. In particular, the efficiency of sub-micron particle removal can be determined using recently developed analysers and the use of the process gas to generate the foam could have a major impact on the design of commercial units. (author)

  6. The Small Magellanic Cloud Investigation of Dust and Gas Evolution (SMIDGE): The Dust Extinction Curve in the Small Magellanic Cloud from Red Clump Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchulova Merica-Jones, Petia; Sandstrom, Karin; Johnson, Lent C.; SMIDGE Team

    2016-06-01

    We present preliminary measurements of the average dust extinction curve in a 200 pc x 100 pc region in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) using multi-band Hubble Space Telescope observations of resolved stellar populations from SMIDGE. Extinction curve determinations from a fully-sampled region of the SMC are of great interest. SMC-like extinction is widely used to correct for the effects of dust in low metallicity or high redshift galaxies, however, there are currently very few extinction curve measurements in the SMC. We measure the extinction curve using color-magnitude diagrams of red clump stars experiencing reddening by dust along a vector from which the curve shape can theoretically be directly measured. In addition, our analysis of the extincted and unextincted red clump stars shows a substantial line-of-sight depth for the stellar distribution of the SMC, consistent with recent observations of Cepheids. With the deep multi-band photometry from SMIDGE we are able to separate these two effects and measure both the extinction curve and the line-of-sight depth. Our study implies that extinction curve measurements in nearby galaxies need to take into account the impact of an extended galactic structure on dust extinction along the line of sight.

  7. Dust properties and disk structure of evolved protoplanetary disks in Cep OB2: Grain growth, settling, gas and dust mass, and inside-out evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Dullemond, Cornelis P; Patel, Nimesh; Juhász, Attila; Bouwman, Jeroen; Sturm, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer/IRS spectra of 31 TTS and IRAM/1.3mm observations for 34 low- and intermediate-mass stars in the Cep OB2 region. Including our previously published data, we analyze 56 TTS and the 3 intermediate-mass stars with silicate features in Tr 37 (~4 Myr) and NGC 7160 (~12 Myr). The silicate emission features are well reproduced with a mixture of amorphous (with olivine, forsterite, and silica stoichiometry) and crystalline grains (forsterite, enstatite). We explore grain size and disk structure using radiative transfer disk models, finding that most objects have suffered substantial evolution (grain growth, settling). About half of the disks show inside-out evolution, with either dust-cleared inner holes or a radially-dependent dust distribution, typically with larger grains and more settling in the innermost disk. The typical strong silicate features require nevertheless the presence of small dust grains, and could be explained by differential settling according to grain size, anomalous dust distr...

  8. Gas and dust in a submillimeter galaxy at z = 4.24 from the Herschel ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Pierre; Neri, R; Omont, A; Gusten, R; Menten, K M; Wyrowski, F; Weiss, A; Beelen, A; Gurwell, M A; Dannerbauer, H; Ivison, R J; Negrello, M; Aretxaga, I; Hughes, D H; Auld, R; Baes, M; Blundell, R; Buttiglione, S; Cava, A; Cooray, A; Dariush, A; Dunne, L; Dye, S; Eales, S A; Frayer, D; Fritz, J; Gavazzi, R; Hopwood, R; Ibar, E; Jarvis, M; Maddox, S; Michalowski, M; Pascale, E; Pohlen, M; Rigby, E; Smith, D J B; Swinbank, A M; Temi, P; Valtchanov, I; van der Werf, P; de Zotti, G

    2011-01-01

    We report ground-based follow-up observations of the exceptional source, ID141, one the brightest sources detected so far in the H-ATLAS cosmological survey. ID141 was observed using the IRAM 30-meter telescope and Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI), the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) submillimeter telescope to measure the dust continuum and emission lines of the main isotope of carbon monoxide and carbon ([C I] and [C II]). The detection of strong CO emission lines with the PdBI confirms that ID141 is at high redshift (z=4.243 +/- 0.001). The strength of the continuum and emission lines suggests that ID141 is gravitationally lensed. The width (Delta V (FWHM) ~ 800 km/s}) and asymmetric profiles of the CO and carbon lines indicate orbital motion in a disc or a merger. The properties derived for ID141 are compatible with a ultraluminous (L_FIR ~ 8.5 +/- 0.3 x 10^13/mu_L Lsun, where mu_L is the amplification factor, dense (n ~ 10^4 cm^-3) and warm (T_kin ~ 40K) starbur...

  9. Dust processing in elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Villaume, Alexa; Srinivasan, Sundar

    2015-01-01

    We reconsider the origin and processing of dust in elliptical galaxies. We theoretically formulate the evolution of grain size distribution, taking into account dust supply from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and dust destruction by sputtering in the hot interstellar medium (ISM), whose temperature evolution is treated by including two cooling paths: gas emission and dust emission (i.e. gas cooling and dust cooling). With our new full treatment of grain size distribution, we confirm that dust destruction by sputtering is too efficient to explain the observed dust abundance even if AGB stars continue to supply dust grains, and that, except for the case where the initial dust-to-gas ratio in the hot gas is as high as $\\sim 0.01$, dust cooling is negligible compared with gas cooling. However, we show that, contrary to previous expectations, cooling does not help to protect the dust; rather, the sputtering efficiency is raised by the gas compression as a result of cooling. We additionally consider grain grow...

  10. The Galactic Center Molecular Cloud Survey. II. A Lack of Dense Gas & Cloud Evolution along Galactic Center Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffmann, Jens; Zhang, Qizhou; Menten, Karl M; Goldsmith, Paul F; Lu, Xing; Guzmán, Andrés E; Schmiedeke, Anika

    2016-01-01

    We present the first systematic study of the density structure of clouds found in a complete sample covering all major molecular clouds in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ; inner $\\sim{}200~\\rm{}pc$) of the Milky Way. This is made possible by using data from the Galactic Center Molecular Cloud Survey (GCMS), the first study resolving all major molecular clouds in the CMZ at interferometer angular resolution. We find that many CMZ molecular clouds have unusually shallow density gradients compared to regions elsewhere in the Milky Way. This is possibly a consequence of weak gravitational binding of the clouds. The resulting relative absence of dense gas on spatial scales $\\sim{}0.1~\\rm{}pc$ is probably one of the reasons why star formation (SF) in dense gas of the CMZ is suppressed by a factor $\\sim{}10$, compared to solar neighborhood clouds. Another factor suppressing star formation are the high SF density thresholds that likely result from the observed gas kinematics. Further, it is possible but not certain t...

  11. GAS ABSORPTION IN THE KH 15D SYSTEM: FURTHER EVIDENCE FOR DUST SETTLING IN THE CIRCUMBINARY DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na I D lines in the spectrum of the young binary KH 15D have been analyzed in detail. We find an excess absorption component that may be attributed to foreground interstellar absorption, and to gas possibly associated with the solids in the circumbinary disk. The derived column density is log NNaI = 12.5 cm-2, centered on a radial velocity that is consistent with the systemic velocity. Subtracting the likely contribution of the interstellar medium leaves log NNaI∼ 12.3 cm-2. There is no detectable change in the gas column density across the 'knife edge' formed by the opaque grain disk, indicating that the gas and solids have very different scale heights, with the solids being highly settled. Our data support a picture of this circumbinary disk as being composed of a very thin particulate grain layer composed of millimeter-sized or larger objects that are settled within whatever remaining gas may be present. This phase of disk evolution has been hypothesized to exist as a prelude to the formation of planetesimals through gravitational fragmentation, and is expected to be short-lived if much gas were still present in such a disk. Our analysis also reveals the presence of excess Na I emission relative to the comparison spectrum at the radial velocity of the currently visible star that plausibly arises within the magnetosphere of this still-accreting young star.

  12. Abundant Circumstellar Silica Dust and SiO Gas Created by a Giant Hypervelocity Collision in the ~12 Myr HD172555 System

    CERN Document Server

    Lisse, C M; Wyatt, M C; Morlok, A; Song, I; Bryden, G; Sheehan, P

    2009-01-01

    The fine dust detected by IR emission around the nearby Beta Pic analogue star HD172555 is very peculiar. The dust mineralogy is composed primarily of highly refractory, non-equilibrium materials, with approximately three-quarters of the Si atoms in silica (SiO2) species. Tektite and obsidian lab thermal emission spectra (non-equilibrium glassy silicas found in impact and magmatic systems) are required to fit the data. The best-fit model size distribution for the observed fine dust is dn/da = a-3.95 +/- 0.10. This steep a size distribution, with abundant micron-sized particles, argues for a fresh source of material within the last 0.1 Myr. The location of the dust with respect to the star is at 5.8 +/- 0.6 AU (equivalent to 1.9 +/- 0.2 AU from the Sun), within the terrestrial planet formation region but at the outer edge of any possible terrestrial habitability zone. The mass of fine dust is 4 x 10^19 - 2 x 10^20 kg, equivalent to a 150 - 200 km radius asteroid. Significant emission features centered at 4 and...

  13. Potential for deep basin-centered gas accumulation in Travis Peak (Hosston) Formation, Gulf Coastal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartberger, Charles E.; Dyman, Thaddeus S.; Condon, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of Lower Cretaceous sandstones of the Travis Peak Formation in the northern Gulf Coast Basin to harbor a basin-centered gas accumulation was evaluated by examining (1) the depositional and diagenetic history and reservoir properties of Travis Peak sandstones, (2) the presence and quality of source rocks for generating gas, (3) the burial and thermal history of source rocks and time of gas generation and migration relative to tectonic development of Travis Peak traps, (4) gas and water recoveries from drill-stem and formation tests, (5) the distribution of abnormal pressures based on shut-in-pressure data, and (6) the presence or absence of gas-water contacts associated with gas accumulations in Travis Peak sandstones. The Travis Peak Formation (and correlative Hosston Formation) is a basinward-thickening wedge of terrigenous clastic sedimentary rocks that underlies the northern Gulf Coast Basin from eastern Texas across northern Louisiana to southern Mississippi. Clastic infl ux was focused in two main fl uvial-deltaic depocenters?one located in northeastern Texas and the other in southeastern Mississippi and northeastern Louisiana. Across the main hydrocarbon-productive trend in eastern Texas and northern Louisiana, the Travis Peak Formation is about 2,000 ft thick. Most Travis Peak hydrocarbon production in eastern Texas comes from drilling depths between 6,000 and 10,000 ft. Signifi cant decrease in porosity and permeability occurs through that depth interval. Above 8,000-ft drilling depth in eastern Texas, Travis Peak sandstone matrix permeabilities often are signifi cantly higher than the 0.1-millidarcy (mD) cutoff that characterizes tight-gas reservoirs. Below 8,000 ft, matrix permeability of Travis Peak sandstones is low because of pervasive quartz cementation, but abundant natural fractures impart signifi cant fracture permeability. Although pressure data within the middle and lower Travis Peak Formation are limited in eastern Texas

  14. Experimental Study on Toxic Dust and Gas Control in Blasting at Metal Mines%金属矿山爆破除尘降毒实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂丽

    2011-01-01

    以爆破过程除尘降毒为目的,分析了金属矿山爆破尘毒来源,根据实验场所情况,选取水封爆破和喷雾除尘结合使用的方案进行实验.实验结果表明,水封爆破和水雾除尘对于降低粉尘和有毒有害气体浓度具有明显的效果.%In order to reduce the concentration of dust and poisonous gas in blasting process at metal mines, the sources of toxic dust in blasting was analyzed.According to the conditions of experimental site, experiment was made on the combined application of water - seal blasting and dust control with water spraying.The result showed that the combined application of water seal blasting and dust control with water spraying can effectively reduced the concentration of dust and poisonous gases.

  15. HCO+ Detection of Dust-Depleted Gas in the Inner Hole of the LkCa 15 Pre-Transitional Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Drabek-Maunder, E; Greaves, J; Kamp, I; Meijerink, R; Spaans, M; Thi, W -F; Woitke, P

    2016-01-01

    LkCa 15 is an extensively studied star in the Taurus region known for its pre-transitional disk with a large inner cavity in dust continuum and normal gas accretion rate. The most popular hypothesis to explain the LkCa 15 data invokes one or more planets to carve out the inner cavity, while gas continues to flow across the gap from the outer disk onto the central star. We present spatially unresolved HCO+ J=4-3 observations of the LkCa 15 disk from the JCMT and model the data with the ProDiMo code. We find that: (1) HCO+ line-wings are clearly detected, certifying the presence of gas in the cavity within 10^4 compared to the ISM) and a substantial increase in the gas scale-height within the cavity (H_0/R_0 ~ 0.6). An ISM dust-to-gas ratio (d:g=10^-2) yields too little line-wing flux regardless of the scale-height or cavity gas geometry, while a smaller scale-height also under predicts the flux even with a reduced d:g. (3) The cavity gas mass is consistent with the surface density profile of the outer disk ext...

  16. Dust mite (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a magnified photograph of a dust mite. Mites are carriers (vectors) of many important diseases including typhus (scrub and murine) and rickettsialpox. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease ...

  17. Dust and Gas in the Magellanic Clouds from the Heritage Herschel Key Project. I. Dust Properties and Insights into the Origin of the Submm (Submillimeter) Excess Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Karl D.; Roman-Duval, Julia; Bot, Caroline; Meixner, Margaret; Babler, Brian; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Bolatto, Alberto; Boyer, Martha L.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Engelbracht, Charles; Fukui, Yasuo; Galametz, Maud; Galliano, Frederic; Hony, Sacha; Hughes, Annie; Indebetouw, Remy; Israel, Frank P.; Jameson, Katie; Kawamura, Akiko; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Li, Aigen; Madden, Suzanne C.; Matsuura, Mikako; Misselt, Karl; Montiel, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The dust properties in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are studied using the HERITAGE Herschel Key Project photometric data in five bands from 100 to 500 micromillimeters. Three simple models of dust emission were fit to the observations: a single temperature blackbody modified by a powerlaw emissivity (SMBB), a single temperature blackbody modified by a broken power-law emissivity (BEMBB), and two blackbodies with different temperatures, both modified by the same power-law emissivity (TTMBB). Using these models we investigate the origin of the submillimeter excess; defined as the submillimeter (submm) emission above that expected from SMBB models fit to observations properties; further work is needed to determine the relative contributions of fitting noise and ISM physics to the correlations.

  18. Variability of Disk Emission in Pre-Main Sequence and Related Stars. II. Variability in the Gas and Dust Emission of the Herbig Fe Star SAO 206462

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitko, Michael L.; Day, Amanda N.; Kimes, Robin L.; Beerman, Lori C.; Martus, Cameron; Lynch, David K.; Russell, Ray W.; Grady, Carol A.; Schneider, Glenn; Lisse, Carey M.; Nuth, Joseph A.; Cure, Michel; Henden, Arne A.; Kraus, Stefan; Motta, Veronica; Tamura Motohide; Hornbeck, Jeremy; Williger, Gerard M.; Fugazza, Dino

    2011-01-01

    We present thirteen epochs of near-infrared (0.8-5 microns) spectroscopic observations of the pre-transitional, "gapped" disk system in SAO 206462 (=HD 135344B). In all, six gas emission lines (Br(alpha) , Br(gamma), Pa(beta), Pa(delta), Pa(epsilon), and the 0.8446 microns line of O I) along with continuum measurements made near the standard J, H, K, and L photometric bands were measured. A mass accretion rate of approximately 2 x 10(exp 8)Solar Mass/yr was derived from the Br(gamma) and Pa(beta) lines. However, the fluxes of these lines varied by a factor of over two during the course of a few months. The continuum also varied, but by only approx.30%, and even decreased at a time when the gas emission was increasing. The H I line at 1.083 microns was also found to vary in a manner inconsistent with that of either the hydrogen lines or the dust. Both the gas and dust variabilities indicate significant changes in the region of the inner gas and the inner dust belt that may be common to many young disk systems. If planets are responsible for defining the inner edge of the gap, they could interact with the material on time scales commensurate with what is observed for the variations in the dust, while other disk instabilities (thermal, magneto-rotational) would operate there on longer time scales than we observe for the inner dust belt. For SAO 206462, the orbital period would likely be 1-3 years. If the changes are being induced in the disk material closer to the star than the gap, a variety of mechanisms (disk instabilities, interactions via planets) might be responsible for the changes seen. The He I feature is most likely due to a wind whose orientation changes with respect to the observer on time scales of a day or less. To further constrain the origin of the gas and dust emission will require multiple spectroscopic and interferometric observations on both shorter and longer time scales that have been sampled so far.

  19. Exploring the gas-phase spectroscopy of interstellar PAH and dust analogs: Astrophysical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biennier, Ludovic; Salama, Farid; Allamandola, Lou; Gupta, Manish; O'Keefe, Anthony; Scherer, James J.

    We present and discuss the gas-phase electronic absorption spectra of selected ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) measured in the UV-Visible-NIR range in an astrophysically relevant environment. This type of measurements provides data on PAHs and nanometer-sized particles that can now be directly compared to astronomical spectra of the UV interstellar (IS) extinction curve and of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). The harsh physical conditions of the IS medium - characterized by a low temperature, an absence of collisions and strong VUV radiation fields - are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. This source combines a pulsed slit supersonic free jet expansion of argon seeded with PAHs (Salama, F., Allamandola, L. J. & Scherer, J. J., `Pulsed discharge nozzle cavity ringdown spectroscopy of cold PAH ions', J. Chem Phys.;in press) that have been pre-selected from Matrix Isolation Spectroscopy (MIS) studies. The absorption spectrum of the Pyrene cation (C16H10+) has also been measured. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of free, large carbon-containing molecules and ions in the gas phase. The electronic bands measured for this selection of PAH ions are all found to be intrinsically broad (>˜20 cm-1). The laboratory data are compared with recent astronomical spectra of large DIBs. Preliminary results also show that carbon nanoparticles (˜2 nm size) are formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma. This finding holds great potential for the spectroscopy of nanoparticles isolated in the gas-phase in an interstellar-like environment and for understanding the formation process of interstellar grains.

  20. Gas Absorption in the KH 15D System: Further Evidence for Dust Settling in the Circumbinary Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Lawler, S M; Redfield, S; Hamilton, C M; Johns-Krull, C M; Winn, J N; Johnson, J A; Mundt, R

    2010-01-01

    Na I D lines in the spectrum of the young binary KH 15D have been analyzed in detail. We find an excess absorption component that may be attributed to foreground interstellar absorption, and to gas possibly associated with the solids in the circumbinary disk. The derived column density is log N_NaI = 12.5 cm^-2, centered on a radial velocity that is consistent with the systemic velocity. Subtracting the likely contribution of the ISM leaves log N_NaI ~ 12.3 cm^-2. There is no detectable change in the gas column density across the "knife edge" formed by the opaque grain disk, indicating that the gas and solids have very different scale heights, with the solids being highly settled. Our data support a picture of this circumbinary disk as being composed of a very thin particulate grain layer composed of millimeter-sized or larger objects that are settled within whatever remaining gas may be present. This phase of disk evolution has been hypothesized to exist as a prelude to the formation of planetesimals through...

  1. The SAGE-Spec Spitzer Legacy program: The life-cycle of dust and gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Kemper, F; Antoniou, V; Bernard, J -P; Blum, R D; Boyer, M L; Chan, J; Chen, C -H R; Cohen, M; Dijkstra, C; Engelbracht, C; Galametz, M; Galliano, F; Gielen, C; Gordon, Karl D; Gorjian, V; Harris, J; Hony, S; Hora, J L; Indebetouw, R; Jones, O; Kawamura, A; Lagadec, E; Lawton, B; Leisenring, J M; Madden, S C; Marengo, M; Matsuura, M; McDonald, I; McGuire, C; Meixner, M; Mulia, A J; O'Halloran, B; Oliveira, J M; Paladini, R; Paradis, D; Reach, W T; Rubin, D; Sandstrom, K; Sargent, B A; Sewilo, M; Shiao, B; Sloan, G C; Speck, A K; Srinivasan, S; Szczerba, R; Tielens, A G G M; van Aarle, E; Van Dyk, S D; van Loon, J Th; Van Winckel, H; Vijh, Uma P; Volk, K; Whitney, B A; Wilkins, A N; Zijlstra, A A

    2010-01-01

    The SAGE-Spec Spitzer Legacy program is a spectroscopic follow-up to the SAGE-LMC photometric survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud carried out with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We present an overview of SAGE-Spec and some of its first results. The SAGE-Spec program aims to study the life cycle of gas and dust in the Large Magellanic Cloud, and to provide information essential to the classification of the point sources observed in the earlier SAGE-LMC photometric survey. We acquired 224.6 hours of observations using the InfraRed Spectrograph and the SED mode of the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer. The SAGE-Spec data, along with archival Spitzer spectroscopy of objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud, are reduced and delivered to the community. We discuss the observing strategy, the specific data reduction pipelines applied and the dissemination of data products to the scientific community. Initial science results include the first detection of an extragalactic "21 um" feature towards an evolved star and...

  2. A Combined Spitzer and Herschel Infrared Study of Gas and Dust in the Circumbinary Disk Orbiting V4046 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Rapson, Valerie A; Sacco, G Germano; Kastner, Joel H; Wilner, David; Rosenfeld, Katherine; Andrews, Sean; Herczeg, Gregory; van der Marel, Nienke

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a spectroscopic Spitzer and Herschel mid-to-far-infrared study of the circumbinary disk orbiting the evolved (age ~12-23 Myr) close binary T Tauri system V4046 Sgr. Spitzer IRS spectra show emission lines of [Ne II], H_2 S(1), CO_2 and HCN, while Herschel PACS and SPIRE spectra reveal emission from [O I], OH, and tentative detections of H_2O and high-J transitions of CO. We measure [Ne III]/[Ne II] < 0.13, which is comparable to other X-ray/EUV luminous T Tauri stars that lack jets. We use the H_2 S(1) line luminosity to estimate the gas mass in the relatively warm surface layers of the inner disk. The presence of [O I] emission suggests that CO, H_2O, and/or OH is being photodissociated, and the lack of [C I] emission suggests any excess C may be locked up in HCN, CN and other organic molecules. Modeling of silicate dust grain emission features in the mid-infrared indicates that the inner disk is composed mainly of large (r~5 um) amorphous pyroxene and olivine grains (~86% by mass)...

  3. The extinction and dust-to-gas structure of the planetary nebula NGC 7009 observed with MUSE

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, J R; Barlow, M J; Ueta, T; Wesson, R; Zijlstra, A A

    2016-01-01

    The large field and wavelength range of MUSE is well suited to mapping Galactic planetary nebulae (PN). The bright PN NGC 7009 was observed with MUSE on the VLT during the Science Verification of the instrument in seeing of 0.6". Emission line maps in hydrogen Balmer and Paschen lines were formed from analysis of the MUSE cubes. The measured electron temperature and density from the MUSE cube were employed to predict the theoretical hydrogen line ratios and map the extinction distribution across the nebula. After correction for the interstellar extinction to NGC 7009, the internal dust-to-gas ratio (A_V/N_H) has been mapped for the first time in a PN. The extinction map of NGC 7009 has considerable structure, broadly corresponding to the morphological features of the nebula. A large-scale feature in the extinction map, consisting of a crest and trough, occurs at the rim of the inner shell. The nature of this feature was investigated and instrumental and physical causes considered; no convincing mechanisms wer...

  4. Combined CO & Dust Scaling Relations of Depletion Time and Molecular Gas Fractions with Cosmic Time, Specific Star Formation Rate and Stellar Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Genzel, R; Lutz, D; Saintonge, A; Berta, S; Magnelli, B; Combes, F; García-Burillo, S; Neri, R; Bolatto, A; Contini, T; Lilly, S; Boissier, J; Boone, F; Bouché, N; Bournaud, F; Burkert, A; Carollo, M; Colina, L; Cooper, M C; Cox, P; Feruglio, C; Schreiber, N M Förster; Freundlich, J; Gracia-Carpio, J; Juneau, S; Kovac, K; Lippa, M; Naab, T; Salome, P; Renzini, A; Sternberg, A; Walter, F; Weiner, B; Weiss, A; Wuyts, S

    2014-01-01

    We combine molecular gas masses inferred from CO emission in 500 star forming galaxies (SFGs) between z=0 and 3, from the IRAM-COLDGASS, PHIBSS1/2 and other surveys, with gas masses derived from Herschel far-IR dust measurements in 512 galaxy stacks over the same stellar mass/redshift range. We constrain the scaling relations of molecular gas depletion time scale (tdepl) and gas fraction (Mmolgas/M*) with redshift, specific star formation rate (sSFR) and stellar mass (M*) in SFGs. The CO- and dust-based scaling relations agree remarkably well. This suggests that the CO-H2 mass conversion factor varies little within +-0.6 dex of the main sequence line, and less than a factor of 2 throughout this redshift range. We find that tdepl scales as (1+z)^-0.3 *(sSFR)^-0.5, with no M* dependence. The resulting steep redshift dependence of Mmolgas/M* ~ (1+z)^3 mirrors that of the sSFR and probably reflects the gas supply rate. The decreasing gas fractions at high M* are driven by the flattening of the SFR-M* relation. At...

  5. Gas and dust mass in the disk around the Herbig Ae star HD169142

    CERN Document Server

    Panić, Olja; Wilner, David; Qi, Chunhua

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the physical structure of the gas component of the disk around the pre-main-sequence star HD169142. The 13CO and C18O J=2-1 line emission is observed from the disk with 1.4'' resolution using the Submillimeter Array. We adopt the disk physical structure derived from a model which fits the spectral energy distribution of HD169142. We obtain the full three-dimensional information on the CO emission with the aid of a molecular excitation and radiative transfer code. This information is used for the analysis of our observations and previous 12CO J=2-1 and 1.3 mm continuum data. The disk is in Keplerian rotation and seen at an inclination close to 13 deg from face-on. We conclude that the regions traced by different CO isotopologues are distinct in terms of their vertical location within the disk, their temperature and their column densities. With the given disk structure, we find that freeze-out is not efficient enough to remove a significant amount of CO from gas phase. Both observed lines match t...

  6. The Calculated Ratio of the Gas Flow in a Countercurrent Cyclone Dust Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilevsky Michail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous studies of the structure of swirling flow in a variety of devices in which the peculiarities of the parameters associated with the twist flow. The values of the local parameters of the twist of the axial direction are experimentally and connect them with a constructive twist parameter, which is built from the idealized repose of the gas flow in vortex distribution and speed at the exit of the swirl. For counter flow chamber is the equation for the input pulse in the radial direction and the twist parameter is provided in the radial direction. It allows us to estimate the maximum radius of the circumferential velocity not only near the outlet, but also near the end surface of the chamber. On a cylindrical surface with a radius of outlet cyclone tangential turbulent friction in the radial direction depends on the product of a circle and radial speeds. Compiled equation changes the flow of angular momentum in the axial zone, depending on the force of friction tangential flow on the surface with the radius of the outlet pipe of the cyclone. This equation allowed assessing the circulation of gas in the axial zone.

  7. 30 t电炉烟气治理改造工程实践%Practice for collecting and cleaning gas & dust of 30 t electric arc furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘石虹; 惠文武; 黄冬梅

    2001-01-01

    叙述了新的除尘方法在石钢公司电炉烟气治理上的应用,达到了减少空气污染及粉尘回收利用的目的。%A new method of collecting and cleaning gas and dust for 30 telectric arc furnace was described.The purposes of air environment pollution reduction,the resources recovery and the reuse were acheived.

  8. Fractal dust grains in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F. [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Peng, R. D. [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Y. H. [Institute of Complexity Science, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Chen, Z. Y. [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Ye, M. F.; Wang, L. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

  9. Catalyst for Gas Phase Hydrogenation of Aldehydes Successfully Developed by Daqing Chemical Research Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A national invention patent has been granted to the method for preparation of the Cu-Zn-Al system catalyst for gas phase hydrogenation of aldehydes developed by the Daqing Chemi-cal Research Center (DCRC) under the PetroChina Petro-chemical Research Institute. This technology is mainly ap-plied to the gas phase process for hydrogenation of butanal/crotonaldehyde to manufacture butanol/octanol and has brought about hundreds of million RMB of economic ben-efits since its application.

  10. The Correlation of Dust and Gas Emission in Star-Forming Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Morgan, L K; Eden, D J; Hatchell, J; Urquhart, J S

    2012-01-01

    We present ammonia maps of portions of the W3 and Perseus molecular clouds in order to compare gas emission with continuum thermal emission. These are commonly expected to trace the same mass component in star-forming regions, often under the assumption of LTE. The star-forming regions are found to have different physical characteristics consistent with their identification as low-mass and high-mass respectively. Accounting for the distance of the W3 region does not fully reconcile these differences, suggesting that there is an underlying difference in the structure of the two regions. Peak positions of submillimetre and ammonia emission do not correlate strongly. Also, the extent of diffuse emission is only moderately matched between ammonia and thermal emission. Source sizes measured from our observations are consistent between regions, although there is a noticeable difference between the submillimeter source sizes in the two observed regions. Fractional abundance measurements of ammonia indicate a dip in ...

  11. Lattice-gas model for alkali-metal fullerides: face-centered-cubic structure

    OpenAIRE

    Udvardi, Laszlo; Szabo, Gyorgy

    1995-01-01

    A lattice-gas model is suggested for describing the ordering phenomena in alkali-metal fullerides of face-centered-cubic structure assuming the electric charge of alkali ions residing in either octahedral or tetrahedral interstitial sites is completely screened by the first-neighbor C_60 molecules. This approximation allows us to derive an effective ion-ion interaction. The van der Waals interaction between the ion and C_60 molecule is characterized by introducing an additional energy at the ...

  12. ALMA Imaging of Gas and Dust in a Galaxy Protocluster at Redshift 5.3

    CERN Document Server

    Riechers, Dominik A; Capak, Peter L; Scoville, Nicholas Z; Smolcic, Vernesa; Schinnerer, Eva; Yun, Min; Cox, Pierre; Bertoldi, Frank; Karim, Alexander; Yan, Lin

    2014-01-01

    We report interferometric imaging of [CII] and OH emission toward the center of the galaxy protocluster associated with the z=5.3 submillimeter galaxy (SMG) AzTEC-3, using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). We detect strong [CII], OH, and rest-frame 157.7 um continuum emission toward the SMG. The [CII] emission is distributed over a scale of 3.9 kpc, implying a dynamical mass of 9.7 x 10^10 Msun, and a star formation rate (SFR) surface density of Sigma_SFR = 530 Msun/yr/kpc2. This suggests that AzTEC-3 forms stars at Sigma_SFR approaching the Eddington limit for radiation pressure supported disks. We find that the OH emission is slightly blueshifted relative to the [CII] line, which may indicate a molecular outflow associated with the peak phase of the starburst. We also detect and dynamically resolve [CII] emission over a scale of 7.5 kpc toward a triplet of Lyman-break galaxies with moderate UV-based SFRs in the protocluster at ~95kpc projected distance from the SMG. These galaxies are not dete...

  13. Validation of the equilibrium model for galaxy evolution to z~3 through molecular gas and dust observations of lensed star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Saintonge, Amelie; Genzel, Reinhard; Magnelli, Benjamin; Nordon, Raanan; Tacconi, Linda J; Baker, Andrew J; Bandara, Kaushala; Berta, Stefano; Schreiber, Natascha M Forster; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Sturm, Eckhard; Wuyts, Eva; Wuyts, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    We combine IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer and Herschel PACS and SPIRE measurements to study the dust and gas contents of high-redshift star forming galaxies. We present new observations for a sample of 17 lensed galaxies at z=1.4-3.1, which allow us to directly probe the cold ISM of normal star-forming galaxies with stellar masses of ~10^10Msun, a regime otherwise not (yet) accessible by individual detections in Herschel and molecular gas studies. The lensed galaxies are combined with reference samples of sub-millimeter and normal z~1-2 star-forming galaxies with similar far-infrared photometry to study the gas and dust properties of galaxies in the SFR-M*-redshift parameter space. The mean gas depletion timescale of main sequence galaxies at z>2 is measured to be only ~450Myr, a factor of ~1.5 (~5) shorter than at z=1 (z=0), in agreement with a (1+z)^-1 scaling. The mean gas mass fraction at z=2.8 is 40+/-15% (44% after incompleteness correction), suggesting a flattening or even a reversal of the trend ...

  14. Dust and gas obscuration in ELAIS Deep X-ray Survey reddened quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Willott, C J; Almaini, O; Johnson, O; Lawrence, A; Dunlop, J S; Roche, N D; Mann, R G; Manners, J C; González-Solares, E A; Pérez-Fournon, I; Ivison, R J; Serjeant, S; Oliver, S J; McMahon, R G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Willott, Chris J.; Simpson, Chris; Almaini, Omar; Johnson, Olivia; Lawrence, Andrew; Dunlop, James S.; Roche, Nathan D.; Mann, Robert G.; Manners, James C.; Gonzalez-Solares, Eduardo; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Ivison, Rob J.; Serjeant, Stephen; Oliver, Seb J.; Mahon, Richard G. Mc; Rowan-Robinson, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Hard X-ray surveys have uncovered a large population of heavily obscured AGN. They also reveal a population of quasars with moderate obscuration at both visible and X-ray wavelengths. We use Chandra selected samples of quasars from the ELAIS Deep X-ray Survey (EDXS) and CDF-N to investigate the obscuration towards the nuclei of moderately obscured AGN. We find an inverse correlation between the optical to X-ray flux ratio and the X-ray hardness ratio which can be interpreted as due to obscuration at visible and X-ray wavelengths. We present detailed optical and near-infrared data for a sample of optically-faint (R>23) quasars from the EDXS. These are used to constrain the amount of rest-frame UV/optical reddening towards these quasars. It is found that optically-faint quasars are mostly faint due to obscuration, not because they are intrinsically weak. After correcting for reddening, the optical magnitudes of most of these quasars are similar to the brighter quasars at these X-ray fluxes. Combining with gas c...

  15. Molecular gas in the Galactic center region. III. Probing shocks in molecular cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettemeister, S.; Dahmen, G.; Mauersberger, R.; Henkel, C.; Wilson, T. L.; Martin-Pintado, J.

    1998-06-01

    Multiline observations of C(18) O and SiO isotopomers toward 33 molecular peaks in the Galactic center region, taken at the SEST, JCMT and HHT telescopes, are presented. The C(18) O presumably traces the total H_2 column density, while the SiO traces gas affected by shocks and high temperature chemistry. The J =2-> 1 line of SiO is seen only in few regions of the Galactic disk. This line is easily detected in all Galactic center sources observed. A comparison of the strength of the rare isotopomers (29) SiO and (30) SiO to the strength of the main isotopomer (28) SiO implies that the J = 2 -> 1 transition of (28) SiO is optically thick. The (29) Si/(30) Si isotope ratio of 1.6 in the Galactic center clouds is consistent with the terrestrial value. Large Velocity Gradient models show that the dense component (n_H_2 >= 10(4) \\percc) in typical molecular cores in the Galactic center is cool (\\TKIN ~ 25 K), contrary to what is usually found in Giant Molecular Clouds in the disk, where the densest cores are the hottest. High kinetic temperatures, > 100 K, known to exist from NH_3 studies, are only present at lower gas densities of a few 10(3) cm(-3) , where SiO is highly subthermally excited. Assuming that \\CEIO\\ traces all of the molecular gas, it is found that in all cases but one, SiO emission is compatible with arising in gas at higher density that is (presently) relatively cool. The relative abundance of SiO is typically 10(-9) , but differs significantly between individual sources. It shows a dependence on the position of the source within the Galactic center region. High abundances are found in those regions for which bar potential models predict a high likelihood for cloud-cloud collisions. These results can be used to relate the amount of gas that has encountered shocks within the last ~ 10(6) years to the large scale kinematics in the inner ~ 500 pc of the Galaxy. Based on observations obtained at the Swedish-ESO Submillimeter Telescope (SEST, Project C

  16. News and Views: Keith Mason moves to UK Space Agency; Pristine gas from dawn of time; Discovering local dark skies; Planet collisions may generate black hole dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Keith Mason stepped down from his role as CEO of STFC on 1 November in order to take up a post at the UK Space Agency until 31 March 2012, advising on steps needed to leverage the research base to maximize the economic growth of the space sector. He is succeeded at STFC by John Womersley. Diffuse gas clouds composed of hydrogen and deuterium have been detected in deep space-potential reservoirs of pristine material left over from the Big Bang. Finding places where skies are dark enough to see stars and planets will be easier thanks to a national initiative funded by the Big Lottery Fund and led by the STFC. Clouds of dust around the centres of galaxies where supermassive black holes lurk may come from collisions between planets and asteroids-much as zodiacal dust in the solar system comes from comet and asteroid collisions.

  17. Dust And Gas Morphology Of Comets 81P/Wild 2, 10P/Tempel 2, And 103P/Hartley 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Matthew M.; Schleicher, D. G.

    2010-10-01

    As part of the ongoing program to study comets at Lowell Observatory, we present our recent observations of Jupiter Family Comets 81P/Wild 2, 10P/Tempel 2, and 103P/Hartley 2. All comets were observed with the Hall 1.1-m telescope at Lowell Observatory using broadband and narrowband optical filters to isolate gas and dust coma morphology. These filters allow us to compare the spatial distribution of various gas species and to infer properties of the nucleus such as the pole orientation, rotation period, and the number and location of active regions. Wild 2 reached perihelion in February 2010, its first return since the Stardust encounter in 2004. We observed it on 22 nights between October 2009 and June 2010. Image enhancement reveals two dust jets whose seasonal activities are consistent with those described by Farnham and Schleicher (2005; Icarus 173, 553-558). Additionally, we observed a CN jet that appears to be coincident with one of the dust jets. Tempel 2 has a favorable observing scenario in 2010, with viewing geometry significantly different than in the previous favorable apparitions of 1988 and 1999, which should further constrain the pole solution. We began observing Tempel 2 in March 2010, and observations will continue into 2011, with the comet near opposition throughout the fall. Preliminary analysis reveals a single CN jet that does not vary with rotational phase and a dust jet that is offset from the CN jet. These features are consistent with post-perihelion observations in 1999 that will be presented separately by Schwieterman et al. Hartley 2 passes within 0.12 AU of Earth in October 2010 and is the target of the EPOXI spacecraft flyby in November 2010. Imaging commenced in July 2010 and we will present ongoing results at the meeting. This work was supported by the NASA Planetary Astronomy program.

  18. New emerging results on molecular gas, stars, and dust at z~2, as revealed by low star formation rate and low stellar mass star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Schaerer, Daniel; Combes, Francoise; Egami, Eiichi; Swinbank, Mark; Richard, Johan; Sklias, Panos; Rawle, Tim D.

    2015-08-01

    The large surveys of main sequence star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z~2, made at near-IR and mm wavelengths, have revolutionized our picture of galaxies at this critical epoch, where the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) density is at its peak and the stellar mass (Ms) assembly is rapid. They reveal that ~70% of SFGs are young, rotation dominated disk-like systems, yet dynamically hotter and geometrically thicker than local spirals, with larger molecular gas fractions (fgas).It is time to refine this modern picture of z~2 galaxies by extending the current studies toward the more numerous and typical SFGs, characterized by SFRstar, and dust properties in 8 such sub-SFR*, lensed SFGs at z=1.5-3.6, achieved thanks to gravitational lensing and IRAM/PdBI, Herschel, Spitzer, and HST multi-wavelength data. They extend the dynamical range in SFR and Ms of our compilation of CO-detected SFGs at z>1 from the literature, and allow us to revisit and propose new correlations between IR and CO luminosities, molecular gas, stellar and dust masses, specific SFR, molecular gas depletion timescales (tdepl), fgas, dust-to-gas ratios, and redshift, to be directly compared with galaxy evolution models.We find an increase of tdepl with Ms, as now revealed by low-Ms SFGs at z>1 and also observed at z=0, which contrasts with the acknowledged constant tdepl in "bathtub" models and refutes the linearity of the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. A steady increase of fgas with redshift is predicted by cosmological models and is observed from z~0 to z~1.5, but is followed by a mild increase toward higher redshifts, which we further confirm with our highest redshift CO measurement in an SFR* galaxy at z=3.6. We provide the first fgas measure in z>1 SFGs at the low-Ms end 109.4dust-to-gas ratio among high-redshift SFGs, high-redshift SMGs, local spirals

  19. Planck early results. XIX. All-sky temperature and dust optical depth from Planck and IRAS. Constraints on the "dark gas" in our Galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, M.; Delabrouille, J.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.;

    2011-01-01

    mass fraction is relatively constant down to a few degrees from the Galactic plane. A possible explanation for the dark gas lies in a dark molecular phase, where H2 survives photodissociation but CO does not. The observed transition for the onsetof this phase in the solar neighbourhood (AV = 0.4mag...... density of observed gas is linear in the lowest column density regions at high Galactic latitudes. At high NH, the correlation is consistent with that of the lowest NH, for a given choice of the CO-to-H2 conversion factor. In the intermediate NH range, a departure from linearity is observed, with the dust......) appears consistent with recent theoretical predictions. It is also possible that up to half of the dark gas could be in atomic form, due to optical depth effects in the Hi measurements. © ESO, 2011....

  20. COMBINED CO AND DUST SCALING RELATIONS OF DEPLETION TIME AND MOLECULAR GAS FRACTIONS WITH COSMIC TIME, SPECIFIC STAR-FORMATION RATE, AND STELLAR MASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Lutz, D.; Berta, S.; Burkert, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Saintonge, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Place, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Magnelli, B. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Combes, F. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, CNRS, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); García-Burillo, S. [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional-OAN, Observatorio de Madrid, Alfonso XII, 3, 28014 Madrid (Spain); Neri, R.; Boissier, J. [IRAM, 300 Rue de la Piscine, F-38406 St. Martin d' Heres, Grenoble (France); Bolatto, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Contini, T.; Boone, F.; Bouché, N. [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Planétologie, Universite de Toulouse, 9 Avenue du Colonel Roche BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Lilly, S.; Carollo, M. [Institute of Astronomy, Department of Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, CH-8093 ETH Zürich (Switzerland); Bournaud, F. [Service d' Astrophysique, DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Colina, L. [CSIC Instituto Estructura Materia, C/Serrano 121, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Cooper, M. C., E-mail: linda@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); and others

    2015-02-10

    We combine molecular gas masses inferred from CO emission in 500 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) between z = 0 and 3, from the IRAM-COLDGASS, PHIBSS1/2, and other surveys, with gas masses derived from Herschel far-IR dust measurements in 512 galaxy stacks over the same stellar mass/redshift range. We constrain the scaling relations of molecular gas depletion timescale (t {sub depl}) and gas to stellar mass ratio (M {sub mol} {sub gas}/M{sub *} ) of SFGs near the star formation ''main-sequence'' with redshift, specific star-formation rate (sSFR), and stellar mass (M{sub *} ). The CO- and dust-based scaling relations agree remarkably well. This suggests that the CO → H{sub 2} mass conversion factor varies little within ±0.6 dex of the main sequence (sSFR(ms, z, M {sub *})), and less than 0.3 dex throughout this redshift range. This study builds on and strengthens the results of earlier work. We find that t {sub depl} scales as (1 + z){sup –0.3} × (sSFR/sSFR(ms, z, M {sub *})){sup –0.5}, with little dependence on M {sub *}. The resulting steep redshift dependence of M {sub mol} {sub gas}/M {sub *} ≈ (1 + z){sup 3} mirrors that of the sSFR and probably reflects the gas supply rate. The decreasing gas fractions at high M{sub *} are driven by the flattening of the SFR-M {sub *} relation. Throughout the probed redshift range a combination of an increasing gas fraction and a decreasing depletion timescale causes a larger sSFR at constant M {sub *}. As a result, galaxy integrated samples of the M {sub mol} {sub gas}-SFR rate relation exhibit a super-linear slope, which increases with the range of sSFR. With these new relations it is now possible to determine M {sub mol} {sub gas} with an accuracy of ±0.1 dex in relative terms, and ±0.2 dex including systematic uncertainties.

  1. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    being developed in a collaborative effort between Langley Research Center and Kennedy Space Center. The screens typically consist of spiral shaped conductive traces patterned on high dielectric substrates (i.e. glass, quartz, polyimide film, etc.). Two broad categories of substrate materials are being investigated for the screens. One category consists of transparent substrates (i.e. glass, quartz, sapphire, etc.), and the other non-transparent sub-strates (Kapton, polyimide films, metals, etc.). The transparent screens utilize patterns made from indium tin oxide (ITO), a transparent conductive material, on clear substrates while the non-transparent screens use copper patterns on a transluscent or opaque substrates. Further, the screen is coated with a high dielectric polyimide cover layer to protect the screen pattern. One promising cover layer material that is currently being investigated is Langley Research Center-Soluble Imide (LaRC-SI), a NASA LaRC developed polyimide. Lastly, a top-coat of hard, inorganic material is evaporated onto the cover layer for protection from scratches due to abrasive nature of the dust. Of note, several top-coat materials are under investigation and include: aluminum oxide, silicon dioxide, titanium oxide, yttrium oxide, zirconium oxide, and zinc sulfide. The electrostatic dust mitigation screens function when a high voltage (700V or greater) is applied to the screen electrodes, thus creating an electromagnetic wave across the surface of the screen that repels the dust. Lunar dust typically contains a high positive charge; therefore, the screens are charged with a higher positive charge that effectively repels dust from the surface (i.e. like charges repel, unlike charges attract). It is anticipated that full development and maturation of this technology will enable humans to sustain a long term presence on the moon, and other planets where dust may have negative implications.

  2. On the relationship between gas and dust in 15 comets: an application to Comet 103P/Hartley 2 target of the NASA EPOXI mission of opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzovo, G. C.; Sanzovo, D. Trevisan; de Almeida, A. A.

    After the success of Deep Impact mission to hit the nucleus of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 with an impactor, the concerns are turned now to the possible reutilization of this dormant flyby spacecraft in the study of another comet, for only about 10% of the cost of the original mission. Comet 103P/Hartley 2 on UT 2010 October 11 is the most attractive target in terms of available fuel at rendezvous and arrival time at the comet. In addition, the comet has a low inclination so that major orbital plane changes in the spacecraft trajectory are unnecessary. In an effort to provide information concerning the planning of this new NASA EPOXI space mission of opportunity, we use in this work, visual magnitudes measurements available from International Comet Quarterly (ICQ) to obtain, applying the Semi-Empirical Method of Visual Magnitudes - SEMVM (de Almeida, Singh, & Huebner 1997), the water production rates (in molecules/s) related to its perihelion passage of 1997. When associated to the water vaporization theory of Delsemme (1982), these rates allowed the acquisition of the minimum dimension for the effective nuclear radius of the comet. The water production rates were then converted into gas production rates (in g/s) so that, with the help of the strong correlation between gas and dust found for 12 periodic comets and 3 non-period comets (Trevisan Sanzovo 2006), we obtained the dust loss rates (in g/s), its behavior with the heliocentric distance and the dust-to-gas ratios in this physically attractive rendezvous target-comet to Deep Impact spacecraft at a closest approach of 700 km.

  3. Constraining the structure of the transition disk HD 135344B (SAO 206462) by simultaneous modeling of multi-wavelength gas and dust observations

    CERN Document Server

    Carmona, A; Thi, W F; Benisty, M; Ménard, F; Grady, C; Kamp, I; Woitke, P; Olofsson, J; Roberge, A; Brittain, S; Dûchene, G; Meeus, G; Martin-Zaïdi, C; Dent, B; Bouquin, J B Le; Berger, J P

    2014-01-01

    HD 135344B is an accreting (pre-) transition disk which displays emission of warm CO extending tens of AU inside its 30 AU dust cavity. We employ the dust radiative transfer code MCFOST and the thermo-chemical code ProDiMo to derive the disk structure from the simultaneous modeling of the spectral energy distribution (SED), VLT/CRIRES CO P(10) 4.75 micron, Herschel/PACS [O I] 63 micron, Spitzer-IRS, and JCMT 12CO J=3-2 spectra, VLTI/PIONIER H-band visibilities, and constraints from (sub-)mm continuum interferometry and near-IR imaging. We found a disk model able to describe simultaneously the current observations. This disk has the following structure: (1) to reproduce the SED, the near-IR interferometry data, and the CO ro-vibrational emission, refractory grains (we suggest carbon) are present inside the silicate sublimation radius (0.08 100 to account for the 870 micron continuum upper limit and the CO P(10) line flux; (5) the gas/dust ratio at 30

  4. 瓦斯煤尘爆炸巷道反射压力研究%Study on reflected pressure of gas and coal dust explosion in tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨书召; 刘星魁

    2015-01-01

    为揭示瓦斯和瓦斯煤尘爆炸反射压力沿矿井巷道传播变化的规律,用管道爆炸实验系统模拟测试极弱爆炸和极强爆炸巷道超压与反射压力的定量变化关系.结果表明,瓦斯和瓦斯煤尘与空气混合爆炸,在弱爆炸条件下爆炸的反射压力均是峰值超压的1.8~2.0倍,!爆炸下瓦斯或瓦斯煤尘爆炸的反射压力大约是峰值超压的8~21倍.实验结果与理论计算基本吻合,表明巷道反射压力强度取决于冲击波在巷道空间内的反射过程,巷道内爆炸超压强度随爆炸传播距离的增加而降低,遇固壁则反射压力强度加大,加重了井下设备的破坏和人员伤害程度.%In order to reveal the gas,gas and coal dust explosion reflected pressure changes along with the spread of mine tunnel, relationship between quantitative changes of explosion overpressure and reflected pressure is tested with the pipe explosion experiment system. The results show that in the gas and coal dust and gas mixed with air explosion,reflected pressure explosion in the weak condi-tion is 1. 8~2. 0 times of peak overpressure,in strong explosion the reflected pressure of gas or gas and coal dust explosion is about 8~21 times of peak overpressure. The experimental results were in accordance with the theoretical calculation,showing that the reflec-ted pressure intensity depends on the reflection of shock wave in the process of roadway space. The explosion overpressure strength in-creases as the distance from the explosion propagation decreases in the tunnel,but before solid wall the reflection intensity of pressure will increase,which aggravates the equipment damage and human injuries.

  5. ATCA Survey of Ammonia in the Galactic Center: The Temperatures of Dense Gas Clumps between SgrA* and SgrB2

    CERN Document Server

    Ott, Juergen; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Henkel, Christian; Meier, David S

    2014-01-01

    We present a large-scale, interferometric survey of ammonia (1,1) and (2,2) toward the Galactic Center observed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). The survey covers Delta l ~1degree (~150pc) at an assumed distance of 8.5 kpc) and Delta b ~0.2degree (~30pc) which spans the region between the supermassive black hole SgrA* and the massive star forming region SgrB2. The resolution is ~20'' (~0.8pc) and emission at scales >~2' (>~3.2pc) is filtered out due to missing interferometric short spacings. Consequently, the data represent the denser, compact clouds and disregards the large scale, diffuse gas. Many of the clumps align with the 100 pc dust ring and mostly anti-correlate with 1.2cm continuum emission. We present a kinetic temperature map of the dense gas. The temperature distribution peaks at ~38K with a width at half maximum between 18K and 61K (measurements sensitive within Tkin~10-80K). Larger clumps are on average warmer than smaller clumps which suggests internal heating sources. Our obs...

  6. Characterization of the dust/smoke aerosol that settled east of the World Trade Center (WTC) in lower Manhattan after the collapse of the WTC 11 September 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioy, Paul J; Weisel, Clifford P; Millette, James R; Eisenreich, Steven; Vallero, Daniel; Offenberg, John; Buckley, Brian; Turpin, Barbara; Zhong, Mianhua; Cohen, Mitchell D; Prophete, Colette; Yang, Ill; Stiles, Robert; Chee, Glen; Johnson, Willie; Porcja, Robert; Alimokhtari, Shahnaz; Hale, Robert C; Weschler, Charles; Chen, Lung Chi

    2002-01-01

    The explosion and collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) was a catastrophic event that produced an aerosol plume impacting many workers, residents, and commuters during the first few days after 11 September 2001. Three bulk samples of the total settled dust and smoke were collected at weather-protected locations east of the WTC on 16 and 17 September 2001; these samples are representative of the generated material that settled immediately after the explosion and fire and the concurrent collapse of the two structures. We analyzed each sample, not differentiated by particle size, for inorganic and organic composition. In the inorganic analyses, we identified metals, radionuclides, ionic species, asbestos, and inorganic species. In the organic analyses, we identified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, pesticides, phthalate esters, brominated diphenyl ethers, and other hydrocarbons. Each sample had a basic pH. Asbestos levels ranged from 0.8% to 3.0% of the mass, the PAHs were > 0.1% of the mass, and lead ranged from 101 to 625 microg/g. The content and distribution of material was indicative of a complex mixture of building debris and combustion products in the resulting plume. These three samples were composed primarily of construction materials, soot, paint (leaded and unleaded), and glass fibers (mineral wool and fiberglass). Levels of hydrocarbons indicated unburned or partially burned jet fuel, plastic, cellulose, and other materials that were ignited by the fire. In morphologic analyses we found that a majority of the mass was fibrous and composed of many types of fibers (e.g., mineral wool, fiberglass, asbestos, wood, paper, and cotton). The particles were separated into size classifications by gravimetric and aerodynamic methods. Material 53 microm in diameter. The results obtained from these samples can be used to understand the contact and types of exposures to

  7. Void induced molecule c23h12++ could reproduce the infrared spectrum (3 to 20 micron) of interstellar gas and dust

    CERN Document Server

    Ota, Norio

    2014-01-01

    In order to find out a selected number of molecules to reproduce the infrared spectrum of interstellar gas and dust, model coronene molecules with void and charge have been computed using density functional theory. Among them, a single void induced cation C23H12++ have successfully reproduced a wide range spectrum from 3 to 20 micron of typical interstellar gas and dust. Well known astronoically observed emission peaks are 3.3, 6.2, 7.6, 7.8, 8.6, 11.2, 12.7, 13.5 and 14.3 micro meter. Whereas, calculated peaks of C23H12++ were 3.2, 6.4, 7.6, 7.8, 8.6, 11.4, 12.9, 13.5, and 14.4 micron meter. It should be noted that a single kind of molecule could reproduce very well not depending on the decomposition method using many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) data. Such coincidence suggested that some astronomical chemical evolution may select a particular PAH. Molecular sructure of C23H12++ was dramatically deformed by the Jahn-Teller effect. There is a featured carbon skeleton having two pentagons connected to...

  8. Analysis of major congeners of polybromobiphenyls and polybromodiphenyl ethers in office dust using high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefeni, Kebede K; Okonkwo, Jonathan O

    2012-05-01

    The study focused on analysis of polybromobiphenyls (PBBs) and polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congeners in office dust obtained in Pretoria, South Africa. Of the 32 congeners considered for identification, (BB-1, 2, 4, 10, 15, 26, 29, 30, 31, 38, 49, 80, 103, 153, 155, 209 and BDE-3, 15, 17, 28, 47, 66, 77, 85, 99, 100, 126, 138, 153, 154, 183, 209) only BB-2, 4, 30, 153, 209 and BDE-47, 66, 85, 99, 153 and 209 congeners were detected. The sum of PBBs concentration detected in office dust ranged from dust in developed countries.

  9. The Temperature Distribution of Dense Molecular Gas in the Center of NGC 253

    CERN Document Server

    Ott, J; Henkel, C; Walter, F; Ott, Juergen; Weiss, Axel; Henkel, Christian; Walter, Fabian

    2005-01-01

    [abridged] We present interferometric maps of ammonia (NH3) of the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253 [star formation rate: ~2.8 Mo yr^(-1)]. The observations have been taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array and include the para-NH3 (1,1), (2,2), and the ortho-NH3 (3,3) and (6,6) inversion lines. Six major complexes of dense ammonia are identified, three of them on either side of the starburst center, out to projected galactocentric radii of \\~250 pc. [...] The application of radiative transfer large velocity gradient models reveals that the bulk of the ammonia molecules is embedded in a one-temperature gas phase. Kinetic temperatures of this gas are ~200 and 140 K toward the south-west and north-east [of the nucleus of NGC 253], respectively. The temperatures under which ammonia was formed in the past are with >~30 K also warmer toward the south-west than toward the north-east (~15-20 K). This is indicated by the ortho-to-para ammonia ratio which is ~1 and 1.5-2.5 toward the south-west and north-east,...

  10. Outflows of very ionized gas in the center of Seyfert galaxies: kinematics and physical conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez-Ardila, A; Viegas, S; Grünwald, R; Rodriguez-Ardila, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Mid-resolution spectra are used to deduce the size and kinematics of the coronal gas in a sample of Seyfert galaxies by means of observations of the [FeXI], [FeX], [FeVII], [SiVI] and [SiVII] lines. These coronal lines (CL) extend from the unresolved nucleus up to a few tens to a few hundreds of parsecs. The region of the highest ionized ions studied, [FeXI] and [FeX], is the least spatially extended, and concentrates at the center; intermediate ionization lines extend from the nucleus up to a few tens to a few hundred parsecs; lower [OIII]-like ions are known to extendin the kpc range. All together indicates a stratification in the ionized gas, usually interpreted in terms of nuclear photoionization as the driving ionization mechanism. However, CL profiles show various peculiarities: they are broader by a factor of two than lower ionization lines, the broadening being in terms of asymmetric blue wings, and their centroid position at the nucleus is blueshifted by a few hundreds of km/s. Moreover, in NGC1386 a...

  11. PERICENTER PASSAGE OF THE GAS CLOUD G2 IN THE GALACTIC CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillessen, S.; Genzel, R.; Fritz, T. K.; Eisenhauer, F.; Pfuhl, O.; Ott, T.; Schartmann, M.; Ballone, A.; Burkert, A. [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, P.O. Box 1312, Giessenbachstr., D-85741 Garching (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    We have further followed the evolution of the orbital and physical properties of G2, the object currently falling toward the massive black hole in the Galactic Center on a near-radial orbit. New, very sensitive data were taken in 2013 April with NACO and SINFONI at the ESO VLT. The ''head'' of G2 continues to be stretched ever further along the orbit in position-velocity space. A fraction of its emission appears to be already emerging on the blueshifted side of the orbit, past pericenter approach. Ionized gas in the head is now stretched over more than 15,000 Schwarzschild radii R{sub S} around the pericenter of the orbit, at Almost-Equal-To 2000 R{sub S} Almost-Equal-To 20 light hours from the black hole. The pericenter passage of G2 will be a process stretching over a period of at least one year. The Brackett-{gamma} luminosity of the head has been constant over the past nine years, to within {+-}25%, as have the line ratios Brackett-{gamma}/Paschen-{alpha} and Brackett-{gamma}/Helium-I. We do not see any significant evidence for deviations of G2's dynamical evolution due to hydrodynamical interactions with the hot gas around the black hole from a ballistic orbit of an initially compact cloud with moderate velocity dispersion. The constant luminosity and the increasingly stretched appearance of the head of G2 in the position-velocity plane, without a central peak, is not consistent with several proposed models with continuous gas release from an initially bound zone around a faint star on the same orbit as G2.

  12. High-mass star-forming cloud G0.38+0.04 in the Galactic Center Dust Ridge contains H2CO and SiO masers

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsburg, Adam; Henkel, Christian; Jones, Paul A; Cunningham, Maria; Kauffmann, Jens; Pillai, Thushara; Mills, Elisabeth A C; Ott, Juergen; Kruijssen, J M Diederik; Menten, Karl M; Battersby, Cara; Rathborne, Jill; Contreras, Yanett; Longmore, Steven; Walker, Daniel; Dawson, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    We have discovered a new H$_2$CO (formaldehyde) $1_{1,0}-1_{1,1}$ 4.82966 GHz maser in Galactic Center Cloud C, G0.38+0.04. At the time of submission, this is the eighth region containing an H$_2$CO maser detected in the Galaxy. Cloud C is one of only two sites of confirmed high-mass star formation along the Galactic Center Ridge, affirming that H$_2$CO masers are exclusively associated with high-mass star formation. This discovery led us to search for other masers, among which we found new SiO vibrationally excited masers, making this the fourth star-forming region in the Galaxy to exhibit SiO maser emission. Cloud C is also a known source of CH$_3$OH Class-II and OH maser emission. There are now two known SiO and H$_2$CO maser containing regions in the CMZ, compared to two and six respectively in the Galactic disk, while there is a relative dearth of H$_2$O and CH$_3$OH Class-II masers in the CMZ. SiO and H$_2$CO masers may be preferentially excited in the CMZ, perhaps due to higher gas-phase abundances fro...

  13. X-ray to NIR emission from AA Tauri during the dim state - Occultation of the inner disk and gas-to-dust ratio of the absorber

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, P C; Günther, H M; Herczeg, G J; Robrade, J; Bouvier, J; McJunkin, M; Schmitt, J H M M

    2015-01-01

    AA Tau is a well-studied, nearby classical T Tauri star, which is viewed almost edge-on. A warp in its inner disk periodically eclipses the central star, causing a clear modulation of its optical light curve. The system underwent a major dimming event beginning in 2011 caused by an extra absorber, which is most likely associated with additional disk material in the line of sight toward the central source. We present new XMM-Newton X-ray, Hubble Space Telescope FUV, and ground based optical and near-infrared data of the system obtained in 2013 during the long-lasting dim phase. The line width decrease of the fluorescent H$_2$ disk emission shows that the extra absorber is located at $r>1\\,$au. Comparison of X-ray absorption ($N_H$) with dust extinction ($A_V$), as derived from measurements obtained one inner disk orbit (eight days) after the X-ray measurement, indicates that the gas-to-dust ratio as probed by the $N_H$ to $A_V$ ratio of the extra absorber is compatible with the ISM ratio. Combining both result...

  14. Diffuse molecular gas at high redshift: Detection of CO molecules and the 2175 {\\AA} dust feature at z=1.64

    CERN Document Server

    Noterdaeme, P; Srianand, R; Petitjean, P; López, S

    2009-01-01

    We present the detection of carbon monoxide molecules (CO) at z=1.6408 towards the quasar SDSSJ160457.50+220300.5 using the VLT Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph. CO absorption is detected in at least two components in the first six A-X bands and one d-X(5-0) inter-band system. This is the second detection of this kind along a quasar line of sight. The CO absorption profiles are well modelled assuming a rotational excitation of CO in the range 6dust depletion pattern typical of cold gas in the Galactic disc. The background quasar spectrum is significantly reddened (u-K~4.5 mag) and presents a pronounced 2175 A dust absorption feature at the redshift of the CO absorber. Using a control sample of ~500 quasars we find the chance probability for this feature to be s...

  15. Measurement of respirable superabsorbent polyacrylate (SAP) dust by ethanol derivatization using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Paul; Lemmo, John S; Macomber, Margaret; Holcomb, Mark L; Lieckfield, Robert

    2011-04-01

    Superabsorbent polyacrylate (SAP) is an important industrial chemical manufactured primarily as sodium polyacrylate but occasionally as potassium salt. It has many applications owing to its intrinsic physical property of very high water absorption, which can be more than 100 times it own weight. SAP is commonly used in disposable diapers and feminine hygiene products and is known by a number of synonyms-sodium polyacrylate, superabsorbent polyacrylate (SAP), polyacrylate absorbent (PA), and superabsorbent material (SAM). Germany and The Netherlands have adopted a nonbinding scientific guideline value 0.05 mg/m³ (8-hr time-weighted average, TWA) as the maximum allowable workplace concentration for the respirable dust of SAP (acrylate was developed and validated for the analysis of respirable superabsorbent polyacrylate dust collected on filter cassettes in the workplace environment. This method is an alternative to the commonly used sodium-based method, which is limited owing to potential interference by other sources of sodium from the workplace and laboratory environments. The alcohol derivatization method effectively eliminates sodium interference from several classes of sodium compounds, as shown by their purposeful introduction at two and six times the equivalent amount of SAP present in reference samples. The accuracy of the method, as determined by comparison with sodium analysis of known reference samples, was greater than 80% over the study range of 5-50 μg of SAP dust. The lower reporting limit of the method is 3.0 μg of SAP per sample, which is equivalent to 3 (μg/m³) for an 8-hr sampling period at the recommended flow rate of 2.2 L/min. PMID:21416441

  16. Flue gas wells to minimize dust and acidic components in small-scale burning of field fuel, further development; Roekgasbrunn foer minimering av stoft och sura komponenter vid smaaskalig foerbraenning av aakerbraenslen, vidareutveckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yngvesson, Johan; Roennbaeck, Marie; Arkeloev, Olof

    2011-01-15

    Agricultural derived solid fuels are more problematic to combust in small-scale heating plants than conventional wood fuels. Their high content of ash, chlorine and sulphur leads to increased emissions of dust, sulphur dioxide and hydrogen chloride in the flue gases. By transporting the flue gases to a flue gas well where it condenses, and separates dust and sour components, enables a cost effective flue gas purification for small-scale heating plants (50 kW - 10 MW) of agricultural derived solid fuels. This project have studied two heating plants using flue gas wells with the aim to add to the knowledge about how a flue gas wells may look like and to quantify how much emissions of dust, chlorine and sulphur in the flue gases are reduced. The project also aimed to summon regulations and laws regarding the handling of the condensate that develop in the flue gas well. In the project measures were conducted on two different heating plants with mounted flue gas wells: a 60 kW biofuels boiler combusting grains and red canary grass and a 1 MW batch fired boiler combusting wheat straw. Measurements on flue gases were conducted with and without water injection in the flue gases. The flue gas wells reduced dust emissions of up to 80 %. The best reduction was achieved at the 60 kW heating plant when firing red canary grass. Firing grains in the same plant lead to 7 % reduction of the dust emissions. In the 1 MW heating plant firing wheat straw the flue gas well accomplished 40 % reduction of dust emissions. The boiler ability to achieve complete combustion, hence minimize the content of volatile and semi-volatile components in the flue gas, is largely affecting the flue gas well ability to reduce dust emissions. This did not, however, affect the reduction of dust in the flue. Chlorine emissions was reduced by up to 88 % by a flue gas well. Water injection made a big difference on reduction of chlorine emission from grain combustion. Sulphur emissions was reduced by 50

  17. Early science with the large millimeter telescope: exploring the effect of AGN activity on the relationships between molecular gas, dust, and star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular gas, H2, that fuels star formation in galaxies is difficult to observe directly. As such, the ratio of L IR to LCO′ is an observational estimate of the star formation rate compared with the amount of molecular gas available to form stars, which is related to the star formation efficiency and the inverse of the gas consumption timescale. We test what effect an IR luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) has on the ratio LIR/LCO′ in a sample of 24 intermediate redshift galaxies from the 5 mJy Unbiased Spitzer Extragalactic Survey (5MUSES). We obtain new CO(1-0) observations with the Redshift Search Receiver on the Large Millimeter Telescope. We diagnose the presence and strength of an AGN using Spitzer IRS spectroscopy. We find that removing the AGN contribution to LIRtot results in a mean LIRSF/LCO′ for our entire sample consistent with the mean LIR/LCO′ derived for a large sample of star forming galaxies from z ∼ 0-3. We also include in our comparison the relative amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission for our sample and a literature sample of local and high-redshift ultra luminous infrared galaxies and find a consistent trend between L6.2/LIRSF and LIRSF/LCO′, such that small dust grain emission decreases with increasing LIRSF/LCO′ for both local and high-redshift dusty galaxies.

  18. Karl G. Jansky very large array observations of cold dust and molecular gas in starbursting quasar host galaxies at z ∼ 4.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of 44 GHz continuum and CO J = 2-1 line emission in BRI 1202–0725 at z = 4.7 (a starburst galaxy and quasar pair) and BRI 1335–0417 at z = 4.4 (also hosting a quasar). With the full 8 GHz bandwidth capabilities of the upgraded VLA, we study the (rest-frame) 250 GHz thermal dust continuum emission for the first time along with the cold molecular gas traced by the low-J CO line emission. The measured CO J = 2-1 line luminosities of BRI 1202–0725 are LCO′=(8.7±0.8)×1010 K km s–1 pc2 and LCO′=(6.0 ± 0.5)×1010 K km s–1 pc2 for the submillimeter galaxy (SMG) and quasar, respectively, which are equal to previous measurements of the CO J = 5-4 line luminosities implying thermalized line emission, and we estimate a combined cold molecular gas mass of ∼9×1010 M ☉. In BRI 1335–0417 we measure LCO′=(7.3±0.6)×1010 K km s–1 pc2. We detect continuum emission in the SMG BRI 1202–0725 North (S 44 GHz = 51 ± 6 μJy), while the quasar is detected with S 44 GHz = 24 ± 6 μJy and in BRI 1335–0417 we measure S 44 GHz = 40 ± 7 μJy. Combining our continuum observations with previous data at (rest-frame) far-infrared and centimeter wavelengths, we fit three-component models in order to estimate the star formation rates. This spectral energy distribution fitting suggests that the dominant contribution to the observed 44 GHz continuum is thermal dust emission, while either thermal free-free or synchrotron emission contributes less than 30%.

  19. Herschel observations of gas and dust in comet C/2006 W3 (Christensen) at 5 AU from the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    de Val-Borro, M; Jehin, E; Hartogh, P; Opitom, C; Szutowicz, S; Biver, N; Crovisier, J; Lis, D C; Rezac, L; de Graauw, Th; Hutsemékers, D; Jarchow, C; Kidger, M; Küppers, M; Lara, L M; Manfroid, J; Rengel, M; Swinyard, B M; Teyssier, D; Vandenbussche, B; Waelkens, C

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to measure the H2O and dust production rates in C/2006 W3 (Christensen) with the Herschel Space Observatory at a heliocentric distance of ~ 5 AU. We have searched for emission in the H2O and NH3 ground-state rotational transitions at 557 GHz and 572 GHz, simultaneously, with HIFI onboard Herschel on UT 1.5 September 2010. Photometric observations of the dust coma in the 70 and 160 {\\mu}m channels were acquired with the PACS instrument on UT 26.5 August 2010. A tentative 4-{\\sigma} H2O line emission feature was found in the spectra obtained with the HIFI wide-band and high-resolution spectrometers, from which we derive a water production rate of $2.0(5) \\times 10^{27}$ molec. s$^{-1}$. A 3-{\\sigma} upper limit for the ammonia production rate of <$1.5 \\times 10^{27}$ molec. s$^{-1}$ is obtained taking into account the contribution from all hyperfine components. The blueshift of the water line detected by HIFI suggests preferential emission from the subsolar point. However, it is also possible that w...

  20. Baseline scenario for gas, odor, dust and particulate matter emissions from swine buildings in Quebec : part 1 : emissions inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The livestock industry, particularly the swine sector, has taken measures to minimize the environmental impacts of meat production at both the local, regional and global scale. This paper reported on solutions to reduce emissions associated with animal production through animal waste management. The substances targeted by technological improvements for swine barns include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ammonia, dust, odors and particulate matters. Stakeholders in Quebec's swine sector have taken the initiative to evaluate and compare the environmental performances of various in-barn technologies and practices. This paper also presented a project aimed at defining baseline scenarios for gaseous wastes, odor, dust and particulate matter emissions from pig barns, using 2006 as the reference year. The study considered all stages of production of a typical farrow-to-finish farm in Quebec. The paper outlined a methodology based on emissions inventory in order to define this baseline scenario. The results and key limitations of this methodology were discussed. 26 refs., 5 tabs., 1 appendix.

  1. Infrared and X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Kes 75 Supernova Remnant Shell: Characterizing the Dust and Gas Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Temim, Tea; Arendt, Richard G; Dwek, Eli

    2011-01-01

    We present deep Chandra observations and Spitzer Space Telescope infrared (IR) spectroscopy of the shell in the composite supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 75 (G29.7-0.3). The remnant is composed of a central pulsar wind nebula and a bright partial shell in the south that is visible at radio, IR, and X-ray wavelengths. The X-ray emission can be modeled by either a single thermal component with a temperature of ~ 1.5 keV, or with two thermal components with temperatures of 1.5 and 0.2 keV. Previous studies suggest that the hot component may originate from reverse-shocked SN ejecta. However, our new analysis shows no definitive evidence for enhanced abundances of Si, S, Ar, Mg, and Fe, as expected from supernova (SN) ejecta, or for the IR spectral signatures characteristic of confirmed SN condensed dust, thus favoring a circumstellar or interstellar origin for the X-ray and IR emission. The X-ray and IR emission in the shell are spatially correlated, suggesting that the dust particles are collisionally heated by the ...

  2. Limits on Intergalactic Dust During Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Imara, Nia

    2015-01-01

    In this Letter, we constrain the dust-to-gas ratio in the intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshifts. We employ models for dust in the local Universe to contrain the dust-to-gas ratio during the epoch of reionization at redshifts z ~ 6-10. The observed level of reddening of high redshift galaxies implies that the IGM was enriched to an intergalactic dust-to-gas ratio of less than 3% of the Milky Way value by a redshift of z=10.

  3. Recent MBARI Mapping AUV Surveys of Slumps, Scours, Gas Seeps, and Spreading Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H.; Paull, C. K.; Clague, D. A.; Conlin, D.; Thompson, D.; Lundsten, E.; Anderson, K.; Paduan, J. B.; Martin, J.

    2011-12-01

    conducted surveys along the axis of Eel Canyon above the gas seep site and of the seaward deep sea fan. The canyon survey mapped a number of scour features along the canyon thalweg, and the fan surveys covered two large scour features extending up to 3.4 km long by 1.4 km across, and 100 m deep. During 2008 the Mapping AUV conducted three surveys at Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge, covering 13 km of the spreading center axis including the known hydrothermal vent fields. This year MBARI extended the high-resolution coverage 11 km to the north of the earlier surveys. During 2006 to 2009, MBARI mapped the summit of Axial Volcano, Juan de Fuca Ridge, in 1 m resolution bathymetry. These surveys covered the entire summit caldera floor, the caldera walls and rim, and the south rift area of the 1998 eruption and flow. A July 2011 NOAA-PMEL expedition discovered a recent (April 2011) eruption and flow on the Axial Volcano south rift. The MBARI Mapping AUV was redirected from planned operations to survey the new flow and surrounding region on August 3. Comparison of the previous and new 1-m-scale bathymetry will delineate the location, extent, and volume of the new flow. Additional MBARI ROV dives are scheduled during August 2011 at the Eel Canyon gas seep and scour sites and the recent Axial Seamount eruption site.

  4. ALMA View of the Galactic Center Mini-spiral: Ionized Gas Flows around Sagittarius A*

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuboi, Masato; Uehara, Kenta; Miyawaki, Ryosuke; Tsutsumi, Takahiro; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Miyoshi, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    We have performed the observation of the "Galactic Center Mini-spiral(GCMS)" in H42alpha recombination line as a part of the first large-scale mosaic observation in the Sagittarius A complex using Atacama Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA). We revealed the kinematics of the ionized gas streamers of the GCMS. Especially we found that the streamer corresponding to the Bar of the GCMS has a Keplerian orbit with high eccentricity which is independent from the Keplerian orbits of the other streamers of the GCMS. The periastron is probably located within the Bondi accretion radius derived from X-ray observation. In addition, we estimated the LTE electron temperature in the sub-structures of the GCMS from the line-continuum flux density ratio. The electron temperatures are in the range of T* e=(6-13)x10^3 K. We confirmed the previously claimed tendency that the electron temperatures increase toward Sgr A*. We also found that the electron temperature at the positive velocity end of the Bar is twice as high as tha...

  5. A 3D GCL compatible cell-centered Lagrangian scheme for solving gas dynamics equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Gabriel; Breil, Jérôme; Maire, Pierre-Henri

    2016-01-01

    Solving the gas dynamics equations under the Lagrangian formalism enables to simulate complex flows with strong shock waves. This formulation is well suited to the simulation of multi-material compressible fluid flows such as those encountered in the domain of High Energy Density Physics (HEDP). These types of flows are characterized by complex 3D structures such as hydrodynamic instabilities (Richtmyer-Meshkov, Rayleigh-Taylor, etc.). Recently, the 3D extension of different Lagrangian schemes has been proposed and appears to be challenging. More precisely, the definition of the cell geometry in the 3D space through the treatment of its non-planar faces and the limiting of a reconstructed field in 3D in the case of a second-order extension are of great interest. This paper proposes two new methods to solve these problems. A systematic and symmetric geometrical decomposition of polyhedral cells is presented. This method enables to define a discrete divergence operator leading to the respect of the Geometric Conservation Law (GCL). Moreover, a multi-dimensional minmod limiter is proposed. This new limiter constructs, from nodal gradients, a cell gradient which enables to ensure the monotonicity of the numerical solution even in presence of strong discontinuity. These new ingredients are employed into a cell-centered Lagrangian scheme. Robustness and accuracy are assessed against various representative test cases.

  6. A Trio of Metal-Rich Dust and Gas Disks Found Orbiting Candidate White Dwarfs with K-Band Excess

    CERN Document Server

    Farihi, J; Steele, P R; Girven, J; Burleigh, M R; Breedt, E; Koester, D

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations, including warm Spitzer IRAC photometry of seven white dwarfs from the SDSS with apparent excess flux in UKIDSS K-band observations. Six of the science targets were selected from 16,785 DA star candidates identified either spectroscopically or photometrically within SDSS DR7, spatially cross-correlated with HK detections in UKIDSS DR8. Thus the selection criteria are completely independent of stellar mass, effective temperature above 8000 K, and the presence (or absence) of atmospheric metals. The infrared fluxes of one target are compatible with a spatially-unresolved late M or early L-type companion, while three stars exhibit excess emissions consistent with warm circumstellar dust. These latter targets have spectral energy distributions similar to known dusty white dwarfs with high fractional infrared luminosities (thus the K-band excesses). Optical spectroscopy reveals the stars with disk-like excesses are polluted with heavy elements...

  7. THE IMPROVEMENT MECHANISM OF SO_3 FLUE GAS CONDITIONING ON DUST ELECTRIC CONDUCTION%SO_3烟气调质对粉尘导电性能的改善机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周家珍; 王丽萍; 王玉明; 李江; 耿彪

    2012-01-01

    以塔山电厂SO3烟气调质运行实测数据为基础条件,通过分析SO3烟气调质后的除尘效率与飞灰比电阻、飞灰粒径、飞灰含湿量等理化性质,揭示SO3烟气调质对燃用高灰分劣质煤电厂除尘性能改善机制。为期一年测试结果表明:调质后比电阻降低3个数量级,2μm以下粒径粉尘比例提高了近6%,含湿量提高14%,从而提高表面导电机制,改善电除尘器电气参数,使电除尘效率由原来98.82%稳定提高至99.91%。%Based on data from SO3 fuel gas conditioning of flue gas purification system for Tashan Power Plant,it was analysed the electrical resistivity,surface property,physicochemical property of fly ash and dust precipitation efficiency,which revealed the dust precipitation improvement mechanism which SO3 fuel gas conditioning made on fired high ash content coal.The testing results of one year indicated that after the conditioning,the laboratory electrical resistivity of dust decreased by 3 orders of magnitude,the percent of the dust with a diameter of below 2 μm was increased by nearly 6%.The moisture content was also increased by 14%,resulting in the improvement of dust surface electric conduction mechanism,and electric parameter of ESP.The dust precipitation efficiency to ESP was increased from 98.82% to 99.91% with a steady state.

  8. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are ...

  9. Change of Magnetic Field-gas Alignment at the Gravity-driven Alfvénic Transition in Molecular Clouds: Implications for Dust Polarization Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Che-Yu; King, Patrick K.; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2016-10-01

    Diffuse striations in molecular clouds are preferentially aligned with local magnetic fields, whereas dense filaments tend to be perpendicular to them. When and why this transition occurs remain uncertain. To explore the physics behind this transition, we compute the histogram of relative orientation (HRO) between the density gradient and the magnetic field in three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of prestellar core formation in shock-compressed regions within giant molecular clouds. We find that, in the magnetically dominated (sub-Alfvénic) post-shock region, the gas structure is preferentially aligned with the local magnetic field. For overdense sub-regions with super-Alfvénic gas, their elongation becomes preferentially perpendicular to the local magnetic field. The transition occurs when self-gravitating gas gains enough kinetic energy from the gravitational acceleration to overcome the magnetic support against the cross-field contraction, which results in a power-law increase of the field strength with density. Similar results can be drawn from HROs in projected two-dimensional maps with integrated column densities and synthetic polarized dust emission. We quantitatively analyze our simulated polarization properties, and interpret the reduced polarization fraction at high column densities as the result of increased distortion of magnetic field directions in trans- or super-Alfvénic gas. Furthermore, we introduce measures of the inclination and tangledness of the magnetic field along the line of sight as the controlling factors of the polarization fraction. Observations of the polarization fraction and angle dispersion can therefore be utilized in studying local magnetic field morphology in star-forming regions.

  10. Ionized gas clouds and the nature of apparent variability of a compact radio source in the galactic center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozernoj, L.M.; Shishov, V.I. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.)

    1982-05-01

    Clouds of ionized gas recently discovered at the center of our Galaxy are proposed to be responsible for the observed ''halo- core'' structure of the ''point'' radio source (which is explained as a result of scattering on inhomogeneities of substantially scales). This hypothesis implies that the core flux is probably variable, which resolves a contradiction between observations made by Kellermann et al. (1977) and Lo et al. (1981). It is capable also to explain both the origin and variability of the 0.511 MeV annihilation line observed in the direction of the Galactic center.

  11. Ionized gas clouds and the origin of the apparent variability of the compact galactic-center radio source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ionized gas clouds recently discovered at the center of the Galaxy could be responsible for the core--halo structure observed in the compact radio source there. The apparent structure would result from scattering by irregularities of widely differing scale. On this hypothesis the core radio flux would probably be variable, resolving the conflict between the VLBI measurements by Kellermann et al. and Lo et al. The origin and variability of the 0.511-MeV annihilation line observed toward the galactic center could be explained as well

  12. Ionized gas clouds and the origin of the apparent variability of the compact galactic-center radio source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozernoi, L.M.; Shishov, V.I.

    1982-05-01

    The ionized gas clouds recently discovered at the center of the Galaxy could be responsible for the core--halo structure observed in the compact radio source there. The apparent structure would result from scattering by irregularities of widely differing scale. On this hypothesis the core radio flux would probably be variable, resolving the conflict between the VLBI measurements by Kellermann et al. and Lo et al. The origin and variability of the 0.511-MeV annihilation line observed toward the galactic center could be explained as well.

  13. Ionized gas clouds and the nature of apparent variability of a compact radio source in the galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clouds of ionized gas recently discovered at the center of our Galaxy are proposed to be responsible for the observed ''halo- core'' structure of the ''point'' radio source (which is explained as a result of scattering on inhomogeneities of substantially scales). This hypothesis implies that the core flux is probably variable, which resolves a contradiction between observations made by Kellermann et al. (1977) and Lo et al. (1981). It is capable also to explain both the origin and variability of the 0.511 MeV annihilation line observed in the direction of the Galactic center

  14. Splitter-bladed centrifugal compressor impeller designed for automotive gas turbine application. [at the Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampreen, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Mechanical design and fabrication of two splitter-bladed centrifugal compressor impellers were completed for rig testing at NASA Lewis Research Center. These impellers were designed for automotive gas turbine application. The mechanical design was based on NASA specifications for blade-shape and flowpath configurations. The contractor made engineering drawings and performed calculations for mass and center-of-gravity, for stress and vibration analyses, and for shaft critical speed analysis. One impeller was machined to print; the other had a blade height and exit radius of 2.54 mm larger than print dimensions.

  15. Dust Formation in Milky Way-like Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    McKinnon, Ryan; Vogelsberger, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a dust model for cosmological simulations implemented in the moving-mesh code AREPO and present a suite of cosmological hydrodynamical zoom-in simulations to study dust formation within galactic haloes. Our model accounts for the stellar production of dust, accretion of gas-phase metals onto existing grains, destruction of dust through local supernova activity, and dust driven by winds from star-forming regions. We find that accurate stellar and active galactic nuclei feedback is needed to reproduce the observed dust-metallicity relation and that dust growth largely dominates dust destruction. Our simulations predict a dust content of the interstellar medium which is consistent with observed scaling relations at $z = 0$, including scalings between dust-to-gas ratio and metallicity, dust mass and gas mass, dust-to-gas ratio and stellar mass, and dust-to-stellar mass ratio and gas fraction. We find that roughly two-thirds of dust at $z = 0$ originated from Type II supernovae, with the contribution ...

  16. Mid-Infrared Properties of Luminous Infrared Galaxies II: Probing the Dust and Gas Physics of the GOALS Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Stierwalt, Sabrina; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Marshall, Jason; Evans, Aaron; Haan, Sebastian; Howell, Justin; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Kim, Dongchan; Murphy, Eric J; Rich, Jeff A; Spoon, Henrik W W; Inami, Hanae; Petric, Andreea; U, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    The Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here we present the results of a multi-component, spectral decomposition analysis of the low resolution mid-IR Spitzer IRS spectra from 5-38um of 244 LIRG nuclei. The detailed fits and high quality spectra allow for characterization of the individual PAH features, warm molecular hydrogen emission, and optical depths for silicate dust grains and water ices. We find that starbursting LIRGs, which make up the majority of GOALS, are very consistent in their MIR properties (i.e. tau_9.7um, tau_ice, neon line and PAH feature ratios). However, as their PAH EQW decreases, usually an indicator of an increasingly dominant AGN, LIRGs cover a larger spread in these MIR parameters. The contribution from PAHs to the total L(IR) in LIRGs varies from 2-29% and LIRGs prior to their first encounter show higher L(PAH)/L(IR) ratios on average. We observe a correlation between ...

  17. A Spitzer Study of Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars. III. Dust Production and Gas Return in Local Group Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Martha L; van Loon, Jacco Th; Gehrz, Robert D; Woodward, Charles E

    2009-01-01

    We present the third and final part of a census of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars in Local Group dwarf irregular galaxies. Papers I and II presented the results for WLM and IC 1613. Included here are Phoenix, LGS 3, DDO 210, Leo A, Pegasus dIrr, and Sextans A. Spitzer photometry at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 are presented, along with a more thorough treatment of background galaxy contamination than was presented in papers I and II. We find that at least a small population of completely optically obscured AGB stars exists in each galaxy, regardless of the galaxy's metallicity, but that higher-metallicity galaxies tend to harbor more stars with slight IR excesses. The optical incompleteness increases for the redder AGB stars, in line with the expectation that some AGB stars are not detected in the optical due to large amounts of extinction associated with in situ dust production. Overall, there is an underrepresentation of 30% - 40% in the optical AGB within the 1 sigma errors for all of the galaxies in our samp...

  18. Early science with the large millimeter telescope: exploring the effect of AGN activity on the relationships between molecular gas, dust, and star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra; Calzetti, Daniela; Narayanan, Gopal; Schloerb, F. Peter; Yun, Min S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Aretxaga, Itziar; Montaña, Alfredo; Vega, Olga [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electrónica, Apdos. Postales 51 y 216, C.P. 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Armus, Lee [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Helou, George [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Shi, Yong, E-mail: kirkpatr@astro.umass.edu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China)

    2014-12-01

    The molecular gas, H{sub 2}, that fuels star formation in galaxies is difficult to observe directly. As such, the ratio of L {sub IR} to L{sub CO}{sup ′} is an observational estimate of the star formation rate compared with the amount of molecular gas available to form stars, which is related to the star formation efficiency and the inverse of the gas consumption timescale. We test what effect an IR luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) has on the ratio L{sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} in a sample of 24 intermediate redshift galaxies from the 5 mJy Unbiased Spitzer Extragalactic Survey (5MUSES). We obtain new CO(1-0) observations with the Redshift Search Receiver on the Large Millimeter Telescope. We diagnose the presence and strength of an AGN using Spitzer IRS spectroscopy. We find that removing the AGN contribution to L{sub IR}{sup tot} results in a mean L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} for our entire sample consistent with the mean L{sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} derived for a large sample of star forming galaxies from z ∼ 0-3. We also include in our comparison the relative amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission for our sample and a literature sample of local and high-redshift ultra luminous infrared galaxies and find a consistent trend between L{sub 6.2}/L{sub IR}{sup SF} and L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ′}, such that small dust grain emission decreases with increasing L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} for both local and high-redshift dusty galaxies.

  19. High-performance formaldehyde gas-sensors based on three dimensional center-hollow ZnO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Linqi; Cui, Jiabao; Zhao, Fei; Wang, Dejun; Xie, Tengfeng; Lin, Yanhong

    2015-12-14

    Three dimensional (3D) center-hollow ZnO architectures assembled by nanoparticles have been successfully fabricated on a large scale via a template-free method using an oil bath. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area, surface photocurrent and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photoelectric gas-sensing results demonstrated that the 3D porous, center-hollow ZnO structures exhibited excellent sensitivity and good selectivity to formaldehyde under 365 nm light irradiation at room temperature. The gas response to 1 ppm formaldehyde can reach 70%, which is superior to the results reported in the literature, indicating that the 3D center-hollow ZnO architectures are ideal candidate materials for photoelectric gas sensors. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the high sensitivity and selectivity to formaldehyde are discussed, which provide a new pathway for designing novel VOC sensors. Moreover, the facile method presented in this paper has the advantage of low-cost and high-yield, which is suitable for the practical production processes.

  20. Dust formation in dense CSM behind the shock: A study based on SN2010jl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Arkaprabha; Dwek, Eli

    2016-06-01

    Dust is known to form in the quiescent outflows of AGB stars and in the explosively ejected matter of core collapse supernovae (CCSNe). Recent optical and near-infrared (IR) observations of the light curve of the ultraluminous CCSN SN2010jl has shown evidence for the rapid rise of a thermal IR emission component from newly forming dust in its spectrum. The UV-optical light curve from the SN cannot be powered by the radioactivities in the ejecta, and is powered by the interaction of the SN blast wave with the ambient dense circumstellar (CSM) shell. Observations of the evolution of the broad H and He lines in the spectra show that the dust could not have formed in the SN ejecta, but must have formed in the CSM instead. The supernova blast-wave traverses the CSM heating and ionizing the gas and destroying all pre-existing molecules and dust grains. The shocked CSM gas cools rapidly behind the shock to temperatures below the dust condensation temperatures. However, the radiation emanating from the shocked CSM plays a pivotal role in determining the earliest epoch after which seed nucleation centers can form and survive in the post-shock region. We use X-ray and UV-optical data from SN2010jl to follow the evolution of the shock through the CSM, and solve for the time-dependent temperature and density profile of the post-shock gas. Embedding a 10°. A seed nucleation center in the dense cooling shell, we calculate its temperature, and the earliest epoch beyond which such grain can survive evaporation and rapidly grow to large submicron grains. Thereafter, we study the formation of possible dust species through nucleation of condensable elements, and trace their evolution in time through accretion and coagulation. The final dust mass yield has been calculated and compared with other known dust sources in the galaxy. Detection of the IR excess as early as 67 days post-explosion poses new challenges to our understanding of the dust scenario behind shocks. Our model, first

  1. A quantitative investigation of diffuse ionized gas and dust in halos of edge-on spiral galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Rossa, Jörn

    2001-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Dissertation wurde erstmalig eine quantitative Untersuchung des diffusen ionisierten Gases (DIG) in Halos von edge-on Spiralgalaxien durchgefuehrt. Basierend auf einer entfernungslimitierten H-Alpha Durchmusterung wurden 74 nahe edge-on Spiralgalaxien untersucht. Dabei konnte gezeigt werden, dass extraplanares Gas nicht ein generelles Phaenomen in Spaettypgalaxien darstellt. Obwohl knapp 41% der untersuchten Galaxien extraplanares DIG (eDIG) aufweisen, ist die ...

  2. The influence of dense gas rings on the dynamics of a stellar disk in the Galactic center

    CERN Document Server

    Trani, Alessandro Alberto; Bressan, Alessandro; Pelupessy, Federico Inti; van Elteren, Arjen; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2015-01-01

    The Galactic center hosts several hundred early-type stars, about 20% of which lie in the so-called clockwise disk, while the remaining 80% do not belong to any disks. The circumnuclear ring (CNR), a ring of molecular gas that orbits the supermassive black hole (SMBH) with a radius of 1.5 pc, has been claimed to induce precession and Kozai-Lidov oscillations onto the orbits of stars in the innermost parsec. We investigate the perturbations exerted by a gas ring on a nearly-Keplerian stellar disk orbiting a SMBH by means of combined direct N-body and smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. We simulate the formation of gas rings through the infall and disruption of a molecular gas cloud, adopting different inclinations between the infalling gas cloud and the stellar disk. We find that a CNR-like ring is not efficient in affecting the stellar disk on a timescale of 3 Myr. In contrast, a gas ring in the innermost 0.5 pc induces precession of the longitude of the ascending node Omega, significantly affecting ...

  3. Gas-and water-saturated conditions in the Piceance Basin, Western Colorado: Implications for fractured reservoir detection in a gas-centered coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoak, T.E.; Decker, A.D.

    1995-10-01

    Mesaverde Group reservoirs in the Piceance Basin, Western Colorado contain a large reservoir base. Attempts to exploit this resource base are stymied by low permeability reservoir conditions. The presence of abundant natural fracture systems throughout this basin, however, does permit economic production. Substantial production is associated with fractured reservoirs in Divide Creek, Piceance Creek, Wolf Creek, White River Dome, Plateau, Shire Gulch, Grand Valley, Parachute and Rulison fields. Successful Piceance Basin gas production requires detailed information about fracture networks and subsurface gas and water distribution in an overall gas-centered basin geometry. Assessment of these three parameters requires an integrated basin analysis incorporating conventional subsurface geology, seismic data, remote sensing imagery analysis, and an analysis of regional tectonics. To delineate the gas-centered basin geometry in the Piceance Basin, a regional cross-section spanning the basin was constructed using hydrocarbon and gamma radiation logs. The resultant hybrid logs were used for stratigraphic correlations in addition to outlining the trans-basin gas-saturated conditions. The magnitude of both pressure gradients (paludal and marine intervals) is greater than can be generated by a hydrodynamic model. To investigate the relationships between structure and production, detailed mapping of the basin (top of the Iles Formation) was used to define subtle subsurface structures that control fractured reservoir development. The most productive fields in the basin possess fractured reservoirs. Detailed studies in the Grand Valley-Parachute-Rulison and Shire Gulch-Plateau fields indicate that zones of maximum structural flexure on kilometer-scale structural features are directly related to areas of enhanced production.

  4. Toroidal vortices as a solution to the dust migration problem

    CERN Document Server

    Loren-Aguilar, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    In an earlier letter, we reported that dust settling in protoplanetary discs may lead to a dynamical dust-gas instability that produces global toroidal vortices. In this letter, we investigate the evolution of a dusty protoplanetary disc with two different dust species (1 mm and 50 cm dust grains), under the presence of the instability. We show how toroidal vortices, triggered by the interaction of mm grains with the gas, stop the radial migration of metre-sized dust, potentially offering a natural and efficient solution to the dust migration problem.

  5. Mid-infrared properties of luminous infrared galaxies. II. Probing the dust and gas physics of the goals sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stierwalt, S.; Armus, L.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Marshall, J.; Haan, S.; Howell, J.; Murphy, E. J.; Inami, H.; Petric, A. O. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Evans, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Iwasawa, K. [INAF-Observatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Kim, D. C. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Rich, J. A. [The Observatories, Carnegie Institute of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Spoon, H. W. W. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); U, V., E-mail: sabrinas@virginia.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here, we present the results of a multi-component, spectral decomposition analysis of the low-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra from 5-38 μm of 244 LIRG nuclei. The detailed fits and high-quality spectra allow for characterization of the individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features, warm molecular hydrogen emission, and optical depths for both silicate dust grains and water ices. We find that starbursting LIRGs, which make up the majority of the GOALS sample, are very consistent in their MIR properties (i.e., τ{sub 9.7μm}, τ{sub ice}, neon line ratios, and PAH feature ratios). However, as their EQW{sub 6.2{sub μm}} decreases, usually an indicator of an increasingly dominant active galactic nucleus (AGN), LIRGs cover a larger spread in these MIR parameters. The contribution from PAH emission to the total IR luminosity (L(PAH)/L(IR)) in LIRGs varies from 2%-29% and LIRGs prior to their first encounter show significantly higher L(PAH)/L(IR) ratios on average. We observe a correlation between the strength of the starburst (represented by IR8 = L{sub IR}/L{sub 8{sub μm}}) and the PAH fraction at 8 μm but no obvious link between IR8 and the 7.7 to 11.3 PAH ratio, suggesting that the fractional photodissociation region (PDR) emission, and not the overall grain properties, is associated with the rise in IR8 for galaxies off the starburst main sequence. We detect crystalline silicate features in ∼6% of the sample but only in the most obscure sources (s{sub 9.7{sub μm}} < –1.24). Ice absorption features are observed in ∼11% (56%) of GOALS LIRGs (ULIRGs) in sources with a range of silicate depths. Most GOALS LIRGs have L(H{sub 2})/L(PAH) ratios elevated above those observed for normal star-forming galaxies and exhibit a trend for increasing L(H{sub 2})/L

  6. Mid-infrared properties of luminous infrared galaxies. II. Probing the dust and gas physics of the goals sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here, we present the results of a multi-component, spectral decomposition analysis of the low-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra from 5-38 μm of 244 LIRG nuclei. The detailed fits and high-quality spectra allow for characterization of the individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features, warm molecular hydrogen emission, and optical depths for both silicate dust grains and water ices. We find that starbursting LIRGs, which make up the majority of the GOALS sample, are very consistent in their MIR properties (i.e., τ9.7μm, τice, neon line ratios, and PAH feature ratios). However, as their EQW6.2μm decreases, usually an indicator of an increasingly dominant active galactic nucleus (AGN), LIRGs cover a larger spread in these MIR parameters. The contribution from PAH emission to the total IR luminosity (L(PAH)/L(IR)) in LIRGs varies from 2%-29% and LIRGs prior to their first encounter show significantly higher L(PAH)/L(IR) ratios on average. We observe a correlation between the strength of the starburst (represented by IR8 = LIR/L8μm) and the PAH fraction at 8 μm but no obvious link between IR8 and the 7.7 to 11.3 PAH ratio, suggesting that the fractional photodissociation region (PDR) emission, and not the overall grain properties, is associated with the rise in IR8 for galaxies off the starburst main sequence. We detect crystalline silicate features in ∼6% of the sample but only in the most obscure sources (s9.7μm < –1.24). Ice absorption features are observed in ∼11% (56%) of GOALS LIRGs (ULIRGs) in sources with a range of silicate depths. Most GOALS LIRGs have L(H2)/L(PAH) ratios elevated above those observed for normal star-forming galaxies and exhibit a trend for increasing L(H2)/L(PAH) ratio with increasing L(H2). While star formation appears to be the

  7. Global Dust Budgets of the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Mikako

    2013-03-01

    Within galaxies, gas and dust are constantly exchanged between stars and the interstellar medium (ISM). The life-cycle of gas and dust is the key to the evolution of galaxies. Despite its importance, it is has been very difficult to trace the life-cycle of gas and dust via observations. The Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory have provided a great opportunity to study the life-cycle of the gas and dust in very nearby galaxies, the Magellanic Clouds. AGB stars are more important contributors to the dust budget in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), while in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), SNe are dominant. However, it seems that the current estimates of the total dust production from AGB stars is insufficient to account for dust present in the ISM. Other dust sources are needed, and supernovae are promising sources. Alternatively the time scale of dust lifetime itself needs some revisions, potentially because they could be unevenly distributed in the ISM or clumps.

  8. The Small Magellanic Cloud Investigation of Dust and Gas Evolution (SMIDGE): Young, Low-mass Stars in the SW Bar of the SMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lent C.; Sandstrom, Karin; SMIDGE Team

    2016-06-01

    We identify young, pre-main sequence stars in the SW Bar region of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) using color magnitude diagrams obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the SMIDGE survey. Deep, panchromatic, high spatial resolution Hubble imaging provides an excellent dataset for studying young, low-mass (~2-0.5 M⊙) stellar populations. The SW Bar region observed by SMIDGE contains multiple low mass star forming regions in various stages of evolution. These regions provide contrast to massive regions previously surveyed by Hubble in the SMC (e.g., NGC346, NGC602), and allow us to explore the evolution from quiescent clouds to HII regions. We analyze the spatial distribution of these young stars and their association with the local ISM, inferred from observations of molecular gas and dust emission. Additionally, we use Hα imaging to constrain accretion rates for the pre-MS stars. Finally, we analyze the characteristics and multiplicity of Spitzer YSO detections as revealed by high spatial resolution imaging.

  9. On the dust and gas components of the $z=2.8$ gravitationally lensed quasar host RX J0911.4+0551

    CERN Document Server

    Tuan-Anh, P; Nhung, P T; Diep, P N; Phuong, N T; Thao, N T; Darriulat, P

    2016-01-01

    Observations by the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array of the 358 GHz continuum emission of the gravitationally lensed quasar host RX J0911.4+0551 have been analysed. They complement earlier Plateau de Bure Interferometer observations of the CO(7-6) emission. The good knowledge of the lensing potential obtained from Hubble Space Telescope observations of the quasar makes a joint analysis of the three emissions possible. It gives evidence for the quasar source to be concentric with the continuum source within 0.31 kpc and with the CO(7-6) source within 1.10 kpc. It also provides a measurement of the size of the continuum source, 0.76 $\\pm$ 0.04 kpc FWHM, making RX J0911.4+0551 one of the few high redshift galaxies for which the dust and gas components are resolved with dimensions being measured. Both are found to be very compact, the former being smaller than the latter by a factor of $\\sim$3.4$\\pm$0.4. Moreover, new measurements of the CO ladder $-$ CO(10-9) and CO(11-10) $-$ are presented that giv...

  10. High resolution 12CO(2-1) observations of the molecular gas in Centaurus A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rydbeck, G.; Wiklind, T.; Cameron, M.; Wild, W.; Eckart, A.; Genzel, R.; Rothermel, H.

    1993-01-01

    Observations of (C-12)O(2-1) emission in the dust lane of Centaurus A show that, except for the center region, the overall distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas is consistent with that of ionized gas. Deconvolution of the observed emission reveals (i) a structure agreeing with what would

  11. Study of cliff activity dominating the gas and dust comae of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during the early phase of the Rosetta mission using ROSINA/COPS and OSIRIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Raphael; Su, Cheng-Chin; Liao, Ying; Rubin, Martin; Wu, Jong-Shinn; Thomas, Nicolas; altwegg, kathrin; Sierks, Holger; OSIRIS, ROSINA

    2016-10-01

    The study by [1] has proposed the idea that the cometary dust jets in the northern hemisphere of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko arise mainly from rough cliff like terrain. Using our 3D gas and dust dynamics coma model [2] we have run simulations targeting the question whether areas with high gravitational slopes alone can indeed account for both the ROSINA/COPS and the OSIRIS data obtained for mid August to end October 2014.The basis of our simulations is the shape model "SHAP4S" of [3]. Surface temperatures have been defined using a simple 1-D thermal model (including insolation, shadowing, thermal emission, sublimation but neglecting conduction) computed for each facet of the shape model allowing a consistent and known description of the gas flux and its initial temperature. In a next step we use the DSMC program PDSC++ [4] to calculate the gas properties in 3D space. The gas solution can be compared with the in situ measurements by ROSINA/COPS. In a subsequent step dust particles are introduced into the gas flow to determine dust densities and with a column integrator and Mie theory dust brightnesses that can be compared to OSIRIS data.To examine cliff activity we have divided the surface into two sets. One with gravitational slopes larger than 30° which we call cliffs and one with slopes less than 30° which we shall call plains. We have set up two models, "cliff only" and "plains only" where the respective set of areas are active and the others inert. The outgassing areas are assumed to be purely insolation driven. The "cliffs only" model is a statistically equally good fit to the ROSINA/COPS data as the global insolation driven model presented in [2]. The "plains only" model on the other hand is statistically inferior to the "cliffs only" model. We found in [2] that increased activity in the Hapi region (called inhomogeneous model) of the comet improves the fit of the gas results significantly. We can show in this study that a "cliffs + Hapi" model fits the

  12. Alkali deactivation of high-dust SCR catalysts used for NOx reduction exposed to flue gas from 100MW-scale biofuel and peat fired boilers. Influence of flue gas composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deactivation of vanadium-titanium deNOx SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalysts in high-dust position have been investigated in three 100MW-scale boilers during biofuel and peat combustion. The deactivation of the catalyst samples has been correlated to the corresponding flue gas composition in the boilers. To investigate the effect on catalyst deactivation a sulphate-containing additive was sprayed into one of the furnaces. Increased alkali content on the SCR catalyst samples decreased the catalytic deNOx activity. The study has shown a linear correlation between exposure time in the boilers and alkali concentration (mainly potassium) on the samples. The results imply that mainly alkali in ultra fine particles (<100nm) in the flue gas increased the alkali accumulation on the catalyst samples. Low correlation was found between particles larger than 100nm and the catalyst deactivation. It was not possible to decrease the deactivation of the catalyst samples by the sulphate-containing additive. Although the additive had an effect in sulphating potassium chloride to potassium sulphate, it did not decrease the amount of potassium in ultra fine particles or the deactivation of the catalyst samples. (author)

  13. The Molecular Gas Density in Galaxy Centers and How It Connects to Bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, David B; Drory, Niv; Combes, Francoise; Blitz, Leo; Wong, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present gas density, star formation rate, stellar masses, and bulge disk decompositions for a sample of 60 galaxies. Our sample is the combined sample of BIMA SONG, CARMA STING, and PdBI NUGA surveys. We study the effect of using CO-to-H_2 conversion factors that depend on the CO surface brightness, and also that of correcting star formation rates for diffuse emission from old stellar populations. We estimate that star formation rates in bulges are typically lower by 20% when correcting for diffuse emission. We find that over half of the galaxies in our sample have molecular gas surface density >100 M_sun pc^-2. We find a trend between gas density of bulges and bulge Sersic index; bulges with lower Sersic index have higher gas density. Those bulges with low Sersic index (pseudobulges) have gas fractions that are similar to that of disks. We also find that there is a strong correlation between bulges with the highest gas surface density and the galaxy being barred. However, we also find that c...

  14. Ionization and Dust Charging in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Ivlev, A V; Caselli, P

    2016-01-01

    Ionization-recombination balance in dense interstellar and circumstellar environments is a key factor for a variety of important physical processes, such as chemical reactions, dust charging and coagulation, coupling of the gas with magnetic field and the development of magnetorotational instability in protoplanetary disks. We present a self-consistent analytical model which allows us to exactly calculate abundances of charged species in dusty gas, in the regime where the dust-phase recombination dominates over the gas-phase recombination. The model is employed to verify applicability of a conventional approximation of low dust charges in protoplanetary disks, and to discuss the implications for the dust coagulation and the development of the "dead zone" in the disk. Furthermore, the importance of mutually consistent models for the ionization and dust evolution is addressed: These processes are coupled via several mechanisms operating in the disk, and therefore their interplay can be crucial for the ultimate ...

  15. A satellite-based analysis of the Val d'Agri (South of Italy Oil Center gas flaring emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faruolo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Robust Satellite Techniques (RST, a multi-temporal scheme of satellite data analysis, was implemented to analyze the flaring activity of the largest Italian gas and oil pre-treatment plant (i.e. the Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi – ENI – Val d'Agri Oil Center – COVA. For this site, located in an anthropized area characterized by a~large environmental complexity, flaring emissions are mainly related to emergency conditions (i.e. waste flaring, being the industrial process regulated by strict regional laws. With reference to the peculiar characteristics of COVA flaring, the main aim of this work was to assess the performances of RST in terms of sensitivity and reliability in providing independent estimations of gas flaring volumes in such conditions. In detail, RST was implemented on thirteen years of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS medium and thermal infrared data in order to identify the highly radiant records associated to the COVA flare emergency discharges. Then, exploiting data provided by ENI about gas flaring volumes in the period 2003–2009, a MODIS-based regression model was developed and tested. Achieved results indicate that such a model is able to estimate, with a good level of accuracy (R2 of 0.83, emitted gas flaring volumes at COVA.

  16. A satellite-based analysis of the Val d'Agri (South of Italy) Oil Center gas flaring emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruolo, M.; Coviello, I.; Filizzola, C.; Lacava, T.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper the Robust Satellite Techniques (RST), a multi-temporal scheme of satellite data analysis, was implemented to analyze the flaring activity of the largest Italian gas and oil pre-treatment plant (i.e. the Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi - ENI - Val d'Agri Oil Center - COVA). For this site, located in an anthropized area characterized by a~large environmental complexity, flaring emissions are mainly related to emergency conditions (i.e. waste flaring), being the industrial process regulated by strict regional laws. With reference to the peculiar characteristics of COVA flaring, the main aim of this work was to assess the performances of RST in terms of sensitivity and reliability in providing independent estimations of gas flaring volumes in such conditions. In detail, RST was implemented on thirteen years of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) medium and thermal infrared data in order to identify the highly radiant records associated to the COVA flare emergency discharges. Then, exploiting data provided by ENI about gas flaring volumes in the period 2003-2009, a MODIS-based regression model was developed and tested. Achieved results indicate that such a model is able to estimate, with a good level of accuracy (R2 of 0.83), emitted gas flaring volumes at COVA.

  17. A satellite-based analysis of the Val d'Agri Oil Center (southern Italy) gas flaring emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruolo, M.; Coviello, I.; Filizzola, C.; Lacava, T.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, the robust satellite techniques (RST), a multi-temporal scheme of satellite data analysis, was implemented to analyze the flaring activity of the Val d'Agri Oil Center (COVA), the largest Italian gas and oil pre-treatment plant, owned by Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi (ENI). For this site, located in an anthropized area characterized by a large environmental complexity, flaring emissions are mainly related to emergency conditions (i.e., waste flaring), as industrial processes are regulated by strict regional laws. While regarding the peculiar characteristics of COVA flaring, the main aim of this work was to assess the performances of RST in terms of sensitivity and reliability in providing independent estimations of gas flaring volumes in such conditions. In detail, RST was implemented for 13 years of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) medium and thermal infrared data in order to identify the highly radiant records associated with the COVA flare emergency discharges. Then, using data provided by ENI about gas flaring volumes in the period 2003-2009, a MODIS-based regression model was developed and tested. The results achieved indicate that the such a model is able to estimate, with a good level of accuracy (R2 of 0.83), emitted gas flaring volumes at COVA.

  18. 77 FR 24191 - CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), as amended, to abandon and remove the Tate Island compressor station in... the Tate Island compressor station, which is located on CEGT's Line B in Johnson County. CEGT would... Tate Island compressor station before flowing via Line B for further compression at CEGT's...

  19. Metal Dusting-Mechanisms and Preventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Q.ZHANG; D.J.YOUNG

    2009-01-01

    Metal dusting attacks iron, low and high alloy steels and nickel-or cobalt-base alloys by disintegrating bulk metals and alloys into metal particles in a coke deposit. It occurs in strongly carburising gas atmospheres (carbon activity aC>1) at elevated temperatures (400℃~1000℃). This phenomenon has been studied for decades, but the detailed mechanism is still not well understood. Current methods of protection against metal dusting are either directed to the process conditions-temperature and gas composition-or to the development of a dense adherent oxide layer on the surface of the alloy by selective oxidation. However, metal dusting still occurs by carbon dissolving in the base metal via defects in the oxide scale. The research work at UNSW is aimed at determining the detailed mechanism of metal dusting of both ferritic and austenitic alloys, in particular the microprocesses of graphite deposition, nanoparticle formation and underlying metal destruction. This work was carried out using surface observation, cross-section analysis by focused ion beam and electron microscopic examination of coke deposits at different stages of the reaction. It was found that surface orientation affected carbon deposition and metal dusting at the initial stage of the reaction. Metal dusting occurred only when graphite grew into the metal interior where the volume expansion is responsible for metal disintegration and dusting. It was also found that the metal dusting process could be significantly changed by alterations in alloy chemistry. Germanium was found to affect the iron dusting process by destabilising FeC but increasing the rate of carbon deposition and dusting, which questions the role of cementite in ferritic alloy dusting. Whilst adding copper to iron did not change the carburisation kinetics, cementite formation and coke morphology, copper alloying reduced nickel and nickel-base alloy dusting rates significantly. Application of these fundamental results to the dusting

  20. Strong optical and UV intermediate-width emission lines in the quasar SDSS J232444.80-094600.3: dust-free and intermediate-density gas at the skin of dusty torus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Zhen; Zhou, Hong-Yan; Hao, Lei; Wang, Shu-Fen; Ji, Tuo; Liu, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Emission lines from the broad emission line region (BELR) and the narrow emission line region (NELR) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been extensively studied. However, emission lines are rarely detected between these two regions. We present a detailed analysis of quasar SDSS J232444.80-094600.3 (SDSS J2324-0946), which is remarkable for its strong intermediate-width emission lines (IELs) with FWHM ≈ 1800 km s-1. The IEL component is present in different emission lines, including the permitted lines Lyα λ1216, CIV λ1549, semiforbidden line [CIII] λ1909, and forbidden lines [OIII] λλ4959, 5007. With the aid of photo-ionization models, we found that the IELs are produced by gas with a hydrogen density of nH ˜ 106.2 ˜ 106.3 cm-3, a distance from the central ionizing source of R ˜ 35 - 50 pc, a covering factor of ˜ 6%, and a dust-to-gas ratio of ≤ 4% that of the SMC. We suggest that the strong IELs of this quasar are produced by nearly dust-free and intermediate-density gas located at the skin of the dusty torus. Such strong IELs, which serve as a useful diagnostic, can provide an avenue to study the properties of gas between the BELR and the NELR.

  1. Hot gas in the center of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3079

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yusuke; Nakai, Naomasa; Seta, Masumichi; Salak, Dragan; Nagai, Makoto; Ishii, Shun; Yamauchi, Aya

    2015-08-01

    The nearby (d = 19.7 Mpc) Seyfert galaxy NGC 3079 exhibits a prominent bubble emerging from the nucleus. In order to investigate the nuclear power source, we carried out ammonia observations toward the center of NGC 3079 with the Tsukuba 32-m telescope and the JVLA. The NH3 (J, K) = (1, 1) through (6,6) lines were detected in absorption at the center of NGC 3079 with the JVLA, although the profile of NH3(3,3) was in emission in contrast to the other transitions. All ammonia absorption lines have two distinct velocity components: one is at the systemic velocity (Vsys ~ 1116 km s-1) and the other is blueshifted (Vsys ~ 1020 km s-1), and both components are aligned along the nuclear jets. The blueshifted NH3(3,3) emission can be regarded as ammonia masers associated with shocks by strong winds probably from newly formed massive stars or supernova explosions in the nuclear megamaser disk. The derived rotational temperature, Trot = 120±12 K for the systemic component and Trot = 157±19 K for the blueshifted component, and fractional abundance of NH3 relative to molecular hydrogen H2 are higher than those in other galaxies reported. The high temperature environment at the center may be mainly attributed to heating by the nuclear jets.

  2. Comparison, association, and risk assessment of phthalates in floor dust at different indoor environments in Delaware, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaolong; Yuan, Shoujun; Pan, Xiaojun; Winstead, Cherese; Wang, Qiquan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare and assess phthalate contamination in various indoor environments. In this study, 44 floor dust samples from different indoor environments in Delaware, USA were collected and analyzed for 14 phthalates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Phthalates were detected in all dust samples with the total concentration ranging from 84 to 7117 mg kg(-1). DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate), BzBP (benzylbutyl phthalate), DBP (dibutyl phthalate), and DiBP (di-isobutyl phthalate) were both the most frequently and abundantly detected phthalates. The average concentration of total phthalates in dust from offices, student dorms, gyms, stores, and daycare centers was found to be significantly or insignificantly (P = 0.05) higher than that in dust from houses and apartments. Plastic flooring materials and the application of floor care chemical products were positively associated with total phthalate concentration in floor dust. Toxicological risk assessment indicated that an investigated daycare center in this study was the only indoor environment that may cause the intake amount of DEHP of infants, toddlers, and children via dust ingestion to exceed the reference dose established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Regular monitoring on phthalate contamination in sensitive indoor environments is recommended. PMID:26327207

  3. Simulations of Mineral Dust Content With CHIMERE-Dust Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmechtig, C.; Marticorena, B.; Menut, L.; Bergametti, G.

    2006-12-01

    Simulations of the mineral dust cycle have been performed whith CHIMERE-Dust model over a domain that includes North Africa, the Mediterranean basin and the North Tropical Atlantic Ocean (10S-60N and 90W-90E) with a 1°x1° resolution using the ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) meteorological fields for two years, 2000 and 2001. As a validation, we compare the simulated dust concentration fields with photometric data from the AERONET network. From the comparisons between the simulated and measured aerosol optical depth for several stations of the Mediterranean basin, the model appears to reproduce correctly the intensity and occurrences of the dust events. Over Western Africa, the results are not as satisfying since some of the most intense dust events observed on the continent and downwind are not captured by the model. In addition, the simulated events are generally underestimated compared to the measured ones. It appears that these differences in the model performances are connected to the origin of the dust plumes. For example, dust plumes coming from Libya are well simulated while dust plumes originating from the Bodélé depression not as frequent as intense as the observations suggest. Soil properties in these two regions are comparable and typical of very erodible surfaces. We thus focused on the comparison between the ECMWF 10m wind speed fields and 10m wind speed measured at the meteorological stations located in both areas. We noticed that over Libya, the measured and ECMWF 10m wind speed are in very good agreement, while the meteorological model does not reproduce the extrema of the measured wind speed in the Bodélé depression. We found that a crude empirical correction of the 10m wind field in the Bodélé Depression significantly improve the simulations in terms of occurrence and of intensity.

  4. Astrophysics of Dust in Cold Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Draine, B T

    2003-01-01

    Nine lectures reviewing the astrophysics of dust in interstellar clouds. Topics include: (1) Summary of observational evidence concerning interstellar dust: broadband extinction, scattering of starlight, polarization of starlight, spectroscopy of dust, IR and FIR emission, and depletions of grain-forming elements. (2) Optics of interstellar dust grains: dielectric functions of nonconducting and conducting materials, calculational techniques, formulae valid in the Rayleigh limit, Kramers-Kronig relations, microwave emission mechanisms, and X-ray scattering. (3) IR and FIR emission: heating of interstellar dust, including single-photon heating, and resulting IR emission spectrum. (4) Charging of dust grains: collisional charging, photoelectric emission, and resulting charge distribution functions. (5) Dynamics: gas drag, Lorentz force, forces due to anisotropic radiation, and resulting drift velocities. (6) Rotational dynamics: brownian rotation, suprathermal rotation, and effects of starlight torques. (7) Alig...

  5. Production of Mannitol by Fungi from Cotton Dust

    OpenAIRE

    Domelsmith, Linda N.; Klich, Maren A.; Goynes, Wilton R.

    1988-01-01

    Cotton dust associated with high pulmonary function decrements contains relatively high levels of mannitol. In this study, cotton leaf and bract tissue and dust isolated from cotton leaf tissue were examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and capillary gas chromatography. Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium herbarum, Epicoccum purpurascens, and Fusarium pallidoroseum were isolated from cotton leaf dust. The fungal samples, cotton dust, and cotton leaf contained mannitol. ...

  6. FIR Spectroscopy of the Galactic Center: Hot and Warm Molecular Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Goicoechea, J R; Cernicharo, J; Gerin, M; Pety, J

    2016-01-01

    The angular resolution (~10") achieved by the Herschel Space Observatory ~3.5m telescope at FIR wavelengths allowed us to roughly separate the emission toward the inner parsec of the galaxy (the central cavity) from that of the surrounding circumnuclear disk (the CND). The FIR spectrum toward SgrA* is dominated by intense [Oiii], [Oi], [Cii], [Niii], [Nii], and [Ci] fine-structure lines (in decreasing order of luminosity) arising in gas irradiated by the strong UV field from the central stellar cluster. The high-J CO rotational line intensities observed at the interface between the inner CND and the central cavity are consistent with a hot isothermal component at T~10^{3.1} K and n(H_2)~10^4 cm^{-3}. They are also consistent with a distribution of lower temperatures at higher gas density, with most CO at T~300 K. The hot CO component (either the bulk of the CO column density or just a small fraction depending on the above scenario) likely results from a combination of UV and shock-driven heating. Although thi...

  7. Dust in the early Universe: Evidence for non-stellar dust production or observational errors?

    CERN Document Server

    Mattsson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Observations have revealed unexpectedly large amounts of dust in high-redshift galaxies and its origin is still much debated. Valiante et al. (2009, MNRAS, 397, 1661) suggested the net stellar dust production of the quasar host galaxy SDSS J1148+5251 may be sufficient to explain the large dust mass detected in this galaxy, albeit under some very special assumptions (e.g., 'closed box' evolution and a rather high gas mass). Here it is shown that since accretion of essentially pristine material may lower the efficiency of dust formation significantly, and the observationally derived dust-to-gas ratios for these high-redshift galaxies are remarkably high, stellar dust production is likely insufficient. A model including metallicity-dependent, non-stellar dust formation ('secondary dust') is presented. The required contribution from this non-stellar dust component appears too large, however. If all observational constraints are to be met, the resultant dust-to-metals ratio is close to unity, which means that almo...

  8. GAS EMISSIONS IN PLANCK COLD DUST CLUMPS—A SURVEY OF THE J = 1-0 TRANSITIONS OF 12CO, 13CO, AND C18O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey toward 674 Planck cold clumps of the Early Cold Core Catalogue (ECC) in the J = 1-0 transitions of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O has been carried out using the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m telescope. Six hundred seventy-three clumps were detected with 12CO and 13CO emission, and 68% of the sample has C18O emission. Additional velocity components were also identified. A close consistency of the three line peak velocities was revealed for the first time. Kinematic distances are given for all the velocity components, and half of the clumps are located within 0.5 and 1.5 kpc. Excitation temperatures range from 4 to 27 K, slightly larger than those of Td . Line width analysis shows that the majority of ECC clumps are low-mass clumps. Column densities NH2 span from 1020 to 4.5 × 1022 cm–2 with an average value of (4.4 ± 3.6) × 1021 cm–2. NH2 cumulative fraction distribution deviates from the lognormal distribution, which is attributed to optical depth. The average abundance ratio of the 13CO to C18O in these clumps is 7.0 ± 3.8, higher than the terrestrial value. Dust and gas are well coupled in 95% of the clumps. Blue profile asymmetry, red profile asymmetry, and total line asymmetry were found in less than 10% of the clumps, generally indicating that star formation is not yet developed. Ten clumps were mapped. Twelve velocity components and 22 cores were obtained. Their morphologies include extended diffuse, dense, isolated, cometary, and filament, of which the last is the majority. Twenty cores are starless, and only seven cores seem to be in a gravitationally bound state. Planck cold clumps are the most quiescent among the samples of weak red IRAS, infrared dark clouds, UC H II candidates, extended green objects, and methanol maser sources, suggesting that Planck cold clumps have expanded the horizon of cold astronomy.

  9. Dissecting X-ray-emitting Gas around the Center of our Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Q D; Markoff, S B; Baganoff, F K; Nayakshin, S; Yuan, F; Cuadra, J; Davis, J; Dexter, J; Fabian, A C; Grosso, N; Haggard, D; Houck, J; Ji, L; Li, Z; Neilsen, J; Porquet, D; Ripple, F; Shcherbakov, R V

    2013-01-01

    Most supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are accreting at very low levels and are difficult to distinguish from the galaxy centers where they reside. Our own Galaxy's SMBH provides a uniquely instructive exception, and we present a close-up view of its quiescent X-ray emission based on 3 mega-second of Chandra observations. Although the X-ray emission is elongated and aligns well with a surrounding disk of massive stars, we can rule out a concentration of low-mass coronally active stars as the origin of the emission based on the lack of predicted Fe Kalpha emission. The extremely weak H-like Fe Kalpha line further suggests the presence of an outflow from the accretion flow onto the SMBH. These results provide important constraints for models of the prevalent radiatively inefficient accretion state.

  10. Stripping of H- beams by residual gas in the linac at the Los Alamos neutron science center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccrady, Rodney C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ito, Takeyasu [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cooper, Martin D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Alexander, Saunders [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-07

    The linear accelerator at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerates both protons and H{sup -} ions using Cockroft-Walton-type injectors, a drift-tube linac and a coupled-cavity linac. The vacuum is maintained in the range of 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -7} Torr; the residual gas in the vacuum system results in some stripping of the electrons from the H{sup -} ions resulting in beam spill and the potential for unwanted proton beams delivered to experiments. We have measured the amount of fully-stripped H{sup -} beam (protons) that end up at approximately 800 MeV in the beam switchyard at LANSCE using image plates as very sensitive detectors. We present here the motivation for the measurement, the measurement technique and results.

  11. Effects of Storm Dust on Gas Exchange in Crop Leaves%沙尘暴粉尘对不同作物气体交换特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华军; 王立; 赵明; 杨自辉; 王强强

    2011-01-01

    The sand storm dust adheres to the crops’ leaves, has obvious negative influences to crops’ Pn,Tr,Gs and respiration, and even causes the crop output to drop finally.The paper presented gas exchanges on three traditional crops in Minqin.It mainly solved the dust capacity of leaves influence on respiration rate of different crops as well as the different period of duration, the different position of leaves to respiration influence.The results showed that(1)The rate of net photosynthetic rate(Pn),transpiration rate(Tr), stomatal conductance(Gs) of cotton were higher than other two species, indicating smaller loss rate of gas exchange parameters but higher adaptability to storm dust environment for wheat and corn; (2)Correlation analysis showed a remarkable negative correlation between rate of respiration rate and amount of dust detained;(3)The respiration rate with dust born leaves and clean leaves under different period and heights were extremely significant(P<0.01).%沙尘暴粉尘附着于作物叶片,对作物的光合作用、蒸腾作用、气孔导度及呼吸作用有明显的负面影响,并最终导致作物产量下降.通过对小麦、玉米和棉花3种民勤传统农作物的光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、气孔导度(Gs)和呼吸速率(R)的测定,主要研究不同滞尘量对不同作物呼吸强度的影响,同时探讨了沙尘暴粉尘对同一作物不同生育期、不同叶位叶片呼吸强度的影响.结果表明,(1)棉花的Pn、Tr、Gs与小麦、玉米的相比,下降幅度较大,即小麦和玉米对粉尘污染生境的适应能力较强,棉花较差;(2)3种作物叶片的呼吸强度都随叶片滞尘量的增加而降低,呈明显负相关关系;(3)在不同生育期,作物呼吸强度差异达极显著(P<0.01);不同叶位叶片的呼吸强度也存在显著性差异.

  12. Dust Dynamics in Kelvin-Helmholtz Instabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keppens Rony

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI is a fluid instability which arises when two contacting flows have different tangential velocities. As shearing flows are very common in all sorts of (astrophysical fluid setups, the KHI is frequently encountered. In many astrophysical fluids the gas fluid in loaded with additional dust particles. Here we study the influence of these dust particles on the initiation of the KHI, as well as the effect the KHI has on the density distribution of dust species in a range of different particle sizes. This redistribution by the instability is of importance in the formation of dust structures in astrophysical fluids. To study the effect of dust on the linear and nonlinear phase of the KHI, we use the multi-fluid dust + gas module of the MPI-AMRVAC [1] code to perform 2D and 3D simulations of KHI in setups with physical quantities relevant to astrophysical fluids. A clear dependency on dust sizes is seen, with larger dust particles displaying significantly more clumping than smaller ones.

  13. Sediment of flus gas in direct reduction treated by zinc-bearing metallurgical dust%含锌冶金尘泥还原烟气沉积特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何环宇; 陈振红; 崔一芳; 王杰奇

    2015-01-01

    含锌烟气沉积堵塞是制约转底炉处理冶金尘泥生产的关键所在.采用高温管式炉模拟冶金尘泥球团还原产生的含锌烟气沉积试验,对沉积物的质量分布、形貌及主要组分等沉积特性进行分析,研究了温度、碱金属及烟气气氛对烟气沉积的影响.研究结果表明,温度对烟气沉积特性影响显著,烟气沉积过程从950~1 000℃开始,在600~750℃达到最大沉积量,温度低于600℃后沉积逐渐结束,并且沉积物晶粒尺寸随温度降低逐渐减小,析出物混乱度逐渐增大;沉积富集区域烟尘锌质量分数为58.50%~65.23%,沉积物主要物相为ZnO、NaCl、KCl和Zn5(OH)8Cl2H2O,碱金属氯化物在沉积富集区的物态变化促进了烟尘颗粒的相互聚集、团聚;烟气的氧化性不足,使布袋除尘灰中还存在大量单质锌.%The blocking by zinc-bearing flue gas is the key of restraining the treatment of metallurgical dust in rotary hearth furnace. In the current study,the high-temperature tubular furnace was used to mimic the deposition of flus gas sed-iment produced by the reduction reaction of metallurgical dust,then,the characteristics of depositions including the distri-bution of quality,the morphology and the main components of depositions were analyzed,the effects of temperature,al-kali metal and tail gas atmosphere on the characteristics of flus gas sediment were also studied here. The results showed the deposition started from 950-1 000℃,with the maximum amount of deposition reached at 600~750℃and ended un-der 600℃indicating that the temperature had a significant influence on the characteristics of flus gas sediment. In addi-tion,the lower temperature decreased the size of deposite and increased of the chaos of deposite. The main phase in the enrichment region of dust disposition was composed of ZnO,NaCl,KCl and Zn5(OH)8Cl2H2O,in which the zinc content was 58.50%-65.23%. The state change of the alkali metal chloride in enrichment

  14. Dust Measurements in Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudakov, D; Yu, J; Boedo, J; Hollmann, E; Krasheninnikov, S; Moyer, R; Muller, S; Yu, A; Rosenberg, M; Smirnov, R; West, W; Boivin, R; Bray, B; Brooks, N; Hyatt, A; Wong, C; Fenstermacher, M; Groth, M; Lasnier, C; McLean, A; Stangeby, P; Ratynskaia, S; Roquemore, A; Skinner, C; Solomon, W M

    2008-04-23

    Dust production and accumulation impose safety and operational concerns for ITER. Diagnostics to monitor dust levels in the plasma as well as in-vessel dust inventory are currently being tested in a few tokamaks. Dust accumulation in ITER is likely to occur in hidden areas, e.g. between tiles and under divertor baffles. A novel electrostatic dust detector for monitoring dust in these regions has been developed and tested at PPPL. In DIII-D tokamak dust diagnostics include Mie scattering from Nd:YAG lasers, visible imaging, and spectroscopy. Laser scattering resolves size of particles between 0.16-1.6 {micro}m in diameter; the total dust content in the edge plasmas and trends in the dust production rates within this size range have been established. Individual dust particles are observed by visible imaging using fast-framing cameras, detecting dust particles of a few microns in diameter and larger. Dust velocities and trajectories can be determined in 2D with a single camera or 3D using multiple cameras, but determination of particle size is problematic. In order to calibrate diagnostics and benchmark dust dynamics modeling, pre-characterized carbon dust has been injected into the lower divertor of DIII-D. Injected dust is seen by cameras, and spectroscopic diagnostics observe an increase of carbon atomic, C2 dimer, and thermal continuum emissions from the injected dust. The latter observation can be used in the design of novel dust survey diagnostics.

  15. Change On The S-Z Effect Induced By The Cooling Flow CF On The Hot Electronic Gas At The Center OF The Clusters Of Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Enkelejd Caca

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Building more accurate profiles for temperature and density of hot electronic gas concentrated in the center of clusters of galaxies is a constant problem in survey of Sunyeav Zeldovich effect SZ. An effect that consists in the inverse Compton effect of the hot electronic gas interacting with Cosmic Microwave Back- ground CMB photons passing through Intra Cluster Medium ICM. So far the Isothermal model is used for temperature profiling in the calculation of the inverse Compton effect...

  16. Dust extraction from gas in cement kilns, using bag filters; Depoussierage des gaz de four cimentier par les filtres a manches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmegnies, M. [CALCIA, 78 - Guerville (France). Direction Technique

    1996-12-31

    After a review of regulations concerning cement plant emissions, the two main cement production techniques (dry and semi-dry processes) are described and the electrostatic and bag filter de-dusting techniques are compared. Examples of pilot applications of these techniques in two French cement plants are presented and operating results (performances, transient procedures, costs) are discussed

  17. 烟气余热回收装置在铝熔保炉除尘系统中的应用%Application of Flue Gas Waste Heat Recovery Unit in Dust Removal System of Aluminum Melting and Holding Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊振国

    2016-01-01

    The paper described the necessity and technical requirements of application of flue gas waste heat recovery unit in dust removal system for aluminum melting and holding furnace;it presented critical technology issues needed to be resolved in dust removal system when using flue gas waste heat recovery unit with specific process scheme;it highlighted comparative analysis of economic and social benefits based on case studies.%文章阐述了在铝熔保炉除尘系统中应用烟气余热回收装置的必要性和技术要求;结合余热回收除尘系统工艺方案的设计,给出了烟气余热回收设备在除尘系统中使用时需要解决的关键技术;通过工程实例对比分析除尘系统中应用烟气余热回收设备的经济和社会环境效益。

  18. Density distribution of a dust cloud in three-dimensional complex plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Naumkin, V N; Molotkov, V I; Lipaev, A M; Fortov, V E; Thomas, H M; Huber, P; Morfill, G E

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel method of determination of the dust particle spatial distribution in dust clouds that form in three-dimensional (3D) complex plasmas under microgravity conditions. The method utilizes the data obtained during the 3D scanning of a cloud and provides a reasonably good accuracy. Based on this method, we investigate the particle density in a dust cloud realized in gas discharge plasma in the PK-3 Plus setup onboard the International Space Station. We find that the treated dust clouds are both anisotropic and inhomogeneous. One can isolate two regimes, in which a stationary dust cloud can be observed. At low pressures, the particle density decreases monotonically with the increase of the distance from the discharge center; at higher pressures, the density distribution has a shallow minimum. Regardless of the regime, we detect a cusp of the distribution at the void boundary and a slowly varying density at larger distances (in the foot region). A theoretical interpretation of obtained results is d...

  19. Density distribution of a dust cloud in three-dimensional complex plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumkin, V. N.; Zhukhovitskii, D. I.; Molotkov, V. I.; Lipaev, A. M.; Fortov, V. E.; Thomas, H. M.; Huber, P.; Morfill, G. E.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a method of determination of the dust particle spatial distribution in dust clouds that form in three-dimensional (3D) complex plasmas under microgravity conditions. The method utilizes the data obtained during the 3D scanning of a cloud, and it provides reasonably good accuracy. Based on this method, we investigate the particle density in a dust cloud realized in gas discharge plasma in the PK-3 Plus setup onboard the International Space Station. We find that the treated dust clouds are both anisotropic and inhomogeneous. One can isolate two regimes in which a stationary dust cloud can be observed. At low pressures, the particle density decreases monotonically with the increase of the distance from the discharge center; at higher pressures, the density distribution has a shallow minimum. Regardless of the regime, we detect a cusp of the distribution at the void boundary and a slowly varying density at larger distances (in the foot region). A theoretical interpretation of the obtained results is developed that leads to reasonable estimates of the densities for both the cusp and the foot. The modified ionization equation of state, which allows for violation of the local quasineutrality in the cusp region, predicts the spatial distributions of ion and electron densities to be measured in future experiments.

  20. Survivability of Microbes in Mars Wind Blown Dust Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Klovstad, Melisa R.; Fonda, Mark L.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Although the probability of Earth microbes growing (dividing) in the Martian environment is extremely low, the probability of their survival on the Martian surface is unknown. During the course of landed missions to Mars terrestrial microbes may reach the surface of Mars via inadequately sterilized spacecraft landers, rovers, or through accidental impact of orbiters. This investigation studied the potential for Earth microbes to survive in the windblown dust on the surface of Mars. The rationale for the study comes from the fact that Mars regularly has huge dust storms that engulf the planet, shading the surface from solar UV radiation. These storms serve as a mechanism for global transfer of dust particles. If live organisms were to be transported to the surface of Mars they could be picked up with the dust during a dust storm and transported across the planet. Washed, dried spores of Bacillus subtilis strain HA 101 were aseptically mixed with sterile sieved (size range of 1-5microns) Mars soil standard (obtained from NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, USA), or Fe-montmorillonite such that the number of microbes equals 5 x 10(exp 6)/g dry wt soil. The microbe soil mixture was placed in a spherical 8 L Mars simulation chamber equipped with a variable speed rotor, gas ports and an Oriel deuterium UV lamp emitting light of wave lengths 180-400 nm. The chamber was sealed, flushed with a simulated Martian atmosphere (96.9% CO2, 3% O2, 0.1% H2O), and the pressure brought to 10 torr. The lamp and rotor were switched on to begin the experiment. Periodically samples were collected from the chamber, and the numbers of microbial survivors g soil was determined using plate counts and the most probable number method (MPN). The data indicate that Bacillus subtilis spores dispersed with Mars analog soil in a Mars atmosphere (wind blown dust) survive exposure to 5.13 KJ m-2 UV radiation, suggesting that Mars wind blown dust has potential to the protect microbes from solar

  1. DISCOVERY OF SiCSi IN IRC+10216: A MISSING LINK BETWEEN GAS AND DUST CARRIERS OF Si–C BONDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernicharo, J.; Agúndez, M.; Prieto, L. Velilla; Quintana-Lacaci, G. [Group of Molecular Astrophysics, ICMM, CSIC, C/Sor Juana Inés de La Cruz N3, E-28049, Madrid (Spain); McCarthy, M. C.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Drumel, M. A. Martin-; Patel, N. A.; Reilly, N. J.; Young, K. H. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138, and School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Baraban, J. H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Changala, P. B. [JILA, National Institute of Standards and Technology and University of Colorado, and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Guélin, M. [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 St-Martin d’Hères (France); Kahane, C. [Universit Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Stanton, J. F. [Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Thorwirth, S. [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany)

    2015-06-10

    We report the discovery in space of a disilicon species, SiCSi, from observations between 80 and 350 GHz with the IRAM 30 m radio telescope. Owing to the close coordination between laboratory experiments and astrophysics, 112 lines have now been detected in the carbon-rich star CW Leo. The derived frequencies yield improved rotational and centrifugal distortion constants up to sixth order. From the line profiles and interferometric maps with the Submillimeter Array, the bulk of the SiCSi emission arises from a region of 6″ in radius. The derived abundance is comparable to that of SiC{sub 2}. As expected from chemical equilibrium calculations, SiCSi and SiC{sub 2} are the most abundant species harboring a Si−C bond in the dust formation zone and certainly both play a key role in the formation of SiC dust grains.

  2. Discovery of SiCSi in IRC+10216: A missing link between gas and dust carriers of SiC bonds

    CERN Document Server

    Cernicharo, J; Gottlieb, C A; Agundez, M; Prieto, L Velilla; Baraban, J H; Changala, P B; Guelin, M; Kahane, C; Martin-Drumel, M A; Patel, N A; Reilly, N J; Stanton, J F; Quintana-Lacaci, G; Thorwirth, S; Young, K H

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery in space of a disilicon species, SiCSi, from observations between 80 and 350 GHz with the IRAM 30m radio telescope. Owing to the close coordination between laboratory experiments and astrophysics, 112 lines have now been detected in the carbon-rich star CWLeo. The derived frequencies yield improved rotational and centrifugal distortion constants up to sixth order. From the line profiles and interferometric maps with the Submillimeter Array, the bulk of the SiCSi emis- sion arises from a region of 6 arcseconds in radius. The derived abundance is comparable to that of SiC2. As expected from chemical equilibrium calculations, SiCSi and SiC2 are the most abundant species harboring a SiC bond in the dust formation zone and certainly both play a key role in the formation of SiC dust grains.

  3. Dust in the Radio Galaxy and Merger Remnant NGC 1316 (Fornax A)

    CERN Document Server

    Asabere, Bernard Duah; Winkler, Hartmut; Jarrett, Thomas; Leeuw, Lerothodi

    2014-01-01

    We present dust maps of NGC 1316 (Fornax A), a well-studied early-type galaxy located in the outskirts of the Fornax cluster. We used the Large APEX BOlometer CAmera (LABOCA), operating at 870 micron with an angular resolution of 19.5 arcseconds on the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) 12m submillimeter telescope in Chile and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). WISE observes in four mid-infrared bands centered at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 micron with angular resolutions ranging from 6 to 12 arcseconds. The WISE and LABOCA maps reveal emission from dust in the central 2 arcminutes of NGC 1316. The disturbed optical morphology with many shells and loops, the complex distribution of molecular gas and our dust maps are evidences of past merger activity or gas accretion in the galaxy. Combining the LABOCA flux measurement with existing mid- and far-infrared measurements, we estimate the temperature of the cold (~20 K) and warm (~55 K) dust components in the galaxy. This study will be extended to other sou...

  4. Dust particle dynamics in atmospheric dust devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izvekova, Yulia; Popel, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Dust particle dynamics is modeled in the Dust Devils (DDs). DD is a strong, well-formed, and relatively long-lived whirlwind, ranging from small (half a meter wide and a few meters tall) to large (more than 100 meters wide and more than 1000 meters tall) in Earth's atmosphere. We develop methods for the description of dust particle charging in DDs, discuss the ionization processes in DDs, and model charged dust particle motion. Our conclusions are consistent with the fact that DD can lift a big amount of dust from the surface of a planet into its atmosphere. On the basis of the model we perform calculations and show that DDs are important mechanism for dust uplift in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars. Influence of DD electric field on dynamics of dust particles is investigated. It is shown that influence of the electric field on dust particles trajectories is significant near the ground. At some altitude (more then a quarter of the height of DD) influence of the electric field on dust particles trajectories is negligible. For the calculation of the dynamics of dust electric field can be approximated by effective dipole located at a half of the height of DD. This work was supported by the Russian Federation Presidential Program for State Support of Young Scientists (project no. MK-6935.2015.2).

  5. Martian Arctic Dust Devil, Phoenix Sol 104

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander caught this dust devil in action west-southwest of the lander at 11:16 a.m. local Mars time on Sol 104, or the 104th Martian day of the mission, Sept. 9, 2008. Dust devils have not been detected in any Phoenix images from earlier in the mission, but at least six were observed in a dozen images taken on Sol 104. Dust devils are whirlwinds that often occur when the Sun heats the surface of Mars, or some areas on Earth. The warmed surface heats the layer of atmosphere closest to it, and the warm air rises in a whirling motion, stirring dust up from the surface like a miniature tornado. The dust devil visible in the center of this image just below the horizon is estimated to be about 400 meters (about 1,300 feet) from Phoenix, and 4 meters (13 feet) in diameter. It is much smaller than dust devils that have been observed by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit much closer to the equator. It is closer in size to dust devils seen from orbit in the Phoenix landing region, though still smaller than those. The image has been enhanced to make the dust devil easier to see. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. A high order cell-centered semi-Lagrangian scheme for multi-dimensional kinetic simulations of neutral gas flows

    CERN Document Server

    Güçlü, Yaman

    2013-01-01

    The term `Convected Scheme' (CS) refers to a family of algorithms, most usually applied to the solution of Boltzmann's equation, which uses a method of characteristics in an integral form to project an initial cell forward to a group of final cells. As such the CS is a `forward-trajectory' semi-Lagrangian scheme. For multi-dimensional simulations of neutral gas flows, the cell-centered version of this semi-Lagrangian (CCSL) scheme has advantages over other options due to its implementation simplicity, low memory requirements, and easier treatment of boundary conditions. The main drawback of the CCSL-CS to date has been its high numerical diffusion in physical space, because of the 2$^{\\text{nd}}$ order remapping that takes place at the end of each time step. By means of a Modified Equation Analysis, it is shown that a high order estimate of the remapping error can be obtained a priori, and a small correction to the final position of the cells can be applied upon remapping, in order to achieve full compensatio...

  7. Application of Security Technology of Ventilation and Protections of Fire Gas and Dust in Fully Mechanized Working Face%综采工作面一通三防安全保障技术应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖学

    2015-01-01

    以河东煤田兴县矿区斜沟煤矿18105工作面作为示范,从通风、防尘、防灭火和瓦斯预防等方面,分析了年产千万吨级矿井大采高综采工作面的安全保障技术措施,确立了大采高综采工作面必须具备的安全保障体系,建立煤层注水、工作面作业在线除尘,传感检测、束管监测等主动与被动相结合的防灭火工程技术措施,以达到矿井高产高效、安全生产的目的,为类似条件矿井工作面在通风、防尘和防灭火方面提供参考。%Xiegou coal mine 18105 working face is as the example, security technical measures of large mining height fully mechanized working face in annual output ten million tons coal mine is analyzed from ventilation, dust prevention, fire and gas prevention.Prerequisite safety guarantee system of large mining height fully mechanized working face is ensured.The active preventing and extinguishing project technique measures such as coal seam injec-tion, working face online cleaning combined with the passive technique measures such as sensor detection, dust moni-toring are established.Achieves the goal of high output, efficiency and safety production.It provides the reference for ventilation, dust and fire prevention on the similar conditions of coal mine working face.

  8. The dust content of galaxies from z = 0 to z = 9

    CERN Document Server

    Popping, Gergö; Galametz, Maud

    2016-01-01

    We study the dust content of galaxies from z $=$ 0 to z $=$ 9 in semi-analytic models of galaxy formation that include new recipes to track the production and destruction of dust. We include condensation of dust in stellar ejecta, the growth of dust in the interstellar medium (ISM), the destruction of dust by supernovae and in the hot halo, and dusty winds and inflows. The rate of dust growth in the ISM depends on the metallicity and density of molecular clouds. Our fiducial model reproduces the relation between dust mass and stellar mass from z $=$ 0 to z $=$ 7, the dust-to-gas ratio of local galaxies as a function of stellar mass, the double power law trend between dust-to- gas ratio and gas-phase metallicity, the number density of galaxies with dust masses less than $10^{8.3} M_\\odot$, and the cosmic density of dust at z $=$ 0. The dominant mode of dust formation is dust growth in the ISM, except for galaxies with $M_* < 10^7 M_\\odot$, where condensation of dust in supernova ejecta dominates. The dust-t...

  9. HD/H2 as a Probe of the Roles of Gas, Dust, Light, Metallicity, and Cosmic Rays in Promoting the Growth of Molecular Hydrogen in the Diffuse Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszt, H. S.

    2015-01-01

    We modeled recent observations of UV absorption of HD and {H_2} in the Milky Way and toward damped/subdamped Lyα systems at z = 0.18 and z >1.7. N(HD)/N({H_2}) ratios reflect the separate self-shieldings of HD and {H_2} and the coupling introduced by deuteration chemistry. Locally, observations are explained by diffuse molecular gas with 16 cm-3 1.7, N(HD) is comparable to the Galaxy but with 10 times smaller N({H_2}) and somewhat smaller N({H_2})/N(H I). Comparison of our Galaxy with the Magellanic Clouds shows that smaller {H_2}/H is expected at subsolar metallicity, and we show by modeling that HD/{H_2} increases with density at low metallicity, opposite to the Milky Way. Observations of HD would be explained with higher n(H) at low metallicity, but high-z systems have high HD/{H_2} at metallicity 0.04 shielding effects. The abrupt {H_2} transition to {H_2}/H ≈ 1%-10% occurs mostly from self-shielding, although it is assisted by extinction for n(H) <~ 16 cm-3. Interior {H_2} fractions are substantially increased by dust extinction below <~ 32 cm-3. At smaller n(H), ζ H , small increases in {H_2} triggered by dust extinction can trigger abrupt increases in N(HD).

  10. Dust-regulated galaxy formation and evolution:A new chemodynamical model with live dust particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bekki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Interstellar dust plays decisive roles in the conversion of neutral to molecular hydrogen (H_2), the thermodynamical evolution of interstellar medium (ISM), and the modification of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies. These important roles of dust have not been self-consistently included in previous numerical simulations of galaxy formation and evolution. We have therefore developed a new model by which one can investigate whether and how galaxy formation and evolution can be influenced by dust-related physical processes such as photo-electric heating, H_2 formation on dust, and stellar radiation pressure on dust in detail. A novel point of the model is that different dust species in a galaxy are represented by `live dust' particles (i.e., not test particles). Therefore, dust particles in a galaxy not only interact gravitationally with all four components of the galaxy (i.e., dark matter, stars, gas, and dust) but also are grown and destroyed through physical processes of ISM. First we describe a...

  11. HD/H{sub 2} AS A PROBE OF THE ROLES OF GAS, DUST, LIGHT, METALLICITY, AND COSMIC RAYS IN PROMOTING THE GROWTH OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN IN THE DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liszt, H. S., E-mail: hliszt@nrao.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    We modeled recent observations of UV absorption of HD and H{sub 2} in the Milky Way and toward damped/subdamped Lyα systems at z = 0.18 and z >1.7. N(HD)/N(H{sub 2}) ratios reflect the separate self-shieldings of HD and H{sub 2} and the coupling introduced by deuteration chemistry. Locally, observations are explained by diffuse molecular gas with 16 cm{sup –3} ≲ n(H) ≲ 128 cm{sup –3} if the cosmic-ray ionization rate per H nucleus ζ {sub H} =2 × 10{sup –16} s{sup –1}, as inferred from H{sub 3} {sup +} and OH{sup +}. The dominant influence on N(HD)/N(H{sub 2}) is the cosmic-ray ionization rate with a much weaker downward dependence on n(H) at solar metallicity, but dust extinction can drive N(HD) higher as with N(H{sub 2}). At z > 1.7, N(HD) is comparable to the Galaxy but with 10 times smaller N(H{sub 2}) and somewhat smaller N(H{sub 2})/N(H I). Comparison of our Galaxy with the Magellanic Clouds shows that smaller H{sub 2}/H is expected at subsolar metallicity, and we show by modeling that HD/H{sub 2} increases with density at low metallicity, opposite to the Milky Way. Observations of HD would be explained with higher n(H) at low metallicity, but high-z systems have high HD/H{sub 2} at metallicity 0.04 ≲ Z ≲ 2 solar. In parallel, we trace dust extinction and self-shielding effects. The abrupt H{sub 2} transition to H{sub 2}/H ≈ 1%-10% occurs mostly from self-shielding, although it is assisted by extinction for n(H) ≲ 16 cm{sup –3}. Interior H{sub 2} fractions are substantially increased by dust extinction below ≲ 32 cm{sup –3}. At smaller n(H), ζ {sub H}, small increases in H{sub 2} triggered by dust extinction can trigger abrupt increases in N(HD)

  12. Fluffy dust forms icy planetesimals by static compression

    CERN Document Server

    Kataoka, Akimasa; Okuzumi, Satoshi; Wada, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Context: In planetesimal formation theory, several barriers have been proposed, which are bouncing, fragmentation, and radial drift problems. To understand the structure evolution of dust aggregates is a key in the planetesimal formation. Dust grains become fluffy by coagulation in protoplanetary disks. However, once they become fluffy, they are not sufficiently compressed by collisional compression to form compact planetesimals. Aims: We aim to reveal the pathway of the dust structure evolution from dust grains to compact planetesimals. Methods: Using the compressive strength formula, we analytically investigate how fluffy dust aggregates are compressed by static compression due to ram pressure of the disk gas and self gravity of the aggregates in protoplanetary disks. Results: We reveal the pathway of the porosity evolution from dust grains via fluffy aggregates to form planetesimals, circumventing the barriers in planetesimal formation. The aggregates are compressed by the disk gas to the density of 10^{-3...

  13. SHAPING THE DUST MASS-STAR-FORMATION RATE RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a remarkably tight relation between the observationally inferred dust masses and star-formation rates (SFRs) of Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, M dust ∝ SFR1.11. Here we extend the M dust-SFR relation to the high end and show that it bends over at very large SFRs (i.e., dust masses are lower than predicted for a given SFR). We identify several distinct evolutionary processes in the diagram: (1) a star-bursting phase in which dust builds up rapidly at early times. The maximum attainable dust mass in this process is the cause of the bend-over of the relation. A high dust-formation efficiency, a bottom-light initial mass function, and negligible supernova shock dust destruction are required to produce sufficiently high dust masses. (2) A quiescent star-forming phase in which the subsequent parallel decline in dust mass and SFR gives rise to the M dust-SFR relation, through astration and dust destruction. The dust-to-gas ratio is approximately constant along the relation. We show that the power-law slope of the M dust-SFR relation is inversely proportional to the global Schmidt-Kennicutt law exponent (i.e., ∼0.9) in simple chemical evolution models. (3) A quenching phase which causes star formation to drop while the dust mass stays roughly constant or drops proportionally. Combined with merging, these processes, as well as the range in total baryonic mass, give rise to a complex population of the diagram which adds significant scatter to the original M dust-SFR relation. (4) At very high redshifts, a population of galaxies located significantly below the local relation is predicted

  14. On Dust Charging Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Tsintsadze, Nodar L.; Tsintsadze, Levan N.

    2008-01-01

    A general derivation of the charging equation of a dust grain is presented, and indicated where and when it can be used. A problem of linear fluctuations of charges on the surface of the dust grain is discussed.

  15. Smoking Quasars a New Source for Cosmic Dust

    CERN Document Server

    Elvis, M; Karovska, M; Elvis, Martin; Marengo, Massimo; Karovska, Margarita

    2002-01-01

    Although dust is widely found in astrophysics, forming dust is surprisingly difficult. The proper combination of low temperature (<2000 K) and high density is mainly found in the winds of late-type giant and supergiant stars which, as a result, are the most efficient sources of dust known. Dust ejected from these stars into the interstellar medium has multiple important effects, including obscuring background objects and enhancing star formation. We show here that quasars are also naturally copious producers of dust, if the gas clouds producing their characteristic broad lines are part of an outflowing wind. This offers an explanation for the strong link between quasars and dust, for the heavy nuclear obscuration around many quasars and introduces a new means of forming dust at early cosmological times.

  16. Heat-pump-centered Integrated Community Energy Systems: systems development, Consolidated Natural Gas Service Company. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, N.R.; Donakowski, T.D.; Foster, R.B.; Sala, D.L.; Tison, R.R.; Whaley, T.P.; Yudow, B.D.; Swenson, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    The Heat-Actuated Heat Pump Centered Integrated Community Energy System (HAHP-ICES) utilizes a gas-fired, engine-driven, heat pump and commercial buildings, and offers several advantages over the more conventional equipment it is intended to supplant. The general non-site-specific application assumes a hypothetical community of one 59,000 ft/sup 2/ office building and five 24-unit, low-rise apartment buildings located in a region with a climate similar to Chicago. This community serves as a starting point - the base case - upon which various sensitivity analyses are performed and through which the performance characteristics of the HAHP are explored. The results of these analyses provided the selection criteria for the site-specific application of the HAHP-ICES concept to a real-world community. The site-specific community consists of 42 townhouses; five 120-unit, low-rise apartment buildings; five 104-unit high-rise apartment buildings; one 124,000 ft/sup 2/ office building; and a single 135,000 ft/sup 2/ retail building located in Monroeville, Pa. The base-case analyses confirmed that the HAHP-ICES has significant potentials for reducing the primary energy consumption and pollutant emissions associated with space conditioning when compared with a conventional system. Primary energy consumption was reduced by 30%, while emission reductions ranged from 39 to 77%. The results of the site-specific analysis indicate that reductions in energy consumption of between 15 and 22% are possible when a HAHP-ICES is selected as opposed to conventional HVAC equipment.

  17. Dust-off

    OpenAIRE

    Maycroft, Neil; Cheang, Shu Lea

    2015-01-01

    The fan of a motherboard switches on and off intermittently. It blows household dust, removed from the inside of a computer carcass, into the air. The dust then settles onto the motherboard, to be blown off again. This continual movement of dust is contained in the piece. However, it should remind us that the ceaseless creation and motion of unconfined dust accompanies all stages of the e-waste journey.

  18. Physics of interstellar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Krugel, Endrik

    2002-01-01

    The dielectric permeability; How to evaluate grain cross sections; Very small and very big particles; Case studies of Mie calculus; Particle statistics; The radiative transition probability; Structure and composition of dust; Dust radiation; Dust and its environment; Polarization; Grain alignment; PAHs and spectral features of dust; Radiative transport; Diffuse matter in the Milky Way; Stars and their formation; Emission from young stars. Appendices Mathematical formulae; List of symbols.

  19. SWAG: Survey of Water and Ammonia in the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Ott, Jürgen; Krieger, Nico; Rickert, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    SWAG ("Survey of Water and Ammonia in the Galactic Center") is a multi-line interferometric survey toward the Center of the Milky Way conducted with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The survey region spans the entire ~400pc Central Molecular Zone and comprises ~42 spectral lines at pc spatial and sub-km/s spectral resolution. In addition, we deeply map continuum intensity, spectral index, and polarization at the frequencies where synchrotron, free-free, and thermal dust sources emit. The observed spectral lines include many transitions of ammonia, which we use to construct maps of molecular gas temperature, opacity and gas formation temperature (see poster by Nico Krieger et al., this volume). Water masers pinpoint the sites of active star formation and other lines are good tracers for density, radiation field, shocks, and ionization. This extremely rich survey forms a perfect basis to construct maps of the physical parameters of the gas in this extreme environment.

  20. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF DUST IN GALAXIES: METHODS AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009 (Australia)

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the redshift (z) evolution of dust mass and abundance, their dependences on initial conditions of galaxy formation, and physical correlations between dust, gas, and stellar contents at different z based on our original chemodynamical simulations of galaxy formation with dust growth and destruction. In this preliminary investigation, we first determine the reasonable ranges of the most important two parameters for dust evolution, i.e., the timescales of dust growth and destruction, by comparing the observed and simulated dust mass and abundances and molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) content of the Galaxy. We then investigate the z-evolution of dust-to-gas ratios (D), H{sub 2} gas fraction (f{sub H{sub 2}}), and gas-phase chemical abundances (e.g., A {sub O} = 12 + log (O/H)) in the simulated disk and dwarf galaxies. The principal results are as follows. Both D and f{sub H{sub 2}} can rapidly increase during the early dissipative formation of galactic disks (z ∼ 2-3), and the z-evolution of these depends on initial mass densities, spin parameters, and masses of galaxies. The observed A {sub O}-D relation can be qualitatively reproduced, but the simulated dispersion of D at a given A {sub O} is smaller. The simulated galaxies with larger total dust masses show larger H{sub 2} and stellar masses and higher f{sub H{sub 2}}. Disk galaxies show negative radial gradients of D and the gradients are steeper for more massive galaxies. The observed evolution of dust masses and dust-to-stellar-mass ratios between z = 0 and 0.4 cannot be reproduced so well by the simulated disks. Very extended dusty gaseous halos can be formed during hierarchical buildup of disk galaxies. Dust-to-metal ratios (i.e., dust-depletion levels) are different within a single galaxy and between different galaxies at different z.

  1. Effects of dust correlations on the marginal stability of ion stream driven dust acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Manish K.; Avinash, K.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of dust–dust correlations on the marginal stability of dust acoustic waves excited by ion drift is studied. The ion drift is driven by the electric field {E}0 which is generally present in the discharge. Correlation effects on marginal stability are studied using augmented Debye–Hückel approximation. The marginal stability boundary is calculated in {E}0-{P}0 (P 0 is the pressure of the neutral gas) space with correlated dust grains. We show that due to dust-dust correlation the stability boundary moves into the unstable region thereby stabilizing the DAW. The effects are significant for smaller values of κ (=a/{λ }d) below unity (a is the mean particle distance and {λ }d is Debye length).

  2. Abundant dust found in intergalactic space

    CERN Document Server

    Xilouris, E; Alikakos, J; Xilouris, K; Boumis, P; Goudis, C

    2006-01-01

    Galactic dust constitutes approximately half of the elements more massive than helium produced in stellar nucleosynthesis. Notwithstanding the formation of dust grains in the dense, cool atmospheres of late-type stars, there still remain huge uncertainties concerning the origin and fate of galactic stardust. In this paper, we identify the intergalactic medium (i.e. the region between gravitationally-bound galaxies) as a major sink for galactic dust. We discover a systematic shift in the colour of background galaxies viewed through the intergalactic medium of the nearby M81 group. This reddening coincides with atomic, neutral gas previously detected between the group members. The dust-to-HI mass ratio is high (1/20) compared to that of the solar neighborhood (1/120) suggesting that the dust originates from the centre of one or more of the galaxies in the group. Indeed, M82, which is known to be ejecting dust and gas in a starburst-driven superwind, is cited as the probable main source.

  3. Galaxy Simulation with Dust Formation and Destruction

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, Shohei; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Todoroki, Keita; Choi, Jun-Hwan; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    We perform smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of an isolated galaxy with a new treatment for dust formation and destruction. To this aim, we treat dust and metal production self-consistently with star formation and supernova feedback. For dust, we consider a simplified model of grain size distribution by representing the entire range of grain sizes with large and small grains. We include dust production in stellar ejecta, dust destruction by supernova (SN) shocks, grain growth by accretion and coagulation, and grain disruption by shattering. We find that the assumption of fixed dust-to-metal mass ratio becomes no longer valid when the galaxy is older than 0.2 Gyr, at which point the grain growth by accretion starts to contribute to the nonlinear rise of dust-to-gas ratio. As expected in our previous one-zone model, shattering triggers grain growth by accretion since it increases the total surface area of grains. Coagulation becomes significant when the galaxy age is greater than $\\sim$ 1 Gyr: a...

  4. Spitzer IRS Observations of the Galactic Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Spitzer IRS R ∼ 600 spectra (10 - 38 μm) of 38 positions in the Galactic Center (GC), all at the same Galactic longitude of and including the Arches Cluster. Our positions include the Arched Filaments, regions near the Quintuplet Cluster, the ''Bubble'' lying along the same line-of-sight as the molecular cloud MO.13-0.13, and the diffuse interstellar gas along the line of sight at higher Galactic latitudes. From measurements of the [O IV], [Ne II], [Ne III], [Si II], [S III], [Fe II], [Fe III], and H2 S(0), S(1), and S(2) lines we determine the gas excitation and ionic abundance ratios. The main source of excitation is photoionization, with the Arches Cluster ionizing the Arched Filaments and the Quintuplet Cluster ionizing the gas nearby and at lower Galactic latitudes including the far side of the Bubble. In addition, strong shocks ionize gas to O+3 and destroy dust grains, releasing iron into the interstellar medium (ISM); the shock effects are particularly noticeable in the center of the Bubble but the highly ionized gas is present in all positions. The H2 lines are formed both in photodissociation regions in the GC and along the line of sight to the GC

  5. Precise control of photoluminescence of silicon-vacancy color centers in homoepitaxial single-crystal diamond: evaluation of efficiency of Si doping from gas phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralchenko, Victor; Sedov, Vadim; Saraykin, Vladimir; Bolshakov, Andrey; Zavedeev, Evgeny; Ashkinazi, Evgeny; Khomich, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Ability to precisely control the Si-related color center abundance in diamond is important for the use of silicon-vacancy (SiV) defects with bright photoluminescence (PL) in quantum information technologies and optical biomarkers. Here, we evaluated the efficiency of Si incorporation in (100) plane of homoepitaxial diamond layers upon in situ doping by adding silane SiH4 in the course of diamond chemical vapor deposition in microwave plasma using CH4-H2 mixtures. Both the Si concentration in the doped samples, as determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and PL intensity of SiV centers at 738 nm wavelength, measured at excitation wavelength of 473 nm, demonstrate a linear increase with silane content in feed gas in the range. The incorporation efficiency f, defined as the ratio of Si concentration in diamond to that in gas, f = [Si/C]dia/[Si/C]gas is found to be (1.1 ± 0.5) × 10-3 for the silane concentrations explored, [SiH4/CH4] < 0.7 %; thus, the Si atoms are accommodated in (100) diamond face easier than nitrogen and phosphorus, but more difficult than boron. This finding allows a tailoring of the Si content and photoluminescence intensity of SiV centers in in situ doped CVD diamond.

  6. Lunar Dust Simulant in Mechanical Component Testing - Paradigm and Practicality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, T.; Street, K.; Abel, P.; Richmond, R.

    2008-01-01

    Due to the uniquely harsh lunar surface environment, terrestrial test activities may not adequately represent abrasive wear by lunar dust likely to be experienced in mechanical systems used in lunar exploration. Testing to identify potential moving mechanism problems has recently begun within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center Mechanical Systems Lunar Dust Assessment activity in coordination with the Exploration Technology and Development Program Dust Management Project, and these complimentary efforts will be described. Specific concerns about differences between simulant and lunar dust, and procedures for mechanical component testing with lunar simulant will be considered. In preparing for long term operations within a dusty lunar environment, the three fundamental approaches to keeping mechanical equipment functioning are dust avoidance, dust removal, and dust tolerance, with some combination of the three likely to be found in most engineering designs. Methods to exclude dust from contact with mechanical components would constitute mitigation by dust avoidance, so testing seals for dust exclusion efficacy as a function of particle size provides useful information for mechanism design. Dust of particle size less than a micron is not well documented for impact on lunar mechanical components. Therefore, creating a standardized lunar dust simulant in the particulate size range of ca. 0.1 to 1.0 micrometer is useful for testing effects on mechanical components such as bearings, gears, seals, bushings, and other moving mechanical assemblies. Approaching actual wear testing of mechanical components, it is beneficial to first establish relative wear rates caused by dust on commonly used mechanical component materials. The wear mode due to dust within mechanical components, such as abrasion caused by dust in grease(s), needs to be considered, as well as the effects of vacuum, lunar thermal cycle, and electrostatics on wear rate.

  7. Toxicity of lunar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Linnarsson, Dag; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L; Loftus, David J; Prisk, G Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust...

  8. Dust properties of Lyman break galaxies in cosmological simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Yajima, Hidenobu; Thompson, Robert; Choi, Jun-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations have indicated the existence of dust in high-redshift galaxies, however, the dust properties in them are still unknown. Here we present theoretical constraints on dust properties in Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z=3 by post-processing a cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation with radiative transfer calculations. We calculate the dust extinction in 2800 dark matter halos using the metallicity information of individual gas particles in our simulation. We use only bright galaxies with rest-frame UV magnitude M_1700 < -20 mag, and study the dust size, dust-to-metal mass ratio, and dust composition. From the comparison of calculated color excess between B and V-band (i.e., E(B-V)) and the observations, we constrain the typical dust size, and show that the best-fitting dust grain size is ~ 0.05 micron, which is consistent with the results of theoretical dust models for Type-II supernova. Our simulation with the dust extinction effect can naturally reproduce the observed rest...

  9. A Study of Coal-Dust and Gas Combinations Minimum Detonating Energy Measurement Device%煤尘-瓦斯复合物引爆能量测控装置设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁良; 田登峰; 李猛; 魏明生; 李朋真

    2014-01-01

    A system that could detect the minimum detonating energy of coal dust-gas mixture is presented in this paper. In this system, we could get the mixture explosion data with UV sensor in automatic detonation. High voltage arc under the control of microprocessor is used to detonate the mixture. By analyzing the data collected in repeated explosion, we can obtain the minimum detonating energy of different coal-gas combinations.%设计了一种能够测量煤尘-瓦斯复合物最小引爆能量的自动测控装置。通过微处理器控制高压电火花能量来引爆煤尘-瓦斯复合物,并利用紫外线传感器检测试样的爆炸结果,实现了煤尘-瓦斯复合物的自动引爆和参数检测,得到不同复合情况下的最小引爆能量。

  10. Star-forming regions at the periphery of the supershell surrounding the Cyg OB1 association. I. The star cluster vdB 130 and its ambient gas and dust medium

    CERN Document Server

    Sitnik, T G; Lozinskaya, T A; Moiseev, A V; Rastorguev, A S; Tatarnikov, A M; Tatarnikova, A A; Wiebe, D S; Zabolotskikh, M V

    2015-01-01

    Stellar population and the interstellar gas-dust medium in the vicinity of the open star cluster vdB 130 are analysed using optical observations taken with the 6-m telescope of the SAO RAS and the 125-cm telescope of the SAI MSU along with the data of Spitzer and Herschel. Based on proper motions and BV and JHKs 2MASS photometric data, we select additional 36 stars as probable cluster members. Some stars in vdB 130 are classified as B stars. Our estimates of minimum colour excess, apparent distance modulus and the distance are consistent with young age (from 5 to 10 Myrs) of the cluster vdB 130. We suppose the large deviations from the conventional extinction law in the cluster direction, with $R_V$ ~ 4 - 5. The cluster vdB 130 appears to be physically related to the supershell around Cyg OB1, a cometary CO cloud, ionized gas, and regions of infrared emission. There are a few regions of bright mid-infrared emission in the vicinity of vdB 130. The largest of them is also visible on H-alpha and [SII] emission m...

  11. Strong Optical and UV Intermediate-Width Emission Lines in the Quasar SDSS J232444.80-094600.3: Dust-Free and Intermediate-Density Gas at the Skin of Dusty Torus ?

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhenzhen; Hao, Lei; Wang, Shufen; Ji, Tuo; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Emission lines from the broad emission line region (BELR) and the narrow emission line region (NELR) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are extensively studied. However, between these two regions emission lines are rarely detected. We present a detailed analysis of a quasar SDSS J232444.80-094600.3 (SDSS J2324$-$0946), which is remarkable for its strong intermediate-width emission lines (IELs) with FWHM $\\approx$ 1800 \\kmps. The IEL component is presented in different emission lines, including the permitted lines \\lya\\ $\\lambda$1216, \\civ\\ $\\lambda$1549, semiforbidden line \\ciii\\ $\\lambda$1909, and forbidden lines \\oiii\\ $\\lambda\\lambda$4959, 5007. With the aid of photo-ionization models, we found that the IELs are produced by gas with a hydrogen density of $n_{\\rm H} \\sim 10^{6.2}-10^{6.3}~\\rm cm^{-3}$, a distance to the central ionizing source of $R \\sim 35-50$ pc, a covering factor of CF $\\sim$ 6\\%, and a dust-to-gas ratio of $\\leq 4\\%$ times of SMC. We suggest that the strong IELs of this quasar are produce...

  12. A MODIS-based analysis of the Val d'Agri Oil Center (South of Italy) thermal emission: an independent gas flaring estimation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, Nicola; Faruolo, Mariapia; Irina, Coviello; Carolina, Filizzola; Teodosio, Lacava; Valerio, Tramutoli

    2014-05-01

    Different kinds of atmospheric pollution affect human health and the environment at local and global scale. The petroleum industry represents one of the most important environmental pollution sources, accounting for about 18% of well-to-wheels greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The main pollution source is represented by the flaring of gas, one of the most challenging energy and environmental problems facing the world today. The World Bank has estimated that 150 billion cubic meters of natural gas are being flared annually, that is equivalent to 30% of the European Union's gas consumption. Since 2002, satellite-based methodologies have shown their capability in providing independent and reliable estimation of gas flaring emissions, at both national and global scale. In this paper, for the first time, the potential of satellite data in estimating gas flaring volumes emitted from a single on-shore crude oil pre-treatment plant, i.e. the Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi (ENI) Val d'Agri Oil Center (COVA), located in the Basilicata Region (South of Italy), was assessed. Specifically, thirteen years of night-time Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data acquired in the medium and thermal infrared (MIR and TIR, respectively) bands were processed. The Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) approach was implemented for identifying anomalous values of the signals under investigation (i.e. the MIR-TIR difference one), associated to the COVA flares emergency discharges. Then, the Fire Radiative Power (FRP), computed for the thermal anomalies previously identified, was correlated to the emitted gas flaring volumes, available for the COVA in the period 2003 - 2009, defining a satellite based regression model for estimating COVA gas flaring emitted volumes. The used strategy and the preliminary results of this analysis will be described in detail in this work.

  13. Electrodynamic Dust Shield for Lunar/ISS Experiment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Nancy; Calle, Carlos; Hogue, Michael; Johansen, Michael; Mackey, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center is developing a dust mitigation experiment and testing it on the lunar surface and on the International Space Station (ISS). The Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS) clears dust off surfaces and prevents accumulation by using a pattern of electrodes to generate a non-uniform electric field over the surface being protected. The EDS experiment will repel dust off materials such as painted Kapton and glass to demonstrate applications for thermal radiators, camera lenses, solar panels, and other hardware and equipment.

  14. Comet C2012 S1 (ISON): Observations of the Dust Grains From SOFIA and of the Atomic Gas From NSO Dunn and Mcmath-Pierce Solar Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Woodward, Charles E.; Harker, David E.; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Sitko, Michael; Reach, William T.; De Pater, Imke; Gehrz, Robert D.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Cochran, Anita L.; McKay, Adam J.; Reardon, Kevin; Cauzzi, Gianna; Tozzi, Gian Paolo; Christian, Damian J.; Jess, David B.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Lisse, Carey Michael; Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Knight, Matthew Manning

    2013-01-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) is unique in that it is a dynamically new comet derived from the Oort cloud reservoir of comets with a sun-grazing orbit. Infrared (IR) and visible wavelength observing campaigns were planned on NASA's Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and on National Solar Observatory Dunn (DST) and McMath-Pierce Solar Telescopes, respectively. We highlight our SOFIA (+FORCAST) mid- to far-IR images and spectroscopy (approx. 5-35 microns) of the dust in the coma of ISON are to be obtained by the ISON-SOFIA Team during a flight window 2013 Oct 21-23 UT (r_h approx. = 1.18 AU). Dust characteristics, identified through the 10 micron silicate emission feature and its strength, as well as spectral features from cometary crystalline silicates (Forsterite) at 11.05-11.2 microns, and near 16, 19, 23.5, 27.5, and 33 microns are compared with other Oort cloud comets that span the range of small and/or highly porous grains (e.g., C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) to large and/or compact grains (e.g., C/2007 N4 (Lulin) and C/2006 P1 (McNaught)). Measurement of the crystalline peaks in contrast to the broad 10 and 20 micron amorphous silicate features yields the cometary silicate crystalline mass fraction, which is a benchmark for radial transport in our protoplanetary disk. The central wavelength positions, relative intensities, and feature asymmetries for the crystalline peaks may constrain the shapes of the crystals. Only SOFIA can look for cometary organics in the 5-8 micron region. Spatially resolved measurements of atoms and simple molecules from when comet ISON is near the Sun (r_h< 0.4 AU, near Nov-20-Dec-03 UT) were proposed for by the ISON-DST Team. Comet ISON is the first comet since comet Ikeya-Seki (1965f) suitable for studying the alkalai metals Na and K and the atoms specifically attributed to dust grains including Mg, Si, Fe, as well as Ca. DST's Horizontal Grating Spectrometer (HGS) measures 4 settings: Na I, K, C2 to

  15. Change of Magnetic Field$-$Gas Alignment at Gravity-Driven Alfv\\'enic Transition in Molecular Clouds: Implications for Dust Polarization Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Che-Yu; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse striations in molecular clouds are preferentially aligned with local magnetic fields whereas dense filaments tend to be perpendicular to them. When and why this transition occurs remain uncertain. To explore the physics behind this transition, we compute the histogram of relative orientation (HRO) between the density gradient and the magnetic field in 3D MHD simulations of prestellar core formation in shock-compressed regions within GMCs. We find that, in the magnetically-dominated (sub-Alfv\\'enic) post-shock region, the gas structure is preferentially aligned with the local magnetic field. For overdense sub-regions with super-Alfv\\'enic gas, their elongation becomes preferentially perpendicular to the local magnetic field instead. The transition occurs when self-gravitating gas gains enough kinetic energy from the gravitational acceleration to overcome the magnetic support against the cross-field contraction, which results in a power-law increase of the field strength with density. Similar results ca...

  16. Planetesimal Formation by Gravitational Instability of a Porous Dust Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michikoshi, Shugo; Kokubo, Eiichiro

    2016-07-01

    It has recently been proposed that porous icy dust aggregates are formed by the pairwise accretion of dust aggregates beyond the snowline. We calculate the equilibrium random velocity of porous dust aggregates, taking into account mutual gravitational scattering, collisions, gas drag, and turbulent stirring and scattering. We find that the disk of porous dust aggregates becomes gravitationally unstable as the aggregates evolve through gravitational compression in the minimum-mass solar nebula model for a reasonable range of turbulence strength, which leads to rapid formation of planetesimals.

  17. Imaging spectroscopy of the centers of nearby AGN: Molecular gas streaming and obscuring the active nucleus of NGC1068

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Müller Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcanzando resoluciones espaciales hasta de 0.075", hemos obtenido imágenes de la distribució y cinemática del gas y las estrellas de un conjunto de AGN cercanos utilizando el espectrógrafo de campo integral asistido por óptica adaptativa SINFONI en el infrarrojo cercano. Presentamos los resultados sobre las propiedades generales del proceso de formación de estrellas y el gas molecular en las regiones centrales de 9 AGN. Adicionalmente, en NGC 1068 con una resolución de 5 pc hemos observado gas molecular exactamente enfrente del AGN y fluyendo hacia el núcleo. Interpretamos este cúmulo nuclear de gas como un conjunto de nubes cayendo hacia el núcleo y que forman la parte externa y ópticamente gruesa de una estructura amorfa y grumosa de polvo/gas molecular.

  18. Dust Separation and Measurement System for Mars ISRU Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has recognized that in future exploration and human missions to Mars, the problem of Martian dust contaminating gas processing systems and human habitats will...

  19. Simulation of dust voids in complex plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. J. Goedheer,; Land, V.

    2008-01-01

    In dusty radio-frequency (RF) discharges under micro-gravity conditions often a void is observed, a dust free region in the discharge center. This void is generated by the drag of the positive ions pulled out of the discharge by the electric field. We have developed a hydrodynamic model for dusty RF

  20. The Lunar Environment: Determining the Health Effects of Exposure to Moon Dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen

    2007-01-01

    The moon's surface is covered with a thin layer of fine, charged, reactive dust capable of layer of fine, charged, reactive dust capable of capable of entering habitats and vehicle compartments, where it can result in crewmember health problems. NASA formed the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Advisory Group (LADTAG) to study the effects of exposure to Lunar Dust on human health. To date, no scientifically defensible toxicological studies have been performed on lunar dusts, specifically the determination of exposure limits and their affect on human health. The multi-center LADTAG (Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicology center LADTAG (Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicology Advisory Group) was formed in response to the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Office s (OCHMO) request to develop recommendations for defining risk (OCHMO) request to develop recommendations for defining risk defining risk criteria for human lunar dust exposure.

  1. Molecules and dust in Cassiopeia A: II - Dust sputtering and diagnosis for dust survival in supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Biscaro, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    We study the dust evolution in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. We follow the processing of dust grains formed in the Type II-b supernova by modelling the sputtering of grains located in dense ejecta clumps crossed by the reverse shock. Further sputtering in the inter-clump medium once the clumps are disrupted by the reverse shock is investigated. The dust evolution in the dense ejecta clumps of Type II-P supernovae and their remnants is also studied. We study oxygen-rich clumps that describe the ejecta oxygen core, and carbon-rich clumps that correspond to the outermost carbon-rich ejecta zone. We consider the dust components formed in the supernova, several reverse shock velocities and inter-clump gas temperatures, and derive dust grain size distributions and masses as a function of time. We find that non-thermal sputtering in clumps is important and accounts for reducing the grain population by ~ 40% to 80% in mass, depending on the clump gas over-density and the grain type and size. A Type II-b SN form...

  2. Dead Zones in protoplanetary disks : accumulation and coagulation of dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnoz, S.; Taillifet, E.

    2011-10-01

    The growth of micronic dust to macroscopical sizes (>meter) in a turbulent protoplanetary disk is still largely debated. In particular the dust coagulation process must go through two barriers imposed by their coupling with the gas: the "meter" barrier due to an efficient radial migration of dust when their Stokes number is about one and the "fragmentation barrier" implied by the critical fragmentation velocity (around cm/s) preventing any further growth of particle when they reach a macroscopic size due to the two fast relative velocities of particles. So, paradoxically, a protoplanetary disks may seem quite a hostile place for dust-growth, despite the frequent detection of exoplanets showing that planetary formation is in fact an efficient process. We then explore a new possibility suggested by the stratified nature of a protoplanetary disk. Protoplanetary disks are expected to harbour nonionized regions in their mid-plane, the so called "dead zone" inside which the gas flow should be laminar. Dust coagulation in these regions could be quite effective and in addition, since they are regions of low diffusivity, they are expected to be able to accumulate efficiently dust. Using hybrid numerical simulations, coupling dustgrowth and dust dynamics, we explore how dust penetrate a dead-zone and how dust coagulate up to macroscopic sizes and compare it to coagulation efficiency in the active layers of the disk, subject to turbulence. Different disk structures will be explored and discussed. Implication for observations by ALMA will be also presented.

  3. Technology Assessment of Dust Suppression Techniques Applied During Structural Demolition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, J.F.; Ebadian, M.A.; Williams, P.T.; Dua, S.K.

    1998-10-20

    Hanford, Fernald, Savannah River, and other sites are currently reviewing technologies that can be implemented to demolish buildings in a cost-effective manner. In order to demolish a structure properly and, at the same time, minimize the amount of dust generated from a given technology, an evaluation must be conducted to choose the most appropriate dust suppression technology given site-specific conditions. Thus, the purpose of this research, which was carried out at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University, was to conduct an experimental study of dust aerosol abatement (dust suppression) methods as applied to nuclear D and D. This experimental study targeted the problem of dust suppression during the demolition of nuclear facilities. The resulting data were employed to assist in the development of mathematical correlations that can be applied to predict dust generation during structural demolition.

  4. Journey to the center of the galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaisson, E.

    1980-08-01

    The solar system is a member of the Orion Arm of the Milky Way, far from the center of the Galaxy. This article takes the reader on a hypothetical journey from the solar system to the center of the Galaxy. Results from radio and infrared studies are used to suggest what such a journey might reveal. Traveling from the solar system toward the center, one crosses the Cygnus Arm, then the Sagittarius Arm, and then the so-called Three-kiloparsec Arm. The Arms contain a mixture of young stars as well as lots of gas and dust. Radio studies show that the Three-kiloparsec Arm is more like a ring than an arm. Inside this ring, is another ring composed of giant molecular clouds. Radio and infrared astronomers have discovered that the heart of the Galaxy is composed of matter in most perplexing states. There are three regions known within this innermost thousand light-years. First, there is a large zone of thin, hot ionized gas. Within this, there is a whirlpool of dense, warm matter. And further embedded, there seems to be a small supermassive object at the center. Possibly this object could be a blackhole. Researchers are continuing to examine, monitor, and model this mysterious region, the galactic nuclei. (SC)

  5. High Energy Studies of Astrophysical Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Lia Racquel

    Astrophysical dust---any condensed matter ranging from tens of atoms to micron sized grains---accounts for about one third of the heavy elements produced in stars and disseminated into space. These tiny pollutants are responsible for producing the mottled appearance in the spray of light we call the "Milky Way." However these seemingly inert particles play a strong role in the physics of the interstellar medium, aiding star and planet formation, and perhaps helping to guide galaxy evolution. Most dust grains are transparent to X-ray light, leaving a signature of atomic absorption, but also scattering the light over small angles. Bright X-ray objects serendipitously situated behind large columns of dust and gas provide a unique opportunity to study the dust along the line of sight. I focus primarily on X-ray scattering through dust, which produces a diffuse halo image around a central point source. Such objects have been observed around X-ray bright Galactic binaries and extragalactic objects that happen to shine through the plane of the Milky Way. I use the Chandra X-ray Observatory, a space-based laboratory operated by NASA, which has imaging resolution ideal for studying X-ray scattering halos. I examine several bright X-ray objects with dust-free sight lines to test their viability as templates and develop a parametric model for the Chandra HETG point spread function (PSF). The PSF describes the instrument's imaging response to a point source, an understanding of which is necessary for properly measuring the surface brightness of X-ray scattering halos. I use an HETG observation of Cygnus X-3, one of the brightest objects available in the Chandra archive, to derive a dust grain size distribution. There exist degenerate solutions for the dust scattering halo, but with the aid of Bayesian analytics I am able to apply prior knowledge about the Cyg X-3 sight line to measure the relative abundance of dust in intervening Milky Way spiral arms. I also demonstrate how

  6. Continuous respirable mine dust monitor development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, B.K.; Williams, K.L.; Stein, S.W. [and others

    1996-12-31

    In June 1992, the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) published the Report of the Coal Mine Respirable Dust Task Group, Review of the Program to Control Respirable Coal Mine Dust in the United States. As one of its recommendations, the report called for the accelerated development of two mine dust monitors: (1) a fixed-site monitor capable of providing continuous information on dust levels to the miner, mine operator, and to MSHA, if necessary, and (2) a personal sampling device capable of providing both a short-term personal exposure measurement as well as a full-shift measurement. In response to this recommendation, the U.S. Bureau of Mines initiated the development of a fixed-site machine-mounted continuous respirable dust monitor. The technology chosen for monitor development is the Rupprecht and Patashnick Co., Inc. tapered element oscillating microbalance. Laboratory and in-mine tests have indicated that, with modification, this sensor can meet the humidity and vibration requirements for underground coal mine use. The U.S. Department of Energy Pittsburgh Research Center (DOE-PRC) is continuing that effort by developing prototypes of a continuous dust monitor based on this technology. These prototypes are being evaluated in underground coal mines as they become available. This effort, conducted as a joint venture with MSHA, is nearing completion with every promise of success.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL CFD SIMULATION AND VISUALIZATION: EXAMPLES IN SUPPORT OF THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE SMOKE/DUST PLUME FROM THE WORLD TRADE CENTER SITE FOLLOWING THE EVENTS OF SEPTEMBER 11, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Poster will present the process of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations through examples supporting the reconstruction of the smoke/dust plumes following the collapse of the WTC towers on September 11, 2001. Understanding the pathway of toxic air polluta...

  8. Operational Dust Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, Jose M.; Basart, Sara; Benincasa, Francesco; Boucher, Olivier; Brooks, Malcolm E.; Chen, Jen-Ping; Colarco, Peter R.; Gong, Sunlin; Huneeus, Nicolas; Jones, Luke; Lu, Sarah; Menut, Laurent; Morcrette, Jean-Jacques; Mulcahy, Jane; Nickovic, Slobodan; Garcia-Pando, Carlos P.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Sekiyama, Thomas T.; Tanaka, Taichu Y.; Terradellas, Enric; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Xiao-Ye; Zhou, Chun-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, numerical prediction of dust aerosol concentration has become prominent at several research and operational weather centres due to growing interest from diverse stakeholders, such as solar energy plant managers, health professionals, aviation and military authorities and policymakers. Dust prediction in numerical weather prediction-type models faces a number of challenges owing to the complexity of the system. At the centre of the problem is the vast range of scales required to fully account for all of the physical processes related to dust. Another limiting factor is the paucity of suitable dust observations available for model, evaluation and assimilation. This chapter discusses in detail numerical prediction of dust with examples from systems that are currently providing dust forecasts in near real-time or are part of international efforts to establish daily provision of dust forecasts based on multi-model ensembles. The various models are introduced and described along with an overview on the importance of dust prediction activities and a historical perspective. Assimilation and evaluation aspects in dust prediction are also discussed.

  9. Temperature of cometary dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Th.; Weidlich, U.

    1988-05-01

    The variation of dust temperature with heliocentric distance for a comet is calculated using the optical constants of an astronomically important silicate. The silicate, described by Drane (1985), is assumed to be similar to cometary dust. The temperatures of cometary dust grains are determined by the energy balance between the absorbed sunlight and emitted thermal radiation, and equilibrium temperatures of dust grains for different radii and heliocentric distances are compared. Deviations between computed and observed temperatures are attributed to variations in the chemical composition of the ablated grains.

  10. Photochemistry of Nitrate Adsorbed on Mineral Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gankanda, A.; Grassian, V. H.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral dust particles in the atmosphere are often associated with adsorbed nitrate from heterogeneous reactions with nitrogen oxides including HNO3 and NO2. Although nitrate ion is a well-studied chromophore in natural waters, the photochemistry of adsorbed nitrate on mineral dust particles is yet to be fully explored. In this study, wavelength dependence of the photochemistry of adsorbed nitrate on different model components of mineral dust aerosol has been investigated using transmission FTIR spectroscopy. Al2O3, TiO2 and NaY zeolite were used as model systems to represent non-photoactive oxides, photoactive semiconductor oxides and porous materials respectively, present in mineral dust aerosol. In this study, adsorbed nitrate is irradiated with 254 nm, 310 nm and 350 nm narrow band light. In the irradiation with narrow band light, NO2 is the only detectable gas-phase product formed from nitrate adsorbed on Al2O3 and TiO2. The NO2 yield is highest at 310 nm for both Al2O3 and TiO2. Unlike Al2O3 and TiO2, in zeolite, adsorbed nitrate photolysis to nitrite is observed only at 310 nm during narrow band irradiation. Moreover gas phase products were not detected during nitrate photolysis in zeolite at all three wavelengths. The significance of these differences as related to nitrate photochemistry on different mineral dust components will be highlighted.

  11. DUST DESTRUCTION RATES AND LIFETIMES IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli; Boyer, Martha L. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Tchernyshyov, Kirill; Meixner, Margaret [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gall, Christa [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Roman-Duval, Julia, E-mail: tea.temim@nasa.gov [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The dust budget in galaxies depends on the rate at which dust grains are created in different stellar sources and destroyed by interstellar shocks. Because of their extensive wavelength coverage, proximity, and nearly face-on geometry, the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) provide a unique opportunity to study these processes in great detail. In this paper, we use the complete sample of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the MCs to calculate the lifetimes and destruction efficiencies of silicate and carbon dust. We find dust lifetimes of 22 ± 13 Myr (30 ± 17 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the LMC, and 54 ± 32 Myr (72 ± 43 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the SMC. The corresponding dust destruction rates are 2.3 × 10{sup –2} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (5.9 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) and 3.0 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (5.6 × 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) for silicate (carbon) grains in the LMC and SMC, respectively. The significantly shorter lifetimes in the MCs, as compared to the Milky Way, are explained as the combined effect of their lower total dust mass and preferentially higher dust-to-gas (D2G) mass ratios in the vicinity of the SNRs. We find that the maximum dust injection rates by asymptotic giant branch stars and core collapse supernovae are an order of magnitude lower than the dust destruction rates by the SNRs, suggesting that most of the dust may be reconstituted in dense molecular clouds. We also discuss the dependence of the dust destruction rate on the local D2G mass ratio, ambient gas density, and metallicity, as well as the application of our results to other galaxies and dust evolution models.

  12. Dust Destruction Rates and Lifetimes in the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli; Tchernyshyov, Kirill; Boyer, Martha L.; Meixner, Margaret; Gall, Christa; Roman-Duval, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The nature, composition, abundance, and size distribution of dust in galaxies is determined by the rate at which it is created in the different stellar sources and destroyed by interstellar shocks. Because of their extensive wavelength coverage, proximity, and nearly face-on geometry, the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) provide a unique opportunity to study these processes in great detail. In this paper we use the complete sample of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the MCs to calculate the lifetime and destruction efficiencies of silicate and carbon dust in these galaxies. We find dust lifetimes of 22+/-13 Myr (30+/-17 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the LMC, and 54 +/- 32 Myr (72 +/- 43 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the SMC. The significantly shorter lifetimes in the MCs, as compared to the Milky Way, are explained as the combined effect of their lower total dust mass, and the fact that the dust-destroying isolated SNe in the MCs seem to be preferentially occurring in regions with higher than average dust-to-gas (D2G) mass ratios. We also calculate the supernova rate and the current star formation rate in the MCs, and use them to derive maximum dust injection rates by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and core collapse supernovae (CCSNe). We find that the injection rates are an order of magnitude lower than the dust destruction rates by the SNRs. This supports the conclusion that, unless the dust destruction rates have been considerably overestimated, most of the dust must be reconstituted from surviving grains in dense molecular clouds. More generally, we also discuss the dependence of the dust destruction rate on the local D2G mass ratio and the ambient gas density and metallicity, as well as the application of our results to other galaxies and dust evolution models.

  13. DEM Solutions Develops Answers to Modeling Lunar Dust and Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carol Anne; Calle, Carlos; LaRoche, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    With the proposed return to the Moon, scientists like NASA-KSC's Dr. Calle are concerned for a number of reasons. We will be staying longer on the planet's surface, future missions may include dust-raising activities, such as excavation and handling of lunar soil and rock, and we will be sending robotic instruments to do much of the work for us. Understanding more about the chemical and physical properties of lunar dust, how dust particles interact with each other and with equipment surfaces and the role of static electricity build-up on dust particles in the low-humidity lunar environment is imperative to the development of technologies for removing and preventing dust accumulation, and successfully handling lunar regolith. Dr. Calle is currently working on the problems of the electrostatic phenomena of granular and bulk materials as they apply to planetary surfaces, particularly to those of Mars and the Moon, and is heavily involved in developing instrumentation for future planetary missions. With this end in view, the NASA Kennedy Space Center's Innovative Partnerships Program Office partnered with OEM Solutions, Inc. OEM Solutions is a global leader in particle dynamics simulation software, providing custom solutions for use in tackling tough design and process problems related to bulk solids handling. Customers in industries such as pharmaceutical, chemical, mineral, and materials processing as well as oil and gas production, agricultural and construction, and geo-technical engineering use OEM Solutions' EDEM(TradeMark) software to improve the design and operation of their equipment while reducing development costs, time-to-market and operational risk. EDEM is the world's first general-purpose computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool to use state-of-the-art discrete element modeling technology for the simulation and analysis of particle handling and manufacturing operations. With EDEM you'can quickly and easily create a parameterized model of your granular solids

  14. Neutral carbon and CO in 76 (U)LIRGs and starburst galaxy centers A method to determine molecular gas properties in luminous galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, F P; van der Werf, P

    2015-01-01

    We present fluxes in both neutral carbon [CI] lines at the centers of 76 galaxies with FIR luminosities between 10^{9} and 10^{12} L(o) obtained with Herschel-SPIRE and with ground-based facilities, along with the J=7-6, J=4-3, J=2-1 12CO and J=2-1 13CO line fluxes. We investigate whether these lines can be used to characterize the molecular ISM of the parent galaxies in simple ways and how the molecular gas properties define the model results. In most starburst galaxies, the [CI]/13CO flux ratio is much higher than in Galactic star-forming regions, and it is correlated to the total FIR luminosity. The [CI](1-0)/CO(4-3), the [CI](2-1) (2-1)/CO(7-6), and the [CI] (2-1)/(1-0) flux ratios are also correlated, and trace the excitation of the molecular gas. In the most luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), the ISM is fully dominated by dense and moderately warm gas clouds that appear to have low [C]/[CO] and [13CO]/[12CO] abundances. In less luminous galaxies, emission from gas clouds at lower densities becomes prog...

  15. Change On The S-Z Effect Induced By The Cooling Flow CF On The Hot Electronic Gas At The Center OF The Clusters Of Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkelejd Caca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Building more accurate profiles for temperature and density of hot electronic gas concentrated in the center of clusters of galaxies is a constant problem in survey of Sunyeav Zeldovich effect SZ. An effect that consists in the inverse Compton effect of the hot electronic gas interacting with Cosmic Microwave Back- ground CMB photons passing through Intra Cluster Medium ICM. So far the Isothermal model is used for temperature profiling in the calculation of the inverse Compton effect but based on the recent improved observations from satellites which showed that the hot electronic gas presents a feature called Cooling Flow CF. Temperatures in this model differs towards the edges of the Clusters of Galaxies leading to a change on the Compton parameter in comparison with Isothermal model. In this paper are processed data provided by X-ray satellite Chandra. The X-ray analysis is based on two models for the electron density and temperature profile. A sample of 12 clusters of galaxies are analyzed and by building the temperature profiles using CF model the differences on the Compton parameter are 10-100 in comparison with Isothermal model. Therefore to increase the accuracy of evaluation of the Compton parameter we should take into account the change of the electronic gas tempera- ture change that affect changes in both CMB spectrum and temperature from SZ effect.

  16. Amplification of dust loading in Martian dust devils by self-shadowing

    CERN Document Server

    Kuepper, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Insolation of the Martian soil leads to a sub-surface overpressure due to thermal creep gas flow. This could support particle entrainment into the atmosphere. Short time shadowing e.g. by the traverse of a larger dust devil would enhance this effect. We find in microgravity experiments that mass ejection rates are increased by a factor of 10 for several seconds if a light source of 12.6 kW/$\\rm m^2$ is turned off. Scaled to Mars this implies that self-shadowing of a partially opaque dust devil might lead to a strongly amplified flux of lifted material. We therefore suggest that self-shadowing might be a mechanism on Mars to increase the total dust loading of a dust devil and keep it self-sustained.

  17. Amplification of dust loading in Martian dust devils by self-shadowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuepper, M.; Wurm, G.

    2016-08-01

    Insolation of the Martian soil leads to a sub-surface overpressure due to thermal creep gas flow. This could support particle entrainment into the atmosphere. Short time shadowing e.g. by the traverse of a larger dust devil would enhance this effect. We find in microgravity experiments that mass ejection rates are increased by a factor of 10 for several seconds if a light source of 12.6 kW/m2 is turned off. Scaled to Mars this implies that self-shadowing of a partially opaque dust devil might lead to a strongly amplified flux of lifted material. We therefore suggest that self-shadowing might be a mechanism on Mars to increase the total dust loading of a dust devil and keep it self-sustained.

  18. The Dust Accelerator Facility at CCLDAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, A. J.; Collette, A.; Drake, K.; Gruen, E.; Horanyi, M.; Leblanc, S.; Munsat, T.; Northway, P.; Robertson, S. H.; Srama, R.; Sternovsky, Z.; Thomas, E.; Wagner, M.; Colorado CenterLunar Dust; Atmospheric Studies

    2010-12-01

    At the Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Science (CCLDAS) we are in the process of assembling a 3MV macroscopic (~1um) dust particle accelerator. The acceleration unit is being made by the National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC). The accelerator consists of a pelletron generator and potential rings encased in an enclosure held at 6 atm of SF6. A pulsed dust source is used to inject particles into the accelerator. Here we describe advancements in dust accelerator technology at CCLDAS to allow more functionality and ease of use, focusing primarily on dust source control, and the capability to select a precise range in dust mass and velocity. Previously, the dust source was controlled by long plastic rods turning potentiometers inside the SF6 environment providing little to no feedback and repeatability. We describe a fiber optic control system that allows full control of the pulse characteristics being sent to the dust source using a LabVIEW control program to increase usability. An electrostatic Einzel lens is being designed using the ion-optics code SIMION to determine the properties of the electrodes needed for the optimum focusing of the dust beam. Our simulations studies indicate that the dust beam can be directed into a 0.5mm diameter spot. Our planned experiments require a high degree of control over particles size, speed, charge and other characteristics. In order to ensure that only particles of the desired characteristics are allowed to pass into the target chamber, two deflection plates are used to eliminate unwanted particles from the beam. Further simulations are being done to determine the possibility of bending the beamline to allow active selection of particles. The current design of the selection unit uses nuclear accelerator techniques to determine the velocity and charge of each particle and digital timing and logic to choose particles that will be allowed to pass. This requires a high signal to noise ratio due to the need for a well

  19. HD/H2 as a probe of the roles of gas, dust, light, metallicity and cosmic rays in promoting the growth of molecular hydrogen in the diffuse interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Liszt, H S

    2014-01-01

    We modelled recent observations of UV absorption of HD and \\HH\\ in the Milky Way and toward damped/sub-damped Lyman alpha systems at z=0.18 and z $>$ 1.7. N(HD)/N(\\HH) ratios reflect the separate self-shieldings of HD and \\HH\\ and the coupling introduced by deuteration chemistry. Locally, observations are explained by diffuse molecular gas with $ 16 \\pccc \\la$ n(H) $\\la 128 \\pccc $ if the cosmic-ray ionization rate per H-nucleus \\zetaH $= 2\\times 10^{-16}\\ps$ as inferred from \\H3\\p\\ and OH\\p. The dominant influence on N(HD)/N(\\HH) is the cosmic-ray ionization rate with a much weaker downward dependence on n(H) at Solar metallicity, but dust-extinction can drive N(HD) higher as with N(\\HH). At z $>$ 1.7, N(HD) is comparable to the Galaxy but with 10x smaller N(\\HH) and somewhat smaller N(\\HH)/N(H I). Comparison of our Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds shows that smaller \\HH/H is expected at sub-Solar metallicity and we show by modelling that HD/\\HH\\ increases with density at low metallicity, opposite to the Mil...

  20. Regulations concerning the cooking installations using the natural gas in the bakeries and the cake shops of the shopping Centers; Reglementation des installations de cuisson au gaz naturel en boulangerie-patisserie dans les centres commerciaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    This brochure presents the regulation relative to the cooking installations using the natural gas in bakeries and cake shops of the shopping Centers. Following the general regulation context, the guide presents the ovens which can be installed and the associated technical restraints. The necessary conditions for the buildings, the gas alimentation, the natural gas pipelines in the buildings and the installations conditions are also presented. Finally the guide presents the maintenance facilities obligations. (A.L.B.)

  1. Electrodynamic Dust Shield for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Paul J.; Johansen, Michael R.; Olsen, Robert C.; Raines, Matthew G.; Phillips, James R., III; Cox, Rachel E.; Hogue, Michael D.; Pollard, Jacob R. S.; Calle, Carlos I.

    2016-01-01

    Dust mitigation technology has been highlighted by NASA and the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) as a Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) critical technology need in order to reduce life cycle cost and risk, and increase the probability of mission success. The Electrostatics and Surface Physics Lab in Swamp Works at the Kennedy Space Center has developed an Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS) to remove dust from multiple surfaces, including glass shields and thermal radiators. Further development is underway to improve the operation and reliability of the EDS as well as to perform material and component testing outside of the International Space Station (ISS) on the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE). This experiment is designed to verify that the EDS can withstand the harsh environment of space and will look to closely replicate the solar environment experienced on the Moon.

  2. Sensors, motes, and smart dust : WirelessHART sensors are finding application in gas plants, well rigs and soon may be embraced by entire cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, G.

    2009-05-15

    The WirelessHART (Highway Addressable Remote Transducer) is wireless communication system designed to address the needs of the process industry. The sensor system can be used in applications that were previously not practical or possible, such as in drilling rigs and gas plants. The wireless aspect is an important new innovation that delivers key economic benefits. For some temperature measurements in industrial plants, it is not always feasible to run wires all the way up the stack. The wireless solution consists of wireless gateways and field devices that receive and condition data from sensors that measure temperatures, pressures, flow rates, vibration, and other process parameters. The same devices also relay the measurement data to the gateway. Up to 100 devices can be linked wirelessly to a gateway, which passes on the process information to the control system of the plant, drilling rig, or other industrial facility. Multiple networks can be bridged using Wi-Fi. Once deployed, the technology optimizes itself. The system is also useful for determining temperatures and pressures on the mud tanks at drilling rigs and blowout preventers. The system is being used in highly automated and multi-process plants like refineries and upgraders where numerous sensors are needed. Savings on the wireless installations allow a company to afford the installation of more sensors in places they previously could not cost-effectively deploy wired sensors, thereby resulting in improved productivity, safety, and reduced plant downtimes. Talisman Energy's Teepee Creek sour gas plant near Grande Prairie Alberta uses the WirelessHART network to measure temperatures, pressure, differential pressure, tank levels, and valve positions. 4 figs.

  3. Evaluation of dust activity and climate effects in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Xiang-ao; LIANG Feng; WANG Ming-xing

    2004-01-01

    TOMS/Al data with nearly 20 years are utilized in the paper to evaluate dust activities in North China.Combined with simultaneous NCEP reanalysis climate data, climate effects on dust activities are assessed. Theresults showed that the whole North China suffers impact by dust aerosols, with three centers standing out inTOMS/Al spring average map that are western three basins, which are characterized by lower annual precipitationand elevation. Gobi deserts in Mongolia Plateau do not attain higher TOMS/Al value due to cloud contamination andrelative higher elevation. Spring is the season with the highest TOMS dust aerosol index; within the western threebasins, high dust aerosol index appears in both spring and summer, especially in Tarim Basin. Wind speed in springand precipitation in previous rainy season play important roles in controlling dust activities, higher wind speed andless precipitation than the normal are in favor of dust activities in spring. Temperature in spring and previous winteralso affect dust activity to a certain extent, but with contrary spatial distribution. Temperature in winter exert effectprincipally in west part, contrarily, temperature effect in spring is mainly shown in east part. Both of them havenegative correlation with dust activity.

  4. From Dust To Planetesimal: The Snowball Phase ?

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Ji-Wei; Thebault, Philippe; Zhou, Ji-Lin; Ge, Jian

    2010-01-01

    The standard model of planet formation considers an initial phase in which planetesimals form from a dust disk, followed by a phase of mutual planetesimal-planetesimal collisions, leading eventually to the formation of planetary embryos. However, there is a potential transition phase (which we call the "snowball phase"), between the formation of the first planetesimals and the onset of mutual collisions amongst them, which has often been either ignored or underestimated in previous studies. In this snowball phase, isolated planetesimals move on Keplerian orbits and grow solely via the direct accretion of sub-cm sized dust entrained with the gas in the protoplanetary disk. Using a simplified model in which planetesimals are progressively produced from the dust, we consider the expected sizes to which the planetesimals can grow before mutual collisions commence and derive the dependence of this size on a number of critical parameters, including the degree of disk turbulence, the planetesimal size at birth and t...

  5. Dust Properties in HII Regions in M33

    CERN Document Server

    Relano, M; Lisenfeld, U; Verley, S; Hermelo, I; Boquien, M; Albrecht, M; Kramer, C; Braine, J; Perez-Montero, E; De Looze, I; Xilouris, M; Kovacs, A; Staguhn, J

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of the IR emission into star formation rate can be strongly dependent on the physical properties of the dust, which are affected by the environmental conditions where the dust is embedded. We study here the dust properties of a set of HII regions in the Local Group Galaxy M33 presenting different spatial configurations between the stars, gas and dust to understand the dust evolution under different environments. We model the SED of each region using the DustEM tool and obtain the mass relative to hydrogen for Very Small Grains (YVSG), Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (YPAH) and Big Grains (YBG). The relative mass of the VSGs (YVSG/YTOT) is a factor of 1.7 higher for HII regions classified as filled and mixed than for regions presenting a shell structure. The enhancement of VSGs within NGC 604 and NGC 595 is correlated to expansive gas structures with velocities greater than 50 km/s. The gas-to-dust ratio derived for the HII regions in our sample exhibits two regimes related to the HI-H2 transit...

  6. Dust Storms: Why Are Dust Storms a Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Environmental Health, Chemistry, and Toxicology More Resources Dust Storms en español Why are dust storms a concern? A dust storm is a moving ... on Human Health (US Geological Survey) Chemicals in Dust Storms Are these chemicals in MY community? Particulate Matter ...

  7. Radioactive dust sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical report is the second of a five part series on the technical evaluation of a number of dust monitoring instruments and the characterization of Long-Lived Radioactive Dust (LLRD). The data reported here pertain to an experimental study conducted under laboratory controlled conditions in a Long-Lived Radioactive Dust Test Facility (LLRDTF) designed for this purpose. This study was carried out with a twofold purpose in mind, namely, for the characterization of dust and LLRD, and for the evaluation of a variety of monitoring instruments, including cascade impactors, optical particle counters, nylon cyclones, open face filter samplers, and α-particle personal dosimeters, the latter normally used for α-particle radiation exposure purposes. Several non-radioactive and radioactive dusts were characterized. The non-radioactive dusts were SiC, Al2O3, talcum powder, corn starch and flour, while uranium tailings were used as a radioactive dust. Clear differences in instrument performance were observed for the various measurements made

  8. Electrostatic Dust Detection and Removal for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.H. Skinner; A. Campos; H. Kugel; J. Leisure; A.L. Roquemore; S. Wagner

    2008-09-01

    We present some recent results on two innovative applications of microelectronics technology to dust inventory measurement and dust removal in ITER. A novel device to detect the settling of dust particles on a remote surface has been developed in the laboratory. A circuit board with a grid of two interlocking conductive traces with 25 μm spacing is biased to 30 – 50 V. Carbon particles landing on the energized grid create a transient short circuit. The current flowing through the short circuit creates a voltage pulse that is recorded by standard nuclear counting electronics and the total number of counts is related to the mass of dust impinging on the grid. The particles typically vaporize in a few seconds restoring the previous voltage standoff. Experience on NSTX however, showed that in a tokamak environment it was still possible for large particles or fibers to remain on the grid causing a long term short circuit. We report on the development of a gas puff system that uses helium to clear such particles. Experiments with varying nozzle designs, backing pressures, puff durations, and exit flow orientations have given an optimal configuration that effectively removes particles from an area up to 25 cm² with a single nozzle. In a separate experiment we are developing an advanced circuit grid of three interlocking traces that can generate a miniature electrostatic traveling wave for transporting dust to a suitable exit port. We have fabricated such a 3-pole circuit board with 25 micron insulated traces that operates with voltages up to 200 V. Recent results showed motion of dust particles with the application of only 50 V bias voltage. Such a device could potentially remove dust continuously without dedicated interventions and without loss of machine availability for plasma operations.

  9. Análisis de la distribución espacial de estrellas, gas y polvo en galaxias cercanas = Analysis of the spacial distribution of stars, gas and dust in nearby galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Mateos, Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo principal de esta tesis consiste en cuantificar la distribución espacial de las propiedades físicas de las estrellas, el gas y el polvo en galaxias cercanas, dado que son el registro fósil de su evolución pasada. En particular, nos centraremos sobre todo en las variaciones de estas propiedades con la distancia al centro de las galaxias espirales.[ABSTRACT]The main goal of this thesis is to quantify the spatial distribution of the physical properties of stars, gas and d...

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE INSTABILITY DUE TO GAS–DUST FRICTION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadmehri, Mohsen, E-mail: m.shadmehri@gu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Golestan University, Gorgan 49138-15739 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-01

    We study the stability of a dust layer in a gaseous disk subject to linear axisymmetric perturbations. Instead of considering single-size particles, however, the population of dust particles is assumed to consist of two grain species. Dust grains exchange momentum with the gas via the drag force and their self-gravity is also considered. We show that the presence of two grain sizes can increase the efficiency of the linear growth of drag-driven instability in the protoplanetary disks (PPDs). A second dust phase with a small mass, compared to the first dust phase, would reduce the growth timescale by a factor of two or more, especially when its coupling to the gas is weak. This means that once a certain amount of large dust particles form, even though it is much smaller than that of small dust particles, the dust layer becomes more unstable and dust clumping is accelerated. Thus, the presence of dust particles of various sizes must be considered in studies of dust clumping in PPDs where both large and small dust grains are present.

  11. Time-dependent numerical modeling of dust halo formation at comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of gas and dust distributions following a spatially and temporally localized comet outburst was calculated using a hybrid kinetic-hydrodynamic method. In the inner coma the time-dependent continuity, momentum, and energy equations of the dusty gas flow were solved simultaneously using 12 dust sizes. Beyond 300 km a three-dimensional kinetic model was used to calculate the trajectory of each individual dust grain. It was found that following the onset of the comet outburst a gas-dust blast wave propagates outward in the inner coma. About 15 minutes after the increased gas and dust production was initiated at the nucleus, a new equilibrium was reached in the inner coma. The most important feature of this new steady state was the significant increase of the dust terminal velocities. These higher terminal velocity values resulted in larger apex distances for dust particles emitted during the outburst. The dust particles spend a relatively long time near their apex points; therefore, the outburst generates long-lasting distinct dust envelopes in front of the regular dust coma. 32 references

  12. Dust capture and long-lived density enhancements triggered by vortices in 2D protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Surville, Clément; Lin, Douglas N C

    2016-01-01

    We study dust capture by vortices and its long-term consequences in global two-fluid inviscid disk simulations using a new polar grid code RoSSBi. We perform the longest integrations so far, several hundred disk orbits, at the highest resolution attainable in global simulations of disks with dust, namely 2048x4096 grid points. This allows to study the dust evolution well beyond vortex dissipation. We vary a wide range of parameters, most notably the dust-to-gas ratio in the initial setup varies in the range $10^{-3}$ to $0.1$. Irrespective of the initial dust-to-gas ratio we find rapid concentration of the dust inside vortices, reaching dust-to-gas ratios of order unity inside the vortex. We present an analytical model that describes very well the dust capture process inside vortices, finding consistent results for all dust-to-gas ratios. A vortex streaming instability develops which causes invariably vortex destruction. After vortex dissipation large-scale dust-rings encompassing a disk annulus form in most ...

  13. Variation in the dust emissivity index across M 33 with Herschel and Spitzer (HerM 33es)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, F. S.; Braine, J.; Xilouris, E. M.; Kramer, C.; Boquien, M.; Combes, F.; Henkel, C.; Relano, M.; Verley, S.; Gratier, P.; Israel, F.; Wiedner, M. C.; Röllig, M.; Schuster, K. F.; van der Werf, P.

    2014-01-01

    We study the wavelength dependence of the dust emission as a function of position and environment across the disk of M 33 using Spitzer and Herschel photometric data. M 33 is a Local Group spiral with slightly subsolar metallicity, which makes it an ideal stepping-stone to less regular and lower-metallicity objects such as dwarf galaxies and, probably, young-universe objects. Expressing the emissivity of the dust as a power law, the power-law exponent (β) was estimated from two independent approaches designed to properly treat the degeneracy between β and the dust temperature (T). Both β and T are higher in the inner than in the outer disk, contrary to reported β - T anti-correlations found in other sources. In the cold + warm dust model, the warm component and the ionized gas (Hα) have a very similar distribution across the galaxy, demonstrating that the model separates the components in an appropriate way. Both cold- and warm-dust column densities are high in star-forming regions and reach their maxima toward the giant star-forming complexes NGC 604 and NGC 595. β declines from close to 2 in the center to about 1.3 in the outer disk. β is positively correlated with star formation and with the molecular gas column, as traced by the Hα and CO emission. The lower dust-emissivity index in the outer parts of M 33 is most likely related to the reduced metallicity (different grain composition) and possibly to a different size distribution. It is not due to the decrease in stellar radiation field or temperature in a simple way because the far-infrared-bright regions in the outer disk also have a low β. Like most spirals, M 33 has a (decreasing) radial gradient in star formation and molecular-to-atomic gas ratio such that the regions bright in Hα or CO tend to trace the inner disk, which makes it difficult to distinguish between their effects on the dust. The assumption of a constant emissivity index β is obviously not appropriate.

  14. Positive response of Indian summer rainfall to Middle East dust

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Qinjian

    2014-06-02

    Using observational and reanalyses data, we investigated the impact of dust aerosols over the Middle East and the Arabian Sea (AS) on the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall. Satellite and aerosol reanalysis data show extremely heavy aerosol loading, mainly mineral dust, over the Middle East and AS during the ISM season. Multivariate empirical orthogonal function analyses suggest an aerosol-monsoon connection. This connection may be attributed to dust-induced atmospheric heating centered over the Iranian Plateau (IP), which enhances the meridional thermal contrast and strengthens the ISM circulation and rainfall. The enhanced circulation further transports more dust to the AS and IP, heating the atmosphere (positive feedback). The aerosols over the AS and the Arabian Peninsula have a significant correlation with rainfall over central and eastern India about 2 weeks later. This finding highlights the nonlocal radiative effect of dust on the ISM circulation and rainfall and may improve ISM rainfall forecasts. © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Mechanisms of metal dusting corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo

    In this thesis the early stages of metal dusting corrosion is addressed; the development of carbon expanded austenite, C, and the decomposition hereof into carbides. Later stages of metal dusting corrosion are explored by a systematic study of stainless steel foils exposed to metal dusting...... influence of oxygen and carbon on the metal dusting corrosion is explored. The results indicate that exposure to metal dusting conditions have a detrimental effect on the resistance against oxidation and, conversely, that exposure to oxidation has a detrimental effect on the resistance towards metal dusting....... Consequently, a combination of carburizing and oxidizing conditions has a strong mutual catalyzing effect on the metal dusting corrosion....

  16. Planck early results. XX. New light on anomalous microwave emission from spinning dust grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, M.; Delabrouille, J.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.;

    2011-01-01

    by a combination of free-free radiation, cosmic microwave background, thermal dust, and electric dipole radiation from small spinning dust grains. The spinning dust spectra are the most precisely measured to date, and show the high frequency side clearly for the first time. The spectra have a peak in the range 20......-40 GHz and are detected at high significances of 17.1σ for Perseus and 8.4σ for ρ Ophiuchi. In Perseus, spinning dust in the dense molecular gas can account for most of the AME; the low density atomic gas appears to play a minor role. In ρ Ophiuchi, the ~30 GHz peak is dominated by dense molecular gas...... of the synchrotron, free-free, and thermal dust. We present spectra for two of the candidates; S140 and S235 are bright Hii regions that show evidence for AME, and are well fitted by spinning dust models. © ESO, 2011....

  17. The problematic growth of dust in the interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Andrea; Ceccarelli, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Dust growth via accretion of gas species has been proposed as the dominant process to increase the amount of dust in galaxies. We show here that this hypothesis encounters severe difficulties that make it unfit to explain the observed UV and IR properties of such systems, particularly at high redshifts. Dust growth in the diffuse ISM phases is hampered by (a) too slow accretion rates; (b) too high dust temperatures, and (c) the Coulomb barrier that effectively blocks accretion. In molecular clouds these problems are largely alleviated. Grains are cold (but not colder than the CMB temperature). However, in dense environments accreted materials form icy water mantles, perhaps with impurities. Mantles are immediately (1 yr) photo-desorbed as grains return to the diffuse ISM at the end of the cloud lifetime, thus erasing any memory of the growth. We conclude that dust attenuating stellar light at high-z must be ready-made stardust largely produced in supernova ejecta.

  18. Dust and molecules in extra-galactic planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Hernandez, D A

    2015-01-01

    Extra-galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) permit the study of dust and molecules in metallicity environments other than the Galaxy. Their known distances lower the number of free parameters in the observations vs. models comparison, providing strong constraints on the gas-phase and solid-state astrochemistry models. Observations of PNe in the Galaxy and other Local Group galaxies such as the Magellanic Clouds (MC) provide evidence that metallicity affects the production of dust as well as the formation of complex organic molecules and inorganic solid-state compounds in their circumstellar envelopes. In particular, the lower metallicity MC environments seem to be less favorable to dust production and the frequency of carbonaceous dust features and complex fullerene molecules is generally higher with decreasing metallicity. Here, I present an observational review of the dust and molecular content in extra-galactic PNe as compared to their higher metallicity Galactic counterparts. A special attention is given to th...

  19. Effects of dust grains on early galaxy evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Hirashita, H

    2002-01-01

    Stars form out of molecular gas and supply dust grains during their last evolutionary stages; in turn hydrogen molecules (H2) are produced more efficiently on dust grains. Therefore, dust can drastically accelerate H2 formation, leading to an enhancement of star formation activity. In order to examine the first formation of stars and dust in galaxies, we model the evolution of galaxies in the redshift range of 55) galaxies in sub-millimetre and near-infrared bands. We find that: i) ALMA can detect dust emission from several thousands of galaxies per square degree, and ii) NGST can detect the stellar emission from 10^6 galaxies per square degree. Further observational checks of our predictions include the integrated flux of metal (oxygen and carbon) lines. We finally discuss possible color selection strategies for high-redshift galaxy searches.

  20. Composite circumstellar dust grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ranjan; Vaidya, Dipak B.; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-10-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5-25 μm. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18 μm. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-type and asymptotic giant branch stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes, shape, composition and dust temperature.

  1. Nano Dust Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a new highly sensitive instrument to confirm the existence of the so-called nano-dust particles, characterize their impact parameters, and...

  2. Composite Circumstellar Dust Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ranjan; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5--25$\\rm \\mu m$. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18$\\rm \\mu m$. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-Type \\& AGB stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes; shape; composition and dust temperature.

  3. A new galactic chemical evolution model with dust: results for dwarf irregular galaxies and DLA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioannini, L.; Matteucci, F.; Vladilo, G.; Calura, F.

    2016-09-01

    We present a galactic chemical evolution model which adopts updated prescriptions for all the main processes governing the dust cycle. We follow in detail the evolution of the abundances of several chemical species (C, O, S, Si, Fe and Zn) in the gas and dust of a typical dwarf irregular galaxy. The dwarf irregular galaxy is assumed to evolve with a low but continuous level of star formation and experience galactic winds triggered by supernova explosions. We predict the evolution of the gas to dust ratio in such a galaxy and discuss critically the main processes involving dust, such as dust production by AGB stars and Type II SNe, destruction and accretion (gas condensation in clouds). We then apply our model to Damped Lyman-α systems which are believed to be dwarf irregulars, as witnessed by their abundance patterns. Our main conclusions are: i) we can reproduce the observed gas to dust ratio in dwarf galaxies. ii) We find that the process of dust accretion plays a fundamental role in the evolution of dust and in certain cases it becomes the dominant process in the dust cycle. On the other hand, dust destruction seems to be a negligible process in irregulars. iii) Concerning Damped Lyman-α systems, we show that the observed gas-phase abundances of silicon, normalized to volatile elements (zinc and sulfur), are in agreement with our model. iv) The abundances of iron and silicon in DLA systems suggest that the two elements undergo a different history of dust formation and evolution. Our work casts light on the nature of iron-rich dust: the observed depletion pattern of iron is well reproduced only when an additional source of iron dust is considered. Here we explore the possibility of a contribution from Type Ia SNe as well as an efficient accretion of iron nano-particles.

  4. Dust Evolution Can Produce Scattered Light Gaps in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Birnstiel, Tilman; Pinilla, Paola; Kama, Mihkel

    2015-01-01

    Recent imaging of protoplanetary disks with high resolution and contrast have revealed a striking variety of substructure. Of particular interest are cases where near-infrared scattered light images show evidence for low-intensity annular "gaps". The origins of such structures are still uncertain, but the interaction of the gas disk with planets is a common interpretation. We study the impact that the evolution of the solid material can have on the observable properties of disks in a simple scenario without any gravitational or hydrodynamical disturbances to the gas disk structure. Even with a smooth and continuous gas density profile, we find that the scattered light emission produced by small dust grains can exhibit ring-like depressions similar to those presented in recent observations. The physical mechanisms responsible for these features rely on the inefficient fragmentation of dust particles. The occurrence and position of the proposed "gap" features depend most strongly on the dust-to-gas ratio, the f...

  5. Dust origin in late-type dwarf galaxies: ISM growth vs. type II supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukovska, Svitlana

    2014-01-01

    We re-evaluate the roles of different dust sources in dust production as a function of metallicity in late-type dwarf galaxies, with the goal of understanding the relation between dust content and metallicity. The dust content ol late-type dwarf galaxies with episodic star formation is studied with a multicomponent model of dust evolution, which includes dust input from AGB stars, type II SNe and dust growth by accretion of atoms in the ISM. Dust growth in the ISM becomes an important dust source in dwarf galaxies, on the timescale of 0.1 - a few Gyrs. It increases the dust-to-gas ratio (DGR) during post-burst evolution, unlike type II SNe, which eject grains to the ISM only during starbursts. Before the dust growth in the ISM overtakes the dust production, AGB stars can be major sources of dust in metal-poor dwarf galaxies. Our models reproduce the relation between the DGR and oxygen abundance, derived from observations of a large sample of dwarf galaxies. The steep decrease in the DGR at low O values is exp...

  6. Newton to Einstein — dust to dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the relation between the standard Newtonian equations for a pressureless fluid (dust) and the Einstein equations in a double expansion in small scales and small metric perturbations. We find that parts of the Einstein equations can be rewritten as a closed system of two coupled differential equations for the scalar and transverse vector metric perturbations in Poisson gauge. It is then shown that this system is equivalent to the Newtonian system of continuity and Euler equations. Brustein and Riotto (2011) conjectured the equivalence of these systems in the special case where vector perturbations were neglected. We show that this approach does not lead to the Euler equation but to a physically different one with large deviations already in the 1-loop power spectrum. We show that it is also possible to consistently set to zero the vector perturbations which strongly constrains the allowed initial conditions, in particular excluding Gaussian ones such that inclusion of vector perturbations is inevitable in the cosmological context. In addition we derive nonlinear equations for the gravitational slip and tensor perturbations, thereby extending Newtonian gravity of a dust fluid to account for nonlinear light propagation effects and dust-induced gravitational waves

  7. Applications of high-speed dust injection to magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Particle fluxes ranging from a few tens of particle per second up to thousands of particles per second have been achieved using this simple device. To achieve higher dust injection speed, another key consideration is how to accelerate dust at controlled amount. In addition to gravity, other possible acceleration mechanisms include electrostatic, electromagnetic, gas-dragged, plasma-dragged, and laser-ablation-based acceleration. Features and limitations of the different acceleration methods will be discussed. We will also describe laboratory experiments on dust acceleration.

  8. Gaussian-based filters for detecting Martian dust devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F.; Mlsna, P.A.; Geissler, P.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to automatically detect dust devils in the Martian atmosphere from orbital imagery is becoming important both for scientific studies of the planet and for the planning of future robotic and manned missions. This paper describes our approach for the unsupervised detection of dust devils and the preliminary results achieved to date. The algorithm centers upon the use of a filter constructed from Gaussian profiles to match dust devil characteristics over a range of scale and orientation. The classification step is designed to reduce false positive errors caused by static surface features such as craters. A brief discussion of planned future work is included. ?? 2006 IEEE.

  9. UTSA-74: A MOF-74 Isomer with Two Accessible Binding Sites per Metal Center for Highly Selective Gas Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Feng

    2016-04-26

    A new metal-organic framework Zn2(H2O)-(dobdc)·0.5(H2O) (UTSA-74, H4dobdc = 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid), Zn-MOF-74/CPO-27-Zn isomer, has been synthesized and structurally characterized. It has a novel four coordinated fgl topology with one-dimensional channels of about 8.0 Å. Unlike metal sites in the wellestablished MOF-74 with a rod-packing structure in which each of them is in a five coordinate square pyramidal coordination geometry, there are two different Zn2+ sites within the binuclear secondary building units in UTSA-74 in which one of them (Zn1) is in a tetrahedral while another (Zn2) in an octahedral coordination geometry. After activation, the two axial water molecules on Zn2 sites can be removed, generating UTSA-74a with two accessible gas binding sites per Zn2 ion. Accordingly, UTSA-74a takes up a moderately high and comparable amount of acetylene (145 cm3/cm3) to Zn-MOF-74. Interestingly, the accessible Zn2+ sites in UTSA-74a are bridged by carbon dioxide molecules instead of being terminally bound in Zn-MOF-74, so UTSA-74a adsorbs a much smaller amount of carbon dioxide (90 cm3/cm3) than Zn-MOF-74 (146 cm3/cm3) at room temperature and 1 bar, leading to a superior MOF material for highly selective C2H2/CO2 separation. X-ray crystal structures, gas sorption isotherms, molecular modeling, and simulated and experimental breakthroughs comprehensively support this result. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  10. Dust polarization and ISM turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Caldwell, Robert R; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Perhaps the most intriguing result of Planck's dust-polarization measurements is the observation that the power in the E-mode polarization is twice that in the B mode, as opposed to pre-Planck expectations of roughly equal dust powers in E and B modes. Here we show how the E- and B-mode powers depend on the detailed properties of the fluctuations in the magnetized interstellar medium. These fluctuations are classified into the slow, fast, and Alfv\\'en magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves, which are determined once the ratio of gas to magnetic-field pressures is specified. We also parametrize models in terms of the power amplitudes and power anisotropies for the three types of waves. We find that the observed EE/BB ratio (and its scale invariance) and positive TE correlation cannot be easily explained in terms of favored models for MHD turbulence. The observed power-law index for temperature/polarization fluctuations also disfavors MHD turbulence. We thus speculate that the 0.1--30 pc length scales probed by these ...

  11. Modelling Dust Evolution in Galaxies with a Multiphase, Inhomogeneous ISM

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukovska, Svitlana; Jenkins, Edward B; Klessen, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    We develop a model of dust evolution in a multiphase, inhomogeneous ISM including dust growth and destruction processes. The physical conditions for grain evolution are taken from hydrodynamical simulations of giant molecular clouds in a Milky Way-like spiral galaxy. We improve the treatment of dust growth by accretion in the ISM to investigate the role of the temperature-dependent sticking coefficient and ion-grain interactions. From detailed observational data on the gas-phase Si abundances [Si/H]_{gas} measured in the local Galaxy, we derive a relation between the average [Si/H]_{gas} and the local gas density n(H) which we use as a critical constraint for the models. This relation requires a sticking coefficient that decreases with the gas temperature. The synthetic relation constructed from the spatial dust distribution reproduces the slope of -0.5 of the observed relation in cold clouds. This slope is steeper than that for the warm medium and is explained by the dust growth. We find that it occurs for a...

  12. Dust in Interstellar Clouds, Evolved Stars and Supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outflows of pre-main-sequence stars drive shocks into molecular material within 0.01-1 pc of the young stars. The shock-heated gas emits infrared lines of H2 and H2O and millimeter and submillimeter lines of many species including CO, SiO, H2S and HCO+. Dust grains are important charge carriers and play a large role in coupling the magnetic field and flow of neutral gas. Some understanding of the effects of the dust on the dynamics of oblique shocks began to emerge in the 1990s. However, detailed models of these shocks are required for the calculation of the grain sputtering contribution to gas phase abundances of species producing observed emissions. We are developing such models.Some of the molecular species introduced into the gas phase by sputtering in shocks or by thermally driven desorption in radiatively heated hot cores form on grain surfaces. Recently laboratory studies have begun to contribute to the understanding of surface reactions and thermally driven desorption important for the chemistry of star forming clouds.Dusty plasmas are prevalent in many evolved stars just as well as in star forming regions. Radiation pressure on dust plays a significant role in mass loss from some post-main-sequence stars. The mechanisms leading to the formation of carbonaceous dust in the stellar outflows are similar to those important for soot formation in flames. However, nucleation in oxygen-rich outflows is less well understood and remains a challenging research area.Dust is observed in supernova ejecta that have not passed through the reverse shocks that develop in the interaction of ejecta with ambient media. Dust is detected in high redshift galaxies that are sufficiently young that the only stars that could have produced the dust were so massive that they became supernovae. Consequently, the issue of the survival of dust in strong supernova shocks is of considerable interest.

  13. Test of dust scattering caused by dumpling of concrete materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviors of dust at the disposal of low-level radioactive concrete waste were investigated for making an estimation of exposure dose of the workers who inhale a contaminated dust in the air. Dust concentration and it's particle size in the air caused by the dumping test of mock concrete materials were measured. The concrete dusts scatter usually by grinding, cutting, and blasting of a lump of concrete. Three test concrete samples of different sizes, such as particulate (crushed stone), broken concrete (small pieces of about 5 mm - 20 cm), and broken concrete (large pieces of about 30 cm) were used in the dumping test. Concentrations of suspended and respirable dust (< 10 μm) in the air were measured by digital aerosol monitors and dust samplers which were located at 4 - 10 m distant from a dropping center. A testing house was built for avoiding from the effects of environment, such as wind direction and wind velocity. The test samples were dropped on the surface of steel plate from about 1 meter height at a low and a high wind condition. In case of the particulate test sample, the dropping height and the wind velocity affected to the dust concentration in the air. The dust scattering was largely suppressed by the uses of water sprinkling, suppression sheet and wet test sample. (Suetake, M.)

  14. Thermo-analytical study on stainless steelmaking dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Ji(彭及); PENG Bing(彭兵); YU Di(余笛); TANG Mo-tang(唐谟堂); Neil Souza; Janusz A. Kozinski; Jonathan Lobel

    2003-01-01

    Thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) was used to determine the thermal behavior of stainless steelmaking dust and FTIR was used to detect the components of off-gas. The TGA results indicate that three mass loss/gain stages exist in the thermal process. The mass loss of the dust in the first stage results from the evaporation of moisture and the reaction between dissociated carbon and metal oxides in the dust. The evaporation of moisture within the dust happens at 90-350 ℃ and the formation of carbon dioxide happens at 250-470 ℃. The mass gain of the dust in the second stage results from the oxidation of metals in the dust by the oxygen at 470-950 ℃. The third stage is a slow mass loss process, and some metals in the dust are evaporated into the atmosphere in this stage. The evaporation of metals is carried out mainly at 900-1 200 ℃ and the dust is sintered at high temperature over 1 200 ℃.

  15. Study of radon and thoron gas behaviour in the air at the commercial centers in Rio de Janeiro and Pocos de Caldas city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon is a radioactive gas. It occurs naturally in the atmosphere coming from the decay of radium, with emission of alpha particles. There are three radon isotopes more known, of which the most important under the environmental point of view is the Rn-222, whose half life is 3.82 days. The radon and their descendants are responsible by more than 40 % of the natural radioactive dose received for the human beings inside the building. In doses above 4 pCi/l, given as occupational dose, can cause among other diseases, the lung cancer. The main source of radon inside the building is the soil. The incidence of radon inside the building varies according to the soil composition, the materials employed in its construction, the inside air temperature and humidity, time during the day, season and the ventilation process designed. The work was realized at the commercial centers in Rio de Janeiro and Pocos de Caldas, for methodology confirmation. It was utilized the passive (track detectors) and active (two filters technique. Kusnetz technique, Tsivoglou technique and alpha spectrometry technique) methods. The objective of this work was to analyze the radon and thoron concentrations levels in order to supply parameters upon the quality of the air in those commercial centers. (author)

  16. 3D adaptive mesh refinement simulations of the gas cloud G2 born within the disks of young stars in the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Schartmann, M; Burkert, A; Gillessen, S; Genzel, R; Pfuhl, O; Eisenhauer, F; Plewa, P M; Ott, T; George, E M; Habibi, M

    2015-01-01

    The dusty, ionized gas cloud G2 is currently passing the massive black hole in the Galactic Center at a distance of roughly 2400 Schwarzschild radii. We explore the possibility of a starting point of the cloud within the disks of young stars. We make use of the large amount of new observations in order to put constraints on G2's origin. Interpreting the observations as a diffuse cloud of gas, we employ three-dimensional hydrodynamical adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulations with the PLUTO code and do a detailed comparison with observational data. The simulations presented in this work update our previously obtained results in multiple ways: (1) high resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamical AMR simulations are used, (2) the cloud follows the updated orbit based on the Brackett-$\\gamma$ data, (3) a detailed comparison to the observed high-quality position-velocity diagrams and the evolution of the total Brackett-$\\gamma$ luminosity is done. We concentrate on two unsolved problems of the diffuse cloud scen...

  17. Lagrangian Trajectory Modeling of Lunar Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John E.; Metzger, Philip T.; Immer, Christopher D.

    2008-01-01

    Apollo landing videos shot from inside the right LEM window, provide a quantitative measure of the characteristics and dynamics of the ejecta spray of lunar regolith particles beneath the Lander during the final 10 [m] or so of descent. Photogrammetry analysis gives an estimate of the thickness of the dust layer and angle of trajectory. In addition, Apollo landing video analysis divulges valuable information on the regolith ejecta interactions with lunar surface topography. For example, dense dust streaks are seen to originate at the outer rims of craters within a critical radius of the Lander during descent. The primary intent of this work was to develop a mathematical model and software implementation for the trajectory simulation of lunar dust particles acted on by gas jets originating from the nozzle of a lunar Lander, where the particle sizes typically range from 10 micron to 500 micron. The high temperature, supersonic jet of gas that is exhausted from a rocket engine can propel dust, soil, gravel, as well as small rocks to high velocities. The lunar vacuum allows ejected particles to travel great distances unimpeded, and in the case of smaller particles, escape velocities may be reached. The particle size distributions and kinetic energies of ejected particles can lead to damage to the landing spacecraft or to other hardware that has previously been deployed in the vicinity. Thus the primary motivation behind this work is to seek a better understanding for the purpose of modeling and predicting the behavior of regolith dust particle trajectories during powered rocket descent and ascent.

  18. A model of dust fragmentation in near-nucleus jet-like features on Comet P/Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Ichishiro; Huebner, W. F.; Boice, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    A model for dusty gas flows and dust fragmentation in cometary atmospheres is developed and applied to interpret the dust intensity profiles near the nucleus of Comet P/Halley. It is found that fragmentation is not the only physical mechanism for explaining the dust intensity profiles from the 1/z dependence in the region about 1 to 40 km from the nucleus. A combination of the geometric effect and dust fragmentation is a likely explanation for the profiles.

  19. The Mars Dust Cycle: Investigating the Effects of Radiatively Active Water Ice Clouds on Surface Stresses and Dust Lifting Potential with the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, Melinda A.; Hollingsworth, Jeffery

    2012-01-01

    The dust cycle is a critically important component of Mars' current climate system. Dust is present in the atmosphere of Mars year-round but the dust loading varies with season in a generally repeatable manner. Dust has a significant influence on the thermal structure of the atmosphere and thus greatly affects atmospheric circulation. The dust cycle is the most difficult of the three climate cycles (CO2, water, and dust) to model realistically with general circulation models. Until recently, numerical modeling investigations of the dust cycle have typically not included the effects of couplings to the water cycle through cloud formation. In the Martian atmosphere, dust particles likely provide the seed nuclei for heterogeneous nucleation of water ice clouds. As ice coats atmospheric dust grains, the newly formed cloud particles exhibit different physical and radiative characteristics. Thus, the coupling between the dust and water cycles likely affects the distributions of dust, water vapor and water ice, and thus atmospheric heating and cooling and the resulting circulations. We use the NASA Ames Mars GCM to investigate the effects of radiatively active water ice clouds on surface stress and the potential for dust lifting. The model includes a state-of-the-art water ice cloud microphysics package and a radiative transfer scheme that accounts for the radiative effects of CO2 gas, dust, and water ice clouds. We focus on simulations that are radiatively forced by a prescribed dust map, and we compare simulations that do and do not include radiatively active clouds. Preliminary results suggest that the magnitude and spatial patterns of surface stress (and thus dust lifting potential) are substantial influenced by the radiative effects of water ice clouds.

  20. DustPedia - A Definitive Study of Cosmic Dust in the Local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, J I; Bianchi, S; Jones, A; Madden, S; Xilouris, M; Bocchio, M; Casasola, V; Cassara, L; Clark, C; De Looze, I; Evans, R; Fritz, J; Galametz, M; Galliano, F; Lianou, S; Mosenkov, A V; Smith, M; Verstocken, S; Viaene, S; Vika, M; Wagle, G; Ysard, N

    2016-01-01

    The European Space Agency has invested heavily in two cornerstones missions; Herschel and Planck. The legacy data from these missions provides us with an unprecedented opportunity to study cosmic dust in galaxies so that we can answer fundamental questions about, for example: the origin of the chemical elements, physical processes in the interstellar medium (ISM), its effect on stellar radiation, its relation to star formation and how this relates to the cosmic far infrared background. In this paper we describe the DustPedia project, which is enabling us to develop tools and computer models that will help us relate observed cosmic dust emission to its physical properties (chemical composition, size distribution, temperature), to its origins (evolved stars, super novae, growth in the ISM) and the processes that destroy it (high energy collisions and shock heated gas). To carry out this research we will combine the Herschel/Planck data with that from other sources of data, providing observations at numerous wav...

  1. Molecules, dust, and protostars in NGC 3503

    CERN Document Server

    Duronea, N U; Romero, G A; Cappa, C E; Barbá, R; Bronfman, L

    2014-01-01

    We are presenting here a follow-up study of the molecular gas and dust in the environs of the star forming region NGC 3503. This study aims at dealing with the interaction of NGC 3503 with its parental molecular cloud, and also with the star formation in the region. To analyze the molecular gas we use CO(2-1), 13CO(2-1), C18O(2-1), and HCN(3-2) line data obtained with the APEX telescope. To study the distribution of the dust, we make use of images at 870 microns from the ATLASGAL survey and IRAC-GLIMPSE archival images. We use public 2MASS and WISE data to search for candidate YSOs in the region. The new APEX observations allowed the substructure of the molecular gas in the velocity range from -28 to -23 km/s to be imaged in detail. The morphology of the molecular gas close to the nebula, the location of the PDR, and the shape of radio continuum emission suggest that the ionized gas is expanding against its parental cloud, and confirm the "champagne flow" scenario. We have identified several molecular clumps ...

  2. Dust exposure in Finnish foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siltanen, E; Koponen, M; Kokko, A; Engström, B; Reponen, J

    1976-01-01

    Dust measurements were made in 51 iron, 9 steel, and 8 nonferrous foundries, at which 4,316 foundrymen were working. The sampling lasted at least two entire shifts or work days continuously during various operations in each foundry. The dust samples were collected at fixed sites or in the breathing zones of the workers. The mass concentration was determined by weighing and the respirable dust fraction was separated by liquid sedimentation. The free silica content was determined by X-ray diffraction. In the study a total of 3,188 samples were collected in the foundries and 6,505 determinations were made in the laboratory. The results indicated a definite difference in the dust exposure during various operations. The highest dust exposures were found during furnace, cupola, and pouring ladle repair. During cleaning work, sand mixing, and shake-out operations excessive silica dust concentrations were also measured. The lowest dust concentrations were measured during melting and pouring operations. Moderate dust concentrations were measured during coremaking and molding operations. The results obtained during the same operations of iron and steel foundries were similar. The distribution of the workers into various exposure categories, the content of respirable dust and quartz, the correlation between respirable dust and total dust, and the correlation between respirable silica and total dust concentrations are discussed. Observations concerning dust suppression and control methods are briefly considered.

  3. Dust exposure in Finnish foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siltanen, E; Koponen, M; Kokko, A; Engström, B; Reponen, J

    1976-01-01

    Dust measurements were made in 51 iron, 9 steel, and 8 nonferrous foundries, at which 4,316 foundrymen were working. The sampling lasted at least two entire shifts or work days continuously during various operations in each foundry. The dust samples were collected at fixed sites or in the breathing zones of the workers. The mass concentration was determined by weighing and the respirable dust fraction was separated by liquid sedimentation. The free silica content was determined by X-ray diffraction. In the study a total of 3,188 samples were collected in the foundries and 6,505 determinations were made in the laboratory. The results indicated a definite difference in the dust exposure during various operations. The highest dust exposures were found during furnace, cupola, and pouring ladle repair. During cleaning work, sand mixing, and shake-out operations excessive silica dust concentrations were also measured. The lowest dust concentrations were measured during melting and pouring operations. Moderate dust concentrations were measured during coremaking and molding operations. The results obtained during the same operations of iron and steel foundries were similar. The distribution of the workers into various exposure categories, the content of respirable dust and quartz, the correlation between respirable dust and total dust, and the correlation between respirable silica and total dust concentrations are discussed. Observations concerning dust suppression and control methods are briefly considered. PMID:184524

  4. Plasma regions, charged dust and field-aligned currents near Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, I. A. D.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Andrews, D. J.; Eriksson, A. I.; Ye, S.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Morooka, M. W.; Farrell, W. M.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2015-11-01

    We use data from several instruments on board Cassini to determine the characteristics of the plasma and dust regions around Saturn's moon Enceladus. For this we utilize the Langmuir probe and the electric antenna connected to the wideband receiver of the radio and plasma wave science (RPWS) instrument package as well as the magnetometer (MAG). We show that there are several distinct plasma and dust regions around Enceladus. Specifically they are the plume filled with neutral gas, plasma, and charged dust, with a distinct edge boundary region. Here we present observations of a new distinct plasma region, being a dust trail on the downstream side. This is seen both as a difference in ion and electron densities, indicating the presence of charged dust, and directly from the signals created on RPWS antennas by the dust impacts on the spacecraft. Furthermore, we show a very good scaling of these two independent dust density measurement methods over four orders of magnitude in dust density, thereby for the first time cross-validating them. To establish equilibrium with the surrounding plasma the dust becomes negatively charged by attracting free electrons. The dust distribution follows a simple power law and the smallest dust particles in the dust trail region are found to be 10 nm in size as well as in the edge region around the plume. Inside the plume the presence of even smaller particles of about 1 nm is inferred. From the magnetic field measurements we infer strong field-aligned currents at the geometrical edge of Enceladus.

  5. Characterization of lead, chromium, and cadmium in dust emitted from municipal solid waste incineration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dust is emitted from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). Volatile toxic heavy metals are abundant in smaller dust particles and influence the toxicity of particulate matter such as fine particles 2.5). However, little is known about the properties of these metals in fine dust particles. Therefore, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy was used to investigate the chemical states of lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) in MSWI dust collected for nine particle size fractions at the inlet of the dust collector and the stacks of two MSWI plants. XAFS spectroscopy of the dust in the inlet of the dust collectors showed that finer dust contained predominantly Pb as PbCl2 with some PbSiO3, coarser dust consisted of Cr forms, including more toxic Cr(VI) species, and all dust contained CdCl2. Although the dust collector removed almost all of the Pb, trace amounts of PbCl2 remained in the stack gas after passing through the dust collector.

  6. Analytical Study of Nonlinear Dust Acoustic Waves in Two-Dimensional Dust Plasma with Dust Charge Variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chang; ZHANG Xiu-Lian

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear dust acoustic waves in two-dimensional dust plasma with dust charge variation is analytically investigated by using the formally variable separation approach. New analytical solutions for the governing equation of this system have been obtained for dust acoustic waves in a dust plasma for the first time. We derive exact analytical expressions for the general case of the nonlinear dust acoustic waves in two-dimensional dust plasma with dust charge variation.

  7. Electrodynamic Dust Shield for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Paul J.; Johansen, Michael R.; Olsen, Robert C.; Raines, Matthew G.; Phillips, James R., III; Cox, Rachel E.; Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.; Pollard, Jacob R. S.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) has chosen dust mitigation technology as a Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) critical technology need in order to reduce life cycle cost and risk, and increase the probability of mission success. NASA has also included Particulate Contamination Prevention and Mitigation as a cross-cutting technology to be developed for contamination prevention, cleaning and protection. This technology has been highlighted due to the detrimental effect of dust on both human and robotic missions. During manned Apollo missions, dust caused issues with both equipment and crew. Contamination of equipment caused many issues including incorrect instrument readings and increased temperatures due to masking of thermal radiators. The astronauts were directly affected by dust that covered space suits, obscured face shields and later propagated to the cabin and into the crew's eyes and lungs. Robotic missions on Mars were affected when solar panels were obscured by dust thereby reducing the effectiveness of the solar panels. The Electrostatics and Surface Physics Lab in Swamp Works at the Kennedy Space Center has been developing an Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS) to remove dust from multiple surfaces, including glass shields and thermal radiators. This technology has been tested in lab environments and has evolved over several years. Tests of the technology include reduced gravity flights (6g) in which Apollo Lunar dust samples were successfully removed from glass shields while under vacuum (1 millipascal). Further development of the technology is underway to reduce the size of the EDS as well as to perform material and component testing outside of the International Space Station (ISS) on the Materials on International Space Station Experiment X (MISSE-X). This experiment is designed to verify that the EDS can withstand the harsh environment of space and will look to closely replicate the solar environment experienced on the moon

  8. [The research on remote sensing dust aerosol by using split window emissivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Yu, Tao; Gu, Xing-Fa; Cheng, Tian-Hai; Xie, Dong-Hai; Liu, Qian

    2013-05-01

    Dust aerosol can cause the change in the land surface emissivity in split window by radiative forcing (RF). Firstly, the present paper explained from the microscopic point of view the extinction properties of dust aerosols in the 11 and 12 microm channels, and their influence on the land surface emissivity. Secondly, on April 29, 2011, in the northern region of Inner Mongolia a strong sandstorm outbroke, and based on the analysis of the changes in land surface emissivity, this paper proposed a dust identification method by using the variation of emissivity. At last, the dust identification result was evaluated by the dust monitoring product provided by the National Satellite Meteorological Center. The result shows that under the assumption that the 12 microm emissivity equals to 1, using 11 microm relative emissivity could identify dust cover region effectively, and the 11 microm relative emissivity to a certain extent represented the intensity information of dust aerosol.

  9. [The research on remote sensing dust aerosol by using split window emissivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Yu, Tao; Gu, Xing-Fa; Cheng, Tian-Hai; Xie, Dong-Hai; Liu, Qian

    2013-05-01

    Dust aerosol can cause the change in the land surface emissivity in split window by radiative forcing (RF). Firstly, the present paper explained from the microscopic point of view the extinction properties of dust aerosols in the 11 and 12 microm channels, and their influence on the land surface emissivity. Secondly, on April 29, 2011, in the northern region of Inner Mongolia a strong sandstorm outbroke, and based on the analysis of the changes in land surface emissivity, this paper proposed a dust identification method by using the variation of emissivity. At last, the dust identification result was evaluated by the dust monitoring product provided by the National Satellite Meteorological Center. The result shows that under the assumption that the 12 microm emissivity equals to 1, using 11 microm relative emissivity could identify dust cover region effectively, and the 11 microm relative emissivity to a certain extent represented the intensity information of dust aerosol. PMID:23905316

  10. Dust-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of our theoretical research under this grant over the past 3 years was to develop new understanding in a range of topics in the physics of dust-plasma interactions, with application to space and the laboratory. We conducted studies related to the physical properties of dust, waves and instabilities in both weakly coupled and strongly coupled dusty plasmas, and innovative possible applications. A major consideration in our choice of topics was to compare theory with experiments or observations, and to motivate new experiments, which we believe is important for developing this relatively new field. Our research is summarized, with reference to our list of journal publications.

  11. The dust morphology of the elliptical Galaxy M86 with SPIRE

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez, H L; Cortese, L; Smith, M W L; Boselli, A; Ciesla, L; Bendo, G J; Pohlen, M; Alighieri, S di Serego; Auld, R; Barlow, M J; Bock, J J; Bradford, M; Buat, V; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Chanial, P; Charlot, S; Clements, D L; Cooray, A; Cormier, D; Davies, J I; Dwek, E; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Galametz, M; Galliano, F; Gear, W K; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Hony, S; Isaak, K G; Levenson, L R; Lu, N; Madden, S; O'Halloran, B; Okumura, K; Oliver, S; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Parkin, T J; Perez-Fournon, I; Rangwala, N; Rigby, E E; Roussel, H; Rykala, A; Sacchi, N; Sauvage, M; Schirm, M R P; Schulz, B; Spinoglio, L; Srinivasan, S; Stevens, J A; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Vaccari, M; Vigroux, L; Wilson, C D; Wozniak, H; Wright, G S; Zeilinger, W W

    2010-01-01

    We present Herschel-SPIRE observations at 250-500um of the giant elliptical galaxy M86 and examine the distribution of the resolved cold dust emission and its relation with other galactic tracers. The SPIRE images reveal three dust components: emission from the central region; a dust lane extending north-south; and a bright emission feature 10kpc to the south-east. We estimate that approximately 10^6 solar masses of dust is spatially coincident with atomic and ionized hydrogen, originating from stripped material from the nearby spiral NGC4438 due to recent tidal interactions with M86. The gas-to-dust ratio of the cold gas component ranges from ~20-80. We discuss the different heating mechanisms for the dust features.

  12. Oil and Gas Information Center of Rio de Janeiro Geological Survey; Criacao do Centro de Informacoes sobre Petroleo e Gas Natural do Servico Geologico do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, Francisco; Serrao, Marcio; Ferreira, Ana Paula; Silva, Jose Otavio da; Chaves, Hernani [Centro de Informacoes sobre Petroleo e Gas Natural do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (CIPEG), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Oil and Gas Information Center (CIPEG) of Rio de Janeiro Geological Survey concentrates data of oil and natural gas (O and G) industry in the State of Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and meet a specialist staff to work with this data. The CIPEG works in partnership with the Geology School of Rio de Janeiro State University. Its creation was motivated by the government necessity to dominate the techniques to calculate the Government take for the production of O and G front the RJ position in the national oil industry. In 2007, the Rio de Janeiro was responsible for 84% of domestic production of oil and of 91 municipalities, 86 received royalties. These resources represent substantial share in the budget of municipalities and the State, and any variation, could be bring deep impact on the economy of these counties and the State. The products of CIPEG are: a map of O and G industry in Rio de Janeiro, a Database, a GIS and a Timing of Predicting Production of O and G. These products are available through a Internet page with accompanying by graphs of the production of O and G or royalties and Web map for viewing the information in the GIS. (author)

  13. Intrinsic localized modes in dust lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Kourakis, I; Shukla, P K; Kourakis, Ioannis; Basios, Vassileios; Shukla, Padma Kant

    2004-01-01

    Intrinsic Localized Modes (ILM) (or Discrete Breathers, DB) are localized oscillatory modes known to occur in atomic or molecular chains characterized by coupling and/or on-site potential nonlinearity. Quasi-crystals of charged mesoscopic dust grains (dust lattices), which have been observed since hardly a decade ago, are an exciting paradigm of such a nonlinear chain. In gas-discharge experiments, these crystals are subject to forces due to an externally imposed electric and/or magnetic field(s), which balance(s) gravity at the levitated equilibrium position, as well as to electrostatic inter-grain interaction forces. Despite the profound role of nonlinearity, which may be due to inter-grain coupling, mode- coupling and to the sheath environment, the elucidation of the nonlinear mechanisms governing dust crystals is still in a preliminary stage. This study is devoted to an investigation, from very first principles, of the existence of discrete localized modes in dust layers. Relying on a set of evolution equ...

  14. Static compression of porous dust aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Akimasa; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Okuzumi, Satoshi; Wada, Koji

    2013-07-01

    To understand the structure evolution of dust aggregates is a key in the planetesimal formation. Dust grains become fluffy by coagulation in protoplanetary disks. However, once they become fluffy, they are not sufficiently compressed by collisional compression to form compact planetesimals (Okuzumi et al. 2012, ApJ, 752, 106). Thus, some other compression mechanisms are required to form planetesimals. We investigate the static compression of highly porous aggregates. First, we derive the compressive strength by numerical N-body simulations (Kataoka et al. 2013, A&A, 554, 4). Then, we apply the strength to protoplanetary disks, supposing that the highly porous aggregates can be quiasi-statically compressed by ram pressure of the disk gas and the self gravity. As a result, we find the pathway of the dust structure evolution from dust grains via fluffy aggregates to compact planetesimals. Moreover, we find that the fluffy aggregates overcome the barriers in planetesimal formation, which are radial drift, fragmentation, and bouncing barriers. (The paper is now available on arXiv: http://arxiv.org/abs/1307.7984 )

  15. Impact of mineral dust on nitrate, sulfate, and ozone in transpacific Asian pollution plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Fairlie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We use a 3-D global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem to interpret aircraft observations of nitrate and sulfate partitioning in transpacific dust plumes during the INTEX-B campaign of April–May 2006. The model includes explicit transport of size-resolved mineral dust and its alkalinity, nitrate, and sulfate content. The observations show that particulate nitrate is primarily associated with dust, sulfate is primarily associated with ammonium, and Asian dust remains alkaline across the Pacific. This can be reproduced in the model by using a reactive uptake coefficient for HNO3 on dust (γ(HNO3 ~10−3 much lower than commonly assumed in models and possibly reflecting limitation of uptake by dust dissolution. The model overestimates gas-phase HNO3 by a factor of 2–3, typical of previous model studies; we show that this cannot be corrected by uptake on dust. We find that the fraction of aerosol nitrate on dust in the model increases from ~30% in fresh Asian outflow to 80–90% over the Northeast Pacific, reflecting in part the volatilization of ammonium nitrate and the resulting transfer of nitrate to the dust. Consumption of dust alkalinity by uptake of acid gases in the model is slow relative to the lifetime of dust against deposition, so that dust does not acidify (at least not in the bulk. This limits the potential for dust iron released by acidification to become bio-available upon dust deposition. Observations in INTEX-B show no detectable ozone depletion in Asian dust plumes, consistent with the model. Uptake of HNO3 by dust, suppressing its recycling to NOx, reduces Asian pollution influence on US surface ozone in the model by 10–15% or up to 1 ppb.

  16. Impact of mineral dust on nitrate, sulfate, and ozone in transpacific Asian pollution plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We use a 3-d global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem to interpret aircraft observations of nitrate and sulfate partitioning in transpacific dust plumes during the INTEX-B campaign of April–May 2006. The model includes explicit transport of size-resolved mineral dust and its alkalinity, nitrate, and sulfate content. The observations show that particulate nitrate is primarily associated with dust, sulfate is primarily associated with ammonium, and Asian dust remains alkaline across the Pacific. This can be reproduced in the model by using a reactive uptake coefficient for HNO3 on dust (γ(HNO3~10−3 much lower than commonly assumed in models and likely reflecting limitation of uptake by dust dissolution. The model overestimates gas-phase HNO3 by a factor of 2–3, typical of previous model studies; we show that this cannot be corrected by uptake on dust. We find that the fraction of aerosol nitrate on dust in the model increases from ~30% in fresh Asian outflow to 80–90% over the Northeast Pacific, reflecting in part the volatilization of ammonium nitrate and the resulting transfer of nitrate to the dust. Consumption of dust alkalinity by uptake of acid gases in the model is slow relative to the lifetime of dust against deposition, so that dust in general does not acidify. This argues against the hypothesis that dust iron released by acidification could become bio-available upon dust deposition. Observations in INTEX-B show no detectable ozone depletion in Asian dust plumes, consistent with the model. Uptake of HNO3 by dust, suppressing its recycling to NOx, reduces Asian pollution influence on US surface ozone in the model by 10–15% or up to 1 ppb.

  17. Electrostatic Characterization of Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    To ensure the safety and success of future lunar exploration missions, it is important to measure the toxicity of the lunar dust and its electrostatic properties. The electrostatic properties of lunar dust govern its behavior, from how the dust is deposited in an astronaut s lungs to how it contaminates equipment surfaces. NASA has identified the threat caused by lunar dust as one of the top two problems that need to be solved before returning to the Moon. To understand the electrostatic nature of lunar dust, NASA must answer the following questions: (1) how much charge can accumulate on the dust? (2) how long will the charge remain? and (3) can the dust be removed? These questions can be answered by measuring the electrostatic properties of the dust: its volume resistivity, charge decay, charge-to-mass ratio or chargeability, and dielectric properties.

  18. Transport and trapping of dust particles in a potential well created by inductively coupled diffused plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhary, Mangilal; Bandyopadhyay, P

    2016-01-01

    A versatile linear dusty (complex) plasma device is designed to study the transport and dynamical behavior of dust particles in a large volume. Diffused inductively coupled plasma is generated in the background of argon gas. A novel technique is used to introduce the dust particles in the main plasma by striking a secondary direct current (DC) glow discharge. These dust particles are found to get trapped in an electrostatic potential well which is formed due to the combination of the ambipolar electric field caused by diffusive plasma and the field produced by the charged glass wall of the vacuum chamber. According to the requirements, the volume of the dust cloud can be controlled very precisely by tuning the plasma and discharge parameters. The present device can be used to address the underlying physics behind the transport of dust particles, self excited dust acoustic waves and instabilities. The detailed design of this device, plasma production and characterization, trapping and transport of the dust par...

  19. Dust emission from comets at large heliocentric distances. I - The case of comet Bowell /1980b/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpis, H. L. F.; Mendis, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    Alternative processes of dust emission from comets at large heliocentric distances are considered, in order to explain the dust coma observed in comet Bowell (1980b) at a heliocentric distance as large as 7.17 AU. It is shown that the electrostatic blow-off of dust from a charged, H2O-dominated nucleus having a layer of loose, fine dust may be the formation process of the dust coma, with the coma size expected from the process being comparable to the observed value and the dust grain size being equal to or less than 0.4 microns in size. The upper limit for the total mass in the coma is 3.9 x 10 to the 8th g, and the spatial extension less than 10,000 km. The observed activity may alternatively be due to dust entrainment by the sublimating gas from a CO2-dominated nucleus.

  20. ALMA imaging of gas and dust in a galaxy protocluster at redshift 5.3: [C II] emission in 'typical' galaxies and dusty starbursts ≈1 billion years after the big bang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riechers, Dominik A. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Carilli, Christopher L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, PO Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Capak, Peter L.; Yan, Lin [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Scoville, Nicholas Z. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Smolčić, Vernesa [University of Zagreb, Physics Department, Bijenička cesta 32, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Schinnerer, Eva [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Yun, Min [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Cox, Pierre [ALMA Santiago Central Office, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Bertoldi, Frank; Karim, Alexander, E-mail: dr@astro.cornell.edu [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, Bonn, D-53121 (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    We report interferometric imaging of [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}→{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) and OH({sup 2}Π{sub 1/2} J = 3/2→1/2) emission toward the center of the galaxy protocluster associated with the z = 5.3 submillimeter galaxy (SMG) AzTEC-3, using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). We detect strong [C II], OH, and rest-frame 157.7 μm continuum emission toward the SMG. The [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}→{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) emission is distributed over a scale of 3.9 kpc, implying a dynamical mass of 9.7 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, and a star formation rate (SFR) surface density of Σ{sub SFR} = 530 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}. This suggests that AzTEC-3 forms stars at Σ{sub SFR} approaching the Eddington limit for radiation pressure supported disks. We find that the OH emission is slightly blueshifted relative to the [C II] line, which may indicate a molecular outflow associated with the peak phase of the starburst. We also detect and dynamically resolve [C II]({sup 2} P {sub 3/2}→{sup 2} P {sub 1/2}) emission over a scale of 7.5 kpc toward a triplet of Lyman-break galaxies with moderate UV-based SFRs in the protocluster at ∼95 kpc projected distance from the SMG. These galaxies are not detected in the continuum, suggesting far-infrared SFRs of <18-54 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, consistent with a UV-based estimate of 22 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. The spectral energy distribution of these galaxies is inconsistent with nearby spiral and starburst galaxies, but resembles those of dwarf galaxies. This is consistent with expectations for young starbursts without significant older stellar populations. This suggests that these galaxies are significantly metal-enriched, but not heavily dust-obscured, 'normal' star-forming galaxies at z > 5, showing that ALMA can detect the interstellar medium in 'typical' galaxies in the very early universe.

  1. CNPC International Research Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ CNPC International Research Center (CNPCIRC), jointly managed by CNODC and RIPED of China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), was established in 1999 for providing technical research support to all the overseas oil and gas projects of CNPC.

  2. Identification of the exploatation dust in road dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this publication is to determine models of explore dust from vehicle brake systems and the presentationof measurement results of the exploitation dust, which is separate from road dust. The following methods and measuring devices were used: T-01M device, screen analysis, analysis of chemical composition with the use of a scanning microscope with Energy Dispersive x-ray Spectroscopy (EDS analyser. The measurements for identifying this type of dust were conducted on marked sections of roads: motorway, city road and mountain road. The explored dust was distinguished in the following car systems: brakes, clutch plates, tyres and catalytic converters.

  3. Left in the Dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft ended its seven-year voyage January 15 after a safe landing on earth, bringing back a capsule of comet particles and samples of interstellar dust that exceeded the loftiest of expectations of mission scientists. The ensuing studies of the cosmic treasure are expected to shed light on the origins of the solar system and earth itself.

  4. Sources of zodiacal dust

    CERN Document Server

    Ipatov, S I

    2007-01-01

    Fractions of asteroidal particles, particles originating beyond Jupiter's orbit (including trans-Neptunian particles), and cometary particles originating inside Jupiter's orbit among zodiacal dust are estimated to be about 1/3 each, with a possible deviation from 1/3 up to 0.1-0.2. These estimates were based on the comparison of our models of the zodiacal cloud that use results of numerical integration of the orbital evolution of dust particles produced by asteroids, comets, and trans-Neptunian objects with different observations (e.g., WHAM [Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper spectrometer] observations of spectra of zodiacal light, the number density at different distances from the Sun). The fraction of particles produced by Encke-type comets (with e~0.8-0.9) does not exceed 0.15 of the overall population. The estimated fraction of particles produced by long-period and Halley-type comets among zodiacal dust also does not exceed 0.1-0.15. Though trans-Neptunian particles fit different observations of dust inside Jupite...

  5. Dust devil dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, W.; Miura, H.; Onishchenko, O.; Couedel, L.; Arnas, C.; Escarguel, A.; Benkadda, S.; Fedun, V.

    2016-06-01

    A self-consistent hydrodynamic model for the solar heating-driven onset of a dust devil vortex is derived and analyzed. The toroidal flows and vertical velocity fields are driven by an instability that arises from the inversion of the mass density stratification produced by solar heating of the sandy surface soil. The nonlinear dynamics in the primary temperature gradient-driven vertical airflows drives a secondary toroidal vortex flow through a parametric interaction in the nonlinear structures. While an external tangential shear flow may initiate energy transfer to the toroidal vortex flow, the nonlinear interactions dominate the transfer of vertical-radial flows into a fast toroidal flow. This secondary flow has a vertical vorticity, while the primary thermal gradient-driven flow produces the toroidal vorticity. Simulations for the complex nonlinear structure are carried out with the passive convection of sand as test particles. Triboelectric charging modeling of the dust is used to estimate the charging of the sand particles. Parameters for a Dust Devil laboratory experiment are proposed considering various working gases and dust particle parameters. The nonlinear dynamics of the toroidal flow driven by the temperature gradient is of generic interest for both neutral gases and plasmas.

  6. Dust-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our theoretical research on dust-plasma interactions has concentrated on three main areas: (a)studies of grain charging and applications; (b) waves and instabilities in weakly correlated dusty plasma with applications to space and laboratory plasmas; (c) waves in strongly coupled dusty plasmas.

  7. 3-D CFD Simulation and Validation of Oxygen-Rich Hydrocarbon Combustion in a Gas-Centered Swirl Coaxial Injector using a Flamelet-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Brian; Kenny, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Injector design is a critical part of the development of a rocket Thrust Chamber Assembly (TCA). Proper detailed injector design can maximize propulsion efficiency while minimizing the potential for failures in the combustion chamber. Traditional design and analysis methods for hydrocarbon-fuel injector elements are based heavily on empirical data and models developed from heritage hardware tests. Using this limited set of data produces challenges when trying to design a new propulsion system where the operating conditions may greatly differ from heritage applications. Time-accurate, Three-Dimensional (3-D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling of combusting flows inside of injectors has long been a goal of the fluid analysis group at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the larger CFD modeling community. CFD simulation can provide insight into the design and function of an injector that cannot be obtained easily through testing or empirical comparisons to existing hardware. However, the traditional finite-rate chemistry modeling approach utilized to simulate combusting flows for complex fuels, such as Rocket Propellant-2 (RP-2), is prohibitively expensive and time consuming even with a large amount of computational resources. MSFC has been working, in partnership with Streamline Numerics, Inc., to develop a computationally efficient, flamelet-based approach for modeling complex combusting flow applications. In this work, a flamelet modeling approach is used to simulate time-accurate, 3-D, combusting flow inside a single Gas Centered Swirl Coaxial (GCSC) injector using the flow solver, Loci-STREAM. CFD simulations were performed for several different injector geometries. Results of the CFD analysis helped guide the design of the injector from an initial concept to a tested prototype. The results of the CFD analysis are compared to data gathered from several hot-fire, single element injector tests performed in the Air Force Research Lab EC-1 test facility

  8. Trajectory Calculation as Forecasting Support Tool for Dust Storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Al-Yahyai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semiarid regions, dust storms are common during windy seasons. Strong wind can blow loose sand from the dry surface. The rising sand and dust is then transported to other places depending on the wind conditions (speed and direction at different levels of the atmosphere. Considering dust as a moving object in space and time, trajectory calculation then can be used to determine the path it will follow. Trajectory calculation is used as a forecast supporting tool for both operational and research activities. Predefined dust sources can be identified and the trajectories can be precalculated from the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP forecast. In case of long distance transported dust, the tool should allow the operational forecaster to perform online trajectory calculation. This paper presents a case study for using trajectory calculation based on NWP models as a forecast supporting tool in Oman Meteorological Service during some dust storm events. Case study validation results showed a good agreement between the calculated trajectories and the real transport path of the dust storms and hence trajectory calculation can be used at operational centers for warning purposes.

  9. Dust Ejection from Planetary Bodies by Temperature Gradients: Laboratory Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Kelling, Thorben; Kocifaj, Miroslav; Klacka, Jozef; Reiss, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory experiments show that dusty bodies in a gaseous environment eject dust particles if they are illuminated. We find that even more intense dust eruptions occur when the light source is turned off. We attribute this to a compression of gas by thermal creep in response to the changing temperature gradients in the top dust layers. The effect is studied at a light flux of 13 kW/(m*m) and 1 mbar ambient pressure. The effect is applicable to protoplanetary disks and Mars. In the inner part of protoplanetary disks, planetesimals can be eroded especially at the terminator of a rotating body. This leads to the production of dust which can then be transported towards the disk edges or the outer disk regions. The generated dust might constitute a significant fraction of the warm dust observed in extrasolar protoplanetary disks. We estimate erosion rates of about 1 kg/s for 100 m parent bodies. The dust might also contribute to subsequent planetary growth in different locations or on existing protoplanets which ...

  10. Dust accretion and destruction in galaxy groups and clusters

    CERN Document Server

    McGee, Sean L

    2010-01-01

    We examine the dust distribution around a sample of 70,000 low redshift galaxy groups and clusters derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. By correlating spectroscopically identified background quasars with the galaxy groups we obtain the relative colour excess due to dust reddening. We present a significant detection of dust out to a clustercentric distance of 30 Mpc/h in all four independent SDSS colours, consistent with the expectations of weak lensing masses of similar mass halos and excess galaxy counts. The wavelength dependence of this colour excess is consistent with the expectations of a Milky Way dust law with R_V=3.1. Further, we find that the halo mass dependence of the dust content is much smaller than would be expected by a simple scaling, implying that the dust-to-gas ratio of the most massive clusters (~10E14 Msun/h) is ~3% of the local ISM value, while in small groups (~10E12.7 Msun/h) it is ~55% of the local ISM value. We also find that the dust must have a covering fraction on the order ...

  11. Dust Formation, Evolution, and Obscuration Effects in the Very High-Redshift Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Staguhn, Johannes; Arendt, Richard G.; Kovacs, Attila; Su, Ting; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of dust at redshifts z > or approx. 9, and consequently the dust properties, differs greatly from that in the local universe. In contrast to the local universe, core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the only source of thermally-condensed dust. Because of the low initial dust-to-gas mass ratio, grain destruction rates are low, so that CCSNe are net producers of interstellar dust. Galaxies with large initial gas mass or high mass infall rate will therefore have a more rapid net rate of dust production comported to galaxies with lower gas mass, even at the same star formation rate. The dust composition is dominated by silicates, which exhibit a strong rise in the UV opacity near the Lyman break. This "silicate-UV break" may be confused with the Lyman break, resulting in a misidentification of a galaxies' photometric redshift. In this paper we demonstrate these effects by analyzing the spectral energy distribution (SED) of MACS1149-JD, a lensed galaxy at z = 9.6. A potential 2mm counterpart of MACS1149-JD has been identified with GISMO. While additional observations are required to corroborate this identification, we use this possible association to illustrate the physical processes and the observational effects of dust in the very high redshift universe. Subject headings: galaxies: high-redshift - galaxies: evolution - galaxies: individual (MACS1149- JD) - Interstellar medium (ISM), nebulae: dust, extinction - physical data and processes: nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances.

  12. The Chemical Imprint of Dust on the Most Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Alexander P; Bromm, Volker

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the impact of dust-induced gas fragmentation on the formation of the first low-mass, metal-poor stars (< 1M_sun) in the early universe. Previous work has posited the existence of a critical dust-to-gas ratio, below which dust thermal cooling is unable to cause fragmentation. Using silicon-based (rather than carbon-based) dust compositions, we compute such critical dust-to-gas ratios and associated critical silicon abundances. We evaluate the robustness of these critical values by considering variations in the dust chemical composition, grain size distribution, and star formation environment. Variations in the dust chemical composition are less important than variations in the size distribution, and the most likely environment where dust cooling becomes significant is in a rotationally supported protostellar disk. We test the dust cooling theory by comparing to silicon abundances observed in metal-poor stars. Several stars have silicon abundances low enough to rule out fragmentation induced b...

  13. Hot Dust Acoustic Solitary Waves in Dust Plasma with Variable Dust Charge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段文山; 吕克朴; 赵金保

    2001-01-01

    Considering the variation of dust charges, we have analytically studied the governing equation for the system with the same model as that for cold dust acoustic waves in a demagnetized plasma but with the contribution of hot dust. The result indicates that the governing equation is also a Kortweg-de Vries equation, although its amplitude and width will be smaller compared with the cold dust case.

  14. Photochemical Oxidant Processes in the Presence of Dust: An Evaluation of the Impact of Dust on Particulate Nitrate and Ozone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Sunwoo, Young; Kotamarthi, Veerabhadra; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    1994-07-01

    The influence of dust on the tropospheric photochemical oxidant cycle is studied through the use of a detailed coupled aerosol and gas-phase chemistry model. Dust is a significant component of the troposphere throughout Asia and provides a surface for a variety of heterogeneous reactions. Dust is found to be an important surface for particulate nitrate formation. For dust loading and ambient concentrations representative of conditions in East Asia, particulate nitrate levels of 1.5 11.5 µg m3 are predicted, consistent with measured levels in this region. Dust is also found to reduce NOx levels by up to 50%, HO2 concentrations by 20% 80%, and ozone production rates by up to 25%. The magnitude of the influence of dust is sensitive to the mass concentration of the aerosol, relative humility, and the value of the accommodation coefficient.

  15. Dust particle diffusion in ion beam transport region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, N.; Okajima, Y.; Romero, C. F.; Kuwata, Y.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.

    2016-02-01

    Dust particles of μm size produced by a monoplasmatron ion source are observed by a laser light scattering. The scattered light signal from an incident laser at 532 nm wavelength indicates when and where a particle passes through the ion beam transport region. As the result, dusts with the size more than 10 μm are found to be distributed in the center of the ion beam, while dusts with the size less than 10 μm size are distributed along the edge of the ion beam. Floating potential and electron temperature at beam transport region are measured by an electrostatic probe. This observation can be explained by a charge up model of the dust in the plasma boundary region.

  16. Dust particle diffusion in ion beam transport region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, N.; Okajima, Y.; Romero, C. F.; Kuwata, Y.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M., E-mail: mwada@mail.doshisha.ac.jp [Graduate school of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Dust particles of μm size produced by a monoplasmatron ion source are observed by a laser light scattering. The scattered light signal from an incident laser at 532 nm wavelength indicates when and where a particle passes through the ion beam transport region. As the result, dusts with the size more than 10 μm are found to be distributed in the center of the ion beam, while dusts with the size less than 10 μm size are distributed along the edge of the ion beam. Floating potential and electron temperature at beam transport region are measured by an electrostatic probe. This observation can be explained by a charge up model of the dust in the plasma boundary region.

  17. Gas Accretion in the M32 Nucleus: Past & Present

    CERN Document Server

    Seth, Anil C

    2010-01-01

    Using adaptive optics assisted Gemini/NIFS data, I study the present and past gas accretion in the central 3" of the M32 nucleus. From changes in the spectral slope and CO line depths near the center, I find evidence for unresolved dust emission resulting from BH accretion. With a luminosity of ~2e38 erg/s, this dust emission appears to be the most luminous tracer of current BH accretion, two orders of magnitude more luminous than previously detected X-ray emission. These observations suggest that using high resolution infrared data to search for dust emission may be an effective way to detect other nearby, low luminosity BHs, such as those in globular clusters. I also examine the fossil evidence of gas accretion contained in the kinematics of the stars in the nucleus. The higher-order moments (h3 and h4) of the line-of-sight velocity distribution show patterns that are remarkably similar to those seen on larger scales in elliptical galaxies and in gas-rich merger simulations. The kinematics suggests the pres...

  18. EMC Test Report Electrodynamic Dust Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Lynne M.; Boyette, Carl B.

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the Electromagnetic Interference E M I evaluation performed on the Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS) which is part of the MISSE-X System under the Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center. Measurements are performed to document the emissions environment associated with the EDS units. The purpose of this report is to collect all information needed to reproduce the testing performed on the Electrodynamic Dust Shield units, document data gathered during testing, and present the results. This document presents information unique to the measurements performed on the Bioculture Express Rack payload; using test methods prepared to meet SSP 30238 requirements. It includes the information necessary to satisfy the needs of the customer per work order number 1037104. The information presented herein should only be used to meet the requirements for which it was prepared.

  19. Computational prediction of dust production in pebble bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Finite element analysis of frictional contact. ► Plasticity taken into account for nuclear graphite at room temperature. ► Prediction of order of magnitude for dust loading in PBRs. ► Archard wear model for wear mass calculations. - Abstract: This paper describes the computational modeling and simulation of graphite pebbles in frictional contacts as anticipated in a pebble bed reactor. For the high temperature gas-cooled reactor, the potential dust generation from frictional contact at the surface of pebbles and the subsequent lift-off and transport of dust and absorbed fission products are of safety concern at elevated temperatures under an air ingress accident. The aim of this work is to perform a computational study to estimate the quantity of the nuclear grade graphite dust produces from a typical anticipated configuration.

  20. Propagation Regime of Iron Dust Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Francois-David; Goroshin, Samuel; Higgins, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    A flame propagating through an iron-dust mixture can propagate in two asymptotic regimes. When the characteristic time of heat transfer between particles is much smaller than the characteristic time of particle combustion, the flame propagates in the continuum regime where the heat released by reacting particles can be modelled as a space-averaged function. In contrast, when the characteristic time of heat transfer is much larger than the particle reaction time, the flame can no longer be treated as a continuum due to dominating effects associated with the discrete nature of the particle reaction. The discrete regime is characterized by weak dependence of the flame speed on the oxygen concentration compared to the continuum regime. The discrete regime is observed in flames propagating through an iron dust cloud within a gas mixture containing xenon, while the continuum regime is obtained when xenon is substituted with helium.

  1. Dust coagulation in protoplanetary disks: porosity matters

    CERN Document Server

    Ormel, C W; Tielens, A G G M

    2006-01-01

    Context: Sticking of colliding dust particles through van der Waals forces is the first stage in the grain growth process in protoplanetary disks, eventually leading to the formation of comets, asteroids and planets. A key aspect of the collisional evolution is the coupling between dust and gas motions, which depends on the internal structure (porosity) of aggregates. Aims: To quantify the importance of the internal structure on the collisional evolution of particles, and to create a new coagulation model to investigate the difference between porous and compact coagulation in the context of a turbulent protoplanetary disk. Methods: We have developed simple prescriptions for the collisional evolution of porosity of grain-aggregates in grain-grain collisions. Three regimes can then be distinguished: `hit-and-stick' at low velocities, with an increase in porosity; compaction at intermediate velocities, with a decrease of porosity; and fragmentation at high velocities. (..) Results: (..) We can discern three diff...

  2. Carbon in Comet Halley dust particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomenkova, M. N.; Chang, S.

    1994-01-01

    Comets are small bodies of the solar system containing primarily a mixture of frozen gases and carbonaceous and mineral grains. They are likely to preserve volatile mineral from cold regions of the protosolar nebula and remnants of interstellar dust and gas. More than 2500 mass spectra of cometary grains with masses in the range 5 x 10 exp -17 to 5 x 10 exp -12 g were measured in situ by PUMA1 and PUMA2 mass spectrometers on board the VEGA spacecraft during flyby missions to Comet Halley. In this paper, we discuss different organic and inorganic C-containing components discovered so far in Comet Halley dust particles, the nature and abundance of which provide information about possible astrophysical sources of C and constrain models of interstellar grains.

  3. The metals-to-dust ratio to very low metallicities using GRB and QSO absorbers; extremely rapid dust formation

    CERN Document Server

    Zafar, Tayyaba

    2013-01-01

    Among the key parameters defining the ISM of galaxies is the fraction of the metals that are locked up in dust: the metals-to-dust ratio. This ratio bears not only on the ISM and its evolution, but particularly on the origin of cosmic dust. We combine extinction and abundance data from GRB afterglows, from QSO absorbers, as well as from galaxy-lensed QSOs, to determine the metals-to-dust ratios for lines-of-sight through a wide diversity of galaxies from blue, dwarf starbursts to massive ellipticals, across a vast range in redshift z=0.1-6.3, and nearly three orders of magnitude in column density and metal abundance. We thus determine the metals-to-dust ratio in a unique way, providing direct determinations of in situ gas and dust columns without recourse to assumptions with large uncertainties. We find that the metals-to-dust ratios in these systems are surprisingly close to the value for the local group (10^{21.3} cm-2 A_V mag-1), with a mean value of 10^{21.2} cm-2 A_V mag-1 and a standard deviation of 0.3...

  4. 42 CFR 84.1142 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory protection against dusts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... designed for respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less... Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas... dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05 milligram per cubic meter,...

  5. The Impact of Dust Evolution and Photoevaporation on Disk Dispersal

    CERN Document Server

    Gorti, Uma; Dullemond, Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    Protoplanetary disks are dispersed by viscous evolution and photoevaporation in a few million years; in the interim small, sub-micron sized dust grains must grow and form planets. The time-varying abundance of small grains in an evolving disk directly affects gas heating by far-ultraviolet photons, while dust evolution affects photoevaporation by changing the disk opacity and resulting penetration of FUV photons in the disk. Photoevaporative flows, in turn, selectively carry small dust grains leaving the larger particles---which decouple from the gas---behind in the disk. We study these effects by investigating the evolution of a disk subject to viscosity, photoevaporation by EUV, FUV and X-rays, dust evolution, and radial drift using a 1-D multi-fluid approach (gas + different dust grain sizes) to solve for the evolving surface density distributions. The 1-D evolution is augmented by 1+1D models constructed at each epoch to obtain the instantaneous disk structure and determine photoevaporation rates. The imp...

  6. Dust arising during steelmaking processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Popielska-Ostrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper describes the dust arising during steelmaking processes.Design/methodology/approach: Steelmaking dusts may be a viable alternative for obtaining valuable and widely used metal which is zinc. On the other hand, heavy metals, it was as dangerous to the environment, and this in turn means that development of steelmaking dusts in the best possible way.Findings: The analysis of the formation of steelmaking dust.Research limitations/implications: Understanding the mechanism of steelmaking dusts will help to increase the participation of zinc recycling from wastes.Practical implications: Contained zinc in the dust can be recovered from the positive economic effect, and neutralization of hazardous waste to the desired environmental effect.Originality/value: Description of the mechanism of steelmaking dust, with particular emphasis on the distribution of zinc. The information is very important in the development of metal recovery technology from waste.

  7. A BIOPHYSIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SETTLED LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY HOUSING DUSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carresse Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels and composition of agricultural dusts are influenced by animal species, production strategy, housing type and ventilation efficiency. Agricultural dust within animal houses is complex and consists of feed particles, microbes and their products, dander, fecal matter, gases, metals and other organic and inorganic components. Livestock and poultry production facilities may be categorized as confinement, semi-confinement or pasture-based. Characterization of animal husbandry building dust will provide insight into understanding exposures experienced by animals, workers and farm visitors. The goal was to characterize biophysiochemical features of livestock dusts from swine, small ruminant, equine, poultry and cattle husbandry units. Settled dust samples were collected from livestock and poultry housing units at the University Farm and other livestock farms across the state. Morphological features were determined by electron microscopy and gravimetry. Biochemical evaluation consisted of pH determination and trace metal detection via mass spectrometry. Biological assessment centered on bacterial characterization via selective media, DNA analysis and endotoxin quantitation. Morphological analyses revealed higher levels of respirable and thoracic particles in poultry, swine, small ruminant and equine units compared to the dairy unit (p<0.01. Dusts were slightly acidic with the exception of the NCAT small ruminant unit (p<0.05. Dust endotoxin levels were consistent and bacterial species detected include Listeria and Escherichia coli. These findings suggest animal husbandry buildings harbor higher levels of smaller respirable and thoracic dust particles compared to inhalable particles. This information may be helpful in understanding dust exposures experienced by animals, farmers and agricultural workers.

  8. Fluffy dust forms icy planetesimals by static compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Akimasa; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Okuzumi, Satoshi; Wada, Koji

    2013-09-01

    Context. Several barriers have been proposed in planetesimal formation theory: bouncing, fragmentation, and radial drift problems. Understanding the structure evolution of dust aggregates is a key in planetesimal formation. Dust grains become fluffy by coagulation in protoplanetary disks. However, once they are fluffy, they are not sufficiently compressed by collisional compression to form compact planetesimals. Aims: We aim to reveal the pathway of dust structure evolution from dust grains to compact planetesimals. Methods: Using the compressive strength formula, we analytically investigate how fluffy dust aggregates are compressed by static compression due to ram pressure of the disk gas and self-gravity of the aggregates in protoplanetary disks. Results: We reveal the pathway of the porosity evolution from dust grains via fluffy aggregates to form planetesimals, circumventing the barriers in planetesimal formation. The aggregates are compressed by the disk gas to a density of 10-3 g/cm3 in coagulation, which is more compact than is the case with collisional compression. Then, they are compressed more by self-gravity to 10-1 g/cm3 when the radius is 10 km. Although the gas compression decelerates the growth, the aggregates grow rapidly enough to avoid the radial drift barrier when the orbital radius is ≲6 AU in a typical disk. Conclusions: We propose a fluffy dust growth scenario from grains to planetesimals. It enables icy planetesimal formation in a wide range beyond the snowline in protoplanetary disks. This result proposes a concrete initial condition of planetesimals for the later stages of the planet formation.

  9. Saharan Dust, Transport Processes, and Possible Impacts on Hurricane Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present observational evidence of significant relationships between Saharan dust outbreak, and African Easterly wave activities and hurricane activities. We found two dominant paths of transport of Saharan dust: a northern path, centered at 25degN associated with eastward propagating 6-19 days waves over northern Africa, and a southern path centered at 15degN, associated with the AEW, and the Atlantic ITCZ. Seasons with stronger dust outbreak from the southern path are associated with a drier atmosphere over the Maximum Development Region (MDR) and reduction in tropical cyclone and hurricane activities in the MDR. Seasons with stronger outbreak from the northern path are associated with a cooler N. Atlantic, and suppressed hurricane in the western Atlantic basin.

  10. Effects of mineral dust on global atmospheric nitrate concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karydis, V. A.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Pozzer, A.; Astitha, M.; Lelieveld, J.

    2016-02-01

    This study assesses the chemical composition and global aerosol load of the major inorganic aerosol components, focusing on mineral dust and aerosol nitrate. The mineral dust aerosol components (i.e., Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+) and their emissions are included in the ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry model (EMAC). Gas/aerosol partitioning is simulated using the ISORROPIA-II thermodynamic equilibrium model that considers K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, Na+, SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, and H2O aerosol components. Emissions of mineral dust are calculated online by taking into account the soil particle size distribution and chemical composition of different deserts worldwide. Presence of metallic ions can substantially affect the nitrate partitioning into the aerosol phase due to thermodynamic interactions. The model simulates highest fine aerosol nitrate concentration over urban and industrialized areas (1-3 µg m-3), while coarse aerosol nitrate is highest close to deserts (1-4 µg m-3). The influence of mineral dust on nitrate formation extends across southern Europe, western USA, and northeastern China. The tropospheric burden of aerosol nitrate increases by 44 % when considering interactions of nitrate with mineral dust. The calculated global average nitrate aerosol concentration near the surface increases by 36 %, while the coarse- and fine-mode concentrations of nitrate increase by 53 and 21 %, respectively. Other inorganic aerosol components are affected by reactive dust components as well (e.g., the tropospheric burden of chloride increases by 9 %, ammonium decreases by 41 %, and sulfate increases by 7 %). Sensitivity tests show that nitrate aerosol is most sensitive to the chemical composition of the emitted mineral dust, followed by the soil size distribution of dust particles, the magnitude of the mineral dust emissions, and the aerosol state assumption.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: DUST SUPPRESSANT PRODUCTS: NORTH AMERICAN SALT COMPANY'S DUSTGARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust suppressant products used to control particulate emissions from unpaved roads are among the technologies evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center, part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification (ET...

  12. Statistical guidance on seasonal forecast of Korean dust days over South Korea in the springtime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Keon Tae

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to develop the seasonal forecast models of Korean dust days over South Korea in the springtime. Forecast mode was a ternary forecast (below normal, normal, above normal) which was classified based on the mean and the standard deviation of Korean dust days for a period of 30 years (1981-2010). In this study, we used three kinds of monthly data: the Korean dust days observed in South Korea, the National Center for Environmental Prediction in National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis data for meteorological factors over source regions of Asian dust, and the large-scale climate indices offered from the Climate Diagnostic Center and Climate Prediction Center in NOAA. Forecast guidance consisted of two components; ordinal logistic regression model to generate trinomial distributions, and conversion algorithm to generate ternary forecast by two thresholds. Forecast guidance was proposed for each month separately and its predictability was evaluated based on skill scores.

  13. Dust cloud lightning in extraterrestrial atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane; Diver, Declan; Witte, Soeren

    2012-01-01

    Lightning is present in all solar system planets which form clouds in their atmospheres. Cloud formation outside our solar system is possible in objects with much higher temperatures than on Earth or on Jupiter: Brown dwarfs and giant extrasolar gas planets form clouds made of mixed materials and a large spectrum of grain sizes. These clouds are globally neutral obeying dust-gas charge equilibrium which is, on short timescales, inconsistent with the observation of stochastic ionization events of the solar system planets. We argue that a significant volume of the clouds in brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets is susceptible to local discharge events and that the upper cloud layers are most suitable for powerful lightning-like discharge events. We discuss various sources of atmospheric ionisation, including thermal ionisation and a first estimate of ionisation by cosmic rays, and argue that we should expect thunderstorms also in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and giant gas planets which contain mineral clouds.

  14. On the Outer Edges of Protoplanetary Dust Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Birnstiel, Tilman

    2013-01-01

    The expectation that aerodynamic drag will force the solids in a gas-rich protoplanetary disk to spiral in toward the host star on short timescales is one of the fundamental problems in planet formation theory. The nominal efficiency of this radial drift process is in conflict with observations, suggesting that an empirical calibration of solid transport mechanisms in a disk is highly desirable. However, the fact that both radial drift and grain growth produce a similar particle size segregation in a disk (such that larger particles are preferentially concentrated closer to the star) makes it difficult to disentangle a clear signature of drift alone. We highlight a new approach, by showing that radial drift leaves a distinctive "fingerprint" in the dust surface density profile that is directly accessible to current observational facilities. Using an analytical framework for dust evolution, we demonstrate that the combined effects of drift and (viscous) gas drag naturally produce a sharp outer edge in the dust...

  15. Accreting planets as dust dams in `transition' discs

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, James E

    2014-01-01

    We investigate under what circumstances an embedded planet in a protoplanetary disc may sculpt the dust distribution such that it observationally presents as a `transition' disc. We concern ourselves with `transition' discs that have large holes ($\\gtrsim 10$ AU) and high accretion rates ($\\sim 10^{-9}-10^{-8}$ M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$). Particularly, those discs which photoevaporative models struggle to explain. Assuming the standard picture for how massive planets sculpt their parent discs, along with the observed accretion rates in `transition' discs, we find that the accretion luminosity from the forming planet is significant, and can dominate over the stellar luminosity at the gap edge. This planetary accretion luminosity can apply a significant radiation pressure to small ($s\\lesssim 1\\mu$m) dust particles provided they are suitably decoupled from the gas. Secular evolution calculations that account for the evolution of the gas and dust components in a disc with an embedded, accreting planet, show that only ...

  16. Dust storm, northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    This large dust storm along the left side of the photo, covers a large portion of the state of Coahuila, Mexico (27.5N, 102.0E). The look angle of this oblique photo is from the south to the north. In the foreground is the Sierra Madre Oriental in the states Coahuila and Nuevo Leon with the Rio Grande River, Amistad Reservoir and Texas in the background.

  17. Transport of Dust Particles in Tokamak Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigarov, A Y; Smirnov, R D; Krasheninnikov, S I; Rognlien, T D; Rozenberg, M

    2006-06-06

    Recent advances in the dust transport modeling in tokamak devices are discussed. Topics include: (1) physical model for dust transport; (2) modeling results on dynamics of dust particles in plasma; (3) conditions necessary for particle growth in plasma; (4) dust spreading over the tokamak; (5) density profiles for dust particles and impurity atoms associated with dust ablation in tokamak plasma; and (6) roles of dust in material/tritium migration.

  18. Planetesimal Formation by Gravitational Instability of a Porous-Dust Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Michikoshi, Shugo

    2016-01-01

    Recently it is proposed that porous icy dust aggregates are formed by pairwise accretion of dust aggregates beyond the snowline. We calculate the equilibrium random velocity of porous dust aggregates taking into account mutual gravitational scattering, collisions, gas drag, and turbulent stirring and scattering. We find that the disk of porous dust aggregates becomes gravitationally unstable as they evolve through gravitational compression in the minimum-mass solar nebula model for a reasonable range of turbulence strength, which leads to rapid formation of planetesimals.

  19. Nebular and Stellar Dust Extinction Across the Disk of Emission-Line Galaxies on Small (KPC) Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Darvish, Behnam; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Sobral, David; Miller, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    We investigate resolved kpc-scale stellar and nebular dust distribution in eight star-forming galaxies at z~0.4 in the GOODS fields. Constructing the observed Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) per pixel, based on seven bands photometric data from HST/ACS and WFC3, we performed pixel-by-pixel SED fits to population synthesis models and estimated small-scale distribution of stellar dust extinction. We use Halpha / Hbeta nebular emission line ratios from Keck/DEIMOS high resolution spectra at each spatial resolution element to measure the amount of attenuation faced by ionized gas at different radii from the center of galaxies. We find a good agreement between the integrated and median of resolved color excess measurements in our galaxies. The ratio of integrated nebular to stellar dust extinction is always greater than unity, but does not show any trend with stellar mass or star formation rate. We find that inclination plays an important role in the variation of the nebular to stellar excess ratio. The stell...

  20. The remarkable warped and twisted gas disk in NGC 3718

    CERN Document Server

    Sparke, Linda S; Schwarz, Ulrich J; Vogelaar, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We have mapped NGC 3718, a nearby bright galaxy in a loose group, and its companion NGC 3729 in the 21cm line of neutral hydrogen. NGC 3718 is a strikingly unusual galaxy with a strong straight dust lane across the center, peculiar diffuse spiral arms, and an extended disk of neutral hydrogen. Earlier work showed the gas disk to be strongly twisted, warping through edge-on where we see the straight dust lane; stars formed in this gas appear to make up the 'spiral arms'. Our improved maps show a twisted but bisymmetric disk of gas extending to 7arcmin or 35kpc, where the orbital period is roughly 1Gyr. It is surrounded by fragmentary spiral features, and a streamer of gas extending to a cloud lying 12arcmin or 60kpc to the north. We use INSPECTOR, a task in GIPSY, to fit a tilted-ring model interactively to slices through the HI data cube. The apparent major axis swings through 100 degrees from the innermost gas orbits at 30arcsec radius to the outer edge. When viewed in the reference frame of the galaxy's ste...

  1. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, N. G.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health

  2. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health.

  3. Knudsen cell: Investigations about the uptake of important traces gases on ambient airborne mineral dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Sabrina; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2013-04-01

    Mineral dust constitutes one of the largest mass fractions of natural aerosol. Its emission is estimated between 800 - 2000 Tg/a]. The dust is emitted through sand and dust storms in the arid regions of our planet, in particular by the great desserts such as the Sahara. The complex chemical composition of mineral dust is similar to crust material, because the dust is produced by soil erosion. The main components of mineral dust are SiO2 and Al2O3, whereas the active oxides (Fe2O3, TiO2) show some variety in content due to the dust source region. Mineral dust particles can be transported over several 1000 km and during its transport the surface can be changed by the uptake of water vapor and trace gases. On such modified surfaces homo- and heterogeneous reactions can occur. Trace gas uptakes play an important role in atmospheric chemistry as sinks or sources for several gaseous species. Hence, it is necessary to study these reactions. Among several experimental setups, the Knudsen cell is one of the promising tools to study reactive uptakes from the gas phase and the release of products formed by dust surface-mediated reactions. The Knudsen cell, implemented by Golden et al. in 1975, is a high vacuum flow reactor operating under molecular flow conditions, i.e., gas-wall collisions are highly preferred over gas-gas collisions. Despite several Knudsen cell studies examining the reaction between different traces gases and model dust surfaces constituted of not more than a few components, no measurements utilizing collected ambient mineral dust are done so far. For a better understanding of the chemistry on mineral dust surfaces gas uptake measurements will be done with a Knudsen cell. The first measurements are done with isopropanol on TiO2. Afterwards there are studies with different substrates like, Al2O3 (α- and γ-phase), FeO2, Arizona test dust, air collected mineral dust from the Cap Verde islands. In the beginning SO2, NO2 and HNO3 will be used.

  4. Monitoring of airborne radioactivity (radon, thoron and daughters; radioactive dust)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes resulting in airborne radioactivity from uranium and thorium ores are discussed. Measurement methods for radioactive dust, radon and thoron gas and radon and thoron daughters are described and assessed. The monitoring equipment required for measurement of airborne radioactivity is described

  5. Simulation on dissolute and dust dispersion in comprehensive mechanized heading face with forced-exhaust ventilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Wen; CHENG Wei-min; HAN Li; ZHOU Sheng-ju; YU Yan-bin; ZHAO Shan-shan

    2011-01-01

    According to the characteristics of comprehensive mechanized heading face,established the mathematical model of single-phase air flow with k-e two equations model,and have established k-e-(O)-kp mathematic model to solve two-phase flow of gas and particles in dust space with eulefian-eulerian method and eulerian-lagrangian method.Numerical solution of gas-particle two-phase flow was put forward based on collocated grid SIMPLE algorithm.Moreover,numerical simulation of dust concentration in fully mechanized caving face was carried out by using Fluent software.Finally,when in forced-exhaust ventilation circumstance,drawer type fan drum have less dust absorption,and most of dust spread to the other site; the dust concentration is inversely proportional to the distance from tunneling head,and the dust concentration has already diffused to decrease below 102 mg/m3 at the position ofx=12 m.Dust are more focused on relative side(in the range about y from 0 to 2 meter) of roadway space of press-ventilated fan drum,especially between tunneling place and drawer type fan drum; the roadway with road header have a higher dust concentration.These conclusions provide reliable theory basis for the dust prevention in comprehensive mechanized heading face.

  6. Composition, structure, and chemistry of interstellar dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Allamandola, L. J.

    1987-01-01

    Different dust components present in the interstellar medium (IM) such as amorphous carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and those IM components which are organic refractory grains and icy grain mantles are discussed as well as their relative importance. The physical properties of grain surface chemistry are discussed with attention given to the surface structure of materials, the adsorption energy and residence time of species on a grain surface, and the sticking probability. Consideration is also given to the contribution of grains to the gas-phase composition of molecular clouds.

  7. Prevailing dust-transport directions on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Dust transport and deposition behind larger boulders on the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G) have been observed by the Rosetta mission. We present a mechanism for dust transport vectors based on a homogenous surface activity model incorporating in detail the topography of 67P/C-G. The combination of gravitation, gas drag, and Coriolis force leads to specific dust transfer pathways, which for higher dust velocities fuel the near nucleus coma. By distributing dust sources homogeneously across the whole cometary surface, we derive a global dust-transport map of 67P/C-G. The transport vectors are in agreement with the reported wind-tail directions in the Philae descent area.

  8. Temperature measurement of a dust particle in a RF plasma GEC reference cell

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, Jie; Matthews, Lorin S; Hyde, Truell W

    2016-01-01

    The thermal motion of a dust particle levitated in a plasma chamber is similar to that described by Brownian motion in many ways. The primary differences between a dust particle in a plasma system and a free Brownian particle is that in addition to the random collisions between the dust particle and the neutral gas atoms, there are electric field fluctuations, dust charge fluctuations, and correlated motions from the unwanted continuous signals originating within the plasma system itself. This last contribution does not include random motion and is therefore separable from the random motion in a normal temperature measurement. In this paper, we discuss how to separate random and coherent motion of a dust particle confined in a glass box in a Gaseous Electronic Conference radio frequency reference cell employing experimentally determined dust particle fluctuation data analyzed using the mean square displacement technique.

  9. PREVAILING DUST-TRANSPORT DIRECTIONS ON COMET 67P/CHURYUMOV–GERASIMENKO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Tobias; Noack, Matthias [Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik, Takustrasse 7, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-11-10

    Dust transport and deposition behind larger boulders on the comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko (67P/C–G) have been observed by the Rosetta mission. We present a mechanism for dust-transport vectors based on a homogeneous surface activity model incorporating in detail the topography of 67P/C–G. The combination of gravitation, gas drag, and Coriolis force leads to specific dust transfer pathways, which for higher dust velocities fuel the near-nucleus coma. By distributing dust sources homogeneously across the whole cometary surface, we derive a global dust-transport map of 67P/C–G. The transport vectors are in agreement with the reported wind-tail directions in the Philae descent area.

  10. Solar Heating of Suspended Particles and the Dynamics of Martian Dust Devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerstenau, Stephen D.

    2006-01-01

    The heat input to Martian dust devils due to solar warming of suspended particles is assessed based on a prior estimate of dust loading and from an analysis of shadows cast by dust devils in images taken from orbit. Estimated values for solar heating range from 0.12 to 0.57 W/m3 with associated temperature increases of 0.011 to 0.051(deg)C per second. These warming rates are comparable to the adiabatic cooling rate expected for a gas parcel rising on Mars with a vertical velocity of 10 m/s. Solar warming of suspended dust serves to maintain buoyancy in a rising dust plume and may be one cause for the large scale of dust devils observed on Mars.

  11. Lidar Measurements for Desert Dust Characterization: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of light detection and ranging (lidar capability for describing and characterizing desert dust. This paper summarizes lidar techniques, observations, and fallouts of desert dust lidar measurements. The main objective is to provide the scientific community, including nonpractitioners of lidar observations with a reference paper on dust lidar measurements. In particular, it will fill the current gap of communication between research-oriented lidar community and potential desert dust data users, such as air quality monitoring agencies and aviation advisory centers. The current capability of the different lidar techniques for the characterization of aerosol in general and desert dust in particular is presented. Technical aspects and required assumptions of these techniques are discussed, providing readers with the pros and cons of each technique. Information about desert dust collected up to date using lidar techniques is reviewed. Lidar techniques for aerosol characterization have a maturity level appropriate for addressing air quality and transportation issues, as demonstrated by some first results reported in this paper.

  12. Resuspension of particulate matter and PAHs from street dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martuzevicius, D.; Kliucininkas, L.; Prasauskas, T.; Krugly, E.; Kauneliene, V.; Strandberg, B.

    2011-01-01

    Winter street sanding activities in northern countries are often associated with elevated pollution by particulate matter. There are indications that street dust may act as a source of particle-bound PAHs. However, very few studies have addressed the resuspension potential of PAHs from street dust. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess emissions of particulate matter and PAHs from street dust by laboratory-scale simulation of particle resuspension. Increases in air velocity caused proportional increases in air-borne PM 2.5, PM 10 and PM total concentrations, while the concentrations of PAHs associated with resuspended particles did not show clear statistically significant dependence on air velocity. A substantial difference in particle and PAH resuspension was observed between dust from the city center street and dust from the connecting street. The data obtained in the present study indicate that street dust may be a significant source not only of PMs but also of particle-bound PAHs in ambient air.

  13. Collisional Grooming Models of the Kuiper Belt Dust Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchner, Marc J

    2010-01-01

    We modeled the 3-D structure of the Kuiper Belt dust cloud at four different dust production rates, incorporating both planet-dust interactions and grain-grain collisions using the collisional grooming algorithm. Simulated images of a model with a face-on optical depth of ~10^-4 primarily show an azimuthally-symmetric ring at 40-47 AU in submillimeter and infrared wavelengths; this ring is associated with the cold classical Kuiper Belt. For models with lower optical depths (10^-6 and 10^-7), synthetic infrared images show that the ring widens and a gap opens in the ring at the location of of Neptune; this feature is caused by trapping of dust grains in Neptune's mean motion resonances. At low optical depths, a secondary ring also appears associated with the hole cleared in the center of the disk by Saturn. Our simulations, which incorporate 25 different grain sizes, illustrate that grain-grain collisions are important in sculpting today's Kuiper Belt dust, and probably other aspects of the Solar System dust c...

  14. 42 CFR 84.1152 - Silica dust loading test; respirators designed as protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05 milligram per...; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1152... air contamination level less than 0.05 milligram per cubic meter and against radionuclides;...

  15. Formation of Cosmic Dust Bunnies

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Lorin S.; Hayes, Ryan L.; Freed, Michael S.; Hyde, Truell W.

    2007-01-01

    Planetary formation is an efficient process now thought to take place on a relatively short astronomical time scale. Recent observations have shown that the dust surrounding a protostar emits more efficiently at longer wavelengths as the protoplanetary disk evolves, suggesting that the dust particles are coagulating into fluffy aggregates, "much as dust bunnies form under a bed." One poorly understood problem in this coagulation process is the manner in which micron-sized, charged grains form...

  16. MODELING DUST EMISSION OF HL TAU DISK BASED ON PLANET–DISK INTERACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Sheng; Ji, Jianghui [Key Laboratory of Planetary Sciences, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Li, Shengtai; Li, Hui [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Isella, Andrea [Rice University, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-02-10

    We use extensive global two-dimensional hydrodynamic disk gas+dust simulations with embedded planets, coupled with three-dimensional radiative transfer calculations, to model the dust ring and gap structures in the HL Tau protoplanetary disk observed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). We include the self-gravity of disk gas and dust components and make reasonable choices of disk parameters, assuming an already settled dust distribution and no planet migration. We can obtain quite adequate fits to the observed dust emission using three planets with masses of 0.35, 0.17, and 0.26 M{sub Jup} at 13.1, 33.0, and 68.6 AU, respectively. Implications for the planet formation as well as the limitations of this scenario are discussed.

  17. Ring shaped dust accumulation in transition disks

    CERN Document Server

    Pinilla, P; Birnstiel, T

    2012-01-01

    Context.Transition disks are believed to be the final stages of protoplanetary disks, during which a forming planetary system or photoevaporation processes open a gap in the inner disk, drastically changing the disk structure. From theoretical arguments it is expected that dust growth, fragmentation and radial drift are strongly influenced by gas disk structure, and pressure bumps in disks have been suggested as key features that may allow grains to converge and grow efficiently. Aims. We want to study how the presence of a large planet in a disk influences the growth and radial distribution of dust grains, and how observable properties are linked to the mass of the planet. Methods. We combine two-dimensional hydrodynamical disk simulations of disk-planet interactions with state-of-the-art coagulation/fragmentation models to simulate the evolution of dust in a disk which has a gap created by a massive planet. We compute images at different wavelengths and illustrate our results using the example of the transi...

  18. Dust reddening in star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Ting; Wang, Huiyuan; Zhou, Hongyan; Lu, HongLin; Dong, Xiaobo

    2011-01-01

    We present empirical relations between the global dust reddening and other physical galaxy properties including the Halpha luminosity, Halpha surface brightness, metallicity and axial ratio for star-forming disc galaxies. The study is based on a large sample of ~22 000 well-defined star-forming galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The reddening parameterized by color excess E(B-V) is derived from the Balmer decrement. Besides the dependency of reddening on Halpha luminosity / surface brightness and gas phase metallicity, it is also correlated with the galaxy inclination, in the sense that edge-on galaxies are more attenuated than face-on galaxies at a give intrinsic luminosity. In light of these correlations, we present the empirical formulae of E(B-V) as a function of these galaxy properties, with a scatter of only 0.07 mag. The empirical relation can be reproduced if most dust attenuation to the HII region is due to diffuse background dust distributing in a disc thicker than that of H...

  19. The dust mass in z > 6 normal star forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Mattia; Graziani, Luca; Valiante, Rosa; Dayal, Pratika; Maio, Umberto; Ciardi, Benedetta; Hunt, Leslie K

    2015-01-01

    We interpret recent ALMA observations of z > 6 normal star forming galaxies by means of a semi-numerical method, which couples the output of a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation with a chemical evolution model which accounts for the contribution to dust enrichment from supernovae, asymptotic giant branch stars and grain growth in the interstellar medium. We find that while stellar sources dominate the dust mass of small galaxies, the higher level of metal enrichment experienced by galaxies with Mstar > 10^9 Msun allows efficient grain growth, which provides the dominant contribution to the dust mass. Even assuming maximally efficient supernova dust production, the observed dust mass of the z = 7.5 galaxy A1689-zD1 requires very efficient grain growth. This, in turn, implies that in this galaxy the average density of the cold and dense gas, where grain growth occurs, is comparable to that inferred from observations of QSO host galaxies at similar redshifts. Although plausible, the upper limits on the dust ...

  20. HTGR Dust Safety Issues and Needs for Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul W. Humrickhouse

    2011-06-01

    This report presents a summary of high temperature gas-cooled reactor dust safety issues. It draws upon a literature review and the proceedings of the Very High Temperature Reactor Dust Assessment Meeting held in Rockville, MD in March 2011 to identify and prioritize the phenomena and issues that characterize the effect of carbonaceous dust on high temperature reactor safety. It reflects the work and input of approximately 40 participants from the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Labs, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, industry, academia, and international nuclear research organizations on the topics of dust generation and characterization, transport, fission product interactions, and chemical reactions. The meeting was organized by the Idaho National Laboratory under the auspices of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project, with support from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Information gleaned from the report and related meetings will be used to enhance the fuel, graphite, and methods technical program plans that guide research and development under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. Based on meeting discussions and presentations, major research and development needs include: generating adsorption isotherms for fission products that display an affinity for dust, investigating the formation and properties of carbonaceous crust on the inside of high temperature reactor coolant pipes, and confirming the predominant source of dust as abrasion between fuel spheres and the fuel handling system.