WorldWideScience

Sample records for center coverage area

  1. The Maximum Coverage Set Calculated Algorithm for WSN Area Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin He

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Coverage Control Technology is one of the basic technologies of wireless sensor network, and is mainly concerned about how to prolong the network lifetime on the basis of meeting users’ perception demand. Among this, in the study of area coverage, the set K-cover algorithm is broadly accepted because that it can prolong network lifetime rather well. However, maximum set covers problem is proved to be NP-Complete. At the same time, the existing set K-cover algorithms are centralized, and can not adapt to the large-scale sensor network applications and expansion. So, how to get the maximum coverage set number and realize node set division by distributed algorithm is becoming the problem of people attention. Thus, this paper firstly utilizes node minimum layer overlapping subfield to find out area minimum coverage value, as the upper limit of coverage node set’s number. On the basis of this maximum, it put forward to way of dividing node set. Secondly, the maximum coverage set number calculated algorithm is proposed. Simulation result shows the distributed algorithm MCNCA is very effective.

  2. Vamp trademark coverage area for personnel protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VAMP trademark Area Radiation Monitors, in addition to functioning as radiation monitors for process upsets, as required by the OSR, provide monitoring in order to detect and alarm increasing radiation for the purpose of controlling exposure of personnel to radiation. Operational Safety Requirements (DPW-86-103) requires that area radiation monitors be provided in the vicinity of all waste tanks to ensure safe operation. The current location of area radiation monitors provide the coverage required by the OSR criteria and, with few exceptions, these monitors also provide the necessary coverage for personnel protection. The exceptions to the coverage for personnel protection are listed along with the proposed action to bring the facility into compliance with the DOE Radiological Manual. The exceptions are based upon the assumptions, which HLWE believes are conservative, used to develop the coverage maps generated by Health Physics Technology (HPT). No change to the 9B5 Manual reporting criteria relating to area radiation monitors is required. No change to transfer procedures to provide additional VAMP coverage for personnel protection is required for a source term greater than assumed in this report. It is expected that this Technical Report will provide the basis for future assessment when changes to the facility are initiated

  3. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Wirth

    Full Text Available Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana.

  4. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, James P; Leyvraz, Magali; Sodani, Prahlad R; Aaron, Grant J; Sharma, Narottam D; Woodruff, Bradley A

    2016-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana. PMID:27447925

  5. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, James P.; Leyvraz, Magali; Sodani, Prahlad R.; Aaron, Grant J.; Sharma, Narottam D.; Woodruff, Bradley A.

    2016-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0–35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana’s rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana’s anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana’s public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana. PMID:27447925

  6. Multi-robot formations for area coverage in space applications

    OpenAIRE

    Leitner, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents two algorithmic implementations of multi-robot formation control for the area coverage problem. It uses a space exploration scenario, with a marsupial robot society, for tasks like mapping, habitat construction, etc. The solutions are though applicable to a wider range of applications, since area coverage is seen as one of the canonical problems in multi-robot application. Starting with an overview of multi-robot systems in space applications, both currently in use a...

  7. Area coverage of radial Levy flights with periodic boundary conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Vahabi, Mahsa; Schulz, Johannes H. P.; Shokri, Babak; Metzler, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    We consider the time evolution of two-dimensional Levy flights in a finite area with periodic boundary conditions. From simulations we show that the fractal path dimension d_f and thus the degree of area coverage grows in time until it reaches the saturation value d_f=2 at sufficiently long times. We also investigate the time evolution of the probability density function and associated moments in these boundary conditions. Finally we consider the mean first passage time as function of the sta...

  8. Obstacle Constrained Total Area Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    M, Shyam

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the accomplishment of total area coverage of an arbitrary region using sensors with a finite sensing radius of rs. For a given region, we aim to obtain a deterministic placement of sensors which, apart from ensuring that the entire region comes under the purview of at least a single sensor, minimises the number of sensors utilised. We begin by considering regions devoid of obstacles and thus having every location amenable for placement. Herein, we formalise the popular notion that sensors at the centres of the hexagons of a hexagonal tessellation provide the most optimal placement. We then move on to regions which may comprise obstacles of arbitrary size at arbitrary locations. We recognise two distinct classes of obstacles, namely transparent and opaque obstacles, which are distinguished by their ability (or the lack of it) to permit sensing radiation through them. In the real world, transparent obstacles model lakes, ponds and swamps, while the opaque ones stand for, inter alia, hills,...

  9. Progress towards the Conventionon Biological Diversity terrestrial2010 and marine 2012 targets forprotected area coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coad, Lauren; Burgess, Neil David; Fish, Lucy;

    2010-01-01

    Protected area coverage targets set by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) for both terrestrial and marine environments provide a major incentive for governments to review and upgrade their protected area systems. Assessing progress towards these targets will form an important component of...... the work of the Xth CBD Conference of Parties meeting to be held in Japan in 2010. The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) is the largest assembly of data on the world's terrestrial and marine protected areas and, as such, represents a fundamental tool in tracking progress towards protected area...... coverage targets. National protected areas data from the WDPA have been used to measure progress in protected areas coverage at global, regional and national scale. The mean protected area coverage per nation was 12.2% for terrestrial area, and only 5.1% for near-shore marine area. Variation in protected...

  10. Multifunctional centers in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2009-01-01

    In the Nordic welfare states (Island, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark), an important principle has hitherto been to allow all citizens access to the same high-quality public services - independent of whether they live in urban or rural areas. In Denmark, however, this principle is gradually bein...... learning. Also that the stock of beneficial bridging social capital thus created actually contributes to attract newcomers and counteract depopulation....

  11. Energy-efficient area coverage for intruder detection in sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    He, Shibo; Li, Junkun

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief presents recent research results on area coverage for intruder detection from an energy-efficient perspective. These results cover a variety of topics, including environmental surveillance and security monitoring. The authors also provide the background and range of applications for area coverage and elaborate on system models such as the formal definition of area coverage and sensing models. Several chapters focus on energy-efficient intruder detection and intruder trapping under the well-known binary sensing model, along with intruder trapping under the probabilistic sens

  12. Sensor-driven area coverage for an autonomous fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, Liam; Thibault, Carl; Nagaty, Amr; Seto, Mae; Li, Howard

    2014-09-01

    Area coverage with an onboard sensor is an important task for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with many applications. Autonomous fixed-wing UAVs are more appropriate for larger scale area surveying since they can cover ground more quickly. However, their non-holonomic dynamics and susceptibility to disturbances make sensor coverage a challenging task. Most previous approaches to area coverage planning are offline and assume that the UAV can follow the planned trajectory exactly. In this paper, this restriction is removed as the aircraft maintains a coverage map based on its actual pose trajectory and makes control decisions based on that map. The aircraft is able to plan paths in situ based on sensor data and an accurate model of the on-board camera used for coverage. An information theoretic approach is used that selects desired headings that maximize the expected information gain over the coverage map. In addition, the branch entropy concept previously developed for autonomous underwater vehicles is extended to UAVs and ensures that the vehicle is able to achieve its global coverage mission. The coverage map over the workspace uses the projective camera model and compares the expected area of the target on the ground and the actual area covered on the ground by each pixel in the image. The camera is mounted on a two-axis gimbal and can either be stabilized or optimized for maximal coverage. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation results and real hardware implementation on a fixed-wing UAV show the effectiveness of the approach. By including the already developed automatic takeoff and landing capabilities, we now have a fully automated and robust platform for performing aerial imagery surveys. PMID:25137689

  13. Optimal Coverage Level Choice with Individual and Area Plans of Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Bulut, Harun; Collins, Keith J.; Zacharias, Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    We theoretically examine a farmer’s coverage demand with area and individual insurance plans as either separate or integrated options. The individual and area losses are assumed to be imperfectly and positively correlated. With actuarially fair rates, the farmer will fully insure with the individual plan and demand no area insurance regardless of the plans being separate or integrated. Under separate plans, free area insurance and the fair rate for individual insurance, area insurance replace...

  14. The Effectiveness of Education Based on BASNEF Model Program in Promotion of Preventive Behavior of Leishmaniasis among Health Workers and Families under Health Centers Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khani Jeihooni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Intervention of educational training in order to prevent the leishmaniasis in endemic areas seems necessary. This study was implemented with the aim of assessing the effectiveness of education based on BASNEF Model program in promotion of preventive behavior of leishmaniasis among Health workers and families under the coverage of Health centers. Materials & Methods: An intervention study was carried out in rural health centers during 2009. Questionnaires were completed by 20 health- workers of two rural health centers. Also 20 families under the coverage of this health centers were randomly selected to complete the questionnaire. Then four training sessions for health workers and 2 training sessions for the influential individuals were conducted to increase the enabling factors and solving their problems, weekly meetings was held with health workers representatives. After three months of health workers training the data were collected again and analyzed via Chi- Square, T Independent, T pair, Regression and Mann- Whitney statistics. Results: The mean score for to knowledge, attitude, behavior intension, enabling factors and health workers behaviors significantly increased after educational intervention in experimental group and influential individuals. The mean scores for knowledge, attitude, behavior intension, enabling factors and the behavior of attendant families under coverage also increased significantly. Conclusion: Educational program of BASNEF Model, leads to behavior change of health workers and eventually their training behavior leads to preventive actions in families under coverage.

  15. 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas, Master coverage of "atom" features used as a source to generate several derivative layers for the Sheriff RMS and E-911 map rolls. Cover is painstakingly maintained interactively by GIS staff. All atom boundaries are snapped to the road centerline cover, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County, Kansas.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of...

  16. Minimization of Handoff Failure by Introducing a New Cell Coverage Area in the Handoff Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabrata Sarddar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Presently, IEEE 802.11 based wireless local area networks (WLAN have been widely deployed for business and personal applications. The main issue regarding wireless network technology is handoff or hand over management, especially in urban areas, due to the limited coverage of access points (APs or base stations (BS. When a mobile station (MS moves outside the range of its current access point (AP it needs to perform a link layer handover. This causes data loss and interruption in communication. Many people have applied efficient location management techniques in the literature of next generation wireless system (NGWS. However, seamless handover management still remains an open matter of research. Here we propose a method to minimize the handoff failure probability by effectively placing a wireless local area network (WLAN AP in the handoff region between two neighboring cells. The WLAN coverage, on one hand, provides an additional coverage in the low signal strength region, and on the other hand, relieves the congestion in the cellular network. Moreover, we perform the channel scanning (required for horizontal handover between the two base stations within the WLAN coverage area, thus minimizing the handoff failure due to scanning delay.

  17. Measuring and maximizing coverage in the World Trade Center Health Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joe; Brackbill, Robert M; Thalji, Lisa; Dolan, Melissa; Pulliam, Paul; Walker, Deborah J

    2007-04-15

    The World Trade Center Health Registry (WTCHR) is a database for following people who were exposed to the disaster of 11 September 2001. Hundreds of thousands of people were exposed to the immense cloud of dust and debris, the indoor dust, the fumes from persistent fires, and the mental trauma of the terrorist attacks on the WTC on 9/11. The purpose of the WTCHR is to evaluate the potential short- and long-term physical and mental health effects of the disaster. The definitions of the exposed groups are broad and defined based on an understanding of which groups had the highest exposures to the WTC disaster and its aftermath. The four exposure groups include rescue and recovery workers, residents, students and school staff, and building occupants and passersby in Lower Manhattan. While one goal of the WTCHR was to maximize coverage overall and for each exposure group, another was to ensure equal representation within exposure groups. Because of the multiple sample types pursued, several approaches were required to determine eligibility. Estimates of the number of eligible persons in each of the exposed populations were based on the best available information including Census, entity-specific employment figures, and public and private school enrollment data, among other publicly available sources. To address issues of undercoverage and overcoverage a variety of methods were assessed or applied, including a capture-recapture analyses test of overlapping sample building list sources and automated deduplication of sample records. Estimates of the true eligible population indicate that over 400,000 unique individuals were eligible for the baseline health survey. Interviewer-administered surveys were completed with more than 71,000 persons, resulting in an overall enrollment rate of approximately 17 per cent. Coverage was highest among rescue and recovery workers, followed by residents, students and school staff, and building occupants. Both the accuracy of coverage

  18. An Optimized Field Coverage Planning Approach for Navigation of Agricultural Robots in Fields Involving Obstacle Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A. Hameed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances combined with the demand of cost efficiency and environmental considerations has led farmers to review their practices towards the adoption of new managerial approaches, including enhanced automation. The application of field robots is one of the most promising advances among automation technologies. Since the primary goal of an agricultural vehicle is the complete coverage of the cropped area within a field, an essential prerequisite is the capability of the mobile unit to cover the whole field area autonomously. In this paper, the main objective is to develop an approach for coverage planning for agricultural operations involving the presence of obstacle areas within the field area. The developed approach involves a series of stages including the generation of field‐work tracks in the field polygon, the clustering of the tracks into blocks taking into account the in‐field obstacle areas, the headland paths generation for the field and each obstacle area, the implementation of a genetic algorithm to optimize the sequence that the field robot vehicle will follow to visit the blocks and an algorithmic generation of the task sequences derived from the farmer practices. This approach has proven that it is possible to capture the practices of farmers and embed these practices in an algorithmic description providing a complete field area coverage plan in a form prepared for execution by the navigation system of a field robot.

  19. Minimization of Handoff Failure by Introducing a New Cell Coverage Area in the Handoff Region

    OpenAIRE

    Debabrata Sarddar; Shubhajeet Chatterjee; Ramesh Jana; Shaik Sahil Babu; Prabir Kr Naskar; Utpal Biswas; Mrinal Kanti Naskar

    2011-01-01

    Presently, IEEE 802.11 based wireless local area networks (WLAN) have been widely deployed for business and personal applications. The main issue regarding wireless network technology is handoff or hand over management, especially in urban areas, due to the limited coverage of access points (APs) or base stations (BS). When a mobile station (MS) moves outside the range of its current access point (AP) it needs to perform a link layer handover. This causes data loss and interruption in communi...

  20. Vaccination coverage and timeliness in three South African areas: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders David

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely vaccination is important to induce adequate protective immunity. We measured vaccination timeliness and vaccination coverage in three geographical areas in South Africa. Methods This study used vaccination information from a community-based cluster-randomized trial promoting exclusive breastfeeding in three South African sites (Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal between 2006 and 2008. Five interview visits were carried out between birth and up to 2 years of age (median follow-up time 18 months, and 1137 children were included in the analysis. We used Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analysis to describe vaccination coverage and timeliness in line with the Expanded Program on Immunization for the first eight vaccines. This included Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG, four oral polio vaccines and 3 doses of the pentavalent vaccine which protects against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type B. Results The proportion receiving all these eight recommended vaccines were 94% in Paarl (95% confidence interval [CI] 91-96, 62% in Rietvlei (95%CI 54-68 and 88% in Umlazi (95%CI 84-91. Slightly fewer children received all vaccines within the recommended time periods. The situation was worst for the last pentavalent- and oral polio vaccines. The hazard ratio for incomplete vaccination was 7.2 (95%CI 4.7-11 for Rietvlei compared to Paarl. Conclusions There were large differences between the different South African sites in terms of vaccination coverage and timeliness, with the poorer areas of Rietvlei performing worse than the better-off areas in Paarl. The vaccination coverage was lower for the vaccines given at an older age. There is a need for continued efforts to improve vaccination coverage and timeliness, in particular in rural areas. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00397150

  1. An optimized field coverage planning approach for navigation of agricultural robots in fields involving obstacle areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hameed, Ibahim; Bochtis, Dionysis; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2013-01-01

    coverage planning for agricultural operations involving the presence of obstacle areas within the field area. The developed approach involves a series of stages including the generation of field-work tracks in the field polygon, the clustering of the tracks into blocks taking into account the in......-field obstacle areas, the headland paths generation for the field and each obstacle area, the implementation of a genetic algorithm to optimize the sequence that the field robot vehicle will follow to visit the blocks, and an algorithmically generation of the task sequences derived from the farmer practices...

  2. Guaranteed Packet Transfer in MANET In and Out of Coverage Areas and Energy Saving Using Random Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. S.Gomathi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective analysis of packet loss in coverage area and less coverage area and reduced packet loss and increase the reliability in MANET . Each node on its neighborhood information is updated in a timely manner to achieve guaranteed coverage . The main Challenge inmobile networks is increase the reliability,Packet deliver ratio, reduce the load balancing and reduce therless consume power. MANET supports the power consumption and energy efficient and collision free.To determine a small set of forward nodes to ensure full coverage and less coverage areas. This reduces broadcast redundancy, battery power, increase guaranteed coverage area in and out.. Nowadays, there is a huge increase of handled devices. Laptops, mobile phones and PDAs take an important place in the everyday life. Hence, the challenge is now to make all these devices communicatetogether in order to build a network. Obviously, this kind of networks has to be wireless. Indeed, the wireless topology allows flexibility and mobility.

  3. Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality in two urban African areas with high vaccination coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Jensen, T G; Thårup, J; Poulsen, A; Sodemann, Morten; da Silva, M C; Whittle, H

    1990-01-01

    Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality were examined prospectively in two districts in Bissau where vaccine coverage for children aged 12-23 months was 81% (Bandim 1) and 61% (Bandim 2). There was little difference in cumulative measles incidence before 9 months of age (6.1% and 7.6%,...... vaccination. These data suggest that it will be necessary to vaccinate before age 9 months to control measles in hyperendemic urban African areas....

  4. Effective Transmission Coverage Area-Based Link Dynamics Characterization of VANET in Highway Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Chunfeng Liu; Oliver; Yang; Gen Li; Yantai Shu

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses the concept of effective transmission coverage area as a model for the derivation of analytic expressions in order to characterize the dynamic statistics of link lifetime, new link arrival rate, new link interarrival time, link breakage interarrival time, and so forth. Extensive simulations have been undertaken to verify the derived analytical expressions via generated mobility traces. Results demonstrate that the proposed analytical model can characterize the dynamic statisti...

  5. Area coverage of radial Lévy flights with periodic boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mahsa; Schulz, Johannes H. P.; Shokri, Babak; Metzler, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    We consider the area coverage of radial Lévy flights in a finite square area with periodic boundary conditions. From simulations we show how the fractal path dimension df and thus the degree of area coverage depends on the number of steps of the trajectory, the size of the area, and the resolution of the applied box counting algorithm. For sufficiently long trajectories and not too high resolution, the fractal dimension returned by the box counting method equals two, and in that sense the Lévy flight fully covers the area. Otherwise, the determined fractal dimension equals the stable index of the distribution of jump lengths of the Lévy flight. We provide mathematical expressions for the turnover between these two scaling regimes. As complementary methods to analyze confined Lévy flights we investigate fractional order moments of the position for which we also provide scaling arguments. Finally, we study the time evolution of the probability density function and the first passage time density of Lévy flights in a square area. Our findings are of interest for a general understanding of Lévy flights as well as for the analysis of recorded trajectories of animals searching for food or for human motion patterns.

  6. Development of an automated optical inspection system for determining percent area coverage for spacecraft contamination control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Patrick; Coopersmith, Jonathan D.

    2004-10-01

    This paper describes the use of an automated optical inspection system to determine the percent area coverage of particle matter on surfaces for determination of surface cleanliness in accordance with IEST-STD-CC1246 (formerly MIL-STD-1246). This system consists of an optical microscope, motor-driven X-Y stage, digital camera, and software and can be used to scan surfaces for particles with selected features; an example will be given of a scan for glass beads on Gel-Pak surfaces used to tape-lift spacecraft structure prior to shipment to a propulsion system supplier who prohibits glass beads from entering their facility.

  7. Limited Area Coverage/High Resolution Picture Transmission (LAC/HRPT) data vegetative index calculation processor user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, S. O. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The program, LACVIN, calculates vegetative indexes numbers on limited area coverage/high resolution picture transmission data for selected IJ grid sections. The IJ grid sections were previously extracted from the full resolution data tapes and stored on disk files.

  8. A case study cost modelling of regulatory alternatives to mitigate the mobile network coverage and capacity problems in rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Sundquist, Mårten; Markendahl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Despite a continued build-out of mobile networks, both mobile network coverage and capacity problems in rural areas are increasing. This counterintuitive situation is due to the exponential growth in mobile data usage, the long inter-base station site distance in rural areas and the increasing requirements on ubiquitous coverage not only for humans but also for the Internet of Things. With today’s communication systems and business models, it is not commercially viable to solve the problems b...

  9. Development of a pixel readout chip compatible with large area coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A second version of the Omega pixel readout chip has been developed in order to make it compatible with large area coverage. Specific features of the new chip include a reset which can be applied immediately following a ''false'' trigger, an improved minimum strobe time of ∼100 ns, a readout clock rate of ∼20 MHz and tri-state buffers on the output data lines. The excellent performance figures of the first chip for noise (100 e- rms wiithout detector and 170 e- rms with detector) and power consumption (30 μW/pixel) have been maintained. We demonstrate how with solder bump-bonding we can create hybrid ''ladders'' which hermetically cover an area of ∼5 mmx50 mm. Potential problems of electrical matching and yield have been addressed and procedures are in place for selecting only ''good'' readout chips for mounting. (orig.)

  10. Multi-UAV Routing for Area Coverage and Remote Sensing with Minimum Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellar, Gustavo S. C.; Pereira, Guilherme A. S.; Pimenta, Luciano C. A.; Iscold, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a solution for the problem of minimum time coverage of ground areas using a group of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) equipped with image sensors. The solution is divided into two parts: (i) the task modeling as a graph whose vertices are geographic coordinates determined in such a way that a single UAV would cover the area in minimum time; and (ii) the solution of a mixed integer linear programming problem, formulated according to the graph variables defined in the first part, to route the team of UAVs over the area. The main contribution of the proposed methodology, when compared with the traditional vehicle routing problem’s (VRP) solutions, is the fact that our method solves some practical problems only encountered during the execution of the task with actual UAVs. In this line, one of the main contributions of the paper is that the number of UAVs used to cover the area is automatically selected by solving the optimization problem. The number of UAVs is influenced by the vehicles’ maximum flight time and by the setup time, which is the time needed to prepare and launch a UAV. To illustrate the methodology, the paper presents experimental results obtained with two hand-launched, fixed-wing UAVs. PMID:26540055

  11. Multi-UAV Routing for Area Coverage and Remote Sensing with Minimum Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellar, Gustavo S C; Pereira, Guilherme A S; Pimenta, Luciano C A; Iscold, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a solution for the problem of minimum time coverage of ground areas using a group of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) equipped with image sensors. The solution is divided into two parts: (i) the task modeling as a graph whose vertices are geographic coordinates determined in such a way that a single UAV would cover the area in minimum time; and (ii) the solution of a mixed integer linear programming problem, formulated according to the graph variables defined in the first part, to route the team of UAVs over the area. The main contribution of the proposed methodology, when compared with the traditional vehicle routing problem's (VRP) solutions, is the fact that our method solves some practical problems only encountered during the execution of the task with actual UAVs. In this line, one of the main contributions of the paper is that the number of UAVs used to cover the area is automatically selected by solving the optimization problem. The number of UAVs is influenced by the vehicles' maximum flight time and by the setup time, which is the time needed to prepare and launch a UAV. To illustrate the methodology, the paper presents experimental results obtained with two hand-launched, fixed-wing UAVs. PMID:26540055

  12. Multi-UAV Routing for Area Coverage and Remote Sensing with Minimum Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo S. C. Avellar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution for the problem of minimum time coverage of ground areas using a group of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs equipped with image sensors. The solution is divided into two parts: (i the task modeling as a graph whose vertices are geographic coordinates determined in such a way that a single UAV would cover the area in minimum time; and (ii the solution of a mixed integer linear programming problem, formulated according to the graph variables defined in the first part, to route the team of UAVs over the area. The main contribution of the proposed methodology, when compared with the traditional vehicle routing problem’s (VRP solutions, is the fact that our method solves some practical problems only encountered during the execution of the task with actual UAVs. In this line, one of the main contributions of the paper is that the number of UAVs used to cover the area is automatically selected by solving the optimization problem. The number of UAVs is influenced by the vehicles’ maximum flight time and by the setup time, which is the time needed to prepare and launch a UAV. To illustrate the methodology, the paper presents experimental results obtained with two hand-launched, fixed-wing UAVs.

  13. RANCANG BANGUN APLIKASI PEMETAAN COVERAGE AREA BERBASIS WEB RESPONSIVE SEBAGAI ALAT SIMULASI PERENCANAAN PEMBANGUNAN TOWER TELEKOMUNIKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Andika Virgunzena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Net Act Planner digunakan dalam perencanaan pembangunan BTS, namun kurang efisien jika dijadikansebagai media pembelajaran karena berlisensi/berbayar. Penelitian ini membahas implementasi library Google MapsAPI sebagai aplikasi pemetaan perencanaan coverage area BTS dan implementasinya sebagai media pembelajaran.Hasil pengujian menunjukkan hasil perhitungan aplikasi sama dengan hasil perhitungan manual, namun berbeda0,05% dari data hasil perencanaan Net Act Planner v6.00 karena perbedaan parameter yang digunakan aplikasidalam perhitungan. Sedangkan hasil perbandingan dengan data hasil drive test diperoleh 89,55% titik berada didalam hasil perencanaan dan 10,45% berada di luar perencanaan yang berarti hasil perencanaan aplikasi masih dapatditerima untuk direalisasikan. Penelitian ini juga menghasilkan aplikasi yang menyediakan fitur untuk memodifikasiformula perhitungan dan 4 modul sebagai media pembelajaran.

  14. Optimal sensor placement for maximum area coverage (MAC) for damage localization in composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiene, M.; Sharif Khodaei, Z.; Aliabadi, M. H.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper an optimal sensor placement algorithm for attaining the maximum area coverage (MAC) within a sensor network is presented. The proposed novel approach takes into account physical properties of Lamb wave propagation (attenuation profile, direction dependant group velocity due to material anisotropy) and geometrical complexities (boundary reflections, presence of openings) of the structure. A feature of the proposed optimization approach lies in the fact that it is independent of characteristics of the damage detection algorithm (e.g. probability of detection) making it readily up-scalable to large complex composite structures such as aircraft stiffened composite panel. The proposed fitness function (MAC) is independent of damage parameters (type, severity, location). Statistical analysis carried out shows that the proposed optimum sensor network with MAC results in high probability of damage localization. Genetic algorithm is coupled with the fitness function to provide an efficient optimization strategy.

  15. Projected distribution shifts and protected area coverage of range-restricted Andean birds under climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Verónica del Rosario Avalos; Jaime Hernández

    2015-01-01

    In this study we projected the effect of anthropogenic climate change in endemic and restricted-range Andean bird species that spread out from the center of Bolivia to southeastern Peru. We also analyzed the representation of these species in protected areas. The ensemble forecasts from niche-based models indicated that 91–100% of species may reduce their range size under full and no dispersal scenarios, including five species that are currently threatened. The large range reduction (average ...

  16. Philippine protected areas are not meeting the biodiversity coverage and management effectiveness requirements of Aichi Target 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallari, Neil Aldrin D; Collar, Nigel J; McGowan, Philip J K; Marsden, Stuart J

    2016-04-01

    Aichi Target 11 of the Convention on Biological Diversity urges, inter alia, that nations protect at least 17 % of their land, and that protection is effective and targets areas of importance for biodiversity. Five years before reporting on Aichi targets is due, we assessed the Philippines' current protected area system for biodiversity coverage, appropriateness of management regimes and capacity to deliver protection. Although protected estate already covers 11 % of the Philippines' land area, 64 % of its key biodiversity areas (KBAs) remain unprotected. Few protected areas have appropriate management and governance infrastructures, funding streams, management plans and capacity, and a serious mismatch exists between protected area land zonation regimes and conservation needs of key species. For the Philippines to meet the biodiversity coverage and management effectiveness elements of Aichi Target 11, protected area and KBA boundaries should be aligned, management systems reformed to pursue biodiversity-led targets and effective management capacity created. PMID:26666956

  17. Optimal Path Planning and Control of Quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Area Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiankun

    An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is an aircraft without a human pilot on board. Its flight is controlled either autonomously by computers onboard the vehicle, or remotely by a pilot on the ground, or by another vehicle. In recent years, UAVs have been used more commonly than prior years. The example includes areo-camera where a high speed camera was attached to a UAV which can be used as an airborne camera to obtain aerial video. It also could be used for detecting events on ground for tasks such as surveillance and monitoring which is a common task during wars. Similarly UAVs can be used for relaying communication signal during scenarios when regular communication infrastructure is destroyed. The objective of this thesis is motivated from such civilian operations such as search and rescue or wildfire detection and monitoring. One scenario is that of search and rescue where UAV's objective is to geo-locate a person in a given area. The task is carried out with the help of a camera whose live feed is provided to search and rescue personnel. For this objective, the UAV needs to carry out scanning of the entire area in the shortest time. The aim of this thesis to develop algorithms to enable a UAV to scan an area in optimal time, a problem referred to as "Coverage Control" in literature. The thesis focuses on a special kind of UAVs called "quadrotor" that is propelled with the help of four rotors. The overall objective of this thesis is achieved via solving two problems. The first problem is to develop a dynamic control model of quadrtor. In this thesis, a proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID) based feedback control system is developed and implemented on MATLAB's Simulink. The PID controller helps track any given trajectory. The second problem is to design a trajectory that will fulfill the mission. The planed trajectory should make sure the quadrotor will scan the whole area without missing any part to make sure that the quadrotor will find the lost

  18. Techniques for Area Discretization and Coverage in Aerial Photography for Precision Agriculture employing mini quad-rotors

    OpenAIRE

    Valente, João; Sanz Muñoz, David; Cerro Giner, Jaime del; Rossi, Claudio; Garzón Oviedo, Mario; Hernández Vega, Juan David; Barrientos Cruz, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensed imagery acquired with mini aerial vehicles, in conjunction with GIS technology enable a meticulous analysis from surveyed agricultural sites. This paper sums up the ongoing work in area discretization and coverage with mini quad-­?rotors applied to Precision Agriculture practices under the project RHEA.

  19. Inundation Mapping Initiatives of the Iowa Flood Center: Statewide Coverage and Detailed Urban Flooding Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Jia Chang; Harvest Schroeder; Nathan Young; Daniel Gilles; Jesse Piotrowski

    2012-01-01

    The State of Iowa, located in the Midwestern United States, has experienced an increased frequency of large floods in recent decades. After extreme flooding in the summer of 2008, the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) was established for advanced research and education specifically related to floods. IFC seeks to improve Iowa’s flood hazard awareness through the development of easily accessible, high-quality mapping products. Mapping initiatives consist of two model development approaches: (1) statewid...

  20. Projected distribution shifts and protected area coverage of range-restricted Andean birds under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica del Rosario Avalos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we projected the effect of anthropogenic climate change in endemic and restricted-range Andean bird species that spread out from the center of Bolivia to southeastern Peru. We also analyzed the representation of these species in protected areas. The ensemble forecasts from niche-based models indicated that 91–100% of species may reduce their range size under full and no dispersal scenarios, including five species that are currently threatened. The large range reduction (average 63% suggests these mountain species may be threatened by climate change. The strong effects due to range species losses are predicted in the humid mountain forests of Bolivia. The representation of bird species also decreased in protected areas. Partial gap species (94–86% are expected to increase over the present (62%. This suggests climate change and other non-climate stressors should be incorporated in conservations plans for the long-term persistence of these species. This study anticipates the magnitude of shifts in the distribution of endemic birds, and represents in the study area the first exploration of the representation of range-restricted Andean birds in protected areas under climate change.

  1. National, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 19-35 Months - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Holly A; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Singleton, James A; Kolasa, Maureen

    2015-08-28

    The reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States has been described as one of the 10 greatest public health achievements of the first decade of the 21st century. A recent analysis concluded that routine childhood vaccination will prevent 322 million cases of disease and about 732,000 early deaths among children born during 1994-2013, for a net societal cost savings of $1.38 trillion. The National Immunization Survey (NIS) has monitored vaccination coverage among U.S. children aged 19-35 months since 1994. This report presents national, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage estimates for children born from January 2011 through May 2013, based on data from the 2014 NIS. For most vaccinations, there was no significant change in coverage between 2013 and 2014. The exception was hepatitis A vaccine (HepA), for which increases were observed in coverage with both ≥1 and ≥2 doses. As in previous years, B vaccine (HepB) (91.6%), and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (91.0%). Coverage was below target for ≥4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, hepatitis B (HepB) birth dose,† ≥4 doses pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), ≥2 doses of HepA, the full series of rotavirus vaccine, and the combined vaccine series.§ Examination of coverage by child's race/ethnicity revealed lower estimated coverage among non-Hispanic black children compared with non-Hispanic white children for several vaccinations, including DTaP, the full series of Hib, PCV, rotavirus vaccine, and the combined series. Children from households classified as below the federal poverty level had lower estimated coverage for almost all of the vaccinations assessed, compared with children living at or above the poverty level. Significant variation in coverage by state¶ was observed for several vaccinations, including HepB birth dose

  2. Surface characteristics and coverage pattern of the new damietta port area, as mapped by high resolution remote sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Moufaddal, W.M.

    2007-01-01

    The New Damietta port area has been subjected to large landscape changes and reformations since construction of the port in early 1980s. The area still under development and is expected to experience some more changes during the next few years. This reveals the urgent need for assessment of the present coverage pattern and land-uses of the port area. The present study attempts to determine details of land cover and land use information of the New Damietta port and surrounding area using hi...

  3. An Assessment of Illinois Area Vocational Centers, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, James A. G.

    This 1976 study presents an update of a 1971 assessment of Illinois Area Vocational Centers (AVCs). The following topics are discussed in sections of this report: (1) methodology of the study which included meetings with an advisory committee of AVC directors, interviews at each of twenty-nine operating AVCs, distribution of 2,000 of eleven…

  4. Investigation of effect of different total area coverage values of inks on reflection spectra and color gamut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridonov, I.; Shopova, M.; Boeva, R.

    2013-03-01

    The paper presents investigation of the effect of different values of total area coverage of inks (TAC) on reflection spectra and color gamut. Total area coverage is a key factor for achieving of maximal volume of color gamut. The reflection spectra of color surfaces in entire visible spectrum are used for determination the effect of different values of TAC. For study the effect of TAC values on color gamut, we have used special test form that contains many components and test charts with over 1500 color patches. According to measurement of reflectance spectrum of test charts, we have compared the color gamuts with different values of TAC to obtain comprehensive information of all colors, which could be reproduced in the specific conditions. In addition we have converted the reflection spectra data to CIE L*a*b* coordinates, and we have calculated the color difference ΔE* ab to determine the effect of TAC on color reproduction accuracy. The main goal of this study is development of methodology, which gives objective and analytical assessment, for determining the optimal value of total area coverage (TAC). A practical implementation of the correct and optimal value of total area coverage should improve the printability, better ink layers adhesion, biggest number of trapping values and reduce the quantity of process inks. The optimal value of the TAC determined by this new methodology helps to achieve a significant reduction of ink cost and a maximal color gamut volume, i.e. improve the quality of printed image and reduce financial costs.

  5. Malaria in pregnant women in an area with sustained high coverage of insecticide-treated bed nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mshinda Hassan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2000, the World Health Organization has recommended a package of interventions to prevent malaria during pregnancy and its sequelae that includes the promotion of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs, intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp, and effective case management of malarial illness. It is recommended that pregnant women in malaria-endemic areas receive at least two doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. This study assessed the prevalence of placental malaria at delivery in women during 1st or 2nd pregnancy, who did not receive intermittent preventive treatment for malaria (IPTp in a malaria-endemic area with high bed net coverage. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional study was done in Ifakara, Tanzania, where bed net coverage is high. Primi- and secundigravid women, who presented to the labour ward and who reported not using IPTp were included in the study. Self-report data were collected by questionnaire; whereas neonatal birth weight and placenta parasitaemia were measured directly at the time of delivery. Results Overall, 413 pregnant women were enrolled of which 91% reported to have slept under a bed net at home the previous night, 43% reported history of fever and 62% were primigravid. Malaria parasites were detected in 8% of the placenta samples; the geometric mean (95%CI placental parasite density was 3,457 (1,060–11,271 parasites/μl in primigravid women and 2,178 (881–5,383 parasites/μl in secundigravid women. Fifteen percent of newborns weighed Conclusion The observed incidence of LBW and prevalence of placental parasitaemia at delivery suggests that malaria remains a problem in pregnancy in this area with high bed net coverage when eligible women do not receive IPTp. Delivery of IPTp should be emphasized at all levels of implementation to achieve maximum community coverage.

  6. Recent developments in the area of insurance and indemnity coverage for transportation of radioactive materials in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of adequate liability coverage in the unlikely event of a serious radioactive materials transportation accident continues to be of concern to transporters and public officials. This paper will discuss recent developments in the area of insurance and indemnity for transportation of radioactive materials in the US. At the 6th International Symposium in Berlin (West) in 1980, the 7th International Symposium in New Orleans in 1983, and the 8th International Symposium in Davos, Switzerland in 1986, He presented descriptions of the Price-Anderson insurance-indemnity system as it existed at those times. Since then, there have been a number of developments of interest here in the US. Foremost among these is the fact that, on August 20, 1988, President Reagan signed into law the Price-Anderson Amendments Act of 1988. These statutory amendments renewed and modified previously existing nuclear hazards liability coverage for many nuclear materials shipments within the US

  7. AN EVALUATION OF PRIMARY IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE AMONG ICDS CHILDREN UNDER URBAN FIELD PRACTICE AREA OF OSMANIA MEDICAL COLLEGE, HYDERABAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What is the Primary Immunization Coverage of Anganwadi children (12 - 72 months under Urban Field Practice area of Osmania Medical College? BACKGROUND: Vaccine - preventable diseases are responsible for about 25%of the 10 million deaths occurring annually among children under 5 years of age. Immunization is a proven tool for controlling and eliminating life - threatening infectious diseases and it is estimated that more than 2 million child deaths were averted through immunization in 2003.Immunization is one of the important services which is being provided under ICDS (Integrated Child Development Scheme projects. OBJECTIVES: 1. To Estimate Primar y Immunization Coverage of Anganwadi children (12 - 72 months age group under Urban ICDS project.2. To Estimate Gender inequality ratio (GIR among Study group. METHODOLOGY: It’s a Community based cross sectional Study conducted in Anganwadi Centre of Urban ICDS Project among 340 children (12 - 72 months age group. RESULTS : Children in the age group of 12 - 23 months are more fully immunized when compared to any other age group of children. Males are comparatively more immunized than females. Mother’s education had significant impact on immunization of their children (P˂ 0.05.Primary Immunization coverage is over 85% among study groups. CONCLUSION : The present study showed that there is a better immunization coverage in Urban ICDS project areas. The study also showed that there has been an improvement over few years about immunization taking place in Urban ICDS projects. There is Gender inequality still exist in our country. Maternal Education had positive relation with immunization of their children.

  8. Relativistic center-vortex dynamics of a confining area law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We offer a physicist's proof that center-vortex theory requires the area in the (quenched) Wilson-loop area law to involve an extremal area. This means that, unlike in string-theory-inspired models of confining flux tubes, area-law dynamics is determined by integrating over Wilson loops only, not over surface fluctuations for a fixed loop. Fluctuations leading to perimeter-law corrections come from loop fluctuations as well as integration over finite-thickness center-vortex collective coordinates. In d=3 (or d=2+1) we exploit a contour form of the extremal area in isothermal (conformally flat metric on the surface) coordinates which is similar to d=2 (or d=1+1) QCD in many respects, except that there are both quartic and quadratic terms in the action. One major result is that at large angular momentum l in d=3+1 the center-vortex extremal-area picture yields a linear Regge trajectory with a Regge slope-string tension product α'(0)KF of 1/(2π), which is the canonical Veneziano or string value. In a curious effect traceable to retardation, the quark kinetic terms in the action vanish relative to area-law terms in the large-l limit, in which light-quark masses ∼KF1/2 are negligible. This corresponds to string-theoretic expectations, even though we emphasize that the extremal-area law is not a string theory quantum mechanically. We show how some quantum trajectory fluctuations as well as nonleading classical terms for finite mass yield corrections scaling with l-1/2. We compare to old semiclassical calculations of relativistic (massless) qq-bar bound states at large l, which also yield asymptotically linear Regge trajectories, finding agreement with a naive string picture (classically, not quantum mechanically) and disagreement with an effective-propagator model. We show that contour forms of the area law can be expressed in terms of Abelian gauge potentials, and we relate this to old work of Comtet

  9. Analysis of the changes of vegetation coverage of western Beijing mountainous areas using remote sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liangyun; Jing, Xia; Wang, Jihua; Zhao, Chunjiang

    2009-06-01

    Mentougou District acts as a crucial component in the ecological buffer in western Beijing mountainous areas, Beijing, China. Using two Landsat MSS/TM images acquired on July 14, 1979 and July 23, 2005, the vegetation coverage of Mentougou District was calculated based on normalized difference vegetation index and spectral mixture analysis (NDVI-SMA) model. Its temporal and spatial changes were analyzed according to digital elevation model (DEM) image, social and economic data. The results showed that the vegetation coverage decreased from 76.4% in 1979 to 72.7% in 2005. Vegetation degradation was probably the result of human disturbance, such as outspreading of resident areas, and coal and stone mining activities, while vegetation restoration might be contributed by the combined effects of both natural processes and ecological construction effort. Vegetation changes were closely related to topographical characteristics. Plants at high altitude were more stable and less degraded than the plants at low altitude, while the plants on steep slope or northwest aspect were more vulnerable to degradation. During the period of 26 years, landscape appeared to become more fragmental, and ecological quality of the land seemed deteriorated sharply in that highly-covered vegetation area has been decreased by 24%. PMID:18516693

  10. Rates of coverage and determinants of complete vaccination of children in rural areas of Burkina Faso (1998-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobiané Jean-François

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkina Faso's immunization program has benefited regularly from national and international support. However, national immunization coverage has been irregular, decreasing from 34.7% in 1993 to 29.3% in 1998, and then increasing to 43.9% in 2003. Undoubtedly, a variety of factors contributed to this pattern. This study aims to identify both individual and systemic factors associated with complete vaccination in 1998 and 2003 and relate them to variations in national and international policies and strategies on vaccination of rural Burkinabé children aged 12-23 months. Methods Data from the 1998 and 2003 Demographic and Health Surveys and the Ministry of Health's 1997 and 2002 Statistical Yearbooks, as well as individual interviews with central and regional decision-makers and with field workers in Burkina's healthcare system, were used to carry out a multilevel study that included 805 children in 1998 and 1,360 children in 2003, aged 12-23 months, spread over 44 and 48 rural health districts respectively. Results In rural areas, complete vaccination coverage went from 25.9% in 1998 to 41.2% in 2003. District resources had no significant effect on coverage and the impact of education declined over time. The factors that continued to have the greatest impact on coverage rates were poverty, with its various dimensions, and the utilization of other healthcare services. However, these factors do not explain the persistent differences in complete vaccination between districts. In 2003, despite a trend toward district homogenization, differences between health districts still accounted for a 7.4% variance in complete vaccination. Conclusion Complete vaccination coverage of children is improving in a context of worsening poverty. Education no longer represents an advantage in relation to vaccination. Continuity from prenatal care to institutional delivery creates a loyalty to healthcare services and is the most significant and

  11. Center vortices, area law and the catenary solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höllwieser, Roman; Altarawneh, Derar

    2015-12-01

    We present meson-meson (Wilson loop) correlators in Z(2) center vortex models for the infrared sector of Yang-Mills theory, i.e. a hypercubic lattice model of random vortex surfaces and a continuous (2 + 1)-dimensional model of random vortex lines. In particular, we calculate quadratic and circular Wilson loop correlators in the two models, respectively, and observe that their expectation values follow the area law and show string breaking behavior. Further, we calculate the catenary solution for the two cases and try to find indications for minimal surface behavior or string surface tension leading to string constriction.

  12. An evaluation of coverage and compliance of mass drug administration 2006 for elimination of lymphatic filariasis in endemic areas of Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pradeep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mass drug administration (MDA means once-in-a-year administration of diethyl carbamazine (DEC tablet to all people (excluding children under 2 years, pregnant women and severely ill persons in identified endemic areas. It aims at cessation of transmission of lymphatic filariasis. Objective: What has been the coverage and compliance of MDA in Gujarat during the campaign in December 2006? Study Design: Cross-sectional population based house-to-house visit. Setting: Urban and rural areas in Gujarat identified as endemic for filariasis where MDA 2006 was undertaken. Study Variables: Exploratory - Rural and urban districts; Outcome - coverage, compliance, actual coverage, side effects. Analysis: Percentage and proportions. Results: Twenty-six clusters, each comprising 32 households from six endemic districts, yielded an eligible population of 4164. The coverage rate was 85.2% with variation across different areas. The compliance with drug ingestion was 89% with a gap of 11% to be targeted by intensive IEC. The effective coverage (75.8% was much below the target (85%. Side effects of DEC were minimum, transient and drug-specific. Overall coverage was marginally better in rural areas. The causes of poor coverage and compliance have been discussed and relevant suggestions have been made.

  13. The geography of high-value biodiversity areas for terrestrial vertebrates in Western Europe and their coverage by protected area networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. T. Assunção-Albuquerque

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We identified high-value biodiversity areas (HVBAs of terrestrial vertebrates according to a combined index of biodiversity (CBI for each major taxon and a standardized biodiversity index (SBI for all taxa in 2195 cells of 50 × 50 km in Western Europe to evaluate whether these areas are included in the current protected area networks. The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA and NATURA 2000 protected area network were used to assess the protected area cover in HVBAs. WDPA and NATURA 2000 were geographically quite complementary as WDPA is more densely represented in Central and Northern Europe and NATURA 2000 in the Mediterranean basin. A total of 729 cells were identified as HVBAs. From the total of these HVBA areas, NATURA 2000 network was present in more cells (660 than the WDPA network (584 cells. The sum of protected land percentages across all the HVBA cells was 28.8%. The identified HVBA cells according to the SBI included 603 or 78.2% of all vertebrate species in the study region, whereas the identified HVBA cells according to the SBI for individual taxa included 47 (90.4% species of amphibians, 79 (74.5% of reptiles, 417 (88.5% of birds, and 130 (91.5% of mammals. However, neither network was present in 7 or 3% of the identified HVBA cells. Thus, we recommend expanding protected areas in Europe to fill this gap and improve coverage of vertebrate species to strengthen biodiversity conservation.

  14. Area health education centers and health science library services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R T; Howard, F H

    1977-07-01

    A study to determine the impact that the Area Health Education Center type of programs may have on health science libraries was conducted by the Extramural Programs, National Library of Medicine, in conjunction with a contract awarded by the Bureau of Health Manpower, Health Resources Administration, to develop an inventory of the AHEC type of projects in the United States. Specific study tasks included a review of these programs as they relate to library and information activities, on-site surveys on the programs to define their needs for library services and information, and a categorization of library activities. A major finding was that health science libraries and information services are generally not included in AHEC program planning and development, although information and information exchange is a fundamental part of the AHEC type of programs. This study suggests that library inadequacies are basically the result of this planning failure and of a lack of financial resources; however, many other factors may be contributory. The design and value of library activities for these programs needs explication. PMID:884349

  15. Hepatitis B Virus Vaccination Coverage in Medical, Nursing, and Paramedical Students: A Cross-Sectional, Multi-Centered Study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannis, Dimitrios; Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Chatzichristodoulou, Ioanna; Adamopoulou, Maria; Kallistratos, Ilias; Pournaras, Spyros; Arvanitidou, Malamatenia; Rachiotis, George

    2016-01-01

    Students of health professions are at high risk of hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection during their clinical training. The aim of this cross-sectional, multi-centered study was to investigate the HBV vaccination coverage in Greek medical, nursing, and paramedical students, to look into their attitudes towards the importance of vaccines and to reveal reasons associated with not being vaccinated. A self-completed, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 2119 students of health professions in Greece, during the academic year 2013-2014. The HBV vaccination coverage of students was high (83%), being higher among medical students (88.1%, vs. 81.4% among nursing and 80.1% among paramedical students; p vaccinated during childhood. In addition, 30% of the unvaccinated students declared fear over HBV safety. Our results indicate that the healthcare students achieved higher reported immunization rates compared to the currently serving healthcare workers, but also to the students of the last decade. The fact that nursing and paramedical students have lower coverage figures underlines the importance of targeted interventions for the different subgroups of healthcare students in terms of educational programs and screening for HBV markers in order to increase HBV vaccination uptake. PMID:26999171

  16. Spring point coverage for the potentiometric coverages for the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood Aquifers in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset describes springs in the Black Hills area that were used to create potentiometric surface maps for the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and...

  17. 乡宁矿区植被覆盖度动态监测与评价%Dynamic monitoring and evaluation of vegetation coverage of coal mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳

    2016-01-01

    Vegetation coverage is the one of the important indicators to measure the surface vegetation and ecosystem situation,it is the necessary premise and foundation for ecosystem health assessment.Taking the TM remote sensing images of two time phases( the year of 2010 and 2014 )as the data source,and taking the normalized differential vegetation index(NDVI)pixel dichotomy as the estimation model of vegetation coverage,the vegetation coverage(for nearly five years)of Xiangning mining area of Jinzhong coal base was calculated,and the vegetation coverage distribution image and vegetation coverage changing image were generated for different time sequences, so that the temporal and spatial variation of vegetation coverage for Xiangning mining area could be analyzed.The results showed that,in 2010~2014,the vegetation coverage of Xiangning mining area showed a degradation trend,the vegetation coverage degradation area accounted for 33.38% of the whole area,and the percentage of vegetation coverage improving area was only 4. 34%. From the aspect of space, we could see that the vegetation coverage degradation was mainly in the coal mining areas,therefore,the change of vegetation coverage of coal mining area could be calculated through remote sensing method, and through this method, the ecological and environmental effects caused by coal development could be evaluated.%利用2010年和2014年2个时相的 TM 遥感影像为数据源,以归一化植被指数(NDVI)像元二分法为植被覆盖度估算模型,计算了晋中煤炭基地乡宁矿区近5年的植被覆盖度,生成了不同时序的植被覆盖度分布图和植被覆盖度变化图,以此分析乡宁矿区植被覆盖度的时空变化。结果表明,乡宁矿区在2010年~2014年其植被覆盖度呈退化趋势,整个矿区植被覆盖退化面积占总面积的33.38%,而植被覆盖改善面积仅占总面积的4.34%。从空间上来看,植被退化主要集中在煤炭开采区,因

  18. 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas, 911 Call Center Service Area, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Town of Cary NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of...

  19. Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision New Town Center Growth Areas, UTM Zone 15N NAD83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_vision_new_town_growth_areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates town center new growth areas included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision. Town center new growth areas include local...

  20. High coverage of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis in rural and non-rural settings in the Western Area, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnie Mustapha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphatic filariasis elimination programs are based upon preventative chemotherapy annually in populations with prevalence more than or equal to 1%. The goal is to treat 80% of the eligible, at risk population yearly, for at least 5 years, in order to interrupt transmission and prevent children from becoming infected. This level of coverage has been a challenge in urban settings. Assessing the coverage in a rapidly growing urban/non-rural setting with inadequate population data is also problematic. In Sierra Leone, a 5-day preventative chemotherapy campaign was carried out in the Western Area including the capital: Freetown. An intensive, social mobilization strategy combined traditional and modern communication channels. To aid dissemination of appropriate information Frequently Asked Questions were developed and widely circulated. The population of the Western Area has grown faster than projected by the 2004 National Census due to the post-war settlement of internally displaced persons. As a reliable denominator was not available, independent monitoring was adapted and performed "in process" to aid program performance and "end process" to assess final coverage. Results In 5 days 1,104,407 eligible persons were treated. Using the projected population from the 2004 census this figure represented coverage of 116% in the Urban Western Area and 129% in the Rural Western Area. Independent monitors interviewed a total of 9,253 persons during the 2 End Process days representing 1% of the projected population. Of these, 85.8% recalled taking both ivermectin and albendazole (Urban: 85.2%, Rural: 87.1%. No serious adverse drug reactions were reported. Conclusion The paper presents the key elements of success of the social mobilization and implementation strategy and describes the independent monitoring used to estimate final coverage in this urban/non-rural setting where the current population size is uncertain. This implementation

  1. Estimation of Pap-test coverage in an area with an organised screening program: challenges for survey methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raggi Patrizio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytological screening programme of Viterbo has completed the second round of invitations to the entire target population (age 25–64. From a public health perspective, it is important to know the Pap-test coverage rate and the use of opportunistic screening. The most commonly used study design is the survey, but the validity of self-reports and the assumptions made about non respondents are often questioned. Methods From the target population, 940 women were sampled, and responded to a telephone interview about Pap-test utilisation. The answers were compared with the screening program registry; comparing the dates of Pap-tests reported by both sources. Sensitivity analyses were performed for coverage over a 36-month period, according to various assumptions regarding non respondents. Results The response rate was 68%. The coverage over 36 months was 86.4% if we assume that non respondents had the same coverage as respondents, 66% if we assume they were not covered at all, and 74.6% if we adjust for screening compliance in the non respondents. The sensitivity and specificity of the question, "have you ever had a Pap test with the screening programme" were 84.5% and 82.2% respectively. The test dates reported in the interview tended to be more recent than those reported in the registry, but 68% were within 12 months of each other. Conclusion Surveys are useful tools to understand the effectiveness of a screening programme and women's self-report was sufficiently reliable in our setting, but the coverage estimates were strongly influenced by the assumptions we made regarding non respondents.

  2. An evaluation of coverage and compliance of mass drug administration 2006 for elimination of lymphatic filariasis in endemic areas of Gujarat

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Pradeep; Prajapati P; Saxena Deepak; Kavishwar Abhay; Kurian George

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mass drug administration (MDA) means once-in-a-year administration of diethyl carbamazine (DEC) tablet to all people (excluding children under 2 years, pregnant women and severely ill persons) in identified endemic areas. It aims at cessation of transmission of lymphatic filariasis. Objective: What has been the coverage and compliance of MDA in Gujarat during the campaign in December 2006? Study Design: Cross-sectional population based house-to-house visit. Setting: Urban a...

  3. Extraction of multilayer vegetation coverage using airborne LiDAR discrete points with intensity information in urban areas: A case study in Nanjing City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wenquan; Zhao, Shuhe; Feng, Xuezhi; Chen, Lei

    2014-08-01

    Urban vegetation is of a strategic importance for the life quality in the increasing urbanized societies. However, it is still difficult to extract accurately urban vegetation vertical distribution with remote sensing images. This paper presented an effective method to extract multilayer vegetation coverage in urban areas using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) discrete points with intensity information. It was applied in Nanjing City, one of the ecological cities in China. Firstly, a median filtering algorithm based on discrete points was used to restrain high-frequency noise. The airborne LiDAR data intensities of different urban objects were analyzed and obtained three rules, which can distinguish between vegetation and non-vegetation in urban areas, after removing the influence of topography. According to the footprint size and principles of distribution of the point cloud, multilayer vegetation coverage, including trees, shrubs and grass, was achieved by the inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation method. The results show that the overall accuracy of the vegetation point classification is 94.57%, which is much accurate than that of the methods in TerraSolid software, through comparing with the investigation in the field and Digital Orthophoto Maps (DOM). This method proposed in our work can be applied to in the extraction of multilayer vegetation coverage in urban area.

  4. Use of mobile phones for improving vaccination coverage among children living in rural hard-to-reach areas and urban streets of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Jasim; Shamsuzzaman, Md; Horng, Lily; Labrique, Alain; Vasudevan, Lavanya; Zeller, Kelsey; Chowdhury, Mridul; Larson, Charles P; Bishai, David; Alam, Nurul

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, full vaccination rates among children living in rural hard-to-reach areas and urban streets are low. We conducted a quasi-experimental pre-post study of a 12-month mobile phone intervention to improve vaccination among 0-11 months old children in rural hard-to-reach and urban street dweller areas. Software named "mTika" was employed within the existing public health system to electronically register each child's birth and remind mothers about upcoming vaccination dates with text messages. Android smart phones with mTika were provided to all health assistants/vaccinators and supervisors in intervention areas, while mothers used plain cell phones already owned by themselves or their families. Pre and post-intervention vaccination coverage was surveyed in intervention and control areas. Among children over 298 days old, full vaccination coverage actually decreased in control areas--rural baseline 65.9% to endline 55.2% and urban baseline 44.5% to endline 33.9%--while increasing in intervention areas from rural baseline 58.9% to endline 76*8%, difference +18.8% (95% CI 5.7-31.9) and urban baseline 40.7% to endline 57.1%, difference +16.5% (95% CI 3.9-29.0). Difference-in-difference (DID) estimates were +29.5% for rural intervention versus control areas and +27.1% for urban areas for full vaccination in children over 298 days old, and logistic regression adjusting for maternal education, mobile phone ownership, and sex of child showed intervention effect odds ratio (OR) of 3.8 (95% CI 1.5-9.2) in rural areas and 3.0 (95% CI 1.4-6.4) in urban areas. Among all age groups, intervention effects on age-appropriate vaccination coverage were positive: DIDs +13.1-30.5% and ORs 2.5-4.6 (pmobile phone intervention can improve vaccination coverage in rural hard-to-reach and urban street dweller communities in Bangladesh. This small-scale successful demonstration should serve as an example to other low-income countries with high mobile phone usage. PMID:26647290

  5. Coverage and Capacity Analysis of LTE-M and NB-IoT in a Rural Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Kovács, István; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard;

    2016-01-01

    The 3GPP has introduced the LTE-M and NB-IoT User Equipment categories and made amendments to LTE release 13 to support the cellular Internet of Things. The contribution of this paper is to analyze the coverage probability, the number of supported devices, and the device battery life in networks...... is experiencing 10 dB additional loss. However, for deep indoor users NB-IoT is required and provides coverage for about 95% of the users. The cost is support for more than 10 times fewer devices and a 2-6 times higher device power consumption. Thus both LTE-M and NB-IoT provide extended support for the cellular...... Internet of Things, but with different trade-offs....

  6. A Study on the Method of Cooperative Area Coverage Reconnaissance for Multi-UAV%多UAV协同区域覆盖侦察方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙国庆; 祝小平; 董世友

    2011-01-01

    针对多UAV对未知区域的协同覆盖侦察问题,提出了将STC算法与在线局部调整策略相结合的区域覆盖侦察方法.通过建立无重叠覆盖区域的闭合路径,最小化了重复侦察区域,缩短了任务执行时间;通过在线局部调整保证了只要有一架UAV不出现故障,侦察任务就可以正常进行.仿真结果表明,该方法能够有效解决多UAV协同区域覆盖侦察问题,方法简单并具备较高的鲁棒性.%Aiming to find a solution, the method of cooperative area coverage reconnaissance for Multi-UAV is proposed by combining the STC algorithm with an online partial adjustment strategy. Through the establishing of the closed route of non-overlapping coverage, repeating surveillance is minimized and task time shortened; online partial adjustment ensures that so long as one UAV does not break down, the reconnaissance mission can be normally carried out. The simulation results show that this method, simple yet with a high robustness, can effectively solve the problem of multi-UAV cooperative area coverage reconnaissance.

  7. Analysis on FDD-LTE Coverage Design for High Trafifc Area on Campus%校园高话务区FDD-LTE覆盖方式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢卫浩; 张文; 彭海涛

    2014-01-01

    分析了运营商关注的话务高度聚集区——高校学生宿舍区的FDD-LTE覆盖组网的类型、覆盖和容量特征、相互配合关系以及类型选择的分析方法、步骤,提出了2层组网的目标。最后,对可以运用的各种特色覆盖方式进行了介绍和对比,有利于运营商提前应对未来可能出现的网络负荷瓶颈。%The networking type, coverage, capacity feature, their relationships of FDD-LTE coverage in high traffic areas such as university dormitories, which are the focus of operators, are analyzed. Based on the analysis method and step of type selection, two layer networking is presented. Different coverage designs available are introduced and compared, which are beneficial to operator to tackle network load bottleneck in advance.

  8. 10 CFR 100.11 - Determination of exclusion area, low population zone, and population center distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of exclusion area, low population zone, and population center distance. 100.11 Section 100.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REACTOR... and for Testing Reactors § 100.11 Determination of exclusion area, low population zone, and...

  9. A coverage that differentiates between areas where the total Calico and A-sequence coal-bearing interval is preserved and where the coal-bearing strata are partially eroded in the Kaiparowits Plateau, southern Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage that represents areas underlain by the coal-bearing Calico and A-sequences of the Straight Cliffs Formation east of 112 degrees of...

  10. Sex-differential and non-specific effects of routine vaccinations in a rural area with low vaccination coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Nielsen, Jens; Benn, Christine Stabell;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examined the potential sex-differential and non-specific effects of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and measles vaccine (MV) in a rural area of Senegal. METHODS: The 4133 children born in the area between 1996 and 1999 were included in the study...

  11. TRAVERSAL ALGORITHM FOR COMPLETE COVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coimbatore Ganeshsankar Balaji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many applications which require complete coverage and obstacle avoidance. The classical A* algorithm provides the user a shortest path by avoiding the obstacle. As well, the Dijkstra’s algorithm finds the shortest path between the source and destination. But in many applications we require complete coverage of the proposed area with obstacle avoidance. There are LSP, LSSP, BSA, spiral-STC and Complete Coverage D* algorithms which do not realize complete (100% coverage. The complete coverage using a critical point algorithm assures complete coverage, but it is not well suited for applications like mine detection. Also for covering the missed region it keeps the obstacle as a critical point which is not advisable in critical applications where obstacle may be a dangerous one. To overcome this and to achieve the complete coverage we propose a novel graph traversal algorithm Traversal Algorithm for Complete Coverage (TRACC. Here the area to be scanned is decomposed into a finite number of cells. The traversal is done through all the cells after making sure the next cell has no obstacle. TRACC assures thorough coverage of the proposed area and ensuring that all the obstacles are avoided. Hence the TRACC always have the safer path while covering the entire area. It also reports the obstacle placed or blocked cell.

  12. The University of California Area Health Education Center Biomedical Library Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Lynette G.

    This paper describes the University of California's Central San Joaquin Valley Area Health Education Center (AHEC) Biomedical Library Program, which is intended to improve library services in hospitals and other medical care institutions in the region and to coordinate future development of these services. A summary of the San Joaquin Valley AHEC…

  13. SEXUALITY IN THE OPINION OF ADOLESCENTS LIVING IN THE AREA OF COVERAGE IN DR FÁBIO CUIABÁ CITY, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Junior Henrique Duarte

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative study aimed to know the understanding of adolescents about their sexuality and how the exercises for further intervention by the health team. We administered a structured questionnaire in a sample of 43 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years living in the area covered by the Family Health Unit Dr. Fabio I and II. The data were tabulated in the spreadsheet program Microsoft Office Excel 2007, allowing for a descriptive treatment, keeping a confidence interval of 95%. The results show that 32.5% of participants had first intercourse between 12 and 16, and 50% of them admit they have used a condom at last intercourse. In addition, 4.6% have had some kind of sexually transmitted disease. The study indicates the need for educational activities in sexual and reproductive health to adolescents facing the neighborhoods studied, with a view to promoting health.

  14. Permafrost coverage, watershed area and season control of dissolved carbon and major elements in western Siberian rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Manasypov, R. M.; Loiko, S.; Shirokova, L. S.; Krickov, I. A.; Pokrovsky, B. G.; Kolesnichenko, L. G.; Kopysov, S. G.; Zemtzov, V. A.; Kulizhsky, S. P.; Vorobyev, S. N.; Kirpotin, S. N.

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of organic and inorganic carbon (DOC and DIC, respectively), pH, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4 and Si in ~ 100 large and small rivers (factors controlling the transport of river dissolved components in this environmentally important region, comprising continuous, discontinuous, sporadic and permafrost-free zones. There was a significant latitudinal trend consisting in a general decrease in DOC, DIC, SO4, and major cation (Ca, Mg, Na, K) concentration northward, reflecting the interplay between groundwater feeding (detectable mostly in the permafrost-free zone, south of 60° N) and surface flux (in the permafrost-bearing zone). The northward decrease in concentration of inorganic components was strongly pronounced both in winter and spring, whereas for DOC, the trend of concentration decrease with latitude was absent in winter, and less pronounced in spring flood than in summer baseflow. The most significant decrease in K concentration from the southern ( 10 000 km2. Environmental factors are ranked by their increasing effect on DOC, DIC, δ13CDIC, and major elements in western Siberian rivers as follows: watershed area < season < latitude. Because the degree of the groundwater feeding is different between large and small rivers, we hypothesize that, in addition to groundwater feeding of the river, there was a significant role of surface and shallow subsurface flow linked to plant litter degradation and peat leaching. We suggest that plant-litter- and topsoil-derived DOC adsorbs on clay mineral horizons in the southern, permafrost-free and discontinuous/sporadic permafrost zone but lacks the interaction with minerals in the continuous permafrost zone. It can be anticipated that, under climate warming in western Siberia, the maximal change will occur in small (< 1000 km2 watershed) rivers DOC, DIC and ionic composition and this change will be mostly pronounced in summer.

  15. Temporal Trends in Coverage of Historical Cardiac Arrests Using a Volunteer-Based Network of Automated External Defibrillators Accessible to Laypersons and Emergency Dispatch Centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Knudsen Lippert, Freddy; Wissenberg, Mads;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Although increased dissemination of Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs) has been associated with more frequent AED use, the trade-off between the number of deployed AEDs and coverage of cardiac arrests remains unclear. We investigated how volunteer-based AED dissemination affect...

  16. [Accuracy comparison of BJ-1, HJ and Landsat data in the retrieval of grassland vegetation coverage, leaf area index and above ground biomass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Yan; Li, Xiao-Song; Zhang, Jin; Gao, Zhi-Hai

    2013-10-01

    Domestic satellites BJ-1, HJ and the most widely used satellite Landsat were selected to systematically compare their abilities and differences on the estimation of the biophysical parameters of grassland in sandstorm source region in Beijing and Tianjin, with the combination of field-measured fractional coverage, leaf area index and aboveground biomass data. The result shows: (1) In terms of the surface reflectance, HJ-1B and Landsat have a higher correlation with biophysical parameters in red band, compared with BJ-1, while BJ-1's near infra-red band was obviously superior to HJ-1B and Landsat, (2) with respect to the vegetation indices, Landsat performed best, HJ-1B was the second, and BJ-1 was the worst, (3) compared with vegetation indices, multiple regression model can raise the estimation accuracy, BJ-1 based model improved significantly, while Landsat and HJ-1B based models were less obvious. Among them, the highest accuracy was acquired for leaf area index estimation through the BJ-1 based model (R2 = 0.61, RMSEP = 0.15). In general, domestic satellites have their own unique features, which remain a huge potential to be further tapped. PMID:24409740

  17. Comparison of mark-resight methods to estimate abundance and rabies vaccination coverage of free-roaming dogs in two urban areas of south Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzin, Tenzin; McKenzie, Joanna S; Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Rai, Bir Doj; Rinzin, Karma; Tshering, Yeshey; Pem, Rinzin; Tshering, Chenga; Dahal, Narapati; Dukpa, Kinzang; Dorjee, Sithar; Wangchuk, Sonam; Jolly, Peter D; Morris, Roger; Ward, Michael P

    2015-03-01

    below the recommended threshold of 70%, we recommend conducting an annual "mass dog vaccination only" campaign in southern Bhutan to create an immune buffer in this high rabies-risk area. The male-to-female dog ratio was 1.34:1 in Gelephu and 1.27:1 in Pheuntsholing. Population size estimates using mark-resight surveys has provided useful baseline data for understanding the population dynamics of dogs at the study sites. Mark-resight surveys provide useful information for designing and managing the logistics of dog vaccination or CNVR programs, assessing vaccination coverage, and for evaluating the impact of neutering programs on the size and structure of dog populations over time. PMID:25650307

  18. RAPD Variation of Garlic Clones in the Center of Origin and the Westernmost Area of Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    ETOH, Takeomi; Watanabe, Hideki; Iwai, Sumio

    2001-01-01

    RAPD variation of 30 garlic clones collected in the primary center of origin, Central Asia, was compared with that of 30 garlic clones collected in the westernmost area of distribution, the Iberian Peninsula. Central Asian garlic clones were complete-bolting type, and some of them were fertile clones. On the other hand, Iberian garlic clones showed incomplete-bolting type, and all of them were sterile clones. Basing on the genetic similarity, a dendrogram among those garlic clones by RAPD was...

  19. Transforming trauma healthcare delivery in rural areas by use of an integrated call center

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: There is poor penetration of trauma healthcare delivery in rural areas. On the other hand, mobile penetration in India is now averaging 80% with most families having access to mobile phone. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the implementation and socioeconomic impact of a call center in providing healthcare delivery for patients with head and spinal injuries. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study carried out over a 6-month perio...

  20. Data Coverage Areas - USACE IENC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  1. 33 CFR 334.820 - Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.820 Section 334.820 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.820 Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill....

  2. Residence time of water film and slug flow features in fuel cell gas channels and their effect on instantaneous area coverage ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini-Gutierrez, Daniel; Kandlikar, Satish G.; Hernandez-Guerrero, Abel; Elizalde-Blancas, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    Water in the gas channels of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell is modeled as slugs and film, and removal mechanisms for these flow patterns are numerically investigated. The removal of excess liquid water is simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) through the volume of fluid (VOF) model. The computational domain consists of a gas flow channel appropriate for commercial stacks for automotive applications. The effects of superficial air velocity, channel surface wettability, and channel cross-section geometry are investigated through quantitative comparison of two-phase pressure drop, area coverage ratio (ACR) over the gas diffusion layer (GDL) and liquid removal time. Top wall film flow was identified as a desirable feature since it did not cover the GDL and facilitated transport of oxygen to the reaction sites while removing the water. A range of hydrophilic channel walls in combination with a hydrophobic GDL is proposed to promote this behavior while reducing the fluctuations in two-phase pressure drop for different contact angles. Additional enhancements to liquid water removal were associated with the channel cross-section geometry. An alternative trapezoidal shape is suggested for improved top wall film flow while improving the manufacturability of the bipolar plates for mass production.

  3. Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education Locations Predominantly Located in Federally Designated Underserved Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclift, Songhai C; Brown, Elizabeth J; Finnegan, Sean C; Cohen, Elena R; Klink, Kathleen

    2016-05-01

    Background The Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education (THCGME) program is an Affordable Care Act funding initiative designed to expand primary care residency training in community-based ambulatory settings. Statute suggests, but does not require, training in underserved settings. Residents who train in underserved settings are more likely to go on to practice in similar settings, and graduates more often than not practice near where they have trained. Objective The objective of this study was to describe and quantify federally designated clinical continuity training sites of the THCGME program. Methods Geographic locations of the training sites were collected and characterized as Health Professional Shortage Area, Medically Underserved Area, Population, or rural areas, and were compared with the distribution of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)-funded training positions. Results More than half of the teaching health centers (57%) are located in states that are in the 4 quintiles with the lowest CMS-funded resident-to-population ratio. Of the 109 training sites identified, more than 70% are located in federally designated high-need areas. Conclusions The THCGME program is a model that funds residency training in community-based ambulatory settings. Statute suggests, but does not explicitly require, that training take place in underserved settings. Because the majority of the 109 clinical training sites of the 60 funded programs in 2014-2015 are located in federally designated underserved locations, the THCGME program deserves further study as a model to improve primary care distribution into high-need communities. PMID:27168895

  4. A Survey on Coverage Control Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    V.Nivedhitha; B.Baranidharan; B. Santhi

    2013-01-01

    Coverage control algorithms play an important role in Wireless sensor network. Effective coverage control algorithms sense its coverage area with less energy spent. These coverage control models falls under various approaches like clustering, evolutionary, mobility based approaches. This paper makes a detailed survey on coverage control protocols coming under various classifications. In addition, it also discussed several protocols working mechanism with its evaluation metrics.

  5. Management of groundwater in urban centers: A case study; Greater Dammam Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective management of groundwater resources in urban centers of arid regions is vital for sustainable development and groundwater protection especially with rapid growth of water demands under water stress conditions. Greater Dammam Metropolitan Area is a good example of rapid growing urban center due to comprehensive development and population growth. The water demand has increased by many times during the last three decades. Groundwater from local aquifers namely Dammam and Umm Er Radhuma, supplies more than 85% of the total water demands. The aquifers have been subjected to extensive and increasing groundwater pumping especially during last three decades. Negative impacts such as significant decline in water levels have been experienced in the area. A new groundwater management scheme in terms of improving the long-term water pumping policies is required for protection of the aquifers groundwater productivity. A special numerical simulation model of the multi-aquifer system including Dammam and Umm Er Radhuma aquifers has been developed to assess the behavior of the aquifer system under long term water stresses in Dammam Metropolitan Area. The developed numerical simulation model has been utilized to predict the responses of the aquifer system in terms of decline in terms of water level under different pumping schemes from the two aquifers during the next 30 years. The model results have postulated the importance of Umm Er Radhuma (UER) aquifer as a major water supply source to Dammam Metropolitan Area, as well as potential recharge source of more than 30% of the total water pumped from Dammam aquifer. These findings have been utilized in improving present and future groundwater management and conservation for the study area. Similar techniques can be used to improve the groundwater management in other parts of the country as well as other arid regions. (author)

  6. High coverage of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis in rural and non-rural settings in the Western Area, Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnie Mustapha; Conteh Abdul; Koroma Joseph B; Fussum Daniel; Smith Samuel J; Hodges Mary H; Sesay Santigie; Zhang Yaobi

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Lymphatic filariasis elimination programs are based upon preventative chemotherapy annually in populations with prevalence more than or equal to 1%. The goal is to treat 80% of the eligible, at risk population yearly, for at least 5 years, in order to interrupt transmission and prevent children from becoming infected. This level of coverage has been a challenge in urban settings. Assessing the coverage in a rapidly growing urban/non-rural setting with inadequate population...

  7. Diversity of Bacterial Communities of Fitness Center Surfaces in a U.S. Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public fitness centers and exercise facilities have been implicated as possible sources for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial community residing on the surfaces in these indoor environments is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the overall bacterial ecology of selected fitness centers in a metropolitan area (Memphis, TN, USA utilizing culture-independent pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from the skin-contact surfaces (e.g., exercise instruments, floor mats, handrails, etc. within fitness centers. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Firmicutes phyla, followed by Proteobacter and Actinobacteria, with a total of 17 bacterial families and 25 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human and environmental origin (including, air, dust, soil, and water. Additionally, we found the presence of some pathogenic or potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, and Micrococcus. Staphylococcus was found to be the most prevalent genus. Presence of viable forms of these pathogens elevates risk of exposure of any susceptible individuals. Several factors (including personal hygiene, surface cleaning and disinfection schedules of the facilities may be the reasons for the rich bacterial diversity found in this study. The current finding underscores the need to increase public awareness on the importance of personal hygiene and sanitation for public gym users.

  8. Population-based CD4 counts in a rural area in South Africa with high HIV prevalence and high antiretroviral treatment coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Malaza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the variability of CD4 counts in the general population of sub-Saharan Africa countries affected by the HIV epidemic. We investigated factors associated with CD4 counts in a rural area in South Africa with high HIV prevalence and high antiretroviral treatment (ART coverage. METHODS: CD4 counts, health status, body mass index (BMI, demographic characteristics and HIV status were assessed in 4990 adult resident participants of a demographic surveillance in rural KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa; antiretroviral treatment duration was obtained from a linked clinical database. Multivariable regression analysis, overall and stratified by HIV status, was performed with CD4 count levels as outcome. RESULTS: Median CD4 counts were significantly higher in women than in men overall (714 vs. 630 cells/µl, p<0.0001, both in HIV-uninfected (833 vs. 683 cells/µl, p<0.0001 and HIV-infected adults (384.5 vs. 333 cells/µl, p<0.0001. In multivariable regression analysis, women had 19.4% (95% confidence interval (CI 16.1-22.9 higher CD4 counts than men, controlling for age, HIV status, urban/rural residence, household wealth, education, BMI, self-reported tuberculosis, high blood pressure, other chronic illnesses and sample processing delay. At ART initiation, HIV-infected adults had 21.7% (95% CI 14.6-28.2 lower CD4 counts than treatment-naive individuals; CD4 counts were estimated to increase by 9.2% (95% CI 6.2-12.4 per year of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: CD4 counts are primarily determined by sex in HIV-uninfected adults, and by sex, age and duration of antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected adults. Lower CD4 counts at ART initiation in men could be a consequence of lower CD4 cell counts before HIV acquisition.

  9. Medicare Coverage Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Coverage Database (MCD) contains all National Coverage Determinations (NCDs) and Local Coverage Determinations (LCDs), local articles, and proposed NCD...

  10. 基于黄蜂群算法的群机器人全区域覆盖算法%Area Coverage Algorithm in Swarm Robotics Based on Wasp Swarm Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国有; 曾建潮

    2011-01-01

    The definition, classification and application of coverage are summarized. Formalized definition of terrain coverage problem is discussed adopting triples notation. After briefly introducing the response threshold model of wasp swarm, the area coverage algorithm of swarm robots based on response threshold model during the terrain coverage process is depicted in detail. The analysis of the relationship of average moving probability, response threshold and stimulus are described to guide the selection of response threshold. Finally, the relationships of area coverage rate, duplicated coverage number of cell, response threshold and stimulus are discussed by simulation experiments, which are executed on different terrain scale, the number of robots and response thresholds. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is effective and feasible.%总结当前覆盖问题的定义、分类和应用,使用三元组表示法形式化地描述了区域覆盖的问题定义.简要介绍黄蜂群的固定响应阈值模型,详细说明了群机器人基于固定响应阈值模型的黄蜂群区域覆盖算法.应用概率分析的方法对机器人的平均移动概率、响应阈值和刺激量的关系进行数学分析,从而指导响应阈值的选取.通过选取不同的区域大小、机器人数量以及响应阈值进行仿真实验,说明区域覆盖率、重复覆盖率与响应阈值、刺激量之间的关系.仿真结果表明,该算法有效可行.

  11. Karst rock-desertification of extracting vegetation coverage inversion based on NDVI serial images and dimidiate pixel model: a case study of the Yachi demonstration area in Bijie city of Guizhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Zhongfa; Xie, Jun

    2011-12-01

    With the technological development background of "3S", the research area is Yachi demonstrate area in Bijie city of Guizhou. For traditional methods, NDVI is always used to extract Vegetation information from remote sensing image. Based on theory of dimidiate pixel model,the study region defined NDVISsoil and NDVISveg,vegetation, the inversion dimidiate pixel model was established based on vegetation index(NDVI) to extract vegetation coverage, vegetation coverage can be calculated by using the model of quantifying vegetation fraction from normalized difference vegetation,then acquired relationships between NDVI Serial Images and landscape pattern karst rock-desertification, finally yachi demonstrate area gainer karst rocky desertification landscape pattern of distribution. Using this methods of karst rocky desertification landscape pattern research has significantly improved the accuracy of classification, providing a scientific basis to ecological restoration of karst rocky desertification and other integrated control.

  12. 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas, Published in 2010, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Coweta County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2010. Data...

  13. 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas, Published in 2003, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Greenwood County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2003....

  14. 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas, Published in 2001, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Steuben County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2001....

  15. 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas, Published in 2006, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Polk County, Wisconsin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2006....

  16. 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Rush County Appraiser.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. Data...

  17. Initial estimates of the temperature and fractional areas of fires at the World Trade Center Disaster from AVIRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. O.; Clark, R. N.; Boardman, J.; Pavri, B.; Sarture, C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the measurements, algorithms, analyses, and results of the fire temperature and fractional area determinations with AVIRIS calibrated spectra at the World Trade Center site in September 2001.

  18. Spatial Model for Determining the Optimum Placement of Logistics Centers in a Predefined Economic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Iulia Țarțavulea (Dieaconescu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization has stimulated the demand for logistics services at a level of speed and increased efficiency, which involves using of techniques, tools, technologies and modern models in supply chain management. The aim of this research paper is to present a model that can be used in order to achieve an optimized supply chain, associated with minimum transportation costs. The utilization of spatial modeling for determining the optimal locations for logistics centers in a predefined economic area is proposd in this paper. The principal methods used to design the model are mathematic optimization and linear programming. The output data of the model are the precise placement of one up to ten logistics centers, in terms of minimum operational costs for delivery from the optimum locations to consumer points. The results of the research indicate that by using the proposed model, an efficient supply chain that is consistent with optimization of transport can be designed, in order to streamline the delivery process and thus reduce operational costs

  19. Information Strategy of Nuclear Training Center Ljubljana in the Area of Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovenia has plans to build a repository for low- and medium-radioactive waste by 2013, the location in the very neighborhood of nuclear power plant is almost chosen, but the final approval hasn't been granted yet. The main obstacle is public opinion. Public information activities are therefore vitally important. One of the most important players in this area in Slovenia is Nuclear Training Center in Ljubljana. Though its main task is training of nuclear professionals, it has a significant role in dissemination of knowledge about radioactivity and nuclear technology also among general public. Public information is focused on youngsters. Almost one half of every generation of schoolchildren in Slovenia visits the Information center yearly and in May 2007, we have celebrated the 100,000. visitor since its opening. Live lectures, exhibition, publications and laboratory demonstrations are offered. To measure the opinion of youngsters about nuclear power and get a feed-back for our activities about 1000 youngsters are polled every year since 1993 using the same basic set of questions. The paper describes the information strategy, types of lectures and information materials, permanent exhibition with the most important exhibits. Furthermore, the results of yearly polls of our visitors and comparison with relevant Euro-barometer polls are presented. (authors)

  20. Women's Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Policy Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Feb 02, 2016 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Email ... women’s coverage in future years. Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Employer-Sponsored Insurance: Approximately 57 million women ...

  1. Recent developments in the area of insurance and indemnity coverage for transportation of radioactive materials in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 statutory amendments retained the basic structure of the Price-Anderson insurance-indemnity system. A number of significant changes were advocated during the lengthy Congressional review process, but they were rejected. Thus, Price-Anderson remains an exemplary system for providing liability coverage for the risks of a potentially-hazardous nuclear activities. (J.P.N.)

  2. Coverage Related Issues in Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dossena, Marida

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks consisting of great number of cheap and tiny sensor nodes which are used for military environment controlling, natural events recording, traffic monitoring, robot navigation, and etc. Such a networks encounter with various types of challenges like energy consumption, routing, coverage, reliability. The most significant types of these problems are coverage that originated from the nodes energy consumption constrained. In order to dominate this problem different kinds of methods has been presented where the majority of them based on theoretical methods and used unbalanced and calculated distributions. In all of the proposed methods a large numbers of nodes are used. In this paper our attempt is based on using a few numbers of sensors in order to cover the vast area of environment. We proposed an algorithm that divides the desired environment to several areas and in each of these areas by using the genetic algorithm improve the coverage. The proposed method is simulated in MATLAB softwar...

  3. Increasing immunization coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Lawrence D; Curry, Edward S; Harlor, Allen D; Laughlin, James J; Leeds, Andrea J; Lessin, Herschel R; Rodgers, Chadwick T; Granado-Villar, Deise C; Brown, Jeffrey M; Cotton, William H; Gaines, Beverly Marie Madry; Gambon, Thresia B; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Gorski, Peter A; Kraft, Colleen A; Marino, Ronald Vincent; Paz-Soldan, Gonzalo J; Zind, Barbara

    2010-06-01

    Internet as well as standard media outlets to advance a position, wholly unsupported by any scientific evidence, linking vaccines with various childhood conditions, particularly autism. Much remains to be accomplished by physician organizations; vaccine manufacturers; third-party payers; the media; and local, state, and federal governments to ensure dependable vaccine supply and payments that are sufficient to continue to provide immunizations in public and private settings and to promote effective strategies to combat unjustified misstatements by the antivaccination movement. Pediatricians should work individually and collectively at the local, state, and national levels to ensure that all children without a valid contraindication receive all childhood immunizations on time. Pediatricians and pediatric organizations, in conjunction with government agencies such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, must communicate effectively with parents to maximize their understanding of the overall safety and efficacy of vaccines. Most parents and children have not experienced many of the vaccine-preventable diseases, and the general public is not well informed about the risks and sequelae of these conditions. A number of recommendations are included for pediatricians, individually and collectively, to support further progress toward the goal of universal immunization coverage of all children for whom vaccines are not contraindicated. PMID:20513736

  4. Challenges in managing telemedicine centers in remote tribal hilly areas of Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Suresh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare Information Technology advances in the Information, Communication and Telecommunication (ICT sector have made telemedicine a common and alternate medical service delivery in remote areas. Indian Space and Research Organization (ISRO established village resource centers managed by Non-government Organizations (NGO’s all over the country in 2010. While ISRO provided satellite connectivity and required equipment for communication, tele-education, and telemedicine in Uttarakhand, Himalayan Institute Hospital Trust provided primary health care through tele-consultation to remote tribal hilly areas through village resource centers. This paper features the technical and financial challenges faced in providing tele-consultation. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 115 clients, 4 health supervisors and co-ordinating doctor from three districts was done using semi-structured questionnaires for interview. Parameters at both doctor’s and patients’ end for communication, costs involved, quality of doctor-patient interaction and patient satisfaction from Tele-consultation sessions were assessed. Results: Video quality was more satisfactory than audio. The physical presence of a doctor was felt necessary only in 33/115 (30% of the time. The average cost for telemedicine consultation works out to just Rs. 15 per patient. Around 48.7% of the queries were processed in less than 10 minutes of satellite time. Around 67% of the beneficiaries felt that their privacy was not maintained as per their expectations.  The request to extend the timing of the session was made by 85% of the clients. Conclusions: Long periods of non- connectivity due to satellite failure, lack of technical staff, lack of patient’s privacy during sessions, lack of income generation for self-sustainability, were the major challenges faced. However many patients benefitted, did not have to travel long distances for medical advice and easy follow ups were

  5. The Effect of Indoor Residual Spraying on the Prevalence of Malaria Parasite Infection, Clinical Malaria and Anemia in an Area of Perennial Transmission and Moderate Coverage of Insecticide Treated Nets in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimnig, John E.; Otieno, Peter; Were, Vincent; Marwanga, Doris; Abong’o, Daisy; Wiegand, Ryan; Williamson, John; Wolkon, Adam; Zhou, Ying; Bayoh, M. Nabie; Lobo, Neil F.; Laserson, Kayla; Kariuki, Simon; Hamel, Mary J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) have been scaled up for malaria prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are few studies on the benefit of implementing IRS in areas with moderate to high coverage of ITNs. We evaluated the impact of an IRS program on malaria related outcomes in western Kenya, an area of intense perennial malaria transmission and moderate ITN coverage (55–65% use of any net the previous night). Methods The Kenya Division of Malaria Control, with support from the US President’s Malaria Initiative, conducted IRS in one lowland endemic district with moderate coverage of ITNs. Surveys were conducted in the IRS district and a neighboring district before IRS, after one round of IRS in July-Sept 2008 and after a second round of IRS in April-May 2009. IRS was conducted with pyrethroid insecticides. At each survey, 30 clusters were selected for sampling and within each cluster, 12 compounds were randomly selected. The primary outcomes measured in all residents of selected compounds included malaria parasitemia, clinical malaria (P. falciparum infection plus history of fever) and anemia (Hbindependent effect of ITNs was reduced in the district that had received two rounds of IRS. There was no statistically significant independent effect of ITNs on the prevalence of anemia in any age group. Conclusions Both IRS and ITNs are effective tools for reducing malaria burden and when implemented in an area of moderate to high transmission with moderate ITN coverage, there may be an added benefit of IRS. The value of adding ITNs to IRS is less clear as their benefits may be masked by IRS. Additional monitoring of malaria control programs that implement ITNs and IRS concurrently is encouraged to better understand how to maximize the benefits of both interventions, particularly in the context of increasing pyrethroid resistance. PMID:26731524

  6. Vitamin D Deficiency in Iran: A Multi-center Study among Different Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Heshmat

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Recent studies have reported different prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in different sex and age groups in de­veloping countries. In the present survey, we elucidated the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in a multi-center study among Iranian population. "nMethods: In a random cluster sample of healthy men and women (ranged 20 to 69 years old, a number of 5232 subjects from five urban metropolitans' cities (Tehran, Tabriz, Mashhad, Shiraz and Booshehr were recruited in 2001. Fasting blood sam­ple was taken from participants and sent to the laboratory for measurement of 25-hydroxy vitamin D level. Meta-analy­sis was performed using fixed effect method for estimation of vitamin D deficiency prevalence in a national level.      "nResults: Moderate to severe vitamin D deficiency was estimated in urban areas (except for Booshehr because of its heterogene­ity equal to 47.2, 45.7 and 44.2% in age groups of <50, 50-60 and 60≤ years, respectively among men and 54.2, 41.2 and 37.5 percent among women in the same age groups. The highest prevalence of moderate to severe vitamin D defi­ciency in men was observed in Tehran. Mashhad and Booshehr had also the lowest prevalence of moderate to severe vita­min D deficiency among men and women."nConclusion: Iran is a country with high prevalence of moderate to severe vitamin D deficiency and the prevalence of this defi­ciency is more evident in Tehran, capital of Iran. Therefore, consideration of main predictors for vitamin D deficiency in all age groups especially in Tehran is recommended.   

  7. Long view of center area of art gallery with crane display

    OpenAIRE

    Kletnieks, Carolyn (Photographer)

    2007-01-01

    These paper cranes were exhibited in the Perspective Art Gallery, Squires Student Center. 33,000 paper cranes were received as condolence gifts after the April 16, 2007 shootings on the Virginia Tech campus.

  8. Wide Coverage Antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Zackrisson, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Small satellites require small and lightweight antennas for telemetry and command function as well as for downlinking of data. We have during the last thirty years developed a large suite of wide coverage antennas. The basic radiator designs used are quadrifilar helices, waveguides, horns and patch excited cups (PEC) depending on frequency range, coverage requirements and application. The antenna designs range from L-band up to Ka-band frequencies. Typical coverages for the antennas are from ...

  9. Coverage and Compliance of Mass Drug Administration for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in Endemic Areas of Sagar and Damoh Districts, Madhya Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Sharma, P K Kasar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF is one of the oldest and most debilitating of the neglected tropical diseases. An estimated 120 million people in 73 endemic countries are currently infected with LF, 53 countries are implementing MDA to interrupt transmission. The mass drug administration (MDA with single dose of diethylcarbamazine (DEC was carried out for the eligible population in Sagar and Damoh district of Madhya Pradesh to eliminate LF. Objective: To asses programme in terms of coverage and compliance of MDA against filariasis, reasons for non compliance in Sagar and Damoh district of Madhya Pradesh. Material and Method: A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Sagar and Damoh district of MP. A total of eight clusters, one urban and three rural clusters were selected in each district. The data were collected in pretested Performa and analyzed. Results: The study includes 240 families with a total eligible population was 1155 in two districts of eight clusters. The compliance rate were 85.52% in Sagar, 42.82% in Damoh district and total compliance was 66.66% observed by us which was below the expected target .The important cause of non compliance was drug distributor not asked to take drug in front of him 50% and in 23% did not received drug or not present at home at the time of drug distribution. Conclusion: There is urgent need to strengthen MDA programme implementation and effective drug delivery strategies which increase compliance of drug.

  10. Terrorism and nuclear damage coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with nuclear terrorism and the manner in which nuclear operators can insure themselves against it, based on the international nuclear liability conventions. It concludes that terrorism is currently not covered under the treaty exoneration provisions on 'war-like events' based on an analysis of the concept on 'terrorism' and travaux preparatoires. Consequently, operators remain liable for nuclear damage resulting from terrorist acts, for which mandatory insurance is applicable. Since nuclear insurance industry looks at excluding such insurance coverage from their policies in the near future, this article aims to suggest alternative means for insurance, in order to ensure adequate compensation for innocent victims. The September 11, 2001 attacks at the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, DC resulted in the largest loss in the history of insurance, inevitably leading to concerns about nuclear damage coverage, should future such assaults target a nuclear power plant or other nuclear installation. Since the attacks, some insurers have signalled their intentions to exclude coverage for terrorism from their nuclear liability and property insurance policies. Other insurers are maintaining coverage for terrorism, but are establishing aggregate limits or sublimits and are increasing premiums. Additional changes by insurers are likely to occur. Highlighted by the September 11th events, and most recently by those in Madrid on 11 March 2004, are questions about how to define acts of terrorism and the extent to which such are covered under the international nuclear liability conventions and various domestic nuclear liability laws. Of particular concern to insurers is the possibility of coordinated simultaneous attacks on multiple nuclear facilities. This paper provides a survey of the issues, and recommendations for future clarifications and coverage options.(author)

  11. E-Center: A Collaborative Platform for Wide Area Network Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, M.; DeMar, P.; Tierney, B.; Lake, A.; Metzger, J.; Frey, M.; Calyam, P.

    2012-12-01

    The E-Center is a social collaborative web-based platform for assisting network users in understanding network conditions across network paths of interest to them. It is designed to give a user the necessary tools to isolate, identify, and resolve network performance-related problems. E-Center provides network path information on a link-by-link level, as well as from an end-to-end perspective. In addition to providing current and recent network path data, E-Center is intended to provide a social media environment for them to share issues, ideas, concerns, and problems. The product has a modular design that accommodates integration of other network services that make use of the same network path and performance data.

  12. E-Center: A Collaborative Platform for Wide Area Network Users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The E-Center is a social collaborative web-based platform for assisting network users in understanding network conditions across network paths of interest to them. It is designed to give a user the necessary tools to isolate, identify, and resolve network performance-related problems. E-Center provides network path information on a link-by-link level, as well as from an end-to-end perspective. In addition to providing current and recent network path data, E-Center is intended to provide a social media environment for them to share issues, ideas, concerns, and problems. The product has a modular design that accommodates integration of other network services that make use of the same network path and performance data.

  13. Center for Theoretical Underground Physics and Related Areas - CETUP*2013 Summer Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczerbinska, Barbara

    2014-06-01

    In response to an increasing interest in experiments conducted at deep underground facilities around the world, in 2010 the theory community has proposed a new initiative - a Center for Theoretical Underground Physics and Related Areas (CETUP*). The main goal of CETUP* is to bring together people with different talents and skills to address the most exciting questions in particle and nuclear physics, astrophysics, geosciences, and geomicrobiology. Scientists invited to participate in the program do not only provide theoretical support to the underground science, they also examine underlying universal questions of the 21st century including: What is dark matter?, What are the masses of neutrinos?, How have neutrinos shaped the evolution of the universe?, How were the elements from iron to uranium made?, What is the origin and thermal history of the Earth? The mission of the CETUP* is to promote an organized research in physics, astrophysics, geoscience, geomicrobiology and other fields related to the underground science via individual and collaborative research in dynamic atmosphere of intense scientific interactions. Our main goal is to bring together scientists scattered around the world, promote the deep underground science and provide a stimulating environment for creative thinking and open communication between researches of varying ages and nationalities. CETUP*2014 included 5 week long program (June 24 – July 26, 2013) covering various theoretical and experimental aspects of Dark Matter, Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics. Two week long session focused on Dark Matter (June 24-July 6) was followed by two week long program on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (July 15-26). The VIIth International Conference on Interconnections between Particle Physics and Cosmology (PPC) was sandwiched between these sessions (July 8-13) covering the subjects of dark matter, neutrino physics, gravitational waves, collider physics and other from both theoretical end experimental

  14. Examination Of The Influence Of Service Quality On Membership Renewal In Fitness Centers In San Francisco Bay Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Chih Wei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporations have to learn how to satisfy their customers’ various demands as the era of interactivity with customers has emerged (Pepper & Rogers, 1999. For fitness center, customers’ demands are increasing and diversified. Therefore, service quality is an index of quality assessment from customers for service-producing industries. Furthermore, the concept of corporate expansion and customer relationship has become the foundation of service-providers for higher profitability through customers’ renewal of membership. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of service quality on the renewal willingness of fitness center membership. Customers from four fitness centers in the San Francisco Bay Area, USA, were randomly selected for this survey. A total of 50 subjects participated in this survey. The data was analyzed by multiple regression and stepwise regression. The result indicated that the service quality has positive influence on the renewal willingness of membership.

  15. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  16. Investigations On Historic Centers In Seismic Areas: Guidelines For The Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the earthquake that hit central Italy in 1979, many small historic centers were restored. A subsequent seismic event occurred in 1997 in Umbria-Marche regions revealed that some techniques used in the previous interventions were not successful due to low durability of new materials and/or incompatibility between the new and the existing materials and structures. An extensive investigation on four small typical historic centers in Umbria was carried out. The objectives of the research were: (i) to define a methodology for the vulnerability analysis of historic buildings at the level of the historic centre, (ii) to collect information on the effectiveness of the repair techniques both traditional and new, (iii) to set up Databases storing the information useful to prepare rescue plans, (iv) to use the collected knowledge for the implementation of reliable models for the vulnerability analysis, (v) to prepare guidelines for investigation and vulnerability analysis

  17. Integrated Coverage Measurement and Analysis System for Outdoor Coverage WLAN

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmazer, Şafak Enes

    2011-01-01

    Daily usage of Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) in business life for specific purposes has became much more critical than before since it is sometimes crucial to have wireless connectivity and seamless roaming around the working environment. In this thesis, steps required in order to design and implement a large scale outdoor IEEE 802.11g WLAN will be shown. This WLAN project has been deployed in north of Sweden and target coverage was an open area consisting of a deep pit mine, connecting...

  18. Probing the center-vortex area law in d=3: The role of inert vortices

    CERN Document Server

    Cornwall, J M

    2006-01-01

    In center vortex theory, beyond the simplest picture of confinement several conceptual problems arise that are the subject of this paper. Confinement arises through averaging of phase factors which are gauge-group center elements raised to the power of the Gauss linking numbers of vortices. The simplest approach to confinement counts this link number by counting the number of vortices, considered in d=3 as infinitely-long closed self-avoiding random walks on a cubical lattice, piercing any surface spanning the Wilson loop. A given vortex, however, may pierce the spanning surface multiply with a link number smaller than the number of piercings. We call such vortices inert (although they may be only partially-inert). We estimate the dilution factor from inert vortices that reduces the ratio of fundamental string tension to vortex areal piercing density as roughly 0.6. Next we show how inert vortices resolve the old problem that the link number of a given vortex configuration is the same for any choice of spanni...

  19. Development and formative evaluation of an innovative mHealth intervention for improving coverage of community-based maternal, newborn and child health services in rural areas of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiren Modi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new cadre of village-based frontline health workers, called Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs, was created in India. However, coverage of selected community-based maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH services remains low. Objective: This article describes the process of development and formative evaluation of a complex mHealth intervention (ImTeCHO to increase the coverage of proven MNCH services in rural India by improving the performance of ASHAs. Design: The Medical Research Council (MRC framework for developing complex interventions was used. Gaps were identified in the usual care provided by ASHAs, based on a literature search, and SEWA Rural's1 three decades of grassroots experience. The components of the intervention (mHealth strategies were designed to overcome the gaps in care. The intervention, in the form of the ImTeCHO mobile phone and web application, along with the delivery model, was developed to incorporate these mHealth strategies. The intervention was piloted through 45 ASHAs among 45 villages in Gujarat (population: 45,000 over 7 months in 2013 to assess the acceptability, feasibility, and usefulness of the intervention and to identify barriers to its delivery. Results: Inadequate supervision and support to ASHAs were noted as a gap in usual care, resulting in low coverage of selected MNCH services and care received by complicated cases. Therefore, the ImTeCHO application was developed to integrate mHealth strategies in the form of job aid to ASHAs to assist with scheduling, behavior change communication, diagnosis, and patient management, along with supervision and support of ASHAs. During the pilot, the intervention and its delivery were found to be largely acceptable, feasible, and useful. A few changes were made to the intervention and its delivery, including 1 a new helpline for ASHAs, 2 further simplification of processes within the ImTeCHO incentive management system and 3 additional web

  20. The Complexity of Coverage

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Majumdar, Rupak

    2008-01-01

    We study the problem of generating a test sequence that achieves maximal coverage for a reactive system under test. We formulate the problem as a repeated game between the tester and the system, where the system state space is partitioned according to some coverage criterion and the objective of the tester is to maximize the set of partitions (or coverage goals) visited during the game. We show the complexity of the maximal coverage problem for non-deterministic systems is PSPACE-complete, but is NP-complete for deterministic systems. For the special case of non-deterministic systems with a re-initializing ``reset'' action, which represent running a new test input on a re-initialized system, we show that the complexity is again co-NP-complete. Our proof technique for reset games uses randomized testing strategies that circumvent the exponentially large memory requirement in the deterministic case.

  1. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Area-averaged 850-hPa Central Pacific Trade Wind Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It is the 850-hPa trade wind anomalies averaged over the area 5oN ? 5oS, 175oW-140oW (central...

  2. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Area-averaged 850-hPa Western Pacific Trade Wind Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It is the 850-hPa trade wind anomalies averaged over the area 5oN ? 5oS, 135oE-180o (western...

  3. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Area-average 200-hPa Zonal Wind Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It is the 200-hPa zonal wind anomalies averaged over the area 5oN ? 5oS, 165oW-110oW. The anomalies...

  4. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Area-averaged 850-hPa Eastern Pacific Trade Wind Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It is the 850-hPa trade wind anomalies averaged over the area 5oN ? 5oS, 135oW-120oW (eastern...

  5. Seismic risk analysis in the Nuclear Center area using the Gumbel-I distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a comprehensive, nation wide evaluation of seismic risk for Nuclear Research Center of Mexico. The maps were created in acceleration ground motion using Gumbel-I distribution of the extreme value, whose recurrent periods were estimated 1, 25 and 50 years predictions. The results were of 1.08, 4.02 gals respectively between (1912-1990) with Richter magnitude mean of 3.2 and intensity Mercalli modified value scale was of II. The North-American plate were located the earthquakes, by subduction Coco's plate to long coast line the Ocean Pacific, the results were low seismicity value zone. The reason for this study is because here the pilot fuel plant will operate during 40 years. (Author)

  6. Coverage path planning for autonomous underwater vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Galceran Yebenes, Enric

    2014-01-01

    This thesis proposes new methods to find collision-free paths allowing an AUV to cover an area of the ocean floor with its sensors, which is known as coverage path planning. First, we propose a coverage path planning method to plan 2D, safe-altitude surveys which provides a principled way to account for obstacles in AUV survey planning. Its main advantage is that it minimizes redundant coverage when the vehicle navigates at constant depth, leading to shorter paths. Second, we provide a method...

  7. Determination of ancient volcanic eruption center based on gravity methods (3D) in Gunungkidul area Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Agus; Sismanto, Setiawan, Ary; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo

    2016-05-01

    Ancient eruption centers can be determined by detecting the position of the ancient volcanic material, it is important to understand the elements of ancient volcanic material by studying the area geologically and prove the existence of an ancient volcanic eruption centers using geophysics gravity method. The measuring instrument is Lacoste & Romberg gravimeter type 1115, the number of data are 900 points. The area 60×40 kilometers, the modeling 3D software is reaching depth of 15 km at the south of the island of Java subduction zone. It is suported by geological data in the field that are found as the following: 1. Pyroclastic Fall which is a product of volcanic eruptions, and lapilli tuff with felsic mineral. 2. Pyroclastic flow with Breccia, tuffaceous sandstone and tuff breccia. 3. Hot springs near Parangwedang Parangtritis. 4. Igneous rock with scoria structure in Parang Kusumo, structured amigdaloida which is the result of the eruption of lava/volcanic eruptions, and Pillow lava in the shows the flowing lava into the sea. Base on gravity anomaly shows that there are strong correlationship between those geological data to the gravity anomaly. The gravblox modeling (3D) shows the position of ancient of volcanic eruption in this area clearly.

  8. The Impact Of Shopping Centers In Rural Areas And Small Towns In The Outer Metropolitan Zone (The Example Of The Silesian Voivodeship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heffner Krystian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shopping centers in the Silesian Voivodeship have a significant impact on smaller settlement units located in outer areas of agglomerations. It consists mainly in changes related to social, economic, as well as functional and spatial spheres. Studies shows that shopping centers take over more and more functions of higher order (services, public culture, administration and restrict the economic activity in rural areas outer areas of agglomerations. At the stage of the irrepressible process of suburbanisation of rural areas surrounding large urban agglomerations and structural changes in towns, it is difficult to conclusively assess the consequences of the operation of shopping centers in outer metropolitan areas. The impact of shopping centers on small towns and rural areas is a very dynamic process and requires systematic research.

  9. [Significance of playroom area for morbidity in day care centers in Copenhagen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindel, A K; Christensen, M; Kronborg, D; Jensen, S T

    1997-10-13

    Absence due to illness among children in 24 daycare centres in Copenhagen was registered during two periods of one year each with a five year interval. The results from the first period have been reported earlier. In each period, the physical, environmental, hygienic and social conditions of the institutions were assessed, and the playroom area per child was registered. The total number of children increased from 855 in the first period to 921 in the second because 13 of the 24 institutions had increased their capacity in the intervening period. On average, the playroom area per child decreased with 0.27 square metre per child in the 13 institutions with an increased number of children. All children were less than three years of age. Absence due to sickness constituted 7.6% of the days during which the institutions were open. For the second period, where the childrens age had been exactly registered, the effect of age on absence due to sickness was found to be statistically significant. The direction of the effect was a decrease in illness with increasing age. However, due to a high correlation between age and time attending the institution, the effect of age could not be separated from the similar effect of length of time that the child had attended the institution. It was found that sickness will decrease with 7.8% per month that the age of the child and time attending the institution is increased. A statistically significant connection was found between the playroom area per child and absence due to sickness after correction for the influence of age in a multivariate analysis. In conclusion, the sickness will decrease with 10.8% per square metre the playroom area per child is increased. PMID:9381590

  10. The Effect of Indoor Residual Spraying on the Prevalence of Malaria Parasite Infection, Clinical Malaria and Anemia in an Area of Perennial Transmission and Moderate Coverage of Insecticide Treated Nets in Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Gimnig

    Full Text Available Insecticide treated nets (ITNs and indoor residual spraying (IRS have been scaled up for malaria prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are few studies on the benefit of implementing IRS in areas with moderate to high coverage of ITNs. We evaluated the impact of an IRS program on malaria related outcomes in western Kenya, an area of intense perennial malaria transmission and moderate ITN coverage (55-65% use of any net the previous night.The Kenya Division of Malaria Control, with support from the US President's Malaria Initiative, conducted IRS in one lowland endemic district with moderate coverage of ITNs. Surveys were conducted in the IRS district and a neighboring district before IRS, after one round of IRS in July-Sept 2008 and after a second round of IRS in April-May 2009. IRS was conducted with pyrethroid insecticides. At each survey, 30 clusters were selected for sampling and within each cluster, 12 compounds were randomly selected. The primary outcomes measured in all residents of selected compounds included malaria parasitemia, clinical malaria (P. falciparum infection plus history of fever and anemia (Hb<8 of all residents in randomly selected compounds. At each survey round, individuals from the IRS district were matched to those from the non-IRS district using propensity scores and multivariate logistic regression models were constructed based on the matched dataset.At baseline and after one round of IRS, there were no differences between the two districts in the prevalence of malaria parasitemia, clinical malaria or anemia. After two rounds of IRS, the prevalence of malaria parasitemia was 6.4% in the IRS district compared to 16.7% in the comparison district (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.22-0.59, p<0.001. The prevalence of clinical malaria was also lower in the IRS district (1.8% vs. 4.9%, OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.20-0.68, p = 0.001. The prevalence of anemia was lower in the IRS district but only in children under 5 years of age (2

  11. Accumulation of specific pollutants in various media in the area affected by a petrochemical center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results on monitoring of oil pollution around the town of Ploiesti (South Romania), known for its petrochemical and chemical industry complexes and crude oil activity, are reported. The distribution of heavy metals, rare earth and other microelements along the wind rose profile (the oil complex ∼ 20 km distance) was examined through the analysis of soil samples. Mosses were chosen as biomonitors of local atmospheric pollution with heavy metals and other toxic elements. The trace element content of vegetation growing near the territory of the plant was compared with that of the background one. The contamination of the river flowing in the vicinity of the plant was examined. Comparison of the spatial trends of different pollutants shows the influence of the same atmospheric transport phases on the uptake of trace elements by vegetation. A comparative evaluation of the results was carried out to find to what extent the amount of pollutants in the atmosphere or the amount deposited in the soil or transported by sediments contributes to pollution of the local ecosystem in the vicinity of a petrochemical center. (authors)

  12. [Ecological and hygienic condition urbanized area in the geographical center of New Moscow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, N A

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of ecological and hygienic condition of the environment was performed by ourselves in the geographical center of New Moscow--in the city of Troitsk. There was made an analysis as the published results of similar assessments in the times of the 1990s, data of Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare concerning the control for soils quality (at a single point of the city) and drinking water for 2010-2011, and the author's materials on the chemical contamination of soils and grounds in July 2013. Local foci of moderately dangerous pollution of soil were found at lots close to the motorway and in the Worsted factory: Zc (SrBaCrVNiCoCuAgZnPbBeMoWB) = 17-20, benzo (a) pyrene to 218 mcg/kg and Zn up to 233.4 mg/kg. At the point of monitoring soils complied with the requirements according to toxicological, microbiological and parasitological characteristics.. In the drinking tap water there was observed, along with the increased total hardness, the presence up to 1.6 MAC of such natural pollutants as F and Li. In the undergrounds potable water the situation is worsening according to the content of Si, As, B, Br, U. There was no monitoring of surface water and air. However, pockets of soil contamination trace the possible occurrence in the air near the ground of hygienically dangerous anomalies of heavy metals and hydrocarbons. Modern ecological and sanitary situation in Troitsk, in general, can be considered to be quite safe if compared to the quality of the environment in industrialized cities. The thing that does cause concern is the quality of drinking water. PMID:26031042

  13. Soft tissue coverage in open fractures of tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagannath B Kamath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The treatment of Gustilo Anderson type 3B open fracture tibia is a major challenge and it needs aggressive debridement, adequate fixation, and early flap coverage of soft tissue defect. The flaps could be either nonmicrovascular which are technically less demanding or microvascular which has steep learning curve and available only in few centers. An orthopedic surgeon with basic knowledge of the local vascular anatomy required to harvest an appropriate local or regional flap will be able to manage a vast majority of open fracture tibia, leaving the very few complicated cases needing a free microvascular flap to be referred to specialized tertiary center. This logical approach to the common problem will also lessen the burden on the higher tertiary centers. We report a retrospective study of open fractures of leg treated by nonmicrovascular flaps to analyze (1 the role of nonmicrovascular flap coverage in type 3B open tibial fractures; (2 to suggest a simple algorithm of different nonmicrovascular flaps in different zones and compartment of the leg, and to (3 analyze the final outcome with regards to time taken for union and complications. Materials and Methods: One hundered and fifty one cases of Gustilo Anderson type 3B open fracture tibia which needed flap cover for soft tissue injury were included in the study. Ninety four cases were treated in acute stage by debridement; fracture fixation and early flap cover within 10 days. Thirty-eight cases were treated between 10 days to 6 weeks in subacute stage. The rest 19 cases were treated in chronic stage after 6 weeks. The soft tissue defect was treated by various nonmicrovascular flaps depending on the location of the defect. Results: All 151 cases were followed till the raw areas were covered. In seven cases secondary flaps were required when the primary flaps failed either totally or partially. Ten patients underwent amputation. Twenty-two patients were lost to followup after the

  14. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, on Behalf of the Fermi Large Area Telescope Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Because high-energy gamma rays can be produced by processes that also produce neutrinos, the gamma-ray survey of the sky by the Fermi (Gamma-ray Space Telescope offers a view of potential targets for neutrino observations. Gamma-ray bursts. Active Galactic Nuclei, and supernova remnants are all sites where hadronic, neutrino-producing interactions are plausible. Pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae, and binary sources are all phenomena that reveal leptonic particle acceleration through their gamma-ray emission. While important to gamma-ray astrophysics, such sources are of less interest to neutrino studies. This talk will present a broad overview of the constantly changing sky seen with the Large Area Telescope (LAT)on the Fermi spacecraft.

  15. Accumulation of specific pollutants in various media in the area affected by a petrochemical center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Southern part of Romania is a highly industrialized region, including oil refining, ferrous and non-ferrous, chemical and power point source categories. The results from monitoring oil pollution around the town Ploiesti (South Romania), known for its petrochemical and chemical industrial compounds and crude oil activity, are reported. The distribution of heavy metals, rare earth and other microelements along the wind rose profile (at 20 Km distance from the oil complex ) was examined through the analysis of soil samples. Mosses were chosen as biomonitors of local atmospheric pollution with heavy metals and other toxic elements. The trace elements content of vegetation growing near the plant's area was compared with that of the background one. The contamination of the river flowing in the vicinity of the plant was examined. Comparison of the spatial trends of different pollutants shows the influence of the some atmospheric transport phases on the uptake of trace elements by vegetation. A comparative evaluation of the results was carried out to indicate at which extend the amount of pollutant in the atmosphere or the amount deposited in the soil or transported by sediment contributes to pollution of the local ecosystem in the vicinity of a petrochemical compound. (authors)

  16. Medicaid Coverage Of Cessation Treatments And Barriers To Treatments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2016. American Lung Association. Cessation Coverage. Medicaid data compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Office on Smoking and Health...

  17. 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas, Published in 1997, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Sawyer County Surveyors Department.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 1997....

  18. 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas, Published in 1997, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Sawyer County Surveyors Department.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 1997....

  19. 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas, Richland Co ESN Zones, Published in 2007, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, MSA Professional Services.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2007. It...

  20. 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas, Published in unknown, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Racine County Planning & Development.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of unknown....

  1. 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, St James Parish Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2011. Data by...

  2. PERSONAL AND SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MIDDLE-LEVEL MANAGERS IN VARIOUS LIVING CONDITIONS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE REGIONAL CENTER AND RURAL AREAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandr Vladimirovich Soldatov

    2014-01-01

    The article discovers the influence of middle-level manager’s place of living namely, the regional center and rural areas on the organization of the personal and social-psychological characteristics involved in interaction process. The problem of social labor motives, reflexive processes, life aspirations, time perspective, relation to the management and satisfaction with work in the context of living features in the regional center and rural areas is analyzed. Empirical research with the use...

  3. Center-to-limb variation of the area covered by magnetic bright points in the quiet Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Bonet, J A; Almeida, J Sanchez

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: The quiet Sun magnetic fields produce ubiquitous bright points (BPs) that cover a significant fraction of the solar surface. Their contribution to the total solar irradiance (TSI) is so-far unknown. AIMS: To measure the center-to-limb variation (CLV) of the fraction of solar surface covered by quiet Sun magnetic bright points. The fraction is referred to as 'fraction of covered surface', or FCS. METHODS: Counting of the area covered by BPs in G-band images obtained at various heliocentric angles with the 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope on La Palma. Through restoration, the images are close to the diffraction limit of the instrument (~0.1 arcsec). RESULTS: The FCS is largest at disk center (~1 %), and then drops down to become 0.2 % at 'mu'= 0.3 (with 'mu' the cosine of the heliocentric angle. The relationship has large scatter, which we evaluate comparing different subfields within our FOVs. We work out a toy-model to describe the observed CLV, which considers the BPs to be depressions in the mean solar ...

  4. JUSTIFICATION OF RATIONAL FOUNDATION DESIGN FOR A BUILDING WITH A HIGH CENTER OF GRAVITY FOR CONSTRUCTION IN SEISMIC AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinichev M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subjects of the study are the foundations of buildings with a high center of gravity, in particular, the foundations of high-rise buildings with developed upper floors due to the large consoles. From a set of loads, transferred to the high-rise building with a high center of gravity, we can highlight the most significant impacts, affecting the distribution of forces in the elements of the foundation. We reveal the factors playing a special role in the choice of design solutions for the foundations. The practical significance of this research is due to the demand for ground areas in the cities which are being developed, although they were previously considered unsuitable for construction. Today, one of the primary tasks for engineers and architects is increasing technical and economic performance of construction projects and meeting customers' requirements in the individual architecture. As a variant of increasing technical and economic performance of buildings in dense city building conditions is to use the arm structures in their design solutions that both low-rise and high-rise building can achieve the architectural attractiveness of the building and significantly increase the usable floor area. In the research, two types of the foundations were projected for the object which is an eight-apartment building in the ground conditions of Sochi. The analysis was carried out with such software as PC ING +. After receiving the results of numerical analyses we performed a comparative analysis of pile-slab and slab foundation with the seismicity of the construction site. Therefore, we have identified the most rational of two types of foundations

  5. Evaluation of habitual behavior related to genital hygiene in women living in a health care center area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate that habitual behaviors related to genital hygiene in women living in a Health Care Center Area. In this cross-sectional study, 400 women were sampled to represent women in reproductive ages (15-49 ages) living in the Park Health Care Center Area, Ankara, Turkey between June and September 2008. Three hundred and eighty-six (96.5%) women were interviewed for evaluation of habitual behaviors related to genital hygiene. The chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. The mean age of the study group was 32.19+/-9.54 (15-49) years. Of the study group, 21.5% had daily baths, 77.2% used cotton underwear, and 71.8% wiped front to back after using the toilet. Of those who menstruated, 83.4% used hygienic pads during menstrual periods, and 42.1% of the 321 married women confirmed practicing vaginal douching. The education level p=0.001, p=0.000, income level p=0.034, p=0.005, employment p=0.022, p=0.000, and house type p=0.005, p=0.006 were found as factors affecting general frequency of bathing and type of pad used during the menstrual period. Frequency of vaginal douching was higher in housewives than employed women p=0.000. The rate of women who had appropriate behaviors related to genital hygiene among the study group was found to be low, particularly within groups with a low socioeconomic level. Thus, it will be useful for health care employers to emphasize this issue at every opportunity (Author).

  6. Collaborative Mobile Charging and Coverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杰

    2014-01-01

    Wireless energy charging using mobile vehicles has been a viable research topic recently in the area of wireless networks and mobile computing. This paper gives a short survey of recent research conducted in our research group in the area of collaborative mobile charging. In collaborative mobile charging, multiple mobile chargers work together to accomplish a given set of ob jectives. These ob jectives include charging sensors at different frequencies with a minimum number of mobile chargers and reaching the farthest sensor for a given set of mobile chargers, subject to various constraints, including speed and energy limits of mobile chargers. Through the process of problem formulation, solution construction, and future work extension for problems related to collaborative mobile charging and coverage, we present three principles for good practice in conducting research. These principles can potentially be used for assisting graduate students in selecting a research problem for a term project, which can eventually be expanded to a thesis/dissertation topic.

  7. 高植被覆盖区遥感矿化信息提取方法研究%The study of alteration information extraction with remote sensing in high vegetation coverage area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨正萌; 白卉; 孟嵩

    2015-01-01

    Jilin Province is characterized by much vegetation and other surface coverings, such as water, shadow and so on. Remote sensing mineralized alteration information extraction method is too complex, and the results are not good. Take the method of multi-level detaching technique, combine principal components analysis and band ratio, will reduce the mask processing and the human factors, retain the original information. This method is more simple and accurate, it make a new way of mineralized alteration information with remote sensing of high vegetation coverage area.%针对吉林省由于植被覆盖、水体、阴影等干扰因素,遥感矿化蚀变信息提取方法繁琐,提取结果不理想的问题,采取主成分分析和比值法相结合,采用遥感蚀变信息多层次分离技术,省去多次掩膜处理,尽可能的保留原始信息,减少了人为因素,提取方法更为简便且准确,为高植被覆盖区遥感矿化蚀变信息提取提供了新思路。

  8. Cambios en coberturas de áreas y usos del suelo en tres humedales en el Valle del Cauca Changes of the coverage of three wetland areas in Cauca Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Andrés Núñez Restrepo

    2009-10-01

    in coverage in the study zone. The usage of GIS and correct processing of satellite images will be very helpful not only to evidence changes in soil usage in wetlands, but also in different areas where use of these technologies is very unusual.

  9. Marketing Strategies Preferred by South Carolina One-Stop Career Center Area Directors to Attract Dislocated Workers under the Workforce Investment Act of 1998: Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Eugene F.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the marketing strategies South Carolina One-Stop Career Centers Area Directors felt provided the best opportunity for dislocated workers to learn about their services. Two theories emerged: the Service Marketing Theory and the Word-of-Mouth Marketing Theory. Of the 36 area directors cited for this study,…

  10. Modified Particle Swarm Optimization for Hybrid Wireless Sensor Networks Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Efficient network coverage and connectivity are the requisites for most Wireless Sensor Network deployments, particularly those concerned with area monitoring. The Coverage Control Technology is one of the basic technologies of wireless sensor network, and is mainly concerned about how to prolong the network lifetime on the basis of meeting users’ perception demand. To optimize wireless sensor networks coverage, an algorithm which is based on particle swarm optimization with dynamic clo...

  11. 42 CFR 409.42 - Beneficiary qualifications for coverage of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Beneficiary qualifications for coverage of services. 409.42 Section 409.42 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Insurance § 409.42 Beneficiary qualifications for coverage of services. To qualify for Medicare coverage...

  12. Extracellular polymeric bacterial coverages as minimal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Saa, A; Saa, Alberto; Teschke, Omar

    2005-01-01

    Surfaces formed by extracellular polymeric substances enclosing individual and some small communities of {\\it Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans} on plates of hydrophobic silicon and hydrophilic mica are analyzed by means of atomic force microscopy imaging. Accurate nanoscale descriptions of such coverage surfaces are obtained. The good agreement with the predictions of a rather simple but realistic theoretical model allows us to conclude that they correspond, indeed, to minimal area surfaces enclosing a given volume associated with the encased bacteria. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first shape characterization of the coverage formed by these biomolecules, with possible applications to the study of biofilms.

  13. The effect of breast cancer health education on the knowledge, attitudes, and practice: a community health center catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Hu, Xiaoyan

    2014-06-01

    Studies indicate that women in China are not frequently carrying out breast cancer prevention practices. This is assumed to be due to lack of knowledge and/or lack of personalized instruction. This study was to explore the effect of breast cancer health education on women's knowledge and attitudes on breast cancer and breast self-examination, behavior related to breast self-examination among women living in the catchment area of a community health center. A pretest and posttest assessment of a 1-h health education session was conducted with 38 participants. A telephone reminder and questionnaires were administered at 1 and 3 months after the education. Three instruments were administered at each contact to assess the knowledge and attitudes on breast cancer and behavior related to breast self-examination and accuracy of breast self-examination before education, 1- and 3-month follow-ups after education. The findings showed the incidence of self-examination, and scores on the accuracy of breast self-examination practice were significantly increased immediately following the intervention and at 1- and 3-month follow-ups. Furthermore, the scores of the health belief regarding perceived benefits, perceived competency, and perceived seriousness significantly improved. The current findings imply community-based intervention could be used to teach women about the general knowledge of breast cancer and how to perform breast self-examination correctly, especially for women who are lack of such information. PMID:24504664

  14. Impact of low altitude coverage requirements on air-ground communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magenheim, B.

    1981-03-01

    A representative area of Appalachia surrounding Charleston, West Virginia is analyzed in terms of existing helicopter traffic patterns and communications facilities. Traffic patterns were established from telephone interviews with pilots flying this area regularly. Communications coverage was established from computer generated coverage contours obtained from the Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis Center (ECAC) and verified by pilot interviews and one flight test (as reported by the FAA Technical Center). Techniques for improving coverage are discussed. These include two new remote communication outlets located in the mountains west and south of Beckley, W. Va., a high gain antenna at Charleston pointed in a southerly direction, the use of mobile radio telephone to permit pilots to access nearby telephone facilities when on the ground at a remote site, short range less than 150 miles, hf radio, and a discrete frequency for exclusive use by low-flying aircraft. FAA activities directed at improving communications to helicopter flying to and from offshore oil and gas platforms in the Gulf of Mexico is presented in an Appendix.

  15. Angular dependence of the facular-sunspot coverage relation as derived by MDI magnetograms

    CERN Document Server

    Criscuoli, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the variation over the solar magnetic activity cycle of the area of facular/network features identified on broad band and narrow band imagery is positively correlated with the sunspot area and number, the relation between the area coverages being described as either linear or quadratic. On the other hand, the temporal variation of the spatial distributions of faculae, network and sunspots follows patterns that are less obviously correlated, so that we expect the relation that describes variation of the area coverage of different types of magnetic features to vary with the position over the disk. In this work we employ MDI full-disk magnetograms acquired during Cycle 23 and at the beginning of Cycle 24 to investigate the relation between the coverage of magnetic elements characterized by different amounts of magnetic flux and located at different angular distances from disk center with the sunspot number. In agreement with some previous studies we find that daily data are best ...

  16. Trajectories of PTSD Among Lower Manhattan Residents and Area Workers Following the 2001 World Trade Center Disaster, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alice E; Caramanica, Kimberly; Maslow, Carey B; Brackbill, Robert M; Stellman, Steven D; Farfel, Mark R

    2016-04-01

    Group-based trajectory modeling was used to explore empirical trajectories of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 17,062 adult area residents/workers (nonrescue/recovery workers) enrolled in the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry using 3 administrations of the PTSD Checklist (PCL) over 9 years of observation. Six trajectories described PTSD over time: low-stable (48.9%), moderate-stable (28.3%), moderate-increasing (8.2%), high-stable (6.0%), high-decreasing (6.6 %), and very high-stable (2.0%). To examine factors associated with improving or worsening PTSD symptoms, groups with similar intercepts, but different trajectories were compared using bivariate analyses and logistic regression. The adjusted odds of being in the moderate-increasing relative to the moderate-stable group were significantly greater among enrollees reporting low social integration (OR = 2.18), WTC exposures (range = 1.34 to 1.53), job loss related to the September 11, 2001 disaster (OR = 1.41), or unmet mental health need/treatment (OR = 4.37). The odds of being in the high-stable relative to the high-decreasing group were significantly greater among enrollees reporting low social integration (OR = 2.23), WTC exposures (range = 1.39 to 1.45), or unmet mental health need/treatment (OR = 3.42). The influence of severe exposures, scarce personal/financial resources, and treatment barriers on PTSD trajectories suggest a need for early and ongoing PTSD screening postdisaster. PMID:26954702

  17. Press Coverage and Political Accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, James; Strömberg, David

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the impact of press coverage on citizen knowledge, politicians' actions, and policy. We find that a poor fit between newspaper markets and political districts reduces press coverage of politics. We use variation in this fit due to redistricting to identify the effects of reduced coverage. Exploring the links in the causal chain of media effects -- voter information, politicians' actions and policy -- we find statistically significant and substantively important effec...

  18. DENTAL CARE COVERAGE AND RETIREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Manski, Richard J.; Moeller, John; Chen, Haiyan; Clair, Patricia A.; Schimmel, Jody; Magder, Larry; John V. Pepper

    2010-01-01

    Dental insurance, generally not covered in Medicare, is an important factor in the decision to seek dental care. We examine the convergence of an aging population, retirement and a decreased availability of dental care coverage using data from the Health and Retirement Study. We show that being in the labor force is a strong predictor of having dental coverage. For older retired adults not in the labor force, the only source for dental coverage is either a post retirement health benefit or sp...

  19. [Urban vegetation coverage change inside the Third-Ring Road of Shenyang City, China: a study with linear spectral unmixing technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian-Bo; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiao-Yu; He, Xing-Yuan

    2009-05-01

    Based on the Landsat TM images of 2001 and 2006, and by using linear spectral unmixing (LSU) technique, the information of urban vegetation coverage inside the Third-Ring Road of Shenyang City was extracted, and the dynamic change of the vegetation coverage in 2001-2006 was analyzed, in combining with a land use map derived from the visual interpretation of a QuickBird image of 2006. The results showed that in 2001-2006, the urban vegetation coverage in study area changed drastically. Urban greening and the cropland encroachment caused by urban sprawl coexisted, and the vegetation gain from urban greening was larger than the vegetation loss from cropland encroachment. The vegetation coverage of road, residence, public facilities, and park and square increased with varying degrees (5%-9%), while industrial land changed little. The spatial distribution of urban greening was relatively reasonable. Though the polarization of vegetation coverage between central city and suburban still existed, this polarization had been mitigated to some extent. With the increase of the distance from city center, the vegetation coverage increased in sequence of park and square (0.8% x km(-1)) road (2.9% x km(-1)). The polarization of vegetation coverage in public facilities and road were still serious, suggesting that more greening programs and strict conservation efforts were needed. PMID:19803172

  20. Broadband, large-area microwave antenna for optically detected magnetic resonance of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kento; Monnai, Yasuaki; Saijo, Soya; Fujita, Ryushiro; Watanabe, Hideyuki; Ishi-Hayase, Junko; Itoh, Kohei M; Abe, Eisuke

    2016-05-01

    We report on a microwave planar ring antenna specifically designed for optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. It has the resonance frequency at around 2.87 GHz with the bandwidth of 400 MHz, ensuring that ODMR can be observed under external magnetic fields up to 100 G without the need of adjustment of the resonance frequency. It is also spatially uniform within the 1-mm-diameter center hole, enabling the magnetic-field imaging in the wide spatial range. These features facilitate the experiments on quantum sensing and imaging using NV centers at room temperature. PMID:27250439

  1. Coverage and Connectivity Issue in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachit Trivedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are an emerging area of interest in research and development. It finds use in military surveillance, health care, environmental monitoring, forest fire detection and smart environments. An important research issue in WSNs is the coverage since cost, area and lifetime are directly validated to it.In this paper we present an overview of WSNs and try to refine the coverage and connectivity issues in wireless sensor networks.

  2. OPTICS Based Coverage in Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Adak, Chandranath

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the coverage problem of wireless sensor network. We use the density based clustering technique - OPTICS to cover a target region with less number of sensor nodes. OPTICS works well to identify the outliers, core points and it obtains the denser regions. We define a level of acceptance to find next appropriate sensor in the region. We eliminate overlapped area and obtain a decision tree to minimally cover up the target region.

  3. Effective coverage: a metric for monitoring Universal Health Coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in monitoring universal health coverage (UHC is identifying an indicator that can adequately capture the multiple components underlying the UHC initiative. Effective coverage, which unites individual and intervention characteristics into a single metric, offers a direct and flexible means to measure health system performance at different levels. We view effective coverage as a relevant and actionable metric for tracking progress towards achieving UHC. In this paper, we review the concept of effective coverage and delineate the three components of the metric - need, use, and quality - using several examples. Further, we explain how the metric can be used for monitoring interventions at both local and global levels. We also discuss the ways that current health information systems can support generating estimates of effective coverage. We conclude by recognizing some of the challenges associated with producing estimates of effective coverage. Despite these challenges, effective coverage is a powerful metric that can provide a more nuanced understanding of whether, and how well, a health system is delivering services to its populations.

  4. 77 FR 15665 - Cellular Service, Including Changes in Licensing of Unserved Area; Interim Restrictions and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... the first time included mandatory coverage of geography (rather than population). In our proposed... of all areas or population centers in a geographic-based license. 33. We also seek comment on whether... bidding. Disputes over existing CGSA boundaries and the distribution of the remaining Unserved Area...

  5. Measurement of macular center retina of area by APS-B digital fluorescein fundus angiography and image analysis system and its significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To measure the area of macular foveal avascular zone (FAZ) without area vasculosa with APS-B digital fluorescein fundus angiography (FFA) and image analysis system. and provide the normal morphological data and technique for clinical work. Methods: The 49 normal eyes in 37 cases without eye diseases were detected with digital FFA. All objects of the study had clear dioptric media without retinal disease, such as retinal hemorrhage in center of retina. The area of FAZ was calculated with APS-B image analysis system; the difference FAZ areas between yonger age group and older age group was compared, then the correlationship between age and FAZ area was analyzed. Results: The normal FAZ area was (0.32±0.09) mm2, and it was (0.23±0.07) mm2 in yonger age group, and the FAZ area in older age group was (0.26±0.11) mm2. There was no significant difference between groups (P>0.05). There was no correlationship between age increasing and macular area (r=0.312, P=0.106), but there were greater differences of FAZ area, between individuals. Conclusion: The FAZ area obtained with APS-B digital FFA and image analysis system doesn't change with age increasing. (authors)

  6. Surface Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Delaunay Tetrahedralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work is presented a new method for sensor deployment on 3D surfaces. The method was structured on different steps. The first one aimed discretizes the relief of interest with Delaunay algorithm. The tetrahedra and relative values (spatial coordinates of each vertex and faces) were input to construction of 3D Voronoi diagram. Each circumcenter was calculated as a candidate position for a sensor node: the corresponding circular coverage area was calculated based on a radius r. The r value can be adjusted to simulate different kinds of sensors. The Dijkstra algorithm and a selection method were applied to eliminate candidate positions with overlapped coverage areas or beyond of surface of interest. Performance evaluations measures were defined using coverage area and communication as criteria. The results were relevant, once the mean coverage rate achieved on three different surfaces were among 91% and 100%

  7. Surface Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Delaunay Tetrahedralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, M. G.; Neves, L. A.; Pinto, A. R.; Nascimento, M. Z.; Zafalon, G. F. D.; Valêncio, C.

    2015-01-01

    In this work is presented a new method for sensor deployment on 3D surfaces. The method was structured on different steps. The first one aimed discretizes the relief of interest with Delaunay algorithm. The tetrahedra and relative values (spatial coordinates of each vertex and faces) were input to construction of 3D Voronoi diagram. Each circumcenter was calculated as a candidate position for a sensor node: the corresponding circular coverage area was calculated based on a radius r. The r value can be adjusted to simulate different kinds of sensors. The Dijkstra algorithm and a selection method were applied to eliminate candidate positions with overlapped coverage areas or beyond of surface of interest. Performance evaluations measures were defined using coverage area and communication as criteria. The results were relevant, once the mean coverage rate achieved on three different surfaces were among 91% and 100%.

  8. Angular Dependence of the Facular-Sunspot Coverage Relation as Derived by MDI Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuoli, S.

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that the variation over the solar magnetic activity cycle of the area of facular/network features identified from broad-band and narrow-band imagery is positively correlated with the sunspot area and number, the relation being described as either linear or quadratic. On the other hand, the temporal variation of the spatial distributions of faculae, network and sunspots follows patterns that are less obviously correlated, so that we expect the relation that describes variation of the area coverage of different types of magnetic features to vary with the position over the disk. In this work we employ Michelson Doppler Interferometer (MDI) full-disk magnetograms acquired during solar cycle 23 and at the beginning of cycle 24 to investigate the relation between the coverage of magnetic elements characterized by different amounts of magnetic flux and located at different angular distances from disk center with the sunspot number. In agreement with some previous studies we find that daily data are best described by a quadratic function while data averaged over six months are best described by a linear function. In both cases the coefficients of the fits show large dependence on the position over the disk and the magnetic flux. We also find that toward disk center six-month averaged data show asymmetries between the ascending and the descending phases. The implications for solar irradiance modeling are discussed.

  9. Modified Particle Swarm Optimization for Hybrid Wireless Sensor Networks Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient network coverage and connectivity are the requisites for most Wireless Sensor Network deployments, particularly those concerned with area monitoring. The Coverage Control Technology is one of the basic technologies of wireless sensor network, and is mainly concerned about how to prolong the network lifetime on the basis of meeting users’ perception demand. To optimize wireless sensor networks coverage, an algorithm which is based on particle swarm optimization with dynamic clonal selection is proposed. This algorithm controls the clonal quantity and variation range of particle which represents the locations of all mobile sensor nodes, by coverage rate and similarity among the swarm to avoiding being trapped in local optimum. By comparison of the simulation results with other algorithms, this optimization algorithm could improve the performance of network coverage more effectively.

  10. Computer copings for partial coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denissen, H; van der Zel, J; Reisig, J; Vlaar, S; de Ruiter, W; van Waas, R

    1999-04-01

    Partial coverage posterior tooth preparations are very complex surfaces for computer surface digitization, computer design, and manufacture of ceramic copings. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether the Computer Integrated Crown Reconstruction (Cicero) system was compatible with a proposed partial coverage preparation design and capable of producing ceramic copings. Posterior teeth were prepared for partial coverage copings with deep gingival chamfers in the proximal boxes and around the functional cusps (buccal of mandibular and lingual of maxillary posterior teeth). The nonfunctional cusps (lingual of mandibular and buccal of maxillary posterior teeth) were prepared with broad bevels following the inclined occlusal plane pattern. Optical impressions were taken of stone dies by means of a fast laser-line scanning method that measured the three-dimensional geometry of the partial coverage preparation. Computers digitized the images, and designed and produced the ceramic copings. The Cicero system digitized the partial coverage preparation surfaces precisely with a minor coefficient of variance of 0.2%. The accuracy of the surface digitization, the design, and the computer aided milling showed that the system was capable of producing partial coverage copings with a mean marginal gap of 74 microns. This value was obtained before optimizing the marginal fit by means of porcelain veneering. In summary, Cicero computer technology, i.e., surface digitization, coping design, and manufacture, was compatible with the described partial coverage preparations for posterior teeth. PMID:11351490

  11. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis: Waste Pit Area storm water runoff control, Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report evaluates remedial action alternatives at the Feed Materials production Center in response to the need to contain contaminated storm water runoff. The storm water is being contaminated as it falls over a radioactive/chemical waste pit which contains uranium contaminated wastes. Alternatives considered include no action, surface capping, surface capping with lateral drainage, runoff collection and treatment, and source removal

  12. Comparison of radiation doses obtained for radiation monitoring of controlled areas with radiation doses obtained for personnel dosimetry in radiodiagnosis centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we propose to search an indicator that shows, at an objective way, the quality of the radioprotection actions. The method is about to determine doses, measured in the work area, connecting them with the workload, and finally get the dose for the center. Them we make a comparison with the personal film dosimetry data. We discuss the final results, evaluating the radioprotection conditions in daily work. (author)

  13. Assuring Access to Affordable Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Under the Affordable Care Act, millions of uninsured Americans will gain access to affordable coverage through Affordable Insurance Exchanges and improvements in...

  14. Matching and fairness in threat-based mobile sensor coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng-Yu, Ma T. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Yau, King Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Chin, Jren-Chit [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Rao, Nageswara S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Shankar, Mallikarjun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    2009-12-01

    Mobile sensors can be used to effect complete coverage of a surveillance area for a given threat over time, thereby reducing the number of sensors necessary. The surveillance area may have a given threat profile as determined by the kind of threat, and accompanying meteorological, environmental, and human factors. In planning the movement of sensors, areas that are deemed higher threat should receive proportionately higher coverage. We propose a coverage algorithm for mobile sensors to achieve a coverage that will match - over the long term and as quantified by an RMSE metric - a given threat profile. Moreover, the algorithm has the following desirable properties: (1) stochastic, so that it is robust to contingencies and makes it hard for an adversary to anticipate the sensor's movement, (2) efficient, and (3) practical, by avoiding movement over inaccessible areas. Further to matching, we argue that a fairness measure of performance over the shorter time scale is also important. We show that the RMSE and fairness are, in general, antagonistic, and argue for the need of a combined measure of performance, which we call efficacy. We show how a pause time parameter of the coverage algorithm can be used to control the trade-off between the RMSE and fairness, and present an efficient offline algorithm to determine the optimal pause time maximizing the efficacy. Finally, we discuss the effects of multiple sensors, under both independent and coordinated operation. Extensive simulation results - under realistic coverage scenarios - are presented for performance evaluation.

  15. Comparison of radiation doses obtained for radiation monitoring of controlled areas with radiation doses obtained for personnel dosimetry in radiodiagnosis centers; Comparacion de dosis obtenidas por monitoreo en areas controladas con las obtenidas por dosimetria personal en centros de radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescano, Roberto; Caspani, Carlos [Ministerio de Salud y Medio Ambiente, Santa Fe (Argentina). Direccion General de Auditoria Medica. Radiofisica Sanitaria]|[Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (Argentina). Faculdad de Bioquimica y Ciencias Biologicas. Escuela Superior de Sanidad

    2001-07-01

    In this paper we propose to search an indicator that shows, at an objective way, the quality of the radioprotection actions. The method is about to determine doses, measured in the work area, connecting them with the workload, and finally get the dose for the center. Them we make a comparison with the personal film dosimetry data. We discuss the final results, evaluating the radioprotection conditions in daily work. (author)

  16. 42 CFR 409.20 - Coverage of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with the furnishing of that nursing care. (3) Physical, occupational, or speech therapy. (4) Medical... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage of services. 409.20 Section 409.20 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE...

  17. Network Television Evening News Coverage of Infectious Disease Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael; Wartenberg, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Examines coverage of several infectious diseases and teenage suicide to see whether television news favors covering illness where it clusters or when it occurs near major news centers where it is easier to cover. Finds that television news did go to where the illness broke out but tended to favor reporting urban over rural suicides. (RS)

  18. The San Francisco bay area particle accelerator research center (SPARC). A collaborative effort between Stanford/SLAC and LBNL/UCSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase I Trials for treatment of cancer patients with charged particles at the UC Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) began in 1975 with helium ions. In 1977 the first carbon ion patient was treated. Unfortunately after 17 years and approximately 1000 patients treated this facility was closed in 1992. In the mean time, following the lead of investigators from LBNL several other facilities sprung up in Japan, Germany and other sites worldwide. Herein we summarize our ongoing efforts to reestablish a Particle Therapy Facility in the San Francisco Bay Area as a joint venture between two large physics research institutions: LBNL, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), and two major academic institutions: Stanford University Medical Center (SUMC) and the University of California San Francisco (UCSF). This joint effort grew out of what were initially independent efforts between UCSF and LBNL and between SUMC and SLAC. Although a formal name for this endeavor has not been adopted for the sake of this report I will use the term San Francisco Bay Area Particle Accelerator Research Center or SPARC (pronounced ''spark'') when describing this entity. Much of the detailed work concerned the design and construction of the facility envisioned was performed by a Task Force from SLAC and SUMC, while ongoing clinical and radiobiological collaborations addressing patients previously treated at LBNL continues to be lead by investigators from LBNL and UCSF. (author)

  19. Assessing Requirements Quality through Requirements Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Ajitha; Heimdahl, Mats; Woodham, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    In model-based development, the development effort is centered around a formal description of the proposed software system the model. This model is derived from some high-level requirements describing the expected behavior of the software. For validation and verification purposes, this model can then be subjected to various types of analysis, for example, completeness and consistency analysis [6], model checking [3], theorem proving [1], and test-case generation [4, 7]. This development paradigm is making rapid inroads in certain industries, e.g., automotive, avionics, space applications, and medical technology. This shift towards model-based development naturally leads to changes in the verification and validation (V&V) process. The model validation problem determining that the model accurately captures the customer's high-level requirements has received little attention and the sufficiency of the validation activities has been largely determined through ad-hoc methods. Since the model serves as the central artifact, its correctness with respect to the users needs is absolutely crucial. In our investigation, we attempt to answer the following two questions with respect to validation (1) Are the requirements sufficiently defined for the system? and (2) How well does the model implement the behaviors specified by the requirements? The second question can be addressed using formal verification. Nevertheless, the size and complexity of many industrial systems make formal verification infeasible even if we have a formal model and formalized requirements. Thus, presently, there is no objective way of answering these two questions. To this end, we propose an approach based on testing that, when given a set of formal requirements, explores the relationship between requirements-based structural test-adequacy coverage and model-based structural test-adequacy coverage. The proposed technique uses requirements coverage metrics defined in [9] on formal high-level software

  20. The Role Of Client – Centered Therapy Principles In Developing Praxiologic Competences Of Students In Rehabilitation Engineering Area

    OpenAIRE

    Raveica Gabriela; Raveica Ionel – Crinel; Mohora Cristina; Militaru Gheorghe

    2014-01-01

    The paper's purpose was to prove that teaching the principles of client – centred therapy on students from rehabilitation engineering area, is an important step in developing their praxiologic competences. The new qualification, supported by project TEORO - POSDRU/86/1.2/S/63545, “rehabilitation engineering” was developed in a new master degree program, in 3 universities from Romania, were the students are trained to adapt the environment to functional potential of persons with disabilities i...

  1. Mediating Trust in Terrorism Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    crisis. While the framework is presented in the context of television coverage of a terror-related crisis situation, it can equally be used in connection with all other forms of mediated trust. Key words: National crisis, risk communication, crisis management, television coverage, mediated trust.......Mass mediated risk communication can contribute to perceptions of threats and fear of “others” and/or to perceptions of trust in fellow citizens and society to overcome problems. This paper outlines a cross-disciplinary holistic framework for research in mediated trust building during an acute...

  2. A Wide-area VLA Continuum Survey near the Galactic Center at 6 and 20 cm Wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Law, C J; Cotton, W D

    2008-01-01

    We describe the results of a mJy-sensitivity, VLA survey of roughly 1 square degree near the Galactic center at 6 and 20 cm. Catalogs of compact and filamentary structures are given and compared to previous surveys of the region. Eight of the unusual, nonthermal radio filaments are detected in 6 cm polarized emission; three of these are the first such detections, confirming their nonthermal nature. This survey found emission from a filament at (l,b)=(359.1,0.75), or a projected distance from Sgr A* of 200 pc, greatly extending the latitude range observed with such features. There is also new evidence for spatial gradients in the 6/20 cm spectral indices of some filaments and we discuss models for these gradients. In studying compact sources, the combination of spectral index and polarization information allows us to identify pulsar candidates and compact HII regions in the survey. There is also some evidence that the flux measurements of compact sources may be affected by electron scattering from the interste...

  3. Innovation projects of atomic energy institute of national nuclear center RK in the area of peaceful use of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Institute of Atomic Energy of National Nuclear Center RK (IAE NNC RK) is located in Kurchatov. The city is situated at the border of former Semipalatinsk test site. The institute includes two reactor complexes - IGR and Baikal-1, which are rather distant from Kurchatov. Main activities of IAE NNC RK are: 1. Experimental researches of the nuclear power reactors safety; 2. Experimental researches of behavior of the structural materials for fusion and fission facilities under reactor irradiation; 3. Management of radioactive wastes; 4. Participation in the projects on decommissioning of the fast neutron reactor BN-350; 5. innovation projects: creation of first Kazakhstan's fusion reactor - tokamak KTM for materials; research and testing; development of new technologies (irradiated Be-recycling); development of new reactor technologies - project on creation of high temperature gas-cooled reactor KHTR. IAE NNC RK jointly with Japanese Atomic Energy Agency and with participation of Japanese Atomic Power Company is performing the activities on experimental substantiation of design of active core of prospective fast neutron reactor. Main goal of out-of-pile experiments at the EAGLE facility is obtaining of the information on fuel movement processes under conditions simulating the accident with melting of fast reactor core containing tube-design fuel assembly. Batch mixture is loaded into graphite crucible; then it is melded into electric melting furnace and poured into melt top trap. The outlet pipe is melted by the melt, which is poured into bottom melt trap through the pipe with sodium

  4. Influence of the velocity vector base relocation to the center of mass of the interrogation area on PIV accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouba Jan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at modification of calculation algorithm used in data processing from PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry method. The modification of standard Multi-step correlation algorithm is based on imaging the centre of mass of the interrogation area to define the initial point of the respective vector, instead of the geometrical centre. This paper describes the principle of initial point-vector assignment, the corresponding data processing methodology including the test track analysis. Both approaches are compared within the framework of accuracy in the conclusion. The accuracy test is performed using synthetic and real data.

  5. TEST COVERAGE ANALYSIS BASED ON PROGRAM SLICING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhenqiang; Xu Baowen; Guanjie

    2003-01-01

    Coverage analysis is a structural testing technique that helps to eliminate gaps in atest suite and determines when to stop testing. To compute test coverage, this letter proposes anew concept coverage about variables, based on program slicing. By adding powers accordingto their importance, the users can focus on the important variables to obtain higher test coverage.The letter presents methods to compute basic coverage based on program structure graphs. Inmost cases, the coverage obtained in the letter is bigger than that obtained by a traditionalmeasure, because the coverage about a variable takes only the related codes into account.

  6. LANL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrogen Storage: Chemical Hydrogen Storage Using Ultra-high Surface Area Main Group Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Kauzlarich; Phillip P. Power; Doinita Neiner; Alex Pickering; Eric Rivard; Bobby Ellis, T. M.; Atkins, A. Merrill; R. Wolf; Julia Wang

    2010-09-05

    The focus of the project was to design and synthesize light element compounds and nanomaterials that will reversibly store molecular hydrogen for hydrogen storage materials. The primary targets investigated during the last year were amine and hydrogen terminated silicon (Si) nanoparticles, Si alloyed with lighter elements (carbon (C) and boron (B)) and boron nanoparticles. The large surface area of nanoparticles should facilitate a favorable weight to volume ratio, while the low molecular weight elements such as B, nitrogen (N), and Si exist in a variety of inexpensive and readily available precursors. Furthermore, small NPs of Si are nontoxic and non-corrosive. Insights gained from these studies will be applied toward the design and synthesis of hydrogen storage materials that meet the DOE 2010 hydrogen storage targets: cost, hydrogen capacity and reversibility. Two primary routes were explored for the production of nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm in diameter. The first was the reduction of the elemental halides to achieve nanomaterials with chloride surface termination that could subsequently be replaced with amine or hydrogen. The second was the reaction of alkali metal Si or Si alloys with ammonium halides to produce hydrogen capped nanomaterials. These materials were characterized via X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, FTIR, TG/DSC, and NMR spectroscopy.

  7. Pairwise Optimal Discrete Coverage Control for Gossiping Robots

    CERN Document Server

    Durham, Joseph W; Bullo, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We propose distributed algorithms to automatically deploy a group of robotic agents and provide coverage of a discretized environment represented by a graph. The classic Lloyd approach to coverage optimization involves separate centering and partitioning steps and converges to the set of centroidal Voronoi partitions. In this work we present a novel graph coverage algorithm which achieves better performance without this separation while requiring only pairwise ``gossip'' communication between agents. Our new algorithm provably converges to an element of the set of pairwise-optimal partitions, a subset of the set of centroidal Voronoi partitions. We illustrate that this new equilibrium set represents a significant performance improvement through numerical comparisons to existing Lloyd-type methods. Finally, we discuss ways to efficiently do the necessary computations.

  8. 青海省浅山菜用马铃薯全膜覆盖双垄集雨栽培技术%Cultivation Techniques of Full Film Coverage and Double Ridge Rainfall Harvesting for Table Potato in Shallow Mountainous Area in Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申承环; 马辉

    2011-01-01

    就青海省浅山地区菜用马铃薯全膜覆盖双垄集雨栽培技术要点进行了探讨,并针对性地提出了解决问题的建议和措施,可为该项技术在当地和相似生态类型地区的推广、应用提供参考依据.%The points of full film coverage and double ridge rainfall harvesting technique for table potato cultivation in shallow mountainous area of Qinghai province was disscused, and pertinent suggestion and countermeasures were put forward according to the problems,thus could provide reference for the popularization and application of this technique in areas with similar ecotypes.

  9. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Recent Studies and Technology Developments in the Area of SSA/Orbital Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Hovater, Mary; Kos, Larry

    2012-01-01

    NASA/MSFC has been investigating the various aspects of the growing orbital debris problem since early 2009. Data shows that debris ranging in size from 5 mm to 10 cm presents the greatest threat to operational spacecraft today. Therefore, MSFC has focused its efforts on small orbital debris. Using off-the-shelf analysis packages, like the ESA MASTER software, analysts at MSFC have begun to characterize the small debris environment in LEO to support several spacecraft concept studies and hardware test programs addressing the characterization, mitigation, and ultimate removal, if necessary, of small debris. The Small Orbital Debris Active Removal (SODAR) architectural study investigated the overall effectiveness of removing small orbital debris from LEO using a low power, space-based laser. The Small Orbital Debris Detection, Acquisition, and Tracking (SODDAT) conceptual technology demonstration spacecraft was developed to address the challenges of in-situ small orbital debris environment classification including debris observability and instrument requirements for small debris observation. Work is underway at MSFC in the areas of hardware and testing. By combining off the shelf digital video technology, telescope lenses, and advanced video image FPGA processing, MSFC is building a breadboard of a space based, passive orbital tracking camera that can detect and track faint objects (including small debris, satellites, rocket bodies, and NEOs) at ranges of tens to hundreds of kilometers and speeds in excess of 15 km/sec,. MSFC is also sponsoring the development of a one-of-a-kind Dynamic Star Field Simulator with a high resolution large monochrome display and a custom collimator capable of projecting realistic star images with simple orbital debris spots (down to star magnitude 11-12) into a passive orbital detection and tracking system with simulated real-time angular motions of the vehicle mounted sensor. The dynamic star field simulator can be expanded for multiple

  10. 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas, Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) boundaries for the entire county, Published in 1998, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Cochise County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 1998....

  11. 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas, Important layer used in County Dispatch for routing first responders. Created using the County USPLS and documented reports on correct boundaries, Published in 2012, Not Applicable scale, Chippewa County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2012. It...

  12. 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas, Homeland Security Infrastructure Program- public safety answer point boundaries, Published in 2008, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, Georgia Department of Community Affairs.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is...

  13. Conflict coverage and conflict escalation

    OpenAIRE

    Kempf, Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    The first part of the book deals with the media's role in conflicts and provides conceptual and theoretical tools for the analysis of conflict coverage and war reporting. Under the title 'How Did We Get Here?', the second part of the volume provides the historical background needed to understand the present situation of journalism in war. The third part presents different methodological approaches to the study of war and the media, applying both quantitative and qualitative methods of analysi...

  14. Supplementary pension coverage in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Barrientos

    1998-01-01

    The 1986 Social Security Act introduced far-reaching changes to the supplementary pension environment in Britain, encouraging the growth of defined contribution pension plans and especially personal pensions. This paper examines the pattern of supplementary pension coverage of employees in Britain five years after the implementation of the Act, using cross-sectional data from the Family Resources Survey 1993-94. Two-thirds of employees in Britain are covered by private contracted-out pension ...

  15. SPORTS COVERAGE IN NATIONAL DAILIES

    OpenAIRE

    Cemil Çendek; Oğuz Özbek

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine how national daily newspapers handle the sports. Under this broad purpose, it was examined how much the newspapers cover sports, and how sports news were distributed by type, photograph and gender. Content analysis method was used in the study. The population for the research was the entire national newspapers in Turkey. The sample included the top five papers by circulation.Milliyet, Sabah and Zaman were the papers which had most coverage of sports. Looking at the ...

  16. AccessMod 3.0: computing geographic coverage and accessibility to health care services using anisotropic movement of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebener Steeve

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to health care can be described along four dimensions: geographic accessibility, availability, financial accessibility and acceptability. Geographic accessibility measures how physically accessible resources are for the population, while availability reflects what resources are available and in what amount. Combining these two types of measure into a single index provides a measure of geographic (or spatial coverage, which is an important measure for assessing the degree of accessibility of a health care network. Results This paper describes the latest version of AccessMod, an extension to the Geographical Information System ArcView 3.×, and provides an example of application of this tool. AccessMod 3 allows one to compute geographic coverage to health care using terrain information and population distribution. Four major types of analysis are available in AccessMod: (1 modeling the coverage of catchment areas linked to an existing health facility network based on travel time, to provide a measure of physical accessibility to health care; (2 modeling geographic coverage according to the availability of services; (3 projecting the coverage of a scaling-up of an existing network; (4 providing information for cost effectiveness analysis when little information about the existing network is available. In addition to integrating travelling time, population distribution and the population coverage capacity specific to each health facility in the network, AccessMod can incorporate the influence of landscape components (e.g. topography, river and road networks, vegetation that impact travelling time to and from facilities. Topographical constraints can be taken into account through an anisotropic analysis that considers the direction of movement. We provide an example of the application of AccessMod in the southern part of Malawi that shows the influences of the landscape constraints and of the modes of transportation on

  17. Telephone Service Areas, TelephoneServiceAreas-This data set represents the service areas of companies providing (dial tone) telephone service in Utah., Published in 2001, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Telephone Service Areas dataset, published at Smaller than 1:100000 scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2001. It is described as...

  18. Pastagens em alguns municípios paulistas e estudo da área basal e sombreamento Pastures in some São Paulo counties and study of basal area and green coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Vicente Chiarini

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Em levantamento do uso do solo por fotointerpretação, em cinco municípios do Estado de São Paulo, foram determinadas as porcentagens de floresta, cerrado, pastagem, campo, terra de cultura e área urbana. Complementarmente foram realizadas amostragens de campo em áreas de pasto sorteadas nos mosaicos, com determinação da área basal e sombreamento. As áreas com pastagem variaram de 55 a 78%. Os municípios de Lagoinha e Rancharia, tipicamente pastoris, apresentaram-se com 3 a 8% de agricultura e 78 a 57% de pasto. O município de Pinhal apresentou equilíbrio entre pastagem e agricultura quando tomadas as normas conservacionistas. Nos estudos de sombreamento, áreas basal e colonizada, encontraram-se variações dentro da mesma espécie de gramíneas, entre municípios, e entre as referidas espécies no mesmo município. A baixa densidade de plantas forrageiras nos pastos revela técnicas de manejo diferentes.Five counties in the State of São Paulo were studied by photo interpretation for land use. Forests, "cerrado" (savanna, grassland, pastures, crop fields and urban areas were determined and located in maps. Field samples, selected by statistical methods, were collected in four counties in order to study the vertical projection of green cover ("sombreamento", the "basal area", i. e. the soil surface occupied by vegetation, and the "colonized area", that is the area occupied by plant species. The extent of pastures in these counties oscillates between 55 and 78%. Lagoinha and Rancharia counties are typical pasture regions with 78 to 57% of the area occupied by this land use, with 3 to 8% by field crops. Pinhal county presents a balanced use of pastures and crops, according to the land capability. Variations were found in the green covered, in the basal and occupied areas for the same species among counties and among species in the same county. The low density of forage plants in all pastures suggest that a better management is

  19. Incidence of pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease in the Island of Majorca (2008-2010), an area with non-universal vaccination, and estimations of serotype & children population coverage by available conjugate vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Picazo, Juan; Dueñas, Joaquin; Ramirez, Antonio; Perez, Andres-Ricardo; Padilla, Emma; Herrero, Susana; Gallegos, Carmen; Culebras, Esther; Balseiro, Cesar; Mendez, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization reported in 2007 that inclusion of PCV7 in national immunization programs should be seen as a priority, also encouraging countries to conduct appropriate surveillances for monitoring the impact of vaccination. These analyses should be conducted in specific geographical areas and should be aimed to evolution of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), by age groups, clinical presentation, and vaccine serotypes (and non-vaccine serotypes to detect possible r...

  20. Assessing Measurement Error in Medicare Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Assessing Measurement Error in Medicare Coverage From the National Health Interview Survey Using linked administrative data, to validate Medicare coverage estimates...

  1. Medicare Coverage Policies for Biologics: The Broad Gray Line

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In October 2007, American Health & Drug Benefits asked Dr Joseph Antos to discuss the forces that have shaped Medicare's policies and their impact on the various stakeholders in US healthcare. The first part of the interview appeared in AHDB in February 2008. This second part focuses on the impact of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services drug coverage on the future of biologic products. This discussion does not reflect any new developments occurring after October, such as the recent re...

  2. 22 CFR 145.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 145.31 Section 145.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  3. 45 CFR 2543.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 2543.31 Section 2543.31 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  4. 32 CFR 32.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  5. 15 CFR 14.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 14.31 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  6. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 1210.31 Section 1210.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  7. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 19.31 Section 19.31... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  8. 40 CFR 30.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  9. 45 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  10. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  11. 2 CFR 215.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 215.31 Section 215.31 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  12. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 70.31 Section 70.31...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  13. 24 CFR 35.1140 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 35.1140 Section... § 35.1140 Insurance coverage. For the requirements concerning the obligation of a PHA to obtain reasonable insurance coverage with respect to the hazards associated with evaluation and hazard...

  14. 24 CFR 84.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 84.31 Section 84.31 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  15. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Insurance coverage. 518.31 Section 518.31... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  16. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Education... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property...

  17. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  18. 14 CFR 1260.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 1260.131 Section 1260... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Property Standards § 1260.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property...

  19. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 435.31 Section 435.31... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  20. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 600.131 Section 600.131 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with DOE funds...

  1. The contribution of heat storages to a cost optimizes supply of district heating and electricity in the coverage area Berlin of Vattenfall Europe AG; Der Beitrag von Waermespeichern zur kostenoptimalen Bereitstellung von Fernwaerme und Strom im Versorgungsgebiet Berlin der Vattenfall Europe AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christidis, Andreas; Tsatsaronis, George [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik; Koch, Christoph; Pottel, Lothar [Vattenfall Europe Waerme AG, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In collaboration with the company Vattenfall Europe Waerme AG (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany), investigations were performed in order to determine the optimal locations and dimensions of heat storage in the coverage area of Berlin as well as their economic contribution. Since the optimal dimensioning of storages and the mode of operation of the power plant park depend from each other, a coupled design optimization of the heat storage and the operation optimization (applications scheduling) of thermal power stations is necessary. For this purpose, a mixed-integer linear model was developed which considers a representative cycle of one year. The contribution under consideration describes the chosen approach as well as the results of the investigation in detail. The emphasis equally is on the determined optimal usable volumes of the heat storage, profitability and the change in the optimal operation of selected cogeneration plants by integration of storages systems.

  2. Center for Botanical Interaction Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research Area: Dietary Supplements, Herbs, Antioxidants Program:Centers for Dietary Supplements Research: Botanicals Description:This center will look at safety and...

  3. A relevant universal coverage proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Karen Davis and Cathy Schoen offer a strategic vision for universal coverage that attempts to move beyond ideological battles that have stifled progress. However, I believe that there are a few specific shortcomings with the proposal's logic that could thwart political consensus. I review some of these shortcomings and make suggestions for incremental technical improvements. In particular, I suggest that future versions of the proposal consider administering the tax credits as a "passthrough" from the government through employers to individuals. I also believe that reform proposals should address more directly the issues of provider accountability and patient information needs. PMID:14527255

  4. Sky Coverage and Burst Repetition

    OpenAIRE

    Band, David L.

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the repeater content of gamma ray burst samples I develop two models where sources burst at a constant average rate. I find that the sky coverage affects the number of repeaters in a sample predominantly through the detector livetime, and that the number of bursts in the sample is the primary parameter. Thus the repeater content of burst samples should be compared within the context of a repetition model; a direct comparison between two samples is possible only if the samples h...

  5. Real-time attitude commanding to detect coverage gaps and generate high resolution point clouds for RSO shape characterization with a laser rangefinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, M.; Beck, J.; Udrea, B.

    This paper expands on previous studies by the authors into 3D imaging with a single-beam laser rangefinder (LRF) by implementing real-time attitude maneuvers of a chaser satellite flying in relative orbit around a resident space object (RSO). Point clouds generated with an LRF are much sparser than those generated with an imaging LIDAR, making it difficult to autonomously distinguish between gaps in coverage and truly empty space. Furthermore, if both the attitude and the shape of the target RSO are unknown, it is particularly difficult to register a collection of LRF strike points together and detect gaps in strike point coverage in realtime. This paper presents the incorporation of a narrow field of-view (NFOV) camera that detects the strike point on the RSO and supplements LRF distance measurements with image data. This data is used to generate attitude command profiles that efficiently fill LRF coverage gaps and generate high density point clouds, thus maximizing coverage of an unknown RSO. Results obtained so far point the way to a real-time implementation of the algorithm. A method to detect and close gaps in LRF strike point coverage is presented first. Coverage gap detection is achieved using Voronoi diagrams, where Voronoi cells are centered at the LRF strike points. A three-part algorithm is used that 1) creates a 3D panoramic map from “ stitched” NFOV camera images; 2) correlates the areas of sparse LRF coverage to the map; and 3) generates attitude commands to close the coverage gaps. The map provides a consistent and reliable method to register positions of strike points relative to each other and to the NFOV image of the RSO without a priori knowledge of the RSO attitude. Using this algorithm, gaps and sparse areas in LRF coverage are covered with strike points, allowing for the generation of a higher-resolution point cloud than that obtained with preprogrammed attitude profiles. Attitude maneuvers can now be designed on-line in real-ti- e such

  6. SPORTS COVERAGE IN NATIONAL DAILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Çendek

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine how national daily newspapers handle the sports. Under this broad purpose, it was examined how much the newspapers cover sports, and how sports news were distributed by type, photograph and gender. Content analysis method was used in the study. The population for the research was the entire national newspapers in Turkey. The sample included the top five papers by circulation.Milliyet, Sabah and Zaman were the papers which had most coverage of sports. Looking at the distribution of sports news in five papers by sports branches, soccer was the most voluminously covered branch, followed by basketball, volleyball and Formula races. It was found out that minimal covered was devoted to such branches as wrestling and weight lifting in which we had success. It was also found out that sports news included male athletes most frequently, while news on female athletes were almost nil. It was found out that it was daily Milliyet which had most articles on sports; it was Posta which had most news and Zaman was the paper which had most visuals in sports news. An examination by branch coverage revealed that Milliyet and Hurriyet had a higher number of branches covered by diversity.

  7. Comparison of Coverage and Compliance of Mass Drug Administration 2012 in Surat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Shreyash , Shah Vinesh , Verma Anupam, Patel NB, Bansal RK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Filariasis, an infectious tropical disease is a major public health problem in India but remains neglected. This study was conducted with an objective to evaluate and compare the coverage and compliance of Mass Drug Administration and associated factors in Urban and Rural area of Surat district, Gujarat, India. Methods and materials: This cross sectional study involved survey of Urban and Rural area of Surat district covering 128 household in each. A pretested questioner was used to collect data regarding administration of Diethyl Carbamazine (DEC and Albendazole (ALB to eligible population as a part of routine MDA activity. The data was analysed using Epi info software. Results: The coverage of antifilarial drug was more than 90% in both areas without significant difference. The compliance rate, the effective coverage rate and Coverage Compliance Gap were 82.4% , 76.1 % and 17.6% respectively in urban areas which were better than those in rural areas. Conclusion: The effective coverage rate after taking into account the coverage and compliance was less than the target of 85 percent which is needed for eradication and elimination of Filariasis. The urban areas had higher effective coverage rate than rural areas. More emphasis must be given on spot consumption of the drug.

  8. Converter Compressor Building, SWMU 089, Hot Spot Areas 1, 2, and 5 Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Report, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    This Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Report (OMMR) presents the findings, observations, and results from operation of the air sparging (AS) interim measure (IM) for Hot Spot (HS) Areas 1, 2, and 5 at the Converter Compressor Building (CCB) located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The objective of the IM at CCB HS Areas 1, 2, and 5 is to decrease concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater in the treatment zones via AS to levels that will enable a transition to a monitored natural attenuation (MNA) phase. This OMMR presents system operations and maintenance (O&M) information and performance monitoring results since full-scale O&M began in June 2014 (2 months after initial system startup in April 2014), including quarterly performance monitoring events in July and October 2014 and January and May 2015. Based on the results to date, the AS system is operating as designed and is meeting the performance criteria and IM objective. The performance monitoring network is adequately constructed for assessment of IM performance at CCB HS Areas 1, 2, and 5. At the March 2014 KSC Remediation Team (KSCRT) Meeting, team consensus was reached for the design prepared for expansion of the system to treat the HS 4 area, and at the November 2014 KSCRT Meeting, team consensus was reached that HS 3 was adequately delineated horizontally and vertically and for selection of AS for the remedial approach for HS 3. At the July 2015 KSCRT meeting, team consensus was reached to continue IM operations in all zones until HSs 3 and 4 is operational, once HS 3 and 4 zones are operational discontinue operations in HS 1, 2, and 5 zones where concentrations are less than GCTLs to observe whether rebounding conditions occur. Team consensus was also reached to continue quarterly performance monitoring to determine whether operational zones achieve GCTLs and to continue annual IGWM of CCB-MW0012, CCBMW0013, and CCB-MW0056, located south of the treatment area. The

  9. Biomedical research coverage in English-language Indian newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharvi Dutt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explores biomedical research coverage in the Indian English-language newspapers. Science and technology coverage in the Indian English-language newspapers revealed dominant representation of biomedical research. The research reported was mainly from foreign sources, mostly performed in US, UK and other developed countries of Europe. Plausibly, this was the major reason that areas of medical concerns in foreign countries such as Neuroscience, Oncology, Genetics and Cardiovascular research constituted more than one-third of the total space whereas neglected tropical diseases have almost been neglected in the coverage. This is despite the fact that tropical and other neglected diseases constitute the greatest health problem in India. The study discusses the significance of this research for policy planners, media, health information dissemination and those concerned about informed and science literate citizenry in the country.

  10. Alabama 2003 Lidar Coverage, USACE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Gulf of Mexico in the summer of 2003. The data...

  11. Inappropriate Dietary and Occupational Patterns: Major Risk Factors Associated With Brucellosis in the Area Covered by Karaj Health Center No. 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Brucellosis is one of the most common diseases among humans and livestock. Using contaminated and unpasteurized dairy products, having contact with infected livestock and, in general, inappropriate dietary patterns, as well as lack of hygiene, can be noted as the most common modes of transmission for such a disease. Objectives Since the establishment of Alborz province in Iran and, accordingly, Alborz university of medical sciences, Karaj, Iran, there has been no study on the epidemiological situation of the disease. Therefore, the present study examines the epidemiology of Brucellosis at Karaj Health center No. 2, Karaj, Iran, during 2011 - 2012. Patients and Methods This research was a cross-sectional descriptive study, on patients with Brucellosis, during 2011 - 2012, in the area covered by Karaj health center No. 2, Karaj, Iran. The data about all suspected cases, collected from polyclinic, laboratories and health centers, and confirmed by Wright, combs Wright and 2ME tests were reviewed. After recording the demographic data and laboratory results, they were entered into STATA 11 software and analyzed. Results The number of patients reported in this study was 67. The incidence of the disease during 2011 - 2012 was, respectively, 3.75 and 4.6 per hundred thousand and the average incidence of the disease was 4.2 per hundred thousand. The highest rate of infection, in terms of occupation, was found among ranchers (40.29%. In 100% of the cases, there was a history of consumption of cottage cheese, fresh cow milk or other unpasteurized dairy products. Considering the incidence season, most cases of the disease (38.80% had occurred in the spring. In terms of gender, 56.71% were male and 43.28% of patients were female. As well, in terms of age, more 50% of the patients were in the age groups of 31 - 40 and 41 - 50 years old. Conclusions Given the occurrence of more cases of the disease among individuals with risk factors, such as

  12. Risk in Daily Newspaper Coverage of Red Tide Blooms in Southwest Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zongchao; Garrison, Bruce; Ullmann, Steven G.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Fleming, Lora E.; Hoagland, Porter

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated newspaper coverage of Florida red tide blooms in four metropolitan areas of Southwest Florida during a 25-year period, 1987-2012. We focused on how journalists framed red tide stories with respect to environmental risk, health risk, and economic risk. We determined risk to be a key factor in this news coverage, being an…

  13. Nursing challenges for universal health coverage: a systematic review1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schveitzer, Mariana Cabral; Zoboli, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone; Vieira, Margarida Maria da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Objectives to identify nursing challenges for universal health coverage, based on the findings of a systematic review focused on the health workforce' understanding of the role of humanization practices in Primary Health Care. Method systematic review and meta-synthesis, from the following information sources: PubMed, CINAHL, Scielo, Web of Science, PsycInfo, SCOPUS, DEDALUS and Proquest, using the keyword Primary Health Care associated, separately, with the following keywords: humanization of assistance, holistic care/health, patient centred care, user embracement, personal autonomy, holism, attitude of health personnel. Results thirty studies between 1999-2011. Primary Health Care work processes are complex and present difficulties for conducting integrative care, especially for nursing, but humanizing practices have showed an important role towards the development of positive work environments, quality of care and people-centered care by promoting access and universal health coverage. Conclusions nursing challenges for universal health coverage are related to education and training, to better working conditions and clear definition of nursing role in primary health care. It is necessary to overcome difficulties such as fragmented concepts of health and care and invest in multidisciplinary teamwork, community empowerment, professional-patient bond, user embracement, soft technologies, to promote quality of life, holistic care and universal health coverage. PMID:27143536

  14. Effects of Expanded Coverage for Chiropractic Services on Medicare Costs in a CMS Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stason, William B.; Ritter, Grant A; Prottas, Jeffrey; Tompkins, Christopher; Shepard, Donald S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Moderately convincing evidence supports the benefits of chiropractic manipulations for low back pain. Its effectiveness in other applications is less well documented, and its cost-effectiveness is not known. These questions led the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) to conduct a two-year demonstration of expanded Medicare coverage for chiropractic services in the treatment of beneficiaries with neuromusculoskeletal (NMS) conditions affecting the back, limbs, neck, or head. Methods The demonstration was conducted in 2005–2007 in selected counties of Illinois, Iowa, and Virginia and the entire states of Maine and New Mexico. Medicare claims were compiled for the preceding year and two demonstration years for the demonstration areas and matched comparison areas. The impact of the demonstration was analyzed through multivariate regression analysis with a difference-in-difference framework. Results Expanded coverage increased Medicare expenditures by $50 million or 28.5% in users of chiropractic services and by $114 million or 10.4% in all patients treated for NMS conditions in demonstration areas during the two-year period. Results varied widely among demonstration areas ranging from increased costs per user of $485 in Northern Illinois and Chicago counties to decreases in costs per user of $59 in New Mexico and $178 in Scott County, Iowa. Conclusion The demonstration did not assess possible decreases in costs to other insurers, out-of-pocket payments by patients, the need for and costs of pain medications, or longer term clinical benefits such as avoidance of orthopedic surgical procedures beyond the two-year period of the demonstration. It is possible that other payers or beneficiaries saved money during the demonstration while costs to Medicare were increased. PMID:26928221

  15. Effects of Expanded Coverage for Chiropractic Services on Medicare Costs in a CMS Demonstration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Stason

    Full Text Available Moderately convincing evidence supports the benefits of chiropractic manipulations for low back pain. Its effectiveness in other applications is less well documented, and its cost-effectiveness is not known. These questions led the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS to conduct a two-year demonstration of expanded Medicare coverage for chiropractic services in the treatment of beneficiaries with neuromusculoskeletal (NMS conditions affecting the back, limbs, neck, or head.The demonstration was conducted in 2005-2007 in selected counties of Illinois, Iowa, and Virginia and the entire states of Maine and New Mexico. Medicare claims were compiled for the preceding year and two demonstration years for the demonstration areas and matched comparison areas. The impact of the demonstration was analyzed through multivariate regression analysis with a difference-in-difference framework.Expanded coverage increased Medicare expenditures by $50 million or 28.5% in users of chiropractic services and by $114 million or 10.4% in all patients treated for NMS conditions in demonstration areas during the two-year period. Results varied widely among demonstration areas ranging from increased costs per user of $485 in Northern Illinois and Chicago counties to decreases in costs per user of $59 in New Mexico and $178 in Scott County, Iowa.The demonstration did not assess possible decreases in costs to other insurers, out-of-pocket payments by patients, the need for and costs of pain medications, or longer term clinical benefits such as avoidance of orthopedic surgical procedures beyond the two-year period of the demonstration. It is possible that other payers or beneficiaries saved money during the demonstration while costs to Medicare were increased.

  16. Impact of the CDC's Section 317 Immunization Grants Program funding on childhood vaccination coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, David B; Honeycutt, Amanda A; Rojas-Smith, Lucia; Hersey, James C

    2006-09-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Section 317 Grants Program is the main source of funding for state and jurisdictional immunization programs, yet no study has evaluated its direct impact on vaccination coverage rates. Therefore, we used a fixed-effects model and data collected from 56 US jurisdictions to estimate the impact of Section 317 financial assistance immunization grants on childhood vaccination coverage rates from 1997 to 2003. Our results showed that increases in Section 317 funding were significantly and meaningfully associated with higher rates of vaccination coverage; a 10 dollars increase in per capita funding corresponded with a 1.6-percentage-point increase in vaccination coverage. Policymakers charged with funding public health programs should consider this study's findings, which indicate that money allocated to vaccine activities translates directly into higher vaccine coverage rates. PMID:16873738

  17. Interim Measures Report for the Headquarters Building Area Location of Concern (LOC) 2E East SWMU 104 John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Eric D.

    2016-01-01

    The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendment portion of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit issued by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), requires identification and evaluation of all known Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Locations of Concern (LOCs) located on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) property. The KSC Headquarters Building Area (KHQA) has been identified as SWMU 104 under KSC's RCRA Program. This report summarizes the Interim Measure (IM) conducted by Geosyntec Consultants (Geosyntec) for NASA under Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity Contract NNK12CA13B at the KHQA to mitigate potential exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-affected media at the eastern side of LOC 2E. The IM activities were conducted in June and July 2015 to remediate PCBs above the FDEP Residential Direct-Exposure (R-) Soil Cleanup Target Level (SCTL) of 0.5 milligram per kilogram (mg/kg) established by Chapter 62-777, Florida Administrative Code. The IM was performed in accordance with the IM Work Plan (IMWP) approved by the FDEP, dated August 2012. IM activities were conducted in accordance with the KSC Generic PCB Work Plan (NASA 2007).

  18. Center of buoyancy definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The center of buoyancy of an arbitrary shaped body is defined in analogy to the center of gravity. The definitions of the buoyant force and center of buoyancy in terms of integrals over the area of the body are converted to volume integrals and shown to have simple intuitive interpretations

  19. ROOT COVERAGE PROCEDURES IN GINGIVAL AESTHETICS

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Gülin; Fentoğlu, Özlem; Kırzıoğlu, Fatma Yeşim

    2011-01-01

    Treatments of gingival recessions which cause functional and aesthetic problems in patients take place among the important issues in periodontology. The goal of root coverage procedure is augmentation of the width and height of keratinized gingiva, as well as to obtain complete root coverage. For this purpose many mucogingival surgery techniques have been used. This review summarized the therapeutic approaches for gingival recession defects and achievements of root coverage. Keywords: Gin...

  20. Coverage statistics for sequence census methods

    OpenAIRE

    Evans Steven N; Hower Valerie; Pachter Lior

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background We study the statistical properties of fragment coverage in genome sequencing experiments. In an extension of the classic Lander-Waterman model, we consider the effect of the length distribution of fragments. We also introduce a coding of the shape of the coverage depth function as a tree and explain how this can be used to detect regions with anomalous coverage. This modeling perspective is especially germane to current high-throughput sequencing experiments, where both s...

  1. Spatial heterogeneity study of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijuan; Zhong, Bo; Guo, Liyu; Zhao, Xiangwei

    2014-11-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of the animal-landscape system has three major components: heterogeneity of resource distributions in the physical environment, heterogeneity of plant tissue chemistry, heterogeneity of movement modes by the animal. Furthermore, all three different types of heterogeneity interact each other and can either reinforce or offset one another, thereby affecting system stability and dynamics. In previous studies, the study areas are investigated by field sampling, which costs a large amount of manpower. In addition, uncertain in sampling affects the quality of field data, which leads to unsatisfactory results during the entire study. In this study, remote sensing data is used to guide the sampling for research on heterogeneity of vegetation coverage to avoid errors caused by randomness of field sampling. Semi-variance and fractal dimension analysis are used to analyze the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin. The spherical model with nugget is used to fit the semivariogram of vegetation coverage. Based on the experiment above, it is found, (1)there is a strong correlation between vegetation coverage and distance of vegetation populations within the range of 0~28051.3188m at Heihe River Basin, but the correlation loses suddenly when the distance greater than 28051.3188m. (2)The degree of spatial heterogeneity of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin is medium. (3)Spatial distribution variability of vegetation occurs mainly on small scales. (4)The degree of spatial autocorrelation is 72.29% between 25% and 75%, which means that spatial correlation of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin is medium high.

  2. Geographic Information System (GIS) characterization of historical seagrass coverage in St. Andrew Bay, Florida, 1953 (NODC Accession 0000608)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Graphical representation of historical seagrass coverage in St. Andrew Bay from United States Geological Survey/National Wetlands Research Center (USGS/NWRC) in...

  3. Prediction of Low Community Sanitation Coverage Using Environmental and Sociodemographic Factors in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, William E; Stewart, Aisha E P; Flanders, W Dana; Kramer, Michael R; Endeshaw, Tekola; Zerihun, Mulat; Melaku, Birhanu; Sata, Eshetu; Gessesse, Demelash; Teferi, Tesfaye; Tadesse, Zerihun; Guadie, Birhan; King, Jonathan D; Emerson, Paul M; Callahan, Elizabeth K; Moe, Christine L; Clasen, Thomas F

    2016-09-01

    This study developed and validated a model for predicting the probability that communities in Amhara Region, Ethiopia, have low sanitation coverage, based on environmental and sociodemographic conditions. Community sanitation coverage was measured between 2011 and 2014 through trachoma control program evaluation surveys. Information on environmental and sociodemographic conditions was obtained from available data sources and linked with community data using a geographic information system. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of low community sanitation coverage (< 20% versus ≥ 20%). The selected model was geographically and temporally validated. Model-predicted probabilities of low community sanitation coverage were mapped. Among 1,502 communities, 344 (22.90%) had coverage below 20%. The selected model included measures for high topsoil gravel content, an indicator for low-lying land, population density, altitude, and rainfall and had reasonable predictive discrimination (area under the curve = 0.75, 95% confidence interval = 0.72, 0.78). Measures of soil stability were strongly associated with low community sanitation coverage, controlling for community wealth, and other factors. A model using available environmental and sociodemographic data predicted low community sanitation coverage for areas across Amhara Region with fair discrimination. This approach could assist sanitation programs and trachoma control programs, scaling up or in hyperendemic areas, to target vulnerable areas with additional activities or alternate technologies. PMID:27430547

  4. Time-dependent ambulance allocation considering data-driven empirically required coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degel, Dirk; Wiesche, Lara; Rachuba, Sebastian; Werners, Brigitte

    2015-12-01

    Empirical studies considering the location and relocation of emergency medical service (EMS) vehicles in an urban region provide important insight into dynamic changes during the day. Within a 24-hour cycle, the demand, travel time, speed of ambulances and areas of coverage change. Nevertheless, most existing approaches in literature ignore these variations and require a (temporally and spatially) fixed (double) coverage of the planning area. Neglecting these variations and fixation of the coverage could lead to an inaccurate estimation of the time-dependent fleet size and individual positioning of ambulances. Through extensive data collection, now it is possible to precisely determine the required coverage of demand areas. Based on data-driven optimization, a new approach is presented, maximizing the flexible, empirically determined required coverage, which has been adjusted for variations due to day-time and site. This coverage prevents the EMS system from unavailability of ambulances due to parallel operations to ensure an improved coverage of the planning area closer to realistic demand. An integer linear programming model is formulated in order to locate and relocate ambulances. The use of such a programming model is supported by a comprehensive case study, which strongly suggests that through such a model, these objectives can be achieved and lead to greater cost-effectiveness and quality of emergency care. PMID:24609684

  5. Computational Methods for Analyzing Health News Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Delano J.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers that investigate the media's coverage of health have historically relied on keyword searches to retrieve relevant health news coverage, and manual content analysis methods to categorize and score health news text. These methods are problematic. Manual content analysis methods are labor intensive, time consuming, and inherently…

  6. 24 CFR 1006.330 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 1006.330... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Program Requirements § 1006.330 Insurance coverage. (a) In general. As a condition to receiving NHHBG funds, the DHHL must require adequate...

  7. 24 CFR 320.11 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 320.11 Section...-BACKED SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.11 Insurance coverage. The issuer shall maintain, for the benefit of the Association, insurance, errors and omissions, fidelity bond and other...

  8. 29 CFR 95.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Insurance coverage. 95.31 Section 95.31 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON... § 95.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance...

  9. 7 CFR 3019.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 3019.31 Section 3019.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... Standards § 3019.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  10. 43 CFR 12.931 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 12.931 Section 12.931 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND... Requirements § 12.931 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  11. Research on LTE Network Coverage Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Gu; Ren Sheng

    2011-01-01

    When deploying an LTE network, coverage planning is critical to reduce construction costs and ensure network quality. This paper considers actual network planning requirements and combines theory with simulation analysis to study LTE wireless access link and network characteristics. A theory for LTE cellular coverage planning and application methods is proposed that lays the basic foundation for LTE cellular networks.

  12. The Coverage Analysis for Low Earth Orbiting Satellites at Low Elevation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkelzen Cakaj

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Low Earth Orbit (LEO satellites are used for public networking and for scientific purposes. Communication via satellite begins when the satellite is positioned in its orbital position. Ground stations can communicate with LEO satellites only when the satellite is in their visibility region. The duration of the visibility and the communication vary for each LEO satellite pass over the station, since LEO satellites move too fast over the Earth. The satellite coverage area is defined as a region of the Earth where the satellite is seen at a minimum predefined elevation angle. The satellite’s coverage area on the Earth depends on orbital parameters. The communication under low elevation angles can be hindered by natural barriers. For safe communication and for savings within a link budget, the coverage under too low elevation is not always provided. LEO satellites organized in constellations act as a convenient network solution for real time global coverage. Global coverage model is in fact the complementary networking process of individual satellite’s coverage. Satellite coverage strongly depends on elevation angle. To conclude about the coverage variation for low orbiting satellites at low elevation up to 10º, the simulation for attitudes from 600km to 1200km is presented through this paper.

  13. 内蒙古赤峰市克什克腾旗农牧区白内障患病率及手术覆盖率调查%Survey of cataract rate and surgical coverage in agricultural and pastoral area of Chifeng Keshenketeng in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔巍; 刘志英; 于桂斌

    2012-01-01

    Background Cataract is a leading blinding eye disease,and the prevalence of cataract varies in different regions. Objective The present study was to investigate the incidence of cataract,surgical coverage rate of cataract and postoperative visual acuity,and to propose a strategy for blindness prevention in Chifeng Keshiketengqi. Methods This is a cross-sectional survey of research.A random cluster sampling method was performed in 12 populated areas in Keshiketengqi.Inhabitants over 50 years in the region were included in this survey.This study was approved by the Ethic Committee of Inner Mongolia People' s Hospital.Informed consents were obtained orally from all the subjects.Disease history,visual acuity,intraocular pressure and regular ophthamological examinations were performed.The inclusion criteria of a pilot study and detailed protocol were employed to calculate the incidence rate of cataract.The questionnaire survey was simultaneously adopted to analyze the cataract-related factors.The surgical coverage rate of cataract in this area was calculated. Results In a total 4234 inhabitants,3826 subjects participated in the survey with a response rate of 90.36%.Cataract was found in 1200 participants with an incidence rate of 31.39%.Age,the female gender and illiteracy were identified as risk factors for cataract (x2 =101.005,P =0.000 ;x2 =58.853,P =0.000 ;x2 =12.037,P =0.007 ).The prevalence rates of cataract were 36.98% and 33.56% for illiterates and women,respectively.The incidence rate in the Mongol population was significantly higher than that of the Han population ( 34.83% vs.29.76% ) (x2 =9.734,P =0.001 ).The cataract surgery rate increased yearly since 1998.When the vision acuity of the fellow eye was <0.1,the surgery coverage rate was 20.60%,but the rates were lower in female,illiterates and the Mongol population (x2 =1.993,P =0.038 ;x2 =16.463,P =0.044 ;x2 =8.523,P =0.029).When a pinhole visual acuity of <0.05 was determined as the

  14. Major Land Resource Areas (MLRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of the Land Resource Regions and Major Land Resource Areas of the conterminous United States. Land resource regions are geographic areas...

  15. Joint China-United States Report for Year 1 Insulation Materials and Systems Project Area Clean Energy Research Center Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Song, Bo [China Academy of Building Research; Zhang, Sisi [China Academy of Building Research

    2012-08-01

    In November of 2009, the presidents of China and the U.S. announced the establishment of the Clean Energy Research Center (CERC). This broad research effort is co-funded by both countries and involves a large number of research centers and universities in both countries. One part of this program is focused on improving the energy efficiency of buildings. One portion of the CERC-BEE was focused on building insulation systems. The research objective of this effort was to Identify and investigate candidate high performance fire resistant building insulation technologies that meet the goal of building code compliance for exterior wall applications in green buildings in multiple climate zones. A Joint Work Plan was established between researchers at the China Academy of Building Research and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Efforts in the first year under this plan focused on information gathering. The objective of this research program is to reduce building energy use in China via improved building insulation technology. In cold regions in China, residents often use inefficient heating systems to provide a minimal comfort level within inefficient buildings. In warmer regions, air conditioning has not been commonly used. As living standards rise, energy consumption in these regions will increase dramatically unless significant improvements are made in building energy performance. Previous efforts that defined the current state of the built environment in China and in the U.S. will be used in this research. In countries around the world, building improvements have typically followed the implementation of more stringent building codes. There have been several changes in building codes in both the U.S. and China within the last few years. New U.S. building codes have increased the amount of wall insulation required in new buildings. New government statements from multiple agencies in China have recently changed the requirements for buildings in terms of energy efficiency and

  16. A Terminal Area Icing Remote Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Serke, David J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) have developed an icing remote sensing technology that has demonstrated skill at detecting and classifying icing hazards in a vertical column above an instrumented ground station. This technology is now being extended to provide volumetric coverage surrounding an airport. With volumetric airport terminal area coverage, the resulting icing hazard information will be usable by aircrews, traffic control, and airline dispatch to make strategic and tactical decisions regarding routing when conditions are conducive to airframe icing. Building on the existing vertical pointing system, the new method for providing volumetric coverage will utilize cloud radar, microwave radiometry, and NEXRAD radar. This terminal area icing remote sensing system will use the data streams from these instruments to provide icing hazard classification along the defined approach paths into an airport. Strategies for comparison to in-situ instruments on aircraft and weather balloons for a planned NASA field test are discussed, as are possible future applications into the NextGen airspace system.

  17. Network television news coverage of environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, M.R.; Sandman, P.M.; Sachsman, D.V.; Salomone, K.L.

    1989-03-01

    Despite the criticisms that surround television coverage of environmental risk, there have been relatively few attempts to measure what and whom television shows. Most research has focused analysis on a few weeks of coverage of major stories like the gas leak at Bhopal, the Three Mile Island nuclear accident, or the Mount St. Helen's eruption. To advance the research into television coverage of environmental risk, an analysis has been made of all environmental risk coverage by the network nightly news broadcasts for a period of more than two years. Researchers have analyzed all environmental risk coverage-564 stories in 26 months-presented on ABC, CBS, and NBC's evening news broadcasts from January 1984 through February 1986. The quantitative information from the 564 stories was balanced by a more qualitative analysis of the television coverage of two case studies-the dioxin contamination in Times Beach, Missouri, and the suspected methyl isocyanate emissions from the Union Carbide plant in Institute, West Virginia. Both qualitative and quantitative data contributed to the analysis of the role played by experts and environmental advocacy sources in coverage of environmental risk and to the suggestions for increasing that role.

  18. Insurance Coverage Policies for Personalized Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hresko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of personalized medicine in practice has been slow, in part due to the lack of evidence of clinical benefit provided by these technologies. Coverage by insurers is a critical step in achieving widespread adoption of personalized medicine. Insurers consider a variety of factors when formulating medical coverage policies for personalized medicine, including the overall strength of evidence for a test, availability of clinical guidelines and health technology assessments by independent organizations. In this study, we reviewed coverage policies of the largest U.S. insurers for genomic (disease-related and pharmacogenetic (PGx tests to determine the extent that these tests were covered and the evidence basis for the coverage decisions. We identified 41 coverage policies for 49 unique testing: 22 tests for disease diagnosis, prognosis and risk and 27 PGx tests. Fifty percent (or less of the tests reviewed were covered by insurers. Lack of evidence of clinical utility appears to be a major factor in decisions of non-coverage. The inclusion of PGx information in drug package inserts appears to be a common theme of PGx tests that are covered. This analysis highlights the variability of coverage determinations and factors considered, suggesting that the adoption of personal medicine will affected by numerous factors, but will continue to be slowed due to lack of demonstrated clinical benefit.

  19. Network television news coverage of environmental risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the criticisms that surround television coverage of environmental risk, there have been relatively few attempts to measure what and whom television shows. Most research has focused analysis on a few weeks of coverage of major stories like the gas leak at Bhopal, the Three Mile Island nuclear accident, or the Mount St. Helen's eruption. To advance the research into television coverage of environmental risk, an analysis has been made of all environmental risk coverage by the network nightly news broadcasts for a period of more than two years. Researchers have analyzed all environmental risk coverage-564 stories in 26 months-presented on ABC, CBS, and NBC's evening news broadcasts from January 1984 through February 1986. The quantitative information from the 564 stories was balanced by a more qualitative analysis of the television coverage of two case studies-the dioxin contamination in Times Beach, Missouri, and the suspected methyl isocyanate emissions from the Union Carbide plant in Institute, West Virginia. Both qualitative and quantitative data contributed to the analysis of the role played by experts and environmental advocacy sources in coverage of environmental risk and to the suggestions for increasing that role

  20. ESTIMATION OF SEAGRASS COVERAGE BY DEPTH INVARIANT INDICES ON QUICKBIRD IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anshar Amran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of seagrass ecosystem requires availability of information on the actual condition of seagrass coverage. Remote sensing technology for seagrass mapping has been used to detect the presence of seagrass coverage, but so far no information on the condition of seagrass could be obtained. Therefore, a research is required using remote sensing imagery to obtain information on the condition of seagrass coverage.The aim of this research is to formulate mathematical relationship between seagrass coverage and depth invariant indices on Quickbird imagery. Transformation was done on multispectral bands which could detect sea floor objects that are in the region of blue, green and red bands.The study areas covered are the seas around Barranglompo Island and Barrangcaddi Island, westward of Makassar city, Indonesia. Various seagrass coverages were detected within the region under study.Mathematical relationship between seagrass coverage and depth invariant indices was obtained by multiple linear regression method. Percentage of seagrass coverage (C was obtained by transformation of depth invariant indices (Xij on Quickbird imagery, with transformation equation as follows:C = 19.934 – 63.347 X12 + 23.239 X23.A good accuracy of 75% for the seagrass coverage was obtained by transformation of depth invariant indices (Xij on Quickbird imagery.

  1. [Scientific and methodologic basis of a program for occupational control of ambient air quality within a totally sanitary protective zone at an industrial center borderline (Permsky area experience)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maĭ, I V; Balashov, S Iu

    2013-01-01

    The authors suggested and tested an algorithm to select optimal placement of stationary and mobile points for controlling ambient air quality on borderline of united sanitary protective zone of industrial center. The method involves claster analysis to outline sites even in levels and lists of parameters, on borderline of united sanitary protective zone of industrial center. Informative value of the occupational control parameters is evaluated through conjugated analysis of general level of surface concentration of admixtures and enterprise's contribution into pollution. For each enterprise, separate control program is provided. Tests of the method demonstrated that it is effective and conclusive in formation of minimally sufficient programs for occupational control in complicated conditions of industrial centers with single-field enterprises, when industrial releases are close in composition and in created pollution level. PMID:24640091

  2. Media Coverage of Nuclear Energy after Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra, C.; Roman, P.; Prades, A.

    2013-07-01

    This report presents the main findings of a content analysis of printed media coverage of nuclear energy in Spain before and after the Fukushima accident. Our main objective is to understand the changes in the presentation of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion as a result of the accident in Japan. We specifically analyze the volume of coverage and thematic content in the media coverage for nuclear fusion from a sample of Spanish print articles in more than 20 newspapers from 2008 to 2012. We also analyze the media coverage of nuclear energy (fission) in three main Spanish newspapers one year before and one year after the accident. The results illustrate how the media contributed to the presentation of nuclear power in the months before and after the accident. This could have implications for the public understanding of nuclear power. (Author)

  3. Media Coverage of Nuclear Energy after Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the main findings of a content analysis of printed media coverage of nuclear energy in Spain before and after the Fukushima accident. Our main objective is to understand the changes in the presentation of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion as a result of the accident in Japan. We specifically analyze the volume of coverage and thematic content in the media coverage for nuclear fusion from a sample of Spanish print articles in more than 20 newspapers from 2008 to 2012. We also analyze the media coverage of nuclear energy (fission) in three main Spanish newspapers one year before and one year after the accident. The results illustrate how the media contributed to the presentation of nuclear power in the months before and after the accident. This could have implications for the public understanding of nuclear power. (Author)

  4. Closing the Prescription Drug Coverage Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coinsurance or copayment for the rest of the year. Your “Explanation of Benefits” (EOB) notice will show any discounts the drug companies paid. Example: Mrs. Anderson reaches the coverage gap in her Medicare drug plan. She goes to ...

  5. Minnesota court overturns ban on Medicaid coverage for abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-24

    Hennipin County District Court Judge William Posten issued a decision on June 16 striking down Minnesota's near ban on abortion coverage for low-income women. Ruling in Women of the State of Minnesota vs. Haas-Steffen, Judge Posten found that the state Constitution's rights of privacy and equality are more protective of women's reproductive choices than the corresponding federal rights. Holding that "the state's selective funding of childbirth over abortion impinges on an indigent woman's fundamental right to decide for herself whether to continue or terminate her pregnancy," the state district court permanently enjoined enforcement of the measure. Minnesota must now cover all medically necessary abortions for women receiving Medicaid. For more than 15 years, the statutes and regulations invalidated by Judge Posten have limited abortion coverage to cases of life endangerment or reported rape or incest. State officials have indicated that they will seek a stay and expedited review of Judge Posten's decision from the Minnesota Supreme Court. Filed on March 8, 1993, the Minnesota case is one of 5 such lawsuits brought by CRLP. Last December, in a similar case, the West Virginia Supreme Court struck down that state's ban on Medicaid coverage for abortions. Similar CRLP cases are still pending in Florida, Texas, and Montana. Plaintiffs--a class of Minnesota Medicaid-eligible women seeking abortions, Dr. Jane Hodgson, Pro-Choice Resources, Women's Health Center, Midwest Health Center for Women, and Meadowbrook Women's Clinic, on behalf of themselves and the women they serve--are represented by CRLP's Simon Heller, Janet Benshoof, and Lenora Lapidus, along with Minnesota attorney Linda Ojala. PMID:12345511

  6. Approaching Universal Coverage: Minnesota's Health Insurance Programs.

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Chollet; Lori Achman

    2003-01-01

    Ninety-five percent of nonelderly people in Minnesota had health insurance in 2001, relating in part to widespread employer-sponsored coverage. However, this study finds that five state-sponsored programs are important partners in this achievement, providing coverage for low-income children and adults, as well as individuals who have trouble finding insurance in the private market because of health problems. Together, these programs cover about 11 percent of the state's nonelderly population....

  7. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Limited Deposit Insurance Coverage and Bank Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Shy, Oz; Stenbacka, Rune; Yankov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Deposit insurance designs in many countries place a limit on the coverage of deposits in each bank. However, no limits are placed on the number of accounts held with different banks. Therefore, under limited deposit insurance, some consumers open accounts with different banks to achieve higher or full deposit insurance coverage. We compare three regimes of deposit insurance: No deposit insurance, unlimited deposit insurance, and limited deposit insurance. We show that limited deposit insuranc...

  9. American Overseas Research Centers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The American Overseas Research Centers Program provides grants to overseas research centers that are consortia of U.S. institutions of higher education to enable the centers to promote postgraduate research, exchanges, and area studies. Eligible applicants are those consortia of U.S. institutions of higher education centers that: (1) Receive more…

  10. Controlling Nanocrystal Superlattice Symmetry and Shape-Anisotropic Interactions through Variable Ligand Surface Coverage

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.

    2011-03-09

    The assembly of colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) into superstructures with long-range translational and orientational order is sensitive to the molecular interactions between ligands bound to the NC surface. We illustrate how ligand coverage on colloidal PbS NCs can be exploited as a tunable parameter to direct the self-assembly of superlattices with predefined symmetry. We show that PbS NCs with dense ligand coverage assemble into face-centered cubic (fcc) superlattices whereas NCs with sparse ligand coverage assemble into body-centered cubic (bcc) superlattices which also exhibit orientational ordering of NCs in their lattice sites. Surface chemistry characterization combined with density functional theory calculations suggest that the loss of ligands occurs preferentially on {100} than on reconstructed {111} NC facets. The resulting anisotropic ligand distribution amplifies the role of NC shape in the assembly and leads to the formation of superlattices with translational and orientational order. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. Centering research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katan, Lina Hauge; Baarts, Charlotte

    share as the common aim of both research and education. Despite some similarities, we find that how the two groups engage in and benefit from reading and writing diverges significantly. Thus we have even more reason to believe that centering practice-based teaching on these aspects of research is a good......’ exercises tend to dominate the common understandings of research-based learning. Here we address a specific area of inquiry overlooked by previous studies: whether and how reading, thinking and writing indeed share the same learning potentials as the practical foundation for research-based teaching....... In the humanities and social sciences, integrated acts of reading, writing and thinking account for an obvious and substantial overlap in student and researcher practices, creating a clear opportunity for research-based teaching. Moreover, our empirical data point to reading, thinking and writing as quintessential...

  12. 42 CFR 416.42 - Condition for coverage-Surgical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition for coverage-Surgical services. 416.42 Section 416.42 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....42 Condition for coverage—Surgical services. Surgical procedures must be performed in a safe...

  13. Coverage-based treatment planning: Optimizing the IMRT PTV to meet a CTV coverage criterion

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, J. J.; Siebers, J. V.

    2009-01-01

    This work demonstrates an iterative approach—referred to as coverage-based treatment planning—designed to produce treatment plans that ensure target coverage for a specified percentage of setup errors. In this approach the clinical target volume to planning target volume (CTV-to-PTV) margin is iteratively adjusted until the specified CTV coverage is achieved. The advantage of this approach is that it automatically compensates for the dosimetric margin around the CTV, i.e., the extra margin th...

  14. News about the European Parliament: Patterns and external drivers of broadsheet coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Katjana Gattermann

    2013-01-01

    Few political communication studies deal with the European Parliament during non-election times even though it takes decisions in a wide range of policy areas. This study examines the patterns and external drivers of European Parliament broadsheet coverage by analysing 2155 articles from six European Union countries during a routine period (2005–2007). Generally, it finds that the European Parliament receives regular coverage. However, developments in the domestic context also influence Eur...

  15. Evaluation of nuclear power and renewable alternatives as portrayed in UK local press coverage title

    OpenAIRE

    Spears, R.; Eiser, J R; van der Pligt, J.

    1986-01-01

    A content analysis was conducted of all UK local daily newspaper articles appearing in the first half of 1981, concerned with nuclear power or renewable alternatives. Evaluative coverage of these technologies was compared on dimensions found to characterise energy issues (economic, environmental, technological future/political, physical and psychological risks). In addition, comparisons were drawn between coverage in areas 'threatened' with the potential siting of a new nuclear power station ...

  16. USU Patient Simulation Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — he National Capital Area (NCA) Medical Simulation Center is a state-of-the-art training facility located near the main USU campus. It uses simulated patients (i.e.,...

  17. Hazardous Waste Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A full-service research and evaluation center equipped with safety equipment, a high-bay pilot studies area, and a large-scale pilot studies facility The U.S. Army...

  18. Cloud coverage acts as an amplifier for ecological light pollution in urban ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C M Kyba

    Full Text Available The diurnal cycle of light and dark is one of the strongest environmental factors for life on Earth. Many species in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems use the level of ambient light to regulate their metabolism, growth, and behavior. The sky glow caused by artificial lighting from urban areas disrupts this natural cycle, and has been shown to impact the behavior of organisms, even many kilometers away from the light sources. It could be hypothesized that factors that increase the luminance of the sky amplify the degree of this "ecological light pollution". We show that cloud coverage dramatically amplifies the sky luminance, by a factor of 10.1 for one location inside of Berlin and by a factor of 2.8 at 32 km from the city center. We also show that inside of the city overcast nights are brighter than clear rural moonlit nights, by a factor of 4.1. These results have important implications for choronobiological and chronoecological studies in urban areas, where this amplification effect has previously not been considered.

  19. Housestaff coverage in a nonteaching community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, A

    1994-11-01

    In August 1992, a project team of senior medical and administrative personnel was formed (Housestaff Coverage Project Team) at the Park Ridge Health System, Rochester, N.Y.. The team was given a mandate to address housestaff coverage, primarily from an economic standpoint. Through total quality management (TQM), the project team sought to develop a house coverage plan that was sustainable, efficient, and effective. A plan was developed that includes three layers of service. A minimum "standard hospital coverage" would be available to all physicians and their patients and cover the basic needs of admission, crisis intervention, and issues of length of stay. A complete level of service would be available under the title of "case management" and would consist of total patient management, under the direction of the attending physician, from admission through discharge. The third level of service available to both "standard" and "case managed" patients would be a "consultative service." The latter would function as a traditional in-house medical service and would bill for its services. Park Ridge Hospital believes it has developed a system of housestaff coverage that is sustainable, efficient, and effective. An evaluation mechanism, primarily addressed at length of stay, will tell if we are correct in this assumption. PMID:10140893

  20. Annual Site Environmental Report, Department of Energy Operations at the Energy Technology Engineering CenterArea IV, Santa Susana Field Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazee, Brad [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hay, Scott [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wondolleck, John [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sorrels, Earl [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rutherford, Phil [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dassler, David [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jones, John [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2014 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the DOE at Area IV of the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The ETEC, a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  1. Resolution, coverage, and geometry beyond traditional limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ferber, Ralf

    1998-12-31

    The presentation relates to the optimization of the image of seismic data and improved resolution and coverage of acquired data. Non traditional processing methods such as inversion to zero offset (IZO) are used. To realize the potential of saving acquisition cost by reducing in-fill and to plan resolution improvement by processing, geometry QC methods such as DMO Dip Coverage Spectrum (DDCS) and Bull`s Eyes Analysis are used. The DDCS is a 2-D spectrum whose entries consist of the DMO (Dip Move Out) coverage for a particular reflector specified by it`s true time dip and reflector normal strike. The Bull`s Eyes Analysis relies on real time processing of synthetic data generated with the real geometry. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Measuring coverage in MNCH: a validation study linking population survey derived coverage to maternal, newborn, and child health care records in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate data on coverage of key maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH interventions are crucial for monitoring progress toward the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. Coverage estimates are primarily obtained from routine population surveys through self-reporting, the validity of which is not well understood. We aimed to examine the validity of the coverage of selected MNCH interventions in Gongcheng County, China. METHOD AND FINDINGS: We conducted a validation study by comparing women's self-reported coverage of MNCH interventions relating to antenatal and postnatal care, mode of delivery, and child vaccinations in a community survey with their paper- and electronic-based health care records, treating the health care records as the reference standard. Of 936 women recruited, 914 (97.6% completed the survey. Results show that self-reported coverage of these interventions had moderate to high sensitivity (0.57 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.50-0.63] to 0.99 [95% CI: 0.98-1.00] and low to high specificity (0 to 0.83 [95% CI: 0.80-0.86]. Despite varying overall validity, with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC ranging between 0.49 [95% CI: 0.39-0.57] and 0.90 [95% CI: 0.88-0.92], bias in the coverage estimates at the population level was small to moderate, with the test to actual positive (TAP ratio ranging between 0.8 and 1.5 for 24 of the 28 indicators examined. Our ability to accurately estimate validity was affected by several caveats associated with the reference standard. Caution should be exercised when generalizing the results to other settings. CONCLUSIONS: The overall validity of self-reported coverage was moderate across selected MNCH indicators. However, at the population level, self-reported coverage appears to have small to moderate degree of bias. Accuracy of the coverage was particularly high for indicators with high recorded coverage or low recorded coverage but high specificity. The

  3. Coverage statistics for sequence census methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Steven N

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We study the statistical properties of fragment coverage in genome sequencing experiments. In an extension of the classic Lander-Waterman model, we consider the effect of the length distribution of fragments. We also introduce a coding of the shape of the coverage depth function as a tree and explain how this can be used to detect regions with anomalous coverage. This modeling perspective is especially germane to current high-throughput sequencing experiments, where both sample preparation protocols and sequencing technology particulars can affect fragment length distributions. Results Under the mild assumptions that fragment start sites are Poisson distributed and successive fragment lengths are independent and identically distributed, we observe that, regardless of fragment length distribution, the fragments produced in a sequencing experiment can be viewed as resulting from a two-dimensional spatial Poisson process. We then study the successive jumps of the coverage function, and show that they can be encoded as a random tree that is approximately a Galton-Watson tree with generation-dependent geometric offspring distributions whose parameters can be computed. Conclusions We extend standard analyses of shotgun sequencing that focus on coverage statistics at individual sites, and provide a null model for detecting deviations from random coverage in high-throughput sequence census based experiments. Our approach leads to explicit determinations of the null distributions of certain test statistics, while for others it greatly simplifies the approximation of their null distributions by simulation. Our focus on fragments also leads to a new approach to visualizing sequencing data that is of independent interest.

  4. Information dissemination in VANETs: deployment strategies for maximizing coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Trullols Cruces, Óscar; Barceló Ordinas, José María; Fiore, Marco; Casetti, Claudio; Chiasserini, Carla-Fabiana

    2009-01-01

    We consider that a given number of Dissemination Points (DPs) have to be deployed for disseminating information to vehicles travelling in an urban area. We formulate our problem as a Maximum Coverage Problem (MCP) so as to maximize the number of vehicles that get in contact with the DPs. Since the MCP is NP-hard, we solve it though heuristic algorithms. Evaluation of the proposed solutions in a realistic urban environment shows how knowledge of vehicular mobility plays a major role in a...

  5. A Max coverage formulation for information dissemination in vehicular networks

    OpenAIRE

    Trullols Cruces, Óscar; Barceló Ordinas, José María; Fiore, Marco; Casetti, Claudio; Chiasserini, Carla-Fabiana

    2009-01-01

    We consider that a given number of Dissemination Points (DPs) have to be deployed for disseminating information to vehicles travelling in an urban area. We formulate our problem as a Maximum Coverage Problem (MCP) so as to maximize the number of vehicles that get in contact with the DPs and as a second step with a sufficient amount of time. Since the MCP is NP-hard, we solve it though heuristic algorithms. Evaluation of the proposed solutions in a realistic urban environment shows ho...

  6. Senior Centers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to do as long as they can. Senior centers, adult day care, transportation, and meals programs are ... older adults to remain in their homes. Senior centers are places where older adults who live independently ...

  7. 26 CFR 54.9801-5 - Evidence of creditable coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... issuers providing coverage under a plan—(A)(1) Responsibility of issuer for coverage period. See 29 CFR 2590.701-5 and 45 CFR 146.115, under which an issuer is not required to provide information regarding... coverage before a significant break in coverage, or (2) The date any waiting period (and affiliation...

  8. Tourism Areas, backc - back country areas- As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'backc - back...

  9. Excel Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Citigroup,one of the World top 500 companies,has now settled in Excel Center,Financial Street. The opening ceremony of Excel Center and the entry ceremony of Citigroup in the center were held on March 31.Government leaders of Xicheng District,the Excel CEO and the heads of Asia-Pacific Region leaders of Citibank all participated in the ceremony.

  10. An ultrasonic omni-directional sensor device for coverage structural deformation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground space has to be monitored for regional coverage deformations. This issue remains a challenge for current deformation monitoring techniques. In this study, a new high-coverage regional monitoring method is presented to address underground space deformation by using the divergent feature of an ultrasonic sensor. The working principle for coverage regional monitoring, which uses the divergence feature of an ultrasonic beam to increase the monitoring area coverage, is proposed. Space and mathematical models for the ultrasonic beam are also established. An ultrasonic spherical sensor device is designed to achieve all-round monitoring of underground deformation. A longitude–latitude color map histogram is proposed, which enables automatic detection and tracking of omni-directional structural deformation. The new method is illustrated via experiments to determine its validity for deformation monitoring. (technical design note)

  11. A Visibility-based Algorithm for Multi-robot Boundary Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linan Jiao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell decomposition is often used in autonomous area coverage. We propose a visibility-based decomposition algorithm for single robot boundary coverage and a corresponding multi-robot algorithm in unknown environment. A graph data structure is exploited for completeness of coverage and incremental description of partially observed world. Visibility-based decomposition facilitates the construction of graph and algorithms operated on it. In the context of multi-robot, a dynamically selected highest priority robot is in charge of information share and synchrony through communication, polygon set operations provide tools for environmental information mergence, a distributed algorithm for multi-robot boundary coverage is proposed based on those technologies. Finally the experimental results show the relationships between robot number and traversable gate number, some future subjects of researches are introduced.

  12. Modified Discrete Binary PSO based Sensor Placement for Coverage in WSN Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Jain

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this paper is to solve coverage problem in distributed wireless sensor network (WSN by increasing sensor nodes coverage. This paper proposes a modified discrete binary particle swarm optimization algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN nodes placement so that the maximum coverage is obtained.PSO is a real value algorithm, and the discrete PSO is proposed to be adapted to discrete binary space. The proposed algorithms are going to solve the problem by considering the factor on the sensor deployment scheme, given a finite number of sensors, optimizing the sensor deployment will provide sufficient sensor coverage. The proposed method on sensors surrounding is examined in different area. The results not only confirmed the successes of using new method in sensor replacement, but also they showed that the new method performs more efficiently.

  13. Wide area sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Nix, Tricia; Junker, Robert; Brentano, Josef; Khona, Dhiren

    2006-05-01

    The technical concept for this project has existed since the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A host of Eastern European nations have developed countrywide grid of sensors to monitor airborne radiation. The objective is to build a radiological sensor network for real-time monitoring of environmental radiation levels in order to provide data for warning, and consequentially the assessment of a nuclear event. A network of radiation measuring equipment consisting of gamma, neutron, alpha, and beta counters would be distributed over a large area (preferably on fire station roof tops) and connected by a wireless network to the emergency response center. The networks would be deployed in urban environments and would supply first responders and federal augmentation teams (including those from the U.S. Departments of Energy, Defense, Justice, and Homeland Security) with detailed, accurate information regarding the transport of radioactive environmental contaminants, so the agencies can provide a safe and effective response. A networked sensor capability would be developed, with fixed sensors deployed at key locations and in sufficient numbers, to provide adequate coverage for early warning, and input to post-event emergency response. An overall system description and specification will be provided, including detector characteristics, communication protocols, infrastructure and maintenance requirements, and operation procedures. The system/network can be designed for a specifically identified urban area, or for a general urban area scalable to cities of specified size. Data collected via the network will be transmitted directly to the appropriate emergency response center and shared with multiple agencies via the Internet or an Intranet. The data collected will be managed using commercial off - the - shelf Geographical Information System (GIS). The data will be stored in a database and the GIS software will aid in analysis and management of the data. Unique features of the

  14. Mobile Launch Platform Vehicle Assembly Building Area (SWMU 056) Hot Spot 3 Bioremediation Interim Measures Work Plan, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney L. Morrison; Daprato, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    This Interim Measures Work Plan (IMWP) presents an approach and design for the remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) groundwater impacts using bioremediation (biostimulation and bioaugmentation) in Hot Spot 3, which is defined by the area where CVOC (trichloroethene [TCE], cis-1,2-dichloroethene [cDCE], and vinyl chloride [VC]) concentrations are greater than 10 times their respective Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Natural Attenuation Default Concentration (NADC) [10xNADC] near the western Mobile Launch Platform (MLP) structure. The IM treatment area is the Hot Spot 3 area, which is approximately 0.07 acres and extends from approximately 6 to 22 and 41 to 55 feet below land surface (ft BLS). Within Hot Spot 3, a source zone (SZ; area with TCE concentrations greater than 1% solubility [11,000 micrograms per liter (micrograms/L)]) was delineated and is approximately 0.02 acres and extends from approximately 6 to 16 and 41 to 50 ft BLS.

  15. Progress toward universal health coverage in ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Van Minh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN is characterized by much diversity in terms of geography, society, economic development, and health outcomes. The health systems as well as healthcare structure and provisions vary considerably. Consequently, the progress toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC in these countries also varies. This paper aims to describe the progress toward UHC in the ASEAN countries and discuss how regional integration could influence UHC. Design: Data reported in this paper were obtained from published literature, reports, and gray literature available in the ASEAN countries. We used both online and manual search methods to gather the information and ‘snowball’ further data. Results: We found that, in general, ASEAN countries have made good progress toward UHC, partly due to relatively sustained political commitments to endorse UHC in these countries. However, all the countries in ASEAN are facing several common barriers to achieving UHC, namely 1 financial constraints, including low levels of overall and government spending on health; 2 supply side constraints, including inadequate numbers and densities of health workers; and 3 the ongoing epidemiological transition at different stages characterized by increasing burdens of non-communicable diseases, persisting infectious diseases, and reemergence of potentially pandemic infectious diseases. The ASEAN Economic Community's (AEC goal of regional economic integration and a single market by 2015 presents both opportunities and challenges for UHC. Healthcare services have become more available but health and healthcare inequities will likely worsen as better-off citizens of member states might receive more benefits from the liberalization of trade policy in health, either via regional outmigration of health workers or intra-country health worker movement toward private hospitals, which tend to be located in urban areas. For ASEAN countries, UHC should

  16. Consumer Voices for Coverage Advocacy Evaluation Toolkit

    OpenAIRE

    Debra A. Strong; Todd Honeycutt; Judith Wooldridge

    2011-01-01

    This toolkit is designed to help advocacy organizations, evaluators, and other groups collect and analyze data using the instruments and methods Mathematica used in its Consumer Voices for Coverage evaluation. It includes surveys of advocacy coalition members, interviews with policymakers, and measures of coalition advocacy capacity.

  17. 27 CFR 24.68 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 24.68... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Claims § 24.68 Insurance... recompensed for such tax by any valid claim of insurance or otherwise. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72...

  18. 77 FR 16453 - Student Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... proposed rule (76 FR 7767) regarding section 1560(c) entitled ``Student Health Insurance Coverage.'' In the... the United States or U.S. citizens studying abroad for one summer-- the short-term limited duration... Departments), published interim final rules (IFR) with request for comments (76 FR 46621) amending the...

  19. 5 CFR 610.402 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.402 Coverage. The regulations contained in this subpart apply only to flexible work schedules and compressed work schedules established under subchapter 11 of chapter 61...

  20. 21 CFR 26.4 - Product coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.4 Product coverage. (a) The provisions of... CFR 101.2, “veterinary immunologicals” are referred to as “veterinary biologicals”) are excluded...

  1. Danish Media coverage of 22/7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter; Boisen, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    ’s Danish connections through an analysis of the first 100 days of Danish media coverage. We scrutinised 188 articles in the largest daily newspapers to find out how Danish actors related to ABB’s ideas. The key argument is that the discourses and opinions reflect pre-existing opinions and entrenched...

  2. Vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten - United States, 2013-14 school year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seither, Ranee; Masalovich, Svetlana; Knighton, Cynthia L; Mellerson, Jenelle; Singleton, James A; Greby, Stacie M

    2014-10-17

    State and local vaccination requirements for school entry are implemented to maintain high vaccination coverage and protect schoolchildren from vaccine-preventable diseases. Each year, to assess state and national vaccination coverage and exemption levels among kindergartners, CDC analyzes school vaccination data collected by federally funded state, local, and territorial immunization programs. This report describes vaccination coverage in 49 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and vaccination exemption rates in 46 states and DC for children enrolled in kindergarten during the 2013-14 school year. Median vaccination coverage was 94.7% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine; 95.0% for varying local requirements for diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine; and 93.3% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine among those states with a 2-dose requirement. The median total exemption rate was 1.8%. High exemption levels and suboptimal vaccination coverage leave children vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. Although vaccination coverage among kindergartners for the majority of reporting states was at or near the 95% national Healthy People 2020 targets for 4 doses of DTaP, 2 doses of MMR, and 2 doses of varicella vaccine, low vaccination coverage and high exemption levels can cluster within communities. Immunization programs might have access to school vaccination coverage and exemption rates at a local level for counties, school districts, or schools that can identify areas where children are more vulnerable to vaccine-preventable diseases. Health promotion efforts in these local areas can be used to help parents understand the risks for vaccine-preventable diseases and the protection that vaccinations provide to their children. PMID:25321068

  3. Determinants of vaccination coverage in rural Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meurice Francois P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood immunization is a cost effective public health strategy. Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI services have been provided in a rural Nigerian community (Sabongidda-Ora, Edo State at no cost to the community since 1998 through a privately financed vaccination project (private public partnership. The objective of this survey was to assess vaccination coverage and its determinants in this rural community in Nigeria Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in September 2006, which included the use of interviewer-administered questionnaire to assess knowledge of mothers of children aged 12–23 months and vaccination coverage. Survey participants were selected following the World Health Organization's (WHO immunization coverage cluster survey design. Vaccination coverage was assessed by vaccination card and maternal history. A child was said to be fully immunized if he or she had received all of the following vaccines: a dose of Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG, three doses of oral polio (OPV, three doses of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT, three doses of hepatitis B (HB and one dose of measles by the time he or she was enrolled in the survey, i.e. between the ages of 12–23 months. Knowledge of the mothers was graded as satisfactory if mothers had at least a score of 3 out of a maximum of 5 points. Logistic regression was performed to identify determinants of full immunization status. Results Three hundred and thirty-nine mothers and 339 children (each mother had one eligible child were included in the survey. Most of the mothers (99.1% had very positive attitudes to immunization and > 55% were generally knowledgeable about symptoms of vaccine preventable diseases except for difficulty in breathing (as symptom of diphtheria. Two hundred and ninety-five mothers (87.0% had a satisfactory level of knowledge. Vaccination coverage against all the seven childhood vaccine preventable diseases was 61.9% although it

  4. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action progam. Radiological survey of the Albany Metallurgical Research Center, United States Bureau of Mines, Biomass Facility and the Back Forty Area, Albany, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains survey results identifying the current radiological condition of two areas located at the site of the United States Bureau of Mines' Albany Metallurgical Research Center in Albany, Oregon. These areas are designed as the BioMass Facility and the Back Forty. The BioMass Facility was a pilot plant for the production of oil from wood waste; it consists of five structures on a two-acre site. The Back Forty is a vacant area of about 14 acres south of the BioMass Facility. Both areas were reportedly used as dump sites for the Bureau of Mines operations. No contamination was found to be associated with the structures, equipment, or material in the BioMass Facility; however, four relatively small areas of contamination were found in the exterior grounds. The maximum radiation level measured was 0.7 mR/h at 1 cm. A relatively large area (approx. 0.8 acre) in the Back Forty area exhibited anomalous radiation levels. Radiation levels as high as 100 μR/h were measured at 3 ft above ground. This area was reportedly used as a dump site for Bureau of Mines activities. The structures, equipment, and material associated with the BioMass Facility can be released for unrestricted use. However, because of the subsurface contamination found in both the BioMass and the Back Forty areas, some restrictions should be incorporated into any planned useage for this site. Some discussion regarding these hazards are included in the text of this report

  5. Job center

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better meet the needs of AGU members, a program has been started to increase the effectiveness of the Job Center activity at the Spring and Fall Meetings. As a result, participation in the Job Center at the 1988 AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore increased substantially compared to previous Spring Meetings. The number of employers, applicants, and interviews scheduled more than doubled compared to the 1987 Spring Job Center.In order to make the meeting Job Centers even better, a survey is being conducted of employers and applicants who participated in the 1988 Spring Job Center. Evaluation of this survey will be useful in continuing increased participation in and the effectiveness of the Job Center at the 1988 Fall Meeting. Past participants and those interested in the future of the Job Center are encouraged to forward comments and suggestions to AGU, Member Programs Division, 2000 Florida Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20009.

  6. Coverage-based treatment planning: optimizing the IMRT PTV to meet a CTV coverage criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J J; Siebers, J V

    2009-03-01

    This work demonstrates an iterative approach-referred to as coverage-based treatment planning-designed to produce treatment plans that ensure target coverage for a specified percentage of setup errors. In this approach the clinical target volume to planning target volume (CTV-to-PTV) margin is iteratively adjusted until the specified CTV coverage is achieved. The advantage of this approach is that it automatically compensates for the dosimetric margin around the CTV, i.e., the extra margin that is created when the dose distribution extends beyond the PTV. When applied to 27 prostate plans, this approach reduced the average CTV-to-PTV margin from 5 to 2.8 mm. This reduction in PTV size produced a corresponding decrease in the volume of normal tissue receiving high dose. The total volume of tissue receiving > or =65 Gy was reduced on average by 19.3% or about 48 cc. Individual reductions varied from 8.7% to 28.6%. The volume of bladder receiving > or =60 Gy was reduced on average by 5.6% (reductions for individuals varied from 1.7% to 10.6%), and the volume of periprostatic rectum receiving > or =65 Gy was reduced on average by 4.9% (reductions for individuals varied from 0.9% to 12.3%). The iterative method proposed here represents a step toward a probabilistic treatment planning algorithm which can generate dose distributions (i.e., treated volumes) that closely approximate a specified level of coverage in the presence of geometric uncertainties. The general principles of coverage-based treatment planning are applicable to arbitrary treatment sites and delivery techniques. Importantly, observed deviations between coverage implied by specified CTV-to-PTV margins and coverage achieved by a given treatment plan imply a generic need to perform coverage probability analysis on a per-plan basis to ensure that the desired level of coverage is achieved. PMID:19378757

  7. The Private and Public Characteristics of Maize Land Races and the Area Allocation Decisions of Farmers in a Center of Crop Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Smale, Melinda; Bellon, Mauricio R.; Gomez, Jose Alfonso Aguirre

    1999-01-01

    This study uses an approach derived from models of the private and public characteristics of goods to illustrate (1) the overriding importance of variety attributes in farmers' decisions to allocate area among varieties of maize landraces and (2) the significance of farmers' perceptions of changes in the maize germplasm base in the surrounding community in their choices. Diversity indices and the concept of 'scale', as understood in ecology, are adapted and employed to test hypotheses empiric...

  8. Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, W.D.

    2009-09-02

    This report summarizes research conducted in conjunction with a project entitled “Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center”, which was funded through the Integrative Studies Element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. William Burgos (The Pennsylvania State University) was the overall PI/PD for the project, which included Brian Dempsey (Penn State), Gour-Tsyh (George) Yeh (Central Florida University), and Eric Roden (formerly at The University of Alabama, now at the University of Wisconsin) as separately-funded co-PIs. The project focused on development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. The work builds on our previous studies of microbial Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, and was directly aligned with the Scheibe et al. ORNL FRC Field Project at Area 2.

  9. Automated RFA planning for complete coverage of large tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Karen; Dalal, Sandeep; Krücker, Jochen; Venkatesan, Aradhana; Wood, Bradford J.

    2009-02-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive procedure used for the treatment of small-to-moderate sized tumors most commonly in the liver, kidney and lung. An RFA procedure for successfully treating large or complex shape tumors may require many ablations, in a non-obvious pattern. Tumor size > 3cm predisposes to incomplete treatment [1] and potential recurrence, therefore RFA is less often successful and less often used for treating large tumors. A mental solution is the current clinical practice standard, but is a daunting task for defining the complete 3D geometrical coverage of a tumor and margin (planned target volume, PTV) with the fewest ellipsoidal ablation volumes, while also minimizing collateral damage to healthy tissue. In order to generate a repeatable and reliable result, a solution must quantify precise locations. A new interactive planning system with an automated coverage algorithm is described. The planning system allows the interventional radiologist to segment the potentially complex PTV, select an RFA needle (which determines the specific 3D ablation shape), and identify the skin entry location that defines the shape's orientation. The algorithm generates a cluster of overlapping ablations from the periphery of the PTV, filling toward the center. The cluster is first tightened toward the center to reduce the overall number of ablations and collateral damage, and then pulled toward optimal attractors to further reduce the number of ablations. For most clinical applications, computation requires less than 15 seconds. This fast ablation planning enables rapid scenario assessment, including proper probe selection, skin entry location, collateral damage and procedure duration. The plan can be executed by transferring target locations to a navigation system.

  10. ε-Net Approach to Sensor k-Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Fusco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the k-coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least k sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The k-coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical ε-net technique. This method gives an O(log⁡M-approximation, where M is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  11. Distributed Approach for Coverage and Patrolling Missions with a Team of Heterogeneous Aerial Robots Under Communication Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Joaquin Acevedo; Begoña C. Arrue; Ivan Maza; Anibal Ollero

    2013-01-01

    Using aerial robots in area coverage applications is an emerging topic. These applications need a coverage path planning algorithm and a coordinated patrolling plan. This paper proposes a distributed approach to coordinate a team of heterogeneous UAVs cooperating efficiently in patrolling missions around irregular areas, with low communication ranges and memory storage requirements. Hence it can be used with small‐scale UAVs with limited and different capabilities. The presented system uses a...

  12. Insecticide Resistance in Areas under Investigation by the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research: A Challenge for Malaria Control and Elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, Martha L.; Norris, Douglas E.; Conn, Jan E.; Moreno, Marta; Burkot, Thomas R.; Bugoro, Hugo; Keven, John B.; Cooper, Robert; Yan, Guiyun; Rosas, Angel; Palomino, Miriam; Donnelly, Martin J.; Mawejje, Henry D.; Eapen, Alex; Montgomery, Jacqui; Coulibaly, Mamadou B.; Beier, John C.; Kumar, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    Scale-up of the main vector control interventions, residual insecticides sprayed on walls or structures and/or impregnated in bed nets, together with prompt diagnosis and effective treatment, have led to a global reduction in malaria transmission. However, resistance in vectors to almost all classes of insecticides, particularly to the synthetic pyrethroids, is posing a challenge to the recent trend of declining malaria. Ten International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) located in the most malaria-endemic regions of the world are currently addressing insecticide resistance in the main vector populations, which not only threaten hope for elimination in malaria-endemic countries but also may lead to reversal where notable reductions in malaria have been documented. This communication illustrates the current status of insecticide resistance with a focus on the countries where activities are ongoing for 9 out of the 10 ICEMRs. Most of the primary malaria vectors in the ICEMR countries exhibit insecticide resistance, albeit of varying magnitude, and spanning all mechanisms of resistance. New alternatives to the insecticides currently available are still to be fully developed for deployment. Integrated vector management principles need to be better understood and encouraged, and viable insecticide resistance management strategies need to be developed and implemented. PMID:26259947

  13. Functional Centering

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, M

    1996-01-01

    Based on empirical evidence from a free word order language (German) we propose a fundamental revision of the principles guiding the ordering of discourse entities in the forward-looking centers within the centering model. We claim that grammatical role criteria should be replaced by indicators of the functional information structure of the utterances, i.e., the distinction between context-bound and unbound discourse elements. This claim is backed up by an empirical evaluation of functional centering.

  14. AgSat Areas of Interest

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The AgSat Areas of Interest map contains area polygons where satellite imagery will be collected for the Farm Service Agency (FSA) to provide imagery coverage for...

  15. 佛山市流动人口聚集地区流动儿童免疫规划疫苗接种率及影响因素调查%Immunization coverage rate and its affecting factors for floating children living in migrant population gathering area, Foshan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝志; 黄祖星; 陈抒豪; 张吉凯; 杨泽锋; 麦冰; 黄劲梅; 李小红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To know the vaccination level of floating children and its related affecting factors in Foshan City, and to explore the methods of vaccination management of floating children. Methods Fifty-one administrative villages from 17 administrative towns/streets with more floating children in the city were selected as study spots, and ten floating children aged 1 to 7 years old were selected from each study spot. Parents/guardians of floating children aged 1-7 years old were investigated by self - designed questionnaires in March 2010. The main contents of questionnaire include basic information and vaccination status of floating children, the basic information of parents/guardians and their knowledge to children immunization. The risk factors of vaccination level of floating children were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression model analysis. Results A total of 503 valid questionnaires were analyzed. It is shown that the rates of immunization record establishment for children in clinic and record cards held by parents were 94.0% and 97.8% respectively. The immunization coverage rates of BCG, OPV, DPT, MV, HEPB and JE were 95.0%, 88.4%, 87.5%, 88. 2%, 92.2%, and 85.8%, respectively, and the whole course vaccination rate of above six vaccines was 68.4%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age increase of children, other nationalities but not Han ones for children, less than one year that children lived in Foshan in the latest two yeas, immunization record from other origins but not Foshan City, and parents' dissatisfaction to the clinic could affected the whole course vaccination rate of six vaccines in floating children negatively with the odds ratios 0.79, 0.37, 0. 41,0. 60, and 0. 37, respectively. Conclusion The immunization coverage rates of vaccines was low for floating children in migrant population gathering area, and comprehensive measures should be put into effect.%目的 了解佛山市外来流动儿童免

  16. Analysis of the Science and Technology Narrative within Organ Donation and Transplantation Coverage in Canadian Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cheung

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organ failure is one cause of death. Advancements in scientific research and technological development made organ transplantation possible and continue to find better ways to substitute failed organs with other organs of biological origin or artificial organs. Media, including newspapers, are one source of information for the public. The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent and how science and technology research and development are covered in the organ transplantation and organ donation (ODOT coverage of n = 300 Canadian newspapers, including the two Canadian newspapers with national reach (The Globe and Mail, National Post. The study generated qualitative and quantitative data addressing the following issues: (1 which scientific and technological developments are mentioned in the ODOT coverage; and (2 what issues are mentioned in the coverage of scientific and technological advancements linked to ODOT. We found little to no coverage of many technological and scientific advancements evident in academic and grey literature covering ODOT, and we found little engagement with social and ethical issues already raised about these advancements in the literature. The only area we found to be covered to a broader extent was xenotransplantation, although the coverage stopped after 2002. We argue that the newspaper coverage of ODOT under reports scientific and technological advancements related to ODOT and the issues these advancements might raise.

  17. Determining the Best Sensing Coverage for 2-Dimensional Acoustic Target Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Sharifi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Distributed acoustic target tracking is an important application area of wireless sensor networks. In this paper we use algebraic geometry to formally model 2-dimensional acoustic target tracking and then prove its best degree of required sensing coverage. We present the necessary conditions for three sensing coverage to accurately compute the spatio-temporal information of a target object. Simulations show that 3-coverage accurately locates a target object only in 53% of cases. Using 4-coverage, we present two different methods that yield correct answers in almost all cases and have time and memory usage complexity of Θ(1. Analytic 4-coverage tracking is our first proposed method that solves a simultaneous equation system using the sensing information of four sensor nodes. Redundant answer fusion is our second proposed method that solves at least two sets of simultaneous equations of target tracking using the sensing information of two different sets of three sensor nodes, and fusing the results using a new customized formal majority voter. We prove that 4-coverage guarantees accurate 2-dimensional acoustic target tracking under ideal conditions.

  18. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Taos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Otero County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Catron County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Taos County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Otero County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Global Moon Coverage via Hyperbolic Flybys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Brent; Strange, Nathan; Campagnola, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The scientific desire for global coverage of moons such as Jupiter's Galilean moons or Saturn's Titan has invariably led to the design of orbiter missions. These orbiter missions require a large amount of propellant needed to insert into orbit around such small bodies, and for a given launch vehicle, the additional propellant mass takes away from mass that could otherwise be used for scientific instrumentation on a multiple flyby-only mission. This paper will present methods--expanding upon techniques developed for the design of the Cassini prime and extended missions--to obtain near global moon coverage through multiple flybys. Furthermore we will show with proper instrument suite selection, a flyby-only mission can provide science return similar (and in some cases greater) to that of an orbiter mission.

  2. Coverage dependence of FE flicker noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field emission flicker noise spectral density functions W(f) have been determined for potassium on W(112) and W(111) single planes. The coverage dependence of the spectral densities W(fsub(j)) shows pronounced maxima and minima, whereas the slopes epsilon obtained from double logarithmic plots of W(f) approximately fsup(-epsilon) vary considerably. Minima and maxima of W(fsub(j)) are assumed to be due to coherent and disordered adlayers, respectively, and the behaviour of the exponents epsilon supports further the proposed observation of order-disorder transitions of the potassium adsorbate. LEED results for W(112)K and W(111)K are in fair agreement with the corresponding coverages from noise measurements. (Auth.)

  3. Is Code Quality Related to Test Coverage?

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Arturo Wong-Mozqueda, Robert Haines, Caroline Jay

    2015-01-01

    A good test suite is vital for minimising errors, and ensuring that software is easy to maintain. Another factor viewed as being important for the success and longevity of software is code quality. We report on work examining whether there is a correlation between code quality and test coverage, using seven different metrics: lines of code, McCabe's cyclomatic complexity, number of local methods, depth of inheritance tree, coupling between objects, improvement of lack of cohesion in methods a...

  4. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Du Li; Rachul Christen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching ...

  5. Flood Insurance Coverage in the Coastal Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Landry, Craig E.; Jahan-Parvar, Mohammad R.

    2008-01-01

    We explore behavior and test theory regarding the determinants of flood insurance coverage in the coastal zone using household-level data for nine southeastern counties. We use Tobit regression models to assess the importance and magnitude of insurance cost, risk factors, community characteristics, and household attributes on flood insurance purchase for residential building structures. Overall estimates indicate price inelastic demand, though subsidized policyholders are more sensitive to ...

  6. Tracing Execution of Software for Design Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Lencevicius, Raimondas; Metz, Edu; Ran, Alexander

    2001-01-01

    Test suites are designed to validate the operation of a system against requirements. One important aspect of a test suite design is to ensure that system operation logic is tested completely. A test suite should drive a system through all abstract states to exercise all possible cases of its operation. This is a difficult task. Code coverage tools support test suite designers by providing the information about which parts of source code are covered during system execution. Unfortunately, code...

  7. Cancer News Coverage and Information Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Frosch, Dominick L; Hornik, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    The shift toward viewing patients as active consumers of health information raises questions about whether individuals respond to health news by seeking additional information. This study examines the relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking using a national survey of adults aged 18 years and older. A Lexis-Nexis database search term was used to identify Associated Press (AP) news articles about cancer released between October 21, 2002, and April 13, 2003. We merged t...

  8. Towards universal health coverage for reproductive health services in Ethiopia: two policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onarheim, Kristine Husøy; Taddesse, Mieraf; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Abdullah, Muna; Miljeteig, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive health services are crucial for maternal and child health, but universal health coverage is still not within reach in most societies. Ethiopia's goal of universal health coverage promises access to all necessary services for everyone while providing protection against financial risk. When moving towards universal health coverage, health plans and policies require contextualized knowledge about baseline indicators and their distributions. To understand more about the factors that explain coverage, we study the relationship between socioeconomic and geographic factors and the use of reproductive health services in Ethiopia, and further explore inequalities in reproductive health coverage. Based on these findings, we discuss the normative implications of these findings for health policy. Using population-level data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (2011) in a multivariate logistic model, we find that family planning and use of antenatal care are associated with higher wealth, higher education and being employed. Skilled attendance at birth is associated with higher wealth, higher education, and urban location. There is large variation between Addis Ababa (the capital) and other administrative regions. Concentration indices show substantial inequalities in the use of reproductive health services. Decomposition of the concentration indices indicates that difference in wealth is the most important explanatory factor for inequality in reproductive health coverage, but other factors, such as urban setting and previous health care use, are also associated with inequalities. When aiming for universal health coverage, this study shows that different socioeconomic factors as well as health-sector factors should be addressed. Our study re-confirms the importance of a broader approach to reproductive health, and in particular the importance of inequality in wealth and geography. Poor, non-educated, non-employed women in rural areas are

  9. Genetic algorithm parameter optimization: applied to sensor coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ferat; Abbate, Giuseppe

    2004-08-01

    Genetic Algorithms are powerful tools, which when set upon a solution space will search for the optimal answer. These algorithms though have some associated problems, which are inherent to the method such as pre-mature convergence and lack of population diversity. These problems can be controlled with changes to certain parameters such as crossover, selection, and mutation. This paper attempts to tackle these problems in GA by having another GA controlling these parameters. The values for crossover parameter are: one point, two point, and uniform. The values for selection parameters are: best, worst, roulette wheel, inside 50%, outside 50%. The values for the mutation parameter are: random and swap. The system will include a control GA whose population will consist of different parameters settings. While this GA is attempting to find the best parameters it will be advancing into the search space of the problem and refining the population. As the population changes due to the search so will the optimal parameters. For every control GA generation each of the individuals in the population will be tested for fitness by being run through the problem GA with the assigned parameters. During these runs the population used in the next control generation is compiled. Thus, both the issue of finding the best parameters and the solution to the problem are attacked at the same time. The goal is to optimize the sensor coverage in a square field. The test case used was a 30 by 30 unit field with 100 sensor nodes. Each sensor node had a coverage area of 3 by 3 units. The algorithm attempts to optimize the sensor coverage in the field by moving the nodes. The results show that the control GA will provide better results when compared to a system with no parameter changes.

  10. Determining Knowledge Level And Application Self Breast Check (Sbc And Breast Cancer Of Women In Muğla County, Bayır, Yerkesik and Yeşilyurt Health Center Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülcihan Çadır

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study has been carried out in order to determine knowledge level and applicationof Self Breast Check (SBC and breast cancer of women over 20, in the areas MuglaCounty,Bayır, Yerkesik and Yeşilyurt Healt Center. [8]In the study 2181 women over 20 in Muğla county, Bayır, Yerkesik and Yeşilyurthealt center areas were given 45 survey questions which was composed of 16 guestions ondescription, 15 guestions on their information level and 14 questions Self Breast Check (SBCand datas collected and assessed. [9]Of the women, ages education level,social security, income, marital statüs, number ofchilderen, main source of informatio, reasons of not applying SBC, SBC aplication ,relativeswith breast cancer, compered a meaningful difference (p<0.05 in the comparison ofinformation points, have been found out. [10]Status when the women’s SBC compared with age groups, education,job,socialsecurity income level, marital statüs, and main source of information; a meaningful differencehas been found out (p<0.05. [11]It has been determined that 45.1 % of the women who participated in the survey didSBC,19.4 % had clinic examination and 10.5 % had mamography.

  11. Distribution center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Distribution center is a logistics link fulfill physical distribution as its main functionGenerally speaking, it's a large and hiahly automated center destined to receive goods from various plants and suppliers,take orders,fill them efficiently,and deliver goods to customers as quickly as possible.

  12. Mapping the current situation in life and life satisfaction in specific areas of life Center for psychosocial rehabilitation clients, company MANA, ops Olomouc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Lemrová

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with mapping the quality of life of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Surveying the quality of life of schizophrenics may be complicated due to the symptomatology - e.g. negative results during the higher levels of anxiety. Apart from health: age, gender, occupation, family, social contacts, finances, opportunities for rehabilitation and psychoeducational programmes are all among the important factors of the individual quality of life. Our research group comprised 16 clients (male n=12, female n=4 of the Psychosocial Rehabilitation Centre, MANA o.p.s. Olomouc. Average age of our respondents was 38.2. Except for 4 male respondents, all the rest were unemployed at the time of the survey, 3 respondents were living alone, others with parents or a partner. Average age of the male respondents at the time of their first hospitalization was 22, of the female respondents 18.5. The Czech version of the Quality of life questionnaire (Dotazník životní spokojenosti - DŽS was the basis of our primary method. In view of the sociodemographic data of our respondents, we have surveyed the level of the individual quality of life in the areas of health, financial situation, oneself and friends, acquaintances and relatives. A supplementary method was based on the SEIQoL (Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life, a questionnaire for monitoring the importance of happiness with individually chosen life themes (QL and an overall level of quality of life (VAS. The goal was to ascertain the level of happiness in the aforementioned areas of life DŽS and the correlation with age, importance and quality of life themes and their correlation with current overall quality of life. The lowest level of happiness (DŽS was measured in the overall level of the current quality of life (VAS in connection to gender (male=60.7%, female=43.8%, but in view of the low number of female respondents (n=4 we consider this result an

  13. Well-being perceived and working conditions at ENEA research center; La valutazione soggettiva del benessere lavorativo in un campione di dipendenti ENEA dell'area bolognese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenni, P.; Fagarazzi, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Sarchielli, M.; Zanobini, F. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. di Psicologia

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this research on 143 workers of the ENEA area in Bologna, has been to survey the degree of well-being perceived and expressed by these workers with respect to different factors of the work environment. This study follows some training/information seminars on environment, health and safety organized in ENEA by Occupational Medicine Group to comply with Leg. Decr. 626/94. In a multidisciplinary approach the health idea has been interpreted not as lack of illness but as pursuit and preservation of the well-being in the work environment. For this purpose, also the involvement and participation of the workers seem to be very useful for subjective reports about individual task, equipment, interfaces, workplace and work organization. In this research, we have adopted an ergonomic checklist based on guiding principles to be applied to the design of optimal working conditions with regard to human well-being, safety and health (see UNI ENV 26385, 1991). Data processing and analysis have requested occupational medicine, ergonomics and statistics competencies. [Italian] La ricerca condotta su un campione ENEA di 143 dipendenti dell'area bolognese ha inteso verificare il grado di benessere percepito ed espresso dai lavoratori in rapporto alle diverse variabili presenti nel contesto lavorativo. Tale indagine e' stata preceduta da specifici seminari di formazione/informazione su ambiente, salute e sicurezza, organizzati a cura della Medicina del Lavoro di Bologna presso le sedi ENEA, a seguito delle disposizioni contenute nel D.Lvo. 626/94. In un'ottica multidisciplinare, il concetto di salute e' stato interpretato non tanto come assenza di malattia quanto come ricerca e mantenimento del benessere lavorativo e, per raggiungere questo scopo, sembra essere molto utile anche il diretto coinvolgimento e la partecipazione dei lavoratori per valutazioni soggettive sulle mansioni assegnate, le attrezzature, le interfacce, la postazione di lavoro e l

  14. A New Distributed Algorithm for Improved Coverage and Increased Lifetime in Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Xiaoyu

    2009-01-01

    In "spot-sensing" applications of sensor networks, each node makes measurements (such as temperature or humidity) at the precise location of the node and there is no concept of a sensing radius as in "area-sensing" applications such as surveillance or target tracking. While most coverage problems in the research literature have addressed area-sensing applications, this paper introduces a new coverage problem that is more meaningful to spot-sensing applications. In such cases, an improved quality of coverage is implied by (i) a smaller average distance between points in the region to their respective nearest active nodes and (ii) a more even distribution of these distances. New metrics are developed for these two aspects of quality of coverage and theoretical bounds are derived. A new distributed algorithm is presented for each node to determine if and when it should sense or sleep to conserve energy while also preserving quality of coverage. Simulation results show that the algorithm introduced here achieves ...

  15. Factors Related to Non-Referral of Patients with Presumptive Pulmonary TB to Designated Microscopy Centers (DMCs) by Registered Private Practitioners in Urban Areas of Punjab, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shruti; Whig, Jagdeep; Satija, Mahesh; Chaudhary, Anurag

    2015-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis and proper treatment under RNTCP guidelines, forms the mainstay of management of a TB patient. A large proportion of patients with presumptive tuberculosis (TB) visit a Private Practitioner (PP) in the first place. Studies have shown that PPs rely more on X-rays and other diagnostic tools rather than referring the patient to the nearest Designated Microscopy Centre (DMC) for sputum microscopy. Aim The present study was planned to look in to factors responsible for non-referral of patients with presumptive pulmonary TB to the DMCs for diagnosis by PPs. Materials and Methods Present study was a case-control study conducted over a period of one year among registered PPs in urban areas of Punjab. The study was carried out in five major cities which have approximately half of the urban population of Punjab. Forty three Private Practitioners per city for referral group and 43 matched PPs for non-referral group were selected. Results Knowledge regarding RNTCP was low in both the referral (38.1%) as well as non-referral (25.6%) group of PPs. Allopathic doctors had significantly higher knowledge regarding TB as compared to ayurvedic and homeopathy doctors, and Registered Medical Practitioners (RMP). Both the knowledge of PPs regarding nearest DMC as well as perception about accessibility of the nearest DMC for the patients were found to be significantly higher in the referral group. Only 15.3% of practitioners in the non-referral group said that they had been contacted by RNTCP staff. Conclusion The main factors responsible for non-referral of pulmonary TB suspects to DMCs for diagnosis in the present study included low knowledge regarding RNTCP, lack of awareness regarding place and accessibility of nearest DMC, and inadequate sensitization of PPs by the RNTCP staff. PMID:26674553

  16. 1990 point population coverage for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a point coverage of the 1990 Census of Population and Housing for the conterminous United States. (Alaska and Hawaii are available separately). The coverage...

  17. Laypersons’ Choices and Deliberations for Mental Health Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Evans-Lacko, Sara E.; Baum, Nancy; Danis, Marion; Biddle, Andrea; Goold, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Insurance coverage for mental health services has historically lagged behind other types of health services. We used a simulation exercise in which groups of laypersons deliberate about healthcare tradeoffs. Groups deciding for their ‘‘community’’ were more likely to select mental health coverage than individuals. Individual prioritization of mental health coverage, however, increased after group discussion. Participants discussed: value, cost and perceived need for mental health coverage, mo...

  18. Single Mothers in California: Understanding Their Health Insurance Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Wyn, Roberta; Ojeda, Victoria

    2002-01-01

    This policy brief examines the health insurance coverage of single mothers in California, addressing the factors affecting their coverage, as well as changes in coverage between 1994-95 and 1998-99. The descriptive data for this study were obtained from analyses of the 1995, 1996, 1999 and 2000 March Current Population Surveys. The findings in this study illustrate the disadvantage that many single mothers in California experience in their access to heath insurance coverage. Nearly one in thr...

  19. 48 CFR 1352.228-70 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.228-70 Insurance coverage. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1328.310-70(a), insert the following clause: Insurance Coverage (APR 2010... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage....

  20. 5 CFR 875.406 - May I change my coverage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May I change my coverage? 875.406 Section 875.406 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL LONG TERM CARE INSURANCE PROGRAM Coverage § 875.406 May I change my coverage? (a) You...

  1. Health Coverage Instability for Mothers in Working Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Steven G.; Eamon, Mary Keegan

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors examined the health insurance coverage stability of 1,667 women in working families over a three-year period (1995-1997). Findings revealed that coverage instability is common. Nearly one-half of low-income women experienced health coverage instability over the three-year study…

  2. 48 CFR 452.228-71 - Insurance Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance Coverage. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.228-71 Insurance Coverage. As prescribed in 428.310, insert the following clause: Insurance Coverage (NOV 1996) Pursuant...

  3. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart....

  4. 42 CFR 436.330 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 436.330 Section 436... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.330 Coverage for certain aliens. If an agency provides Medicaid to... condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of...

  5. 42 CFR 435.350 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.350 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Optional Coverage of the Medically Needy § 435.350 Coverage for certain aliens... treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those...

  6. 23 CFR 646.109 - Types of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Types of coverage. 646.109 Section 646.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.109 Types of coverage. (a) Coverage shall be limited to...

  7. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  8. 48 CFR 9903.201-2 - Types of CAS coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... coverage. Full coverage requires that the business unit comply with all of the CAS specified in part 9904... later award of a CAS-covered contract. Full coverage applies to contractor business units that— (1... covered contract of less than $50 million awarded to a business unit that received less than $50...

  9. 5 CFR 847.204 - Elections of FERS coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elections of FERS coverage. 847.204... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED FUND INSTRUMENTALITIES Elections To Continue Retirement Coverage After a Qualifying Move §...

  10. 5 CFR 847.203 - Elections of CSRS coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elections of CSRS coverage. 847.203... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED FUND INSTRUMENTALITIES Elections To Continue Retirement Coverage After a Qualifying Move §...

  11. Energy efficient data centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-03-30

    Data Center facilities, prevalent in many industries and institutions are essential to California's economy. Energy intensive data centers are crucial to California's industries, and many other institutions (such as universities) in the state, and they play an important role in the constantly evolving communications industry. To better understand the impact of the energy requirements and energy efficiency improvement potential in these facilities, the California Energy Commission's PIER Industrial Program initiated this project with two primary focus areas: First, to characterize current data center electricity use; and secondly, to develop a research ''roadmap'' defining and prioritizing possible future public interest research and deployment efforts that would improve energy efficiency. Although there are many opinions concerning the energy intensity of data centers and the aggregate effect on California's electrical power systems, there is very little publicly available information. Through this project, actual energy consumption at its end use was measured in a number of data centers. This benchmark data was documented in case study reports, along with site-specific energy efficiency recommendations. Additionally, other data center energy benchmarks were obtained through synergistic projects, prior PG&E studies, and industry contacts. In total, energy benchmarks for sixteen data centers were obtained. For this project, a broad definition of ''data center'' was adopted which included internet hosting, corporate, institutional, governmental, educational and other miscellaneous data centers. Typically these facilities require specialized infrastructure to provide high quality power and cooling for IT equipment. All of these data center types were considered in the development of an estimate of the total power consumption in California. Finally, a research ''roadmap'' was developed

  12. Senior Centers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... variety of social and recreational activities. [Karen Albers] We provide a wide variety of activities -- physical, health, ... senior centers also offer exercise programs. [Karen Albers] We offer aerobics, tai chi, tap dancing, ballroom dancing, ...

  13. Senior Centers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transportation, and meals programs are long-term care services available in the community which make it easier ... about senior centers and other long-term care services available in your community, contact the Eldercare Locator ...

  14. Senior Centers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Karen Albers] We provide a wide variety of activities -- physical, health, mental health programs with Senior Plus, cognitive ... of games. [Narrator] Many senior centers also offer exercise programs. [Karen Albers] We offer aerobics, tai chi, ...

  15. Senior Centers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available [Narrator] Living independently at home is something many older adults would like to do as long as they can. Senior centers, adult day care, transportation, and meals programs are ...

  16. Senior Centers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living independently at home is something many older adults would like to do as long as they can. Senior centers, adult day care, transportation, and meals programs are long- ...

  17. Senior Centers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of games. [Narrator] Many senior centers also offer exercise programs. [Karen Albers] We offer aerobics, tai chi, ... chi, tap dancing, ballroom dancing, square dancing, chair exercise, arthritis classes, yoga, and lots of dancing. [Narrator] ...

  18. Senior Centers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... something many older adults would like to do as long as they can. Senior centers, adult day care, transportation, ... adults who live independently can go to find a variety of social and recreational activities. [Karen Albers] ...

  19. Measuring coverage in MNCH: current indicators for measuring coverage of diarrhea treatment interventions and opportunities for improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa L Fischer Walker

    Full Text Available Diarrhea morbidity and mortality remain important child health problems in low- and middle-income countries. The treatment of diarrhea and accurate measurement of treatment coverage are critical if child mortality is going to continue to decline. In this review, we examine diarrhea treatment coverage indicators collected in two large-scale community-based household surveys--the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS. Current surveys do not distinguish between children with mild diarrhea episodes and those at risk for dehydration. Additional disease severity questions may improve the identification of cases of severe diarrhea but research is needed to identify indicators with the highest sensitivity and specificity. We also review the current treatment indicators in these surveys and highlight three areas for improvement and research. First, specific questions on fluids other than oral rehydration salts (ORS should be eliminated to refocus the treatment of dehydration on ORS and to prevent confusion between prevention and treatment of dehydration. Second, consistency across surveys and throughout translations is needed for questions about the caregiver behavior of "offering" the sick child fluid and food. Third, breastfeeding should be separated from other fluid and food questions to capture the frequency and duration of nursing sessions offered during the illness. Research is also needed to assess the accuracy of the current zinc indicator to determine if caregivers are correctly recalling zinc treatment for current and recent diarrhea episodes.

  20. Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center, Subproject to Co-PI Eric E. Roden. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes research conducted in conjunction with a project entitled 'Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center', which was funded through the Integrative Studies Element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. William Burgos (The Pennsylvania State University) was the overall PI/PD for the project, which included Brian Dempsey (Penn State), Gour-Tsyh (George) Yeh (Central Florida University), and Eric Roden (formerly at The University of Alabama, now at the University of Wisconsin) as separately-funded co-PIs. The project focused on development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. The work builds on our previous studies of microbial Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, and was directly aligned with the Scheibe et al. ORNL FRC Field Project at Area 2.

  1. Yampa coal field combined leased areas and mined-out areas, Colorado Plateau (yam*leasg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and coverages that represent areas of combined State and Federal coal leases and mined-out areas in the Yampa coal field. Yamaleasg contains...

  2. 26 CFR 54.9801-4 - Rules relating to creditable coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... waiting period for coverage are not creditable coverage. (ii) Days not counted before significant break in coverage. Days of creditable coverage that occur before a significant break in coverage are not required to be counted. (iii) Significant break in coverage defined—A significant break in coverage means...

  3. A vector method for synthesis of orbits and the structure of satellite constellations for multiswath periodic coverage of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulskiy, V. K.

    2016-07-01

    Single satellites and multisatellite constellations for the periodic coverage of the Earth are considered. The main feature is the use of several cameras with different swath widths. A vector method is proposed which makes it possible to find orbits minimizing the periodicities of coverage of a given area of Earth uniformly for all swaths. Their number is not limited, but the relative dimensions should satisfy the Fibonacci series or some new numerical sequences. The results apply to constellations of any number of satellites. Formulas were derived for calculating their structure, i.e., relative position in the constellation. Examples of orbits and the structure of constellations for the Earth's multiswath coverage are presented.

  4. Efficient Sensor Placement Optimization Using Gradient Descent and Probabilistic Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahab Akbarzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We are proposing an adaptation of the gradient descent method to optimize the position and orientation of sensors for the sensor placement problem. The novelty of the proposed method lies in the combination of gradient descent optimization with a realistic model, which considers both the topography of the environment and a set of sensors with directional probabilistic sensing. The performance of this approach is compared with two other black box optimization methods over area coverage and processing time. Results show that our proposed method produces competitive results on smaller maps and superior results on larger maps, while requiring much less computation than the other optimization methods to which it has been compared.

  5. Vonlays: a conservative esthetic alternative to full-coverage crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Edward A; Figueira, Johan; Goldstein, Ronald E

    2015-04-01

    Porcelain veneers have long been a popular restorative option that have evolved into a well-accepted treatment that can be fabricated in various ways. Onlays are another common treatment modality used in contemporary dentistry to restore large areas of decay and to replace old restorations. With the availability of newer high-strength materials such as lithium disilicate and processing technologies like CAD/CAM and heat pressing, dental professionals are now able to produce highly esthetic, high-strength restorations that blend seamlessly with the natural dentition while also withstanding posterior occlusal forces. This has resulted in innovative methods of providing minimally invasive dentistry. One such approach is a combination restoration the authors call a "vonlay," which, as demonstrated in this case report, can be used as an alternative to coverage crowns to restore damaged posterior teeth. PMID:25821940

  6. Health Care Coverage Decision Making in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Experiences from 25 Coverage Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Hialy; Shewade, Ashwini; Dai, Minghan; Mendoza-Arana, Pedro; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Jain, Nishant; Khonelidze, Irma; Nabyonga-Orem, Juliet; Saleh, Karima; Teerawattananon, Yot; Nishtar, Sania; Hornberger, John

    2015-08-01

    Lessons learned by countries that have successfully implemented coverage schemes for health services may be valuable for other countries, especially low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), which likewise are seeking to provide/expand coverage. The research team surveyed experts in population health management from LMICs for information on characteristics of health care coverage schemes and factors that influenced decision-making processes. The level of coverage provided by the different schemes varied. Nearly all the health care coverage schemes involved various representatives and stakeholders in their decision-making processes. Maternal and child health, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and HIV were among the highest priorities guiding coverage development decisions. Evidence used to inform coverage decisions included medical literature, regional and global epidemiology, and coverage policies of other coverage schemes. Funding was the most commonly reported reason for restricting coverage. This exploratory study provides an overview of health care coverage schemes from participating LMICs and contributes to the scarce evidence base on coverage decision making. Sharing knowledge and experiences among LMICs can support efforts to establish systems for accessible, affordable, and equitable health care. PMID:25393442

  7. INTERMOUNTAIN INDUSTRIAL ASSESSMENT CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MELINDA KRAHENBUHL

    2010-05-28

    The U. S. Department of Energy’s Intermountain Industrial Assessment Center (IIAC) at the University of Utah has been providing eligible small- and medium-sized manufacturers with no-cost plant assessments since 2001, offering cost-effective recommendations for improvements in the areas of energy efficiency, pollution prevention, and productivity improvement.

  8. Vocabulary at the Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Amy; Crow, John T.

    2009-01-01

    In "Vocabulary at the Center," Amy Benjamin and John T. Crow identify the most effective methods for extending the use of new words--in every grade level and across all subjects. This book shows teachers how to use context-driven exercises to incorporate new words into other areas of study. This book contains information about the authors, an…

  9. Coverage-guaranteed sensor node deployment strategies for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Gaojuan; Wang, Ruchuan; Huang, Haiping; Sun, Lijuan; Sha, Chao

    2010-01-01

    Deployment quality and cost are two conflicting aspects in wireless sensor networks. Random deployment, where the monitored field is covered by randomly and uniformly deployed sensor nodes, is an appropriate approach for large-scale network applications. However, their successful applications depend considerably on the deployment quality that uses the minimum number of sensors to achieve a desired coverage. Currently, the number of sensors required to meet the desired coverage is based on asymptotic analysis, which cannot meet deployment quality due to coverage overestimation in real applications. In this paper, we first investigate the coverage overestimation and address the challenge of designing coverage-guaranteed deployment strategies. To overcome this problem, we propose two deployment strategies, namely, the Expected-area Coverage Deployment (ECD) and BOundary Assistant Deployment (BOAD). The deployment quality of the two strategies is analyzed mathematically. Under the analysis, a lower bound on the number of deployed sensor nodes is given to satisfy the desired deployment quality. We justify the correctness of our analysis through rigorous proof, and validate the effectiveness of the two strategies through extensive simulation experiments. The simulation results show that both strategies alleviate the coverage overestimation significantly. In addition, we also evaluate two proposed strategies in the context of target detection application. The comparison results demonstrate that if the target appears at the boundary of monitored region in a given random deployment, the average intrusion distance of BOAD is considerably shorter than that of ECD with the same desired deployment quality. In contrast, ECD has better performance in terms of the average intrusion distance when the invasion of intruder is from the inside of monitored region. PMID:22294915

  10. 42 CFR 435.320 - Medically needy coverage of the aged in States that cover individuals receiving SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of the aged in States that cover individuals receiving SSI. 435.320 Section 435.320 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... individuals receiving SSI. If the agency provides Medicaid to individuals receiving SSI and elects to...

  11. 42 CFR 435.322 - Medically needy coverage of the blind in States that cover individuals receiving SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of the blind in States that cover individuals receiving SSI. 435.322 Section 435.322 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... individuals receiving SSI. If the agency provides Medicaid to individuals receiving SSI and elects to...

  12. 42 CFR 435.324 - Medically needy coverage of the disabled in States that cover individuals receiving SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medically needy coverage of the disabled in States that cover individuals receiving SSI. 435.324 Section 435.324 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... individuals receiving SSI. If the agency provides Medicaid to individuals receiving SSI and elects to...

  13. Mastering System Center 2012 Configuration Manager

    CERN Document Server

    Rachui, Steve; Martinez, Santos; Daalmans, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Expert coverage of Microsoft's highly anticipated network software deployment tool The latest version of System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM) is a dramatic update of its predecessor Configuration Manager 2007, and this book offers intermediate-to-advanced coverage of how the new SCCM boasts a simplified hierarchy, role-based security, a new console, flexible application deployment, and mobile management. You'll explore planning and installation, migrating from SCCM 2007, deploying software and operating systems, security, monitoring and troubleshooting, and automating and customizing SCC

  14. Comparison of Coverage and Compliance of Mass Drug Administration 2012 in Surat, India

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta Shreyash , Shah Vinesh , Verma Anupam, Patel NB, Bansal RK

    2012-01-01

    Context: Filariasis, an infectious tropical disease is a major public health problem in India but remains neglected. This study was conducted with an objective to evaluate and compare the coverage and compliance of Mass Drug Administration and associated factors in Urban and Rural area of Surat district, Gujarat, India. Methods and materials: This cross sectional study involved survey of Urban and Rural area of Surat district covering 128 household in each. A pretested questioner was used to ...

  15. Monitoring of vegetation coverage based on high-resolution images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Li; Li Li-juan; Liang Li-qiao; Li Jiu-yi

    2007-01-01

    Measurement of vegetation coverage on a small scale is the foundation for the monitoring of changes in vegetation coverage and of the inversion model of monitoring vegetation coverage on a large scale by remote sensing. Using the object-oriented analytical software,Definiens Professional 5,a new method for calculating vegetation coverage based on high-resolution images(aerial photographs or near-surface photography)is proposed. Our research supplies references to remote sensing measurements of vegetation coverage on a small scale and accurate fundamental data for the inversion model of vegetation coverage on a large and intermediatc scale to improve the accuracy of remote sensing monitoring of changes in vegetation coverage.

  16. Compulsory and recommended vaccination in Italy: evaluation of coverage and non-compliance between 1998-2002 in Northern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffilli Isa; Ricci Rita; Stampi Serena; Zanetti Franca

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Since vaccinations are an effective prevention tool for maintaining the health of society, the monitoring of immunization coverage allows us to identify areas where disease outbreaks are likely to occur, and possibly assist us in predicting future outbreaks. The aim of this study is the investigation of the coverage achieved for compulsory (diphtheria, tetanus, polio, hepatitis B,) and recommended (pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae, measles-mumps-rubella) vaccinations betw...

  17. Extension of social security coverage for the informal economy in Indonesia : surveys in the urban and rural informal economy

    OpenAIRE

    Angelini, John; Hirose, Kenichi

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the extension of social security coverage to workers in the informal economy. In particular, the paper presents the results of surveys assessing social security needs of workers in the informal economy in both urban and rural areas. The outcome of these surveys provides primary information for the development of effective policy on social security coverage extension to these groups of workers.

  18. A Study Of Universal Immunization Coverage During Last Five Years In Resettlement Colonies Of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salhotra V S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Is there any difference in immunization coverage in resettlement colonies of Delhi during past five years? Objectives: 1. To study the immunization coverage levels of children over a period of five years. 2. To observe changes in the coverage levels of different years, if any. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Khichripur, Kalyanpuri, Kalyanpuri, Trilokpuri and Himmatpuri- four resettlement colonies of trans-Yamuna area of Delhi. Participants: 1500 children belonging to five age-groups i.e. birth-1 yr., 1-2 yrs., 2-3 yrs, and 4-5 yrs. Methods: Verification of child’s immunization from immunization card and interview of mother if immunization car was not available. Study period: May1997 to March1998 Results: Immunization with individual vaccines and immunization status of the children peaked in 1995-96 but started falling thereafter due to fall in ICE activities.

  19. Coverage and Connectivity Aware Neural Network Based Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Kumar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many challenges when designing and deploying wireless sensor networks (WSNs. One of thekey challenges is how to make full use of the limited energy to prolong the lifetime of the network,because energy is a valuable resource in WSNs. The status of energy consumption should be continuouslymonitored after network deployment. In this paper, we propose coverage and connectivity aware neuralnetwork based energy efficient routing in WSN with the objective of maximizing the network lifetime. Inthe proposed scheme, the problem is formulated as linear programming (LP with coverage andconnectivity aware constraints. Cluster head selection is proposed using adaptive learning in neuralnetworks followed by coverage and connectivity aware routing with data transmission. The proposedscheme is compared with existing schemes with respect to the parameters such as number of alive nodes,packet delivery fraction, and node residual energy. The simulation results show that the proposed schemecan be used in wide area of applications in WSNs.

  20. An Efficient Distributed Coverage Hole Detection Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar; Chiang, Ming-Jer; Wu, Shih-Lin

    2016-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), certain areas of the monitoring region may have coverage holes and serious coverage overlapping due to the random deployment of sensors. The failure of electronic components, software bugs and destructive agents could lead to the random death of the nodes. Sensors may be dead due to exhaustion of battery power, which may cause the network to be uncovered and disconnected. Based on the deployment nature of the nodes in remote or hostile environments, such as a battlefield or desert, it is impossible to recharge or replace the battery. However, the data gathered by the sensors are highly essential for the analysis, and therefore, the collaborative detection of coverage holes has strategic importance in WSNs. In this paper, distributed coverage hole detection algorithms are designed, where nodes can collaborate to detect the coverage holes autonomously. The performance evaluation of our protocols suggests that our protocols outperform in terms of hole detection time, limited power consumption and control packet overhead to detect holes as compared to other similar protocols. PMID:26999143

  1. An Efficient Distributed Coverage Hole Detection Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasan Kumar Sahoo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, certain areas of the monitoring region may have coverage holes and serious coverage overlapping due to the random deployment of sensors. The failure of electronic components, software bugs and destructive agents could lead to the random death of the nodes. Sensors may be dead due to exhaustion of battery power, which may cause the network to be uncovered and disconnected. Based on the deployment nature of the nodes in remote or hostile environments, such as a battlefield or desert, it is impossible to recharge or replace the battery. However, the data gathered by the sensors are highly essential for the analysis, and therefore, the collaborative detection of coverage holes has strategic importance in WSNs. In this paper, distributed coverage hole detection algorithms are designed, where nodes can collaborate to detect the coverage holes autonomously. The performance evaluation of our protocols suggests that our protocols outperform in terms of hole detection time, limited power consumption and control packet overhead to detect holes as compared to other similar protocols.

  2. Hole Detection for Increasing Coverage in Wireless Sensor Network Using Triangular Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Babaie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The emerging technology of wireless sensor network (WSN is expected to provide a broad range of applications, such as battlefield surveillance, environmental monitoring, smart spaces and so on. The coverage problem is a fundamental issue in WSN, which mainly concerns with a fundamental question: How well a sensor field is observed by the deployed sensors? Mobility is exploited to improve area coverage in a kind of hybrid sensor networks. The main objective for using mobile sensor nodes is to heal coverage holes after the initial network deployment, when designing a hole healing algorithm, the following issues need to be addressed. First, how to decide the existence of a coverage hole and how to estimate the size of a hole. Second, what are the best target locations to relocate mobile nodes to repair coverage holes? We use the triangular oriented diagram (HSTT for aim to goal where its simple ,have low calculation among construction and it is great to calculate the size of hole exactly .

  3. Hole Detection for Increasing Coverage in Wireless Sensor Network Using Triangular Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Babaie, Shahram

    2012-01-01

    The emerging technology of wireless sensor network (WSN) is expected to provide a broad range of applications, such as battlefield surveillance, environmental monitoring, smart spaces and so on. The coverage problem is a fundamental issue in WSN, which mainly concerns with a fundamental question: How well a sensor field is observed by the deployed sensors? Mobility is exploited to improve area coverage in a kind of hybrid sensor networks. The main objective for using mobile sensor nodes is to heal coverage holes after the initial network deployment, when designing a hole healing algorithm, the following issues need to be addressed. First, how to decide the existence of a coverage hole and how to estimate the size of a hole. Second, what are the best target locations to relocate mobile nodes to repair coverage holes? We use the triangular oriented diagram (HSTT) for aim to goal where its simple, have low calculation among construction and it is great to calculate the size of hole exactly .

  4. Annual influenza vaccination: coverage and attitudes of primary care staff in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kirsten; Seale, Holly; Zwar, Nicholas; Leask, Julie; MacIntyre, C. Raina

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Ward et al. (2011) Annual influenza vaccination: coverage and attitudes of primary care staff in Australia. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(2), 135–141. Background  Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all Australian health care workers (HCWs) including those working in primary health care. There is limited published data on coverage, workplace provision, attitudes and personal barriers to influenza vaccination amongst primary health care staff. The aim of this study was to contribute to the limited literature base in this important area by investigating these issues in the primary health care setting in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Methods  A postal survey was sent to general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses (PNs) from inner city, semi‐urban and rural areas of NSW, Australia. There were 139 responses in total (response rate 36%) from 79 GPs (response rate 30%) and 60 PNs (response rate 46%). Results  Reported influenza vaccination coverage in both 2007 and 2008 was greater than 70%, with GPs reporting higher coverage than PNs in both years. The main barriers identified were lack of awareness of vaccination recommendations for general practice staff and concern about adverse effects from the vaccine. Conclusions  Rates of influenza vaccination coverage reported in this study were higher than in previous studies of hospital and institutional HCWs, though it is possible that the study design may have contributed to these higher results. Nevertheless, these findings highlight that more needs to be done to understand barriers to vaccination in this group, to inform the development of appropriate strategies to increase vaccination coverage in primary health care staff, with a special focus on PNs. PMID:21306577

  5. Square Grid Points Coveraged by Connected Sources With Coverage Radius of One on a Two-Dimensional Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattama Longani,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available W e take some parts of a theoretical mobility model in a two - dimension grid proposed by Greenlaw and Kantabutra to be our model. T he model has eight necessary factors that we commonly use in a mobile wireless network: sources or wireless signal p roviders, the directions that a source can move, users or mobile devices, the given directions which define a user’s movement, the given directions which defi ne a source’s movement, source’s velocity, source’s coverage, and obstacles. However, we include o nly the sources, source’s coverage, and the obstacles in our model. W e define S QUARE G RID P OINTS C OVERAGE (SGPC problem to minimize number of sources with coverage radius of one to cover a square grid point size of p with the restriction that all the sour ces must be communicable and proof th at SGPC is in NP - complete class. We also give an A PPROX - S QUARE - G RID - C OVERAGE (ASGC algorithm to compute the approximate solution of SGPC. ASGC use s the rule that any number can be obtained from the addition of 3, 4 and 5 and then combine s 3 - gadgets, 4 - gadgets and 5 - gadgets to specify the position of sources to cover a square grid point size of p . We find that the algorithm achieves an approximation ratio of 2 10 2 1 2 p p . Moreover, w e state about the extension usa ge of our algorithm and show some examples. We show that if we use ASPC on a square grid size of p and if sources can be moved, the area under the square grid can be covered in eight - time - steps movement. We also prove that i f we extend o ur source cover age radius to 1.59 , without any movement the area under the square gird will also be covered. Further studies are also discussed and a list of some tentative problems is given in the conclusion

  6. Architecture Study on Telemetry Coverage for Immediate Post-Separation Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kar-Ming; Lee, Charles H.; Kellogg, Kent H.; Stocklin, Frank J.; Zillig, David J.; Fielhauer, Karl B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of an architecture study that provides continuous telemetry coverage for NASA missions for immediate post-separation phase. This study is a collaboration effort between Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). After launch when the spacecraft separated from the upper stage, the spacecraft typically executes a number of mission-critical operations prior to the deployment of solar panels and the activation of the primary communication subsystem. JPL, GSFC, and APL have similar design principle statements that require continuous coverage of mission-critical telemetry during the immediate post-separation phase. To conform to these design principles, an architecture that consists of a separate spacecraft transmitter and a robust communication network capable of tracking the spacecraft signals is needed.This paper presents the preliminary results of an architecture study that provides continuous telemetry coverage for NASA missions for immediate post-separation phase. This study is a collaboration effort between Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). After launch when the spacecraft separated from the upper stage, the spacecraft typically executes a number of mission-critical operations prior to the deployment of solar panels and the activation of the primary communication subsystem. JPL, GSFC, and APL have similar design principle statements that require continuous coverage of mission-critical telemetry during the immediate post-separation phase. To conform to these design principles, an architecture that consists of a separate spacecraft transmitter and a robust communication network capable of tracking the spacecraft signals is needed. The main results of this study are as follows: 1) At low altitude (< 10000 km) when most post-separation critical operations are executed, Earth-based network

  7. Architecture Study on Telemetry Coverage for Immediate Post-Separation Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kar-Ming; Lee, Charles H.; Kellogg, Kent H.; Stocklin, Frank J.; Zillig, David J.; Fielhauer, Karl B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of an architecture study that provides continuous telemetry coverage for NASA missions for immediate post-separation phase. This study is a collaboration effort between Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). After launch when the spacecraft separated from the upper stage, the spacecraft typically executes a number of mission-critical operations prior to the deployment of solar panels and the activation of the primary communication subsystem. JPL, GSFC, and APL have similar design principle statements that require continuous coverage of mission-critical telemetry during the immediate post-separation phase. To conform to these design principles, an architecture that consists of a separate spacecraft transmitter and a robust communication network capable of tracking the spacecraft signals is needed.This paper presents the preliminary results of an architecture study that provides continuous telemetry coverage for NASA missions for immediate post-separation phase. This study is a collaboration effort between Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). After launch when the spacecraft separated from the upper stage, the spacecraft typically executes a number of mission-critical operations prior to the deployment of solar panels and the activation of the primary communication subsystem. JPL, GSFC, and APL have similar design principle statements that require continuous coverage of mission-critical telemetry during the immediate post-separation phase. To conform to these design principles, an architecture that consists of a separate spacecraft transmitter and a robust communication network capable of tracking the spacecraft signals is needed. The main results of this study are as follows: 1) At low altitude (separation critical operations are executed, Earth-based network (e.g. Deep Space Network

  8. Optimal Location of Radiation Therapy Centers With Respect to Geographic Access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a framework with which to evaluate locations of radiation therapy (RT) centers in a region based on geographic access. Methods and Materials: Patient records were obtained for all external beam radiation therapy started in 2011 for the province of British Columbia, Canada. Two metrics of geographic access were defined. The primary analysis was percentage of patients (coverage) within a 90-minute drive from an RT center (C90), and the secondary analysis was the average drive time (ADT) to an RT center. An integer programming model was developed to determine optimal center locations, catchment areas, and capacity required under different scenarios. Results: Records consisted of 11,096 courses of radiation corresponding to 161,616 fractions. Baseline geographic access was estimated at 102.5 minutes ADT (each way, per fraction) and 75.9% C90. Adding 2 and 3 new centers increased C90 to 88% and 92%, respectively, and decreased ADT by between 43% and 61%, respectively. A scenario in which RT was provided in every potential location that could support at least 1 fully utilized linear accelerator resulted in 35.3 minutes' ADT and 93.6% C90. Conclusions: The proposed framework and model provide a data-driven means to quantitatively evaluate alternative configurations of a regional RT system. Results suggest that the choice of location for future centers can significantly improve geographic access to RT

  9. Senior Centers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provide a wide variety of activities -- physical, health, mental health programs with Senior Plus, cognitive programs, a wide variety of general activities, billiards, Bingo, lots of games. [Narrator] Many senior centers also offer exercise programs. [Karen Albers] We offer aerobics, tai chi, ...

  10. Hastings Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BLOG We have long had the ability, we humans, to work outside the bounds of evolution. Dairy cattle, maize, and all sorts of dog ... intervention. However, in the past, the scope of human intervention was rather… Read more Share: ... Evolution? Read more HASTINGS NEWS Hastings Center research scholar ...

  11. Senior Centers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dancing. [Narrator] These centers can provide entree to new activities and expand a person’s social contacts. [Karen ... meeting all their interests and introducing them to new things; whether it’s an arts and crafts project, ...

  12. Senior Centers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transportation, and meals programs are long-term care services available in the community which make it easier for older adults to ... about senior centers and other long-term care services available in your community, contact the Eldercare Locator at 1-800-677- ...

  13. Public health challenges for universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Radha Madhab

    2014-01-01

    The effective functioning of any health system requires an efficient public health service. Every human being has the right to enjoy "the highest attainable standard of health," which can be fulfilled by giving every man an affordable and equitable health system he deserves and demands. In these years, complex health changes have complicated the situation in India. Most important gaps in the health care include an understanding of the burden of the disease and what leads to and causes ill health, the availability and use of appropriate technology in the management of disease, ill health and health systems that have an impact on service delivery. Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has the potential to increase economic growth, improve educational opportunities, reduce impoverishment and inequalities, and foster social cohesion. Steps taken for achieving UHC will address the public health challenges and vice versa. PMID:25116820

  14. A simple EHF hemispheric coverage antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. C.

    1994-08-01

    A circulary polarized, axially symmetric, wide-beam radiator is required in many applications, including TT&C for UAV's and satellites. This report discusses some existing wide-beam antenna designs including divergent lenses and reflectors and introduces a new antenna design. Using a simple dielectric ring in conjunction with a dielectric loaded circular waveguide opening, a near ideal, axially symmetric, hemispheric coverage antenna with circular polarization of good axial ratio and wide-band impedance match is realized. Mechanically, the antenna is small, lightweight, and low cost. The dielectric used is the common Rexolite. Since no lossy materials or resonant scatterers are used, the antenna performance is inherently broadband and low loss. A K sub a-band prototype as well as compact designs for both Q- and K-bands are described.

  15. Civil liability and nuclear coverage: synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report has been written considering the advanced work which has been done by the Expert Committee, sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, having the purpose to examine the modifications issued in course of Vienna Convention as well as the Paris convention and the complementary Brussels Convention, in view to adapt the legislation to the actual context and to answer the populations expectations. The work has been organized in three majors chapters: the first one in concerned to the damage definition, proposition to the to reach the environment, the prevention and charges. the research and military installations are also considered. The second chapter has been dedicated to the civil responsibility, its limits, financing modes, the national and international legal competence besides the litigation charges due to the nuclear accidents born on the occasion. In the third chapter the insurance considering the damage nature, the capacity to assure liability coverage and the damage management are harmonized

  16. Determinants of immunization coverage in Lucknow district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunization remains one of the most important public health interventions and a cost-effective strategy to reduce both the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. Over two million deaths are delayed through immunization each year worldwide. Aims: This study sought to identify specific factors associated with immunization coverage in order to advance improved intervention, policies/strategies therefore raising overall immunization coverage. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among a total of 198 children aged 12-23 months at Urban Health and Training Centre (UHTC, Era′s Lucknow Medical College, Lucknow, over a period of 6 months i.e., from July 2012-December 2012. Data were collected, compiled and tabulated using Microsoft Excel and analyzed using SPSS 17.0 version. Results: A total of 198 children of age 12-23 months were included in this study, of which 74.7% of children were fully immunized, 11.1% were partially immunized and 14.1% were not immunized at all. The most common reason for partial or non-immunization was family problems (24% of the respondents followed by lack of knowledge of immunization (20%, and fear of side effects (16%. The odds of risk of partial/non-immunization in illiterate women is 5.78 more than the graduate women (P = 0.039. Conclusions: Although in the present study, majority of the children were immunized, it is still not up to the mark. We have to make it 100%, so that we can reduce mortality due to vaccine-preventable diseases. Increasing awareness and reducing fear of side effects of immunization among parents through health education, counseling, etc. can increase the percentage of immunized children.

  17. Transport networks and inequities in vaccination: remoteness shapes measles vaccine coverage and prospects for elimination across Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, C J E; Tatem, A; Bjornstad, O N; Lessler, J; O'Reilly, K; Takahashi, S; Cutts, F; Grenfell, B T

    2015-05-01

    Measles vaccination is estimated to have averted 13·8 million deaths between 2000 and 2012. Persisting heterogeneity in coverage is a major contributor to continued measles mortality, and a barrier to measles elimination and introduction of rubella-containing vaccine. Our objective is to identify determinants of inequities in coverage, and how vaccine delivery must change to achieve elimination goals, which is a focus of the WHO Decade of Vaccines. We combined estimates of travel time to the nearest urban centre (⩾50 000 people) with vaccination data from Demographic Health Surveys to assess how remoteness affects coverage in 26 African countries. Building on a statistical mapping of coverage against age and geographical isolation, we quantified how modifying the rate and age range of vaccine delivery affects national coverage. Our scenario analysis considers increasing the rate of delivery of routine vaccination, increasing the target age range of routine vaccination, and enhanced delivery to remote areas. Geographical isolation plays a key role in defining vaccine inequity, with greater inequity in countries with lower measles vaccine coverage. Eliminating geographical inequities alone will not achieve thresholds for herd immunity, indicating that changes in delivery rate or age range of routine vaccination will be required. Measles vaccine coverage remains far below targets for herd immunity in many countries on the African continent and is likely to be inadequate for achieving rubella elimination. The impact of strategies such as increasing the upper age range eligible for routine vaccination should be considered. PMID:25119237

  18. Temporal trend of green space coverage in China and its relationship with urbanization over the last two decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irrespective of which side is taken in the densification-sprawl debate, insights into the relationship between urban green space coverage and urbanization have been recognized as essential for guiding sustainable urban development. However, knowledge of the relationships between socio-economic variables of urbanization and long-term green space change is still limited. In this paper, using simple regression, hierarchical partitioning and multi-regression, the temporal trend in green space coverage and its relationship with urbanization were investigated using data from 286 cities between 1989 and 2009, covering all provinces in mainland China with the exception of Tibet. We found that: [1] average green space coverage of cities investigated increased steadily from 17.0% in 1989 to 37.3% in 2009; [2] cities with higher recent green space coverage also had relatively higher green space coverage historically; [3] cities in the same region exhibited similar long-term trends in green space coverage; [4] eight of the nine variables characterizing urbanization showed a significant positive linear relationship with green space coverage, with ‘per capita GDP’ having the highest independent contribution (24.2%); [5] among the climatic and geographic factors investigated, only mean elevation showed a significant effect; and [6] using the seven largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in green space coverage was constructed. Here, we demonstrated that green space coverage in built-up areas tended to reflect the effects of urbanization rather than those of climatic or geographic factors. Quantification of the urbanization effects and the characteristics of green space development in China may provide a valuable reference for research into the processes of urban sprawl and its relationship with green space change. -- Highlights: ► The green space coverage in Chinese cities increased steadily from 1991 to 2009. ► Cities in the same

  19. Temporal trend of green space coverage in China and its relationship with urbanization over the last two decades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Juanjuan, E-mail: jjzhao@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Chen, Shengbin, E-mail: chainpin@yahoo.com.cn [Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, 8 Jiangwangmiao Street, Nanjing 210042 (China); Jiang, Bo, E-mail: jbshuibao415@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Ren, Yin, E-mail: yren@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Wang, Hua, E-mail: wanghuaphd@gmail.com [Institute of Forestry and Pomology, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Ruiwangfen Jia 12 Xiangshan, Beijing 100093 (China); Vause, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathanvause@hotmail.com [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Yu, Haidong, E-mail: hoste@163.com [Xiamen Huaxia Vocational College, Wenjiaoqu Jimei District, Xiamen 361024 (China)

    2013-01-01

    Irrespective of which side is taken in the densification-sprawl debate, insights into the relationship between urban green space coverage and urbanization have been recognized as essential for guiding sustainable urban development. However, knowledge of the relationships between socio-economic variables of urbanization and long-term green space change is still limited. In this paper, using simple regression, hierarchical partitioning and multi-regression, the temporal trend in green space coverage and its relationship with urbanization were investigated using data from 286 cities between 1989 and 2009, covering all provinces in mainland China with the exception of Tibet. We found that: [1] average green space coverage of cities investigated increased steadily from 17.0% in 1989 to 37.3% in 2009; [2] cities with higher recent green space coverage also had relatively higher green space coverage historically; [3] cities in the same region exhibited similar long-term trends in green space coverage; [4] eight of the nine variables characterizing urbanization showed a significant positive linear relationship with green space coverage, with 'per capita GDP' having the highest independent contribution (24.2%); [5] among the climatic and geographic factors investigated, only mean elevation showed a significant effect; and [6] using the seven largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in green space coverage was constructed. Here, we demonstrated that green space coverage in built-up areas tended to reflect the effects of urbanization rather than those of climatic or geographic factors. Quantification of the urbanization effects and the characteristics of green space development in China may provide a valuable reference for research into the processes of urban sprawl and its relationship with green space change. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The green space coverage in Chinese cities increased steadily from 1991 to

  20. Abstracts of Suburban Press Critique Series Papers Produced by the Suburban Press Research Center from April 1966 to May 1973. Suburban Press Research Series No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb. Suburban Press Research Center.

    Abstracts of 28 articles, collected by the Suburban Press Research Center, are provided in this paper. The articles discuss various aspects of the suburban press: pretrial coverage; news coverage for adolescents, the family, and the aged; editorials; education news; business news; crime coverage; consumer information; the formation of policies…

  1. CENTER FOR CYBER SECURITY STUDIES

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Center for Cyber Security Studies is to enhance the education of midshipmen in all areas of cyber warfare, to facilitate the sharing of expertise...

  2. Detection and Recovery of Coverage Holes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Kang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN consists of distributed low-cost sensing nodes with autonomous network. Several anomalies can occur in wireless sensor networks that may form various coverage holes. These holes may disturb the existing coverage or connectivity, and impair desired functionalities of networks. Hence, it is essential to detect and recovery coverage holes in order to ensure the full operability of a WSN. In the paper, we propose a decentralized, coordinate-free, node-based coverage hole detection algorithm. It is based on boundary critical points, and can be run on a single node with verifying boundary critical points from neighbors. The hole patching algorithm is implemented with the concept of perpendicular bisector and our detection algorithm. The patching sensor nodes are deployed on hole boundary bisectors. Simulation demonstrates that our algorithm can detect and recover coverage hole, and guarantee full coverage in hostile environments with an effective manner.

  3. Target Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks with Probabilistic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Anxing; Xu, Xianghua; Cheng, Zongmao

    2016-01-01

    Sensing coverage is a fundamental problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which has attracted considerable attention. Conventional research on this topic focuses on the 0/1 coverage model, which is only a coarse approximation to the practical sensing model. In this paper, we study the target coverage problem, where the objective is to find the least number of sensor nodes in randomly-deployed WSNs based on the probabilistic sensing model. We analyze the joint detection probability of target with multiple sensors. Based on the theoretical analysis of the detection probability, we formulate the minimum ϵ-detection coverage problem. We prove that the minimum ϵ-detection coverage problem is NP-hard and present an approximation algorithm called the Probabilistic Sensor Coverage Algorithm (PSCA) with provable approximation ratios. To evaluate our design, we analyze the performance of PSCA theoretically and also perform extensive simulations to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm. PMID:27618902

  4. The Web Application Test Based on Page Coverage Criteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Li-zhi; TONG Wei-qin; YANG Gen-xing

    2008-01-01

    Software testing coverage criteria play an important role in the whole testing process. The current coverage criteria for web applications are based on program or URL. They are not suitable for black-box test or intuitional to use. This paper defines a kind of test criteria based on page coverage sequences only navigated by web application, including Page_Single, Page_Post, Page_Pre,Page_Seq2, Page_SeqK. The test criteria based on page coverage sequences made by interactions between web application and browser are being under consideration after that. In order to avoid ambiguity of natural language, these coverage criteria are depicted using Z formal language. The empirical result shows that the criteria complement traditional coverage and fault detection capability criteria.

  5. Predictors of Children’s Health Insurance Coverage Discontinuity in 1998 Versus 2009: Parental Coverage Continuity Plays a Major Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Jennifer E.; Tillotson, Carrie J.; Wallace, Lorraine S.

    2016-01-01

    To identify predictors of coverage continuity for United States children and assess how they have changed in the first 12 years since implementation of the Children’s Health Insurance Program in 1997. Using data from the nationally-representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we used logistic regression to identify predictors of discontinuity in 1998 and 2009 and compared differences between the 2 years. Having parents without continuous coverage was the greatest predictor of a child’s coverage gap in both 1998 and 2009. Compared to children with at least one parent continuously covered, children whose parents did not have continuous coverage had a significantly higher relative risk (RR) of a coverage gap [RR 17.96, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 14.48–22.29 in 1998; RR 12.88, 95 % CI 10.41–15.93 in 2009]. In adjusted models, parental continuous coverage was the only significant predictor of discontinuous coverage for children (with one exception in 2009). The magnitude of the pattern was higher for privately-insured children [adjusted relative risk (aRR) 29.17, 95 % CI 20.99–40.53 in 1998; aRR 25.54, 95 % CI 19.41–33.61 in 2009] than publicly-insured children (aRR 5.72, 95 % CI 4.06–8.06 in 1998; aRR 4.53, 95 % CI 3.40–6.04 in 2009). Parental coverage continuity has a major influence on children’s coverage continuity; this association remained even after public health insurance expansions for children. The Affordable Care Act will increase coverage for many adults; however, ‘churning’ on and off programs due to income fluctuations could result in coverage discontinuities for parents. If parental coverage instability persists, these discontinuities may continue to have a negative impact on children’s coverage stability as well. PMID:25070735

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL BIOINFORMATICS AND COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY CENTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center activities focused on integrating developmental efforts from the various research projects of the Center, and collaborative applications involving scientists from other institutions and EPA, to enhance research in critical areas. A representative sample of specif...

  7. Centered Pyramids

    OpenAIRE

    Brigger, P.; F. Müller; Illgner, K.; Unser, M.

    1999-01-01

    Quadtree-like pyramids have the advantage of resulting in a multiresolution representation where each pyramid node has four unambiguous parents. Such a centered topology guarantees a clearly defined up-projection of labels. This concept has been successfully and extensively used in applications of contour detection, object recognition and segmentation. Unfortunately, the quadtree-like type of pyramid has poor approximation powers because of the employed piecewise-constant image model. This pa...

  8. Distributed Multitarget Probabilistic Coverage Control Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Tian; Yang Ou; Hamid Reza Karimi; Yan Tao Liu; Jian Qun Han

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of multitarget coverage based on probabilistic detection model. Coverage configuration is an effective method to alleviate the energy-limitation problem of sensors. Firstly, considering the attenuation of node's sensing ability, the target probabilistic coverage problem is defined and formalized, which is based on Neyman-Peason probabilistic detection model. Secondly, in order to turn off redundant sensors, a simplified judging rule is derived, which m...

  9. Pricing of Drugs with Heterogeneous Health Insurance Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Missios; Ida Ferrara

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the role of insurance coverage in explaining the generic competition paradox in a two-stage game involving a single producer of brand-name drugs and n quantity-competing producers of generic drugs. Independently of brand loyalty, which some studies rely upon to explain the paradox, we show that heterogene- ity in insurance coverage may result in higher prices of brand-name drugs following generic entry. With market segmentation based on insurance coverage present in ...

  10. Retrieval of Melt Pond Coverage from MODIS using Optimal Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Dodd, Emma

    2011-01-01

    Melt pond coverage on sea ice is an important influence on sea ice albedo reduction during the summer and can also affect the monitoring of sea ice extent, sea ice models and sea ice forecasting. Techniques to estimate melt pond coverage from global satellites have been developed in order to provide large scale information on melt ponds, but these techniques have limitations. In this study a new approach to estimating melt pond coverage from MODIS data was developed, based on Optimal Estimati...

  11. MEASURING C PROGRAM COVERAGE BASED ON BINARY DECISION DIAGRAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Liang; Xu Baowen; Chen Lin

    2005-01-01

    Test coverage analysis is a structural testing technique, which helps to evaluate the sufficiency of software testing. This letter presents two test generation algorithms based on binary decision diagrams to produce tests for the Multiple-Condition Criterion(M-CC) and the Modified Condition/Decision Criterion(MC/DC), and describes the design of the C program Coverage Measurement Tool (CCMT), which can record dynamic behaviors of C programs and quantify test coverage.

  12. Immunization Coverage in Selected Communities in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Babatunde Fakunle; Angela Oyo-Ita; Akinwumi Fajola; Edet Edet

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Expanded Program on Immunization was launched in Nigeria in 1980 but the target for immunization coverage has been elusive. As part of its social responsibilities the Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) supported immunization activities in the Niger Delta region of the country. In this study a cross sectional study was carried out to estimate the coverage of BCG, OPV, DPT and measles vaccines and, to determine the predictors of full immunization coverage among children ...

  13. Full predicate coverage for testing SQL database queries

    OpenAIRE

    Tuya González, Pablo Javier; Suárez Cabal, María José; Riva Álvarez, Claudio A. de la

    2010-01-01

    In the field of database applications a considerable part of the business logic is implemented using a semi-declarative language: the Structured Query Language (SQL). Because of the different semantics of SQL compared to other procedural languages, the conventional coverage criteria for testing are not directly applicable. This paper presents a criterion specifically tailored for SQL queries (SQLFpc). It is based on Masking Modified Condition Decision Coverage (MCDC) or Full Predicate Coverag...

  14. A Coverage Embedding Model for Neural Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Mi, Haitao; Sankaran, Baskaran; Wang, Zhiguo; Ittycheriah, Abe

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we enhance the attention-based neural machine translation by adding an explicit coverage embedding model to alleviate issues of repeating and dropping translations in NMT. For each source word, our model starts with a full coverage embedding vector, and then keeps updating it with a gated recurrent unit as the translation goes. All the initialized coverage embeddings and updating matrix are learned in the training procedure. Experiments on the large-scale Chinese-to-English tas...

  15. IRASM Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRASM is a national center for radiation processing developed around an industrial Co60 gamma irradiator. Being a department in an R and D national institute, IRASM Center is dealing with radiation treatment, pre/post microbiological control, validation of irradiation sterilization, detection of irradiated foodstuffs. Training is available for operators of new irradiation facilities focused on radiation technologies, dosimetry, sterilization, food treatment, conservation by irradiation of cultural heritage, quality assurance. Expertise on proper choosing the plastics for packaging versus dose is offered to the potential clients. IRASM Center is also involved in interdisciplinary applied research like chitosan treatment, sterile male technique or implementation of irradiation step in production of pharmaceuticals. All important activities: irradiation treatment, dosimetry, microbiology, detection of irradiated food, radioprotection, nuclear safety, physical protection. are performed in accordance with the proper standards in the frame of a certified quality management system. In this way Co60 industrial sources, a byproduct of certain nuclear power plants like Candu type, appear to be the key of a large technical and R and D domain. (authors)

  16. A study of the geographic coverage properties of a satellite borne Doppler lidar wind velocity measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, T. H.

    1982-01-01

    Geographic coverage frequency and geographic shot density for a satellite borne Doppler lidar wind velocity measuring system are measured. The equations of motion of the light path on the ground were derived and a computer program devised to compute shot density and coverage frequency by latitude-longitude sections. The equations for the coverage boundaries were derived and a computer program developed to plot these boundaries, thus making it possible, after an application of a map coloring algorithm, to actually see the areas of multiple coverage. A theoretical cross-swath shot density function that gives close approximations in certain cases was also derived. This information should aid in the design of an efficient data-processing system for the Doppler lidar.

  17. EPA Region 1 Environmentally Sensitive Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This coverage represents polygon equivalents of environmentally sensitive areas (ESA) in EPA Region I. ESAs were developed as part of an EPA headquarters initiative...

  18. Human resources for health and universal health coverage: fostering equity and effective coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Campbell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Achieving universal health coverage (UHC involves distributing resources, especially human resources for health (HRH, to match population needs. This paper explores the policy lessons on HRH from four countries that have achieved sustained improvements in UHC: Brazil, Ghana, Mexico and Thailand. Its purpose is to inform global policy and financial commitments on HRH in support of UHC. The paper reports on country experiences using an analytical framework that examines effective coverage in relation to the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality (AAAQ of HRH. The AAAQ dimensions make it possible to perform tracing analysis on HRH policy actions since 1990 in the four countries of interest in relation to national trends in workforce numbers and population mortality rates. The findings inform key principles for evidence-based decision-making on HRH in support of UHC. First, HRH are critical to the expansion of health service coverage and the package of benefits; second, HRH strategies in each of the AAAQ dimensions collectively support achievements in effective coverage; and third, success is achieved through partnerships involving health and non-health actors. Facing the unprecedented health and development challenges that affect all countries and transforming HRH evidence into policy and practice must be at the heart of UHC and the post-2015 development agenda. It is a political imperative requiring national commitment and leadership to maximize the impact of available financial and human resources, and improve healthy life expectancy, with the recognition that improvements in health care are enabled by a health workforce that is fit for purpose.

  19. Human resources for health and universal health coverage: fostering equity and effective coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James; Buchan, James; Cometto, Giorgio; David, Benedict; Dussault, Gilles; Fogstad, Helga; Fronteira, Inês; Lozano, Rafael; Nyonator, Frank; Pablos-Méndez, Ariel; Quain, Estelle E; Starrs, Ann; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2013-11-01

    Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) involves distributing resources, especially human resources for health (HRH), to match population needs. This paper explores the policy lessons on HRH from four countries that have achieved sustained improvements in UHC: Brazil, Ghana, Mexico and Thailand. Its purpose is to inform global policy and financial commitments on HRH in support of UHC. The paper reports on country experiences using an analytical framework that examines effective coverage in relation to the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality (AAAQ) of HRH. The AAAQ dimensions make it possible to perform tracing analysis on HRH policy actions since 1990 in the four countries of interest in relation to national trends in workforce numbers and population mortality rates. The findings inform key principles for evidence-based decision-making on HRH in support of UHC. First, HRH are critical to the expansion of health service coverage and the package of benefits; second, HRH strategies in each of the AAAQ dimensions collectively support achievements in effective coverage; and third, success is achieved through partnerships involving health and non-health actors. Facing the unprecedented health and development challenges that affect all countries and transforming HRH evidence into policy and practice must be at the heart of UHC and the post-2015 development agenda. It is a political imperative requiring national commitment and leadership to maximize the impact of available financial and human resources, and improve healthy life expectancy, with the recognition that improvements in health care are enabled by a health workforce that is fit for purpose. PMID:24347710

  20. Periosteal Pedicle Flap Harvested during Vestibular Extension for Root Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Root exposure along with inadequate vestibular depth is a common clinical finding. Treatment option includes many techniques to treat such defects for obtaining predictable root coverage. Normally, the vestibular depth is increased first followed by a second surgery for root coverage. The present case report describes a single-stage technique for vestibular extension and root coverage in a single tooth by using the Periosteal Pedicle Flap (PPF. This technique involves no donor site morbidity and allows for reflection of sufficient amount of periosteal flap tissue with its own blood supply at the surgical site, thus increasing the chances of success of root coverage with simultaneous increase in vestibular depth.

  1. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for McKinley County, New Mexico, 2000 Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. 四川省实施卫生部/全球疫苗免疫联盟提高边远少数民族地区新生儿乙型肝炎疫苗首剂及时接种率项目评价%Analysis of the Project Effect on MOH/GAVI Increasing the Coverage Rate of Timely-birth Dose Hepatitis B Vaccine in the Remote Minority Areas in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关旭静; 漆琪; 杨超美; 王进; 方世梅; 王保清; 刘青恋

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effective measures to increase the timely-birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine in the remote minority areas. Methods To find out the influencing factors, we conducted the questionnaire surveys in Aba Zang and Qiang autonomous prefecture and Liangshan Yi autonomous prefecture where are the low coverage rate of timely-birth dose hepatitis B vaccine about the birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine on time or not and the reasons. To evaluate the interventions effect after interventions carried out. Intervention strategies such as the health education, professional training cooperation with the maternity and child care institution and hospital. Result Affer the interventions, the coverage rate of timely-birth dose hepatitiis B vaccine increased from 49.19% to 67.83%; the hepatitis B prevention and control knowledge knowing rate of the parents increased from 15.41% to 31.57%; the hepatitis B prevention and control knowledge knowing rate of the doctors raised from 47.39% to 82.54%. The differences have statistics significance. Conclusion It is very important to increase the timely HepB1 of children in remote and minority areas through active publicity activities and training for the EPI doctors at grass-root level, and strengthen the cooperation with MCH and hospitals. To increase the rate of delivery at hospital and invite religious leader to attend advocacy activities is necessary as well.%目的 探索提高边远少数民族地区新生儿乙型肝炎(乙肝)疫苗(Hepatitis B Vaccine,HepB)首剂(First Dose) (HepB1)及时接种率的有效策略.方法 选择HepB1接种率较低的阿坝藏族羌族自治州和凉山彝族自治州,进行HepB1及时接种、未接种或未及时接种的原因等问卷调查,分析影响HepB1及时接种的因素,并开展健康教育、专业培训和督导,加强与妇幼保健机构及医院合作等于预措施,评价干预措施效果.结果 采取干预措施后,HepB1及时接种率由干预前的49.19

  6. Universal health coverage and user charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter C

    2013-10-01

    There has been an explosion of interest in the concept of ‘universal health coverage’, fuelled by publication of the World Health Report 2010. This paper argues that the system of user charges for health services is a fundamental determinant of levels of coverage. A charge can lead to a loss of utility in two ways. Citizens who are deterred from using services by the charge will suffer an adverse health impact. And citizens who use the service will suffer a loss of wealth. The role of social health insurance is threefold: to reduce households’ financial risk associated with sickness; to promote enhanced access to needed health services; and to contribute to societal equity objectives, through an implicit financial transfer from rich to poor and healthy to sick. In principle, an optimal user charge policy can ensure that the social health insurance funds are used to best effect in pursuit of these objectives. This paper calls for a fundamental rethink of attitudes and policy towards user charges. PMID:23962575

  7. [Universal coverage of health services in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The reforms made in recent years to the Mexican Health System have reduced inequities in the health care of the population, but have been insufficient to solve all the problems of the MHS. In order to make the right to health protection established in the Constitution a reality for every citizen, Mexico must warrant effective universal access to health services. This paper outlines a long-term reform for the consolidation of a health system that is akin to international standards and which may establish the structural conditions to reduce coverage inequity. This reform is based on a "structured pluralism" intended to avoid both a monopoly exercised within the public sector and fragmentation in the private sector, and to prevent falling into the extremes of authoritarian procedures or an absence of regulation. This involves the replacement of the present vertical integration and segregation of social groups by a horizontal organization with separation of duties. This also entails legal and fiscal reforms, the reinforcement of the MHS, the reorganization of health institutions, and the formulation of regulatory, technical and financial instruments to operationalize the proposed scheme with the objective of rendering the human right to health fully effective for the Mexican people. PMID:24570037

  8. CVLEACH: Coverage based energy efficient LEACH algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Thakkar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Designing a protocol stack for wireless sensor network (WSNis a challenging task due to energy, computational and storageconstraints. Energy spent for communication between sensornodes dominates the energy spent for the computation [10].Multi-hop short range communication between wireless sensorsnodes is energy efficient compared to single-hop long rangecommunication. Hierarchical clustering is one of the possiblesolutions to save energy of wireless sensor nodes. Low-EnergyAdaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH, Centralized Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH-C andAdvanced Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy(ALEACH are energy efficient hierarchical clustering routingprotocol. In this paper we proposed Coverage based Low-EnergyAdaptive Clustering Hierarchy routing protocol – CVLEACH tomake uniform distribution of Cluster Heads (CHs by creatingnon-overlapped cluster regions using overhearing properties ofthe sensor nodes, which makes the routing protocol more energyefficient and prolongs life time of a wireless sensor network.Simulation results show that CVLEACH improves network lifetime compared to LEACH and ALEACH algorithms.

  9. Modelling the implications of moving towards universal coverage in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Josephine; Mtei, Gemini; Ally, Mariam

    2012-03-01

    A model was developed to assess the impact of possible moves towards universal coverage in Tanzania over a 15-year time frame. Three scenarios were considered: maintaining the current situation ('the status quo'); expanded health insurance coverage (the estimated maximum achievable coverage in the absence of premium subsidies, coverage restricted to those who can pay); universal coverage to all (government revenues used to pay the premiums for the poor). The model estimated the costs of delivering public health services and all health services to the population as a proportion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and forecast revenue from user fees and insurance premiums. Under the status quo, financial protection is provided to 10% of the population through health insurance schemes, with the remaining population benefiting from subsidized user charges in public facilities. Seventy-six per cent of the population would benefit from financial protection through health insurance under the expanded coverage scenario, and 100% of the population would receive such protection through a mix of insurance cover and government funding under the universal coverage scenario. The expanded and universal coverage scenarios have a significant effect on utilization levels, especially for public outpatient care. Universal coverage would require an initial doubling in the proportion of GDP going to the public health system. Government health expenditure would increase to 18% of total government expenditure. The results are sensitive to the cost of health system strengthening, the level of real GDP growth, provider reimbursement rates and administrative costs. Promoting greater cross-subsidization between insurance schemes would provide sufficient resources to finance universal coverage. Alternately, greater tax funding for health could be generated through an increase in the rate of Value-Added Tax (VAT) or expanding the income tax base. The feasibility and sustainability of efforts to

  10. Study of distribution of doses in maintenance operations and interventions in restricted areas of IPEN's radiopharmacy center, Brazil; Estudo da distribuicao de doses em operacoes de manutencao e intervencao em areas restritas no Centro de Radiofarmacia do IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Jessica S.; Souza, Daiane C.; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando; Gerulis, Eduardo; Todo, Alberto S., E-mail: jsmachado@ipen.br, E-mail: dcsouza@ipen.br, E-mail: rodrijr@ipen.br, E-mail: egerulis@ipen.br, E-mail: astodo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (lPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This research was developed at the Radiopharmacy Center of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN/CNEN/SP, Brazil, that performs the production of radiopharmaceuticals with isotopes of the {sup 131}I, {sup 123}I, {sup 201}Tl, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 18}F and {sup 99}Mo for use in nuclear medicine. The radioisotopes are produced on an industrial scale and the installation was designed to meet radiation safety standards and quality control requirements. To ensure the production, there are skilled professionals who perform the tasks of maintenance of the equipment and instruments, installed in the cells of processing of radiopharmaceuticals, without which it is not possible to conduct the work with safety and quality. This study was done a survey called Survey of Variables, based on the maintenance operations and interventions in restricted areas of the Centre of Radiopharmacy and in the survey of the distribution of doses in these tasks, carried out during the period from 2005 to 2011. This research aims to identify and determine the main variables that have an impact on the worker's dose. The results are presented for the Occupationally Exposed Individual variable, variable operation, variable area/Cell, task and Feature variable and variable duration of operation, depending on the Dose variable. It is intended in this way to contribute to improvements in operations in restricted areas that may result in lower individual doses without causing significant changes in the routine of work.

  11. 29 CFR 825.106 - Joint employer coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Joint employer coverage. 825.106 Section 825.106 Labor... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.106 Joint employer... employee, the businesses may be joint employers under FMLA. Joint employers may be separate and...

  12. 5 CFR 875.412 - When will my coverage terminate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will my coverage terminate? 875.412 Section 875.412 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL LONG TERM CARE INSURANCE PROGRAM Coverage § 875.412 When will my...

  13. 41 CFR 105-72.401 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 105-72.401 Section 105-72.401 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... § 105-72.401 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  14. Computing Convex Coverage Sets for Faster Multi-Objective Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M. Roijers; S. Whiteson; F.A. Oliehoek

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we propose new algorithms for multi-objective coordination graphs (MO-CoGs). Key to the efficiency of these algorithms is that they compute a convex coverage set (CCS) instead of a Pareto coverage set (PCS). Not only is a CCS a sufficient solution set for a large class of problems,

  15. Coverage of the Stanford Prison Experiment in Introductory Psychology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Jared M.; Milovich, Marilyn M.; Moussier, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the coverage of Stanford prison experiment (SPE), including criticisms of the study, in introductory psychology courses through an online survey of introductory psychology instructors (N = 117). Results largely paralleled those of the recently published textbook analyses with ethical issues garnering the most coverage,…

  16. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those...

  17. Examining Media Coverage: A Classroom Study of Iraq War News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Christopher R.

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the 2003 school year, Christopher Leahey's ninth grade global history students followed the media's coverage of the escalating crisis between the United States and Iraq. In early March of that year, as the media's coverage intensified, students brought a multitude of questions and concerns into the classroom. Rather than simply answer…

  18. 23 CFR 646.111 - Amount of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount of coverage. 646.111 Section 646.111 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.111 Amount of coverage. (a) The maximum dollar amounts...

  19. Coverage and Representations of Sexuality in Introductory Sociology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Alicia E.; Balaji, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Mirroring increased cultural and disciplinary attention to sexuality, many introductory sociology textbooks have begun to include coverage of the topic. Our study first assesses the extent of textual coverage of sexuality in a sample of 38 introductory textbooks published after 2000. Secondly, we focus on 14 textbooks with a sexuality chapter…

  20. 28 CFR 51.8 - Section 3 coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Section 3 coverage. 51.8 Section 51.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.8 Section 3 coverage. Under...

  1. Coverage and Content Validity of Vocational/Career Education Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Oded; Ogilvie, Victor N.

    This paper describes and evaluates the coverage and content validity of the vocational/career education tests available commercially to high school educators. Tests were analyzed with respect to their collective coverage of the vocational/career education curriculum goals appropriate to grades 11 and 12, and the extent to which each possessed good…

  2. 29 CFR 825.108 - Public agency coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) A State or a political subdivision of a State constitutes a single public agency and, therefore, a... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public agency coverage. 825.108 Section 825.108 Labor... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.108 Public...

  3. Characterization of hydraulic nozzles for droplet size and spray coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray coverage specifications for commercially available nozzles could help applicators determine the optimal nozzles for effective control of insects, diseases and weeds. Spray coverage and deposit density from seven types of nozzles at three different flow rates (0.76, 1.14 and 2.27 l min-1) and t...

  4. 38 CFR 9.8 - Termination of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICEMEMBERS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.8 Termination of coverage... members who are insured under Veterans' Group Life Insurance in which event coverage terminates at the..., 90 days or more after the discontinuance of the group policy....

  5. Coverage of Entrepreneurship in Principles of Economics Textbooks: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Calvin A.; Rushing, Francis W.

    1999-01-01

    Updates a study of the coverage of entrepreneurship contained in principles of economics textbooks originally carried out in the mid-1980s. Analyzes coverage of the same topics in 14 popular introductory texts. Concludes that entrepreneurship still has not worked its way into economics-principles texts. (DSK)

  6. Public sector scale–up of zinc and ORS improves coverage in selected districts in Bihar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa L. Fischer Walker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Bihar, India, a new initiative to enhance diarrhea treatment with zinc and ORS in the public sector was rolled out in selected districts. We conducted an external evaluation to measure changes in diarrhea careseeking and treatment in intervention districts. We conducted baseline and endline household surveys among caregivers of children 2–59 months of age. We calculated summary statistics for household characteristics, knowledge, careseeking and treatments given to children with a diarrhea episode in the last 14 days and built logistic regression models to compare baseline and endline values. Caregivers named a public health center as an appropriate source of care for childhood diarrhea more often at endline (71.3% compared to baseline (38.4% but did not report increased careseeking to public sector providers for the current diarrhea episode. In logistic regression analyses, the odds of receiving zinc, with or without oral rehydration salts (ORS, increased at endline by more than 2.7 as compared to baseline. Children who were taken to the public sector for care were more likely to receive zinc (odds ratio, OR = 3.93 and zinc in addition to ORS (OR = 6.10 compared to children who were not taken to the public sector. Coverage of zinc and ORS can improve with public sector programs targeted at training and increasing product availability, but demand creation may be needed to increase public sector careseeking in areas where the private sector has historically provided much of the care.

  7. Realizing full coverage of perovskite film on substrate surface during solution processing: Characterization and elimination of uncovered surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; He, Xue-Long; Ding, Bin; Gao, Li-Li; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2016-07-01

    The full coverage of the perovskite film on the substrate surface is of significant importance for the high performance perovskite solar cells. In order to obtain full coverage perovskite films by one-step deposition method, the microstructures of both uncovered areas and covered areas of the CH3NH3PbI3 film are comparatively investigated. Results show that the uncovered area indeed has an ultra-thin layer of CH3NH3PbI3 film which is too thin to cover the rough surface morphology of the substrate, and the localized solute accumulation due to long crystal growth time is responsible for the non-full coverage of the perovskite film. Then by decreasing the crystal growth time, the localized solute accumulation is eliminated gradually and subsequently a full coverage of perovskite film on substrate surface is realized. As a result, the perovskite solar cells show a conversion efficiency of ∼13% with the uniform and full coverage perovskite film.

  8. National Health Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ODPHP National Health Information Center National Health Information Center The National Health Information Center (NHIC) is sponsored ... interest View the NHO calendar . Federal Health Information Centers and Clearinghouses Federal Health Information Centers and Clearinghouses ...

  9. 3D Surveillance Coverage Using Maps Extracted by a Monocular SLAM Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Doitsidis L.; Renzaglia A.; Weiss S; Kosmatopoulos E.; Scaramuzza D.; Siegwart R.

    2011-01-01

    International audience This paper deals with the problem of deploying a team of flying robots to perform surveillance coverage missions over a terrain of arbitrary morphology. In such missions, a key factor for the successful completion is the knowledge of the terrain's morphology. In this paper, we introduce a two-step centralized procedure to align optimally a swarm of flying vehicles for the aforementioned task. Initially, a single robot constructs a map of the area of interest using a ...

  10. The Coverage Analysis for Low Earth Orbiting Satellites at Low Elevation

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelzen Cakaj; Bexhet Kamo; Algenti Lala; Alban Rakipi

    2014-01-01

    Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites are used for public networking and for scientific purposes. Communication via satellite begins when the satellite is positioned in its orbital position. Ground stations can communicate with LEO satellites only when the satellite is in their visibility region. The duration of the visibility and the communication vary for each LEO satellite pass over the station, since LEO satellites move too fast over the Earth. The satellite coverage area is defined as a regio...

  11. Managing Access: Extending Medicaid to Children Through School-Based HMO Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Coulam, Robert F.; Carol V. Irvin; Calore, Kathleen A.; Kidder, David E.; Rosenbach, Margo L.

    1997-01-01

    This study explores how a health maintenance organization's (HMO) capacity and incentives to manage care might be used to improve access. In the early 1990s, the Florida Healthy Kids (FHK) demonstration extended Medicaid-like HMO coverage to indigent children in the public schools of Volusia County, Florida. The study finds that uninsured student months in area public schools were likely reduced by one-half. Utilization and cost levels for these indigent enrollees proved to be indistinguishab...

  12. Applying FDTD to the Coverage Prediction of WiMAX Femtocells

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro Valcarce; Guillaume De La Roche; Álpar Jüttner; David López-Pérez; Jie Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Femtocells, or home base stations, are a potential future solution for operators to increase indoor coverage and reduce network cost. In a real WiMAX femtocell deployment in residential areas covered by WiMAX macrocells, interference is very likely to occur both in the streets and certain indoor regions. Propagation models that take into account both the outdoor and indoor channel characteristics are thus necessary for the purpose of WiMAX network planning in the presence of femtocells. In t...

  13. Increasing Coverage in Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination in an Urban Setting: a Study of Malindi Town, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njomo, Doris W.; Mukoko, Dunstan A.; Nyamongo, Nipher K.; Karanja, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Implementation of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) in urban settings is an obstacle to Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) elimination. No urban-specific guidelines on MDA in urban areas exist. Malindi district urban area had received 4 MDA rounds by the time the current study was implemented. Programme data showed average treatment coverage of 28.4% (2011 MDA), far below recommended minimum of 65–80%. Methods To identify, design and test strategies for increased treatment coverage in urban areas, a quasi-experimental study was conducted in Malindi urban area. Three sub-locations with lowest treatment coverage in 2011 MDA were purposively selected. In the pre-test phase, 947 household heads sampled using systematic random method were interviewed for quantitative data. For qualitative data, 12 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with single sex adult and youth male and female groups and 3 with community drug distributors (CDDs) were conducted. Forty in-depth interviews with opinion leaders and self-administered questionnaires with District Public Health officers purposively selected were carried out. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and statistical significance assessed by χ2 test.The qualitative data were analyzed manually according to study's themes. Results and Discussion The identified strategies were implemented prior to and during 2012 MDA in two sub-locations (experimental) while in the third (control), usual MDA strategies were applied. In the post-test phase, 2012 MDA coverage in experimental and control sub-locations was comparatively assessed for effect of the newly designed strategies on urban MDA. Results indicated improved treatment coverage in experimental sub-locations, 77.1% in Shella and 66.0% in Barani. Central (control) sub-location also attained high coverage, 70.4% indicating average treatment coverage of 71%. Conclusion The identified strategies contributed to increased treatment coverage in experimental sites and

  14. Increasing coverage in mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis elimination in an urban setting: a study of Malindi Town, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris W Njomo

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Implementation of Mass Drug Administration (MDA in urban settings is an obstacle to Lymphatic Filariasis (LF elimination. No urban-specific guidelines on MDA in urban areas exist. Malindi district urban area had received 4 MDA rounds by the time the current study was implemented. Programme data showed average treatment coverage of 28.4% (2011 MDA, far below recommended minimum of 65-80%. METHODS: To identify, design and test strategies for increased treatment coverage in urban areas, a quasi-experimental study was conducted in Malindi urban area. Three sub-locations with lowest treatment coverage in 2011 MDA were purposively selected. In the pre-test phase, 947 household heads sampled using systematic random method were interviewed for quantitative data. For qualitative data, 12 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs with single sex adult and youth male and female groups and 3 with community drug distributors (CDDs were conducted. Forty in-depth interviews with opinion leaders and self-administered questionnaires with District Public Health officers purposively selected were carried out. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and statistical significance assessed by χ(2 test.The qualitative data were analyzed manually according to study's themes. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The identified strategies were implemented prior to and during 2012 MDA in two sub-locations (experimental while in the third (control, usual MDA strategies were applied. In the post-test phase, 2012 MDA coverage in experimental and control sub-locations was comparatively assessed for effect of the newly designed strategies on urban MDA. Results indicated improved treatment coverage in experimental sub-locations, 77.1% in Shella and 66.0% in Barani. Central (control sub-location also attained high coverage, 70.4% indicating average treatment coverage of 71%. CONCLUSION: The identified strategies contributed to increased treatment coverage in experimental

  15. Controlling coverage of solution cast materials with unfavourable surface interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Burlakov, V. M.

    2014-03-03

    Creating uniform coatings of a solution-cast material is of central importance to a broad range of applications. Here, a robust and generic theoretical framework for calculating surface coverage by a solid film of material de-wetting a substrate is presented. Using experimental data from semiconductor thin films as an example, we calculate surface coverage for a wide range of annealing temperatures and film thicknesses. The model generally predicts that for each value of the annealing temperature there is a range of film thicknesses leading to poor surface coverage. The model accurately reproduces solution-cast thin film coverage for organometal halide perovskites, key modern photovoltaic materials, and identifies processing windows for both high and low levels of surface coverage. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  16. Hybrid Wireless Sensor Network Coverage Holes Restoring Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhouzhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the perception hole caused by the necessary movement or failure of nodes in the wireless sensor actuator network, this paper proposed a kind of coverage restoring scheme based on hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm. The scheme first introduced network coverage based on grids, transformed the coverage restoring problem into unconstrained optimization problem taking the network coverage as the optimization target, and then solved the optimization problem in the use of the hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm with the idea of simulated annealing. Simulation results show that the probabilistic jumping property of simulated annealing algorithm could make up for the defect that particle swarm optimization algorithm is easy to fall into premature convergence, and the hybrid algorithm can effectively solve the coverage restoring problem.

  17. The Inversion-based Coverage Prediction Tool for Cellular Networks - Real City Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a novel tool, called ICPT (inversion-based coverage prediction tool, for predicting coverage field strength in outdoor cellular network by means of the inversion method. Instead of using the high-precision geometric modeling of wireless environments, the problem of radio propagation prediction is solved by using an inversion of the measured data (under all priori constraints, adapting the system parameters according to the change of radio channels and the characteristics of user behaviors. ICPT undertakes the whole process of coverage calculation by loading GIS (Google Earth, selecting the placement of target area and cells with their characterization, and presenting the results in Google Earth. These tasks are easily carried out due to a friendly graphical interface developed in Visual C++2010. The proposed ICPT system is demonstrated using two applications in real city-Zhuhai in China. The results are compared to that obtained by the COST231 model. The system can be used in coverage prediction, network fault diagnosing, as well as automatic drive test.

  18. Increasing Coverage of Hepatitis B Vaccination in China: A Systematic Review of Interventions and Implementation Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengnan; Smith, Helen; Peng, Zhuoxin; Xu, Biao; Wang, Weibing

    2016-05-01

    This study used a system evaluation method to summarize China's experience on improving the coverage of hepatitis B vaccine, especially the strategies employed to improve the uptake of timely birth dosage. Identifying successful methods and strategies will provide strong evidence for policy makers and health workers in other countries with high hepatitis B prevalence.We conducted a literature review included English or Chinese literature carried out in mainland China, using PubMed, the Cochrane databases, Web of Knowledge, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang data, and other relevant databases.Nineteen articles about the effectiveness and impact of interventions on improving the coverage of hepatitis B vaccine were included. Strong or moderate evidence showed that reinforcing health education, training and supervision, providing subsidies for facility birth, strengthening the coordination among health care providers, and using out-of-cold-chain storage for vaccines were all important to improving vaccination coverage.We found evidence that community education was the most commonly used intervention, and out-reach programs such as out-of-cold chain strategy were more effective in increasing the coverage of vaccination in remote areas where the facility birth rate was respectively low. The essential impact factors were found to be strong government commitment and the cooperation of the different government departments.Public interventions relying on basic health care systems combined with outreach care services were critical elements in improving the hepatitis B vaccination rate in China. This success could not have occurred without exceptional national commitment. PMID:27175710

  19. Wireless Metal Detection and Surface Coverage Sensing for All-Surface Induction Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli Tayfun Kilic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available All-surface induction heating systems, typically comprising small-area coils, face a major challenge in detecting the presence of a metallic vessel and identifying its partial surface coverage over the coils to determine which of the coils to power up. The difficulty arises due to the fact that the user can heat vessels made of a wide variety of metals (and their alloys. To address this problem, we propose and demonstrate a new wireless detection methodology that allows for detecting the presence of metallic vessels together with uniquely sensing their surface coverages while also identifying their effective material type in all-surface induction heating systems. The proposed method is based on telemetrically measuring simultaneously inductance and resistance of the induction coil coupled with the vessel in the heating system. Here, variations in the inductance and resistance values for an all-surface heating coil loaded by vessels (made of stainless steel and aluminum at different positions were systematically investigated at different frequencies. Results show that, independent of the metal material type, unique identification of the surface coverage is possible at all freqeuncies. Additionally, using the magnitude and phase information extracted from the coupled coil impedance, unique identification of the vessel effective material is also achievable, this time independent of its surface coverage.

  20. Wireless Metal Detection and Surface Coverage Sensing for All-Surface Induction Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Veli Tayfun; Unal, Emre; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2016-01-01

    All-surface induction heating systems, typically comprising small-area coils, face a major challenge in detecting the presence of a metallic vessel and identifying its partial surface coverage over the coils to determine which of the coils to power up. The difficulty arises due to the fact that the user can heat vessels made of a wide variety of metals (and their alloys). To address this problem, we propose and demonstrate a new wireless detection methodology that allows for detecting the presence of metallic vessels together with uniquely sensing their surface coverages while also identifying their effective material type in all-surface induction heating systems. The proposed method is based on telemetrically measuring simultaneously inductance and resistance of the induction coil coupled with the vessel in the heating system. Here, variations in the inductance and resistance values for an all-surface heating coil loaded by vessels (made of stainless steel and aluminum) at different positions were systematically investigated at different frequencies. Results show that, independent of the metal material type, unique identification of the surface coverage is possible at all freqeuncies. Additionally, using the magnitude and phase information extracted from the coupled coil impedance, unique identification of the vessel effective material is also achievable, this time independent of its surface coverage. PMID:26978367

  1. Crop Residue Coverage Estimation Using ASTER Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D.; Yao, H.; Kincaid, R.

    2006-12-01

    Soil erosion and its related runoff is a serious problem in U.S. agriculture. USDA has classified 33 percent of U.S. agricultural land as being highly erodible. It is well recognized that residue coverage on the soil surface can reduce soil erosion. The National Food Security Act of 1985 requires that agricultural producers protect all highly erodible cropland from excessive erosion. The 2002 Farm Bill gave U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) the authority to make a determination of compliance. NRCS is currently running several programs to implement conservation practices and to monitor compliance. To be in compliance, growers must keep crop residue cover more than 30 percent of the field. This requires field-level assessment. The NRCS does not have the resources to regularly survey every field. One potential approach for compliance decision making is using data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor onboard NASA's Terra satellite. ASTER data provides 15 bands of 15 meter visible/NIR (VNIR) and 30 meter SWIR resolution data. Both the spatial resolution and spectral wavelength range and resolution are suitable for field level residue cover estimation. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of using ASTER data for crop residue cover estimation. The results indicate that ASTER imagery has good capability to identify residue within the corn fields and moderate capability in soybean residue estimation. SWIR bands have the most promise in separating crop residue when compared to the VNIR bands. Satellite based remote sensing imagery could be a potential rapid decision making tool for NRCS's compliance programs.

  2. Assuring health coverage for all in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vikram; Parikh, Rachana; Nandraj, Sunil; Balasubramaniam, Priya; Narayan, Kavita; Paul, Vinod K; Kumar, A K Shiva; Chatterjee, Mirai; Reddy, K Srinath

    2015-12-12

    Successive Governments of India have promised to transform India's unsatisfactory health-care system, culminating in the present government's promise to expand health assurance for all. Despite substantial improvements in some health indicators in the past decade, India contributes disproportionately to the global burden of disease, with health indicators that compare unfavourably with other middle-income countries and India's regional neighbours. Large health disparities between states, between rural and urban populations, and across social classes persist. A large proportion of the population is impoverished because of high out-of-pocket health-care expenditures and suffers the adverse consequences of poor quality of care. Here we make the case not only for more resources but for a radically new architecture for India's health-care system. India needs to adopt an integrated national health-care system built around a strong public primary care system with a clearly articulated supportive role for the private and indigenous sectors. This system must address acute as well as chronic health-care needs, offer choice of care that is rational, accessible, and of good quality, support cashless service at point of delivery, and ensure accountability through governance by a robust regulatory framework. In the process, several major challenges will need to be confronted, most notably the very low levels of public expenditure; the poor regulation, rapid commercialisation of and corruption in health care; and the fragmentation of governance of health care. Most importantly, assuring universal health coverage will require the explicit acknowledgment, by government and civil society, of health care as a public good on par with education. Only a radical restructuring of the health-care system that promotes health equity and eliminates impoverishment due to out-of-pocket expenditures will assure health for all Indians by 2022--a fitting way to mark the 75th year of India

  3. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO. News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND, we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced.

  4. Measuring coverage in MNCH: challenges and opportunities in the selection of coverage indicators for global monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Harris Requejo

    Full Text Available Global monitoring of intervention coverage is a cornerstone of international efforts to improve reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. In this review, we examine the process and implications of selecting a core set of coverage indicators for global monitoring, using as examples the processes used by the Countdown to 2015 for Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival and the Commission on Accountability for Women's and Children's Health. We describe how the generation of data for global monitoring involves five iterative steps: development of standard indicator definitions and measurement approaches to ensure comparability across countries; collection of high-quality data at the country level; compilation of country data at the global level; organization of global databases; and rounds of data quality checking. Regular and rigorous technical review processes that involve high-level decision makers and experts familiar with indicator measurement are needed to maximize uptake and to ensure that indicators used for global monitoring are selected on the basis of available evidence of intervention effectiveness, feasibility of measurement, and data availability as well as programmatic relevance. Experience from recent initiatives illustrates the challenges of striking this balance as well as strategies for reducing the tensions inherent in the indicator selection process. We conclude that more attention and continued investment need to be directed to global monitoring, to support both the process of global database development and the selection of sets of coverage indicators to promote accountability. The stakes are high, because these indicators can drive policy and program development at the country and global level, and ultimately impact the health of women and children and the communities where they live.

  5. Predictors of micronutrient powder sachet coverage in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferds, Maria Elena D; Mirkovic, Kelsey R; Subedi, Giri Raj; Mebrahtu, Saba; Dahal, Pradiumna; Perrine, Cria G

    2015-12-01

    Many countries implement micronutrient powder (MNP) programmes to improve the nutritional status of young children. Little is known about the predictors of MNP coverage for different delivery models. We describe MNP coverage of an infant and young child feeding and MNP intervention for children aged 6-23 months comparing two delivery models piloted in rural Nepal: distributing MNPs either by female community health volunteers (FCHVs) or at health facilities (HFs). Cross-sectional household cluster surveys were conducted in four pilot districts among mothers of children 6-23 months after starting MNP distribution. FCHVs in each cluster were also surveyed. We used logistic regression to describe predictors of initial coverage (obtaining a batch of 60 MNP sachets) at 3 months and repeat coverage (≥2 times coverage among eligible children) at 15 months after project launch. At 15 months, initial and repeat coverage were higher in the FCHV model, although no differences were observed at 3 months. Attending an FCHV-led mothers' group meeting where MNP was discussed increased odds of any coverage in both models at 3 months and of repeat coverage in the HF model at 15 months. Perceiving ≥1 positive effects in the child increased odds of repeat coverage in both delivery models. A greater portion of FCHV volunteers from the FCHV model vs. the HF model reported increased burden at 3 and 15 months (not statistically significant). Designing MNP programmes that maximise coverage without overburdening the system can be challenging and more than one delivery model may be needed. PMID:26332845

  6. Service Areas at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (srvcarea)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains service areas at Cedar Breaks National Monument. The service areas were collected by a Trimble GeoXT GPS unit and post processed for...

  7. The Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area, 2000 (cpstdyg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage of the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area. The study area outline was drawn on the county lines that most closely outline the...

  8. Patient-centered Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, April

    2009-01-01

    Patient-centered care focuses on the patient and the individual's particular health care needs. The goal of patient-centered health care is to empower patients to become active participants in their care. This requires that physicians, radiologic technologists and other health care providers develop good communication skills and address patient needs effectively. Patient-centered care also requires that the health care provider become a patient advocate and strive to provide care that not only is effective but also safe. For radiologic technologists, patient-centered care encompasses principles such as the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept and contrast media safety. Patient-centered care is associated with a higher rate of patient satisfaction, adherence to suggested lifestyle changes and prescribed treatment, better outcomes and more cost-effective care. This article is a Directed Reading. Your access to Directed Reading quizzes for continuing education credit is determined by your area of interest. For access to other quizzes, go to www.asrt.org/store. According to one theory, most patients judge the quality of their healthcare much like they rate an airplane flight. They assume that the airplane is technically viable and is being piloted by competent people. Criteria for judging a particular airline are personal and include aspects like comfort, friendly service and on-time schedules. Similarly, patients judge the standard of their healthcare on nontechnical aspects, such as a healthcare practitioner's communication and "soft skills." Most are unable to evaluate a practitioner's level of technical skill or training, so the qualities they can assess become of the utmost importance in satisfying patients and providing patient-centered care.(1). PMID:19901351

  9. Distally based superficial sural artery flap for soft tissue coverage in the distal 2/3 of leg and foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamath B

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin coverage for defects in the lower 2/3 of leg, ankle region and posterior heel has always been a difficult challenge for reconstructive surgeon. Methods: We describe our experience with the distally based superficial sural artery flap coverage in 48 patients with moderate sized defects in these difficult areas. Results: One out of 48 flaps (in 48 patients was lost totally and 3 suffered marginal necrosis which did not require any secondary procedure. These complications could have been avoided by proper selection of cases and refining technical skills. Conclusion: This simple procedure could be an important and versatile tool for any reconstructive surgeon in providing skin coverage in the distal leg and proximal foot. Preservation of major arteries of the lower limb, minimal donor defect, relatively uninjured donor area in compound fracture or poly trauma involving distal leg are some of the advantages of the flap.

  10. Spatial Coverage Planning and Optimization for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Daniel M.; Estlin, Tara; Chouinard, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    We are developing onboard planning and scheduling technology to enable in situ robotic explorers, such as rovers and aerobots, to more effectively assist scientists in planetary exploration. In our current work, we are focusing on situations in which the robot is exploring large geographical features such as craters, channels or regional boundaries. In to develop valid and high quality plans, the robot must take into account a range of scientific and engineering constraints and preferences. We have developed a system that incorporates multiobjective optimization and planning allowing the robot to generate high quality mission operations plans that respect resource limitations and mission constraints while attempting to maximize science and engineering objectives. An important scientific objective for the exploration of geological features is selecting observations that spatially cover an area of interest. We have developed a metric to enable an in situ explorer to reason about and track the spatial coverage quality of a plan. We describe this technique and show how it is combined in the overall multiobjective optimization and planning algorithm.

  11. Handover Incentives for Self-Interested WLANs with Overlapping Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Siris, Vasilios A.

    2012-01-01

    We consider an environment where self-interested IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) have overlapping coverage, and investigate the incentives that can trigger handovers between the WLANs. Our focus is on the incentives for supporting handovers due solely to the improved performance ...... nonsaturated traffic conditions, and yields a practical handover decision policy. Simulations and experiments on a real testbed verify the accuracy of the model, and indicate that significant gains can be achieved through performance-induced handover incentives....... for all wireless networks. Such incentives arise due to a well-known property of 802.11 networks, where low rate users that send traffic significantly degrade the performance of high rate users that are associated with the same access point. A key difference of this paper compared to other works is...... that WLANs are self-interested, seeking to improve the performance of their own clients. We develop a comprehensive analytical model for accurately identifying and quantifying the handover gains. The model captures cases such as uplink and downlink traffic, wired link capacity constraints, and...

  12. Geographical disparities in core population coverage indicators for roll back malaria in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appleton Christopher C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of known effective interventions would necessitate the reduction of malaria burden by half by the year 2010. Identifying geographical disparities of coverage of these interventions at small area level is useful to inform where greatest scaling-up efforts should be concentrated. They also provide baseline data against which future scaling-up of interventions can be compared. However, population data are not always available at local level. This study applied spatial smoothing methods to generate maps at subdistrict level in Malawi to serve such purposes. Methods Data for the following responses from the 2000 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey (DHS were aggregated at subdistrict level: (1 households possessing at least one bednet; (2 children under 5 years who slept under a bednet the night before the survey; (3 bednets retreated with insecticide within past 6–12 months preceding the survey; (4 children under 5 who had fever two weeks before the survey and received treatment within 24 hours from the onset of fever; and (5 women who received intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during their last pregnancy. Each response was geographically smoothed at subdistrict level by applying conditional autoregressive models using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Results The underlying geographical patterns of coverage of indicators were more clear in the smoothed maps than in the original unsmoothed maps, with relatively high coverage in urban areas than in rural areas for all indicators. The percentage of households possessing at least one bednet was 19% (95% credible interval (CI: 16–21%, with 9% (95% CI: 7–11% of children sleeping under a net, while 18% (95% CI: 16–19% of households had retreated their nets within past 12 months prior to the survey. The northern region and lakeshore areas had high bednet coverage, but low usage and re-treatment rates. Coverage rate of children who received

  13. Dorsal hand coverage with free serratus fascia flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotopoulos, Peter; Holmer, Per; Leicht, Pernille;

    2003-01-01

    serratus fascia flap, the connective tissue over the serratus muscle, for dorsal hand coverage. The flap consists of thin and well-vascularized pliable tissue, with gliding properties excellent for covering exposed tendons. It is based on the branches of the thoracodorsal artery, which are raised in the...... flap, leaving the long thoracic nerve intact on the serratus muscle. Coverage of the flap with split-thickness skin graft is done immediately. The free serratus fascia flap is an ideal flap for dorsal hand coverage when the extensor tendons are exposed, especially because of low donor-site morbidity....

  14. Location Refinement and Power Coverage Analysis Based on Distributed Antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓楠; 侯春萍; 汪清; 陈华; 浦亮洲

    2016-01-01

    To establish wireless channel suitable for the cabin environment, the power coverage was investigated with distributed antenna system and centralized antenna system based on the actual measurement of channel im-pulse response. The results indicated that the distributed antenna system has more uniform power coverage than the centralized antenna system. The average relative errors of receiving power of both antennas were calculated. The optimal position of the centralized antenna was obtained by Gaussian function refinement, making the system achieve a better transmission power with the same coverage effect, and providing a reference for antenna location in the future real communication in the cabin.

  15. A novel mathematical model for coverage in wireless sensor network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhen-ya; ZHENG Bao-yu

    2006-01-01

    Coverage problem is one of the fundamental issues in the design of wireless sensor network, which has a great impact on the performance of sensor network. In this article,coverage problem was investigated using a mathematical model named Birth-death process. In this model, sensor nodes joining into networks at every period of time is considered as the rebirth of network and the quitting of sensor nodes from the networks is considered as the death of the network. In the end, an analytical solution is used to investigate the appropriate rate to meet the coverage requirement.

  16. Relocating Sensor Nodes to Maximize Cumulative Connected Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to extend the availability of the wireless sensor network and to extract maximum possible information from the surveillance area, proper usage of the power capacity of the sensor nodes is important. Our work describes a dynamic relocation algorithm called MaxNetLife, which is mainly based on utilizing the remaining power of individual sensor nodes as well as properly relocating sensor nodes so that all sensor nodes can transmit the data they sense to the sink. Hence, the algorithm maximizes total collected information from the surveillance area before the possible death of the sensor network by increasing cumulative connected coverage parameter of the network. A deterministic approach is used to deploy sensor nodes into the sensor field where Hexagonal Grid positioning is used to address and locate each sensor node. Sensor nodes those are not planned to be actively used in the close future in a specific cell are preemptively relocated to the cells those will be in need of additional sensor nodes to improve cumulative connected coverage of the network. MaxNetLife algorithm also includes the details of the relocation activities, which include preemptive migration of the redundant nodes to the cells before any coverage hole occurs because of death of a sensor node. Relocation Model, Data Aggregation Model, and Energy model of the algorithm are studied in detail. MaxNetLife algorithm is proved to be effective, scalable, and applicable through simulations.

  17. Socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinpoor, A R; Itani, L; Petersen, P E

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage among adults with expressed need living in 52 countries. Data on 60,332 adults aged 18 years or older were analyzed from 52 countries participating in the 2002-2004 World Health Survey. Oral healthcare...... coverage was defined as the proportion of individuals who received any medical care from a dentist or other oral health specialist during a period of 12 months prior to the survey, among those who expressed any mouth and/or teeth problems during that period. In addition to assessment of the coverage across...... wealth quintiles in each country, a wealth-based relative index of inequality was used to measure socio-economic inequality. The index was adjusted for sex, age, marital status, education, employment, overall health status, and urban/rural residence. Pro-rich inequality in oral healthcare coverage was...

  18. Coverage in Wireless Sensor Network Based on Probabilistic Sensing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fen; Deng, Kai; Meng, Fanzhi; Weiyan, Zhang

    One of the major problem to consider in designing wireless sensor network is how to extend the network lifetime and provide desired quality of service. To achieve this, a broadly-used method is topology control. This paper studies the problem of how to ensure the network fully connected without nodes' location information. The coverage control model based on probabilistic sensing model is proposed in this paper. With random sensor deployment, the sensing node and communicating node number can be calculated based on the size of sensing region and the performance parameters of node (e.g., node sensing radius, communication radius, and so on). Simulation results show that the actual coverage quality provided by sensing nodes scheduled with the proposed coverage control model is higher than the threshold of coverage quality.

  19. Defining Pathways and Trade-offs Toward Universal Health Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguet, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) World Health Report 2010, "Health systems financing, the path to universal coverage," promoted universal health coverage (UHC) as an aspirational objective for country health systems. Yet, in addition to the dimensions of services and coverage, distribution of coverage in the population, and financial risk protection highlighted by the report, the consideration of the budget constraint should be further strengthened in the ensuing debate on resource allocation toward UHC. Beyond the substantial financial constraints faced by low- and middle-income countries, additional considerations, such as the geographical context, the underlying country infrastructure, and the architecture of health systems, determine the feasibility, effectiveness, quality and cost of healthcare delivery. Therefore, increased production and use of local evidence tied to the criteria of health benefits, equity, financial risk protection, and costs accompanying health delivery are needed so that to highlight pathways and acceptable trade-offs toward UHC.

  20. Pericyte coverage of abnormal blood vessels in myelofibrotic bone marrows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetterberg, Eva; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Anna Rita;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Myelofibrotic bone marrow displays abnormal angiogenesis but the pathogenic mechanisms of this are poorly understood. Since pericyte abnormalities are described on solid tumor vessels we studied whether vessel morphology and pericyte coverage in bone marrow samples from...