WorldWideScience

Sample records for center columbia basin

  1. Fish Passage Center; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, 2002 Annual Report.

    DeHart, Michele; Berggren, Thomas J.; Filardo, Margaret (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Fish Passage Center, Portland, OR)

    2003-09-01

    The runoff volumes in 2002 were near average for the January to July period above Lower Granite Dam (80%) and The Dalles Dam (97%). The year 2002 hydrosystem operations and runoff conditions resulted in flows that were less than the seasonal Biological Opinion (Opinion) flow objectives at Lower Granite Dam for both the spring and summer period. The seasonal flow objectives for Priest Rapids and McNary dams were exceeded for the spring period, but at McNary Dam summer flow objectives were not met. While seasonal flow objectives were exceeded for the spring at McNary Dam, the 2002 season illustrated that Biological Opinion management to seasonal flow targets can result in conditions where a major portion of the juvenile fish migration migrates in conditions that are less than the flow objectives. The delay in runoff due to cool weather conditions and the inability of reservoirs to augment flows by drafting lower than the flood control elevations, resulted in flows less than the Opinion objectives until May 22, 2002. By this time approximately 73% of the yearling chinook and 56% of steelhead had already passed the project. For the most part, spill in 2002 was managed below the gas waiver limits for total dissolved gas levels and the NMFS action criteria for dissolved gas signs were not exceeded. The exception was at Lower Monumental Dam where no Biological Opinion spill occurred due to the need to conduct repairs in the stilling basin. Survival estimates obtained for PIT tagged juveniles were similar in range to those observed prior to 2001. A multi-year analysis of juvenile survival and the factors that affect it was conducted in 2002. A water transit time and flow relation was demonstrated for spring migrating chinook and steelhead of Snake River and Mid Columbia River origin. Returning numbers of adults observed at Bonneville Dam declined for spring chinook, steelhead and coho, while summer and fall chinook numbers increased. However, all numbers were far greater

  2. Fish Passage Center; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, 2004 Annual Report.

    DeHart, Michele (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Portland, OR)

    2005-07-01

    The runoff volume for 2004 was below average throughout the Columbia Basin. At The Dalles the January-July runoff volume was 77% of average or 83.0 MAF. Grand Coulee, Hungry Horse, and Libby were below their Biological Opinion reservoir target elevations on April 10 at the beginning of the spring salmon migration season. All major storage reservoirs except Libby, Grand Coulee, Hungry Horse, Dworshak, and Brownlee were within a few feet of full by the end of June and early July. Overall, NOAA Biological Opinion seasonal flow targets were not met at any project for either spring or summer migrations of salmon and steelhead. Overall, spill was reduced in 2004. Implementation of Biological Opinion spill for fish passage measures was wrought with contention in 2004, particularly for summer spill which was finally the subject of litigation. The spring migration spill season began with debate among the fishery mangers and tribes and action agencies regarding spill at Bonneville Dam for the Spring Creek Hatchery release. The USFWS agreed to a spill test versus a corner collector operation to determine the best route for survival for these fish. The USFWS agreement includes no spill for early Spring Creek Hatchery releases for the next two years. Spring spill at Snake River transportation sites was eliminated after April 23, and transportation was maximized. The federal operators and regulators proposed to reduce Biological Opinion summer spill measures, while testing the impact of those reductions. This proposal was eventually rejected in challenges in the Federal Ninth Circuit Court. The Corps of Engineers reported that spill at Bonneville Dam in the 2002 to 2004 period was actually lower than reported due to a spill calibration error at the project. Because flows were low and spill levels were easily controlled few fish were observed with any signs of Gas Bubble Trauma. The annual Smolt Monitoring Program was implemented and provided in-season timing and passage

  3. Fish Passage Center; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, 2003 Annual Report.

    DeHart, Michele (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Fish Passage Center, Portland, OR)

    2004-09-01

    a benefit for steelhead. Survivals for spring fish in the Lower Granite to McNary Dam and the McNary to Bonneville Dam reach were similar to recent years. Returning numbers of adult spring and summer chinook, coho and steelhead were less than observed in 2002, but far exceeded the ten-year average return numbers. Sockeye numbers were less than both the 2002 returning adults and the ten-year average number. However, fall chinook numbers surpassed all previous counts at Bonneville Dam since 1938. In 2003, about 81 million juvenile salmon were released from Federal, State, tribal or private hatcheries into the Columbia River Basin above Bonneville Dam. This was slightly less than the number released last year, but about average for the past several years.

  4. Fish Passage Center; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, 2000 Annual Report.

    DeHart, Michele (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Fish Passage Center, Portland, OR)

    2001-06-01

    The year 2000 hydrosystem operations illustrated two main points: (1) that the NMFS Biological Opinion on the operations of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) fish migration measures could not be met in a slightly below average water year, and; (2) the impacts and relationships of energy deregulation and volatile wholesale energy prices on the ability of the FCRPS to provide the Biological Opinion fish migration measures. In 2000, a slightly below average water year, the flow targets were not met and, when energy ''emergencies'' were declared, salmon protection measures were reduced. The 2000 migration year was a below average runoff volume year with an actual run off volume of 61.1 MAF or 96% of average. This year illustrated the ability of the hydro system to meet the migration protection measures established by the NMFS Biological Opinion. The winter operation of storage reservoirs was based upon inaccurate runoff volume forecasts which predicted a January-July runoff volume forecast at The Dalles of 102 to 105% of average, from January through June. Reservoir flood control drafts during the winter months occurred according to these forecasts. This caused an over-draft of reservoirs that resulted in less volume of water available for fish flow augmentation in the spring and the summer. The season Biological Opinion flow targets for spring and summer migrants at Lower Granite and McNary dams were not met. Several power emergencies were declared by BPA in the summer of 2000. The first in June was caused by loss of resources (WNP2 went off-line). The second and third emergencies were declared in August as a result of power emergencies in California and in the Northwest. The unanticipated effects of energy deregulation, power market volatility and rising wholesale electricity prices, and Californian energy deregulation reduced the ability of the FCRPS to implement fish protection measures. A Spill Plan Agreement was implemented in

  5. Fish Passage Center : Fish Passage Center of the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority; Annual report 1998

    DeHart, Michele

    1999-01-01

    The 1998 operations of the Columbia and Snake rivers system illustrated that there was potential flexibility in the operation of the hydrosystem to improve fish passage for juvenile salmon and increase the degree to which the NMS Biological Opinion measures could have been implemented successfully. This additional flexibility was not exercised. Some measures of the Biological Opinion were not implemented. The 1998 operation showed that the Hells Canyon Complex, operation, the Upper Snake River operation and Non-treaty storage operation could have provided flexibility to meet early spring and later summer flows

  6. Climatology of the interior Columbia River basin.

    Sue A. Ferguson

    1999-01-01

    This work describes climate means and trends in each of three major ecological zones and 13 ecological reporting units in the interior Columbia River basin. Widely differing climates help define each major zone and reporting unit, the pattern of which is controlled by three competing air masses: marine, continental, and arctic. Paleoclimatic evidence and historical...

  7. The Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project: scientific assessment.

    1999-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains digital versions (PDF) of the major scientific documents prepared for the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (ICBEMP). "A Framework for Ecosystem Management in the Interior Columbia Basin and Portions of the Klamath and Great Basins" describes a general planning model for ecosystem management. The "Highlighted...

  8. Earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta) of the Columbia River basin assessment area.

    Sam. James

    2000-01-01

    Earthworms are key components of many terrestrial ecosystems; however, little is known of their ecology, distribution, and taxonomy in the eastern interior Columbia River basin assessment area (hereafter referred to as the basin assessment area). This report summarizes the main issues about the ecology of earthworms and their impact on the physical and chemical status...

  9. Operational Hydrologic Forecasts in the Columbia River Basin

    Shrestha, K. Y.; Curry, J. A.; Webster, P. J.; Toma, V. E.; Jelinek, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Columbia River Basin (CRB) covers an area of ~670,000 km2 and stretches across parts of seven U.S. states and one Canadian province. The basin is subject to a variable climate, and moisture stored in snowpack during the winter is typically released in spring and early summer. These releases contribute to rapid increases in flow. A number of impoundments have been constructed on the Columbia River main stem and its tributaries for the purposes of flood control, navigation, irrigation, recreation, and hydropower. Storage reservoirs allow water managers to adjust natural flow patterns to benefit water and energy demands. In the past decade, the complexity of water resource management issues in the basin has amplified the importance of streamflow forecasting. Medium-range (1-10 day) numerical weather forecasts of precipitation and temperature can be used to drive hydrological models. In this work, probabilistic meteorological variables from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) are used to force the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. Soil textures were obtained from FAO data; vegetation types / land cover information from UMD land cover data; stream networks from USGS HYDRO1k; and elevations from CGIAR version 4 SRTM data. The surface energy balance in 0.25° (~25 km) cells is closed through an iterative process operating at a 6 hour timestep. Output fluxes from a number of cells in the basin are combined through one-dimensional flow routing predicated on assumptions of linearity and time invariance. These combinations lead to daily mean streamflow estimates at key locations throughout the basin. This framework is suitable for ingesting daily numerical weather prediction data, and was calibrated using USGS mean daily streamflow data at the Dalles Dam (TDA). Operational streamflow forecasts in the CRB have been active since October 2012. These are 'naturalized' or unregulated forecasts. In 2013, increases of ~2600 m3/s (~48% of

  10. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation, Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Columbia River Mainstem Facilities, 1984 Final Report.

    Howerton, Jack; Hwang, Diana

    1984-11-01

    This report reviews the status of past, present, and proposed future wildlife planning and mitigation programs at existing hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River Basin. The project evaluations will form the basis for determining any needed remedial measures or additional project analysis. Each hydropower facility report is abstracted separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  11. Invertebrates of the Columbia River basin assessment area.

    Christine G. Niwa; Roger E. Sandquist; Rod Crawford; et al.

    2001-01-01

    A general background on functional groups of invertebrates in the Columbia River basin and how they affect sustainability and productivity of their ecological communities is presented. The functional groups include detritivores, predators, pollinators, and grassland and forest herbivores. Invertebrate biodiversity and species of conservation interest are discussed....

  12. Columbia Basin residents' view on water : final report

    Ronalds, L.

    2005-01-01

    Currently, there is no strategic plan for water management in the Columbia Basin to ensure that long-term water quality and quantity issues are addressed according to residents' values and views. The Columbia Basin Trust was therefore created to address water management issues. It devised a comprehensive water information questionnaire and sent it to a broad range of respondents that fell within the Canadian portion of the Columbia Basin. These included municipal, regional, provincial and federal government agencies; community and watershed groups; industry and agriculture groups; recreation and tourism groups; and, First Nations groups. The most prevalent concern among the respondents pertained to issues surrounding domestic water consumption, and the most widespread water issue in the Columbia Basin was that of water conservation. The state of aquatic ecosystems was also of significant importance to respondents. Respondents also expressed concern for the cost of providing potable water and for the sustainability of rivers and their tributaries within the Basin. The survey also found a concern for the fluctuating reservoir levels within the Basin and the protection of drinking water from contamination. In order to address the wide range of water related issues, respondents indicated that an education program should be implemented to address the general nature of the hydrologic cycle; how much water is being used for toilets, lawn watering, and showers; the cost of potable water; the importance of water on a local and global level; the importance and nature of watersheds; the ways people influence and pollute water; the challenges of cleaning up contaminated water sources; the community's water sources; the role of water in sustaining food growth; and, challenges and consequences of other communities that experience severe water quality and quantity issues. It was suggested that the education program should address a water conservation plan, including conservation

  13. Petroleum geology framework, southeast Bowser Basin, British Columbia

    Haggart, J.W. [Geological Survey of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Mahoney, J.B. [Wisconsin Univ., Eau Claire, WS (United States). Dept. of Geology

    2003-07-01

    There are significant coal resources in the northern regions of the Bowser basin in north-central British Columbia. However, the resource potential of the southern part of the basin has not been assessed, therefore the hydrocarbon potential is not known. Geological maps indicate several Mesozoic clastic and volcanic units across the southern part of the basin. Two stratigraphic intervals of the southern Bowser basin are considered to be potential source rocks within the Jurassic-Cretaceous strata. The fine-grained clastic rocks of the Bowser Lake Group contain significant amounts of carbonaceous material or organic matter. Well developed cleavage indicates that the rocks may be thermally over mature. This paper described potential reservoir rocks within the basin, along with their thermal maturation and conceptual play. 4 figs.

  14. Survey of Columbia River Basin streams for Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana and shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli

    Neitzel, D.A.; Frest, T.J.

    1992-08-01

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnails Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, and the lower Salmon River, Idaho, and possibly in the middle Snake River, Idaho; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon, and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species' historic range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherolla nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach and Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; Hens Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde Washington and Oregon; Imnaha, and John Day rivers, Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River to populations in the Hanford Reach and possibly other sites that are now separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major tributaries

  15. Quality of surface waters in the lower Columbia River Basin

    Santos, John F.

    1965-01-01

    This report, made during 1959-60, provides reconnaissance data on the quality of waters in the lower Columbia River basin ; information on present and future water problems in the basin; and data that can be employed both in water-use studies and in planning future industrial, municipal, and agricultural expansion within this area. The lower Columbia River basin consists of approximately 46,000 square miles downstream from the confluence of the Snake and Columbia Rivers The region can be divided into three geographic areas. The first is the heavily forested, sparsely populated mountain regions in which quality of water in general is related to geologic and climatological factors. The second is a semiarid plateau east of the Cascade Mountains; there differences in geology and precipitation, together with more intensive use of available water for irrigation, bring about marked differences in water quality. The third is the Willamette-Puget trough area in which are concentrated most of the industry and population and in which water quality is influenced by sewage and industrial waste disposal. The majority of the streams in the lower Columbia River basin are calcium magnesium bicarbonate waters. In general, the rivers rising in the. Coast Range and on the west slope of the Cascade Range contain less than 100 parts per million of dissolved solids, and hardness of the water is less than 50 parts per million. Headwater reaches of the streams on the east slope of the Cascade Range are similar to those on the west slope; but, downstream, irrigation return flows cause the dissolved-solids content and hardness to increase. Most of the waters, however, remain calcium magnesium bicarbonate in type. The highest observed dissolved-solids concentrations and also some changes in chemical composition occur in the streams draining the more arid parts of the area. In these parts, irrigation is chiefly responsible for increasing the dissolved-solids concentration and altering the

  16. Details of microearthquake swarms in the Columbia basin, Washington

    Malone, S.D.; Rothe, G.H.; Smith, S.W.

    1975-01-01

    Three microearthquake swarms in the Columbia River basin of eastern Washington were studied by means of a small portable seismic network. Earthquakes in this area typically occur in swarms, concentrated both temporally and spatially. One unusual characteristic of the three swarms studied was the shallow focal depths of all events. Most events located had depths less than 1 km; none were deeper than 2 km. Composite focal mechanism solutions indicate that more than one fault surface is active in any one swarm. All events had some thrust component with the axis of maximum compression oriented roughly in a north-south direction. (auth)

  17. Predicted channel types - Potential for Habitat Improvement in the Columbia River Basin

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basin-wide analysis of potential to improve tributary habitats in the Columbia River basin through restoration of habitat-forming processes. Identification of...

  18. Predicted riparian vegetation - Potential for Habitat Improvement in the Columbia River Basin

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basin-wide analysis of potential to improve tributary habitats in the Columbia River basin through restoration of habitat-forming processes. Identification of...

  19. Supplementation in the Columbia Basin : Summary Report Series : Final Report.

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-12-01

    This progress report broadly defines the scope of supplementation plans and activities in the Columbia Basin. It provides the foundation for more detailed analysis of supplementation in subsequent reports in this series. Topics included in this report are: definition of supplementation, project diversity, objectives and performance standards, uncertainties and theory. Since this is a progress report, the content is subject to modification with new information. The supplementation theory will continue to evolve throughout the duration of RASP and beyond. The other topics in this report are essentially complete and are not expected to change significantly. This is the first of a series of four reports which will summarize information contained in the larger, RASP progress and completion reports. Our goal is to make the findings of RASP more accessible by grouping related topics into smaller but complete narratives on important aspects of supplementation. We are planning to publish the following reports under the general title Supplementation in the Columbia River Basin: Part 1, Background, Description, Performance Measures, Uncertainty and Theory; Part 2, Theoretical Framework and Models; Part 3, Planning Guidelines; and Part 4, Regional Coordination of Research and Monitoring. Supplementation is expected to be a major contributor to the planned increase in salmon and steelhead production in the Columbia Basin. The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) uses three approaches to protect and enhance salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin: (1) enhance fish production; (2) improve passage in the mainstem rivers; and (3) revise harvest management to support the rebuilding of fish runs (NPPC 1987). The fish production segment calls for a three-part approach focused on natural production, hatchery production, and supplementation. Supplementation is planned to provide over half of the total production increases. The Regional Assessment

  20. Columbia River basin fish and wildlife program strategy for salmon

    Ruff, J.; Fazio, J.

    1993-01-01

    Three species of Snake River salmon have been listed as threatened or endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act. In response, the Northwest Power Planning Council worked with the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington, Indian tribes, federal agencies and interest groups to address the status of Snake River salmon runs in a forum known as the Salmon Summit. The Summit met in 1990 and 1991 and reached agreement on specific, short-term actions. When the Summit disbanded in April 1991, responsibility for developing a regional recovery plan for salmon shifted to the Council. The Council responded with a four-phased process of amending its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The first three phases. completed in September 1992, pertain to salmon and steelhead. Phase four, scheduled for completion in October 1993, will take up issues of resident fish and wildlife. This paper deals with the first three phases, collectively known as Strategy for Salmon

  1. Federally-Recognized Tribes of the Columbia-Snake Basin.

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1997-11-01

    This is an omnibus publication about the federally-recognized Indian tribes of the Columbia-Snake river basin, as presented by themselves. It showcases several figurative and literal snapshots of each tribe, bits and pieces of each tribe`s story. Each individual tribe or tribal confederation either submitted its own section to this publication, or developed its own section with the assistance of the writer-editor. A federally-recognized tribe is an individual Indian group, or confederation of Indian groups, officially acknowledged by the US government for purposes of legislation, consultation and benefits. This publication is designed to be used both as a resource and as an introduction to the tribes. Taken together, the sections present a rich picture of regional indian culture and history, as told by the tribes.

  2. Reconnaissance of contaminants in selected wastewater-treatment-plant effluent and stormwater runoff entering the Columbia River, Columbia River Basin, Washington and Oregon, 2008-10

    Morace, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Toxic contamination is a significant concern in the Columbia River Basin in Washington and Oregon. To help water managers and policy makers in decision making about future sampling efforts and toxic-reduction activities, a reconnaissance was done to assess contaminant concentrations directly contributed to the Columbia River through wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) effluent and stormwater runoff from adjacent urban environments and to evaluate instantaneous loadings to the Columbia River Basin from these inputs.

  3. Biological modeling in the Columbia Basin: An organized approach to dealing with uncertainty

    McConnaha, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    Development of the Columbia River Basin has had a profound impact on its natural resources, particularly species of Pacific Salmon. Passage of the Northwest Power Act of 1980 put in motion an unprecedented regional effort to restore the natural resources of the basin as affected by development of the hydroelectric system. Provisions of the act are compelling an interdisciplinary approach to hydrosystem planning and operations, as well as natural resource management. Symptomatic of this has been the development and use of computer modeling to assist regional decision making. This paper will discuss biological modeling in the Columbia River Basin and the role of modeling in restoration of large ecosystems

  4. Small rural communities in the inland Northwest: an assessment of small communities in the interior and upper Columbia River basins.

    Charles C. Harris; William McLaughlin; Greg Brown; Dennis R. Becker

    2000-01-01

    An assessment of small rural communities in the interior and upper Columbia River basin was conducted for the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project (ICBEMP). The characteristics and conditions of the rural communities in this region, which are complex and constantly changing, were examined. The research also assessed the resilience of the region’s...

  5. An assessment of the effects of human-caused air pollution on resources within the interior Columbia River basin.

    Anna W. Schoettle; Kathy Tonnessen; John Turk; John Vimont; Robert Amundson; Ann Acheson; Janice Peterson

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of existing and potential impacts to vegetation, aquatics, and visibility within the Columbia River basin due to air pollution was conducted as part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. This assessment examined the current situation and potential trends due to pollutants such as ammonium, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides,...

  6. Integrated scientific assessment for ecosystem management in the interior Columbia Basin and portions of the Klamath and Great Basins.

    Thomas M. Quigley; Richard W Haynes; Russell T. Graham

    1996-01-01

    The Integrated Scientific Assessment for Ecosystem Management for the Interior Columbia Basin links landscape, aquatic, terrestrial, social, and economic characterizations to describe biophysical and social systems. Integration was achieved through a framework built around six goals for ecosystem management and three different views of the future. These goals are:...

  7. Mitigating the Effects of Climate Change on the Water Resources of the Columbia River Basin

    Payne, J.T.; Wood, A.W.; Hamlet, A.F.; Palmer, R.N.; Lettenmaier, D.P. [Department of Civil Engineering, 164 Wilcox Hall, P.O. Box 352700, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2700 (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The potential effects of climate change on the hydrology and water resources of the Columbia River Basin (CRB) were evaluated using simulations from the U.S. Department of Energy and National Center for Atmospheric Research Parallel Climate Model (DOE/NCAR PCM). This study focuses on three climate projections for the 21st century based on a 'business as usual' (BAU) global emissions scenario, evaluated with respect to a control climate scenario based on static 1995 emissions. Time-varying monthly PCM temperature and precipitation changes were statistically downscaled and temporally disaggregated to produce daily forcings that drove a macro-scale hydrologic simulation model of the Columbia River basin at 1/4-degree spatial resolution. For comparison with the direct statistical downscaling approach, a dynamical downscaling approach using a regional climate model (RCM) was also used to derive hydrologic model forcings for 20-year subsets from the PCM control climate (1995-2015) scenario and from the three BAU climate (2040-2060) projections. The statistically downscaled PCM scenario results were assessed for three analysis periods (denoted Periods 1-3: 2010-2039, 2040-2069, 2070-2098) in which changes in annual average temperature were +0.5, +1.3 and +2.1C, respectively, while critical winter season precipitation changes were -3, +5 and +1 percent. For RCM, the predicted temperature change for the 2040-2060 period was +1.2C and the average winter precipitation change was -3 percent, relative to the RCM control climate. Due to the modest changes in winter precipitation, temperature changes dominated the simulated hydrologic effects by reducing winter snow accumulation, thus shifting summer streamflow to the winter. The hydrologic changes caused increased competition for reservoir storage between firm hydropower and instream flow targets developed pursuant to the Endangered Species Act listing of Columbia River salmonids. We examined several alternative

  8. Highlighted scientific findings of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project.

    Thomas M. Quigley; Heidi. Bigler Cole

    1997-01-01

    Decisions regarding 72 million acres of Forest Service- and Bureau of Land Management- administered lands will be based on scientific findings brought forth in the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. Some highlights of the scientific findings are presented here. Project scientists drew three general conclusions: (1) Conditions and trends differ widely...

  9. Field guide for the identification of snags and logs in the interior Columbia River basin.

    Catherine G. Parks; Evelyn L. Bull; Torolf R. Torgersen

    1997-01-01

    This field guide contains descriptions and color photographs of snags and logs of 10 coniferous and 3 deciduous tree species found in the interior Columbia River basin. Methods arc described to distinguish among the different species when various amounts of branches, cones, and bark arc missing. Wildlife use of the different species of snags and logs are listed. Snags...

  10. 75 FR 64752 - Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program

    2010-10-20

    ... Section 4(h) of the Northwest Power Act, the Council has amended its Columbia River Basin Fish and...) 452-5161. Stephen L. Crow, Executive Director. [FR Doc. 2010-26372 Filed 10-19-10; 8:45 am] BILLING...

  11. 76 FR 13676 - Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program

    2011-03-14

    ... Section 4(h) of the Northwest Power Act, the Council has amended its Columbia River Basin Fish and...) 452-5161. Stephen L. Crow, Executive Director. [FR Doc. 2011-5758 Filed 3-11-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  12. 76 FR 13438 - Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program

    2011-03-11

    ... Section 4(h) of the Northwest Power Act, the Council has amended its Columbia River Basin Fish and...) 452-5161. Stephen L. Crow, Executive Director. [FR Doc. 2011-5599 Filed 3-10-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  13. Flow Restoration in the Columbia River Basin: An Evaluation of a Flow Restoration Accounting Framework.

    McCoy, Amy L; Holmes, S Rankin; Boisjolie, Brett A

    2018-03-01

    Securing environmental flows in support of freshwater biodiversity is an evolving field of practice. An example of a large-scale program dedicated to restoring environmental flows is the Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program in the Pacific Northwest region of North America, which has been restoring flows in dewatered tributary habitats for imperiled salmon species over the past decade. This paper discusses a four-tiered flow restoration accounting framework for tracking the implementation and impacts of water transactions as an effective tool for adaptive management. The flow restoration accounting framework provides compliance and flow accounting information to monitor transaction efficacy. We review the implementation of the flow restoration accounting framework monitoring framework to demonstrate (a) the extent of water transactions that have been implemented over the past decade, (b) the volumes of restored flow in meeting flow targets for restoring habitat for anadromous fish species, and (c) an example of aquatic habitat enhancement that resulted from Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program investments. Project results show that from 2002 to 2015, the Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program has completed more than 450 water rights transactions, restoring approximately 1.59 million megaliters to date, with an additional 10.98 million megaliters of flow protected for use over the next 100 years. This has resulted in the watering of over 2414 stream kilometers within the Columbia Basin. We conclude with a discussion of the insights gained through the implementation of the flow restoration accounting framework. Understanding the approach and efficacy of a monitoring framework applied across a large river basin can be informative to emerging flow-restoration and adaptive management efforts in areas of conservation concern.

  14. Flow Restoration in the Columbia River Basin: An Evaluation of a Flow Restoration Accounting Framework

    McCoy, Amy L.; Holmes, S. Rankin; Boisjolie, Brett A.

    2018-03-01

    Securing environmental flows in support of freshwater biodiversity is an evolving field of practice. An example of a large-scale program dedicated to restoring environmental flows is the Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program in the Pacific Northwest region of North America, which has been restoring flows in dewatered tributary habitats for imperiled salmon species over the past decade. This paper discusses a four-tiered flow restoration accounting framework for tracking the implementation and impacts of water transactions as an effective tool for adaptive management. The flow restoration accounting framework provides compliance and flow accounting information to monitor transaction efficacy. We review the implementation of the flow restoration accounting framework monitoring framework to demonstrate (a) the extent of water transactions that have been implemented over the past decade, (b) the volumes of restored flow in meeting flow targets for restoring habitat for anadromous fish species, and (c) an example of aquatic habitat enhancement that resulted from Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program investments. Project results show that from 2002 to 2015, the Columbia Basin Water Transactions Program has completed more than 450 water rights transactions, restoring approximately 1.59 million megaliters to date, with an additional 10.98 million megaliters of flow protected for use over the next 100 years. This has resulted in the watering of over 2414 stream kilometers within the Columbia Basin. We conclude with a discussion of the insights gained through the implementation of the flow restoration accounting framework. Understanding the approach and efficacy of a monitoring framework applied across a large river basin can be informative to emerging flow-restoration and adaptive management efforts in areas of conservation concern.

  15. Columbia River Basin Seasonal Volumes and Statistics, 1928-1989. 1990 Level Modified Streamflows Computed Seasonal Volumes 61-Year Statistics.

    A.G. Crook Company

    1993-04-01

    This report was prepared by the A.G. Crook Company, under contract to Bonneville Power Administration, and provides statistics of seasonal volumes and streamflow for 28 selected sites in the Columbia River Basin.

  16. Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Project Abstracts; May 25-27, Portland, Oregon, 1997 Annual Review.

    Allee, Brian J. (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Portland, OR)

    1997-06-26

    Abstracts are presented from the 1997 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Review of Projects. The purpose was to provide information and education on the approximate 127 million dollars in Northwest electric ratepayer fish and wildlife mitigation projects funded annually.

  17. Bibliography of the geology of the Columbia Basin and surrounding areas of Washington

    Tucker, G.B.; Rigby, J.G.

    1979-07-01

    In the fall of 1977, the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Earth Resources (WDGER), entered into a contract with the US Department of Energy, administered by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) in Richland, Washington, as a principal contributor to a geologic study of feasibility of storing radioactive waste within Columbia River basalt. WDGER's responsibility was the production of this bibliography and a reconnaissance geologic map of the sediments overlying the Columbia River Basalt Group in the State of Washington. This bibliography is a compilation of all known published, unpublished, and open-file references dealing with geology and geophysics of the Columbia Basin of eastern Washington. The citations were obtained primarily from the WDGER and Washington State libraries; the Geo-Ref bibliographic system was also utilized. Because the WDGER portion of the study included preparation of a reconnaissance geologic map of surficial deposits in the Columbia Basin, available references dealing with this subject have been annotated. Many abstracts in the annotated section are quotations and have been copied directly from their respective publications

  18. Bibliography of the geology of the Columbia Basin and surrounding areas of Washington

    Tucker, G.B.; Rigby, J.G.

    1979-07-01

    In the fall of 1977, the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Earth Resources (WDGER), entered into a contract with the US Department of Energy, administered by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) in Richland, Washington, as a principal contributor to a geologic study of feasibility of storing radioactive waste within Columbia River basalt. WDGER's responsibility was the production of this bibliography and a reconnaissance geologic map of the sediments overlying the Columbia River Basalt Group in the State of Washington. This bibliography is a compilation of all known published, unpublished, and open-file references dealing with geology and geophysics of the Columbia Basin of eastern Washington. The citations were obtained primarily from the WDGER and Washington State libraries; the Geo-Ref bibliographic system was also utilized. Because the WDGER portion of the study included preparation of a reconnaissance geologic map of surficial deposits in the Columbia Basin, available references dealing with this subject have been annotated. Many abstracts in the annotated section are quotations and have been copied directly from their respective publications.

  19. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1988.

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Northwest Power Planning Council (U.S.); Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority

    1987-10-01

    The FY 1988 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Work Plan (Work Plan) presents Bonneville Power Administration's plans for implementing the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) in FY 1988. The Work Plan focuses on individual Action Items found in the amended Program for which Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has determined it has authority and responsibility to implement. The FY 1988 Work Plan emphasizes continuation of 95 ongoing projects, most of which involve protection, mitigation, or enhancement of anadromous fishery resources. These continuing activities are summarized briefly by Program area: (1) mainstem passage; (2) artificial propagation; (3) natural propagation; (4) resident fish and wildlife; and (5) planning activities.

  20. Genetic and Phenotypic Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the Interior Columbia River Basin; Populations of the Upper Yakima Basin, 1997-1998 Annual Report.

    Trotter, Patrick C. (Fishery Science Consultant, Seattle, WA); McMillan, Bill; Gayeski, Nick (Washington Trout, Duvall, WA)

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this project is to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique.

  1. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan for fiscal year 1992

    1991-09-01

    The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan (AIWP) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1992 presents Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) plans for implementing the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) in FY 1992. The AIWP focuses on individual Action Items found in the 1987 Program for which BPA has determined that it has authority and responsibility to implement. Each of the entries in the AIWP includes objectives, background, progress to date in achieving the objectives, and a summary of plans for implementation in FY 1992. Most Action Items are implemented through one or more BPA-funded projects. Each Action Item entry is followed by a list of completed, ongoing, and planned projects, along with objectives, results, schedules, and milestones for each project. In October 1988, BPA and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA) initiated a collaborative and cooperative Implementation Planning Process (IPP). The IPP provided opportunities in FY 1991 for the fish and wildlife agencies. Tribes, and other interested parties to be involved in planning FY 1992 Program implementation. This planing process contributed to the development of this year's AIWP. The joint BPA/CBFWA IPP is expected to continue in FY 1992. The FY 1992 AIWP emphasizes continuation of 143 ongoing, or projected ongoing Program projects, tasks, or task orders, most of which involve protection, mitigation, or enhancement of anadromous fishery resources. The FY 1992 AIWP also contains 10 new Program projects or tasks that are planned to start in FY 1992

  2. Increased mitochondrial DNA diversity in ancient Columbia River basin Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    Bobbi M Johnson

    Full Text Available The Columbia River and its tributaries provide essential spawning and rearing habitat for many salmonid species, including Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Chinook salmon were historically abundant throughout the basin and Native Americans in the region relied heavily on these fish for thousands of years. Following the arrival of Europeans in the 1800s, salmon in the basin experienced broad declines linked to overfishing, water diversion projects, habitat destruction, connectivity reduction, introgression with hatchery-origin fish, and hydropower development. Despite historical abundance, many native salmonids are now at risk of extinction. Research and management related to Chinook salmon is usually explored under what are termed "the four H's": habitat, harvest, hatcheries, and hydropower; here we explore a fifth H, history. Patterns of prehistoric and contemporary mitochondrial DNA variation from Chinook salmon were analyzed to characterize and compare population genetic diversity prior to recent alterations and, thus, elucidate a deeper history for this species. A total of 346 ancient and 366 contemporary samples were processed during this study. Species was determined for 130 of the ancient samples and control region haplotypes of 84 of these were sequenced. Diversity estimates from these 84 ancient Chinook salmon were compared to 379 contemporary samples. Our analysis provides the first direct measure of reduced genetic diversity for Chinook salmon from the ancient to the contemporary period, as measured both in direct loss of mitochondrial haplotypes and reductions in haplotype and nucleotide diversity. However, these losses do not appear equal across the basin, with higher losses of diversity in the mid-Columbia than in the Snake subbasin. The results are unexpected, as the two groups were predicted to share a common history as parts of the larger Columbia River Basin, and instead indicate that Chinook salmon in these subbasins

  3. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation, Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Washington Facilities (Intrastate) Final Report.

    Howerton, Jack

    1984-11-01

    This report was prepared for BPA in fulfillment of section 1004 (b)(1) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980, to review the status of past, present, and proposed future wildlife planning and mitigation program at existing hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River Basin. The project evaluations will form the basis for determining any needed remedial measures or additional project analysis. Projects addressed are: Merwin Dam; Swift Project; Yale Project; Cowlitz River; Boundary Dam; Box Canyon Dam; Lake Chelan; Condit Project; Enloe Project; Spokane River; Tumwater and Dryden Dam; Yakima; and Naches Project.

  4. An assessment the effects of human-caused air pollution on resources within the interior Columbia River basin

    Schoettle, A.W.; Tonnessen, K.; Turk, J.; Vimont, J.; Amundson, Ronald; Acheson, A.; Peterson, J.

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of existing and potential impacts to vegetation, aquatics, and visibility within the Columbia River basin due to air pollution was conducted as part of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. This assessment examined the current situation and potential trends due to pollutants such as ammonium, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulates, carbon, and ozone. Ecosystems and resources at risk are identified, including certain forests, lichens, cryptogamic crusts, high-elevation lakes and streams, arid lands, and class I areas. Current monitoring data are summarized and air pollution sources identified. The assessment also includes a summary of data gaps and suggestions for future research and monitoring related to air pollution and its effects on resources in the interior Columbia River basin.

  5. From salmon to shad: Shifting sources of marine-derived nutrients in the Columbia River Basin

    Haskell, Craig A.

    2018-01-01

    Like Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), nonnative American shad (Alosa sapidissima) have the potential to convey large quantities of nutrients between the Pacific Ocean and freshwater spawning areas in the Columbia River Basin (CRB). American shad are now the most numerous anadromous fish in the CRB, yet the magnitude of the resulting nutrient flux owing to the shift from salmon to shad is unknown. Nutrient flux models revealed that American shad conveyed over 15,000 kg of nitrogen (N) and 3,000 kg of phosphorus (P) annually to John Day Reservoir, the largest mainstem reservoir in the lower Columbia River. Shad were net importers of N, with juveniles and postspawners exporting just 31% of the N imported by adults. Shad were usually net importers of P, with juveniles and postspawners exporting 46% of the P imported by adults on average. American shad contributed salmon owing to their smaller size. Given the relatively high background P levels and low retention times in lower Columbia River reservoirs, it is unlikely that shad marine-derived nutrients affect nutrient balances or food web productivity through autotrophic pathways. However, a better understanding of shad spawning aggregations in the CRB is needed.

  6. Integrated Hatchery Operations Team: Policies and Procedures for Columbia Basin Anadromous Salmonid Hatcheries, 1994 Annual Report.

    Integrated Hatchery Operations Team (Northwest Power Planning Council, Portland, OR)

    1995-01-01

    This document outlines regional policies and procedures for hatchery operations in the Columbia River Basin. The purpose of these policies is to provide regional guidelines by which all anadromous fish hatcheries will be operated. These policies will be adopted by the fisheries co-managers, and will provide guidance to operate hatcheries in an efficient and biologically sound manner. The hatchery policies presented in this manual are not intended to establish production priorities. Rather, the intent is to guide hatchery operations once production numbers are established. Hatchery operations discussed in this report include broodstock collection, spawning, incubation of eggs, fish rearing and feeding, fish release, equipment maintenance and operations, and personnel training. Decisions regarding production priorities must be provided by fishery managers through a comprehensive plan that addresses both natural and hatchery fish production. The Integrated Hatchery Operations Team is a multi-agency group called for by the Northwest Power Planning Council. This team was directed to develop new basinwide policies for managing and operating all existing and future anadromous fish hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin. The parties pledge to confer with each other and to use their authorities and resources to accomplish these mutually acceptable hatchery practices.

  7. Substrate and flow characteristics associated with White Sturgeon recruitment in the Columbia River Basin

    Hatten, James R.; Parsley, Michael; Barton, Gary; Batt, Thomas; Fosness, Ryan L.

    2018-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify habitat characteristics associated with age 0+ White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1863) recruitment in three reaches of the Columbia River Basin: Skamania reach (consistent recruitment), John Day reach (intermittent/inconsistent recruitment), and Kootenai reach (no recruitment). Our modeling approach involved numerous steps. First, we collected information about substrate, embeddedness, and hydrodynamics in each reach. Second, we developed a set of spatially explicit predictor variables. Third, we built two habitat (probability) models with Skamania reach training data where White Sturgeon recruitment was consistent. Fourth, we created spawning maps of each reach by populating the habitat models with in-reach physical metrics (substrate, embeddedness, and hydrodynamics). Fifth, we examined model accuracy by overlaying spawning locations in Skamania and Kootenai reaches with habitat predictions obtained from probability models. Sixth, we simulated how predicted habitat changed in each reach after manipulating physical conditions to more closely match Skamania reach. Model verification confirmed White Sturgeon generally spawned in locations with higher model probabilities in Skamania and Kootenai reaches, indicating the utility of extrapolating the models. Model simulations revealed significant gains in White Sturgeon habitat in all reaches when spring flow increased, gravel/cobble composition increased, or embeddedness decreased. The habitat models appear well suited to assist managers when identifying reach-specific factors limiting White Sturgeon recruitment in the Columbia River Basin or throughout its range.

  8. Wind erosion potential influenced by tillage in an irrigated potato-sweet corn rotation in the Columbia Basin

    Wind erosion is a concern within the Columbia Basin of the Inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) United States due to the sandy texture of soils and small amount of residue retained on the soil surface after harvest of vegetable crops like potato. This study assessed potential wind erosion of an irrigated ...

  9. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1983 Annual Report.

    Fryer, John L.

    1984-11-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration conducted a study relating to the epidemiology and control of three fish diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These three diseases were ceratomyxosis which is caused by the myxosporidan parasite Ceratomyxa shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the etiological agent of which is Renibacterium salmoninarum, and infectious hematopoietic necrosis, which is caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is highly destructive and difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The presence of ceratomyxosis in rainbow trout exposed at McNary and Little Goose Dams extends the range of this disease about 200 miles further up the Columbia River and into the Snake River drainage. Wallowa steelhead trout were less resistant to this disease than other upriver stocks tested. Juvenile salmonids entering the Columbia River estuary were collected periodically between May to September, 1983. Nine percent of the beach seined chinook salmon and 5, 11 and 12%, respectively, of the purse seined coho and chinook salmon and steelhead trout were infected with Ceratomyxa shasta. Experiments indicated ceratomyxosis progresses in salt water at the same rate as in fresh water once the fish have become infected. These data indicate a longer exposure to infective stages of C. shasta than previously identified and that approximately 10% of the migrating salmonids are infected and will probably die from this organism after entering salt water. Since sampling began in 1981 the bacterial kidney disease organism, Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been detected by the fluorescent antibody test in seven salmonid species caught in the open ocean off the coasts of Washington and Oregon. The bacterium has been found primarily in chinook salmon (11%) with lesions in 2.5% of these fish. This disease was also detected at levels ranging from 17% in coho salmon to 25% in chinook

  10. Macroecology, paleoecology, and ecological integrity of terrestrial species and communities of the interior Columbia basin and northern portions of the Klamath and Great Basins.

    Bruce G. Marcot; L.K. Croft; J.F. Lehmkuhl; R.H. Naney; C.G. Niwa; W.R. Owen; R.E. Sandquist

    1998-01-01

    This report present information on biogeography and broad-scale ecology (macroecology) of selected fungi, lichens, bryophytes, vascular plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates of the interior Columbia River basin and adjacent areas. Rareplants include many endemics associated with local conditions. Potential plant and invertebrate bioindicators are identified. Species...

  11. Expert initial review of Columbia River Basin salmonid management models: Summary report

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1993-10-01

    Over the past years, several fish passage models have been developed to examine the downstream survival of salmon during their annual migration through the Columbia River reservoir system to below Bonneville Dam. More recently, models have been created to simulate the survival of salmon throughout the entire life cycle. The models are used by various regional agencies and native American tribes to assess impacts of dam operation, harvesting, and predation on salmonid abundance. These models are now also being used to assess extinction probabilities and evaluate restoration alternatives for threatened and endangered salmonid stocks. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) coordinated an initial evaluation of the principal models by a panel of outside, expert reviewers. None of the models were unequivocally endorsed by any reviewer. Significant strengths and weaknesses were noted for each with respect to reasonability of assumptions and equations, adequacy of documentation, adequacy of supporting data, and calibration procedures. Although the models reviewed differ in some important respects, all reflect a common conceptual basis in classical population dynamic theory and a common empirical basis consisting of the available time series of salmonid stock data, hydrographic records, experimental studies of dam passage parameters, and measurements of reservoir mortality. The results of this initial review are not to be construed as a comprehensive scientific peer review of existing Columbia River Basin (CRB) salmon population models and data. The peer review process can be enhanced further by a dynamic exchange regional modelers and scientific panel experts involving interaction and feedback

  12. Conservation challenges and research needs for Pacific lamprey in the Columbia River Basin

    Clemens, Benjamin J.; Beamish, Richard J.; Coates, Kelly C.; Docker, Margaret F.; Dunham, Jason B.; Gray, Ann E.; Hess, Jon E.; Jolley, Jeffrey C.; Lampman, Ralph T.; McIlraith, Brian J.; Moser, Mary L.; Murauskas, Joshua G.; Noakes, David L. G.; Schaller, Howard A.; Schreck, Carl B.; Starcevich, Steven J.; Streif, Bianca; van de Wetering, Stan J.; Wade, Joy; Weitkamp, Laurie A.; Wyss, Lance A.

    2017-01-01

    The Pacific Lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus, an anadromous fish native to the northern Pacific Ocean and bordering freshwater habitats, has recently experienced steep declines in abundance and range contractions along the West Coast of North America. During the early 1990s, Native American tribes recognized the declining numbers of lamprey and championed their importance. In 2012, 26 entities signed a conservation agreement to coordinate and implement restoration and research for Pacific Lamprey. Regional plans have identified numerous threats, monitoring needs, and strategies to conserve and restore Pacific Lamprey during their freshwater life stages. Prime among these are needs to improve lamprey passage, restore freshwater habitats, educate stakeholders, and implement lamprey-specific research and management protocols. Key unknowns include range-wide trends in status, population dynamics, population delineation, limiting factors, and marine influences. We synthesize these key unknowns, with a focus on the freshwater life stages of lamprey in the Columbia River basin.

  13. An epidemiological model of virus transmission in salmonid fishes of the Columbia River Basin

    Ferguson, Paige F. B.; Breyta, Rachel; Brito, Ilana L.; Kurath, Gael; LaDeau, Shannon L.

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a dynamic epidemiological model informed by records of viral presence and genotypes to evaluate potential transmission routes maintaining a viral pathogen in economically and culturally important anadromous fish populations. In the Columbia River Basin, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes severe disease, predominantly in juvenile steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and less frequently in Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha). Mortality events following IHNV infection can be devastating for individual hatchery programs. Despite reports of high local mortality and extensive surveillance efforts, there are questions about how viral transmission is maintained. Modeling this system offers important insights into disease transmission in natural aquatic systems, as well as about the data requirements for generating accurate estimates about transmission routes and infection probabilities. We simulated six scenarios in which testing rates and the relative importance of different transmission routes varied. The simulations demonstrated that the model accurately identified routes of transmission and inferred infection probabilities accurately when there was testing of all cohort-sites. When testing records were incomplete, the model accurately inferred which transmission routes exposed particular cohort-sites but generated biased infection probabilities given exposure. After validating the model and generating guidelines for result interpretation, we applied the model to data from 14 annual cohorts (2000–2013) at 24 focal sites in a sub-region of the Columbia River Basin, the lower Columbia River (LCR), to quantify the relative importance of potential transmission routes in this focal sub-region. We demonstrate that exposure to IHNV via the return migration of adult fish is an important route for maintaining IHNV in the LCR sub-region, and the probability of infection following this exposure was relatively high at 0.16. Although only 1% of

  14. Rainwater Wildlife Area, Watershed Management Plan, A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project, 2002.

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-03-01

    This Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary. The purpose of the project is

  15. Steady-state critical loads of acidity for forest soils in the Georgia Basin, British Columbia

    Shaun A. WATMOUGH

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been growing interest in acid rain research in western Canada where sulphur (S and nitrogen (N emissions are expected to increase during the next two decades. One region of concern is southern British Columbia, specifically the Georgia Basin, where emissions are expected to increase owing to the expansion of industry and urban centres (Vancouver and Victoria. In the current study, weathering rates and critical loads of acidity (S and N for forest soils were estimated at nineteen sites located within the Georgia Basin. A base cation to aluminium ratio of 10 was selected as the critical chemical criterion associated with ecosystem damage. The majority of the sites (58% had low base cation weathering rates (≤50 meq m–2 y–1 based on the PROFILE model. Accordingly, mean critical load for the study sites, estimated using the steady-state mass balance model, ranged between 129–168 meq m–2 y–1. Annual average total (wet and dry S and N deposition during the period 2005–2006 (estimated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality model, exceeded critical load at five–nine of the study sites (mean exceedance = 32–46 meq m–2 y–1. The high-elevation (>1000 m study sites had shallow, acid sensitive, soils with low weathering rates; however, critical loads were predominantly exceeded at sites close to Vancouver under higher modelled deposition loads. The extent of exceedance is similar to other industrial regions in western and eastern Canada.

  16. Population Structure of Columbia River Basin Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, Technical Report 2001.

    Brannon, E.L.; National Science Foundation (U.S.)

    2002-08-01

    The population structure of chinook salmon and steelhead trout is presented as an assimilation of the life history forms that have evolved in synchrony with diverse and complex environments over their Pacific range. As poikilotherms, temperature is described as the overwhelming environmental influence that determines what life history options occur and where they are distributed. The different populations represent ecological types referred to as spring-, summer-, fall, and winter-run segments, as well as stream- and ocean-type, or stream- and ocean-maturing life history forms. However, they are more correctly described as a continuum of forms that fall along a temporal cline related to incubation and rearing temperatures that determine spawn timing and juvenile residence patterns. Once new habitats are colonized, members of the founding populations spread through adaptive evolution to assume complementary life history strategies. The related population units are collectively referred to as a metapopulation, and members most closely associated within common temporal and geographic boundaries are designated as first-order metapopulations. Population structure of chinook salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin, therefore, is the reflection of the genetic composition of the founding source or sources within the respective region, shaped by the environment, principally temperature, that defines life history evolutionary strategy to maximize fitness under the conditions delineated. The complexity of structure rests with the diversity of opportunities over the elevations that exist within the Basin. Consistent with natural selection, rather than simply attempting to preserve populations, the challenge is to provide opportunities to expand their range to new or restored habitat that can accommodate genetic adaptation as directional environmental changes are elaborated. Artificial propagation can have a critical role in this process, and the emphasis must be placed on

  17. Annual suspended sediment and trace element fluxes in the Mississippi, Columbia, Colorado, and Rio Grande drainage basins

    Horowitz, A.J.; Elrick, K.A.; Smith, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Suspended sediment, sediment-associated, total trace element, phosphorus (P), and total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes were determined for the Mississippi, Columbia, Rio Grande, and Colorado Basins for the study period (the 1996, 1997, and 1998 water years) as part of the US Geological Survey's redesigned National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) programme. The majority (??? 70%) of Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Ba, P, As, Fe, Mn, and Al are transported in association with suspended sediment; Sr transport seems dominated by the dissolved phase, whereas the transport of Li and TOC seems to be divided equally between both phases. Average dissolved trace element levels are markedly lower than reported during the original NASQAN programme; this seems due to the use of 'clean' sampling, processing, and analytical techniques rather than to improvements in water quality. Partitioning between sediment and water for Ag, Pb, Cd, Cr, Co, V, Be, As, Sb, Hg, and Ti could not be estimated due to a lack of detectable dissolved concentrations in most samples. Elevated suspended sediment-associated Zn levels were detected in the Ohio River Basin and elevated Hg levels were detected in the Tennessee River, the former may affect the mainstem Mississippi River, whereas the latter probably do not. Sediment-associated concentrations of Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Co, Ba, Mo, Sb, Hg, and Fe are markedly elevated in the upper Columbia Basin, and appear to be detectable (Zn, Cd) as far downstream as the middle of the basin. These elevated concentrations seem to result from mining and/or mining-related activities. Consistently detectable concentrations of dissolved Se were found only in the Colorado River Basin. Calculated average annual suspended sediment fluxes at the mouths of the Mississippi and Rio Grande Basins were below, whereas those for the Columbia and Colorado Basins were above previously published annual values. Downstream suspended sediment-associated and total trace element fluxes

  18. Developing a predation index and evaluating ways to reduce salmonid losses to predation in the Columbia River basin

    Nigro, A.A.

    1990-12-01

    We report our results of studies to develop a predation index and evaluate ways to reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation in the Columbia River Basin. Study objectives of each were: develop an index to estimate predation losses of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp) in reservoirs throughout the Columbia River Basin, describe the relationships among predator-caused mortality of juvenile salmonids and physical and biological variables, examine the feasibility of developing bounty, commercial or recreational fisheries on northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) and develop a plan to evaluate the efficacy of predator control fisheries; determine the economic feasibility of developing bounty and commercial fisheries for northern squawfish, assist ODFW with evaluating the economic feasibility of recreational fisheries for northern squawfish and assess the economic feasibility of utilizing northern squawfish, carp (Cyprinus carpio) and suckers (Castostomus spp) in multispecies fisheries; evaluate commercial technology of various fishing methods for harvesting northern squawfish in Columbia River reservoirs and field test the effectiveness of selected harvesting systems, holding facilities and transportation systems; and modify the existing Columbia River Ecosystem Model (CREM) to include processes necessary to evaluate effects of removing northern squawfish on their population size structure and abundance, document the ecological processes, mathematical equations and computer (FORTRAN) programming of the revised version of CREM and conduct systematic analyses of various predator removal scenarios, using revised CREM to generate the simulations. Individual reports are indexed separately

  19. Return to the river: strategies for salmon restoration in the Columbia River Basin.

    Richard N. Williams; Jack A. Standford; James A. Lichatowich; William J. Liss; Charles C. Coutant; Willis E. McConnaha; Richard R. Whitney; Phillip R. Mundy; Peter A. Bisson; Madison S. Powell

    2006-01-01

    The Columbia River today is a great "organic machine" (White 1995) that dominates the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Even though natural attributes remain—for example, salmon production in Washington State's Hanford Reach, the only unimpounded reach of the mainstem Columbia River—the Columbia and Snake River mainstems are dominated...

  20. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1992.

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Miller, William H.

    1994-03-01

    This document is the 1992 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha conducted by the National Biological Survey (NBS) and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The decline in abundance of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River basin has become a growing concern. Effective recovery efforts for fall chinook salmon cannot be developed until we increase our knowledge of the factors that are limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which influence spawning of fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing and seaward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs.

  1. Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) for the Mid-Columbia Basin

    Zack, J; Natenberg, E J; Knowe, G V; Waight, K; Manobianco, J; Hanley, D; Kamath, C

    2011-09-13

    The overall goal of this multi-phased research project known as WindSENSE is to develop an observation system deployment strategy that would improve wind power generation forecasts. The objective of the deployment strategy is to produce the maximum benefit for 1- to 6-hour ahead forecasts of wind speed at hub-height ({approx}80 m). In this phase of the project the focus is on the Mid-Columbia Basin region, which encompasses the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) wind generation area (Figure 1) that includes the Klondike, Stateline, and Hopkins Ridge wind plants. There are two tasks in the current project effort designed to validate the Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis (ESA) observational system deployment approach in order to move closer to the overall goal: (1) Perform an Observing System Experiment (OSE) using a data denial approach. The results of this task are presented in a separate report. (2) Conduct a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) for the Mid-Colombia basin region. This report presents the results of the OSSE task. The specific objective is to test strategies for future deployment of observing systems in order to suggest the best and most efficient ways to improve wind forecasting at BPA wind farm locations. OSSEs have been used for many years in meteorology to evaluate the potential impact of proposed observing systems, determine tradeoffs in instrument design, and study the most effective data assimilation methodologies to incorporate the new observations into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models (Atlas 1997; Lord 1997). For this project, a series of OSSEs will allow consideration of the impact of new observing systems of various types and in various locations.

  2. Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan Executive Summary : A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    Childs, Allen B.

    2002-02-01

    This Executive Summary provides an overview of the Draft Rainwater Wildlife Area Management Plan. The comprehensive plan can be viewed on the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) website at: www.umatilla.nsn.us or requested in hard copy from the CTUIR at the address below. The wildlife area was established in September 1998 when the CTUIR purchased the Rainwater Ranch through Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for purposes of fish and wildlife mitigation for the McNary and John Day dams. The Management Plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by BPA for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus management actions and prioritize funding during the 2002-2006 planning period. Since acquisition of the property in late 1998, the CTUIR has conducted an extensive baseline resource assessment in preparation for the management plan, initiated habitat restoration in the Griffin Fork drainage to address road-related resource damage caused by roads constructed for forest practices and an extensive flood event in 1996, and initiated infrastructure developments associated with the Access and Travel Management Plan (i.e., installed parking areas, gates, and public information signs). In addition to these efforts, the CTUIR has worked to set up a long-term funding mechanism with BPA through the NPPC Fish and Wildlife Program. The CTUIR has also continued to coordinate closely with local and state government organizations to ensure consistency with local land use laws and maintain open lines of communication regarding important issues such as big game hunting, tribal member exercise of treaty rights, and public

  3. Resilience and Water Governance: Adaptive Governance in the Columbia River Basin

    Barbara A. Cosens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The 1964 Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada is currently under review. Under the treaty, the river is jointly operated by the two countries for hydropower and is the largest producer of hydropower in the western hemisphere. In considering the next phase of international river governance, the degree of uncertainty surrounding the drivers of change complicates efforts to predict and manage under traditional approaches that rely on historical ecosystem responses. At the same time, changes in social values have focused attention on ecosystem health, the decline of which has led to the listing of seven salmon and four steelhead populations under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Although adaptive management is considered one approach to resource management in the face of uncertainty, an early attempt at its implementation in the U.S. portion of the basin failed. We explore these issues in the context of resilience, taking the position that while adaptive management may foster ecological resilience, it is only one factor in the institutional changes needed to foster social-ecological resilience captured in the concept of adaptive governance.

  4. A social–ecological perspective for riverscape management in the Columbia River Basin

    Hand, Brian K.; Flint, Courtney G.; Frissell, Chris A.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Devlin, Shawn P.; Kennedy, Brian P.; Crabtree, Robert L.; McKee, W. Arthur; Luikart, Gordon; Stanford, Jack A.

    2018-01-01

    Riverscapes are complex, landscape-scale mosaics of connected river and stream habitats embedded in diverse ecological and socioeconomic settings. Social–ecological interactions among stakeholders often complicate natural-resource conservation and management of riverscapes. The management challenges posed by the conservation and restoration of wild salmonid populations in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) of western North America are one such example. Because of their ecological, cultural, and socioeconomic importance, salmonids present a complex management landscape due to interacting environmental factors (eg climate change, invasive species) as well as socioeconomic and political factors (eg dams, hatcheries, land-use change, transboundary agreements). Many of the problems in the CRB can be linked to social–ecological interactions occurring within integrated ecological, human–social, and regional–climatic spheres. Future management and conservation of salmonid populations therefore depends on how well the issues are understood and whether they can be resolved through effective communication and collaboration among ecologists, social scientists, stakeholders, and policy makers.

  5. Parcelling out the Watershed: The Recurring Consequences of Organising Columbia River Management within a Basin-Based Territory

    Eve Vogel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a 75-year history of North America’s Columbia river to answer the question: what difference does a river basin territory actually make? Advocates reason that river basins and watersheds are natural and holistic water management spaces, and can avoid the fragmentations and conflicts endemic to water management within traditional political territories. However, on the Columbia, this reasoning has not played out in practice. Instead, basin management has been shaped by challenges from and negotiations with more traditional jurisdictional spaces and political districts. The recurring result has been 'parcelling out the watershed': coordinating river management to produce a few spreadable benefits, and distributing these benefits, as well as other responsibilities and policy-making influence, to jurisdictional parts and political districts. To provide generous spreadable benefits, river management has unevenly emphasised hydropower, resulting in considerable environmental losses. However, benefits have been widely spread and shared – and over time challengers have forced management to diversify. Thus a river basin territory over time produced patterns of both positive and negative environmental, social, economic, and democratic outcomes. To improve the outcomes of watershed-based water management, we need more interactive and longer-term models attentive to dynamic politics and geographies.

  6. BASIN-CENTERED GAS SYSTEMS OF THE U.S.

    Marin A. Popov; Vito F. Nuccio; Thaddeus S. Dyman; Timothy A. Gognat; Ronald C. Johnson; James W. Schmoker; Michael S. Wilson; Charles Bartberger

    2000-11-01

    The USGS is re-evaluating the resource potential of basin-centered gas accumulations in the U.S. because of changing perceptions of the geology of these accumulations, and the availability of new data since the USGS 1995 National Assessment of United States oil and gas resources (Gautier et al., 1996). To attain these objectives, this project used knowledge of basin-centered gas systems and procedures such as stratigraphic analysis, organic geochemistry, modeling of basin thermal dynamics, reservoir characterization, and pressure analysis. This project proceeded in two phases which had the following objectives: Phase I (4/1998 through 5/1999): Identify and describe the geologic and geographic distribution of potential basin-centered gas systems, and Phase II (6/1999 through 11/2000): For selected systems, estimate the location of those basin-centered gas resources that are likely to be produced over the next 30 years. In Phase I, we characterize thirty-three (33) potential basin-centered gas systems (or accumulations) based on information published in the literature or acquired from internal computerized well and reservoir data files. These newly defined potential accumulations vary from low to high risk and may or may not survive the rigorous geologic scrutiny leading towards full assessment by the USGS. For logistical reasons, not all basins received the level of detail desired or required.

  7. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1984 Annual Report.

    Fryer, John L.

    1985-11-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration has conducted a study since 1983 relating to the epidemiology and control of three diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These diseases are ceratomyxosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Ceratomyxa Shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the etiological agent of which is Renibacterium salmoninarum and infectious hematopoietic necrosis which is caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The presence of the infectious stage of C. shasta was again detected at Little Goose Dam on the Snake River. The prevalence of ceratomyxosis increased from 1.1% in 1984 to 10% in 1985. None of the susceptible rainbow trout exposed in the Yakima and Umatilla Rivers died of this disease. Ceratomyxosis in resistant chinook salmon smolts seined from the Columbia River just above the estuary seems dependent on whether or not they are held after capture in fresh or salt water. In fresh water the disease incidence ranged from 7--19%, whereas in salt water it ranged from 0--3%. These results which suggest that recovery from ceratomyxosis may occur after the smolts enter salt water are different from those obtained with susceptible Alsea steelhead trout where experimental groups in salt water have died at the same rate as those in fresh water. Comparing data from groups of Columbia River chinook smolts held after capture in either fresh or salt water, R. salmoninarum is a much more effective pathogen in the salt water environment. After four years of sampling smolts in the open ocean, numbers of this microorganism sufficient to cause death have been detected in chinook (7%) and, coho salmon (2%) and steelhead trout (1%). Results from three years of sampling have consistently indicated that additional fish infected with R. salmoninarum will be detected if egg washings are included in the procedures for

  8. Reconnaissance of pharmaceuticals and wastewater indicators in streambed sediments of the lower Columbia River basin, Oregon and Washington

    Nilsen, Elena; Furlong, Edward T.; Rosenbauer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    One by-product of advances in modern chemistry is the accumulation of synthetic chemicals in the natural environment. These compounds include contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), some of which are endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) that can have detrimental reproductive effects. The role of sediments in accumulating these types of chemicals and acting as a source of exposure for aquatic organisms is not well understood. Here we present a small-scale reconnaissance of CECs in bed sediments of the lower Columbia River and several tributaries and urban streams. Surficial bed sediment samples were collected from the Columbia River, the Willamette River, the Tualatin River, and several small urban creeks in Oregon. Thirty-nine compounds were detected at concentrations ranging from 1,000 ng [g sediment]-1 dry weight basis. Columbia River mainstem, suggesting a higher risk of exposure to aquatic life in lower order streams. Ten known or suspected EDCs were detected during the study. At least one EDC was detected at 21 of 23 sites sampled; several EDCs were detected in sediment from most sites. This study is the first to document the occurrence of a large suite of CECs in the sediments of the Columbia River basin. A better understanding of the role of sediment in the fate and effects of emerging contaminants is needed.

  9. Annual dissolved nitrite plus nitrate and total phosphorous loads for the Susquehanna, St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Atchafalaya, and Columbia River basins, 1968-2004

    Aulenbach, Brent T.

    2006-01-01

    Annual stream-water loads were calculated near the outlet of four of the larger river basins (Susquehanna, St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Atchafalaya, and Columbia) in the United States for dissolved nitrite plus nitrate (NO2 + NO3) and total phosphorus using LOADEST load estimation software. Loads were estimated for the period 1968-2004; although loads estimated for individual river basins and chemical constituent combinations typically were for shorter time periods due to limitations in data availability. Stream discharge and water-quality data for load estimates were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with additional stream discharge data for the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The loads were estimated to support national assessments of changes in stream nutrient loads that are periodically conducted by Federal agencies (for example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) and other water- and land-resource organizations. Data, methods, and results of load estimates are summarized herein; including World Wide Web links to electronic ASCII text files containing the raw data. The load estimates are compared to dissolved NO2 + NO3 loads for three of the large river basins from 1971 to 1998 that the USGS provided during 2001 to The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment (The Heinz Center) for a report The Heinz Center published during 2002. Differences in the load estimates are the result of using the most up-to-date monitoring data since the 2001 analysis, differences in how concentrations less than the reporting limit were handled by the load estimation models, and some errors and exclusions in the 2001 analysis datasets (which resulted in some inaccurate load estimates).

  10. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1986 Annual Report.

    Fryer, John L.

    1986-12-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration conducted a study relating to the epidemiology and control of three fish diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These three diseases were ceratomyxosis caused by the myxosporidan parasite Ceratomyxa Shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the causative agent Renibacterium salmoninarum, and infectious hematopoietic necrosis, caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is highly destructive and difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The geographic range of the infectious stage of C. Shasta has been extended to include the Snake River to the Oxbow and Hells Canyon Dams. These are the farthest upriver sites tested. Infections of ceratomyxosis were also initiated in the east fork of the Lewis River and in the Washougal River in Washington. Laboratory studies with this parasite failed to indicate that tubeficids are required in its life cycle. Bacterial kidney disease has been demonstrated in all life stages of salmonids: in the eggs, fry, smolts, juveniles and adults in the ocean, and in fish returning to fresh water. Monoclonal antibodies produced against R. salmoninarum demonstrated antigenic differences among isolates of the bacterium. Monoclonal antibodies also showed antigens of R. salmoninarum which are similar to those of a wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. A demonstration project at Round Butte Hatchery showed U V treatment to be an effective method for reducing the microbial population of the water supply and could reduce risks of IHNV. Tangential flow filtration was used successfully to concentrate IHNV from environmental water. At Round Butte Hatchery the carrier rate of IHNV in adults was very low and there was no subsequent mortality resulting from IHN in juveniles.

  11. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the Columbia Basin and Northeastern Oregon.

    Klein, Mathew L; Rondon, Silvia I; Walenta, Darrin L; Zeb, Qamar; Murphy, Alexzandra F

    2017-08-01

    Aphid species, such as the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer, are routinely considered the most important pests of potatoes. Potato aphid, green peach aphid, and more recently, other aphids such as the bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi L. have been identified as vectors of multiple plant pathogenic viruses in potatoes. Since 2006, an area-wide trapping network consisting of ∼60 sites was developed through collaboration between researchers, extension faculty, and stakeholders, to monitor aphid populations in the Columbia Basin of Oregon (Umatilla and Morrow counties) and in northeastern Oregon (Union and Baker counties). Over a 9-yr period (2006 to 2014), aphid specimens were collected weekly using yellow bucket traps and specimens were then identified and counted to determine population levels during the growing season (May-September). Thus, aphid population data were compiled and subjected to spatial and temporal distribution analysis. Weather data, obtained from an established network of weather stations located in the monitoring areas, were used in a nonparametric multiplicative regression analysis to determine which abiotic variables may impact aphid populations. Weather conditions were characterized using confidence intervals (CIs) established based on weather data from 1999 to 2005 for each environmental variable. Aphid populations were found to have a heterogeneous distribution in most years; a few sites had high aphid populations while low numbers were observed at most sites; aphids were also found to correlate with several abiotic variables, namely, elevation, previous season temperature, and previous season dew point. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project : Rainwater Wildlife Area Final Management Plan.

    Childs, Allen

    2002-03-01

    This Draft Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary.

  13. Persistence at distributional edges: Columbia spotted frog habitat in the arid Great Basin, USA.

    Arkle, Robert S; Pilliod, David S

    2015-09-01

    A common challenge in the conservation of broadly distributed, yet imperiled species is understanding which factors facilitate persistence at distributional edges, locations where populations are often vulnerable to extirpation due to changes in climate, land use, or distributions of other species. For Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) in the Great Basin (USA), a genetically distinct population segment of conservation concern, we approached this problem by examining (1) landscape-scale habitat availability and distribution, (2) water body-scale habitat associations, and (3) resource management-identified threats to persistence. We found that areas with perennial aquatic habitat and suitable climate are extremely limited in the southern portion of the species' range. Within these suitable areas, native and non-native predators (trout and American bullfrogs [Lithobates catesbeianus]) are widespread and may further limit habitat availability in upper- and lower-elevation areas, respectively. At the water body scale, spotted frog occupancy was associated with deeper sites containing abundant emergent vegetation and nontrout fish species. Streams with American beaver (Castor canadensis) frequently had these structural characteristics and were significantly more likely to be occupied than ponds, lakes, streams without beaver, or streams with inactive beaver ponds, highlighting the importance of active manipulation of stream environments by beaver. Native and non-native trout reduced the likelihood of spotted frog occupancy, especially where emergent vegetation cover was sparse. Intensive livestock grazing, low aquatic connectivity, and ephemeral hydroperiods were also negatively associated with spotted frog occupancy. We conclude that persistence of this species at the arid end of its range has been largely facilitated by habitat stability (i.e., permanent hydroperiod), connectivity, predator-free refugia, and a commensalistic interaction with an ecosystem

  14. Examining controls on peak annual streamflow and floods in the Fraser River Basin of British Columbia

    C. L. Curry

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Fraser River Basin (FRB of British Columbia is one of the largest and most important watersheds in western North America, and home to a rich diversity of biological species and economic assets that depend implicitly upon its extensive riverine habitats. The hydrology of the FRB is dominated by snow accumulation and melt processes, leading to a prominent annual peak streamflow invariably occurring in May–July. Nevertheless, while annual peak daily streamflow (APF during the spring freshet in the FRB is historically well correlated with basin-averaged, 1 April snow water equivalent (SWE, there are numerous occurrences of anomalously large APF in below- or near-normal SWE years, some of which have resulted in damaging floods in the region. An imperfect understanding of which other climatic factors contribute to these anomalously large APFs hinders robust projections of their magnitude and frequency. We employ the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC process-based hydrological model driven by gridded observations to investigate the key controlling factors of anomalous APF events in the FRB and four of its subbasins that contribute nearly 70 % of the annual flow at Fraser-Hope. The relative influence of a set of predictors characterizing the interannual variability of rainfall, snowfall, snowpack (characterized by the annual maximum value, SWEmax, soil moisture and temperature on simulated APF at Hope (the main outlet of the FRB and at the subbasin outlets is examined within a regression framework. The influence of large-scale climate modes of variability (the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation – ENSO on APF magnitude is also assessed, and placed in context with these more localized controls. The results indicate that next to SWEmax (univariate Spearman correlation with APF of ρ ^   =  0.64; 0.70 (observations; VIC simulation, the snowmelt rate (ρ ^   =  0.43 in VIC, the

  15. Examining controls on peak annual streamflow and floods in the Fraser River Basin of British Columbia

    Curry, Charles L.; Zwiers, Francis W.

    2018-04-01

    The Fraser River Basin (FRB) of British Columbia is one of the largest and most important watersheds in western North America, and home to a rich diversity of biological species and economic assets that depend implicitly upon its extensive riverine habitats. The hydrology of the FRB is dominated by snow accumulation and melt processes, leading to a prominent annual peak streamflow invariably occurring in May-July. Nevertheless, while annual peak daily streamflow (APF) during the spring freshet in the FRB is historically well correlated with basin-averaged, 1 April snow water equivalent (SWE), there are numerous occurrences of anomalously large APF in below- or near-normal SWE years, some of which have resulted in damaging floods in the region. An imperfect understanding of which other climatic factors contribute to these anomalously large APFs hinders robust projections of their magnitude and frequency. We employ the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) process-based hydrological model driven by gridded observations to investigate the key controlling factors of anomalous APF events in the FRB and four of its subbasins that contribute nearly 70 % of the annual flow at Fraser-Hope. The relative influence of a set of predictors characterizing the interannual variability of rainfall, snowfall, snowpack (characterized by the annual maximum value, SWEmax), soil moisture and temperature on simulated APF at Hope (the main outlet of the FRB) and at the subbasin outlets is examined within a regression framework. The influence of large-scale climate modes of variability (the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation - ENSO) on APF magnitude is also assessed, and placed in context with these more localized controls. The results indicate that next to SWEmax (univariate Spearman correlation with APF of ρ ^ = 0.64; 0.70 (observations; VIC simulation)), the snowmelt rate (ρ ^ = 0.43 in VIC), the ENSO and PDO indices (ρ ^ = -0.40; -0.41) and (

  16. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1993.

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    1994-12-01

    Recovery efforts for the endangered fall chinook salmon necessitates knowledge of the factors limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which affect spawning of the fish in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing seward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs. The spawning was generally a November event in 1993, with some activity in late Oct. and early Dec. Spawning habitat availability was assessed by applying hydraulic and habitat models to known fall chinook salmon spawning sites. Juveniles were seined and PIT tagged in the free-flowing Snake River, and in the Columbia River in he Hanford Reach and in McNary Reservoir. Subyearling fish were marked at McNary Dam to relate river flow and migration patterns of juveniles to adult returns. Hydroacoustic surveys were conducted on McNary and John Day reservoirs and in net pens.

  17. Veligers of the invasive Asian clam Corbicula fluminea in the Columbia River Basin: Broadscale distribution, abundance, and ecological associations

    Hassett, Whitney; Bollens, Stephen M.; Counihan, Timothy D.; Rollwagen-Bollens, Gretchen; Zimmerman, Julie; Emerson, Joshua E.

    2017-01-01

    The invasive Asian clam Corbicula fluminea was introduced to North America in the 1930s and now inhabits most regions of the conterminous United States; however, the distribution and ecology of C. fluminea in the Columbia River Basin is poorly understood. During 2013 and 2014, 5 Columbia-Snake River reservoirs were sampled monthly from May through September, along with 23 additional lakes and reservoirs sampled once each summer. Associations among C. fluminea veligers, other components of the plankton, and environmental variables were analyzed using non-metric multidimensional scaling and canonical correspondence analysis. Corbicula fluminea veligers were found in high abundances in all mainstem Columbia-Snake River reservoirs, with an annual mean abundance of 71.2 individuals per cubic meter (inds./m3). Only 3 of 23 lakes and (non-mainstem) reservoirs contained C. fluminea, with abundances considerably lower (maximum = 21.2 inds./m3) than in the mainstem reservoirs. A diatom-dominated community preceded the spawning of C. fluminea in early summer at all sites. Corbicula fluminea veligers characterized the plankton community in late summer and were associated with cyanobacteria and high water temperatures. A third community, characterized by cyanobacteria, was apparent in non-mainstem sites in July and August. Our analyses describe the relationship of C. fluminea to the plankton community and environment, which contributes to our understanding of the possible effects of C. fluminea infestations and which waterbodies in the Columbia River Basin are at risk for infestation. Understanding the effects and environmental determinants of invasive mollusks will be increasingly important in the future with the possible arrival of zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) or quagga (D. bugensis) mussels to the region.

  18. StreamNet: Report on the status of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia River Basin -- 1995

    Anderson, D.A.; Christofferson, G.; Beamesderfer, R.; Woodard, B.; Rowe, M.; Hansen, J.

    1996-04-01

    Information on fish populations, fisheries, and fish habitat is crucial to the success of ongoing program to protect, recover, enhance, and manage fish resources in the Columbia River Basin. However, pertinent data are often difficult to locate because it is scattered among many agencies and is often unpublished. The goal of this annual report is to bring many diverse data types and sources into a single comprehensive report on the status of anadromous fish runs in the Columbia River Basin and the environmental conditions that may affect that status. Brief summaries are provided to identify the type and scope of available information. This synopsis is intended to complement other more detailed reports to which readers are referred for comprehensive treatment of specific subjects. This first report focuses mainly on anadromous salmon and steelhead (primarily through 1994) but the authors intend to expand the scope of future issues to include resident species. This is the first of what the authors intend to be an annual report. They welcome constructive suggestions for improvements. This report is a product of the StreamNet (formerly Coordinated Information System and Northwest Environmental Data Base) project which is a part of the Bonneville Power Administration's program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The project is called for in the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The project's objective is to promote exchange and dissemination of information in a standardized electronic format throughout the basin. This project is administered by the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission with active participation by tribal, state, and federal fish and wildlife agencies

  19. Strategic planning for instream flow restoration: a case study of potential climate change impacts in the central Columbia River basin.

    Donley, Erin E; Naiman, Robert J; Marineau, Mathieu D

    2012-10-01

    We provide a case study prioritizing instream flow restoration activities by sub-basin according to the habitat needs of Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed salmonids relative to climate change in the central Columbia River basin in Washington State (USA). The objective is to employ scenario analysis to inform and improve existing instream flow restoration projects. We assess the sensitivity of late summer (July, August, and September) flows to the following scenario simulations - singly or in combination: climate change, changes in the quantity of water used for irrigation and possible changes to existing water resource policy. Flows for four sub-basins were modeled using the Water Evaluation and Planning system (WEAP) under historical and projected conditions of 2020 and 2040 for each scenario. Results indicate that Yakima will be the most flow-limited sub-basin with average reductions in streamflow of 41% under climate conditions of 2020 and 56% under 2040 conditions; 1.3-2.5 times greater than those of other sub-basins. In addition, irrigation plays a key role in the hydrology of the Yakima sub-basin - with flow reductions ranging from 78% to 90% under severe to extreme (i.e., 20-40%) increases in agricultural water use (2.0-4.4 times the reductions in the other sub-basins). The Yakima and Okanogan sub-basins are the most responsive to simulations of flow-bolstering policy change (providing salmon with first priority water allocation and at biologically relevant flows), as demonstrated by 91-100% target flows attained. The Wenatchee and Methow sub-basins do not exhibit similar responsiveness to simulated policy changes. Considering climate change only, we conclude that flow restoration should be prioritized first in the Yakima and Wenatchee sub-basins, and second in the Okanogan and Methow. Considering both climate change and possible policy changes, we recommend that the Yakima sub-basin receive the highest priority for flow restoration activities to sustain

  20. Solar space heating for the Visitors Center, Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at the Visitors' Center on the Stephens College Campus, Columbia, Missouri is discussed. The system is installed in a four-story, 15,000 square foot building. The solar energy system is an integral design of the building and utilizes 176 hydronic flat plate collectors which use a 50 percent water ethylene blycol solution and water-to-water heat exchanger. Solar heated water is stored in a 5,000 gallon water storage tank located in the basement equipment room. A natural gas fired hot water boiler supplies hot water when the solar energy heat supply fails to meet the demand. The designed solar contribution is 71 percent of the heating load.

  1. Coarse-scale restoration planning and design in Interior Columbia River Basin ecosystems: An example for restoring declining whitebark pine forests

    Robert E. Keane; James P. Menakis; Wendel J. Hann

    1996-01-01

    During the last 2 years, many people from numerous government agencies and private institutions compiled a scientific assessment of the natural and human resources of the Interior Columbia River Basin (Jensen and Bourgeron 1993). This assessment is meant to guide the development of a coarse-scale Environmental Impact Statement for all 82 million hectares comprising the...

  2. Research, monitoring and evaluation of fish and wildlife restoration projects in the Columbia River Basin: Lessons learned and suggestions for large-scale monitoring programs.

    Lyman L. McDonald; Robert Bilby; Peter A. Bisson; Charles C. Coutant; John M. Epifanio; Daniel Goodman; Susan Hanna; Nancy Huntly; Erik Merrill; Brian Riddell; William Liss; Eric J. Loudenslager; David P. Philipp; William Smoker; Richard R. Whitney; Richard N. Williams

    2007-01-01

    The year 2006 marked two milestones in the Columbia River Basin and the Pacific Northwest region's efforts to rebuild its once great salmon and steelhead runs: the 25th anniversary of the creation of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council and the 10th anniversary of an amendment to the Northwest Power Act that formalized scientific peer review of the council...

  3. The role of Columbia Basin College in training technicians for environmental remediation at the DOE Hanford Site

    Ferrigno, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    Community colleges have the ability to play a vital role in the environmental remediation training process for DOE hazardous waste sites. Columbia Basin College in Pasco, Washington is presently involved in such training through numerous workshops offered primarily for employees at the Hanford DOE site, and a two-year associate of applied science degree in Hazardous Materials Management Technology. The workshops are oriented towards specific applied technical training (40 Hour OSHA/80 Hour WISHA, Hazardous/Radioactive Waste Video conference, and others) whereas the degree program provides a broad background in the skills needed for environmental technicians (16 hazmat courses plus support sciences and humanities). The degree program, combined with hazmat work experience, should provide the necessary background for project supervision as well as for skilled field technicians

  4. Seasonal climate signals from multiple tree ring metrics: A case study of Pinus ponderosa in the upper Columbia River Basin

    Dannenberg, Matthew P.; Wise, Erika K.

    2016-04-01

    Projected changes in the seasonality of hydroclimatic regimes are likely to have important implications for water resources and terrestrial ecosystems in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The tree ring record, which has frequently been used to position recent changes in a longer-term context, typically relies on signals embedded in the total ring width of tree rings. Additional climatic inferences at a subannual temporal scale can be made using alternative tree ring metrics such as earlywood and latewood widths and the density of tree ring latewood. Here we examine seasonal precipitation and temperature signals embedded in total ring width, earlywood width, adjusted latewood width, and blue intensity chronologies from a network of six Pinus ponderosa sites in and surrounding the upper Columbia River Basin of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. We also evaluate the potential for combining multiple tree ring metrics together in reconstructions of past cool- and warm-season precipitation. The common signal among all metrics and sites is related to warm-season precipitation. Earlywood and latewood widths differ primarily in their sensitivity to conditions in the year prior to growth. Total and earlywood widths from the lowest elevation sites also reflect cool-season moisture. Effective correlation analyses and composite-plus-scale tests suggest that combining multiple tree ring metrics together may improve reconstructions of warm-season precipitation. For cool-season precipitation, total ring width alone explains more variance than any other individual metric or combination of metrics. The composite-plus-scale tests show that variance-scaled precipitation reconstructions in the upper Columbia River Basin may be asymmetric in their ability to capture extreme events.

  5. Selenium: Mercury Molar Ratios in Freshwater Fish in the Columbia River Basin: Potential Applications for Specific Fish Consumption Advisories.

    Cusack, Leanne K; Eagles-Smith, Collin; Harding, Anna K; Kile, Molly; Stone, Dave

    2017-07-01

    Fish provide a valuable source of beneficial nutrients and are an excellent source of low fat protein. However, fish are also the primary source of methylmercury exposure in humans. Selenium often co-occurs with mercury and there is some evidence that selenium can protect against mercury toxicity yet States issue fish consumption advisories based solely on the risks that methylmercury pose to human health. Recently, it has been suggested the selenium: mercury molar ratio be considered in risk management. In order for agencies to utilize the ratio to set consumption guidelines, it is important to evaluate the variability in selenium and mercury in different fish species. We examined 10 different freshwater fish species found within the Columbia River Basin in order to determine the inter- and intra-specific variability in the selenium: mercury molar ratios and the selenium health benefit values. We found significant variation in selenium: mercury molar ratios. The mean molar ratios for each species were all above 1:1, ranging from 3.42:1 in Walleye to 27.2:1 in Chinook salmon. There was a positive correlation between both mercury and selenium with length for each fish species apart from yellow perch and rainbow trout. All species had health benefit values greater than 2. We observed considerable variability in selenium: mercury molar ratios within fish species collected in the Columbia River Basin. Although incorporating selenium: mercury molar ratios into fish consumption holds the potential for refining advisories and assessing the risk of methylmercury exposure, the current understanding of how these ratios apply is insufficient, and further understanding of drivers of variability in the ratios is needed.

  6. Selenium: Mercury molar ratios in freshwater fish in the Columbia River Basin: Potential applications for specific fish consumption advisories

    Cusack, Leanne K.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Harding, Anna K.; Kile, Molly; Stone, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Fish provide a valuable source of beneficial nutrients and are an excellent source of low fat protein. However, fish are also the primary source of methylmercury exposure in humans. Selenium often co-occurs with mercury and there is some evidence that selenium can protect against mercury toxicity yet States issue fish consumption advisories based solely on the risks that methylmercury pose to human health. Recently, it has been suggested the selenium: mercury molar ratio be considered in risk management. In order for agencies to utilize the ratio to set consumption guidelines, it is important to evaluate the variability in selenium and mercury in different fish species. We examined 10 different freshwater fish species found within the Columbia River Basin in order to determine the inter- and intra-specific variability in the selenium: mercury molar ratios and the selenium health benefit values. We found significant variation in selenium: mercury molar ratios. The mean molar ratios for each species were all above 1:1, ranging from 3.42:1 in Walleye to 27.2:1 in Chinook salmon. There was a positive correlation between both mercury and selenium with length for each fish species apart from yellow perch and rainbow trout. All species had health benefit values greater than 2. We observed considerable variability in selenium: mercury molar ratios within fish species collected in the Columbia River Basin. Although incorporating selenium: mercury molar ratios into fish consumption holds the potential for refining advisories and assessing the risk of methylmercury exposure, the current understanding of how these ratios apply is insufficient, and further understanding of drivers of variability in the ratios is needed.

  7. COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN SALMON AND STEELHEAD: Federal Agencies' Recovery Responsibilities, Expenditures and Actions

    2002-01-01

    ..., and unfavorable weather and ocean conditions. The population decline has resulted in the listing of 12 salmon and steelhead populations in the basin as threatened or endangered under the Endangered...

  8. Genetic and Phenotypic Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the interior Columbia River Basin : FY-2001 Report : Populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan and Methow River Drainages.

    Trotter, Patrick C.

    2001-10-01

    The 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council specifies the recovery and preservation of population health of native resident fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Among the native resident species of concern are interior rainbow trout of the Columbia River redband subspecies Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri 1 and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi. The westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (American Wildlands et al. 1997). Before at-risk populations can be protected, their presence and status must be established. Where introgression from introduced species is a concern, as in the case of both westslope cutthroat trout and redband rainbow trout, genetic issues must be addressed as well. As is true with native trout elsewhere in the western United States (Behnke 1992), most of the remaining pure populations of these species in the Columbia River Basin are in relatively remote headwater reaches. The objective of this project was to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique. FY-2001 was year three (and final year) of a project in which we conducted field visits to remote locations to seek out and catalog these populations. In FY-2001 we worked in collaboration with the Wenatchee National Forest to catalog populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan, and Methow River drainages of Washington State.

  9. Solar space heating for the visitors' center, Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri. Final report

    Henley, Marion

    1980-06-01

    This document is the final report of the solar energy system located at the Visitors' Center on the Stephens College Campus, Columbia, Missouri. The system is installed in a four-story, 15,000 square foot building designed to include the college's Admission Office, nine guest rooms for overnight lodging for official guests of the college, a two-story art gallery, and a Faculty Lounge. The solar energy system is an integral design of the building and utilizes 176 Honeywell/Lennox hydronic flat-plate collectors which use a 50% water-ethylene glycol solution and water-to-water heat exchanger. Solar heated water is stored in a 5000 gallon water storage tank located in the basement equipment room. A natural gas fired hot water boiler supplies hot water when the solar energy heat supply fails to meet the demand. The designed solar contribution is 71% of the heating load. The demonstration period for this project ends June 30, 1984.

  10. Status report of the Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Columbia River Basin

    Close, D.A.; Fitzpatrick, M.; Li, H.; James, G.

    1995-07-01

    The widespread decline of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Pacific Northwest, especially in the Columbia River system has led to concerns and questions from a number of regional agencies, Native American tribes, and the public. To address these concerns, new research efforts must focus on specific problems associated with this understudied species. The preservation and restoration of this species is critical for a number of reasons, including its importance to the tribes and its importance as an indicator of ecosystem health. Historically lamprey have been labeled a pest species due to the problems associated with the exotic sea lamprey, (Petromyzon marinus), invading the Great Lakes

  11. Resource implications of listing Columbia River Basin salmon stocks under the endangered species act

    Velehradsky, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Columbia River and Snake River dams and reservoirs provide substantial benefits in the Northwest through their operation for hydropower, flood control, irrigation, navigation, and fish and wildlife. The listing of certain Snake River salmon stocks as endangered and threatened, under provisions of the Endangered Species Act, has surfaced major public policy issues. Protection and enhancement of these salmon stocks has resulted in proposals to significantly modify the operation of the reservoir projects. Implementation of these proposals could have significant economic, environmental and social impacts in the region

  12. Status Report of the Pacific Lamprey (Lampetra Trzdentata) in the Columbia River Basin.

    Close, David A.; Parker, Blaine; James, gary

    1995-07-01

    The widespread decline of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Pacific Northwest, especially in the Columbia River system has led to concerns and questions from a number of regional agencies, Native American tribes, and the public. To address these concerns, new research efforts must focus on specific problems associated with this understudied species. The preservation and restoration of this species is critical for a number of reasons, including its importance to the tribes and its importance as an indicator of ecosystem health. Historically lamprey have been labeled a pest species due to the problems associated with the exotic sea lamprey, (Petromyzon marinus), invading the Great Lakes.

  13. Shrub-Steppe Seasons A Natural History of the Mid-Columbia Basin

    LE Rogers

    1995-08-01

    This book collects and updates a series of articles about the natural history of the Mid-Columbia region. The articles first appeared as a monthly column titled ''Natural History'' in the Tri-City Herald, beginning in May 1991. My approach has been to condense the best of what is known about the ecology of the region to a manageable length with little in the way of technical language and terms. Admittedly, there is a bias toward those topics and species on which I have either been personally involved or observed as part of the ecology research programs conducted on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve. The ALE Reserve is situated on the northeast-facing flank of the Rattlesnake Hills. Rattlesnake Mountain with a crest of over 3,600 feet is visible throughout much of the Mid-Columbia. Shrub-steppe grasslands once covered a large part of the western United States but most have been converted to other uses. The ALE site is the only remaining sizeable acreage (120 square miles) that is in near pristine condition and provides the only clear indication as to what the early trappers, traders, pioneers, and tribal members may have encountered in their day-to-day activities. In this respect, ALE provides a visible touchstone linking the past with the present for all of us.

  14. Use of Fatty Acid Analysis to Determine Dispersal of Caspian Terns in the Columbia River Basin, U.S.A.

    Maranto, C.J.; Parrish, J.K.; Herman, D.P.; Punt, A.E.; Olden, J.D.; Brett, M.T.; Roby, D.D.

    2011-01-01

    Lethal control, which has been used to reduce local abundances of animals in conflict with humans or with endangered species, may not achieve management goals if animal movement is not considered. In populations with emigration and immigration, lethal control may induce compensatory immigration, if the source of attraction remains unchanged. Within the Columbia River Basin (Washington, U.S.A.), avian predators forage at dams because dams tend to reduce rates of emigration of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), artificially concentrating these prey. We used differences in fatty acid profiles between Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia) at coastal and inland breeding colonies and terns culled by a lethal control program at a mid-Columbia River dam to infer dispersal patterns. We modeled the rate of loss of fatty acid biomarkers, which are fatty acids that can be traced to a single prey species or groups of species, to infer whether and when terns foraging at dams had emigrated from the coast. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling showed that coastal terns had high levels of C20 and C22 monounsaturated fatty acids, whereas fatty acids of inland breeders were high in C18:3n3, C20:4n6, and C22:5n3. Models of the rate of loss of fatty acid showed that approximately 60% of the terns collected at Rock Island Dam were unlikely to have bred successfully at local (inland) sites, suggesting that terns foraging at dams come from an extensive area. Fatty acid biomarkers may provide accurate information about patterns of dispersal in animal populations and may be extremely valuable in cases where populations differ demonstrably in prey base. ??2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Monitoring and evaluation of smolt migration in the Columbia Basin, Volume II: Evaluation of the 1996 predictions of the run-timing of wild migrant subyearling chinook in the Snake River Basin using Program RealTime.; TOPICAL

    Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Yasuda, Dean

    1998-01-01

    This project was initiated in 1991 in response to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) listings in the Snake River Basin of the Columbia River Basin. Primary objectives and management implications of this project include: (1)to address the need for further synthesis of historical tagging and other biological information to improve understanding and identify future research and analysis needs; (2)to assist in the development of improved monitoring capabilities, statistical methodologies and software tools to aid management in optimizing operational and fish passage strategies to maximize the protection and survival of listed threatened and endangered Snake River salmon populations and other listed and nonlisted stocks in the Columbia River Basin; (3)to design better analysis tools for evaluation programs; and (4)to provide statistical support to the Bonneville Power Administration and the Northwest fisheries community

  16. Monitoring and evaluation of smolt migration in the Columbia River Basin; Volume 1; Evaluation of the 1995 predictions of the run-timing of wild migrant subyearling chinook in the Snake River Basin using Program RealTime

    Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Yasuda, Dean

    1997-01-01

    This project was initiated in response to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) listings in the Snake River Basin of the Columbia River Basin. Primary objectives and management implications of the project include: (1)to address the need for further synthesis of historical tagging and other biological information to improve understanding and to help identify future research and analysis needs; (2)to assist in the development of improved monitoring capabilities, statistical methodologies and software tools to assist in optimizing operational and fish passage strategies to maximize the protection and survival of listed threatened and endangered Snake River salmon populations and other listed and nonlisted stocks in the Columbia River Basin; and (3)to design better analysis tools for evaluation programs; and (4)to provide statistical support to the Bonneville Power Administration and the Northwest fisheries community

  17. Internationally Safeguarded Atomic Fuel Exchange Center for the Asian Pacific Basin

    Selvaduray, G.; Anderson, R.N.; Goldstein, M.K.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of an Internationally Safeguarded Atomic Fuel Exchange Center (ISAFE) for the Asia-Pacific Basin is examined. The geography and nuclear capabilitiy of the countries that comprise the Asia-Pacific Basin is described in full length. The incentives and the limitations for the establishment of the ISAFE center in the Asia-Pacific Basin are discussed in detail. 34 refs

  18. Genetic and Phenotype [Phenotypic] Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the interior Columbia River Basin : FY-99 Report : Populations of the Pend Oreille, Kettle, and Sanpoil River Basins of Colville National Forest.

    Trotter, Patrick C.

    2001-05-01

    The 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council specifies the recovery and preservation of population health of native resident fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Among the native resident species of concern are interior rainbow trout of the Columbia River redband subspecies Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri 1 and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi. The westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (American Wildlands et al. 1997). Before at-risk populations can be protected, their presence and status must be established. Where introgression from introduced species is a concern, as in the case of both westslope cutthroat trout and redband rainbow trout, genetic issues must be addressed as well. As is true with native trout elsewhere in the western United States (Behnke 1992), most of the remaining pure populations of these species in the Columbia River Basin are in relatively remote headwater reaches. The objective of this project is to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique. FY-99 was year two of a five-year project in which we conducted field visits to remote locations to seek out and catalog these populations. In FY-99 we worked in collaboration with the Colville National Forest and Kalispel Indian Tribe to catalog populations in the northeastern corner of Washington State.

  19. Genetic and phenotype catalog of native resident trout of the interior Columbia River Basin: FY-99 report: populations of the Pend Oreille, Kettle, and Sanpoil River Basins of Colville National Forest/ fiscal year 1999 report; ANNUAL

    Trotter, Patrick C.

    2001-01-01

    The 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council specifies the recovery and preservation of population health of native resident fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Among the native resident species of concern are interior rainbow trout of the Columbia River redband subspecies Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri 1 and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi. The westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (American Wildlands et al. 1997). Before at-risk populations can be protected, their presence and status must be established. Where introgression from introduced species is a concern, as in the case of both westslope cutthroat trout and redband rainbow trout, genetic issues must be addressed as well. As is true with native trout elsewhere in the western United States (Behnke 1992), most of the remaining pure populations of these species in the Columbia River Basin are in relatively remote headwater reaches. The objective of this project is to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique. FY-99 was year two of a five-year project in which we conducted field visits to remote locations to seek out and catalog these populations. In FY-99 we worked in collaboration with the Colville National Forest and Kalispel Indian Tribe to catalog populations in the northeastern corner of Washington State

  20. Accounting for downscaling and model uncertainty in fine-resolution seasonal climate projections over the Columbia River Basin

    Ahmadalipour, Ali; Moradkhani, Hamid; Rana, Arun

    2018-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have severe impacts on natural systems as well as various socio-economic aspects of human life. This has urged scientific communities to improve the understanding of future climate and reduce the uncertainties associated with projections. In the present study, ten statistically downscaled CMIP5 GCMs at 1/16th deg. spatial resolution from two different downscaling procedures are utilized over the Columbia River Basin (CRB) to assess the changes in climate variables and characterize the associated uncertainties. Three climate variables, i.e. precipitation, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature, are studied for the historical period of 1970-2000 as well as future period of 2010-2099, simulated with representative concentration pathways of RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) is employed to reduce the model uncertainty and develop a probabilistic projection for each variable in each scenario. Historical comparison of long-term attributes of GCMs and observation suggests a more accurate representation for BMA than individual models. Furthermore, BMA projections are used to investigate future seasonal to annual changes of climate variables. Projections indicate significant increase in annual precipitation and temperature, with varied degree of change across different sub-basins of CRB. We then characterized uncertainty of future projections for each season over CRB. Results reveal that model uncertainty is the main source of uncertainty, among others. However, downscaling uncertainty considerably contributes to the total uncertainty of future projections, especially in summer. On the contrary, downscaling uncertainty appears to be higher than scenario uncertainty for precipitation.

  1. Role of climate and invasive species in structuring trout distributions in the interior Columbia River Basin, USA

    Wenger, Seth J.; Isaak, Daniel J.; Dunham, Jason B.; Fausch, Kurt D.; Luce, Charles H.; Neville, Helen M.; Rieman, Bruce E.; Young, Michael K.; Nagel, David E.; Horan, Dona L.; Chandler, Gwynne L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent and projected climate warming trends have prompted interest in impacts on coldwater fishes. We examined the role of climate (temperature and flow regime) relative to geomorphology and land use in determining the observed distributions of three trout species in the interior Columbia River Basin, USA. We considered two native species, cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), as well as nonnative brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). We also examined the response of the native species to the presence of brook trout. Analyses were conducted using multilevel logistic regression applied to a geographically broad database of 4165 fish surveys. The results indicated that bull trout distributions were strongly related to climatic factors, and more weakly related to the presence of brook trout and geomorphic variables. Cutthroat trout distributions were weakly related to climate but strongly related to the presence of brook trout. Brook trout distributions were related to both climate and geomorphic variables, including proximity to unconfined valley bottoms. We conclude that brook trout and bull trout are likely to be adversely affected by climate warming, whereas cutthroat trout may be less sensitive. The results illustrate the importance of considering species interactions and flow regime alongside temperature in understanding climate effects on fish.

  2. Identification of Columbia River basalt flows from deep cores in the Pasco Basin based on trace element abundances

    Fruchter, J.S.; Rancitelli, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    Samples of basalt from three deep core holes drilled in the Pasco Basin, Washington (DDH-3, DH-4, DH-5) were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation (INAA) for up to fifteen trace and major elements. These analyses were used to assign each basalt flow to one of a series of previously defined chemical types of the Columbia River Basalt Group. All of the flows except the two flows at the bottom of well DDH-3 were clearly assignable to one of the defined chemical types. These two flows apparently represent new, as yet undefined chemical types. Average values and standard deviations for compositions of each of the chemical types found in the three wells are presented along with two-element variation diagrams for the geochemically important pair La-Cr, La-Fe, La-Th and La-Sc. The assignment of the flows to known chemical types accomplished in this study was very helpful in relating the basalts in the core holes to stratigraphically defined basalt flows in surface sections. A correlation diagram relating the flows in the core holes to one another on the basis of chemical type is presented

  3. Potential impacts of climate change on water availability for crops in the Okanagan Basin, British Columbia

    Neilsen, D.; Smith, C.A.S.; Frank, G.; Koch, W.; Alila, Y.; Merritt, W.S.; Taylor, W.G.; Barton, M.; Hall, J.W.; Cohen, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    Crop water demand in the Okanagan Basin was determined for 1961 to 1990, 2010 to 2039, 2040 to 2069, and 2070 to 2099. Daily station temperature data were spatially interpolated to a 1 x 1 km grid and adjusted for elevation. Daily precipitation data were estimated across four climatic regions. Output from three global climate models (GCM), CGCM2, CSIROMk2 and HadCM3 was used to create future daily climate. Daily potential evapo-transpiration (grass reference) was estimated from an empirical relationship between Bellani-plate atmometer readings, temperature and extra-terrestrial solar radiation, and then modified by crop coefficients for all crops except pasture. Depending on GCM, projected water demand increased by 12-20% (2010 to 2039), 24-38% (2040 to 2069) and 40-61% (2070 to 2099). Possible elevated CO 2 effects on stomatal conductance which may reduce water demand were not accounted for. Comparisons with modeled Okanagan Lake inflows indicated that, on average, high water demand and low supply scenarios coincided. In one sub-basin, supply and demand thresholds were exceeded 1 yr in 6 (HadCM3) in the 2050s and at least 1 yr in 4 for all GCMs by the 2080s, and existing water supply infrastructure may be inadequate. Crop growing seasons were defined empirically from growing degree days or threshold temperatures. The growing season lengthened up to 30-35% leading to higher demand in fall and shortages due to low stream flows. (author)

  4. Kelt Reconditioning: A Research Project to Enhance Iteroparity in Columbia Basin Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2001 Annual Report.

    Hatch, Douglas R.; Anders, Paul J., Evans, Allen F. (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    2002-12-01

    Repeat spawning is a life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family Salmonidae. Rates of repeat spawning for post-development Columbia River steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations range from 1.6 to 17%. It is expected that currently observed iteroparity rates for wild steelhead in the Basin are artificially and in some cases severely depressed due to development and operation of the hydropower system and various additional anthropogenic factors. Increasing the natural expression of historical repeat spawning rates using fish culturing means could be a viable technique to assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to reinitiate feeding, growth, and again develop mature gonads. Kelt reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and sea-trout (S. trutta). The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for wild steelhead populations within the Basin. To address recovery, we captured wild emigrating steelhead kelts from the Yakima River and tested reconditioning and the effects of several diet formulations on its success at Prosser Hatchery on the Yakama Reservation. Steelhead kelts from the Yakima River were collected at the Chandler Juvenile Evaluation Facility (CJEF, located at Yakima River kilometer 48) from 12 March to 5 July 2001. Kelts were reconditioned in circular tanks and fed a mixed diet of starter paste, adult sized trout pellets, and freeze-dried krill. Formalin was used to control outbreaks of fungus and we tested the use of Ivermectin{trademark}to control internal parasites (e.g., Salmincola spp.). Surviving specimens were released for natural spawning in two groups on 15 November 2001 and 18 January 2002. Overall success of the reconditioning process was based on

  5. Kelt Reconditioning: A Research Project to Enhance Iteroparity in Columbia Basin Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Branstetter, Ryan; Whiteaker, John; Hatch, Douglas R. (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    2006-12-01

    Iteroparity, the ability to repeat spawn, is a natural life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family Salmonidae. Estimated rates of repeat spawning for post-development Columbia River steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations range from 1.6 to 17%. It is expected that currently observed iteroparity rates for wild steelhead in the Basin are severely depressed due to development and operation of the hydropower system and various additional anthropogenic factors. Increasing the current expression of repeat spawning rates using fish culturing methods could be a viable technique to assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations, and could help reestablish this naturally occurring life history trait. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to reinitiate feeding, growth, and redevelop mature gonads. Reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and sea-trout S. trutta. The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia River Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for wild steelhead populations within the Basin. To test kelt steelhead reconditioning as a potential recovery tool, wild emigrating steelhead kelts were placed into one of four study groups (in river release, direct capture and transport, short-term reconditioning, or long-term reconditioning). Steelhead kelts from the Yakima River were collected at the Chandler Juvenile Monitoring Facility (CJMF, located on the Yakima River at river kilometer 75.6) from 7 March to 8 June 2006. In total, 348 kelts were collected for reconditioning at Prosser Hatchery. Captive specimens represented 17.0% (348 of 2,002) of the entire 2005-2006 Yakima River wild steelhead population, based on fish ladder counts at Prosser Dam. Steelhead kelts were reconditioned in 20-foot circular tanks, and fed freeze-dried krill initially (first 2

  6. Kelt Reconditioning: A Research Project to Enhance Iteroparity in Columbia Basin Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2002 Annual Report.

    Hatch, Douglas R.; Branstetter, Ryan (Columbia River Inter-Trial Fish Commission, Portland, OR); Blodgett, Joe (Yakama Nation, Toppenish, WA)

    2003-07-01

    Repeat spawning is a life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family Salmonidae. Rates of repeat spawning for post-development Columbia River steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations range from 1.6 to 17%. It is expected that currently observed iteroparity rates for wild steelhead in the Basin are severely depressed due to development and operation of the hydropower system and various additional anthropogenic factors. Increasing the natural expression of historical repeat spawning rates using fish culturing means could be a viable technique to assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to reinitiate feeding, growth, and again develop mature gonads. Kelt reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and sea-trout S. trutta. The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for wild steelhead populations within the Basin. To test kelt steelhead reconditioning as a potential recovery tool, we captured wild emigrating steelhead kelts from the Yakima River and evaluated reconditioning (short and long-term) success and diet formulations at Prosser Hatchery on the Yakima River. Steelhead kelts from the Yakima River were collected at the Chandler Juvenile Evaluation Facility (CJEF, located at Yakima River kilometer 48) from March 12 to June 13, 2002. In total, 899 kelts were collected for reconditioning at Prosser Hatchery. Captive specimens represented 19.8% (899 of 4,525) of the entire 2001-2002 Yakima River wild steelhead population, based on fish ladder counts at Prosser Dam. Kelts were reconditioned in circular tanks and were fed freeze-dried krill, Moore-Clark pellets, altered Moore-Clark pellets (soaked in krill extract and dyed), or a combination of the altered Moore

  7. Kelt Reconditioning: A Research Project to Enhance Iteroparity in Columbia Basin Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2005 Annual Report.

    Branstetter, Ryan; Whiteaker, John; Hatch, Douglas R. (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    2006-01-01

    Iteroparity, the ability to repeat spawn, is a natural life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family Salmonidae. Estimated rates of repeat spawning for post-development Columbia River steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations range from 1.6 to 17%. It is expected that currently observed iteroparity rates for wild steelhead in the Basin are severely depressed due to development and operation of the hydropower system and various additional anthropogenic factors. Increasing the current expression of repeat spawning rates using fish culturing methods could be a viable technique to assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations, and could help reestablish this naturally occurring life history trait. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to reinitiate feeding, growth, and redevelop mature gonads. Reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and sea-trout S. trutta. The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia River Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for wild steelhead populations within the Basin. To test kelt steelhead reconditioning as a potential recovery tool, wild emigrating steelhead kelts were placed into one of four study groups (in river release, direct capture and transport, short-term reconditioning, or long-term reconditioning). Steelhead kelts from the Yakima River were collected at the Chandler Juvenile Monitoring Facility (CJMF, located on the Yakima River at river kilometer 75.6) from 11 March to 23 June 2005. In total, 519 kelts were collected for reconditioning at Prosser Hatchery. Captive specimens represented 15.0% (519 of 3,451) of the entire 2004-2005 Yakima River wild steelhead population, based on fish ladder counts at Prosser Dam. Steelhead kelts were reconditioned in 20-foot circular tanks, and fed freeze-dried krill initially (first 2

  8. Kelt Reconditioning: A Research Project to Enhance Iteroparity in Columbia Basin Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2003 Annual Report.

    Hatch, Douglas R.; Branstetter, Ryan (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR); Blodgett, Joe (Yakama Nation, Toppenish, WA)

    2004-03-01

    Repeat spawning is a life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family Salmonidae. Rates of repeat spawning for post-development Columbia River steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations range from 1.6 to 17%. It is expected that currently observed iteroparity rates for wild steelhead in the Basin are severely depressed due to development and operation of the hydropower system and various additional anthropogenic factors. Increasing the natural expression of historical repeat spawning rates using fish culturing methods could be a viable technique to assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to reinitiate feeding, growth, and redevelop mature gonads. Kelt reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and sea-trout S. trutta. The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for wild steelhead populations within the Basin. To test kelt steelhead reconditioning as a potential recovery tool, we captured wild emigrating steelhead kelts from the Yakima River and evaluated reconditioning (short and long-term) success and diet formulations at Prosser Hatchery on the Yakima River. Steelhead kelts from the Yakima River were collected at the Chandler Juvenile Monitoring Facility (CJMF, located on the Yakima River at river kilometer 75.6) from 12 March to 28 May 2003. In total, 690 kelts were collected for reconditioning at Prosser Hatchery. Captive specimens represented 30.8% (690 of 2,235) of the entire 2002-2003 Yakima River wild steelhead population, based on fish ladder counts at Prosser Dam. All steelhead kelts were reconditioned in circular tanks, fed freeze-dried krill and received hw-wiegandt multi vit dietary supplement; long-term steelhead kelts also received Moore-Clark pellets

  9. Rainwater Wildlife Area Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report; A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    Childs, Allen B.

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland cover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2}2 plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native

  10. Emplacement of Columbia River flood basalt

    Reidel, Stephen P.

    1998-11-01

    Evidence is examined for the emplacement of the Umatilla, Wilbur Creek, and the Asotin Members of Columbia River Basalt Group. These flows erupted in the eastern part of the Columbia Plateau during the waning phases of volcanism. The Umatilla Member consists of two flows in the Lewiston basin area and southwestern Columbia Plateau. These flows mixed to form one flow in the central Columbia Plateau. The composition of the younger flow is preserved in the center and the composition of the older flow is at the top and bottom. There is a complete gradation between the two. Flows of the Wilbur Creek and Asotin Members erupted individually in the eastern Columbia Plateau and also mixed together in the central Columbia Plateau. Comparison of the emplacement patterns to intraflow structures and textures of the flows suggests that very little time elapsed between eruptions. In addition, the amount of crust that formed on the earlier flows prior to mixing also suggests rapid emplacement. Calculations of volumetric flow rates through constrictions in channels suggest emplacement times of weeks to months under fast laminar flow for all three members. A new model for the emplacement of Columbia River Basalt Group flows is proposed that suggests rapid eruption and emplacement for the main part of the flow and slower emplacement along the margins as the of the flow margin expands.

  11. Finding a PATH toward Scientific Collaboration: Insights from the Columbia River Basin

    David Marmorek

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Observed declines in the Snake River basin salmon stocks, listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA, have been attributed to multiple causes: the hydrosystem, hatcheries, habitat, harvest, and ocean climate. Conflicting and competing analyses by different agencies led the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS in 1995 to create the Plan for Analyzing and Testing Hypotheses (PATH, a collaborative interagency analytical process. PATH included about 30 fisheries scientists from a dozen agencies, as well as independent participating scientists and a technical facilitation team. PATH had some successes and some failures in meeting its objectives. Some key lessons learned from these successes and failures were to: (1 build trust through independent technical facilitation and multiple levels of peer review (agency scientists, independent participating scientists and an external Scientific Review Panel; (2 clarify critical uncertainties by developing common data sets, detailed sensitivity analyses, and thorough retrospective analyses of the weight of evidence for key alternative hypotheses; (3 clarify advice to decision makers by using an integrated life cycle model and decision analysis framework to evaluate the robustness of potential recovery actions under alternative states of nature; (4 involve key senior scientists with access to decision makers; (5 work closely with policy makers to clearly communicate analyses in nontechnical terms and provide input into the creation of management alternatives; and (6 recognize the trade-off between collaboration and timely completion of assignments.

  12. Physics of the 1 Teraflop RIKEN-BNL-Columbia QCD project. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center workshop: Volume 13

    1998-01-01

    A workshop was held at the RIKEN-BNL Research Center on October 16, 1998, as part of the first anniversary celebration for the center. This meeting brought together the physicists from RIKEN-BNL, BNL and Columbia who are using the QCDSP (Quantum Chromodynamics on Digital Signal Processors) computer at the RIKEN-BNL Research Center for studies of QCD. Many of the talks in the workshop were devoted to domain wall fermions, a discretization of the continuum description of fermions which preserves the global symmetries of the continuum, even at finite lattice spacing. This formulation has been the subject of analytic investigation for some time and has reached the stage where large-scale simulations in QCD seem very promising. With the computational power available from the QCDSP computers, scientists are looking forward to an exciting time for numerical simulations of QCD

  13. CTUIR Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project : A Columbia River Basin Fish Habitat Project 2008 Annual Report.

    Hoverson, Eric D.; Amonette, Alexandra

    2009-02-09

    The Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project (UAFHP) is an ongoing effort to protect, enhance, and restore riparian and instream habitat for the natural production of anadromous salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin, Northeast Oregon. Flow quantity, water temperature, passage, and lack of in-stream channel complexity have been identified as the key limiting factors in the basin. During the 2008 Fiscal Year (FY) reporting period (February 1, 2008-January 31, 2009) primary project activities focused on improving instream and riparian habitat complexity, migrational passage, and restoring natural channel morphology and floodplain function. Eight primary fisheries habitat enhancement projects were implemented on Meacham Creek, Birch Creek, West Birch Creek, McKay Creek, West Fork Spring Hollow, and the Umatilla River. Specific restoration actions included: (1) rectifying one fish passage barrier on West Birch Creek; (2) participating in six projects planting 10,000 trees and seeding 3225 pounds of native grasses; (3) donating 1000 ft of fencing and 1208 fence posts and associated hardware for 3.6 miles of livestock exclusion fencing projects in riparian areas of West Birch and Meacham Creek, and for tree screens to protect against beaver damage on West Fork Spring Hollow Creek; (4) using biological control (insects) to reduce noxious weeds on three treatment areas covering five acres on Meacham Creek; (5) planning activities for a levee setback project on Meacham Creek. We participated in additional secondary projects as opportunities arose. Baseline and ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities were also completed on major project areas such as conducting photo point monitoring strategies activities at the Meacham Creek Large Wood Implementation Project site (FY2006) and at additional easements and planned project sites. Fish surveys and aquatic habitat inventories were conducted at project sites prior to implementation. Proper selection and implementation of

  14. Controls on large landslide distribution and implications for the geomorphic evolution of the southern interior Columbia River basin

    Safran, E.B.; Anderson, S.W.; Mills-Novoa, M.; House, P.K.; Ely, L.

    2011-01-01

    Large landslides (>0.1 km2) are important agents of geomorphic change. While most common in rugged mountain ranges, large landslides can also be widespread in relatively low-relief (several 100 m) terrain, where their distribution has been relatively little studied. A fuller understanding of the role of large landslides in landscape evolution requires addressing this gap, since the distribution of large landslides may affect broad regions through interactions with channel processes, and since the dominant controls on landslide distribution might be expected to vary with tectonic setting. We documented >400 landslides between 0.1 and ~40 km2 across ~140,000 km2 of eastern Oregon, in the semiarid, southern interior Columbia River basin. The mapped landslides cluster in a NW-SE-trending band that is 50-100 km wide. Landslides predominantly occur where even modest local relief (~100 m) exists near key contacts between weak sedimentary or volcaniclastic rock and coherent cap rock. Fault density exerts no control on landslide distribution, while ~10% of mapped landslides cluster within 3-10 km of mapped fold axes. Landslide occurrence is curtailed to the NE by thick packages of coherent basalt and to the SW by limited local relief. Our results suggest that future mass movements will localize in areas stratigraphically preconditioned for landsliding by a geologic history of fluviolacustrine and volcaniclastic sedimentation and episodic capping by coherent lava flows. In such areas, episodic landsliding may persist for hundreds of thousands of years or more, producing valley wall slopes of ~7??-13?? and impacting local channels with an evolving array of mass movement styles. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  15. Impacts of Near-Term Climate Change on Irrigation Demands and Crop Yields in the Columbia River Basin

    Rajagopalan, K.; Chinnayakanahalli, K. J.; Stockle, C. O.; Nelson, R. L.; Kruger, C. E.; Brady, M. P.; Malek, K.; Dinesh, S. T.; Barber, M. E.; Hamlet, A. F.; Yorgey, G. G.; Adam, J. C.

    2018-03-01

    Adaptation to a changing climate is critical to address future global food and water security challenges. While these challenges are global, successful adaptation strategies are often generated at regional scales; therefore, regional-scale studies are critical to inform adaptation decision making. While climate change affects both water supply and demand, water demand is relatively understudied, especially at regional scales. The goal of this work is to address this gap, and characterize the direct impacts of near-term (for the 2030s) climate change and elevated CO2 levels on regional-scale crop yields and irrigation demands for the Columbia River basin (CRB). This question is addressed through a coupled crop-hydrology model that accounts for site-specific and crop-specific characteristics that control regional-scale response to climate change. The overall near-term outlook for agricultural production in the CRB is largely positive, with yield increases for most crops and small overall increases in irrigation demand. However, there are crop-specific and location-specific negative impacts as well, and the aggregate regional response of irrigation demands to climate change is highly sensitive to the spatial crop mix. Low-value pasture/hay varieties of crops—typically not considered in climate change assessments—play a significant role in determining the regional response of irrigation demands to climate change, and thus cannot be overlooked. While, the overall near-term outlook for agriculture in the region is largely positive, there may be potential for a negative outlook further into the future, and it is important to consider this in long-term planning.

  16. Creating an Erosion Vulnerability Map for the Columbia River Basin to Determine Reservoir Susceptibility to Sedimentation Before and After Wildfires

    Ren, J.; Robichaud, P. J. L.; Adam, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Sedimentation is important issue to most rivers and reservoirs especially in watersheds with extensive agricultural or wildfire activity. These human and natural induced disturbances have the potential to increase runoff-induced erosion and sediment load to rivers; downstream sedimentation can decrease the life expectancy of reservoir and consequently the dam. This is particularly critical in snowmelt-dominant regions because, as rising temperatures reduce snowpack as a natural reservoir, humans will become more reliant on reservoir storage. In the Northwest U.S., the Columbia River Basin (CRB) has more than 60 dams, which were built for irrigation, hydropower, and flood control, all of which are affected by sediment to varying degrees. Determining what dams are most likely to be affected by sedimentation caused by post-fire erosion is important for future management of reservoirs, especially as climate change is anticipated to exacerbate wildfire and its impacts. The objective of this study is to create a sedimentation vulnerability map for reservoirs in the CRB. There are four attributes of a watershed that determine erosion potential; soil type, topography, vegetation (such as forests, shrubs, and grasslands), and precipitation (although precipitation was excluded in this analysis). In this study, a rating system was developed on a scale of 0-90 (with 90 having the greatest erosion potential). The different layers in a Graphical Information System were combined to create an erosion vulnerability map. Results suggest that areas with agriculture have more erosion without a wildfire but that forested areas are most vulnerable to erosion rates following a fire, particularly a high severity fire. Sedimentation in dams is a growing problem that needs to be addressed especially with the likely reduction in snowpack, this vulnerability map will help determine which reservoirs in the CRB are prone to high sedimentation. This information can inform managers where post

  17. StreamNet; Northwest Aquatic Resource Information Network - Status of Salmon and Steelhead in the Columbia River Basin, 1995 Final Report.

    Anderson, Duane A.; Beamesderfer, Raymond C. [Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Enterprise, OR (United States); Woodard, Bob [Washington Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Information on fish populations, fisheries, and fish habitat is crucial to the success of ongoing program to protect, recover, enhance, and manage fish resources in the Columbia River Basin. However, pertinent data are often difficult to locate because it is scattered among many agencies and is often unpublished. The goal of this annual report is to bring many diverse data types and sources into a single comprehensive report on the status of anadromous fish runs in the Columbia River Basin and the environmental conditions that may affect that status. Brief summaries are provided to identify the type and scope of available information. This synopsis is intended to complement other more detailed reports to which readers are referred for comprehensive treatment of specific subjects. This first report focuses mainly on anadromous salmon and steelhead (primarily through 1994) but the authors intend to expand the scope of future issues to include resident species. This is the first of what the authors intend to be an annual report. They welcome constructive suggestions for improvements. This report is a product of the StreamNet (formerly Coordinated Information System and Northwest Environmental Data Base) project which is a part of the Bonneville Power Administration`s program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The project is called for in the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The project`s objective is to promote exchange and dissemination of information in a standardized electronic format throughout the basin. This project is administered by the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission with active participation by tribal, state, and federal fish and wildlife agencies.

  18. Effects of Cougar Predation and Nutrition on Mule Deer Population Declines in the IM Province of the Columbia Basin, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Wielgus, Robert; Shipley, Lisa; Myers, Woodrow

    2003-09-01

    Construction of the Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams has resulted in inundation and loss of 29,125 total habitat units for mule deer and irrigation agriculture in many parts the Intermountain Province (IM) of the Columbia Basin. Mule deer in the Shrub-Steppe are ranked high priority target species for mitigation and management and are declining in most portions of the sub basins of the IM. Reasons for the decline are unknown but believed to be related to habitat changes resulting from dams and irrigation agriculture. White-tailed deer are believed to be increasing throughout the basin because of habitat changes brought about by the dams and irrigation agriculture. Recent research (1997-2000) in the NE IM and adjacent Canadian portions of the Columbia Basin (conducted by this author and funded by the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Compensation Program B.C.), suggest that the increasing white-tailed deer populations (because of dams and irrigation agriculture) are resulting in increased predation by cougars on mule deer (apparent competition or alternate prey hypothesis). The apparent competition hypothesis predicts that as alternate prey (white-tailed deer) densities increase, so do densities of predators, resulting in increased incidental predation on sympatric native prey (mule deer). Apparent competition can result in population declines and even extirpation of native prey in some cases. Such a phenomenon may account for declines of mule deer in the IM and throughout arid and semi-arid West where irrigation agriculture is practiced. We will test the apparent competition hypothesis by conducting a controlled, replicated 'press' experiment in at least 2 treatment and 2 control areas of the IM sub basins by reducing densities of white-tailed deer and observing any changes in cougar predation on mule deer. Deer densities will be monitored by WADFW personnel using annual aerial surveys and/or other trend indices. Predation rates and population growth rates

  19. Kelt reconditioning : A research project to enhance iteroparity in Columbia Basin steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) : Annual report 2000; ANNUAL

    Evans, Allen F.

    2001-01-01

    Repeat spawning is a life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family salmonidae. Natural rates of repeat spawning for Columbia River steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations range from 1.6 to 17%. Increasing this repeat spawning rate using fish culture techniques could assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to grow and develop mature gonads. Kelt reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and sea-trout S. trutta. The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for local populations. The primary purpose of this project in 2000 was to test the general feasibility of collecting, feeding, and treating steelhead kelts in a captive environment. Steelhead kelts were collected from the Yakima River at the Chandler Juvenile Evaluation Facility (Rkm 48) from 12 March to 13 June 2000. Kelts were reconditioned at adjacent Prosser Hatchery in both rectangular and circular tanks and fed a mixed diet of starter paste, adult sized trout pellets, and freeze-dried krill. Formalin was used to control outbreaks of fungus, and we tested the use of ivermectin to control internal parasites (e.g., Salmincola spp.). Some the kelts that died during the reconditioning process were analyzed via pathology and gonad histology to ascertain the possible cause of death and to describe their reproductive development at the time of death. All surviving specimens were released for natural spawning on 12 December 2000. Overall success of the reconditioning process was based on the proportion of fish that survived captivity, gained weight, and on the number of fish that successfully underwent gonadal recrudescence. Many of the reconditioned kelts were radio tagged to assess their spawning migration behavior and

  20. Kelt Reconditioning: A Research Project to Enhance Iteroparity in Columbia Basin Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2000 Annual Report.

    Evans, Allen F.; Beaty, Roy E.; Hatch, Douglas R. (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    2001-12-01

    Repeat spawning is a life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family salmonidae. Natural rates of repeat spawning for Columbia River steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations range from 1.6 to 17%. Increasing this repeat spawning rate using fish culture techniques could assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to grow and develop mature gonads. Kelt reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and sea-trout S. trutta. The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for local populations. The primary purpose of this project in 2000 was to test the general feasibility of collecting, feeding, and treating steelhead kelts in a captive environment. Steelhead kelts were collected from the Yakima River at the Chandler Juvenile Evaluation Facility (Rkm 48) from 12 March to 13 June 2000. Kelts were reconditioned at adjacent Prosser Hatchery in both rectangular and circular tanks and fed a mixed diet of starter paste, adult sized trout pellets, and freeze-dried krill. Formalin was used to control outbreaks of fungus, and we tested the use of ivermectin to control internal parasites (e.g., Salmincola spp.). Some the kelts that died during the reconditioning process were analyzed via pathology and gonad histology to ascertain the possible cause of death and to describe their reproductive development at the time of death. All surviving specimens were released for natural spawning on 12 December 2000. Overall success of the reconditioning process was based on the proportion of fish that survived captivity, gained weight, and on the number of fish that successfully underwent gonadal recrudescence. Many of the reconditioned kelts were radio tagged to assess their spawning migration behavior and

  1. Kelt Reconditioning: A Research Project to Enhance Iteroparity in Columbia Basin Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2004 Annual Report.

    Hatch, Douglas R.; Branstetter, Ryan; Whiteaker, John (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    2004-11-01

    Iteroparity, the ability to repeat spawn, is a life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family Salmonidae. Rates of repeat spawning for post-development Columbia River steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations range from 1.6 to 17%. It is expected that currently observed iteroparity rates for wild steelhead in the Basin are severely depressed due to development and operation of the hydropower system and various additional anthropogenic factors. Increasing the expression of historical repeat spawning rates using fish culturing methods could be a viable technique to assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations, and could help reestablish this naturally occurring life history trait. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to reinitiate feeding, growth, and redevelop mature gonads. Kelt reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and sea-trout S. trutta. The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia River Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for wild steelhead populations within the Basin. To test kelt steelhead reconditioning as a potential recovery tool, wild emigrating steelhead kelts were placed into one of three study groups (direct capture and transport, short-term reconditioning, or long-term reconditioning). Steelhead kelts from the Yakima River were collected at the Chandler Juvenile Monitoring Facility (CJMF, located on the Yakima River at river kilometer 75.6) from 15 March to 21 June 2004. In total, 842 kelts were collected for reconditioning at Prosser Hatchery. Captive specimens represented 30.5% (842 of 2,755) of the entire 2003-2004 Yakima River wild steelhead population, based on fish ladder counts at Prosser Dam. All steelhead kelts were reconditioned in 20-foot circular tanks, and fed freeze-dried krill initially or for the duration of the

  2. Increased Levels of Harvest and Habitat Law Enforcement and Public Awareness for Anadromous Salmonids and Resident Fish in the Columbia River Basin -- Demonstration Period, 1992--1994, Final Report.

    NeSmith, Frank (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID); Long, Mack (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Paks, Kalispell, MT); Matthews, Dayne (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    1995-06-01

    This report was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), US Department of Energy, as part of BPA`s program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Illegal harvest and violation of habitat protection regulations are factors affecting the survival of many native species of anadromous and resident fish in the Columbia Basin.

  3. Increased levels of harvest and habitat law enforcement and public awareness for anadromous salmonids and resident fish in the Columbia River Basin - Demonstration period, 1992-1994. Final report

    1995-06-01

    This report was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), US Department of Energy, as part of BPA's program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Illegal harvest and violation of habitat protection regulations are factors affecting the survival of many native species of anadromous and resident fish in the Columbia Basin

  4. Distributed physically-based precipitation-runoff models for continuous simulation of daily runoff in the Columbia River Basin, British Columbia

    Chin, W.Q.; Salmon, G.M.; Luo, W.

    1997-01-01

    The need to accurately forecast precipitation and water runoff is essential to the operations of hydroelectric power plants. In 1993, BC Hydro established a program to develop, test and improve new and existing atmospheric and hydrologic models that would be suitable for application over the mountainous terrain of British Columbia. The objective was to improve the reliability and accuracy of hydrological models that simulate and forecast precipitation and runoff. Another objective was to develop a modelling system for hydrologic risk assessment in dam safety evaluation. This paper describes progress made in implementing timely measures to resolve problems of reservoir operation in balancing the need for generation of hydroelectric power with conflicting requirements for flood control, fisheries, recreation and other environmental concerns. 23 refs., 11 figs

  5. Seasonal Climate Signals in Multiple Tree-Ring Parameters: A Pilot Study of Pinus ponderosa in the Columbia River Basin

    Dannenberg, M.; Wise, E. K.; Keung, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Proxy-based reconstructions of past climate have played an integral role in assessments of historical climate change, and tree-ring widths (TRW) have a long history of use in this paleoclimate research due to their annual resolution, widespread availability, and sensitivity of growth processes to variation in temperature and water availability. Increasingly, studies have shown that additional tree-ring metrics—including earlywood and latewood widths (EW and LW, respectively), maximum latewood density, and the intensity of reflected blue light from latewood (BI)—can provide additional information on seasonal climatic variability that is not present in TRW alone due to different processes that affect growth in different parts of the growing season. Studies of these additional tree-ring metrics highlight their utility in climate reconstructions, but to date they have mostly been limited to a few tree species and regions. Here, we extend the range of previous studies on alternative tree-ring metrics by evaluating the seasonal climate signals in TRW, EW, LW, and BI of Pinus ponderosa at six semiarid sites surrounding the Columbia River basin in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW). Cores from each site were cross-dated and EW, LW, and TRW were measured using standard dendrochronological procedures. BI was obtained using a high-resolution flatbed scanner and CooRecorder software. To evaluate the unique climate processes and seasonalities contributing to different dendrochronological metrics, monthly temperature and precipitation from each site were obtained from the PRISM climate model and were correlated with each of the tree-ring metrics using the MATLAB program SEASCORR. We also evaluate the potential of using multiple tree-ring metrics (rather than a single proxy) in reconstructions of precipitation in the PNW. Initial results suggest that 1) tree growth at each site is water-limited but with substantial differences among the sites in the strength and seasonality of

  6. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, 1991 Annual Progress Report.

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Miller, William H.

    1993-07-01

    This document is the 1991 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The decline in abundance of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River basin has become a growing concern. In April 1992, Snake River fall chinook salmon were listed as ``threatened`` under the Endangered Species Act. Effective recovery efforts for fall chinook salmon can not be developed until we increase our knowledge of the factors that are limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which influence spawning of fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing and seaward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs.

  7. Effects of Cougar Predation and Nutrition on Mule Deer Population Declines in the Intermountain Province of the Columbia Basin, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Wielgus, Robert B.; Shipley, Lisa

    2002-07-01

    Construction of the Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams has resulted in inundation and loss of 29,125 total habitat units for mule deer and irrigation agriculture in many parts the Intermountain Province (IM) of the Columbia Basin. Mule deer in the Shrub-Steppe are ranked high priority target species for mitigation and management and are declining in most portions of the subbasins of the IM. Reasons for the decline are unknown but believed to be related to habitat changes resulting from dams and irrigation agriculture. White-tailed deer are not ranked as target species and are believed to be increasing throughout the basin because of habitat changes brought about by the dams and irrigation agriculture. Recent research (1997-2000) in the NE IM and adjacent Canadian portions of the Columbia Basin (conducted by this author and funded by the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Compensation Program B.C.), suggest that the increasing white-tailed deer populations (because of dams and irrigation agriculture) are resulting in increased predation by cougars on mule deer (apparent competition or alternate prey hypothesis). The apparent competition hypothesis predicts that as alternate prey (white-tailed deer) densities increase, so do densities of predators, resulting in increased incidental predation on sympatric native prey (mule deer). Apparent competition can result in population declines and even extirpation of native prey in some cases. Such a phenomenon may account for declines of mule deer in the IM and throughout arid and semi-arid West where irrigation agriculture is practiced. We will test the apparent competition hypothesis by conducting a controlled, replicated ''press'' experiment in at least 2 treatment and 2 control areas of the IM subbasins by reducing densities of white-tailed deer and observing any changes in cougar predation on mule deer. Deer densities will be monitored by WADFW personnel using annual aerial surveys and/or other trend

  8. Two Case Studies to Quantify Resilience across Food-Energy-Water Systems: the Columbia River Treaty and Adaptation in Yakima River Basin Irrigation Systems

    Malek, K.; Adam, J. C.; Richey, A.; Rushi, B. R.; Stockle, C.; Yoder, J.; Barik, M.; Lee, S. Y.; Rajagopalan, K.; Brady, M.; Barber, M. E.; Boll, J.; Padowski, J.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) plays a significant role in meeting agricultural and hydroelectric demands nationwide. Climatic and anthropogenic stressors, however, potentially threaten the productivity, resilience, and environmental health of the region. Our objective is to understand how resilience of each Food-Energy-Water (FEW) sector, and the combined Nexus, respond to exogenous perturbations and the extent to which technological and institutional advances can buffer these perturbations. In the process of taking information from complex integrated models and assessing resilience across FEW sectors, we start with two case studies: 1) Columbia River Treaty (CRT) with Canada that determines how multiple reservoirs in the Columbia River basin (CRB) are operated, and 2) climate change adaptation actions in the Yakima River basin (YRB). We discuss these case studies in terms of the similarities and contrasts related to FEW sectors and management complexities. Both the CRB and YBP systems are highly sensitive to climate change (they are both snowmelt-dominant) and already experience water conflict. The CRT is currently undergoing renegotiation; a new CRT will need to consider a much more comprehensive approach, e.g., treating environmental flows explicitly. The YRB also already experiences significant water conflict and thus the comprehensive Yakima Basin Integrated Plan (YBIP) is being pursued. We apply a new modeling framework that mechanistically captures the interactions between the FEW sectors to quantify the impacts of CRT and YBIP planning (as well as adaptation decisions taken by individuals, e.g., irrigators) on resilience in each sector. Proposed modification to the CRT may relieve impacts to multiple sectors. However, in the YRB, irrigators' actions to adapt to climate change (through investing in more efficient irrigation technology) could reduce downstream water availability for other users. Developing a process to quantify resilience to perturbations

  9. Survey of Artificial Production of Anadromous Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1981-1985 Final Report.

    Washington, Percy M.

    1985-11-25

    The overall objective of this project is to collect, organize, and summarize data concerning anadromous fish culture stations of the Columbia River system for 1981, 1982, and 1983 and to create a data archive system with a means of making this information available to the public.

  10. Occurrence, distribution, and transport of pesticides in agricultural irrigation-return flow from four drainage basins in the Columbia Basin Project, Washington, 2002-04, and comparison with historical data

    Wagner, Richard J.; Frans, Lonna M.; Huffman, Raegan L.

    2006-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected from sites in four irrigation return-flow drainage basins in the Columbia Basin Project from July 2002 through October 2004. Ten samples were collected throughout the irrigation season (generally April through October) and two samples were collected during the non-irrigation season. Samples were analyzed for temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, and a suite of 107 pesticides and pesticide metabolites (pesticide transformation products) and to document the occurrence, distribution, and pesticides transport and pesticide metabolites. The four drainage basins vary in size from 19 to 710 square miles. Percentage of agricultural cropland ranges from about 35 percent in Crab Creek drainage basin to a maximum of 75 percent in Lind Coulee drainage basin. More than 95 percent of cropland in Red Rock Coulee, Crab Creek, and Sand Hollow drainage basins is irrigated, whereas only 30 percent of cropland in Lind Coulee is irrigated. Forty-two pesticides and five metabolites were detected in samples from the four irrigation return-flow drainage basins. The most compounds detected were in samples from Sand Hollow with 37, followed by Lind Coulee with 33, Red Rock Coulee with 30, and Crab Creek with 28. Herbicides were the most frequently detected pesticides, followed by insecticides, metabolites, and fungicides. Atrazine, bentazon, diuron, and 2,4-D were the most frequently detected herbicides and chlorpyrifos and azinphos-methyl were the most frequently detected insecticides. A statistical comparison of pesticide concentrations in surface-water samples collected in the mid-1990s at Crab Creek and Sand Hollow with those collected in this study showed a statistically significant increase in concentrations for diuron and a statistically significant decrease for ethoprophos and atrazine in Crab Creek. Statistically significant increases were in concentrations of bromacil, diuron, and

  11. Factors Affecting the Survival of Upstream Migrant Adult Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 9 of 11.

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.

    1993-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is developing conservation planning documentation to support the National Marine Fisheries Service`s (NMFS) recovery plan for Columbia Basin salmonid stocks that are currently listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Information from the conservation planning documentation will be used as a partial scientific basis for identifying alternative conservation strategies and to make recommendations toward conserving, rebuilding, and ultimately removing these salmon stocks from the list of endangered species. This report describes the adult upstream survival study, a synthesis of biological analyses related to conditions affecting the survival of adult upstream migrant salmonids in the Columbia River system. The objective of the adult upstream survival study was to analyze existing data related to increasing the survival of adult migrant salmonids returning to the Snake River system. The fate and accountability of each stock during its upstream migration period and the uncertainties associated with measurements of escapement and survival were evaluated. Operational measures that affected the survival of adult salmon were evaluated including existing conditions, augmented flows from upstream storage release, and drawdown of mainstem reservoirs. The potential impacts and benefits of these measures to each ESA stock were, also described based on considerations of species behavior and run timing.

  12. Research plan for lands administered by the U.S. Department of the Interior in the Interior Columbia Basin and Snake River Plateau

    Beever, Erik A.; Pyke, David A.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents a long-term research strategy designed to address current and future research needs for management of Department of the Interior-administered ecosystems in the Intermountain West. Although the research plan was developed in the context of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project, the plan addresses many high-priority issues facing land managers throughout the Intermountain West. These issues pose management challenges that may be addressed with applied research both currently and in upcoming decades. Possessing a particular focus on semiarid ecosystems, the plan is a collection of research questions under five categories of research emphases: 1) restoration; 2) rangeland health; 3) aquatic-terrestrial connections; 4) development of monitoring and evaluation protocols; and 5) species and habitats at risk.

  13. Reconnaissance of contaminants in larval Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) tissues and habitats in the Columbia River Basin, Oregon and Washington, USA

    Nilsen, Elena B.; Hapke, Whitney B.; McIlraith, Brian; Markovchick, Dennis J.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific lampreys (Entosphenus tridentatus) have resided in the Columbia River Basin for millennia and have great ecological and cultural importance. The role of habitat contamination in the recent decline of the species has rarely been studied and was the main objective of this effort. A wide range of contaminants (115 analytes) was measured in sediments and tissues at 27 sites across a large geographic area of diverse land use. This is the largest dataset of contaminants in habitats and tissues of Pacific lamprey in North America and the first study to compare contaminant bioburden during the larval life stage and the anadromous, adult portion of the life cycle. Bioaccumulation of pesticides, flame retardants, and mercury was observed at many sites. Based on available data, contaminants are accumulating in larval Pacific lamprey at levels that are likely detrimental to organism health and may be contributing to the decline of the species.

  14. Report on the Predation Index, Predator Control Fisheries, and Program Evaluation for the Columbia River Basin Experimental Northern Pikeminnow Management Program, 2008 Annual Report.

    Porter, Russell [Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission].

    2009-09-10

    This report presents results for year seventeen in the basin-wide Experimental Northern Pikeminnow Management Program to harvest northern pikeminnow1 (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. This program was started in an effort to reduce predation by northern pikeminnow on juvenile salmonids during their emigration from natal streams to the ocean. Earlier work in the Columbia River Basin suggested predation by northern pikeminnow on juvenile salmonids might account for most of the 10-20% mortality juvenile salmonids experience in each of eight Columbia River and Snake River reservoirs. Modeling simulations based on work in John Day Reservoir from 1982 through 1988 indicated that, if predator-size northern pikeminnow were exploited at a 10-20% rate, the resulting restructuring of their population could reduce their predation on juvenile salmonids by 50%. To test this hypothesis, we implemented a sport-reward angling fishery and a commercial longline fishery in the John Day Pool in 1990. We also conducted an angling fishery in areas inaccessible to the public at four dams on the mainstem Columbia River and at Ice Harbor Dam on the Snake River. Based on the success of these limited efforts, we implemented three test fisheries on a system-wide scale in 1991 - a tribal longline fishery above Bonneville Dam, a sport-reward fishery, and a dam-angling fishery. Low catch of target fish and high cost of implementation resulted in discontinuation of the tribal longline fishery. However, the sport-reward and dam-angling fisheries were continued in 1992 and 1993. In 1992, we investigated the feasibility of implementing a commercial longline fishery in the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam and found that implementation of this fishery was also infeasible. Estimates of combined annual exploitation rates resulting from the sport-reward and dam-angling fisheries remained at the low end of our target range of 10-20%. This suggested the need for additional

  15. Climate and streamflow trends in the Columbia River Basin: evidence for ecological and engineering resilience to climate change

    K.L. Hatcher; J.A. Jones

    2013-01-01

    Large river basins transfer the water signal from the atmosphere to the ocean. Climate change is widely expected to alter streamflow and potentially disrupt water management systems. We tested the ecological resilience—capacity of headwater ecosystems to sustain streamflow under climate change—and the engineering resilience—capacity of dam and reservoir management to...

  16. Rate of deformation in the Pasco Basin during the Miocene as determined by distribution of Columbia River basalt flows

    Reidel, S.P.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Myers, C.W.; Jones, M.G.; Landon, R.D.

    1980-03-01

    Detailed mapping of over 8000 square kilometers and logs from 20 core holes were used to determine the distribution and thickness of basalt flows and interbeds in the Pasco Basin. The data indicate the high-MgO Grande Ronde Basalt and Wanapum Basalt thicken from the northeast to the southwest. Deformation began in late Frenchman Springs time in the Saddle Mountains along a northwest-southeast trend and in Roza time along an east-west trend. By late Wanapum time, basalt flows were more restricted on the east side. Saddle Mountains Basalt flows spread out in the basin from narrow channels to the east. The Umatilla Member entered from the southeast and is confined to the south-central basin, while the Wilbur Creek, Asotin, Esquatzel, Pomona, and Elephant Mountain Members entered from the east and northeast. The distribution of these members is controlled by flow volume, boundaries of other flows, and developing ridges. The Wilbur Creek, Asotin, and Esquatzel flows exited from the basin in a channel along the northern margin of the Umatilla flow, while the Pomona and Elephant Mountain flows exited between Umtanum Ridge and Wallula Gap. The thickness of sedimentary interbeds and basalt flows indicated subsidence and/or uplift began in post-Grande Ronde time (14.5 million years before present) and continued through Saddle Mountains time (10.5 million years before present). Maximum subsidence occurred 40 kilometers (24 miles) north of Richland, Washington with an approximate rate of 25 meters (81 feet) per million years during the eruption of the basalt. Maximum uplift along the developing ridges was 70 meters (230 feet) per million years

  17. Expanding the dialogue on climate change and water management in the Okanagan Basin, British Columbia : final report January 1, 2002 to June 30, 2004

    Cohen, S.; Neilsen, D.; Welbourn, R.

    2004-01-01

    Integrated climate change and water resource scenarios were developed in order to stimulate stakeholder discussions on the implications of climate change for water management in British Columbia's Okanagan region. The two main objectives of the study were to provide a set of research products relevant to regional interests and establish a methodology for participatory integrated assessment of regional climate impacts and adaptation applicable to climate-based concerns globally. The study consisted of five main components: down scaling global climate change scenarios to the regional level; determining impacts of climate change on basin hydrology; developing future demand scenarios for irrigated agriculture and municipalities, factoring in socio-economic trends; exploring previous management experiences and potential future approaches for augmenting water supply and reducing water consumption; and, learning about regional perspectives on adapting to climate change. Details of current water supply and demand were provided. Research was based on a combination of field research, computer-based models and dialogue exercises. It was concluded that good stakeholder relationships are the foundation of a strong partnership between researchers and regional interests. refs., tabs., figs

  18. Development of fault parameters for use in risk assessment modeling in the Pasco Basin, Columbia Plateau, South Central Washington: a preliminary study

    Caggiano, J.A.

    1982-03-01

    Preliminary data on strain rate, seismicity, and estimated earthquake source parameters suggest limitations on the extent of postulated faulting and its impact on a nuclear waste repository in Columbia River basalt. Structural relief of dated basalt flows, attitude of Pliocene sediments, geodetic surveys, size and distribution of earthquakes, and focal mechanism solutions indicate that deformation of basalt under north-south compression was under way in the Miocene and has continued on existing structures at an average rate of much less than 1 mm/yr in the Pasco Basin. Lengths and displacements of mapped faults suggest limits on the postulated fault that could intersect a repository and produce an earthquake of about magnitude 6.5. Using a credible earthquake permits calculation of preliminary source parameters for risk assessment modeling during a single episode of slip on the postulated new fault and indicates displacement of less than or equal to 1, m on a steeply dipping fault of less than or equal to 50 km length could occur. Preliminary source parameter calculations suggest that displacements of less than or equal to 2 cm may occur during microearthquakes in swarms. The area of fault rupture may be tens of square meters up to a few square kilometers, suggesting slip on joints. Seismic moments for postulated earthquakes in the interconnecting fault and microearthquake scenarios compare favorably with reported values for similar-sized earthquakes in different media and suggest that the estimated fault parameters are reasonable until an adequate tectonic model has been developed

  19. A Two-Stage Information-Theoretic Approach to Modeling Landscape-Level Attributes and Maximum Recruitment of Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin.

    Thompson, William L.; Lee, Danny C.

    2000-11-01

    Many anadromous salmonid stocks in the Pacific Northwest are at their lowest recorded levels, which has raised questions regarding their long-term persistence under current conditions. There are a number of factors, such as freshwater spawning and rearing habitat, that could potentially influence their numbers. Therefore, we used the latest advances in information-theoretic methods in a two-stage modeling process to investigate relationships between landscape-level habitat attributes and maximum recruitment of 25 index stocks of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River basin. Our first-stage model selection results indicated that the Ricker-type, stock recruitment model with a constant Ricker a (i.e., recruits-per-spawner at low numbers of fish) across stocks was the only plausible one given these data, which contrasted with previous unpublished findings. Our second-stage results revealed that maximum recruitment of chinook salmon had a strongly negative relationship with percentage of surrounding subwatersheds categorized as predominantly containing U.S. Forest Service and private moderate-high impact managed forest. That is, our model predicted that average maximum recruitment of chinook salmon would decrease by at least 247 fish for every increase of 33% in surrounding subwatersheds categorized as predominantly containing U.S. Forest Service and privately managed forest. Conversely, mean annual air temperature had a positive relationship with salmon maximum recruitment, with an average increase of at least 179 fish for every increase in 2 C mean annual air temperature.

  20. Geodatabase of sites, basin boundaries, and topology rules used to store drainage basin boundaries for the U.S. Geological Survey, Colorado Water Science Center

    Dupree, Jean A.; Crowfoot, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    This geodatabase and its component datasets are part of U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series 650 and were generated to store basin boundaries for U.S. Geological Survey streamgages and other sites in Colorado. The geodatabase and its components were created by the U.S. Geological Survey, Colorado Water Science Center, and are used to derive the numeric drainage areas for Colorado that are input into the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System (NWIS) database and also published in the Annual Water Data Report and on NWISWeb. The foundational dataset used to create the basin boundaries in this geodatabase was the National Watershed Boundary Dataset. This geodatabase accompanies a U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods report (Book 11, Section C, Chapter 6) entitled "Digital Database Architecture and Delineation Methodology for Deriving Drainage Basins, and Comparison of Digitally and Non-Digitally Derived Numeric Drainage Areas." The Techniques and Methods report details the geodatabase architecture, describes the delineation methodology and workflows used to develop these basin boundaries, and compares digitally derived numeric drainage areas in this geodatabase to non-digitally derived areas. 1. COBasins.gdb: This geodatabase contains site locations and basin boundaries for Colorado. It includes a single feature dataset, called BasinsFD, which groups the component feature classes and topology rules. 2. BasinsFD: This feature dataset in the "COBasins.gdb" geodatabase is a digital container that holds the feature classes used to archive site locations and basin boundaries as well as the topology rules that govern spatial relations within and among component feature classes. This feature dataset includes three feature classes: the sites for which basins have been delineated (the "Sites" feature class), basin bounding lines (the "BasinLines" feature class), and polygonal basin areas (the "BasinPolys" feature class). The feature dataset

  1. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1994.

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    1996-08-01

    Spawning ground surveys were conducted in 1994 as part of a five year study of Snake River chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawyacha begun in 1991. Observations of fall chinook salmon spawning in the Snake River were limited to infrequent aerial red counts in the years prior to 1987. From 1987-1990, red counts were made on a limited basis by an interagency team and reported by the Washington Department of Fisheries. Starting in 1991, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and other cooperating agencies and organizations, expanded the scope of spawning ground surveys to include: (1) additional aerial surveys to improve red counts and provide data on the timing of spawning; (2) the validation (ground truthing) of red counts from aerial surveys to improve count accuracy; (3) underwater searches to locate reds in water too deep to allow detection from the air; and (4) bathymetric mapping of spawning sites for characterizing spawning habitat. This document is the 1994 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook salmon. The studies were undertaken because of the growing concern about the declining salmon population in the Snake River basin.

  2. Near-Real-Time Surveillance of Illnesses Related to Shellfish Consumption in British Columbia: Analysis of Poison Center Data.

    Wan, Victoria; McIntyre, Lorraine; Kent, Debra; Leong, Dennis; Henderson, Sarah B

    2018-02-23

    Data from poison centers have the potential to be valuable for public health surveillance of long-term trends, short-term aberrations from those trends, and poisonings occurring in near-real-time. This information can enable long-term prevention via programs and policies and short-term control via immediate public health response. Over the past decade, there has been an increasing use of poison control data for surveillance in the United States, Europe, and New Zealand, but this resource still remains widely underused. The British Columbia (BC) Drug and Poison Information Centre (DPIC) is one of five such services in Canada, and it is the only one nested within a public health agency. This study aimed to demonstrate how DPIC data are used for routine public health surveillance in near-real-time using the case study of its alerting system for illness related to consumption of shellfish (ASIRCS). Every hour, a connection is opened between the WBM software Visual Dotlab Enterprise, which holds the DPIC database, and the R statistical computing environment. This platform is used to extract, clean, and merge all necessary raw data tables into a single data file. ASIRCS automatically and retrospectively scans a 24-hour window within the data file for new cases related to illnesses from shellfish consumption. Detected cases are queried using a list of attributes: the caller location, exposure type, reasons for the exposure, and a list of keywords searched in the clinical notes. The alert generates a report that is tailored to the needs of food safety specialists, who then assess and respond to detected cases. The ASIRCS system alerted on 79 cases between January 2015 and December 2016, and retrospective analysis found 11 cases that were missed. All cases were reviewed by food safety specialists, and 58% (46/79) were referred to designated regional health authority contacts for follow-up. Of the 42% (33/79) cases that were not referred to health authorities, some were

  3. Communication in ecosystem management: a case study of cross-disciplinary integration in the assessment phase of the interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project.

    Jakobsen, Christine Haugaard; McLaughlin, William J

    2004-05-01

    Effective communication is essential to the success of collaborative ecosystem management projects. In this paper, we investigated the dynamics of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project's (ICBEMP) cross-disciplinary integration process in the assessment phase. Using a case study research design, we captured the rich trail of experience through conducting in-depth interviews and collecting information from internal and public documents, videos, and meetings related to the ICBEMP. Coding and analysis was facilitated by a qualitative analysis software, NVivo. Results include the range of internal perspectives on barriers and facilitators of cross-disciplinary integration in the Science Integration Team (SIT). These are arrayed in terms of discipline-based differences, organizational structures and activities, individual traits of scientists, and previous working relationships. The ICBEMP organization included a team of communication staffs (CT), and the data described the CT as a mixed group in terms of qualifications and educational backgrounds that played a major role in communication with actors external to the ICBEMP organization but a minor one in terms of internal communication. The data indicated that the CT-SIT communication was influenced by characteristics of actors and structures related to organizations and their cultures. We conclude that the ICBEMP members may not have had a sufficient level of shared understanding of central domains, such as the task at hand and ways and timing of information sharing. The paper concludes by suggesting that future ecosystem management assessment teams use qualified communications specialists to design and monitor the development of shared cognition among organization members in order to improve the effectiveness of communication and cross-disciplinary integration.

  4. Smolt Monitoring Program, Volume II, Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Annual Report.

    Fish Passage Center

    1987-02-01

    Smolt Monitoring Program Annual Report, 1986, Volume I, describes the results of travel time monitoring and other migrational characteristics of yearling and sub-yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This volume presents the data from Fish Passage Center freeze brands used in the analysis of travel time for Lewiston, Lower Granite, Lower Monumental, Rock Island, McNary, and John Day dams. Summary of data collection procedures and explanation of data listings are presented in conjunction with the mark recapture data. Data for marked fish not presented in this report will be provided upon request. Daily catch statistics (by species), flow, and sample parameters for the smolt monitoring sites, Clearwater, Lewiston, Lower Granite, Lower Monumental, Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville also will be provided upon request.

  5. Development of a systemwide predator control program: Stepwise implementation of a predator index, predator control fisheries, and evaluation plan in the Columbia River basin (Northern Squawfish Management Program). Section 1: Implementation; Annual report 1995

    Young, F.R.

    1997-04-01

    The authors report their results from the fifth year of a basinwide program to harvest northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) in an effort to reduce mortality due to northern squawfish predation on juvenile salmonids during their emigration from natal streams to the ocean. Earlier work in the Columbia River Basin suggested predation by northern squawfish on juvenile salmonids may account for most of the 10--20% mortality juvenile salmonids experience in each of eight Columbia and Snake River reservoirs. Modeling simulations based on work in John Day Reservoir from 1982 through 1988 indicated that if predator-sized northern squawfish were exploited at a 10--20% rate, the resulting restructuring of their population could reduce their predation on juvenile salmonids by 50%

  6. Development of a System-Wide Predator Control Program: Stepwise Implementation of a Predation Index, Predator Control Fisheries, and Evaluation Plan in the Columbia River Basin; Northern Pikeminnow Management Program, 2001 Annual Report.

    Porter, Russell G.; Winther, Eric C.; Fox, Lyle G.

    2003-03-01

    This report presents results for year eleven in a basin-wide program to harvest northern pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis). This program was started in an effort to reduce predation by northern pikeminnow on juvenile salmonids during their emigration from natal streams to the ocean. Earlier work in the Columbia River Basin suggested predation by northern pikeminnow on juvenile salmonids might account for most of the 10-20% mortality juvenile salmonids experience in each of eight Columbia River and Snake River reservoirs. Modeling simulations based on work in John Day Reservoir from 1982 through 1988 indicated that, if predator-size northern pikeminnow were exploited at a 10-20% rate, the resulting restructuring of their population could reduce their predation on juvenile salmonids by 50%. To test this hypothesis, we implemented a sport-reward angling fishery and a commercial longline fishery in the John Day Pool in 1990. We also conducted an angling fishery in areas inaccessible to the public at four dams on the mainstem Columbia River and at Ice Harbor Dam on the Snake River. Based on the success of these limited efforts, we implemented three test fisheries on a system-wide scale in 1991--a tribal longline fishery above Bonneville Dam, a sport-reward fishery, and a dam-angling fishery. Low catch of target fish and high cost of implementation resulted in discontinuation of the tribal longline fishery. However, the sport-reward and dam-angling fisheries were continued in 1992 and 1993. In 1992, we investigated the feasibility of implementing a commercial longline fishery in the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam and found that implementation of this fishery was also infeasible.

  7. The Columbia Social Essayists

    Albert J. Bergesen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wallerstein came of age intellectually at Columbia University, where he was an undergraduate, graduate student and faculty member for a quarter of a century (1947-1971. While we often think of his work on African politics and his concern with third world development as precur-sors to world-system theory, a large part of his intellectual biography was shaped by those Columbia years. They mark the high point of a triple hegemony of university, city, and nation, as at this time Columbia was the leading university in the leading city of the hegemonic nation. It was a time before the 1960s when the New Left and Berkeley would challenge the centrality of New York and Columbia as undisputed centers of American social thought and it was before what would be called the policy intellectuals would emerge in Washington DC in the 1970s/80s. It was also a time before the great in?ux of federal money in the 1960s which spurred social research and lifted other universities to prominence. It was a time of what I will call The Columbia Social Essayists, referring to scholar/intellectuals such as C. Wright Mills, Daniel Bell, Lionel Trilling, Richard Hofstadter and Meyer Schapiro.

  8. "Research to Improve the Efficacy of Captive Broodstock Programs and Advance Hatchery Reform Throughout the Columbia River Basin." [from the Abstract], 2008-2009 Progress Report.

    Berejikian, Barry A. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service

    2009-08-18

    This project was developed to conduct research to improve the efficacy of captive broodstock programs and advance hatchery reform throughout the Columbia River Basin. The project has three objectives: (1) maintain adaptive life history characteristics in Chinook salmon, (2) improve imprinting in juvenile sockeye salmon, and (3) match wild phenotypes in Chinook and sockeye salmon reared in hatcheries. A summary of the results are as follows: Objective 1: The ratio of jack to adult male Chinook salmon were varied in experimental breeding populations to test the hypothesis that reproductive success of the two male phenotypes would vary with their relative frequency in the population. Adult Chinook salmon males nearly always obtained primary access to nesting females and were first to enter the nest at the time of spawning. Jack male spawning occurred primarily by establishing satellite positions downstream of the courting pair, and 'sneaking' into the nest at the time of spawning. Male dominance hierarchies were fairly stable and strongly correlated with the order of nest entry at the time of spawning. Observed participation in spawning events and adult-to-fry reproductive success of jack and adult males was consistent with a negative frequency-dependent selection model. Overall, jack males sired an average of 21% of the offspring produced across a range of jack male frequencies. Implications of these and additional findings on Chinook salmon hatchery broodstock management will be presented in the FY 2009 Annual Report. Objective 2: To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon were exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Molecular assessments of imprinting-induced changes in odorant receptor gene expression indicated that regulation of odorant expression is influenced by developmental status and odor exposure history. Expression levels of basic amino acid receptor (BAAR) mRNA in the olfactory

  9. Development of a systemwide predator control program: Stepwise implementation of a predation index, predator control fisheries, and evaluation plan in the Columbia River Basin. Section 1: Implementation. Annual report 1994

    Willis, C.F.; Young, F.R.

    1995-09-01

    The authors report the results from the forth year of a basinwide program to harvest northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) in an effort to reduce mortality due to northern squawfish predation on juvenile salmonids during their emigration from natal streams to the ocean. Earlier work in the Columbia River Basin suggested predation by northern squawfish on juvenile salmonids may account for most of the 10--20% mortality juvenile salmonids experience in each of eight Columbia and Snake River reservoirs. Modeling simulations based on work in John Day Reservoir from 1982 through 1988 indicated it is not necessary to eradicate northern squawfish to substantially reduce predation-caused mortality of juvenile salmonids. Instead, if northern squawfish were exploited at a 10--20% rate, reductions in numbers of larger, older fish resulting in restructuring of their population could reduce their predation on juvenile salmonids by 50% or more. Consequently, the authors designed and tested a sport-reward angling fishery and a commercial longline fishery in the John Day pool in 1990. They also conducted an angling fishery in areas inaccessible to the public at four dams on the mainstem Columbia River and at Ice Harbor Dam on the Snake River. Based on the success of these limited efforts, they implemented three test fisheries on a multi-pool, or systemwide, scale in 1991--a tribal longline fishery above Bonneville Dam, a sport-reward fishery, and a dam-angling fishery

  10. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Evaluating Wetland Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary using Hydroacoustic Telemetry Arrays to Estimate Movement, Survival, and Residence Times of Juvenile Salmonids, Volume XXII (22).

    Perry, Russell W.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-08-01

    Wetlands in the Columbia River estuary are actively being restored by reconnecting these habitats to the estuary, making more wetland habitats available to rearing and migrating juvenile salmon. Concurrently, thousands of acoustically tagged juvenile salmonids are released into the Columbia River to estimate their survival as they migrate through the estuary. Here, we develop a release-recapture model that makes use of these tagged fish to measure the success of wetland restoration projects in terms of their contribution to populations of juvenile salmon. Specifically, our model estimates the fraction of the population that enter the wetland, survival within the wetland, and the mean residence time of fish within the wetland. Furthermore, survival in mainstem Columbia River downstream of the wetland can be compared between fish that remained the mainstem and entered the wetland. These conditional survival estimates provide a means of testing whether the wetland improves the subsequent survival of juvenile salmon by fostering growth or improving their condition. Implementing such a study requires little additional cost because it takes advantage of fish already released to estimate survival through the estuary. Thus, such a study extracts the maximum information at minimum cost from research projects that typically cost millions of dollars annually.

  11. "Research to Improve the Efficacy of Captive Broodstock Programs and Advance Hatchery Reform Throughout the Columbia River Basin." [from the Abstract], 2007-2008 Annual Progress Report.

    Berejikian, Barry A. [National Marine Fisheries Service

    2009-04-08

    This project was developed to conduct research to improve the efficacy of captive broodstock programs and advance hatchery reform throughout the Columbia river basin. The project has three objectives: (1) maintain adaptive life history characteristics in Chinook salmon, (2) improve imprinting in juvenile sockeye salmon, and (3) match wild phenotypes in Chinook and sockeye salmon reared in hatcheries. A summary of the results are as follows: Objective 1: Adult and jack Chinook salmon males were stocked into four replicate spawning channels at a constant density (N = 16 per breeding group), but different ratios, and were left to spawn naturally with a fixed number of females (N = 6 per breeding group). Adult males obtained primary access to females and were first to enter the nest at the time of spawning. Jack male spawning occurred primarily by establishing satellite positions downstream of the courting pair, and 'sneaking' into the nest at the time of spawning. Male dominance hierarchies were fairly stable and strongly correlated with the order of nest entry at the time of spawning. Spawning participation by jack and adult males is consistent with a negative frequency dependent selection model, which means that selection during spawning favors the rarer life history form. Results of DNA parentage assignments will be analyzed to estimate adult-to-fry fitness of each male. Objective 2: To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon were exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Molecular assessments of imprinting-induced changes in odorant receptor gene expression indicated that regulation of odorant expression is influenced by developmental status and odor exposure history. The results suggest that sockeye salmon are capable of imprinting to homing cues during the developmental periods that correspond to several of current release strategies employed as part of the Captive Broodstock program

  12. Development of a System-Wide Predator Control Program: Stepwise Implementation of a Predation Index, Predator Control Fisheries, and Evaluation Plan in the Columbia River Basin; Northern Pikeminnow Management Program, 2002 Annual Report.

    Porter, Russell G.; Winther, Eric C.; Fox, Lyle G.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents results for year twelve in a basin-wide program to harvest northern pikeminnow1 (Ptychocheilus oregonensis). This program was started in an effort to reduce predation by northern pikeminnow on juvenile salmonids during their emigration from natal streams to the ocean. Earlier work in the Columbia River Basin suggested predation by northern pikeminnow on juvenile salmonids might account for most of the 10-20% mortality juvenile salmonids experience in each of eight Columbia River and Snake River reservoirs. Modeling simulations based on work in John Day Reservoir from 1982 through 1988 indicated that, if predator-size northern pikeminnow were exploited at a 10-20% rate, the resulting restructuring of their population could reduce their predation on juvenile salmonids by 50%. To test this hypothesis, we implemented a sport-reward angling fishery and a commercial longline fishery in the John Day Pool in 1990. We also conducted an angling fishery in areas inaccessible to the public at four dams on the mainstem Columbia River and at Ice Harbor Dam on the Snake River. Based on the success of these limited efforts, we implemented three test fisheries on a system-wide scale in 1991--a tribal longline fishery above Bonneville Dam, a sport-reward fishery, and a dam-angling fishery. Low catch of target fish and high cost of implementation resulted in discontinuation of the tribal longline fishery. However, the sport-reward and dam-angling fisheries were continued in 1992 and 1993. In 1992, we investigated the feasibility of implementing a commercial longline fishery in the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam and found that implementation of this fishery was also infeasible. Estimates of combined annual exploitation rates resulting from the sport-reward and damangling fisheries remained at the low end of our target range of 10-20%. This suggested the need for additional effective harvest techniques. During 1991 and 1992, we developed and tested a modified

  13. Proceedings from a Workshop on Ecological Carrying Capacity of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Measure 7.1A of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program : Report 3 of 4, Final Report.

    Johnson, Gary E.; Neitzel, D.A.; Mavros, William V.

    1996-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a workshop held during 1995 in Portland, Oregon. The objective of the workshop was to assemble a group of experts that could help us define carrying capacity for Columbia River Basin salmonids. The workshop was one activity designed to answer the questions asked in Measure 7.1A of the Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program. Based, in part, on the information we learned during the workshop we concluded that the approach inherent in 7.1A will not increase understanding of ecology, carrying capacity, or limiting factors that influence salmon under current conditions. Measure 7.1A requires a definition of carrying capacity and a list of determinants (limiting factors) of capacity. The implication or inference then follows that by asking what we know and do not know about the determinants will lead to research that increases our understanding of what is limiting salmon survival. It is then assumed that research results will point to management actions that can remove or repair the limiting factors. Most ecologists and fisheries scientists that have studied carrying capacity clearly conclude that this approach is an oversimplification of complex ecological processes. To pursue the capacity parameter, that is, a single number or set of numbers that quantify how many salmon the basin or any part of the basin can support, is meaningless by itself and will not provide useful information.

  14. Geochemical disturbance of soil cover in the nonferrous mining centers of the Selenga River basin.

    Timofeev, Ivan V; Kosheleva, Natalia E

    2017-08-01

    The anthropogenic geochemical transformation of soil cover in large nonferrous mining centers of the Selenga River basin was assessed. The results of the geochemical survey of 2010-2012 revealed the spatial distribution patterns and abundances of 18 hazardous heavy metals and metalloids in the soils of Erdenet (Mongolia) and Zakamensk (Buryat republic, Russian Federation). In both cities, mining activities disturbed soil cover which accumulates Mo, Cu, As, Sb, W in Erdenet and Bi, W, Cd, Be, Pb, Mo, Sb in Zakamensk. Maximum accumulation of elements in Erdenet is restricted to the industrial zone. In Zakamensk, it has spread on ½ of the territory with the degree of multielemental pollution exceeding the extremely dangerous level by 16 times. The effect of mining centers on the state of the river system is local and does not spread to the Selenga River. Downstream from Erdenet, an artificial pool intercepts heavy metal and metalloid flows of the Erdenetii-Gol River. By contrast, downstream from the tailing dumps of the Dzhida tungsten-molybdenum plant the concentrations of ore elements W and Mo and their accessories Bi and Cd in the Modonkul River exceed background values by 146, 20, 57, and 21 times, respectively, decreasing by an order of magnitude 30 km downstream.

  15. Adjusted Streamflow and Storage 1928-1989 : with Listings of Historical Streamflow, Summation of Storage Change and Adjusted Streamflow : Columbia River and Coastal Basins.

    A.G. Crook Company

    1993-04-01

    The development of irrigation projects since the 1830's and the construction of major dams and reservoirs since the early 1900's have altered substantially the natural streamflow regimen of the Columbia River and its tributaries. As development expanded a multipurpose approach to streamflow regulation evolved to provide flood control, irrigation, hydropower generation, navigation, recreation, water quality enhancement, fish and wildlife, and instream flow maintenance. The responsible agencies use computer programs to determine the effects of various alternative system regulations. This report describes the development of the streamflow data that these computer programs use.

  16. An environmental reconstruction of the sediment infill of the Bogota basin (Columbia) during the last 3 million years from abiotic and biotic proxies

    Torres, V.; Vandenberghe, J.; Hooghiemstra, H.

    2005-01-01

    The lacustrine sediments of the intramontane basin of Bogotá (4°N, 2550 m altitude) were collected in a 586-m deep core Funza-2. Absolute datings show sediment infill started c. 3.2 Ma and continued almost without interruptions as a result of the balance between tectonic subsidence and sediment

  17. Development of a System-Wide Predator Control Program: Stepwise Implementation of a Predation Index, Predator Control Fisheries, and Evaluation Plan in the Columbia River Basin; Northern Pikeminnow Management Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    Porter, Russell G.; Glaser, Bryce G.; Amren, Jennifer

    2003-03-01

    This report presents results for year ten in a basin-wide program to harvest northern pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis). This program was started in an effort to reduce predation by northern pikeminnow on juvenile salmonids during their emigration from natal streams to the ocean. Earlier work in the Columbia River Basin suggested predation by northern pikeminnow on juvenile salmonids might account for most of the 10-20% mortality juvenile salmonids experience in each of eight Columbia River and Snake River reservoirs. Modeling simulations based on work in John Day Reservoir from 1982 through 1988 indicated that, if predator-size northern pikeminnow were exploited at a 10-20% rate, the resulting restructuring of their population could reduce their predation on juvenile salmonids by 50%. To test this hypothesis, we implemented a sport-reward angling fishery and a commercial longline fishery in the John Day Pool in 1990. We also conducted an angling fishery in areas inaccessible to the public at four dams on the mainstem Columbia River and at Ice Harbor Dam on the Snake River. Based on the success of these limited efforts, we implemented three test fisheries on a system-wide scale in 1991--a tribal longline fishery above Bonneville Dam, a sport-reward fishery, and a dam-angling fishery. Low catch of target fish and high cost of implementation resulted in discontinuation of the tribal longline fishery. However, the sport-reward and dam-angling fisheries were continued in 1992 and 1993. In 1992, we investigated the feasibility of implementing a commercial longline fishery in the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam and found that implementation of this fishery was also infeasible. Estimates of combined annual exploitation rates resulting from the sport-reward and damangling fisheries remained at the low end of our target range of 10-20%. This suggested the need for additional effective harvest techniques. During 1991 and 1992, we developed and tested a modified

  18. Testing of an underwater remotely-operated vehicle in the basins of the Cattenom nuclear power generation center

    Delfour, D.; Khakanski, M.; Nepveu, C.; Schmitt, J.

    1993-05-01

    An underwater robot was tested in the basins of the Cattenom Nuclear Power Generation Center fed with raw water from the Moselle River. The purpose was to inspect wall biofouling without interrupting water circulation. The ROV is a light, compact device, remotely controlled by cable and equipped with video cameras. The video recordings made were used to compare conditions in a basin cleaned the previous month by divers with those in a basin which had not been cleaned for a year. Manual cleaning by divers is an effective method, leaving Zebra Mussels on less than 5% of the wall surfaces. On the other hand, the floor of the basin was observed to be covered with fine sediment, vegetal matters and shells washed in with the Moselle River water. In the basin which had not been cleaned, the entire wall surface was covered with very dense tufts of tubular organisms (Hydrozoa Cordylophora) and zebra mussels. The tests have provided elements for definition of an inspection procedure and have given rise to suggestions for complementary equipment. (authors). 5 figs., 9 photos

  19. Energy - Water Nexus -- Meeting the Energy and Water Needs of the Snake/Columbia River Basin in the 21st CenturyScience and Technology SummitConference Results

    Paul L. Wichlacz; Gerald Sehlke

    2008-02-01

    In June 2007, representatives from federal, state, and academic institutions met to discuss the role of innovative science, technology, and policy in meeting future energy and water demands in the Snake-Columbia River Basin. Conference members assessed the state-of-the-science, technology, and associated research to develop cost-effective and environmentally sound methodologies and technologies to maximize the production of energy and availability of water and to minimize the consumption of both water and energy in the Snake-Columbia River system. Information on all phases of science and technology development, theoretical analysis, laboratory experiments, pilot tests, and field applications were relevant topics for discussion. An overview of current management needs was presented the first day. On the second day, five focus groups were created: ? Energy Generation and Use ? Water Allocation and Use ? Energy/Water Storage ? Environmental Considerations ? Social, Economic, Political, and Regulatory Considerations. Each group started with a list of status items and trends, and discussed the future challenges and research needed to reach four goals: ? Balance energy production and resource consumption ? Balance water availability and competing needs ? Balance water consumption/energy production and competing needs ? Balance environmental impacts and water use/energy production ? Balance costs and benefits of water use. The resulting initiatives were further broken down into three categories of importance: critical, important, and nice to do but could be delayed. Each initiative was assigned a number of dots to show a more refined ranking. The results of each focus group are given in the pages that follow. These results are intended to help local and regional researchers 1. Develop a technical strategy for developing cost-effective science and technology to predict, measure, monitor, purify, conserve, and store water and to maximize power generation, storage, and

  20. Hydrologic studies within the Columbia Plateau, Washington: an integration of current knowledge

    Gephart, R.E.; Arnett, R.C.; Baca, R.G.; Leonhart, L.S.; Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1979-10-01

    Hydrologic studies are one of the principal research activities within the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The objective of these studies is to provide a clear evaluation of the hydrologic systems present within the Columbia River basalt significant to the possible siting of a waste repository. This is accomplished through an intense data gathering program in addition to conducting groundwater flow and solute transport modeling under both anticipated and credible hypothetical hydrologic scenarios. The hydrology effort is centered within the Pasco Basin located in south-central Washington State, particularly that portion of the basin within the Hanford Site. Regional hydrology studies for other portions of the Columbia Plateau are being carried out to assist in understanding the surface-water and groundwater flow systems existing within the Pasco Basin. The major questions being addressed in all of the above studies focus upon important repository considerations related to groundwater flow paths, groundwater velocities, and solute concentrations and travel times. This report summarizes the data obtained and interpretations made to date regarding the hydrology of the Pasco Basin. The text of this report is divided into four chapters. Chapter I describes the purpose and scope of the hydrology program. Chapter II discusses the regional studies. Chapter III discusses the Pasco Basin hydrology, and Chapter IV gives a status report of the numerical modeling activities

  1. Mid-Columbia coho reintroduction feasibility project. Preliminary environmental assessment

    1999-01-01

    Before the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) decides whether to fund a program to reintroduce coho salmon to mid-Columbia River basin tributaries, research is needed to determine the ecological risks and biological feasibility of such an effort. Since the early 1900s, the native stock of coho has been decimated in the tributaries of the middle reach of the Columbia River. The four Columbia River Treaty Tribes identified coho reintroduction in the mid-Columbia as a priority in the Tribal Restoration Plan. It is a comprehensive plan put forward by the Tribes to restore the Columbia River fisheries. In 1996, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) recommended the tribal mid-Columbia reintroduction project for funding by BPA. It was identified as one of fifteen high-priority supplementation projects for the Columbia River basin, and was incorporated into the NPPC's Fish and Wildlife Program. The release of coho from lower Columbia hatcheries into mid-Columbia tributaries is also recognized in the Columbia River Fish Management Plan

  2. Mid-Columbia Coho Salmon Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Environmental Assessment.

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington (State) Department of Fish and Wildlife; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation

    1999-01-01

    Before the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) decides whether to fund a program to reintroduce coho salmon to mid-Columbia River basin tributaries, research is needed to determine the ecological risks and biological feasibility of such an effort. Since the early 1900s, the native stock of coho has been decimated in the tributaries of the middle reach of the Columbia River. The four Columbia River Treaty Tribes identified coho reintroduction in the mid-Columbia as a priority in the Tribal Restoration Plan. It is a comprehensive plan put forward by the Tribes to restore the Columbia River fisheries. In 1996, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) recommended the tribal mid-Columbia reintroduction project for funding by BPA. It was identified as one of fifteen high-priority supplementation projects for the Columbia River basin, and was incorporated into the NPPC`s Fish and Wildlife Program. The release of coho from lower Columbia hatcheries into mid-Columbia tributaries is also recognized in the Columbia River Fish Management Plan.

  3. Identifying and Remediating High Water Production Problems in Basin-Centered Formations

    R.L. Billingsley

    2005-12-01

    Through geochemical analyses of produced waters, petrophysics, and reservoir simulation we developed concepts and approaches for mitigating unwanted water production in tight gas reservoirs and for increasing recovery of gas resources presently considered noncommercial. Only new completion research (outside the scope of this study) will validate our hypothesis. The first task was assembling and interpreting a robust regional database of historical produced-water analyses to address the production of excessive water in basin-centered tight gas fields in the Greater Green (GGRB ) and Wind River basins (WRB), Wyoming. The database is supplemented with a sampling program in currently active areas. Interpretation of the regional water chemistry data indicates most produced waters reflect their original depositional environments and helps identify local anomalies related to basement faulting. After the assembly and evaluation phases of this project, we generated a working model of tight formation reservoir development, based on the regional nature and occurrence of the formation waters. Through an integrative approach to numerous existing reservoir concepts, we synthesized a generalized development scheme organized around reservoir confining stress cycles. This single overarching scheme accommodates a spectrum of outcomes from the GGRB and Wind River basins. Burial and tectonic processes destroy much of the depositional intergranular fabric of the reservoir, generate gas, and create a rock volume marked by extremely low permeabilities to gas and fluids. Stress release associated with uplift regenerates reservoir permeability through the development of a penetrative grain bounding natural fracture fabric. Reservoir mineral composition, magnitude of the stress cycle and local tectonics govern the degree, scale and exact mechanism of permeability development. We applied the reservoir working model to an area of perceived anomalous water production. Detailed water analyses

  4. Data Basin Aquatic Center: expanding access to aquatic conservation data, analysis tools, people and practical answers

    Osborne-Gowey, J.; Strittholt, J.; Bergquist, J.; Ward, B. C.; Sheehan, T.; Comendant, T.; Bachelet, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    The world’s aquatic resources are experiencing anthropogenic pressures on an unprecedented scale and aquatic organisms are experiencing widespread population changes and ecosystem-scale habitat alterations. Climate change is likely to exacerbate these threats, in some cases reducing the range of native North American fishes by 20-100% (depending on the location of the population and the model assumptions). Scientists around the globe are generating large volumes of data that vary in quality, format, supporting documentation, and accessibility. Moreover, diverse models are being run at various temporal and spatial scales as scientists attempt to understand previous (and project future) human impacts to aquatic species and their habitats. Conservation scientists often struggle to synthesize this wealth of information for developing practical on-the-ground management strategies. As a result, the best available science is often not utilized in the decision-making and adaptive management processes. As aquatic conservation problems around the globe become more serious and the demand to solve them grows more urgent, scientists and land-use managers need a new way to bring strategic, science-based, and action-oriented approaches to aquatic conservation. The Conservation Biology Institute (CBI), with partners such as ESRI, is developing an Aquatic Center as part of a dynamic, web-based resource (Data Basin; http: databasin.org) that centralizes usable aquatic datasets and provides analytical tools to visualize, analyze, and communicate findings for practical applications. To illustrate its utility, we present example datasets of varying spatial scales and synthesize multiple studies to arrive at novel solutions to aquatic threats.

  5. The design and analysis of salmonid tagging studies in the Columbia Basin. Volume 2: Estimating salmonid survival with combined PIT-CWT tagging. Technical report

    Newman, K.

    1997-06-01

    Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags and Coded Wire Tags (CWTs) in combination can provide information about salmonid survival that single tag releases may not. The release and recapture protocol affects which survival and recapture rates can be estimated and the precision of the estimates. For the particular case of Columbia river salmonids tagged with both PIT tags and CWTs, three different release and recapture protocols were evaluated. This report addresses the need to study the fate of salmon smolt in-river and their subsequent return as adults. Double-tagging procedures are investigated where PIT-tags would be used to provide in-river survival data during smolt outmigrations and coded-wire tags (CWT) used to provide adult return information. This report provides statistical models for the analysis of the joint data as well as recommendations on optimal tagging studies. Study costs and stress on smolt can be reduced by only PIT-tagging a subset of all the fish coded-wire-tagged, while retaining the information content and sampling precision

  6. Fish Individual-based Numerical Simulator (FINS): A particle-based model of juvenile salmonid movement and dissolved gas exposure history in the Columbia River Basin

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical model of juvenile salmonid migration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. The model, called the Fish Individual-based Numerical Simulator or FINS, employs a discrete, particle-based approach to simulate the migration and history of exposure to dissolved gases of individual fish. FINS is linked to a two-dimensional (vertically-averaged) hydrodynamic simulator that quantifies local water velocity, temperature, and dissolved gas levels as a function of river flow rates and dam operations. Simulated gas exposure histories can be input to biological mortality models to predict the effects of various river configurations on fish injury and mortality due to dissolved gas supersaturation. Therefore, FINS serves as a critical linkage between hydrodynamic models of the river system and models of biological impacts. FINS was parameterized and validated based on observations of individual fish movements collected using radiotelemetry methods during 1997 and 1998 . A quasi-inverse approach was used to decouple fish swimming movements from advection with the local water velocity, allowing inference of time series of non-advective displacements of individual fish from the radiotelemetry data. Statistical analyses of these displacements are presented, and confirm that strong temporal correlation of fish swimming behavior persists in some cases over several hours. A correlated random-walk model was employed to simulate the observed migration behavior, and parameters of the model were estimated that lead to close correspondence between predictions and observations

  7. Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Mahanoy Creek Basin, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania, 2001

    Cravotta,, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    This report assesses the contaminant loading, effects to receiving streams, and possible remedial alternatives for abandoned mine drainage (AMD) within the Mahanoy Creek Basin in east-central Pennsylvania. The Mahanoy Creek Basin encompasses an area of 157 square miles (407 square kilometers) including approximately 42 square miles (109 square kilometers) underlain by the Western Middle Anthracite Field. As a result of more than 150 years of anthracite mining in the basin, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments have been adversely affected. Leakage from streams to underground mines and elevated concentrations (above background levels) of acidity, metals, and sulfate in the AMD from flooded underground mines and (or) unreclaimed culm (waste rock) degrade the aquatic ecosystem and impair uses of the main stem of Mahanoy Creek from its headwaters to its mouth on the Susquehanna River. Various tributaries also are affected, including North Mahanoy Creek, Waste House Run, Shenandoah Creek, Zerbe Run, and two unnamed tributaries locally called Big Mine Run and Big Run. The Little Mahanoy Creek and Schwaben Creek are the only major tributaries not affected by mining. To assess the current hydrological and chemical characteristics of the AMD and its effect on receiving streams, and to identify possible remedial alternatives, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a study in 2001, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and the Schuylkill Conservation District. Aquatic ecological surveys were conducted by the USGS at five stream sites during low base-flow conditions in October 2001. Twenty species of fish were identified in Schwaben Creek near Red Cross, which drains an unmined area of 22.7 square miles (58.8 square kilometers) in the lower part of the Mahanoy Creek Basin. In contrast, 14 species of fish were identified in Mahanoy Creek near its mouth at Kneass, below Schwaben Creek. The diversity and abundance of fish

  8. Use of brackish ground water resources for regional energy center development, Tularosa Basin, New Mexico: preliminary evaluation. Executive summary

    1977-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an impact and suitability profile for the use of the Tularosa Basin in south-central New Mexico as the potential location of an energy center. Underyling the Tularosa Basin is an aquifer system containing perhaps 40 million acre-feet of fresh and slightly saline (1-3 g/l) water that is theoretically recoverable and could be used for cooling and other energy-related or industrial purposes, particularly if energy development projects in other areas of the state and region are delayed, impeded, or cancelled because of uncertain availability or accessibility of water. This preliminary investigation of the Tularosa Basin reveals no outstanding features that would discourage further detailed analysis and planning for an energy complex. A major program of exploratory drilling, well logging, and testing is needed to determine aquifer characteristics and factors affecting well design. Since industrial development in the basin will necessarily involve Federal, state, and private lands, any serious plan will require collaboration of Federal, state, and local authorities

  9. Development of a systemwide predator control program: Stepwise implementation of a predation index, predator control fisheries, and evaluation plan in the Columbia River Basin. Volume 2 -- Evaluation: 1993 Annual report

    Willis, C.F.; Ward, D.L.

    1995-06-01

    An attempt was made to determine the extent to which northern squawfish predation on juvenile salmonids is a problem in the Columbia River Basin, and to evaluate how effectively fisheries can be used to control northern squawfish populations and reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation. These studies were initiated as part of a basinwide program to control northern squawfish predation and reduce mortality of juvenile salmonids on their migration to the ocean. Modeling simulations based on work in the John Day Reservoir from 1982 through 1988 indicated that if northern squawfish larger than 250 mm fork length were exploited, at a rate of 10--20%, reductions in their numbers and restructuring of their populations could reduce their predation on juvenile salmonids by 50% or more. The authors evaluated the success of three test fisheries conducted in 1993--a sport-reward fishery, a dam-angling fishery, and a trap-net fishery, to achieve a 10--20% exploitation rate on northern squawfish. The authors also began evaluating the response of northern squawfish populations to sustained fisheries. In addition, the authors gathered information regarding the economic, social, and legal feasibility of sustaining each fishery, and report on the structure and function of the fish collection and distribution system

  10. Building Columbia from the SysAdmin View

    Chan, David

    2005-01-01

    Project Columbia was built at NASA Ames Research Center in partnership with SGI and Intel. Columbia consists of 20 512 processor Altix machines with 440TB of storage and achieved 51.87 TeraPlops to be ranked the second fastest on the top 500 at SuperComputing 2004. Columbia was delivered, installed and put into production in 3 months. On average, a new Columbia node was brought into production in less than a week. Columbia's configuration, installation, and future plans will be discussed.

  11. Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Shamokin Creek Basin, Northumberland and Columbia Counties, Pennsylvania, 1999-2001

    Cravotta,, Charles A.; Kirby, Carl S.

    2003-01-01

    This report assesses the contaminant loading, effects to receiving streams, and possible remedial alternatives for abandoned mine drainage (AMD) within the upper Shamokin Creek Basin in east-central Pennsylvania. The upper Shamokin Creek Basin encompasses an area of 54 square miles (140 square kilometers) within the Western Middle Anthracite Field, including and upstream of the city of Shamokin. Elevated concentrations of acidity, metals, and sulfate in the AMD from flooded underground anthracite coal mines and (or) unreclaimed culm (waste rock) piles degrade the aquatic ecosystem and water quality of Shamokin Creek to its mouth and along many of its tributaries within the upper basin. Despite dilution by unpolluted streams that more than doubles the streamflow of Shamokin Creek in the lower basin, AMD contamination and ecological impairment persist to its mouth on the Susquehanna River at Sunbury, 20 miles (32 kilometers) downstream from the mined area. Aquatic ecological surveys were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Bucknell University (BU) and the Northumberland County Conservation District (NCCD) at six stream sites in October 1999 and repeated in 2000 and 2001 on Shamokin Creek below Shamokin and at Sunbury. In 1999, fish were absent from Quaker Run and Shamokin Creek upstream of its confluence with Carbon Run; however, creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) were present within three sampled reaches of Carbon Run. During 1999, 2000, and 2001, six or more species of fish were identified in Shamokin Creek below Shamokin and at Sunbury despite elevated concentrations of dissolved iron and ironencrusted streambeds at these sites. Data on the flow rate and chemistry for 46 AMD sources and 22 stream sites throughout the upper basin plus 1 stream site at Sunbury were collected by the USGS with assistance from BU and the Shamokin Creek Restoration Alliance (SCRA) during low base-flow conditions in August 1999 and high baseflow

  12. Confederated Tribes Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project : A Columbia River Basin Fish Habitat Project : Annual Report Fiscal Year 2007.

    Hoverson, Eric D.; Amonette, Alexandra

    2008-12-02

    The Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project (UAFHP) is an ongoing effort to protect, enhance, and restore riparian and instream habitat for the natural production of anadromous salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin, Northeast Oregon. Flow quantity, water temperature, passage, and lack of in-stream channel complexity have been identified as the key limiting factors in the basin. During the 2007 Fiscal Year (FY) reporting period (February 1, 2007-January 31, 2008) primary project activities focused on improving instream and riparian habitat complexity, migrational passage, and restoring natural channel morphology and floodplain function. Eight fisheries habitat enhancement projects were implemented on Meacham Creek, Camp Creek, Greasewood Creek, Birch Creek, West Birch Creek, and the Umatilla River. Specific restoration actions included: (1) rectifying five fish passage barriers on four creeks, (2) planting 1,275 saplings and seeding 130 pounds of native grasses, (3) constructing two miles of riparian fencing for livestock exclusion, (4) coordinating activities related to the installation of two off-channel, solar-powered watering areas for livestock, and (5) developing eight water gap access sites to reduce impacts from livestock. Baseline and ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities were also completed on major project areas such as conducting photo point monitoring strategies activities at the Meacham Creek Large Wood Implementation Project site (FY2006) and at all existing easements and planned project sites. Fish surveys and aquatic habitat inventories were conducted at project sites prior to implementation. Monitoring plans will continue throughout the life of each project to oversee progression and inspire timely managerial actions. Twenty-seven conservation easements were maintained with 23 landowners. Permitting applications for planned project activities and biological opinions were written and approved. Project activities were based on a variety

  13. The Columbia River System Inside Story

    None

    2001-04-01

    The Columbia River is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Pacific Northwest—from fostering world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying clean natural fuel for 50 to 65 percent of the region’s electrical generation. Since early in the 20th century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system.

  14. Potential Influence of Climate Change on the Acid-Sensitivity of High-Elevation Lakes in the Georgia Basin, British Columbia

    Donna Strang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Global climate models predict increased temperature and precipitation in the Georgia Basin, British Colmbia; however, little is known about the impacts on high-elevation regions. In the current study, fifty-four high-elevation lakes (754–2005 m a.s.l. were studied to investigate the potential influence of climate change on surface water acid-sensitivity. Redundancy analysis indicated that the concentration of nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, and associated metals was significantly influenced by climate parameters. Furthermore, these components differed significantly between biogeoclimatic zones. Modelled soil base cation weathering for a subset of the study lakes (n=11 was predicted to increase by 9% per 1°C increase in temperature. Changes in temperature and precipitation may potentially decrease the pH of surface waters owing to changes in anthropogenic deposition and organic acid production. In contrast, increased soil base cation weathering may increase the critical load (of acidity of high-elevation lakes. Ultimately, the determining factor will be whether enhanced base cation weathering is sufficient to buffer changes in natural and anthropogenic acidity. Mountain and high-elevation regions are considered early warning systems to climate change; as such, future monitoring is imperative to assess the potential ramifications of climate change on the hydrochemistry and acid-sensitivity of these surface waters.

  15. Geological characteristics and resource potentials of oil shale in Ordos Basin, Center China

    Yunlai, Bai; Yingcheng, Zhao; Long, Ma; Wu-jun, Wu; Yu-hu, Ma

    2010-09-15

    It has been shown that not only there are abundant oil, gas, coal, coal-bed gas, groundwater and giant uranium deposits but also there are abundant oil shale resources in Ordos basin. It has been shown also that the thickness of oil shale is, usually, 4-36m, oil-bearing 1.5%-13.7%, caloric value 1.66-20.98MJ/kg. The resource amount of oil shale with burial depth less than 2000 m is over 2000x108t (334). Within it, confirmed reserve is about 1x108t (121). Not only huge economic benefit but also precious experience in developing oil shale may be obtained in Ordos basin.

  16. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix C of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on andromous fish and juvenile fish transportation. The principal andromous fish in the Columbia basin include salmonid species (Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead) and nonsalmoinid andromous species (sturgeon, lamprey, and shad). Major sections in this document include the following: background, scope and process; affected environment for salmon and steelhead, shaded, lamprey, sturgeon; study methods; description of alternatives: qualitative and quantitative findings

  17. Stock Assessment of Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids : Final Report, Volume I, Chinook, Coho, Chum and Sockeye Salmon Summaries.

    Howell, Philip J.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose was to identify and characterize the wild and hatchery stocks of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia River Basin on the basis of currently available information. This report provides a comprehensive compilation of data on the status and life histories of Columbia Basin salmonid stocks.

  18. Development of a System wide Predator Control Program: Stepwise Implementation of a Predation Index, Predator Control Fisheries, and Evaluation Plan in the Columbia River Basin; Section II: Evaluation; 1996 Annual Report

    Young, Franklin R.

    1997-01-01

    Predator control fisheries aimed at reducing predation on juvenile salmonids by northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were implemented for the seventh consecutive year in the mainstream Columbia and Snake rivers

  19. Geologic studies of the Columbia Plateau: a status report

    Myers, C.W.; Price, S.M.

    1979-10-01

    The results of recent geologic studies of the Columbia Plateau, with emphasis on work completed under the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, Rockwell Hanford Operations, are summarized in this report. Geologic studies were performed mostly during the period from 1977 to 1979. The major objective of these studies was to examine the feasibility of using deep underground tunnels mined into Columbia River basalt beneath the Hanford Site for final storage of nuclear waste. The results are presented in four chapters: Introduction; Regional Geology; Pasco Basin Geology; and Seismicity and Tectonics. Results from surface mapping and remote sensing studies in the Washington State portion of the Columbia Plateau are presented in the Regional Geology chapter. Results from surface mapping, borehole studies, and geophysical surveys in the Pasco Basin are presented in the Pasco Basin Geology chapter. Results that relate to the tectonic stability of the Pasco Basin and Columbia Plateau and discussion of findings from earthquake monitoring in the region for the past ten years are summarized in the Seismicity and Tectonics chapter. A volume of Appendices is included. This volume contains a description of study tasks, a description of the methodology used in geophysical surveys the geophysical survey results, a summary of earthquake records in eastern Washington, a description of tectonic provinces, and a preliminary description of the regional tectonic setting of the Columbia Plateau

  20. Hydrologic bibliography of the Columbia River basalts in Washington

    Tanaka, H.H.; Wildrick, L.

    1978-07-01

    This bibliography is part of the hydrologic data compilation effort of the Columbia Plateau Hydrology Study, Rockwell Hanford Operations' Waste Isolation Program. It includes references on both surface and subsurface hydrology directly or indirectly related to the Washington State portion of the Columbia River basalts. A comprehensive, annotated bibliography of the Pasco Basin (including the Hanford site) hydrology has been prepared for Rockwell Hanford Operations under the Pasco Basin Hydrology Study. In order to avoid unnecessary duplication, no effort was made to include a complete list of bibliographic references on Hanford in this volume

  1. The acoustic streamflow-measuring system on the Columbia River at The Dalles, Oregon

    Smith, Winchell; Hubbard, Larry L.; Laenen, Antonius

    1971-01-01

    Records of discharge on the Columbia River at The Dalles, Oreg., are vital to the management of the complex water-development projects in the Columbia River basin. Accurate discharge figures are needed for consistent day-to-day management and are required to meet treaty obligations with Canada.

  2. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement. Appendix J, recreation

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix J of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on the recreational activities in the region. Major sections include the following: scope and processes; recreation in the Columbia River Basin today - by type, location, participation, user characteristics, factors which affect usage, and managing agencies; recreation analysis procedures and methodology; and alternatives and their impacts

  3. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix J: Recreation.

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix J of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on the recreational activities in the region. Major sections include the following: scope and processes; recreation in the Columbia River Basin today - by type, location, participation, user characteristics, factors which affect usage, and managing agencies; recreation analysis procedures and methodology; and alternatives and their impacts.

  4. The Origin of the Columbia Hills

    Rice, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    obvious large depressions have diameters that range from 350 to 820 m. Terra Nova: The Inner Basin and the Promised Land Newly acquired Pancam imagery, from the summit, allows for the unobstructed viewing of numerous interesting landforms on McCool Hill (ledges/terraces) the Inner Basin (Home Plate, buttes, ridges and dunes) and Promised Land located to the south of Husband Hill. Images from the surface and orbit shows a series of 4 to 5 ledges or terraces located on the both the south facing flanks of Husband Hill and north facing flanks of McCool Hill. Home Plate is a circular feature forming a raised platform up to 80 m across. This feature is surrounded by a series of buttes. Home Plate appears to be the floor of a heavily eroded crater and the buttes are crater rim remnants. The material capping the buttes appears to be the same material making up Home Plate. The Promised Land is a region of ridges and hills that contain some of the highest thermal inertia values of the Columbia Hills region. Plans are currently being made for the detailed exploration of these regions and landforms.

  5. Development of a systemwide predator control program: Stepwise implementation of a predation index, predator control fisheries, and evaluation plan in the Columbia River Basin. Section 2: Evaluation, Annual Report 1994

    Willis, C.F.; Young, F.R.

    1995-08-01

    The authors are reporting progress on evaluation of the Northern Squawfish Management Program in 1994. The objectives in 1994 were to (1) evaluate exploitation rate, size composition, and incidental catch of northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) captured in the various fisheries and estimate reductions in predation on juvenile salmonids since implementation of the management program, and (2) evaluate changes through 1994 in relative abundance, smolt consumption rate, size and age structure, growth, and fecundity of northern squawfish in lower Columbia and Snake River reservoirs and in the Columbia River downstream from Bonneville Dam

  6. Surface hydrologic investigations of the Columbia Plateau Region, Washington

    Leonhart, L.S.

    1979-07-01

    The Washington State portion of the Columbia Plateau is divided into six hydrologic sub-basins on the basis of the principal surface drainage systems present, structural and topographic relationships, and political and other considerations. Baseline descriptions of the surface water systems and resources are presented for the Columbia Plateau with emphasis on the Pasco Sub-basin. A preliminary evaluation of the hydrologic budget for each sub-basin is derived. For each sub-basin, recharge/discharge relationships arising from precipitation/evapotranspiration/runoff, stream losses and gains, and artificial mechanisms are determined on the basis of available data. The net exchange between surface and groundwater systems is evaluated and relative estimates of the net groundwater flow into or out of the sub-basin are obtained. An evaluation is made of hydrologic risk factors arising from: (1) tributary flooding in eastern Washington; and, (2) major flooding of the Columbia River within the Pasco Sub-basin. Scenarios are presented for credible natural and man-generated catastrophic events

  7. Surface hydrologic investigations of the Columbia Plateau region, Washington

    Leonhart, L.S.

    1979-01-01

    The Washington State portion of the Columbia Plateau is divided into six hydrologic sub-basins on the basis of the principal surface drainage systems present, structural and topographic relationships, and political and other considerations. Baseline descriptions of the surface water systems and resources are presented for the Columbia Plateau with emphasis on the Pasco Sub-basin. A preliminary evaluation of the hydrologic budget for each sub-basin is derived. For each sub-basin, recharge/discharge relationships arising from precipitation/evapotranspiration/runoff, stream losses and gains, and artificial mechanisms are determined on the basis of available data. The net exchange between surface and ground-water systems is evaluated and relative estimates of the net ground-water flow into or out of the sub-basin are obtained. An evaluation is made of hydrologic risk factors arising from: (1) tributary flooding in eastern Washington; and (2) major flooding of the Columbia River within the Pasco Sub-basin. Scenarios are presented for credible natural and man-generated catastrophic events

  8. Columbia River : Terminal Fisheries Research Report : Annual Report 1994.

    Hirose, Paul; Miller, Marc; Hill, Jim

    1996-12-01

    In 1993 the Northwest Power Planning Council recommended in its Strategy for Salmon that terminal fishing sites be identified and developed. The Council called on the Bonneville Power Administration to fund a 10-year study to investigate the feasibility of creating and expanding terminal known stock fisheries in the Columbia River Basin.

  9. KE Basin water dispositioning engineering study

    Hunacek, G.S.; Gahir, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    This engineering study is a feasibility study of KE Basin water treatment to an acceptable level and dispositioning the treated water to Columbia River, ground through ETF or to air through evaporation

  10. Origins of chemical diversity of back-arc basin basalts: a segment-scale study of the Eastern Lau Spreading Center

    Bézos, Antoine; Escrig, Stéphane; Langmuir, Charles H.; Michael, Peter J.; Asimow, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    We report major, trace, and volatile element data on basaltic glasses from the northernmost segment of the Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC1) in the Lau back-arc basin to further test and constrain models of back-arc volcanism. The zero-age samples come from 47 precisely collected stations from an 85 km length spreading center. The chemical data covary similarly to other back-arc systems but with tighter correlations and well-developed spatial systematics. We confirm a correlation between v...

  11. The Columbia River System : the Inside Story.

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The Columbia Ricer is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Northwest-from providing the world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying the clean natural fuel for over 75 percent of the region's electrical generation. Since early in the century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system. And through cooperative efforts, the floods that periodically threaten developments near the river can be controlled. This publication presents a detailed explanation of the planning and operation of the multiple-use dams and reservoirs of the Columbia River system. It describes the river system, those who operate and use it, the agreements and policies that guide system operation, and annual planning for multiple-use operation.

  12. USGS Activities at Lake Roosevelt and the Upper Columbia River

    Barton, Cynthia; Turney, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    Lake Roosevelt (Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake) is the impoundment of the upper Columbia River behind Grand Coulee Dam, and is the largest reservoir within the Bureau of Reclamation's Columbia Basin Project (CBP). The reservoir is located in northeastern Washington, and stretches 151 miles from Grand Coulee Dam north to the Canadian border. The 15-20 miles of the Columbia River downstream of the border are riverine and are under small backwater effects from the dam. Grand Coulee Dam is located on the mainstem of the Columbia River about 90 miles northwest of Spokane. Since the late 1980s, trace-element contamination has been known to be widely present in Lake Roosevelt. Trace elements of concern include arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc. Contaminated sediment carried by the Columbia River is the primary source of the widespread occurrence of trace-element enrichment present in Lake Roosevelt. In 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a preliminary assessment of environmental contamination of the Lake Roosevelt area (also referred to as Upper Columbia River, UCR site, or UCR/LR site) and has subsequently begun remedial investigations of the UCR site.

  13. Groundwater quality in the Columbia Plateau, Snake River Plain, and Oahu basaltic-rock and basin-fill aquifers in the Northwestern United States and Hawaii, 1992-2010

    Frans, Lonna M.; Rupert, Michael G.; Hunt, Charles D.; Skinner, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    This assessment of groundwater-quality conditions of the Columbia Plateau, Snake River Plain, and Oahu for the period 1992–2010 is part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. It shows where, when, why, and how specific water-quality conditions occur in groundwater of the three study areas and yields science-based implications for assessing and managing the quality of these water resources. The primary aquifers in the Columbia Plateau, Snake River Plain, and Oahu are mostly composed of fractured basalt, which makes their hydrology and geochemistry similar. In spite of the hydrogeologic similarities, there are climatic differences that affect the agricultural practices overlying the aquifers, which in turn affect the groundwater quality. Understanding groundwater-quality conditions and the natural and human factors that control groundwater quality is important because of the implications to human health, the sustainability of rural agricultural economies, and the substantial costs associated with land and water management, conservation, and regulation.

  14. 1992 Columbia River salmon flow measures Options Analysis/EIS

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described

  15. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS.

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described.

  16. The management of abandoned sites at the basin collieries of center and southern France and the procedure of stoppage of mining works

    Barriere, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The basin collieries of center and southern France (HBCM) have launched since 1993 the procedures of stoppage of mining works as foreseen by the mining rights and which will lead to the renunciation of their 148 concessions once the remediation of the sites has been completed. In order to cope with the enormous work of file and work follow up, a rigorous procedure and organization has been implemented in order to obtain all necessary prefecture by-laws by the end of 2005. (J.S.)

  17. Individual and cumulative effects of agriculture, forestry and metal mining activities on the metal and phosphorus content of fluvial fine-grained sediment; Quesnel River Basin, British Columbia, Canada.

    Smith, Tyler B; Owens, Philip N

    2014-10-15

    The impact of agriculture, forestry and metal mining on the quality of fine-grained sediment (sediment were collected monthly during the snow-free season in 2008 using time-integrated samplers at replicate sites representative of agriculture, forestry and mining activities in the basin (i.e. "impacted" sites). Samples were also collected from replicate reference sites and also from the main stem of the Quesnel River at the downstream confluence with the Fraser River. Generally, metal(loid) and phosphorus (P) concentrations for "impacted" sites were greater than for reference sites. Furthermore, concentrations of copper (forestry and mining sites), manganese (agriculture and forestry sites) and selenium (agriculture, forestry and mining sites) exceeded upper sediment quality guideline (SQG) thresholds. These results suggest that agriculture, forestry and metal mining activities are having an influence on the concentrations of sediment-associated metal(loid)s and P in the Quesnel basin. Metal(loid) and P concentrations of sediment collected from the downstream site were not significantly greater than values for the reference sites, and were typically lower than the values for the impacted sites. This suggests that the cumulative effects of agriculture, forestry and mining activities in the QRB are presently not having a measureable effect at the river basin-scale. The lack of a cumulative effect at the basin-scale is thought to reflect: (i) the relatively recent occurrence of land use disturbances in this basin; (ii) the dominance of sediment contributions from natural forest and agriculture; and (iii) the potential for storage of contaminants on floodplains and other storage elements between the locations of disturbance activities and the downstream sampling site, which may be attenuating the disturbance signal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix N: Wildlife.

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System is a vast and complex combination of Federal and non-Federal facilities used for many purposes including power production, irrigation, navigation, flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat and municipal and industrial water supply. Each river use competes for the limited water resources in the Columbia River Basin. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR. This document is the product of the Wildlife Work Group, focusing on wildlife impacts but not including fishes. Topics covered include the following: scope and process; existing and affected environment, including specific discussion of 18 projects in the Columbia river basin. Analysis, evaluation, and alternatives are presented for all projects. System wide impacts to wildlife are also included.

  19. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix N, wildlife

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System is a vast and complex combination of Federal and non-Federal facilities used for many purposes including power production, irrigation, navigation, flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat and municipal and industrial water supply. Each river use competes for the limited water resources in the Columbia River Basin. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR. This document is the product of the Wildlife Work Group, focusing on wildlife impacts but not including fishes. Topics covered include the following: scope and process; existing and affected environment, including specific discussion of 18 projects in the Columbia river basin. Analysis, evaluation, and alternatives are presented for all projects. System wide impacts to wildlife are also included

  20. Industrial natural gas supply options in British Columbia

    1994-01-01

    Information is provided on the availability and cost of natural gas in British Columbia for use by firms interested in establishing gas-intensive industrial facilities in the province. British Columbia has an abundant supply of natural gas, originating mainly from deposits in the westernmost part of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in the northeast part of the province. Recoverable resources in British Columbia are estimated at 1,000-1,400 billion m 3 . Over 200 producers compete to sell natural gas for both domestic and export markets. Gathering, processing, and transmission of the gas is undertaken mainly by the Westcoast Energy pipeline system, and distribution is undertaken by several distribution utilities. At present, all large industrial gas users buy their firm gas requirements directly from gas producers, often using gas marketers or brokers to assist in purchasing. Regulation of the gas industry is performed by the British Columbia Utilities Commission, which sets rules for energy supply contracts, and by the National Energy Board, which sets tolls for gathering, processing, and transporting gas. Factors affecting gas pricing are discussed, with reference to both the wellhead price and the cost of gathering, processing, and transportation. Firm gas costs for two hypothetical industrial loads in British Columbia are illustrated. Potential intensive uses of natural gas in the province are outlined, including power generation, liquefaction for export, manufacturing, production of direct reduced iron, and as petrochemical feedstocks. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Understanding the influence of predation on introduced fishes on juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River Basin: Closing some knowledge gaps. Late summer and fall diet and condition of smallmouth bass, walleye, and channel catfish in the middle Columbia River, USA. Interim Report of Research 2011.

    Rose, Brien P.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Weaver,; Ayers, David; Van Dyke, Erick S.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2012-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima in the middle Columbia River (MCR)—a high energy food available in the summer and fall—may be contributing to the increased growth and enhanced condition of nonnative piscivores. To test this hypothesis we quantified the late summer and autumn diets of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, walleye Sander vitreus, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in the three lowermost reservoirs on the Columbia River (Bonneville [BON], The Dalles [TDA], and John Day [JDA]). The diet of smallmouth bass (SMB) was fairly similar among reservoirs, with crustaceans (52–82%) and fish (13–38%) being the dominant prey groups by percent mass. Cottidae were usually the dominant fish prey in the diet of SMB at all areas and the contribution of juvenile shad ranged from 0–8.2%. Fish (mostly Cyprinidae and Cottidae) were always the dominant prey item for walleye (WAL) at all areas and at all times, ranging from 70–100% of their diet by mass. Juvenile American shad composed from 10–27% (by mass) of the diet of walleye, depending on area and month. For channel catfish (CHC), the most common prey items consumed were crustaceans (20%–80% by mass) and unidentified items (30%–80%). Fish represented a relatively small component (ranged from 0.89 to 0.94 depending on area and month and showed a significant increase from August to September for fish in BON only. Overall, mean Wr of WAL was similar at all areas, ranging from 0.89–0.91, and increased significantly from September to mid-October and November for fish in TDA only. Overall, mean HSI of SMB ranged from 1.18 to 1.48, did not differ between fish in different reservoirs, and increased significantly from September to mid-October and November for fish from the lower JDA only. Mean HSI of WAL was significantly higher in October and November (0.95±0.24) than in August (0.73±0.22). Collectively, our results are the first to describe the diets of SMB, WAL, and CHC over a large spatial area in

  2. British Columbia Utilities Commission 2001 annual report

    2002-06-01

    The main responsibility of the British Columbia Utilities Commission is to regulate energy utilities under its jurisdiction to ensure that energy rates are fair and that utility operators in the province provide safe, adequate and secure service to their customers. The Commission also approves the construction of new facilities planned by utilities. It also participates in the review of utility and energy projects under the Environmental Assessment Act. Several successes were achieved in 2001 as the utility implemented its first performance plan. Oral public hearings were held for applications by Pacific Northern Gas and by Pembina Pipelines, owners of the common carrier oil pipeline from Taylor to Kamloops. A review of BC Gas' rate design to apportion utility revenue requirements fairly to different classes of customers was successfully achieved by a negotiated settlement process. In 2001, there was also a high level of proposed mergers, acquisitions and divestitures. Duke Energy Corporation's share acquisition of Westcoast Energy's two affiliated gas utilities was approved. BC Gas' application to divest its customer care activities to a joint venture company with Enbridge was also reviewed, and an oral hearing was held to review a West Kootenay Power application to sell its Kootenay River hydroelectric generation assets to Columbia Basin Trust and the Columbia Power Corp. In this case, the decision rendered was that the sale terms had to be changed so that customers could share the proceeds. The utility therefore, decided not to proceed with the sale under these conditions. The BC Hydro legislated rate freeze, which was due to expire on September 30, 2001, was extended for an additional 18 months to allow the new provincial government time to implement a new energy policy. The new energy policy is expected to give the province an energy advantage by facilitating growth and diversification in energy production while providing competition and more choice for

  3. Development of a System-wide Predator Control Program: Stepwise Implementation of a Predation Index, Predator Control Fisheries, and Evaluation Plan in the Columbia River Basin; Northern Pikeminnow Management Program, 1998 Annual Report.

    Young, Franklin R.; Wachtel, Mark L.; Petersen, Marc R.

    2003-03-01

    We are reporting on the progress of the Northern Pikeminnow Sport-Reward Fishery (NPSRF) in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers for 1998. The objectives of this project were to (1) implement a sport fishery that rewards anglers who harvest northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis {ge}279 mm (11 inches) total length, (2) collect catch data on selected fish species caught by fishery participants while targeting northern pikeminnow, (3) monitor and report incidental catch of sensitive salmonid species by anglers targeting northern pikeminnow and, (4) collect, monitor and report data on angler participation, catch and catch per angler day of northern pikeminnow during the season. A total of 108,903 northern pikeminnow {ge}279 mm were harvested during the 1998 season and 21,959 angler days were spent harvesting these fish. Harvest was below the seven year average of 150,874 and participation was well below the seven-year average of 51,013 angler days. Catch per angler day for all anglers during the season was 4.96 and exceeded the seven-year average of 2.96 northern pikeminnow per angler day. Peamouth Mylocheilus caurinus, and white sturgeon Acipencer transmontanus, were the other species most often harvested by returning NPSRF anglers targeting northern pikeminnow. Harvest of salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. by NPSRF anglers targeting northern pikeminnow remained below limits established by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS).

  4. Basin-Scale Assessment of the Land Surface Energy Budget in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Operational and Research NLDAS-2 Systems

    Xia, Youlong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Cosgrove, Brian A.; Mitchell, Kenneth E.; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Ek, Michael B.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Mocko, David M.; Wei, Helin

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares the annual and monthly components of the simulated energy budget from the North American Land Data Assimilation System phase 2 (NLDAS-2) with reference products over the domains of the 12 River Forecast Centers (RFCs) of the continental United States (CONUS). The simulations are calculated from both operational and research versions of NLDAS-2. The reference radiation components are obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Surface Radiation Budget product. The reference sensible and latent heat fluxes are obtained from a multitree ensemble method applied to gridded FLUXNET data from the Max Planck Institute, Germany. As these references are obtained from different data sources, they cannot fully close the energy budget, although the range of closure error is less than 15%formean annual results. The analysis here demonstrates the usefulness of basin-scale surface energy budget analysis for evaluating model skill and deficiencies. The operational (i.e., Noah, Mosaic, and VIC) and research (i.e., Noah-I and VIC4.0.5) NLDAS-2 land surface models exhibit similarities and differences in depicting basin-averaged energy components. For example, the energy components of the five models have similar seasonal cycles, but with different magnitudes. Generally, Noah and VIC overestimate (underestimate) sensible (latent) heat flux over several RFCs of the eastern CONUS. In contrast, Mosaic underestimates (overestimates) sensible (latent) heat flux over almost all 12 RFCs. The research Noah-I and VIC4.0.5 versions show moderate-to-large improvements (basin and model dependent) relative to their operational versions, which indicates likely pathways for future improvements in the operational NLDAS-2 system.

  5. Basin-scale assessment of the land surface energy budget in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction operational and research NLDAS-2 systems

    Xia, Youlong; Cosgrove, Brian A.; Mitchell, Kenneth E.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Ek, Michael B.; Kumar, Sujay; Mocko, David; Wei, Helin

    2016-01-01

    This paper compares the annual and monthly components of the simulated energy budget from the North American Land Data Assimilation System phase 2 (NLDAS-2) with reference products over the domains of the 12 River Forecast Centers (RFCs) of the continental United States (CONUS). The simulations are calculated from both operational and research versions of NLDAS-2. The reference radiation components are obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Surface Radiation Budget product. The reference sensible and latent heat fluxes are obtained from a multitree ensemble method applied to gridded FLUXNET data from the Max Planck Institute, Germany. As these references are obtained from different data sources, they cannot fully close the energy budget, although the range of closure error is less than 15% for mean annual results. The analysis here demonstrates the usefulness of basin-scale surface energy budget analysis for evaluating model skill and deficiencies. The operational (i.e., Noah, Mosaic, and VIC) and research (i.e., Noah-I and VIC4.0.5) NLDAS-2 land surface models exhibit similarities and differences in depicting basin-averaged energy components. For example, the energy components of the five models have similar seasonal cycles, but with different magnitudes. Generally, Noah and VIC overestimate (underestimate) sensible (latent) heat flux over several RFCs of the eastern CONUS. In contrast, Mosaic underestimates (overestimates) sensible (latent) heat flux over almost all 12 RFCs. The research Noah-I and VIC4.0.5 versions show moderate-to-large improvements (basin and model dependent) relative to their operational versions, which indicates likely pathways for future improvements in the operational NLDAS-2 system.

  6. The design and analysis of salmonid tagging studies in the Columbia Basin. Volume 10: Instructional guide to using program CaptHist to create SURPH files for survival analysis using PTAGIS data files

    Westhagen, P.; Skalski, J.

    1997-12-01

    The SURPH program is a valuable tool for estimating survivals and capture probabilities of fish outmigrations on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Using special data files, SURPH computes reach to reach statistics for any release group passing a system of detection sites. Because the data must be recorded for individual fish, PIT tag data is best suited for use as input. However, PIT tag data as available from PTAGIS comes in a form that is not ready for use as SURPH input. SURPH requires a capture history for each fish. A capture history consists of a series of fields, one for each detection site, that has a code for whether the fish was detected and returned to the river, detected and removed, or not detected. For the PTAGIS data to be usable by SURPH it must be pre-processed. The data must be condensed down to one line per fish with the relevant detection information from the PTAGIS file represented compactly on each line. In addition, the PTAGIS data file coil information must be passed through a series of logic algorithms to determine whether or not a fish is returned to the river after detection. Program CaptHist was developed to properly pre-process the PTAGIS data files for input to program SURPH. This utility takes PTAGIS data files as input and creates a SURPH data file as well as other output including travel time records, detection date records, and a data error file. CaptHist allows a user to download PTAGIS files and easily process the data for use with SURPH

  7. Origins of chemical diversity of back-arc basin basalts: A segment-scale study of the Eastern Lau Spreading Center

    BéZos, Antoine; Escrig, StéPhane; Langmuir, Charles H.; Michael, Peter J.; Asimow, Paul D.

    2009-06-01

    We report major, trace, and volatile element data on basaltic glasses from the northernmost segment of the Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC1) in the Lau back-arc basin to further test and constrain models of back-arc volcanism. The zero-age samples come from 47 precisely collected stations from an 85 km length spreading center. The chemical data covary similarly to other back-arc systems but with tighter correlations and well-developed spatial systematics. We confirm a correlation between volatile content and apparent extent of melting of the mantle source but also show that the data cannot be reproduced by the model of isobaric addition of water that has been broadly applied to back-arc basins. The new data also confirm that there is no relationship between mantle temperature and the wet melting productivity. Two distinct magmatic provinces can be identified along the ELSC1 axis, a southern province influenced by a "wet component" with strong affinities to arc volcanism and a northern province influenced by a "damp component" intermediate between enriched mid-ocean ridge basalts (E-MORB) and arc basalts. High-field strength elements and rare earth elements are all mobilized to some extent by the wet component, and the detailed composition of this component is determined. It differs in significant ways from the Mariana component reported by E. Stolper and S. Newman (1994), particularly by having lower abundances of most elements relative to H2O. The differences can be explained if the slab temperature is higher for the Mariana and the source from which the fluid is derived is more enriched. The ELSC1 damp component is best explained by mixing between the wet component and an E-MORB-like component. We propose that mixing between water-rich fluids and low-degree silicate melts occurs at depth in the subduction zone to generate the chemical diversity of the ELSC1 subduction components. These modified sources then rise independently to the surface and melt, and these

  8. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    1995-11-01

    Since the 1930's, the Columbia River has been harnessed for the benefit of the Northwest and the nation. Federal agencies have built 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries. Dozens of non-Federal projects have been developed as well. The dams provide flood control, irrigation, navigation, hydro-electric power generation, recreation, fish and wildlife, and streamflows for wildlife, anadromous fish, resident fish, and water quality. This is Appendix F of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System, focusing on irrigation issues and concerns arrising from the Irrigation and Mitigation of impacts (M ampersand I) working Group of the SOR process. Major subheadings include the following: Scope and process of irrigation/M ampersand I studies; Irrigation/M ampersand I in the Columbia Basin Today including overview, irrigated acreage and water rights, Irrigation and M ampersand I issues basin-wide and at specific locations; and the analysis of impacts and alternative for the Environmental Impact Statement

  9. Hydrologic modeling of the Columbia Plateau basalts

    Dove, F.H.; Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.; Zimmerman, D.A.

    1982-09-01

    The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) directed the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program to conduct a technology demonstration of current performance assessment techniques for the Department of Energy (DOE) as applied to a nuclear waste repository in the Columbia Plateau Basalts. Hypothetical repository coordinates were selected for an actual geographical setting on the Hanford Reservation in the state of Washington. Published hydrologic and geologic data used in the analyses were gathered in 1979 or earlier. The hydrologic simulation was divided into three major parts: (1) aquifer recharge calculations, (2) a regional hydrologic model, and (3) a local hydrologic model of the Pasco Basin. The presentation discusses the regional model. An estimate of the amount of water transmitted through the groundwater system was required to bound the transmissivity values and to estimate the transmissivity distributions for the deeper basalts. The multiple layer two-dimensional Variable Thickness Transient (VTT) code was selected as appropriate for the amount of data available and for the conditions existing in the regional systems. This model uses a finite difference formulation to represent the partial differential flow equation. The regional study area as defined for the VTT model was divided into 55 by 55 square pattern with each grid 5 kilometers on a side. The regional system was modeled as a held potential surface layer and two underlying basalt layers. The regional model established the boundary conditions for the hydrologic model the Pasco Basin

  10. Preliminary subsurface hydrologic considerations: Columbia River Plateau Physiographic Province. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    Veatch, M.D.

    1980-04-01

    This report contains a discussion of the hydrologic conditions of the Columbia River Plateau physiographic province. The Columbia River Plateau is underlain by a thick basalt sequence. The Columbia River basalt sequence contains both basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds. These sedimentary interbeds, which are layers of sedimentary rock between lava flows, are the main aquifer zones in the basalt sequence. Permeable interflow zones, involving the permeable top and/or rubble bottom of a flow, are also water-transmitting zones. A number of stratigraphic units are present in the Pasco Basin, which is in the central part of the Columbia River Plateau. At a conceptual level, the stratigraphic sequence from the surface downward can be separated into four hydrostratigraphic systems. These are: (1) the unsaturated zone, (2) the unconfined aquifer, (3) the uppermost confined aquifers, and (4) the lower Yakima basalt hydrologic sequence. A conceptual layered earth model (LEM) has been developed. The LEM represents the major types of porous media (LEM units) that may be encountered at a number of places on the Columbia Plateau, and specifically in the Pasco Basin. The conceptual LEM is not representative of the actual three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic sequence and hydrologic conditions existing at any specific site within the Columbia Plateau physiographic province. However, the LEM may be useful for gaining a better understanding of how the hydrologic regime may change as a result of disruptive events that may interact with a waste repository in geologic media

  11. Regional futures: British Columbia

    Rees, W.

    1993-01-01

    Two paradigms that are the source of present-day economic development policies are described. The dominant paradigm is the expansionist world view that assumes economic growth is essentially unlimited, subject to certain constraints, and that the best way to monitor the human economy is through money flows. The steady-state or ecological world view assumes there are real constraints on material throughput and growth, and puts a significant emphasis on natural capital as a form of wealth which is distinct from economic or manufactured capital. Over the long term, each generation must receive from the previous generation at least an adequate stock of natural capital assets to ensure long-term sustainability. For every major category of consumption, such as food and energy, an ecological footprint can be assigned which represents the land needed to sustain a given pattern of consumption. For the lower mainland of British Columbia, this footprint would be about 22 times the actual land area; for the Netherlands, it would be about 15 times larger than the country itself. On a global basis, only about 1.7 hectares per capita of ecologically productive land is actually available, showing that Canadian material standards would not be sustainable on a global level. The steady-state approach to economic development would involve a local and regional approach from the bottom up, preferring small-scale labor-intensive enterprise. Trade would be limited to trading in real ecological surpluses, and value-added products would be made locally instead of shipping raw materials for processing elsewhere. 5 figs

  12. Watershed Planning Basins

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  13. Status report : British Columbia`s economic plan

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    A sector-by-sector update of actions taken under British Columbia`s three-year economic plan is outlined and the progress to date reviewed. The three year plan includes the support for industry growth in partnership with the private sector, making Vancouver a major international conference destination, and developing Vancouver International Airport into a major gateway to the Pacific. The plan also includes the promotion of adventure tourism in major international markets, and promoting aboriginal tourism and culture. The government also plans to stimulate the economy by providing $973 million in tax reductions for BC families and business. 1 tab.

  14. Columbia River water quality monitoring

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Waste water from Hanford activities is discharged at eight points along the Hanford reach of the Columbia River. These discharges consist of backwash water from water intake screens, cooling water, river bank springs, water storage tank overflow, and fish laboratory waste water. Each discharge point is identified in an existing National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued by the EPA. Effluents from each of these outfalls are routinely monitored and reported by the operating contractors as required by their NPDES permits. Measurements of several Columbia River water quality parameters were conducted routinely during 1982 both upstream and downstream of the Hanford Site to monitor any effects on the river that may be attributable to Hanford discharges and to determine compliance with the Class A designation requirements. The measurements indicated that Hanford operations had a minimal, if any, impact on the quality of the Columbia River water

  15. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix C: Anadromous Fish and Juvenile Fish Transportation.

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix C of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on andromous fish and juvenile fish transportation. The principal andromous fish in the Columbia basin include salmonid species (Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead) and nonsalmoinid andromous species (sturgeon, lamprey, and shad). Major sections in this document include the following: background, scope and process; affected environment for salmon and steelhead, shaded, lamprey, sturgeon; study methods; description of alternatives: qualitative and quantitative findings.

  16. Great Basin Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    E. Durant McArthur; Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    This annotated bibliography documents the research that has been conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range (GBER, also known as the Utah Experiment Station, Great Basin Station, the Great Basin Branch Experiment Station, Great Basin Experimental Center, and other similar name variants) over the 102 years of its existence. Entries were drawn from the original...

  17. The Columbia University Management Program.

    Yavarkovsky, Jerome; Haas, Warren J.

    In 1971, a management consulting firm undertook a case study of the Columbia University libraries to improve library performance by reviewing and strengthening the organization and recasting staff composition and deployment patterns. To implement the study's recommendations, an administrative structure was proposed which would emphasize functional…

  18. MHD simulation of Columbia HBT

    Li, X.L.

    1987-01-01

    The plasma of Columbia High Beta Tokamak (HBT) is studied numerically by using the two dimensional resistive MHD model. The main object of this work is to understand the high beta formation process of HBT plasma and to compare the simulation with the experiments. 21 refs., 48 figs., 2 tabs

  19. British Columbia : an alternative design

    Ostergaard, P.

    2003-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation outlined the British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines' approach to the electricity market. A brief overview of the electric system in the province was provided, examining capacity (primarily hydro based) and the utility sector with its public ownership. In British Columbia, 80 per cent of the electricity is generated by British Columbia Hydro (BC Hydro). The rates are based on cost of service. British Columbia's market is western North America. A comparison of monthly bills for several large cities, both Canadian and American, was displayed. The market reviews conducted in 1995, 1998, and 2002 were reviewed and the major recommendations discussed. The author identified the opportunities in the province, discussing natural gas and coal for electricity production, resource potential, demand, and private sector capacity. The challenges facing the province are: cost effective development of resources to meet energy demand; aging infrastructure, high reliability requirements and economic growth; evolving electricity market structure in the United States; and, monopoly. The transmission system was reviewed with reference to trade with the Pacific Northwest, flexibility and storage. The energy plan objectives for the future were presented, including low rates and public ownership, secure and reliable supply, more private sector opportunities, and environmental responsibility. The alternative market structure includes regulated market characteristics, access to trade, and customer focus. figs

  20. Iteroparity in Columbia River summer-run steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) : implications for conservation

    Keefer, M.L.; Boggs, C.T.; Peery, C.A.; Evans, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the outmigration environment for steelhead kelts (anadromous rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Columbia River Basin, where summer-run kelts must pass up to 9 hydroelectric dams and reservoirs to reach the Pacific Ocean. Such fish passage barriers present many direct and indirect mortality hazards for outmigrating kelts. In some years, kelt migration mortality in the impounded portion of the system can be higher than 95 per cent. Current efforts to improve kelt survival in the Columbia system include increasing iteroparity to take advantage of genetic and demographic benefits of repeat spawners. Some of the basic iteroparity information gaps in the aggregated summer-run steelhead population of the interior Columbia River Basin were addressed in this study. Kelt demographics were collected along the outmigration corridor. Repeat spawner return rates were examined along with kelt demographics, outmigration timing and collection location and year. The roles of these factors in predicting repeat spawner returns were evaluated using an information-theoretic approach. The life history characteristics of returning fish was examined with reference to breeding interval, migration timing and distribution within the Columbia River Basin. The study tested whether repeat spawner return rates would be affected by outmigration distance and whether they would differ among demographic groups. It was concluded that the expression of iteroparity among interior Columbia River steelhead has persisted despite decades of impoundment-related selection pressures. Post spawn kelts and repeat spawners in downstream fish bypass systems at the Columbia River and Snake River dams were found to be disproportionately female and of wild origin. The results of this study provide baseline data for evaluating kelt mortality mitigation efforts and basic life history information for steelhead conservation planning. 78 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  1. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Summary

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System Operation Review (SOR) is being conducted jointly by the US Army Corps of Engineers, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the Bonneville Power Administration. This summary of the SOR story begins where the Draft EIS summary left off. It is divided into seven parts, each of which reports some aspect of the study's outcome: Part 1 is a history. The SOR was not a simple study on any level, and to understand the EIS alternatives, some background is necessary. Part 2 reports the major findings of the technical analysis of alternative system operating strategies, and presents the agencies' Preferred Alternative. Part 3 explains actions the agencies may take with respect to the Columbia River Regional Forum, the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement, and the Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements. Part 4 presents the Purpose and Need, elements at the core of any Federal EIS. It includes a map showing the Columbia River Basin and information on the affected Federal projects. Part 5 describes the substantial public participation and outreach that occurred during the SOR, and Part 6 summarizes efforts to incorporate the Tribal perspective into the study. Part 7 describes other activities that will be taking place in the next few years, which are related to and build upon the SOR

  2. Review of the upper Cenozoic stratigraphy overlying the Columbia River Basalt Group in western Idaho

    Strowd, W.B.

    1980-12-01

    This report is a synthesis of information currently available on the rocks that stratigraphically overlie the Columbia River Basalt Group in Idaho. The primary objective is to furnish a brief but comprehensive review of the literature available on upper Cenozoic rocks in western Idaho and to discuss their general stratigraphic relationships. This study also reviews the derivation of the present stratigraphy and notes weaknesses in our present understanding of the geology and the stratigraphy. This report was prepared in support of a study to evaluate the feasibility of nuclear waste storage in the Columbia River Basalt Group of the Pasco Basin, Washington

  3. NIEHS/EPA Children’s Environmental Health Centers: Lifecourse Exposures & Diet: Epigenetics, Maturation & Metabolic Syndrome

    The Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) at Columbia University studies long-term health of urban pollutants on children raised in minority neighborhoods in inner-city communities.

  4. NIEHS/EPA CEHCs: Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Center - Dartmouth College

    The Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) at Columbia University studies long-term health of urban pollutants on children raised in minority neighborhoods in inner-city communities.

  5. Bird-habitat relationships in interior Columbia Basin shrubsteppe

    Earnst, S.L.; Holmes, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    Vegetation structure is considered an important habitat feature structuring avian communities. In the sagebrush biome, both remotely-sensed and field-acquired measures of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) cover have proven valuable in understanding avian abundance. Differences in structure between the exotic annual cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and native bunchgrasses are also expected to be important. We used avian abundance data from 318 point count stations, coupled with field vegetation measurements and a detailed vegetation map, to model abundance for four shrub- and four grassland-associated avian species in southeastern Washington shrubsteppe. Specifically, we ask whether species distinguish between bunchgrass and cheatgrass, and whether mapped, categorical cover types adequately explain species' abundance or whether fine-grained, field-measured differences in vegetation cover are also important. Results indicate that mapped cover types alone can be useful for predicting patterns of distribution and abundance within the sagebrush biome for several avian species (five of eight studied here). However, field-measured sagebrush cover was a strong positive predictor for Sage Sparrow (Amphispiza belli), the only sagebrush obligate in this study, and a strong negative predictor for two grassland associates, Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris) and Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum). Likewise, shrub associates did not differ in abundance in sagebrush with a cheatgrass vs. bunchgrass understory, but grassland associates were more common in either bunchgrass (Horned Lark and Grasshopper Sparrow) or cheatgrass grasslands (Long-billed Curlew, Numenius americanus), or tended to use sagebrush-cheatgrass less than sagebrush-bunchgrass (Horned Lark, Grasshopper Sparrow, and Savannah Sparrow, Passerculus sandwichensis).

  6. Synthesis of juvenile lamprey migration and passage research and monitoring at Columbia and Snake River Dams

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Weiland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.

    2016-01-01

    We compiled and summarized previous sources of data and research results related to the presence, numbers, and migration timing characteristics of juvenile (eyed macropthalmia) and larval (ammocoetes) Pacific lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus, in the Columbia River basin (CRB). Included were data from various screw trap collections, data from historic fyke net studies, catch records of lampreys at JBS facilities, turbine cooling water strainer collections, and information on the occurrence of lampreys in the diets of avian and piscine predators. We identified key data gaps and uncertainties that should be addressed in a juvenile lamprey passage research program. The goal of this work was to summarize information from disparate sources so that managers can use it to prioritize and guide future research and monitoring efforts related to the downstream migration of juvenile Pacific lamprey within the CRB. A common finding in all datasets was the high level of variation observed for CRB lamprey in numbers present, timing and spatial distribution. This will make developing monitoring programs to accurately characterize lamprey migrations and passage more challenging. Primary data gaps centered around our uncertainty on the numbers of juvenile and larval present in the system which affects the ability to assign risk to passage conditions and prioritize management actions. Recommendations include developing standardized monitoring methods, such as at juvenile bypass systems (JBS’s), to better document numbers and timing of lamprey migrations at dams, and use biotelemetry tracking techniques to estimate survival potentials for different migration histories.

  7. Neogene fallout tuffs from the Yellowstone hotspot in the Columbia Plateau region, Oregon, Washington and Idaho, USA.

    Barbara P Nash

    Full Text Available Sedimentary sequences in the Columbia Plateau region of the Pacific Northwest ranging in age from 16-4 Ma contain fallout tuffs whose origins lie in volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in northwestern Nevada, eastern Oregon and the Snake River Plain in Idaho. Silicic volcanism began in the region contemporaneously with early eruptions of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG, and the abundance of widespread fallout tuffs provides the opportunity to establish a tephrostratigrahic framework for the region. Sedimentary basins with volcaniclastic deposits also contain diverse assemblages of fauna and flora that were preserved during the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, including Sucker Creek, Mascall, Latah, Virgin Valley and Trout Creek. Correlation of ashfall units establish that the lower Bully Creek Formation in eastern Oregon is contemporaneous with the Virgin Valley Formation, the Sucker Creek Formation, Oregon and Idaho, Trout Creek Formation, Oregon, and the Latah Formation in the Clearwater Embayment in Washington and Idaho. In addition, it can be established that the Trout Creek flora are younger than the Mascall and Latah flora. A tentative correlation of a fallout tuff from the Clarkia fossil beds, Idaho, with a pumice bed in the Bully Creek Formation places the remarkably well preserved Clarkia flora assemblage between the Mascall and Trout Creek flora. Large-volume supereruptions that originated between 11.8 and 10.1 Ma from the Bruneau-Jarbidge and Twin Falls volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in the central Snake River Plain deposited voluminous fallout tuffs in the Ellensberg Formation which forms sedimentary interbeds in the CRBG. These occurrences extend the known distribution of these fallout tuffs 500 km to the northwest of their source in the Snake River Plain. Heretofore, the distal products of these large eruptions had only been recognized to the east of their sources in the High Plains of Nebraska and Kansas.

  8. Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) in southeastern Oregon: A survey of historical localities, 2009

    Pearl, Chistopher A.; Galvan, Stephanie K.; Adams, Michael J.; McCreary, Brome

    2010-01-01

    The Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) occupies a large range in western North America and is comprised of at least three genetic units. Concern exists regarding the status of the Great Basin populations in Oregon, Idaho, and Nevada. We surveyed target and nearby alternate sites on public lands in southeastern Oregon where there was evidence that Columbia spotted frogs were historically present. We found the species at 59.5 percent (25 of 42) of target or nearby alternate sites. They were in 15 of 23 permanent streams and 8 of 13 intermittent streams. Our surveys do not provide evidence of widespread population losses in our sites. Interpretation of status of Columbia spotted frogs in this study is limited by a lack of precision in some of the historical locations and by our inability to determine if locations where only adults were indicated in the historical record once had breeding populations. Our results support the need for continued investigation of these populations.

  9. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  10. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix O, economic and social impact

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included

  11. Hydraulic and sedimentary processes causing anastomosing morphology of the upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada

    Makaske, B.; Smith, D.G.; Berendsen, H.J.A.; Boer, de A.G.; Nielen-Kiezebrink, van M.F.; Locking, T.

    2009-01-01

    The upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada, shows typical anastomosing morphology - multiple interconnected channels that enclose floodbasins - and lateral channel stability We analysed field data on hydraulic and sedimentary processes and show that the anastomosing morphology of the upper

  12. Columbia River Component Data Evaluation Summary Report

    C.S. Cearlock

    2006-08-02

    The purpose of the Columbia River Component Data Compilation and Evaluation task was to compile, review, and evaluate existing information for constituents that may have been released to the Columbia River due to Hanford Site operations. Through this effort an extensive compilation of information pertaining to Hanford Site-related contaminants released to the Columbia River has been completed for almost 965 km of the river.

  13. Addressing climate change impacts and trans-boundary agreements on the Columbia River

    Vaddey, S.

    2008-01-01

    Research is showing that climate change could systematically affect hydrologic variability in the Columbia River basin. Changes in winter temperatures and mountain snowpack could result in increased winter flow, earlier peak flows, and decreased spring and summer flow volumes. Model results also show that snowpack in the Canadian portion of the Columbia basin is less sensitive to warming in comparison to portions of the basin in the U.S. and in turn could 'unbalance' current coordination agreements. These hydrologic changes are likely to result in impacts to operation of Columbia River dams that will require ongoing adaptations as warming progresses. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is responsible for management of many hydropower and flood control projects on the Columbia River and its tributaries, and are thus expected to play an integral role in planning for and adapting to climate change in the Basin. USACE has worked closely with the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), resource agencies (USFWS, and NMFS) and tribal interests in dealing with Columbia River operations. Within this collaborative process there have been efforts to look at climate change impacts in operations planning; however, the efforts are just getting underway and they are not strongly coordinated among the various stakeholders. As preparations are being made for renewal of the Columbia River Treaty between Canada and the U.S. it is clear to all participants that a coordinated and comprehensive approach to consider climate impacts is required. This paper argues for and provides a framework for the implementation of a new comprehensive climate impacts program coordinated by stakeholders on the Columbia River. Such a program would address questions such as: What is the current range of predicted changes to streamflow and resulting system power generation? Under what framework would decisions be made as to where and when mitigation or adaptation

  14. Feasibility and Risks of Coho Reintroduction in Mid-Columbia [Tributaries] Monitoring and Evaluation, 1999 Annual Report.

    Dunnigan, James L. (Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Toppenish, WA)

    1999-10-01

    The long-term vision for the coho re-introduction project is to reestablish naturally reproducing coho salmon populations in mid-Columbia river basins, with numbers at or near carrying capacity that provide opportunities for significant harvest for Tribal and non-Tribal fishers.

  15. Columbia

    Emiliani, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    The abundant economically proven coal reserves, enough to last at least 220 years, well distributed around the world and the existence of a great number of reliable and low-cost producers, assures that the supply of coal will definitely exist in the short and long term run. In accordance with that situation, Colombia as one of the existing suppliers in the international steam coal market, made a colossal long term commitment at El Cerrejon Mine and is looking forward to other new mining developments which this paper describes

  16. Immunization delivery in British Columbia

    Omura, John; Buxton, Jane; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Catterson, Jason; Li, Jane; Derban, Andrea; Hasselback, Paul; Machin, Shelagh; Linekin, Michelle; Morgana, Tamsin; O’Briain, Barra; Scheifele, David; Dawar, Meena

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the experiences of family physicians and pediatricians delivering immunizations, including perceived barriers and supports. Design Qualitative study using focus groups. Setting Ten cities throughout British Columbia. Participants A total of 46 family physicians or general practitioners, 10 pediatricians, and 2 residents. Methods A semistructured dialogue guide was used by a trained facilitator to explore participants’ experiences and views related to immunization delivery in British Columbia. Verbatim transcriptions were independently coded by 2 researchers. Key themes were analyzed and identified in an iterative manner using interpretive description. Main findings Physicians highly valued vaccine delivery. Factors facilitating physician-delivered immunizations included strong beliefs in the value of vaccines and having adequate information. Identified barriers included the large time commitment and insufficient communication about program changes, new vaccines, and the adult immunization program in general. Some physicians reported good relationships with local public health, while others reported the opposite experience, and this varied by geographic location. Conclusion These findings suggest that physicians are supportive of delivering vaccines. However, there are opportunities to improve the sustainability of physician-delivered immunizations. While compensation schemes remain under the purview of the provincial governments, local public health authorities can address the information needs of physicians. PMID:24627403

  17. Hydrologic bibliography of the Columbia River basalts in Washington with selected annotations

    Tanaka, H.; Wildrick, L.; Pearson, B.

    1979-08-01

    The objective of this compilation is to present a comprehensive listing of the published, unpublished, and open file references pertaining to the surface and subsurface hydrology of the Columbia River basalts within the State of Washington and is presented in support of Rockwell's hydrologic data compilation effort for the Basalt Waste Isolation Program. A comprehensive, annotated bibliography of the Pasco Basin (including the Hanford Site) hydrology has been prepared for Rockwell as part of the Pasco Basin hydrology studies. In order to avoid unnecessary duplication, no effort was made to include a complete list of bibliographic references on Hanford in this volume

  18. NIEHS/EPA Children’s Environmental Health Centers: Novel Methods to Assess Effects of Chemicals on Child Development

    The Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) at Columbia University studies long-term health of urban pollutants on children raised in minority neighborhoods in inner-city communities.

  19. Evaluation of Columbia, U.S. Meat Animal Research Center Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams as terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: VI. Measurements of live-lamb and carcass shape and their relationship to carcass yield and value.

    Notter, D R; Mousel, M R; Leeds, T D; Zerby, H N; Moeller, S J; Lewis, G S; Taylor, J B

    2014-05-01

    Linear measurements on live lambs and carcasses can be used to characterize sheep breeds and may have value for prediction of carcass yield and value. This study used 512 crossbred lambs produced over 3 yr by mating Columbia, U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams to adult Rambouillet ewes to assess sire-breed differences in live-animal and carcass shape and to evaluate the value of shape measurements as predictors of chilled carcass weight (CCW), weight of high-value cuts (rack, loin, leg, and sirloin; HVW), weight of trimmed high-value cuts (trimmed rack and loin and trimmed, boneless leg and sirloin; TrHVW), and estimated carcass value before (CVal) and after trimming of high-value cuts (TrCVal). Lambs were produced under extensive rangeland conditions, weaned at an average age of 132 d, fed a concentrate diet in a drylot, and harvested in each year in 3 groups at target mean BW of 54, 61, and 68 kg. Canonical discriminant analysis indicated that over 93% of variation among sire breeds was accounted for by the contrast between tall, long, less-thickly muscled breeds with greater BW and CCW (i.e., the Columbia and Suffolk) compared with shorter, more thickly muscled breeds with smaller BW and CCW. After correcting for effects of year, harvest group, sire breed, and shipping BW, linear measurements on live lambs contributed little to prediction of CCW. Similarly, after accounting for effects of CCW, linear measurements on live animals further reduced residual SD (RSD) of dependent variables by 0.2 to 5.7%, with generally positive effects of increasing live leg width and generally negative effects of increasing heart girth. Carcass measurements were somewhat more valuable as predictors of carcass merit. After fitting effects of CCW, additional consideration of carcass shape reduced RSD by 2.1, 3.6, 9.5, and 2.2% for HVW, TrHVW, CVal, and TrCVal, respectively. Effects of increasing carcass leg width were positive for HVW, Tr

  20. Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.

    Warren, Dan [Hatchery Scientific Review Group

    2009-04-16

    for Puget Sound/Coastal Washington hatchery programs, followed by the development in 2005 of a suite of analytical tools to support application of the principles (all reports and tools are available at www.hatcheryreform.us). In 2005, Congress directed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) to replicate the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project in the Columbia River Basin. The HSRG was expanded to 14 members to include individuals with specific knowledge about the Columbia River salmon and steelhead populations. This second phase was initially envisioned as a one-year review, with emphasis on the Lower Columbia River hatchery programs. It became clear however, that the Columbia River Basin needed to be viewed as an inter-connected ecosystem in order for the review to be useful. The project scope was subsequently expanded to include the entire Basin, with funding for a second year provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) Fish and Wildlife Program. The objective of the HSRG's Columbia River Basin review was to change the focus of the Columbia River hatchery system. In the past, these hatchery programs have been aimed at supplying adequate numbers of fish for harvest as mitigation primarily for hydropower development in the Basin. A new, ecosystem-based approach is founded on the idea that harvest goals are sustainable only if they are compatible with conservation goals. The challenge before the HSRG was to determine whether or not conservation and harvest goals could be met by fishery managers and, if so, how. The HSRG determined that in order to address these twin goals, both hatchery and harvest reforms are necessary. The HSRG approach represents an important change of direction in managing hatcheries in the region. It provides a clear demonstration that current hatchery programs can indeed be redirected to

  1. Allegheny County Basin Outlines Map

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This basins dataset was created to initiate regional watershed approaches with respect to sewer rehabilitation. If viewing this description on the Western...

  2. Analysis of potential water-supply management options, 2010-60, and documentation of revisions to the model of the Irwin Basin Aquifer System, Fort Irwin National Training Center, California

    Voronin, Lois M.; Densmore, Jill N.; Martin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Fort Irwin National Training Center is considering several alternatives to manage their limited water-supply sources in the Irwin Basin. An existing three-dimensional, finite-difference groundwater-flow model—the U.S. Geological Survey’s MODFLOW—of the aquifer system in the basin was updated and the initial input dataset was supplemented with groundwater withdrawal data for the period 2000–10. The updated model was then used to simulate four combinations, or scenarios, of groundwater withdrawal and recharge over the next 50 years (January 2011 through December 2060). The scenarios included combinations of continuing withdrawals from currently active production wells, supplementing any increases in demand with withdrawals from an inactive production well, reducing withdrawal amounts and rates, and reducing the discharge of treated wastewater to infiltration ponds that provide a recharge source to the underlying aquifer. Results of the simulations indicated that, depending on the scenario implemented, groundwater levels would rise (over the next 50 years) from 40 feet to as much as 65 feet in the northwestern part of the Irwin Basin, and from 5 feet to 10 feet in the southeastern part.

  3. Oceanographic data collected from Cathlamet Bay North Channel (USCG day mark green 3) by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 2000-07-02 to 2016-11-09 (NCEI Accession 0161822)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0161822 contains navigational and physical data collected at Cathlamet Bay North Channel (USCG day mark green 3), a fixed station in the Columbia...

  4. Oceanographic data collected from Tansy Point (USCG front range board) by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 1996-09-05 to 2014-10-01 (NCEI Accession 0162189)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162189 contains navigational and physical data collected at Tansy Point (USCG front range board), a fixed station in the Columbia River estuary -...

  5. Oceanographic data collected from Saturn Estuary Station 03 by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 2008-04-19 to 2017-08-01 (NCEI Accession 0162617)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162617 contains biological, chemical and physical data collected at Saturn Estuary Station 03, a fixed station in the Columbia River estuary -...

  6. Oceanographic data collected from Lower Sand Island light (USCG day mark green 5) by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 1997-07-12 to 2014-01-15 (NCEI Accession 0162181)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162181 contains navigational and physical data collected at Lower Sand Island light (USCG day mark green 5), a fixed station in the Columbia River...

  7. Oceanographic data collected from SATURN-09 by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 2014-09-08 to 2016-06-10 (NCEI Accession 0162185)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162185 contains biological, chemical and physical data collected at SATURN-09, a fixed station in the Columbia River estuary - Washington/Oregon....

  8. Oceanographic data collected from SATURN-10 by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 2015-09-01 to 2016-12-16 (NCEI Accession 0162186)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162186 contains biological, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected at SATURN-10, a fixed station in the Columbia River estuary -...

  9. Surface meteorological data collected from Offshore Buoy by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 2004-05-17 to 2017-08-01 (NCEI Accession 0162183)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162183 contains biological, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected at Offshore Buoy, a fixed station in the Columbia River estuary -...

  10. Surface meteorological data collected from Desdemona Sands Light by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 1998-01-22 to 2015-09-07 (NCEI Accession 0162173)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162173 contains meteorological, navigational and physical data collected at Desdemona Sands Light, a fixed station in the Columbia River estuary -...

  11. Oceanographic data collected from SATURN River Station 05 by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 2009-06-23 to 2016-12-06 (NCEI Accession 0162430)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162430 contains biological, chemical, navigational and physical data collected at SATURN River Station 05, a fixed station in the Columbia River...

  12. Oceanographic data collected from SATURN-07 by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 2012-05-03 to 2017-01-24 (NCEI Accession 0162184)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162184 contains biological, chemical and physical data collected at SATURN-07, a fixed station in the Columbia River estuary - Washington/Oregon....

  13. Oceanographic data collected from Saturn Estuary Station 01 by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 2008-04-13 to 2017-07-01 (NCEI Accession 0162182)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162182 contains biological, chemical and physical data collected at Saturn Estuary Station 01, a fixed station in the Columbia River estuary -...

  14. Oceanographic data collected from Jetty A by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 2003-07-20 to 2016-02-04 (NCEI Accession 0162176)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162176 contains navigational and physical data collected at Jetty A, a fixed station in the Columbia River estuary - Washington/Oregon. These sensors...

  15. Oceanographic data collected from Marsh Island (USCG day mark green 21) by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 2001-09-17 to 2006-10-12 (NCEI Accession 0162177)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162177 contains navigational and physical data collected at Marsh Island (USCG day mark green 21), a fixed station in the Columbia River estuary -...

  16. Oceanographic data collected from Hammond Tide Gage by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 2005-06-24 to 2013-02-08 (NCEI Accession 0162194)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162194 contains navigational and physical data collected at Hammond Tide Gage, a fixed station in the Columbia River estuary - Washington/Oregon....

  17. Oceanographic data collected from Woody Island (USCG Pillar Rock back range board) by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 1997-02-07 to 2015-08-19 (NCEI Accession 0162191)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162191 contains navigational and physical data collected at Woody Island (USCG Pillar Rock back range board), a fixed station in the Columbia River...

  18. Oceanographic data collected from Elliott Point by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 2004-01-16 to 2017-08-01 (NCEI Accession 0162174)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162174 contains physical data collected at Elliott Point, a fixed station in the Columbia River estuary - Washington/Oregon. These sensors measure...

  19. Columbia River final environmental impact statement. Appendix B: Air quality

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix consists of eight chapters. Chapter 1 describes the air quality issues that were raised in the SOR scoping process and provides an overview of the study process used to evaluate air quality effects from various system operation alternatives. Chapter 2 describes the Federal, state, and local programs that regulate air quality and discusses the air quality standards that are relevant to the analysis. It also gives an overview of the limatology of the region and the existing air quality in the Columbia River Basin, including areas of non-attainment for relevant air quality standards. Chapter 3 presents the methods this study uses for the analysis of air quality and for the evaluation of human health effects from air pollutants. Chapter 4 provides the study results for the System Operating Strategy (SOS) alternatives and potential mitigation measures. Chapter 5 compares impacts on air quality and human health across alternatives, and discusses mitigation measures and cumulative effects. Chapters 6, 7, and 8 contain the list of preparers, glossary, and references, respectively. Technical exhibits supporting the analysis are also included

  20. Paleodrainage of the Columbia River system on the Columbia Plateau of Washington State: a summary

    Fecht, K.R.; Reidel, S.P.; Tallman, A.M.

    1985-12-01

    The evolution of the Columbia River drainage system on the Columbia Plateau of Washington in the last 17 My reflects the geologic history of the plateau. We have updated an interpretation of the evolution of the Columbia River system and defined the geomorphic and structural features that have controlled the position of ancestral streams. The sequence of geologic events and the resulting drainage system for various time intervals in the last 17 My are summarized below. 121 refs., 14 figs

  1. The Prevention of Prematurity: A Strategy to Reduce Infant Mortality in the District of Columbia.

    Maxwell, Joan

    The infant mortality rate in the District of Columbia is higher than that for any other state. This high rate stems from the great number of infants born seriously underweight and reflects the area's high percentage of births to impoverished black women. Efforts to reduce the mortality rate have centered around the medical treatment approach,…

  2. 78 FR 37222 - Columbia Organic Chemical Company Site, Columbia, Richland County, South Carolina; Notice of...

    2013-06-20

    ... Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Settlement. SUMMARY: Under 122(h) of the Comprehensive... Agency has entered into a settlement with Stephen Reichlyn concerning the Columbia Organic Chemical...

  3. Columbia River ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for clams, oysters, crabs, and other invertebrate species in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this data...

  4. Columbia River ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for bird nesting sites in the Columbia River area. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  5. Columbia River ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in Columbia River. Vector lines in this data set represent locations of...

  6. Columbia River ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this...

  7. Columbia River ESI: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), rare plant species [Water howellia (Howelia aquatilis) and Columbia...

  8. Columbia River ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Wildlife Refuges, National Forests, and State Parks for the Columbia River area. Vector polygons in this data set...

  9. Columbia River Component Data Gap Analysis

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2007-10-23

    This Data Gap Analysis report documents the results of a study conducted by Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) to compile and reivew the currently available surface water and sediment data for the Columbia River near and downstream of the Hanford Site. This Data Gap Analysis study was conducted to review the adequacy of the existing surface water and sediment data set from the Columbia River, with specific reference to the use of the data in future site characterization and screening level risk assessments.

  10. Monitoring recharge in areas of seasonally frozen ground in the Columbia Plateau and Snake River Plain, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington

    Mastin, Mark; Josberger, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Seasonally frozen ground occurs over approximately one‑third of the contiguous United States, causing increased winter runoff. Frozen ground generally rejects potential groundwater recharge. Nearly all recharge from precipitation in semi-arid regions such as the Columbia Plateau and the Snake River Plain in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, occurs between October and March, when precipitation is most abundant and seasonally frozen ground is commonplace. The temporal and spatial distribution of frozen ground is expected to change as the climate warms. It is difficult to predict the distribution of frozen ground, however, because of the complex ways ground freezes and the way that snow cover thermally insulates soil, by keeping it frozen longer than it would be if it was not snow covered or, more commonly, keeping the soil thawed during freezing weather. A combination of satellite remote sensing and ground truth measurements was used with some success to investigate seasonally frozen ground at local to regional scales. The frozen-ground/snow-cover algorithm from the National Snow and Ice Data Center, combined with the 21-year record of passive microwave observations from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager onboard a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellite, provided a unique time series of frozen ground. Periodically repeating this methodology and analyzing for trends can be a means to monitor possible regional changes to frozen ground that could occur with a warming climate. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System watershed model constructed for the upper Crab Creek Basin in the Columbia Plateau and Reynolds Creek basin on the eastern side of the Snake River Plain simulated recharge and frozen ground for several future climate scenarios. Frozen ground was simulated with the Continuous Frozen Ground Index, which is influenced by air temperature and snow cover. Model simulation results showed a decreased occurrence of frozen ground that coincided with

  11. The non-fisheries biological resources of the Hanford reach of the Columbia River

    Rickard, W.H.; Hanson, W.C.; Fitzner, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Hanford Reach is the only undammed segment of the Columbia River in the United States upstream from Bonneville Dam. The non-agricultural and non-recreational land-use policies imposed by the Department of Energy have permitted the Hanford Site to function as a refugium for wildlife for 35 years. The protection offered by the Hanford Site has been especially important for the Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leurocephalus), mule deer (Odocileus hemionus), coyote (Canis latrans), and resident Great Basin Canada Goose (Branta canadensis moffitti). Island habitats are especially important for nesting geese and for mule deer fawning. Coyotes are important predators upon nesting geese and mule deer fawns. Salmon carcasses are an important winter food for Bald Eagles. Riparian plant communities along the Columbia River have been changing in response to changing water level fluctuations largely regulated by power generation schedules at upstream hydroelectric dams. There are no studies presently established to record the response of Columbia River shoreline plant communities to these kinds of fluctuating water levels. The existing information is summarized on birds and mammals closely allied with the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. High trophic level wild animals are discussed as indicators of chemical contamination of food chains

  12. Post-Columbia River Basalt Group stratigraphy and map compilation of the Columbia Plateau, Oregon

    Farooqui, S.M.; Bunker, R.C.; Thoms, R.E.; Clayton, D.C.; Bela, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the results of reconnaissance mapping of sedimentary deposits and volcanic rocks overlying the Columbia River Basalt. The project area covers parts of the Dalles, Pendleton, Grangeville, Baker, Canyon City, and Bend. The mapping was done to provide stratigraphic data on the sedimentary deposits and volcanic rocks overlying the Columbia River Basalt Group. 160 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  13. Avulsions, channel evolution and floodplain sedimentation rates of the anastomosing upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada

    Makaske, B.; Smith, D.G.; Berendsen, H.J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Ages of channels of the anastomosing upper Columbia River, south-eastern British Columbia, Canada, were investigated in a cross-valley transect by C-14 dating of subsurface floodplain organic material from beneath levees. The avulsion history within the transect was deduced from these data, and

  14. Columbia River impact evaluation plan

    1993-06-01

    As a result of past practices, four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980. To accomplish the timely cleanup of the past-practice units, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), was signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). To support the Tri-Party Agreement, milestones were adopted. These milestones represent the actions needed to ensure acceptable progress toward Hanford Site compliance with CERCLA, RCRA, and the Washington State Hazardous Waste Management Act of 1976. This report was prepared to fulfill the requirement of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-30-02, which requires a plan to determine cumulative health and environmental impacts to the Columbia River. This plan supplements the CERCLA remedial investigations/feasibility studies (RI/FS) and RCRA facility investigations/corrective measures studies (RFI/CMSs) that will be undertaken in the 100 Area. To support the plan development process, existing information was reviewed and a preliminary impact evaluation based on this information was performed. The purpose of the preliminary impact evaluation was to assess the adequacy of existing data and proposed data collection activities. Based on the results of the evaluation, a plan is proposed to collect additional data or make changes to existing or proposed data collection activities.

  15. Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, Annual Report 2009

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, John R.; Dawley, Earl M.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2010-08-01

    This report describes the 2009 research conducted under the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE or Corps) project EST-09-P-01, titled “Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary.” The research was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Science Laboratory and Hydrology Group, in partnership with the University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Columbia Basin Research, and Earl Dawley (NOAA Fisheries, retired). This Columbia River Fish Mitigation Program project, referred to as “Salmonid Benefits,” was started in FY 2009 to evaluate the state-of-the science regarding the ability to quantify the benefits to listed salmonids1 of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

  16. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix E: Flood control

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The Corps of Engineers, Bonneville Power Administration, and Bureau of Reclamation conducted a scoping process consisting of a series of regionwide public meetings and solicitation of written comments in the summer of 1990. Comments on flood control issues were received from all parts of the Columbia river basin. This appendix includes issues raised in the public scoping process, as well as those brought for consideration by members of the Flood Control Work Group

  17. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix M: Water quality

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. Analysis of water quality begins with an account of the planning and evaluation process, and continues with a description of existing water quality conditions in the Columbia River Basin. This is followed by an explanation how the analysis was conducted. The analysis concludes with an assessment of the effects of SOR alternatives on water quality and a comparison of alternatives

  18. Status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, annual progress report, July 1986 - March 1987.; ANNUAL

    Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife; Washington Department of Fisheries

    1987-01-01

    Measure 804(e)(8) of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program states that Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) ''shall fund research to determine the impacts of development and operation of the hydroelectric power system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin...'' In June 1985, BPA sponsored a workshop to define and list in priority order research needs in the basin (Fickeisen 1985a). In December 1985, BPA submitted a research program implementation plan (Fickeisen 1985b) to the NPPC. The purpose of the plan is to provide guidance for conducting research necessary to address four objectives identified by regional fishery interests for protecting, mitigating and enhancing white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River basin. The plan's objectives are: (1) Assess the current status of Columbia River basin white sturgeon stocks. (2) Provide the basis to evaluate the need for protection, mitigation and enhancement of white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (3) Provide information that can be used to evaluate potential methods of protection, mitigation and enhancement of existing stocks. (4) Provide tools to assess the effectiveness of protection, mitigation and enhancement efforts

  19. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1986-1987 Annual Report.

    McCabe, Jr., George T. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Environmental and Technical Services Division, Portland, OR); Beckman, Lance G. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR); Kreitman, Gayle (Washington Department of Fisheries, Olympia, WA)

    1987-06-01

    Measure 804(e)(8) of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program states that Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) ''shall fund research to determine the impacts of development and operation of the hydroelectric power system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin...'' In June 1985, BPA sponsored a workshop to define and list in priority order research needs in the basin (Fickeisen 1985a). In December 1985, BPA submitted a research program implementation plan (Fickeisen 1985b) to the NPPC. The purpose of the plan is to provide guidance for conducting research necessary to address four objectives identified by regional fishery interests for protecting, mitigating and enhancing white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River basin. The plan's objectives are: (1) Assess the current status of Columbia River basin white sturgeon stocks. (2) Provide the basis to evaluate the need for protection, mitigation and enhancement of white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (3) Provide information that can be used to evaluate potential methods of protection, mitigation and enhancement of existing stocks. (4) Provide tools to assess the effectiveness of protection, mitigation and enhancement efforts.

  20. Repository site definition in basalt: Pasco Basin, Washington

    Guzowski, R.V.; Nimick, F.B.; Muller, A.B.

    1982-03-01

    Discussion of the regional setting, geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of the Pasco Basin are included in this report. Pasco basin is a structural and topographic basin of approximately 2000 mi 2 (5180 km 2 ) located within the Yakima Fold Belt Subprovince of the Columbia Plateau. The stratigraphic sequence within the basin consists of an undetermined thickness of lower Miocene and younger flood basalts with interbedded and overlying sedimentary units. This sequence rests upon a basement of probably diverse rock types that may range in age from precambrian through early Tertiary. Although a large amount of information is available on the hydrology of the unconfined aquifer system, ground-water flow within the basin is, in general, poorly understood. Recharge areas for the Mabton interbed and the Saddle Mountains Formation are the highlands surrounding the basin with the flow for these units toward Gable Butte - Gable Mountain and Lake Wallula. Gable Butte - Gable Mountain probably is a ground-water sink, although the vertical flow direction in this zone is uncertain. The amount of upward vertical leakage from the Saddle Mountains Formation into the overlying sediments or to the Columbia River is unknown. Units underlying the Mabton interbed may have a flow scheme similar to those higher units or a flow scheme dominated by interbasin flow. Upward vertical leakage either throughout the basin, dominantly to the Columbia River, or dominantly to Lake Wallula has been proposed for the discharge of the lower units. None of these proposals is verified. The lateral and vertical distribution of major and minor ions in solution, Eh and pH, and ion exchange between basalt and ground-water are not well defined for the basin. Changes in the redox potential from the level of the subsurface facility to the higher stratigraphic levels along with the numerous other factors influencing K/sub d/, result in a poor understanding of the retardation process

  1. Repository site definition in basalt: Pasco Basin, Washington

    Guzowski, R.V.; Nimick, F.B.; Muller, A.B.

    1982-03-01

    Discussion of the regional setting, geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of the Pasco Basin are included in this report. Pasco basin is a structural and topographic basin of approximately 2000 mi/sup 2/ (5180 km/sup 2/) located within the Yakima Fold Belt Subprovince of the Columbia Plateau. The stratigraphic sequence within the basin consists of an undetermined thickness of lower Miocene and younger flood basalts with interbedded and overlying sedimentary units. This sequence rests upon a basement of probably diverse rock types that may range in age from precambrian through early Tertiary. Although a large amount of information is available on the hydrology of the unconfined aquifer system, ground-water flow within the basin is, in general, poorly understood. Recharge areas for the Mabton interbed and the Saddle Mountains Formation are the highlands surrounding the basin with the flow for these units toward Gable Butte - Gable Mountain and Lake Wallula. Gable Butte - Gable Mountain probably is a ground-water sink, although the vertical flow direction in this zone is uncertain. The amount of upward vertical leakage from the Saddle Mountains Formation into the overlying sediments or to the Columbia River is unknown. Units underlying the Mabton interbed may have a flow scheme similar to those higher units or a flow scheme dominated by interbasin flow. Upward vertical leakage either throughout the basin, dominantly to the Columbia River, or dominantly to Lake Wallula has been proposed for the discharge of the lower units. None of these proposals is verified. The lateral and vertical distribution of major and minor ions in solution, Eh and pH, and ion exchange between basalt and ground-water are not well defined for the basin. Changes in the redox potential from the level of the subsurface facility to the higher stratigraphic levels along with the numerous other factors influencing K/sub d/, result in a poor understanding of the retardation process.

  2. Columbia River: Terminal fisheries research project. 1994 Annual report

    Hirose, P.; Miller, M.; Hill, J.

    1996-12-01

    Columbia River terminal fisheries have been conducted in Youngs Bay, Oregon, since the early 1960`s targeting coho salmon produced at the state facility on the North Fork Klaskanine River. In 1977 the Clatsop County Economic Development Council`s (CEDC) Fisheries Project began augmenting the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife production efforts. Together ODFW and CEDC smolt releases totaled 5,060,000 coho and 411,300 spring chinook in 1993 with most of the releases from the net pen acclimation program. During 1980-82 fall commercial terminal fisheries were conducted adjacent to the mouth of Big Creek in Oregon. All past terminal fisheries were successful in harvesting surplus hatchery fish with minimal impact on nonlocal weak stocks. In 1993 the Northwest Power Planning Council recommended in its` Strategy for Salmon that terminal fishing sites be identified and developed. The Council called on the Bonneville Power Administration to fund a 10-year study to investigate the feasibility of creating and expanding terminal known stock fisheries in the Columbia River Basin. The findings of the initial year of the study are included in this report. The geographic area considered for study extends from Bonneville Dam to the river mouth. The initial year`s work is the beginning of a 2-year research stage to investigate potential sites, salmon stocks, and methodologies; a second 3-year stage will focus on expansion in Youngs Bay and experimental releases into sites with greatest potential; and a final 5-year phase establishing programs at full capacity at all acceptable sites. After ranking all possible sites using five harvest and five rearing criteria, four sites in Oregon (Tongue Point, Blind Slough, Clifton Channel and Wallace Slough) and three in Washington (Deep River, Steamboat Slough and Cathlamet Channel) were chosen for study.

  3. Earth Institute at Columbia University ADVANCE Program: Addressing Needs for Women in Earth and Environmental Sciences

    Bell, R. E.; Cane, M.; Mutter, J.; Miller, R.; Pfirman, S.; Laird, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Earth Institute has received a major NSF ADVANCE grant targeted at increasing the participation and advancement of women scientists and engineers in the Academy through institutional transformation. The Earth Institute at Columbia University includes 9 research institutes including Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Center for Environmental Research and Conservation (CERC), Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), International Research Institute (IRI) for Climate Prediction, Earth Engineering Center, NASA-Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Center for Risks and Hazards, Center for Globalization and Sustainable Development, and Center for Global Health and Economic Development and six academic departments including Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology (E3B, School of Arts and Sciences), Earth and Environmental Engineering (DEEE, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences), Department of Environmental Health (School of Public Health), Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences (DEES, School of Arts and Sciences), Department of International and Public Affairs (School of International and Policy Affairs), and Barnard College Department of Environmental Science. The Earth Institute at Columbia University's ADVANCE program is based both on a study of the status of women at Columbia and research on the progression of women in science elsewhere. The five major targets of the Columbia ADVANCE program are to (1) change the demographics of the faculty through intelligent hiring practices, (2) provide support to women scientists through difficult life transitions including elder care and adoption or birth of a child, (3) enhance mentoring and networking opportunities, (4) implement transparent promotion procedures and policies, and (5) conduct an institutional self study. The Earth Institute ADVANCE program is unique in that it addresses issues that tend to manifest themselves in the earth and environmental fields, such as extended

  4. Regional Sediment Budget of the Columbia River Littoral Cell, USA

    Buijsman, Maarten C.; Sherwood, C.R.; Gibbs, A.E.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Kaminsky, G.M.; Ruggiero, P.; Franklin, J.

    2002-01-01

    1913 at the Columbia River entrance. The inlets and inner deltas eroded and the outer deltas moved offshore and accreted. The adjacent coasts experienced accretion over alongshore distances of tens of kilometers. North of the Grays Harbor entrance along North Beach and north of the Columbia River entrance along Long Beach the shoreface and the beach-dune complex mainly prograded, whereas south of the Grays Harbor entrance along Grayland Plains and south of the Columbia River entrance along Clatsop Plains the beach-dune complex above -10 m NAVD88 prograded and the shoreface between approximately -30 m and -10 m NAVD88 eroded. In the decades following jetty construction, the rates of erosion and accretion at the entrances decreased and the centers of deposition along the adjacent coasts moved away from the entrances. The rates of change have decreased, suggesting the systems are approaching dynamic equilibrium. Exceptions to this behaviour are the accretion of the beach-dune complex of Long Beach, the erosion of Cape Shoalwater, and the northward migration of the Willapa Bay ebb-tidal delta during all intervals. The net shoreline advance of Long Beach increases from 0.28 m/yr in pre-jetty conditions to 3.78 m/yr during Interval 4. The erosion of Cape Shoalwater and the northward migration of the Willapa Bay ebb-tidal delta are related to the northern migration of the Willapa Bay North Channel. Volume changes at the Grays Harbor, Willapa Bay, and Columbia River entrances and the Columbia River estuary are balanced against losses and gains due to littoral transport and sand supply from the Columbia River. Based on these sediment balances, we infer the following pathways: sand that eroded from the inlets and inner deltas at the Grays Harbor and Columbia River entrances moved offshore and northward to accrete the outer deltas and the beaches to the north; sand from the south flank of the Grays Harbor delta and shelf along Grayland Plains moved onshore to accrete th

  5. Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program. 2012 Synthesis Memorandum

    2013-01-01

    LCFRB Lower Columbia Fish Recovery Board LCRE lower Columbia River and estuary LCREP Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership LWD large woody debris...hydraulic reconnections, channel creation, large woody debris [ LWD ] placement) have restored a total of 3152 acres since 2001. If land acquisition...fencing, invasive plant removal, native replanting. Mirror Lake 208 Culvert replaced with a bridge, riparian restoration, LWD enhancement, culvert

  6. 77 FR 24146 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA

    2012-04-23

    ... schedule that governs the Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) Railway Bridge across the Columbia River... span of the BNSF Railway Bridge across the Columbia River will be disabled and the bridge will not be... allows the swing span of the BNSF Railway Bridge across the Columbia River, mile 105.6, to remain in the...

  7. Bibliography of geologic studies: Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt) and adjacent areas in Idaho

    Strowd, W.

    1978-11-01

    The objective of this compilation is to present a comprehensive listing of published, unpublished, and open-file references pertaining to the geology of the Columbia Plateau and adjacent areas in the State of Idaho. The bibliography was compiled in support of Rockwell's Basalt Waste Isolation Program that is evaluating the feasibility of nuclear waste storage in the Columbia River Basalt Group. The emphasis is on stratigraphy, structural geology, seismicity, and tectonics, although the nature of Columbia River Basalt distribution in Idaho has necessitated the inclusion of a sizeable collection of references on geology marginal to the Columbia Plateau and associated mineral resources. The bibliography is divided into two major sections, the alphabetical listing of all references and the subject index. The subject index is divided into 19 categories to facilitate locating a specific reference in the user's field of interest

  8. Columbia physics in the fifties: Untold tales

    J. Sucher

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Eyvind Wichmann and I were both graduate students at Columbia University in the fifties, a decade of remarkable creativity by a star-studded physics faculty, which included some ten Nobel Laureates. I share some reminiscences about our time there and explain the role played in our relationship by an eightball.

  9. Marketing wholesale electricity in British Columbia

    Moghadam, B. [Powerex, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2002-03-14

    An open access wholesale transmission tariff (WTS) has been in place in British Columbia since 1997, and wholesale electricity can be sold to wholesale purchasers by independent producers located within the province. Customers range from municipalities to British Columbia Hydro (BC Hydro), to Powerex, to UtiliCorp Networks Corporation (UNC). Provided that the necessary approvals and transmission services have been acquired, the energy may be transmitted anywhere in Canada or the United States. The generation and sale of electricity within British Columbia and the United States is subject to government and regulatory approvals. Several buyers and sellers that come together to trade a product are part of a hub. The largest such hub in the Pacific Northwest is called the Mid-Columbia (Mid-C) hub in Washington. The commodity is traded in 25 MW standard blocks. The credit requirements of the purchaser must be satisfied by the generating party. BC Hydro wholesale transmission service can be purchased by any wholesale power marketer or generator to transmit the power to market. It is imperative that scheduling personnel be available at all times. The Western System Coordinating Council (WSCC) insists that an operating reserve of 5 per cent hydro generation and 7 per cent thermal generation to support the electrical system in the face of an emergency be available for the electricity marketed through the hub. Powerex has been successful since 1988 in the marketing of electricity throughout the WSCC. An example was provided to help make the rules a bit easier to comprehend. refs.

  10. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  11. Marketing wholesale electricity in British Columbia

    Moghadam, B.

    2002-01-01

    An open access wholesale transmission tariff (WTS) has been in place in British Columbia since 1997, and wholesale electricity can be sold to wholesale purchasers by independent producers located within the province. Customers range from municipalities to British Columbia Hydro (BC Hydro), to Powerex, to UtiliCorp Networks Corporation (UNC). Provided that the necessary approvals and transmission services have been acquired, the energy may be transmitted anywhere in Canada or the United States. The generation and sale of electricity within British Columbia and the United States is subject to government and regulatory approvals. Several buyers and sellers that come together to trade a product are part of a hub. The largest such hub in the Pacific Northwest is called the Mid-Columbia (Mid-C) hub in Washington. The commodity is traded in 25 MW standard blocks. The credit requirements of the purchaser must be satisfied by the generating party. BC Hydro wholesale transmission service can be purchased by any wholesale power marketer or generator to transmit the power to market. It is imperative that scheduling personnel be available at all times. The Western System Coordinating Council (WSCC) insists that an operating reserve of 5 per cent hydro generation and 7 per cent thermal generation to support the electrical system in the face of an emergency be available for the electricity marketed through the hub. Powerex has been successful since 1988 in the marketing of electricity throughout the WSCC. An example was provided to help make the rules a bit easier to comprehend. refs

  12. Academic Advising in British Columbia. Executive Summary

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Advising" consists of those activities and tasks that result in providing information to students. British Columbia's (BC) post-secondary education has evolved over the past number of years and student advising has changed along with it. Post-secondary institutions are currently challenged to increase student engagement, improve…

  13. Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation; Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife

    1999-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  14. Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    1999-01-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact

  15. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS : Appendices.

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described. The document concludes with an evaluation of the potential effects that could result from implementing proposed actions. The conclusions are based on evaluation of existing data, utilization of numerical models, and application of logical inference. This volume contains the appendices.

  16. 1992 Columbia River salmon flow measures Options Analysis/EIS: Appendices

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described. The document concludes with an evaluation of the potential effects that could result from implementing proposed actions. The conclusions are based on evaluation of existing data, utilization of numerical models, and application of logical inference. This volume contains the appendices

  17. STS-35 crewmembers eat meal on the middeck of Columbia, OV-102

    1990-01-01

    Enjoying a meal on the middeck of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, are STS-35 Mission Specialist (MS) Robert A.R. Parker (foreground), Payload Specialist Ronald A. Parise (center), and Commander Vance D. Brand. Parker spoons up bite from his food container as Parise lets a spoonful freefloat into his open mouth and Brand balances his meal tray assembly. The forward lockers, the shuttle treadmill, and the starboard side sleep station are seen in the view.

  18. Connecting to the Art Market from Home: An Exploration of First Nations Artists in Alert Bay, British Columbia

    Neufeld, Margaret R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, Northwest Coast First Nations artists have been active participants in local and external economic markets. In Alert Bay, British Columbia, home of the 'Namgis People of the Kwakwaka'wakw Nation, artists have sold their work in urban centers since the 1950s. Now they are more rigorously involved in selling their work to local shops…

  19. Studies of Columbia River water quality

    Onishi, Y.; Johanson, P.A.; Baca, R.G.; Hilty, E.L.

    1976-01-01

    The program to study the water quality of the Columbia River consists of two separate segments: sediment and radionuclide transport and temperature analysis. Quasi-two dimensional (longitudinal and vertical directions) mathematical simulation models were developed for determining radionuclide inventories, their variations with time, and movements of sediments and individual radionuclides in the freshwater region of the Columbia River below Priest Rapids Dam. These codes are presently being applied to the river reach between Priest Rapids and McNary Dams for the initial sensitivity analysis. In addition, true two-dimensional (longitudinal and lateral directions) models were formulated and are presently being programmed to provide more detailed information on sediment and radionuclide behavior in the river. For the temperature analysis program, river water temperature data supplied by the U. S. Geological Survey for six ERDA-sponsored temperature recording stations have been analyzed and cataloged on storage devices associated with ERDA's CDC 6600 located at Richland, Washington

  20. Provincial land use planning in British Columbia

    Mitchell, W.

    1998-01-01

    The efforts being made to include Aboriginal communities in land use planning in British Columbia are discussed. British Columbia is in the midst of historic changes with respect to land and resource allocation, use and management. Historic trends in land use allocation and management are contrasted with land use planning and resource management of today. The impact of provincial government moves to double park space within the province, and the Protected Areas Strategy initiative will have on the natural gas and petroleum industry is discussed. New efforts being made to include First Nations directly in land use planning discussions in ways that do not prejudice treaty negotiations, are reviewed. Creation of a new Oil and Gas Commission in the Fort St. John area, is cited as the most recent example of the interconnections between First Nations communities and other public and industry stakeholders in land use planning in the province

  1. British Columbia's untapped wind export potential

    Kaplan, M.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discussed wind energy developments in British Columbia (BC). There are currently more than 5000 MW of wind power development activities in British Columbia, but only 325 MW of wind power purchase agreements (PPAs). Various renewable portfolio standards and greenhouse gas (GHG) initiatives are now being use to create demand for additional renewable energy development in the northwestern United States. Studies have demonstrated that BC wind export initiatives have the potential to deliver wind power to markets in the Pacific northwest. Canadian transmission export proposals are now examining methods of bringing renewable energy to areas with high load demands. However, the United States has more than 240,000 MW of proposed wind projects for key markets in the northwestern region. It was concluded that activities in United States wind development are now posing a challenge to Canadian wind energy exporters. Various transmission projects in the United States are now looking at developing renewable energy sources close to BC. tabs., figs

  2. 3 Columbia U. students win Goldwater Fellowship

    Zaragovia, V

    2003-01-01

    "Noah Burns, Kiril Datchev, and Lawrence David, are the University of Columbia's three recipients of the Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship. This is an award of $7,500 given annually to cover expenses such as tuition, fees, books and room and board, to about 300 individuals nationwide. The scholarship aims to encourage outstanding students to pursue careers in mathematics, the natural sciences or engineering" (1 page).

  3. Columbia County Habitat for Humanity Passive Townhomes

    None, None

    2016-03-01

    Columbia County Habitat for Humanity (CCHH) (New York, Climate Zone 5A) built a pair of townhomes to Passive House Institute U.S. (PHIUS+ 2015) criteria to explore approaches for achieving Passive House performance (specifically with respect to exterior wall, space-conditioning, and ventilation strategies) within the labor and budget context inherent in a Habitat for Humanity project. CCHH’s goal is to eventually develop a cost-justified Passive House prototype design for future projects.

  4. British Columbia natural gas: Core market policy

    1988-06-01

    The core market for natural gas in British Columbia is defined as all natural gas consumers in the residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors not currently purchasing natural gas directly and not exempted from the core market by the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). The intent of the definition is to include all customers who must be protected by contracts which ensure long-term security of supply and stable prices. Core market customers are excluded from direct natural gas purchase and will be served by distribution utilities. A customer may apply to BCUC to leave the core market; such an application may be approved if it is demonstrated that the customer has adequate long-term natural gas supplies or alternative fuel supplies to protect him from supply interruptions. The non-core market is defined as all large industrial customers who elect to make their own natural gas supply arrangements and who can demonstrate to the BCUC sufficient long-term natural gas supply protection or alternative fuel capability to ensure security of the industry. Non-core market customers have full and open access to the competitive natural gas market. The British Columbia government will not apply its core market policy to other jurisdictions through Energy Removal Certificates

  5. Columbia River Coordinated Information System (CIS); Information Needs, 1992 Technical Report.

    Petrosky, Charlie (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID); Kinney, William J. (Washington Department of Fishereis, Olympia, WA); Rowe, Mike (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID)

    1993-05-01

    Successful application of adaptive management to rebuilding the Columbia Basin`s anadromous fish resources requires that available information and experience be organized and shared between numerous organizations and individuals. Much of this knowledge exists only in unpublished form in agency and individual files. Even that information which is published in the form of technical and contract reports receives only limited distribution and is often out of print and unavailable after a few years. Only a small fraction of the basin`s collective knowledge is captured in permanent and readily available databases and recognized journals. State, tribal, and federal fishery managers have recognize these information management problems and have committed to a program, the Coordinated Information System Project, to capture and share more easily the core data and other information upon which management decisions are based. That project is now completing the process of scoping and identification of information needs. Construction of prototype systems will begin in 1992. This report is one in a series of seven describing the results of the Coordinated Information on System scoping and needs identification phase.

  6. Reconstruction of radionuclide concentrations in the Columbia River from Hanford, Washington to Portland, Oregon, January 1950--January 1971

    Walters, W.H.; Gilmore, B.G.; Richmond, M.C.

    1994-05-01

    Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories conducted this study of the Columbia River for the Technical Steering Panel (TSP) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The HEDR Project was established to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received from operations that began at the Hanford Site in 1944. The purpose of the study was to reconstruct concentrations of radionuclides in Columbia River water for estimating doses to humans from the river pathway

  7. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  8. The Portland Basin: A (big) river runs through it

    Evarts, Russell C.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Wells, Ray E.; Madin, Ian P.

    2009-01-01

    Metropolitan Portland, Oregon, USA, lies within a small Neogene to Holocene basin in the forearc of the Cascadia subduction system. Although the basin owes its existence and structural development to its convergent-margin tectonic setting, the stratigraphic architecture of basin-fill deposits chiefly reflects its physiographic position along the lower reaches of the continental-scale Columbia River system. As a result of this globally unique setting, the basin preserves a complex record of aggradation and incision in response to distant as well as local tectonic, volcanic, and climatic events. Voluminous flood basalts, continental and locally derived sediment and volcanic debris, and catastrophic flood deposits all accumulated in an area influenced by contemporaneous tectonic deformation and variations in regional and local base level.

  9. Residual basins

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  10. The CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers are working on the CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project (hereafter referred to as the Columbia River Project). This is a follow-on project, funded by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, LLC (CHPRC), to the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Columbia River Protection Project. The work scope consists of a number of CHPRC funded, related projects that are managed under a master project (project number 55109). All contract releases associated with the Fluor Hanford Columbia River Project (Fluor Hanford, Inc. Contract 27647) and the CHPRC Columbia River Project (Contract 36402) will be collected under this master project. Each project within the master project is authorized by a CHPRC contract release that contains the project-specific statement of work. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Columbia River Project staff.

  11. The CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Fix, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers are working on the CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project (hereafter referred to as the Columbia River Project). This is a follow-on project, funded by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, LLC (CHPRC), to the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Columbia River Protection Project. The work scope consists of a number of CHPRC funded, related projects that are managed under a master project (project number 55109). All contract releases associated with the Fluor Hanford Columbia River Project (Fluor Hanford, Inc. Contract 27647) and the CHPRC Columbia River Project (Contract 36402) will be collected under this master project. Each project within the master project is authorized by a CHPRC contract release that contains the project-specific statement of work. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Columbia River Project staff

  12. Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2007

    Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Storch, Adam; Jones, Tucker A.; Mallette, Christine; Dawley, Earl M.; Skalski, John R.; Teel, David; Moran, Paul

    2008-03-18

    This document is the first annual report for the study titled “Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta in the Lower Columbia River.” Hereafter, we refer to this research as the Tidal Freshwater Monitoring (TFM) Study. The study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The project is performed under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council’s Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program.

  13. Analysis of Ignition Testing on K-West Basin Fuel

    J. Abrefah; F.H. Huang; W.M. Gerry; W.J. Gray; S.C. Marschman; T.A. Thornton

    1999-08-10

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) discharged from the N-Reactor have been stored underwater at the K-Basins in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The spent fuel has been stored in the K-East Basin since 1975 and in the K-West Basin since 1981. Some of the SNF elements in these basins have corroded because of various breaches in the Zircaloy cladding that occurred during fuel discharge operations and/or subsequent handling and storage in the basins. Consequently, radioactive material in the fuel has been released into the basin water, and water has leaked from the K-East Basin into the soil below. To protect the Columbia River, which is only 380 m from the basins, the SNF is scheduled to be removed and transported for interim dry storage in the 200 East Area, in the central portion of the Site. However, before being shipped, the corroded fuel elements will be loaded into Multi-Canister OverPacks and conditioned. The conditioning process will be selected based on the Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) (WHC 1995), which was prepared on the basis of the dry storage concept developed by the Independent Technical Assessment (ITA) team (ITA 1994).

  14. Analysis of Ignition Testing on K-West Basin Fuel

    Abrefah, J.; Huang, F.H.; Gerry, W.M.; Gray, W.J.; Marschman, S.C.; Thornton, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) discharged from the N-Reactor have been stored underwater at the K-Basins in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The spent fuel has been stored in the K-East Basin since 1975 and in the K-West Basin since 1981. Some of the SNF elements in these basins have corroded because of various breaches in the Zircaloy cladding that occurred during fuel discharge operations and/or subsequent handling and storage in the basins. Consequently, radioactive material in the fuel has been released into the basin water, and water has leaked from the K-East Basin into the soil below. To protect the Columbia River, which is only 380 m from the basins, the SNF is scheduled to be removed and transported for interim dry storage in the 200 East Area, in the central portion of the Site. However, before being shipped, the corroded fuel elements will be loaded into Multi-Canister OverPacks and conditioned. The conditioning process will be selected based on the Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) (WHC 1995), which was prepared on the basis of the dry storage concept developed by the Independent Technical Assessment (ITA) team (ITA 1994)

  15. Removing of the fuel element storage basin by explosive technique in the course of decommissioning of the Nuclear research reactor FR 2 in the research center Karlsruhe. Permission and technical execution

    Jehle, P.; Freund, H.U.

    1999-01-01

    The fuel element storage basin was removed by explosive technique in the course of the decommissioning of the nuclear research reactor FR 2. This basin consisted of 6.800 tons of heavily reinforced concrete with 25 tons of stainless steel lining. The reactor building including residual radioactive inventory was constructionally connected to the basin and had to stay undamaged. For this reason and due to the fact that the storage basin as operational part of the nuclear facility was subject to the German nuclear law the dismantling had to follow stringent licensing and control requirements. Special restrictions concerned the tolerable reactor building vibrations and the direct blast loadings which could affect the structural integrity of the building enclosing the basin. The explosive dismantling operations which also included the final removal of the building foundation were successfully performed in 90 separate blasts employing 490 kg of commercial explosives. (orig.) [de

  16. Basin Subsegments from LDEQ source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [basin_subsegments_LDEQ_2004

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon data set of watershed basin subsegments for Louisiana. The dataset was developed for the LDEQ Office of Water Resources' watershed assessment and...

  17. COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER

    DAVENPORT, J.

    2005-11-01

    The Brookhaven Computational Science Center brings together researchers in biology, chemistry, physics, and medicine with applied mathematicians and computer scientists to exploit the remarkable opportunities for scientific discovery which have been enabled by modern computers. These opportunities are especially great in computational biology and nanoscience, but extend throughout science and technology and include, for example, nuclear and high energy physics, astrophysics, materials and chemical science, sustainable energy, environment, and homeland security. To achieve our goals we have established a close alliance with applied mathematicians and computer scientists at Stony Brook and Columbia Universities.

  18. The Columbia Non-neutral Torus

    Pedersen, Thomas Sunn

    2009-01-01

    Final report for the Columbia Non-neutral Torus. This details the results from the design, construction and initial operation of the Columbia Non-neutral Torus. During the duration of this grant, I designed, built, and operated the Columbia Nonneutral Torus, the world's lowest aspect ratio stellarator, and arguably, the world's simplest stellarator. This demonstrates the ease and robustness of the chosen stellarator design and allowed us to commence the investigation of the physics of non-neutral plasmas confined on magnetic surfaces. These plasmas are unique in many ways and had not previously been studied in a stellarator. Our first results showed that it is possible to confine and study a relatively cold pure electron plasma in a stellarator. We confirmed that the plasma is stable, and that the plasma is reasonably well confined in a stellarator configuration. These results were published in Physics of Plasmas (2006) and Physical Review Letters (2006). They enabled the existing program which is resolving the underlying transport processes in a classical stellarator with intense self-electric fields and enable the next phase of operation, electron-positron plasma physics. During the period of this grant, two students were trained in experimental plasma physics and both received their PhD degrees shortly after the grant terminated. One student is now employed in the financial services industry, the other is a postdoctoral associate at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The chief goals were to build and begin operation of the Columbia Non-neutral Torus. These goals were achieved in the third year of funding. The development of diagnostic methods and the confirmation of stable equilibria were also achieved during the grant period. In summary, the main scientific goals were all met. The main educational goals were also met, as the experiment became the training ground not only for the two aforementioned graduate students but also for a number of undergraduate students

  19. Sampling and analysis plan for the 116-C-5 retention basins characteristic dangerous waste determination

    Bauer, R.G.; Dunks, K.L.

    1996-03-01

    Cooling water flow from the rear face of the 100-B and 100-C reactors was diverted to large retention basins prior to discharge to the Columbia River. These retention basins delayed the release of the reactor coolant for decay of the short-lived activation products and for thermal cooling. Some of the activation products were deposited in sludge that settled in the basins and discharge lines. In addition, some contamination was deposited in soil around the basins and associated piping. The sampling objective of this project is to determine if regulated levels of leachable lead are present in the abrasive materials used to decontaminate the retention basin tank walls, in the material between the tank base plate and the concrete foundation, and in the soils immediately surrounding the perimeter of the retention basins. Sampling details, including sampling locations, frequencies, and analytical requirements, are discussed. Also described is the quality assurance plan for this project

  20. Hydrologic studies within the Pasco Basin

    Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    As part of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP), hydrologic studies are being performed to provide an evaluation of groundwater systems within the Columbia River Basalt Group. These studies are focused on the Hanford Site, which is located within the Pasco Basin in south-central Washington. Hydrologic studies within the Pasco Basin involve the areal and vertical characterization of hydraulic head, hydrologic properties, and hydrochemical content for the various basalt groundwater systems. Currently, in excess of 150 test intervals have been tested for hydraulic properties, while in excess of 80 horizons have been analyzed for hydrochemical characteristics at about 30 borehole sites within the Pasco Basin. Data obtained from these studies provide input for numerical modeling of groundwater flow and solute transport. Results from numerical modeling are used for evaluating potential waste migration as a function of space and time. In the Pasco Basin, geologic structures influence groundwater flow patterns within basalt aquifer systems. Potentiometric data and hydrochemical evidence collected from recent studies indicate that geologic structures act as areal hydrologic barriers and in some instances, regions of enhanced vertical conductivity. 8 figures

  1. BCASP and the Evolution of School Psychology in British Columbia

    Agar, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1992, the British Columbia Association of School Psychologists (BCASP) has been the professional body for school psychologists in British Columbia. In the intervening 24 years, BCASP has been very successful in performing the dual roles of a certifying body and a professional development organization for school psychologists in British…

  2. 78 FR 15293 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA

    2013-03-11

    ... operating schedule that governs the Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) Railway Bridge across the Columbia... replacement of movable bridge joints. During these maintenance periods the swing span of the BNSF Railway... allows the swing span of the BNSF Railway Bridge across the Columbia River, mile 105.6, to remain in the...

  3. 76 FR 60852 - District of Columbia; Emergency and Related Determinations

    2011-09-30

    ...: I have determined that the emergency conditions in the District of Columbia resulting from Hurricane... District of Columbia to have been adversely affected by this declared emergency: Emergency protective....046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  4. Hanford K basins spent nuclear fuel project update

    Williams, N.H.; Hudson, F.G.

    1997-07-01

    Twenty one hundred metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) are currently stored in the Hanford Site K Basins near the Columbia River. The deteriorating conditions of the fuel and the basins provide engineering and management challenges to assure safe current and future storage. DE and S Hanford, Inc., part of the Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. lead team on the Project Hanford Management Contract, is constructing facilities and systems to move the fuel from current pool storage to a dry interim storage facility away from the Columbia River, and to treat and dispose of K Basins sludge, debris and water. The process starts in K Basins where fuel elements will be removed from existing canisters, washed, and separated from sludge and scrap fuel pieces. Fuel elements will be placed in baskets and loaded into Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and into transportation casks. The MCO and cask will be transported to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, where free water within the MCO will be removed under vacuum at slightly elevated temperatures. The MCOs will be sealed and transported via the transport cask to the Canister Storage Building

  5. Preliminary flood-duration frequency estimates using naturalized streamflow records for the Willamette River Basin, Oregon

    Lind, Greg D.; Stonewall, Adam J.

    2018-02-13

    In this study, “naturalized” daily streamflow records, created by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, were used to compute 1-, 3-, 7-, 10-, 15-, 30-, and 60-day annual maximum streamflow durations, which are running averages of daily streamflow for the number of days in each duration. Once the annual maximum durations were computed, the floodduration frequencies could be estimated. The estimated flood-duration frequencies correspond to the 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent probabilities of their occurring or being exceeded each year. For this report, the focus was on the Willamette River Basin in Oregon, which is a subbasin of the Columbia River Basin. This study is part of a larger one encompassing the entire Columbia Basin.

  6. Loss of Signal, Aeromedical Lessons Learned from the STS-107 Columbia Space Shuttle Mishap

    Stepaniak, Phillip C.; Patlach, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Loss of Signal, a NASA publication to be available in May 2014 presents the aeromedical lessons learned from the Columbia accident that will enhance crew safety and survival on human space flight missions. These lessons were presented to limited audiences at three separate Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) conferences: in 2004 in Anchorage, Alaska, on the causes of the accident; in 2005 in Kansas City, Missouri, on the response, recovery, and identification aspects of the investigation; and in 2011, again in Anchorage, Alaska, on future implications for human space flight. As we embark on the development of new spacefaring vehicles through both government and commercial efforts, the NASA Johnson Space Center Human Health and Performance Directorate is continuing to make this information available to a wider audience engaged in the design and development of future space vehicles. Loss of Signal summarizes and consolidates the aeromedical impacts of the Columbia mishap process-the response, recovery, identification, investigative studies, medical and legal forensic analysis, and future preparation that are needed to respond to spacecraft mishaps. The goal of this book is to provide an account of the aeromedical aspects of the Columbia accident and the investigation that followed, and to encourage aerospace medical specialists to continue to capture information, learn from it, and improve procedures and spacecraft designs for the safety of future crews. This poster presents an outline of Loss of Signal contents and highlights from each of five sections - the mission and mishap, the response, the investigation, the analysis and the future.

  7. Loss of Signal, Aeromedical Lessons Learned for the STS-I07 Columbia Space Shuttle Mishap

    Patlach, Robert; Stepaniak, Philip C.; Lane, Helen W.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of Signal, a NASA publication to be available in May 2014, presents the aeromedical lessons learned from the Columbia accident that will enhance crew safety and survival on human space flight missions. These lessons were presented to limited audiences at three separate Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) conferences: in 2004 in Anchorage, Alaska, on the causes of the accident; in 2005 in Kansas City, Missouri, on the response, recovery, and identification aspects of the investigation; and in 2011, again in Anchorage, Alaska, on future implications for human space flight. As we embark on the development of new spacefaring vehicles through both government and commercial efforts, the NASA Johnson Space Center Human Health and Performance Directorate is continuing to make this information available to a wider audience engaged in the design and development of future space vehicles. Loss of Signal summarizes and consolidates the aeromedical impacts of the Columbia mishap process-the response, recovery, identification, investigative studies, medical and legal forensic analysis, and future preparation that are needed to respond to spacecraft mishaps. The goals of this book are to provide an account of the aeromedical aspects of the Columbia accident and the investigation that followed, and to encourage aerospace medical specialists to continue to capture information, learn from it, and improve procedures and spacecraft designs for the safety of future crews.

  8. Preliminary description of hydrologic characteristics and contaminant transport potential of rocks in the Pasco Basin, south-central Washington

    Deju, R.A.; Fecht, K.R.

    1979-03-01

    This report aims at consolidating existing data useful in defining the hydrologic characteristics of the Pasco Basin within south-central Washington. It also aims at compiling the properties required to evaluate contaminant transport potential within individual subsurface strata in this basin. The Pasco Basin itself is a tract of semi-arid land covering about 2,000 square miles in south-central Washington. The regional geology of this basin is dominated by tholeiitic flood basalts of the Columbia Plateau. The surface hydrology of the basin is dominated by the Yakima, Snake, and Columbia rivers. Short-lived ephemeral streams may flow for a short period of time after a heavy rainfall or snowmelt. The subsurface hydrology of the Pasco Basin is characterized by an unconfined aquifer carrying the bulk of the water discharged within the basin. This aquifer overlies a series of confined aquifers carrying progressively smaller amounts of groundwater as a function of depth. The hydraulic properties of the various aquifers and non-water-bearing strata are characterized and reported. A summary of the basic properties is tabulated. The hydrochemical data obtained are summarized. The contaminant transport properties of the rocks in the Pasco Basin are analyzed with emphasis on the dispersion and sorption coefficients and the characteristics of the potential reactions between emplaced waste and the surrounding medium. Some basic modeling considerations of the hydrogeologic systems in the basin with a brief discussion of model input requirements and their relationship to available data are presented

  9. 100 Area Columbia River sediment sampling

    Weiss, S.G.

    1993-01-01

    Forty-four sediment samples were collected from 28 locations in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River to assess the presence of metals and man-made radionuclides in the near shore and shoreline settings of the Hanford Site. Three locations were sampled upriver of the Hanford Site plutonium production reactors. Twenty-two locations were sampled near the reactors. Three locations were sampled downstream of the reactors near the Hanford Townsite. Sediment was collected from depths of 0 to 6 in. and between 12 to 24 in. below the surface. Samples containing concentrations of metals exceeding the 95 % upper threshold limit values (DOE-RL 1993b) are considered contaminated. Contamination by arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc was found. Man-made radionuclides occur in all samples except four collected opposite the Hanford Townsite. Man-made radionuclide concentrations were generally less than 1 pCi/g

  10. 100 Area Columbia River sediment sampling

    Weiss, S.G. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-09-08

    Forty-four sediment samples were collected from 28 locations in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River to assess the presence of metals and man-made radionuclides in the near shore and shoreline settings of the Hanford Site. Three locations were sampled upriver of the Hanford Site plutonium production reactors. Twenty-two locations were sampled near the reactors. Three locations were sampled downstream of the reactors near the Hanford Townsite. Sediment was collected from depths of 0 to 6 in. and between 12 to 24 in. below the surface. Samples containing concentrations of metals exceeding the 95 % upper threshold limit values (DOE-RL 1993b) are considered contaminated. Contamination by arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc was found. Man-made radionuclides occur in all samples except four collected opposite the Hanford Townsite. Man-made radionuclide concentrations were generally less than 1 pCi/g.

  11. Net metering in British Columbia : white paper

    Berry, T.

    2003-01-01

    Net metering was described as being the reverse registration of an electricity customer's revenue meter when interconnected with a utility's grid. It is a provincial policy designed to encourage small-distributed renewable power generation such as micro-hydro, solar energy, fuel cells, and larger-scale wind energy. It was noted that interconnection standards for small generation is an important issue that must be addressed. The British Columbia Utilities Commission has asked BC Hydro to prepare a report on the merits of net metering in order to support consultations on a potential net metering tariff application by the utility. This report provides information on net metering with reference to experience in other jurisdictions with net metering, and the possible costs and benefits associated with net metering from both a utility and consumer perspective. Some of the barriers and policy considerations for successful implementation of net metering were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Wind energy sector in British Columbia

    2010-01-01

    British Columbia (BC) possesses significant wind energy resources, and many wind energy projects are currently in the planning phase or are already under construction. Wind power policies in the province have been designed to ensure the secure and orderly development of the wind power industry. Policies in the province include a 10-year exemption from participation rents for new projects as well as a policy that has established the maximum permissible noise levels for wind farms located near residential properties. BC's wind power development plan forms part of the province's aim to become electricity self-sufficient by 2016 while ensuring that clean or renewable energy generation accounts for at least 90 per cent of total generation. This guide provided an outline of the province's wind energy sector, and provided a listing of selected wind power operators. Details of new wind power projects were also presented. 11 fig.

  13. Biodiesel in British Columbia : feasibility study report

    Boyd, M.; Murray-Hill, A.; Schaddelee, K. [Wise Energy Co-op, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2004-05-05

    This report evaluates the potential for biodiesel as a viable fuel in British Columbia. Biodiesel is a non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable fuel produced from recycled bio-oils that can be used to replace conventional petroleum diesel. The report also examines potential feedstock characteristics, output volumes and environmental impacts. Production of biodiesel is increasing globally due to its economic, human and environmental health benefits. Canada's Climate Change Action Plan target of 500 million litres of biodiesel production per year by 2010 will also contribute to biodiesel growth. The use of pure biodiesel as an alternative fuel results in reduced emissions of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, methane, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. British Columbia's biodiesel feedstock volumes yield a total theoretical capacity of 125 million litres per year of biodiesel, or 4.5 per cent of the province's total annual diesel consumption The feedstock is enough to fuel over 3,700 transit buses annually and significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This report outlines the activities needed to establish commercial biodiesel companies in the province. It also examines standards and regulatory issues; technology availability; cost and processing analysis; potential markets and distribution channels; and environmental impact comparisons. The 4 critical factors that will determine the success or failure of a commercial biodiesel project include: the ability to balance feedstock supplies, processing technology, and market penetration in an integrated system that is reliable and efficient; the ability to form stable strategic alliances with feedstock suppliers, distributors and end users; the ability to deal effectively with competitive pressures; and, the ability to generate a business plan that will attract financing. It was concluded that community-based biodiesel production at a plant scale

  14. Observations and modeling of fjord sedimentation during the 30 year retreat of Columbia Glacier, AK

    Love, Katherine B; Hallet, Bernard; Pratt, Thomas L.; O'Neel, Shad

    2016-01-01

    To explore links between glacier dynamics, sediment yields and the accumulation of glacial sediments in a temperate setting, we use extensive glaciological observations for Columbia Glacier, Alaska, and new oceanographic data from the fjord exposed during its retreat. High-resolution seismic data indicate that 3.2 × 108 m3 of sediment has accumulated in Columbia Fjord over the past three decades, which corresponds to ~5 mm a−1 of erosion averaged over the glaciated area. We develop a general model to infer the sediment-flux history from the glacier that is compatible with the observed retreat history, and the thickness and architecture of the fjord sediment deposits. Results reveal a fivefold increase in sediment flux from 1997 to 2000, which is not correlated with concurrent changes in ice flux or retreat rate. We suggest the flux increase resulted from an increase in the sediment transport capacity of the subglacial hydraulic system due to the retreat-related steepening of the glacier surface over a known subglacial deep basin. Because variations in subglacial sediment storage can impact glacial sediment flux, in addition to changes in climate, erosion rate and glacier dynamics, the interpretation of climatic changes based on the sediment record is more complex than generally assumed.

  15. Grand design : British Columbia sets out to become an energy powerhouse

    Laverty Wilson, K.

    2003-01-01

    British Columbia is eager for petroleum companies to build on the conventional drilling successes that took place in the northeastern section of the province to explore unconventional natural gas reserves, such as coalbed methane, shale, and tight rock formations elsewhere in the province. The province hopes to attract 24 billion dollars in investment along with 8,000 new jobs in energy and mining sectors. During the first year of this century, 850 wells were drilled, with production reaching one trillion cubic feet of natural gas and 17 million barrels of oil. It has been acknowledged that the transportation infrastructure needs work to improve access to the northeastern region, as well as other regions of the province hoping to increase resource development. The British Columbia (BC) government is planning more involvement in land use planning and better access to information on oil and gas potential. Road building partnerships are being developed, and an expansion phase is beginning for the gas pipeline and processing network. Offshore resources show promise, with an estimated 9.8 billion barrels of oil and 43.4 trillion cubic feet of gas in four basins, according to the Geological Survey of Canada. Work on coalbed methane is beginning in the province, after a favorable royalty regime was implemented, with nine experimental projects under way. The government will consider reduced royalties for other unconventional resources like shale and tight gas

  16. British Columbia oil and gas development strategy for the heartlands (OGDS)

    Smyth, P.; Molinski, D.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation describes the initiatives undertaken by the British Columbia government to promote competition in the midstream petroleum sector. The oil and gas development strategy (OGDS) for the province was announced in June 2003, with additional initiatives announced in November 2003. The Action Plan focuses on four main components, roads, royalties, the service sector and regulations. Investment into roads will provide many benefits, some of which include better access to resources with increased industry and provincial revenues. This presentation described the infrastructure vision as well as the service sector strategy. The royalties targeted to opportunities include deep well exploration, marginal play development, expansion of the summer drilling season, and new resource opportunities in unconventional and new basins. 1 tab., 7 figs

  17. Freshwater Microbialites of Pavilion Lake, British Columbia, Canada: A Limnological Investigation

    Lim, D. S. S.; McKay, C. P.; Laval, B.; Bird, J.; Cady, S.

    2004-01-01

    Pavillion Lake is 5.7km long and an average of 0.8 km in width, and is located in Marble Canyon in the interior of British Columbia, Canada. It is a slightly alkaline, freshwater lake with a maximum-recorded depth of 65m. The basin walls of Pavilion Lake are lined with microbialite structures that are oriented perpendicularly to the shoreline, and which are found from depths of 5 meters to the bottom of the photic zone (light levels 1% of ambient; approximately 30m depth). These structures are speculated to have begun formation nearly 11,000 years ago, after the glacial retreat of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet. They are likely a distinctive assemblage of freshwater calcite microbialites, which display micromorphologies possibly related to the ancient Epiphyton and Girvanella classes of calcareous organosedimentary structures.

  18. Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    Becker, J.M.; Brandt, C.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Maughan, A.D.; O'Neil, T.K.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area

  19. Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River

    Lerch, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In south-central Washington State, the Columbia River flows through the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. A primary objective of the Hanford Site cleanup mission is protection of the Columbia River, through remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater that resulted from its weapons production mission. Within the Columbia River system, surface water, sediment, and biota samples related to potential Hanford Site hazardous substance releases have been collected since the start of Hanford operations. The impacts of Hanford Site hazardous substance releases to the Columbia River in areas upstream, within, and downstream of the Hanford Site boundary have been previously investigated as mandated by the U.S. Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act. The impacts are now being assessed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 via a remedial investigation. The Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River has been developed and issued to initiate the remedial investigation. The work plan establishes a phased approach to characterize contaminants, assess current risks, and determine whether or not there is a need for any cleanup actions. Field investigation activities began in October 2008 and are anticipated to continue into Fall 2009 over a 120 mile stretch of the Columbia River. Information gained from performing this remedial investigation will ultimately be used to help make final regulatory decisions for cleaning up Hanford Site contamination that exists in and along the Columbia River. (authors)

  20. Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    Becker, J.M.; Brandt, C.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Maughan, A.D.; O`Neil, T.K.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area.

  1. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2000 Annual Report.

    Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  2. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2001 Annual Report.

    Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  3. Atmospheric deposition inputs and effects on lichen chemistry and indicator species in the Columbia River Gorge, USA

    Fenn, M.E.; Geiser, L.; Bachman, R.; Blubaugh, T.J.; Bytnerowicz, A.

    2007-01-01

    Topographic and meteorological conditions make the Columbia River Gorge (CRG) an 'exhaust pipe' for air pollutants generated by the Portland-Vancouver metropolis and Columbia Basin. We sampled fog, bulk precipitation, throughfall, airborne particulates, lichen thalli, and nitrophytic lichen distribution. Throughfall N and S deposition were high, 11.5-25.4 and 3.4-6.7 kg ha -1 over 4.5 months at all 9 and 4/9 sites, respectively. Deposition and lichen thallus N were highest at eastern- and western-most sites, implicating both agricultural and urban sources. Fog and precipitation pH were frequently as low as 3.7-5.0. Peak NO x , NH 3 , and SO 2 concentrations in the eastern CRG were low, suggesting enhanced N and S inputs were largely from particulate deposition. Lichens indicating nitrogen-enriched environments were abundant and lichen N and S concentrations were 2x higher in the CRG than surrounding national forests. The atmospheric deposition levels detected likely threaten Gorge ecosystems and cultural resources. - Nitrogen, sulfur and acidic deposition threaten natural and cultural resources in the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area

  4. 77 FR 69511 - Columbia ETF Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    2012-11-19

    ...] Columbia ETF Trust, et al.; Notice of Application November 13, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange...'') (each, an ``Adviser'', together, the ``Advisers'') and Columbia ETF Trust, Columbia ETF Trust I... Fund, Inc. and Tri-Continental Corporation are closed-end registered investment companies. Columbia ETF...

  5. Area environmental characterization report of the Dalhart and Palo Duro basins in the Texas Panhandle. Volume I. Dalhart Basin

    1982-09-01

    This area report describes the environmental characteristics of the Dalhart and Palo Duro basins of the Texas Panhandle portion of the Permian basin. Both basins are rather sparsely populated, and the overall population is decreasing. The economic base is centered on agribusiness and manufacturing. Most of the potentially conflicting land uses in both basins (i.e., parks, historic sites) occupy small land areas, with the exception of a national grassland in the Dalhart and military air training routes in both basins. Ground transportation in the Dalhart basin is adequate, and it is well developed in the Palo Duro basin. In both basins irrigation constitutes the principal water use, and groundwater is the principal source. However, the dominant aquifer, the Ogallala, is being depleted. Both basins consist primarily of grasslands, rangelands, and agricultural areas. No critical terrestrial or aquatic habitats have been identified in the basins, though several endangered, threatened, or rare terrestrial species occur in or near the basins. Aquatic resources in both basins are limited because of the intermittent availability of water and the high salt content of some water bodies. Playa lakes are common, though usually seasonal or rain dependent. The climate of the area is semiarid, with low humidity, relatively high wind speeds, and highly variable prcipitation. Restrictive dispersion conditions are infrequent. National ambient secondary air quality standards for particulates are being exceeded in the area, largely because of fugitive dust, although there are some particulate point sources

  6. Area environmental characterization report of the Dalhart and Palo Duro basins in the Texas Panhandle. Volume II. Palo Duro basin

    1982-09-01

    This area report describes the environmental characteristics of the Dalhart and Palo Duro basins of the Texas Panhandle portion of the Permian basin. Both basins are rather sparsely populated, and the overall population is decreasing. The economic base is centered on agribusiness and manufacturing. Most of the potentially conflicting land uses in both basins (i.e., parks, historic sites) occupy small land areas, with the exception of a national grassland in the Dalhart and military air training routes in both basins. Ground transportation in the Dalhart basin is adequate, and it is well developed in the Palo Duro basin. In both basins irrigation constitutes the principal water use, and groundwater is the principal source. However, the dominant aquifer, the Ogallala, is being depleted. Both basins consist primarily of grasslands, rangelands, and agricultural areas. No critical terrestrial or aquatic habitats have been identified in the basins, though several endangered, threatened, or rare terrestrial species occur in or near the basins. Aquatic resources in both basins are limited because of the intermittent availability of water and the high salt content of some water bodies. Playa lakes are common, though usually seasonal or rain dependent. The climate of the area is semiarid, with low humidity, relatively high wind speeds, and high variable precipitation. Restrictive dispersion conditions are infrequent. National ambient secondary air quality standards for particulates are being exceeded in the area, largely because of fugitive dust, although there are some particulate point sources

  7. Shuttle Columbia Post-landing Tow - with Reflection in Water

    1982-01-01

    A rare rain allowed this reflection of the Space Shuttle Columbia as it was towed 16 Nov. 1982, to the Shuttle Processing Area at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (from 1976 to 1981 and after 1994, the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, following its fifth flight in space. Columbia was launched on mission STS-5 11 Nov. 1982, and landed at Edwards Air Force Base on concrete runway 22. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines withtwo solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials

  8. Historical changes in the Columbia River Estuary

    Sherwood, Christopher R.; Jay, David A.; Bradford Harvey, R.; Hamilton, Peter; Simenstad, Charles A.

    Historical changes in the hydrology, sedimentology, and physical oceanography of the Columbia River Estuary have been evaluated with a combination of statistical, cartographic, and numerical-modelling techniques. Comparison of data digitized from US Coast and Geodetic Survey bathymetric surveys conducted in the periods 1867-1875, 1926-1937, and 1949-1958 reveals that large changes in the morphology of the estuary have been caused by navigational improvements (jetties, dredged channels, and pile dikes) and by the diking and filling of much of the wetland area. Lesser changes are attributable to natural shoaling and erosion. There has been roughly a 15% decrease in tidal prism and a net accumulation of about 68 × 10 6m 3 of sediment in the estuary. Large volumes of sediment have been eroded from the entrance region and deposited on the continental shelf and in the balance of the estuary, contributing to formation of new land. The bathymetric data indicate that, ignoring erosion at the entrance, 370 to 485 × 10 6m 3 of sediment has been deposited in the estuary since 1868 at an average rate of about 0.5 cm y -1, roughly 5 times the rate at which sea level has fallen locally since the turn of the century. Riverflow data indicate that the seasonal flow cycle of the Columbia River has been significantly altered by regulation and diversion of water for irrigation. The greatest changes have occurred in the last thirty years. Flow variability over periods greater than a month has been significantly damped and the net discharge has been slightly reduced. These changes in riverflow are too recent to be reflected in the available in the available bathymetric data. Results from a laterally averaged, multiple-channel, two-dimensional numerical flow model (described in HAMILTON, 1990) suggest that the changes in morphology and riverflow have reduced mixing, increased stratification, altered the response to fortnightly (neap-spring) changes in tidal forcing, and decreased the

  9. Columbia River ESI: NWI (National Wetlands Inventory - Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the wetlands of Columbia River classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) classification...

  10. LCREP genetic stock ID - Lower Columbia River Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to document juvenile salmon habitat occurrence in the Lower Columbia River and estuary, and examine how habitat conditions...

  11. LCREP catch records - Lower Columbia River Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to document juvenile salmon habitat occurrence in the Lower Columbia River and estuary, and examine how habitat conditions...

  12. LCREP prey data - Lower Columbia River Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to document juvenile salmon habitat occurrence in the Lower Columbia River and estuary, and examine how habitat conditions...

  13. LCREP chemistry and lipids - Lower Columbia River Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to document juvenile salmon habitat occurrence in the Lower Columbia River and estuary, and examine how habitat conditions...

  14. The Fu Foundation School of Engineering & Applied Science - Columbia

    Engineering Mechanics Computer Science Earth and Environmental Engineering Electrical Engineering Industrial Engineering & Applied Science - Columbia University Admissions Undergraduates Graduates Distance Learning Physics and Applied Mathematics Biomedical Engineering Chemical Engineering Civil Engineering and

  15. SPECIES RICHNESS AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PRIORITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    Patterns in the geographic distribution of seven species groups were used to identify important areas for conservation in British Columbia, Canada. Potential priority sites for conservation were determined using an integer programming algorithm that maximized the number of speci...

  16. Columbia River ESI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector points and lines representing human-use resource data for Columbia River. In the data set, vector points represent aquaculture sites,...

  17. Theft of Debris from the Space Shuttle Columbia: Criminal Penalties

    Murnane, Andrew W; Eig, Larry

    2003-01-01

    .... This report briefly describes possible criminal penalties for conversion of government property, and does not address issues related to the personal property of the Columbia's crew. This report will be updated as warranted.

  18. Geothermal prospects in British Columbia: Resource, market and regulatory aspects

    Ghomshei, M.M.; Brown, T.L.S.; MacRae, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    British Columbia is host to about 15 young volcanic centres and 60 hot springs, all evidence of presence of geothermal resources. Most high-grade geothermal prospects in British Columbia are located along 3 volcanic belts in the south-western region of the province. It is estimated that a minimum of 800 MWe can be generated from the known prospects in this region. Significant low-grade geothermal resources exist in several provincial regions. Market applications consistent with the geothermal resources known and expected to occur in British Columbia include electrical generation, process and other direct heat uses and recreation. Leasing, exploration and development operations for high-grade geothermal resources are addressed by the British Columbia open-quotes Geothermal Resources Actclose quotes which defines geothermal resources and reserves all rights to the Crown in the right of the Province

  19. Columbia River ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for Steller sea lions, harbor seals, and California sea lions in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this...

  20. Columbia River ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for beavers, otters, nutria, mink, muskrats, and Columbian white-tailed deer in the Columbia River area....

  1. Columbia River ESI: REPTILES (Reptile and Amphibian Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for western pond turtles and western painted turtles in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this data set...

  2. LCREP growth rates - Lower Columbia River Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to document juvenile salmon habitat occurrence in the Lower Columbia River and estuary, and examine how habitat conditions...

  3. CHaMP metrics - Columbia Habitat Monitoring Program

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of CHaMP is to generate and implement a standard set of fish habitat monitoring (status and trend) methods in up to 26 watersheds across the Columbia River...

  4. Columbia River ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Columbia...

  5. British Columbia, Canada Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The British Columbia, Canada Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  6. British Columbia 3 arc-second Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second British Columbia DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM covers the coastal area...

  7. Submission to the British Columbia government on the Kyoto Protocol

    2002-09-01

    The Business Council provided its comments concerning the Kyoto Protocol and climate change to the government of British Columbia, recommending that a clear position be established quickly on the matter. The adopted position should also be disseminated broadly to allow stake holders sufficient time to prepare for the upcoming meetings of the Joint Ministers and First Ministers. The federal government has announced that the decision on whether to ratify the Kyoto Protocol will be made before the end of 2002, and this decision will have numerous effects on the people of British Columbia, businesses, workers, and consumers alike. The Business Council of British Columbia believes that the unique interests of the province can best be protected by a proactive approach. Actions plans are being prepared by several of the other provinces and territories, who have already stated their position concerning the Kyoto Protocol. The long-term risks of climate change for British Columbia have not been determined nor have the elements of a provincial approach. The following elements should be included in British Columbia's position on the Kyoto Protocol, according to the Business Council of British Columbia: (1) a credible and cost-effective implementation plan that does not unduly burden the province and other jurisdictions must be developed before Canada decides to ratify the Protocol. British Columbia should go on the record stating it does not support the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in its present form. (2) the province should advocate for a national approach to climate change that can be achieved within a reasonable time frame, reflects the long-term nature of the problem, and is in agreement with the economic development objectives of British Columbia, (3) a plan detailing how the province intends to deal with the growth of greenhouse gas emissions should supplement and support the position of the province on the Kyoto Protocol. Consumers and business should be engaged

  8. Foreign students, visitors and immigration to British Columbia.

    Kunin, R

    1993-01-01

    "This report has provided a brief outline of business immigration to Canada and to British Columbia from several source countries in the Asian Pacific Rim. The importance of business immigration to Canada in general, and British Columbia in particular, is [examined].... Even with the limited data currently available, this brief study indicates a very high statistical relationship between business immigration and other less formal and less permanent movements of people such as student flows and visitors." excerpt

  9. Big and Little Feet Provincial Profiles: British Columbia

    Sarah Dobson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This communiqué provides a summary of the production- and consumption-based greenhouse gas emissions accounts for British Columbia, as well as their associated trade flows. It is part of a series of communiqués profiling the Canadian provinces and territories.1 In simplest terms, a production-based emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions produced in British Columbia. In contrast, a consumptionbased emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions generated during the production process for final goods and services that are consumed in British Columbia through household purchases, investment by firms and government spending. Trade flows refer to the movement of emissions that are produced in British Columbia but which support consumption in a different province, territory or country (and vice versa. For example, emissions at the Port of Vancouver that are associated with goods that are subsequently exported to Ontario for sale are recorded as a trade flow from British Columbia to Ontario. Moving in the opposite direction, emissions associated with the production of Alberta crude oil that is refined in British Columbia and sold as motor gasoline to a British Columbia consumer are recorded as a trade flow from Alberta to British Columbia. For further details on these results in a national context, the methodology for generating them and their policy implications, please see the companion papers to this communiqué series: (1 Fellows and Dobson (2017; and (2 Dobson and Fellows (2017. Additionally, the consumption emissions and trade flow data for each of the provinces and territories are available at: http://www.policyschool.ca/embodied-emissions-inputs-outputs-datatables-2004-2011/.

  10. Evolutionary responses by native species to major anthropogenic changes to their ecosystems: Pacific salmon in the Columbia River hydropower system.

    Waples, Robin S; Zabel, Richard W; Scheuerell, Mark D; Sanderson, Beth L

    2008-01-01

    The human footprint is now large in all the Earth's ecosystems, and construction of large dams in major river basins is among the anthropogenic changes that have had the most profound ecological consequences, particularly for migratory fishes. In the Columbia River basin of the western USA, considerable effort has been directed toward evaluating demographic effects of dams, yet little attention has been paid to evolutionary responses of migratory salmon to altered selective regimes. Here we make a first attempt to address this information gap. Transformation of the free-flowing Columbia River into a series of slack-water reservoirs has relaxed selection for adults capable of migrating long distances upstream against strong flows; conditions now favour fish capable of migrating through lakes and finding and navigating fish ladders. Juveniles must now be capable of surviving passage through multiple dams or collection and transportation around the dams. River flow patterns deliver some groups of juvenile salmon to the estuary later than is optimal for ocean survival, but countervailing selective pressures might constrain an evolutionary response toward earlier migration timing. Dams have increased the cost of migration, which reduces energy available for sexual selection and favours a nonmigratory life history. Reservoirs are a benign environment for many non-native species that are competitors with or predators on salmon, and evolutionary responses are likely (but undocumented). More research is needed to tease apart the relative importance of evolutionary vs. plastic responses of salmon to these environmental changes; this research is logistically challenging for species with life histories like Pacific salmon, but results should substantially improve our understanding of key processes. If the Columbia River is ever returned to a quasinatural, free-flowing state, remaining populations might face a Darwinian debt (and temporarily reduced fitness) as they struggle to

  11. Missoula flood dynamics and magnitudes inferred from sedimentology of slack-water deposits on the Columbia Plateau, Washington

    Smith, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Sedimentological study of late Wisconsin, Missoula-flood slack-water sediments deposited along the Columbia and Tucannon Rivers in southern Washington reveals important aspects of flood dynamics. Most flood facies were deposited by energetic flood surges (velocities>6 m/sec) entering protected areas along the flood tract, or flowing up and then directly out of tributary valleys. True still-water facies are less voluminous and restricted to elevations below 230 m. High flood stages attended the initial arrival of the flood wave and were not associated with subsequent hydraulic ponding upslope from channel constrictions. Among 186 flood beds studied in 12 sections, 57% have bioturbated tops, and about half of these bioturbated beds are separated from overlying flood beds by nonflood sediments. A single graded flood bed was deposited at most sites during most floods. Sequences in which 2-9 graded beds were deposited during a single flood are restricted to low elevations. These sequences imply complex, multi-peaked hydrographs in which the first flood surge was generally the largest, and subsequent surges were attenuated by water already present in slack-water areas. Slack-water - sediment stratigraphy suggests a wide range of flood discharges and volumes. Of >40 documented late Wisconsin floods that inundated the Pasco Basin, only about 20 crossed the Palouse-Snake divide. Floods younger than the set-S tephras from Mount St.Helens were generally smaller than earlier floods of late Wisconsin age, although most still crossed the Palouse-Snake divide. These late floods primarily traversed the Cheney-Palouse scabland because stratigraphy of slack-water sediment along the Columbia River implies that the largest flood volumes did not enter the Pasco Basin by way of the Columbia River. 47 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Verification of a ‘freshwater-type’ life history variant of juvenile American shad in the Columbia River

    Wetzel, Lisa A.; Larsen, Kimberly A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2011-01-01

    American shad are native to the Atlantic coast of North America and were successfully introduced to the Pacific coast in the 1870s. They are now more abundant in the Columbia River than are its native salmon. As in their native range, Columbia River American shad are anadromous and have been assumed to solely exhibit an ‘ocean-type’ life history, characterized by a short period of juvenile rearing in freshwater, followed by seaward migration and saltwater entry before age-1, with sexually mature individuals returning to freshwater to spawn beginning at age-3. During October 2007, emigrating juvenile American shad were captured in the juvenile fish monitoring facility at Bonneville Dam (river kilometer 235) on the Columbia River. Their length frequencies revealed the presence of two modes; the lower mode averaged 77 mm fork length (FL) and the upper mode averaged 184 mm FL. A subsample of fish from each mode was aged using otoliths. Otoliths from the lower mode (n=10) had no annuli, indicating that they were all age-0, while otoliths from the upper mode (n=25) had one or two annuli, indicating that they were either age-1 or age-2, respectively. Spawning adults collected in June 2007 averaged 393 mm FL (range 305-460 mm; n=21) and were estimated to range in age from 3-6. Elemental analyses of juvenile and adult otoliths provide evidence for deviations from the typical migration pattern expected for this species, including extensive freshwater rearing of up to two years. This evidence shows that a ‘freshwater-type’ of juvenile American shad exists as year-round or transient residents in the Columbia River basin. The ecological role of this life history variant within the fish community is unknown.

  13. State of the air in British Columbia

    McDonald, S.; Furberg, M.; Rother, P. [British Columbia Lung Association, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-08-15

    Scientific evidence is rising regarding the danger of air pollution. Poor air quality can pose a problem in British Columbia, particularly in interior communities when temperature inversions, during certain times of the year, trap pollutants in mountain valleys. This document described where pollutants come from, ambient levels in the atmosphere and how they affect human health. Particular focus was on fine particulate matter, ozone and oxides of nitrogen, as these 3 pollutants have been linked to health impacts. The cost of air pollution through increased health care costs and the economic impact of lost productivity from missed work days was also discussed along with the influence of poor air quality on crop damage and forestry production losses. The document also outlined government and community initiatives to protect public health and listed some measures that individuals can do to keep air clean. Air pollution stems from activities such as land development, burning fossil fuels for energy and transportation, industrial operations, residential wood burning and backyard burning of debris and burning from forestry and agricultural operations. The health impacts range from irritation, to coughing and worsening of existing heart and lung conditions. The document states that despite all measures being taken to reduce emissions and to maintain levels of air pollutants at current low levels, health effects are still observed and still pose a burden to health care cost. Scientific evidence indicates that a further reduction in air pollution will result in health benefits. refs., figs.

  14. State of the air in British Columbia

    McDonald, S.; Furberg, M.; Rother, P.

    2005-08-01

    Scientific evidence is rising regarding the danger of air pollution. Poor air quality can pose a problem in British Columbia, particularly in interior communities when temperature inversions, during certain times of the year, trap pollutants in mountain valleys. This document described where pollutants come from, ambient levels in the atmosphere and how they affect human health. Particular focus was on fine particulate matter, ozone and oxides of nitrogen, as these 3 pollutants have been linked to health impacts. The cost of air pollution through increased health care costs and the economic impact of lost productivity from missed work days was also discussed along with the influence of poor air quality on crop damage and forestry production losses. The document also outlined government and community initiatives to protect public health and listed some measures that individuals can do to keep air clean. Air pollution stems from activities such as land development, burning fossil fuels for energy and transportation, industrial operations, residential wood burning and backyard burning of debris and burning from forestry and agricultural operations. The health impacts range from irritation, to coughing and worsening of existing heart and lung conditions. The document states that despite all measures being taken to reduce emissions and to maintain levels of air pollutants at current low levels, health effects are still observed and still pose a burden to health care cost. Scientific evidence indicates that a further reduction in air pollution will result in health benefits. refs., figs

  15. British Columbia inland oil spill response plan

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an outline of the organization, procedures and duties of the provincial government in response to inland oil spills stemming from pipeline or tank-farm rupture, train derailment and vehicle accidents in British Columbia. Provincial response strategies were reviewed, along with their relationships to various policies and standards. Public, infrastructure and environmental protection were identified as key factors. Incident notification procedures were detailed, including outlines of roles, event criteria and call for incident management teams. Agreements and cost recovery issues were examined. The characteristics of site response were reviewed, including details of communications, tactical planning, and unified command among local and federal governments. The role of First Nations and responsible parties was also addressed. Details of shore cleanup, wildlife rescue, decontamination, and waste handling strategies were presented. The organization, missions and duties for an incident management team were outlined, along with a summary of operational guidelines and information on team positions and the establishment of joint information centres. The involvement of cooperating agencies was examined. An incident command system was also presented, including details of planning, operations, logistics, and organization. A checklist of individual duties was provided, with details of responsibilities, safety issues and general instructions for all team members. tabs., figs

  16. British Columbia's new coalbed methane royalty regime

    Molinski, D.

    2002-01-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines is promoting the development of the coalbed methane (CBM) industry in the province in order to make CBM a viable and competitive investment option for industry. It is establishing a regulatory and fiscal regime for CBM development. Issues of concern regarding CBM development include water production, gas production rates, well numbers, and marginal economics. The features of the CBM royalty regime include a new producer cost of service allowance, the creation of a CBM royalty tax bank to collect excess PCOS allowances, and a royalty tax credit for wells drilled by the end of February, 2004. The marginal well adjustment factor threshold has been raised from 180 mcf per day to 600 mcf per day for CBM only. It was noted that royalties will probably not be payable for several years following the first commercial well because royalties are very depending on capital and operating costs, local infrastructure and price. Royalty regimes cannot save CBM from low gas prices, poor resources or economics. 2 figs

  17. Columbia County Habitat for Humanity Passive Townhomes

    Dentz, Jordan [The Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Alaigh, Kunal [The Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Dadia, Devanshi [The Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-03-18

    Columbia County (New York) Habitat for Humanity built a pair of townhomes to Passive House criteria with the purpose of exploring approaches for achieving Passive House performance and to eventually develop a prototype design for future projects. The project utilized a 2x6 frame wall with a structural insulated panel curtain wall and a ventilated attic over a sealed OSB ceiling air barrier. Mechanical systems include a single head, wall mounted ductless mini-split heat pump in each unit and a heat recovery ventilator. Costs were $26,000 per unit higher for Passive House construction compared with the same home built to ENERGY STAR version 3 specifications, representing about 18% of total construction cost. This report discusses the cost components, energy modeling results and lessons from construction. Two alternative ventilation systems are analyzed: a central system; and, a point-source system with small through-wall units distributed throughout the house. The report includes a design and cost analysis of these two approaches.

  18. Columbia River Pathway Dosimetry Report, 1944-1992

    Farris, W.T.; Napier, B.A.; Simpson, J.C.; Snyder, S.F.; Shipler, D.B.

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of radionuclide emissions since 1944 from the Hanford Site. One objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate doses to individuals who were exposed to the radionuclides released to the Columbia River (the river pathway). This report documents the last in a series of dose calculations conducted on the Columbia River pathway. The report summarizes the technical approach used to estimate radiation doses to three classes of representative individuals who may have used the Columbia River as a source of drinking water, food, or for recreational or occupational purposes. In addition, the report briefly explains the approaches used to estimate the radioactivity released to the river, the development of the parameters used to model the uptake and movement of radioactive materials in aquatic systems such as the Columbia River, and the method of calculating the Columbia River's transport of radioactive materials. Potential Columbia River doses have been determined for representative individuals since the initiation of site activities in 1944. For this report, dose calculations were performed using conceptual models and computer codes developed for the purpose of estimating doses. All doses were estimated for representative individuals who share similar characteristics with segments of the general population

  19. Bull Trout Population Assessment in the Columbia River Gorge : Annual Report 2000.

    Byrne, Jim; McPeak, Ron

    2001-02-01

    We summarized existing knowledge regarding the known distribution of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) across four sub-basins in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington. The Wind River, Little White Salmon River, White Salmon River, and the Klickitat River sub-basins were analyzed. Cold water is essential to the survival, spawning, and rearing of bull trout. We analyzed existing temperature data, installed Onset temperature loggers in the areas of the four sub-basins where data was not available, and determined that mean daily water temperatures were <15 C and appropriate for spawning and rearing of bull trout. We snorkel surveyed more than 74 km (46.25 mi.) of rivers and streams in the four sub-basins (13.8 km at night and 60.2 km during the day) and found that night snorkeling was superior to day snorkeling for locating bull trout. Surveys incorporated the Draft Interim Protocol for Determining Bull Trout Presence (Peterson et al. In Press). However, due to access and safety issues, we were unable to randomly select sample sites nor use block nets as recommended. Additionally, we also implemented the Bull Trout/Dolly Varden sampling methodology described in Bonar et al. (1997). No bull trout were found in the Wind River, Little White Salmon, or White Salmon River sub-basins. We found bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat drainage of the Klickitat River Sub-basin. Bull trout averaged 6.7 fish/100m{sup 2} in Trappers Creek, 2.6 fish/100m{sup 2} on Clearwater Creek, and 0.4 fish/100m{sup 2} in Little Muddy Creek. Bull trout was the only species of salmonid encountered in Trappers Creek and dominated in Clearwater Creek. Little Muddy Creek was the only creek where bull trout and introduced brook trout occurred together. We found bull trout only at night and typically in low flow regimes. A single fish, believed to be a bull trout x brook trout hybrid, was observed in the Little Muddy Creek. Additional surveys are needed in the West Fork Klickitat and mainstem

  20. Bull trout population assessment in the Columbia River Gorge/annual report fy2000; ANNUAL

    Byrne, Jim; McPeak, Ron

    2001-01-01

    We summarized existing knowledge regarding the known distribution of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) across four sub-basins in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington. The Wind River, Little White Salmon River, White Salmon River, and the Klickitat River sub-basins were analyzed. Cold water is essential to the survival, spawning, and rearing of bull trout. We analyzed existing temperature data, installed Onset temperature loggers in the areas of the four sub-basins where data was not available, and determined that mean daily water temperatures were and lt;15 C and appropriate for spawning and rearing of bull trout. We snorkel surveyed more than 74 km (46.25 mi.) of rivers and streams in the four sub-basins (13.8 km at night and 60.2 km during the day) and found that night snorkeling was superior to day snorkeling for locating bull trout. Surveys incorporated the Draft Interim Protocol for Determining Bull Trout Presence (Peterson et al. In Press). However, due to access and safety issues, we were unable to randomly select sample sites nor use block nets as recommended. Additionally, we also implemented the Bull Trout/Dolly Varden sampling methodology described in Bonar et al. (1997). No bull trout were found in the Wind River, Little White Salmon, or White Salmon River sub-basins. We found bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat drainage of the Klickitat River Sub-basin. Bull trout averaged 6.7 fish/100m(sup 2) in Trappers Creek, 2.6 fish/100m(sup 2) on Clearwater Creek, and 0.4 fish/100m(sup 2) in Little Muddy Creek. Bull trout was the only species of salmonid encountered in Trappers Creek and dominated in Clearwater Creek. Little Muddy Creek was the only creek where bull trout and introduced brook trout occurred together. We found bull trout only at night and typically in low flow regimes. A single fish, believed to be a bull trout x brook trout hybrid, was observed in the Little Muddy Creek. Additional surveys are needed in the West Fork Klickitat and mainstem

  1. Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) Storm Wallets

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is responsible for typhoon forecasts and warnings for the Western Pacific and Indian Ocean basins. After each storm, the JTWC...

  2. VT Impervious Surfaces for the Lake Champlain Basin - 2011

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) High-resolution impervious surfaces dataset for the Lake Champlain Basin, Vermont and New York. Two impervious classes were mapped: (1)...

  3. Water resources data, Idaho, 2002; Volume 2. Upper Columbia River basin and Snake River basin below King Hill

    Brennan, T.S.; Lehmann, A.K.; Campbell, A.M.; O'Dell, I.; Beattie, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The two volumes of this report contain discharge records for 196 stream-gaging stations and 15 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 5 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 78 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 3 lakes sites, and 383 groundwater wells; and water levels for 425 observation network wells and 900 special project wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  4. Stock Summary Reports for Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids, Volume V; Idaho Subbasins, 1992 CIS Summary Report.

    Keifer, Sharon (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID); Rowe, Mike (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Hatch, Keith (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    1993-05-01

    An essential component of the effort to rebuild the Columbia Basin's anadromous fish resources is that available information and experience be organized and shared among numerous organizations and individuals. Past experience and knowledge must form the basis for actions into the future. Much of this knowledge exists only in unpublished form in agency and individual files. Even that information which is published in the form of technical and contract reports receives only limited distribution and is often out of print and unavailable after a few years. Only a small fraction of the basin's collective knowledge is captured in permanent and readily available databases (such as the Northwest Environmental Database) or in recognized journals. State, tribal, and federal fishery managers have recognized these information management problems and have committed to a program, the Coordinated Information System Project, to capture and share more easily the core data and other information upon which management decisions are based. That project has completed scoping and identification of key information needs and development of a project plan. Work performed under the CIS project will be coordinated with and extend information contained in the Northwest Environmental Database. Construction of prototype systems will begin in Phase 3. This report is one in a series of seven describing the results of the Coordinated Information System scoping and needs identification phase. A brief description of each of these reports is given.

  5. Shoreline Elevation Calcasieu Basin, Geographic NAD83, OSRADP/LOSCO (2008) [Shoreline_Elevation_Calcasieu_Basin_OSRADP_2008

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — These data consist of vector line segments tagged with elevation derived from the LOSCO/FEMA LIDAR five meter DEM data set for seven watershed basins in the...

  6. Shoreline Elevation Atchafalaya Basin, Geographic NAD83, OSRADP/LOSCO (2008) [Shoreline_Elevation_Atchafalaya_Basin_OSRADP_2008

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — These data consist of vector line segments tagged with elevation derived from the LOSCO/FEMA LIDAR five meter DEM data set for seven watershed basins in the...

  7. Shoreline Elevation Sabine Basin, Geographic NAD83, OSRADP/LOSCO (2008) [Shoreline_Elevation_Sabine_Basin_OSRADP_2008

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — These data consist of vector line segments tagged with elevation derived from the LOSCO/FEMA LIDAR five meter DEM data set for seven watershed basins in the...

  8. Shoreline Elevation Barataria Basin, Geographic NAD83, OSRADP/LOSCO (2008) [Shoreline_Elevation_Barataria_Basin_OSRADP_2008

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — These data consist of vector line segments tagged with elevation derived from the LOSCO/FEMA LIDAR five meter DEM data set for seven watershed basins in the...

  9. Shoreline Elevation Vermilion Basin, Geographic NAD83, OSRADP/LOSCO (2008) [Shoreline_Elevation_Vermilion_Basin_OSRADP_2008

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — These data consist of vector line segments tagged with elevation derived from the LOSCO/FEMA LIDAR five meter DEM data set for seven watershed basins in the...

  10. Summary report for Bureau of Fisheries stream habitat surveys: Cowlitz River basin. Final report 1934--1942

    McIntosh, B.A.; Clark, S.E.; Sedell, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    This document contains summary reports of stream habitat surveys, conducted in the Cowlitz River basin, by the Bureau of Fisheries (BOF, now National Marine Fisheries Service) from 1938--1942. These surveys were part of a larger project to survey streams in the Columbia River basin that provided, or had provided, spawning and rearing habitat for salmon and steelhead. The purpose of the survey was to determine the present condition of the various tributaries with respect to their availability and usefulness for the migration, breeding, and rearing of migratory fishes. Current estimates of the loss of anadromous fish habitat in the Columbia River Basin are based on a series of reports published from 1949--1952 by the US Fish and Wildlife Service

  11. Heavy water at Trail, British Columbia

    Arsenault, J.E. [Ontario (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Today Canada stands on the threshold of a nuclear renaissance, based on the CANDU reactor family, which depends on heavy water as a moderator and for cooling. Canada has a long history with heavy water, with commercial interests beginning in 1934, a mere two years after its discovery. At one time Canada was the world's largest producer of heavy water. The Second World War stimulated interest in this rather rare substance, such that the worlds largest supply (185 kg) ended up in Canada in 1942 to support nuclear research work at the Montreal Laboratories of the National Research Council. A year later commercial production began at Trail, British Columbia, to support work that later became known as the P-9 project, associated with the Manhattan Project. The Trail plant produced heavy water from 1943 until 1956, when it was shut down. During the war years the project was so secret that Lesslie Thomson, Special Liaison Officer reporting on nuclear matters to C.D. Howe, Minister of Munitions and Supply, was discouraged from visiting Trail operations. Thomson never did visit the Trail facility during the war. In 2005 the remaining large, tall concrete exchange tower was demolished at a cost of about $2.4 million, about the same as it cost to construct the facility about 60 years ago. Thus no physical evidence remains of this historic facility and another important artifact from Canada's nuclear history has disappeared forever. It is planned to place a plaque at the site at some point in the future. (author)

  12. Heavy water at Trail, British Columbia

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Today Canada stands on the threshold of a nuclear renaissance, based on the CANDU reactor family, which depends on heavy water as a moderator and for cooling. Canada has a long history with heavy water, with commercial interests beginning in 1934, a mere two years after its discovery. At one time Canada was the world's largest producer of heavy water. The Second World War stimulated interest in this rather rare substance, such that the worlds largest supply (185 kg) ended up in Canada in 1942 to support nuclear research work at the Montreal Laboratories of the National Research Council. A year later commercial production began at Trail, British Columbia, to support work that later became known as the P-9 project, associated with the Manhattan Project. The Trail plant produced heavy water from 1943 until 1956, when it was shut down. During the war years the project was so secret that Lesslie Thomson, Special Liaison Officer reporting on nuclear matters to C.D. Howe, Minister of Munitions and Supply, was discouraged from visiting Trail operations. Thomson never did visit the Trail facility during the war. In 2005 the remaining large, tall concrete exchange tower was demolished at a cost of about $2.4 million, about the same as it cost to construct the facility about 60 years ago. Thus no physical evidence remains of this historic facility and another important artifact from Canada's nuclear history has disappeared forever. It is planned to place a plaque at the site at some point in the future. (author)

  13. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Hillson, Todd D. (Washington Department of Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2002-10-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River chum as threatened under the auspices of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March of 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than half a million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 spawners present day (Johnson et al. 1997). Harvest, loss of habitat, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for the decline in this species in the Columbia River. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of chum salmon (Johnson et al. 1997). This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. The recovery strategy for Lower Columbia River chum as outlined in the Hatchery Genetic Management Plan (HGMP) for the Grays River project has four main tasks. First, determine if remnant populations of Lower Columbia River chum salmon exist in Lower Columbia River tributaries. Second, if such populations exist, develop stock-specific recovery plans that would involve habitat restoration including the creation of spawning refugias, supplementation if necessary and a habitat and fish monitoring and evaluation plan. If chum have been extirpated from previously utilized streams, develop re-introduction plans that utilize appropriate genetic donor stock(s) of Lower Columbia River chum salmon and integrate habitat improvement and fry-to-adult survival evaluations. Third, reduce the extinction risk to Grays River chum salmon population by randomly capturing adults in the basin for use in a supplementation program and reintroduction of Lower Columbia River chum salmon into the Chinook River basin. The

  14. Ecology of Juvenile Salmon in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2008

    Sather, Nichole K.; Johnson, Gary E.; Storch, Adam; Teel, David; Skalski, John R.; Jones, Tucker A.; Dawley, Earl M.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Borde, Amy B.; Mallette, Christine; Farr, R.

    2009-05-29

    The tidal freshwater monitoring (TFM) project reported herein is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [USACE], and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System. The project is being performed under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council’s Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Project No. 2005-001-00). The research is a collaborative effort among the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the University of Washington.

  15. Biotic soil crusts in relation to topography, cheatgrass, and fire in the Columbia Basin, Washington

    Ponzetti, Jeanne; McCune, B.; Pyke, David A.

    2007-01-01

    We studied lichen and bryophyte soil crust communities in a large public grazing allotment within a sagebrush steppe ecosystem in which the biotic soil crusts are largely intact. The allotment had been rested from grazing for 12 years, but experienced an extensive series of wildfires. In the 350, 4 ?? 0.5 m plots, stratified by topographic position, we found 60 species or species groups that can be distinguished in the field with a hand lens, averaging 11.5 species groups per plot. Lichen and bryophyte soil crust communities differed among topographic positions. Draws were the most disturbed, apparently from water erosion in a narrow channel and mass wasting from the steepened sides. Presumably because of this disturbance, draws had the lowest average species richness of all the topographic strata we examined. Biotic crust species richness and cover were inversely related to cover of the invasive annual, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), and positively related to cover of native bunchgrasses. Integrity of the biotic crust was more strongly related to cheatgrass than to fire. In general, we observed good recovery of crusts following fire, but only in those areas dominated by perennial bunchgrasses. We interpret the resilience of the biotic crust, in this case, to the low abundance of cheatgrass, low amounts of soil disturbance and high moss cover. These fires have not resulted in an explosion of the cheatgrass population, perhaps because of the historically low levels of livestock grazing.

  16. 78 FR 4865 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Plan for the Columbia Basin Distinct...

    2013-01-23

    ... the recovery plan are also available by request from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Eastern... implementing actions, while the recovery actions describe a process for implementing conservation on the ground... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R1-ES-2012-N199; FXES11130100000C2-123...

  17. Assessment and Analysis of Smolt Condition in the Columbia River Basin, 1999 Technical Report.

    Schrock, Robin M.; Jones, Ray

    1999-12-01

    The primary objective of the study was to increase the number of summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery that outmigrate by promoting smoltification in a larger proportion of the production release. To achieve this goal, growth was reduced during the winter to produce a smaller size range of fish to eliminate the production of large fish that residualize. A period of accelerated growth prior to release was designed to promote smoltification in all fish, regardless of size. Decreased winter growth was achieved with a combination of reduced ration and short, intermittent feeding periods. Growth rates were not reduced to the expected level in the modified feeding schedule treatment group, control group, or general production fish reared in the same system. Although significant differences in length, weight and condition factor developed between treatment and control groups during December and January, compensatory growth of the treatment fish after return to full rations resulted in fish of the same size from both groups for release. Migration rates of the treatment group were higher than that of the control group, although the difference was not significant. Growth and survival during extended seawater rearing did not differ between the two groups. Smoltification, as measured by gill Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase and seawater survival, were unaffected by a reduction in feed during winter months.

  18. Forest carnivore conservation and management in the interior Columbia basin: issues and environmental correlates.

    Gary W. Witmer; Sandra K. Martin; Rodney D. Sayler

    1998-01-01

    Forest carnivores in the Pacific Northwest include 11 medium to large-sized mammalian species of canids, felids, mustelids, and ursids. These carnivores have widely differing status in the region, with some harvested in regulated furbearer seasons, some taken for depredations, and some protected because of rarity. Most large carnivores have declined in numbers or range...

  19. Development of field-based models of suitable thermal regimes for interior Columbia Basin salmonids

    Jason B. Dunham; Bruce Rieman; Gwynne Chandler

    2001-01-01

    This report describes results of research sponsored through an interagency agreement between the U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Interagency Agreement #00-IA-11222014-521). The primary objectives of this research included 1) develop models relating occurrence of two threatened inland salmonid fishes to...

  20. Modified Streamflows 1990 Level of Irrigation : Columbia River and Coastal Basins, 1928-1989.

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; A.G. Crook Company

    1993-04-01

    The annual operation plans described in the following sections require detailed system regulation computer model studies. These system regulation studies are necessary to evaluate potential new projects and to develop operational rule curves for the existing system of projects. The objective is to provide a basis for evaluating alternative system regulation scenarios. This provides essential input for optimizing the management of existing projects and planning future projects for the most beneficial use of the water supply and resources in the entire region. Historical streamflows per se are inadequate for system regulation studies because the pattern of observed flow has continually changed with each successive stage of irrigation and e development. The problem, therefore, is to adjust for past operation of storage projects and to determine the necessary adjustments that should be made to recorded flows to reflect current stages of irrigation development. Historical flows which have been adjusted to a common level of irrigation development by correcting for the effects of diversion demand, return flow, and change-of-contents and evaporation in upstream reservoirs and lakes are referred to as modified flows. This report describes the development of irrigation depletion adjustments and modified flows for the 1990 level of development for the 61-year period 1928--1989. incremental depletion adjustments were computed in this report for each month of the 61-year period to adjust the effects of actual irrigation in each year up to that which would have been experienced with the irrigation as practiced in 1990.

  1. Salmon-mediated nutrient flux in selected streams of the Columbia River basin, USA

    Kohler, Andre E.; Kusnierz, Paul C.; Copeland, Timothy; Venditti, David A.; Denny, Lytle; Gable, Josh; Lewis, Bert; Kinzer, Ryan; Barnett, Bruce; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Salmon provide an important resource subsidy and linkage between marine and land-based ecosystems. This flow of energy and nutrients is not uni-directional (i.e., upstream only); in addition to passive nutrient export via stream flow, juvenile emigrants actively export nutrients from freshwater environments. In some cases, nutrient export can exceed import. We evaluated nutrient fluxes in streams across central Idaho, USA using Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) adult escapement and juvenile production data from 1998 to 2008. We found in the majority of stream-years evaluated, adults imported more nutrients than progeny exported; however, in 3% of the years, juveniles exported more nutrients than their parents imported. On average, juvenile emigrants exported 22 ± 3% of the nitrogen and 30 ± 4% of the phosphorus their parents imported. This relationship was density dependent and nonlinear; during periods of low adult abundance juveniles were larger and exported up to 194% and 268% of parental nitrogen and phosphorus inputs, respectively. We highlight minimum escapement thresholds that appear to 1) maintain consistently positive net nutrient flux and 2) reduce the average proportional rate of export across study streams. Our results suggest a state-shift occurs when adult spawner abundance falls below a threshold to a point where the probability of juvenile nutrient exports exceeding adult imports becomes increasingly likely.

  2. Trees and logs important to wildlife in the interior Columbia River basin.

    Evelyn L. Bull; Catherine G. Parks; Torolf R. Torgersen

    1997-01-01

    This publication provides qualitative and quantitative information on five distinct structures: living trees with decayed parts, trees with hollow chambers, trees with brooms, dead trees, and logs. Information is provided on the value of these structures to wildlife, the decay or infection processes involved in the formation of these structures, and the principles to...

  3. Taxonomic status of the Columbia duskysnail (Truncatelloidea, Amnicolidae, Colligyrus).

    Liu, Hsiu-Ping; Hershler, Robert; Rossel, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Undescribed freshwater snails (Amnicolidae: Colligyrus) from the Mount Hood region (northwestern United States) identified as a new species (commonly known as the Columbia duskysnail) in grey literature have been provided federal protection under the "survey and manage" provisions of the Northwest Forest Plan and have been placed on conservation watch lists. However, there are no published studies of the identity of these snails aside from a molecular phylogenetic analysis which delineated a close relationship between the single sampled population and Colligyrusgreggi, which is distributed more than 750 km to the east of the Mount Hood area. Here we examine the taxonomic status of the Columbia duskysnail based on additional molecular sampling of mitochondrial DNA sequences (COI) and morphological evidence. We found that the Columbia duskysnail is not a monophyletic group and forms a strongly supported clade with Colligyrusgreggi. The COI divergence between these broadly disjunct groups (2.1%) was somewhat larger than that within Colligyrusgreggi (1.0%) but considerably less than that among the three currently recognized species of Colligyrus (8.7-12.1%). Additionally we found that the Columbia duskysnail and Colligyrusgreggi cannot be consistently differentiated by previously reported diagnostic characters (size and shape of shell spire, pigmentation of body and penis) and are closely similar in other aspects of morphology. Based on these results we conclude that the Columbia duskysnail is conspecific with Colligyrusgreggi.

  4. Taxonomic status of the Columbia duskysnail (Truncatelloidea, Amnicolidae, Colligyrus

    Hsiu-Ping Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Undescribed freshwater snails (Amnicolidae: Colligyrus from the Mount Hood region (northwestern United States identified as a new species (commonly known as the Columbia duskysnail in grey literature have been provided federal protection under the “survey and manage” provisions of the Northwest Forest Plan and have been placed on conservation watch lists. However, there are no published studies of the identity of these snails aside from a molecular phylogenetic analysis which delineated a close relationship between the single sampled population and C. greggi, which is distributed more than 750 km to the east of the Mount Hood area. Here we examine the taxonomic status of the Columbia duskysnail based on additional molecular sampling of mitochondrial DNA sequences (COI and morphological evidence. We found that the Columbia duskysnail is not a monophyletic group and forms a strongly supported clade with C. greggi. The COI divergence between these broadly disjunct groups (2.1% was somewhat larger than that within C. greggi (1.0% but considerably less than that among the three currently recognized species of Colligyrus (8.7–12.1%. Additionally we found that the Columbia duskysnail and C. greggi cannot be consistently differentiated by previously reported diagnostic characters (size and shape of shell spire, pigmentation of body and penis and are closely similar in other aspects of morphology. Based on these results we conclude that the Columbia duskysnail is conspecific with C. greggi.

  5. Frequency and sources of basin floor turbidites in alfonso basin, Gulf of California, Mexico: Products of slope failures

    Gonzalez-Yajimovich, Oscar E.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Douglas, Robert G.

    2007-07-01

    Alfonso Basin is a small margin basin formed by extensional tectonics in the actively rifting, seismically active Gulf of California. The basin is centered at 24°40' N and 110° 38' W, and is a closed depression (maximum depth 420 m) with an effective sill depth of about 320 m (deepest sill), a width of 20 km and length of 25 km. Basin floor area below a depth of 350 m is about 260 km 2. The climate is arid to semiarid but was wetter during the early (ca. 10,000-7000 Calendar years Before Present [BP]) and middle Holocene (ca. 7000-4000 Cal. Years BP). Basin-wide turbidity currents reach the floor of Alfonso Basin at centennial to millennial intervals. The peninsular drainages tributary to the basin are small and have maximum flood discharges of the order of 10 4m 3. The basin-floor turbidites thicker than 1 cm have volumes of the order of 10 6m 3 to 10 8m 3 and require a much larger source. The largest turbidite seen in our cores is ca. 1 m thick in the central basin floor and was deposited 4900 Calendar Years Before Present (BP). Two smaller major events occurred about 1500 and 2800 Cal. Years BP. Seismicity over the past century of record shows a clustering of larger epicenters along faults forming the eastern Gulf side of Alfonso Basin. In that period there have been four earthquakes with magnitudes above 7.0 but all are distant from the basin. Frequency of such earthquakes in the basin vicinity is probably millennial. It is concluded that the basin-wide turbidites thicker than 1 cm must be generated by slope failures on the eastern side of the basin at roughly millennial intervals. The thin flood turbidites have a peninsular source at centennial frequencies.

  6. Data Compendium for the Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment

    Eslinger, P.W.; Huesties, L.R.; Maughan, A.D.; Miley, T.B.; Walters, W.H.

    1994-04-01

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). The CRCIA is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The purpose of the CRCIA is to evaluate the current human and ecological risk from the Columbia River attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. Human risk will be addressed for radioactive and hazardous materials over a range of river use options. Ecological risk will be evaluated relative to the health of the current river ecosystem. The initial effort for the CRCIA is the development of a compendium of existing data on Columbia River contamination. This document provides the data compendium. It also includes a discussion of data sources, descriptions of the physical format of the data, and descriptions of the search process used to identify data

  7. Steelhead Spawning Surveys Near Locke Island, Hanford Reach of the Columbia River; TOPICAL

    DR Geist; RP Mueller

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed upper Columbia River steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus znykiss) as endangered. This action affected management of land-use activities along and within the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, which flows through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Steelhead covered in this listing include all naturally spawned populations of steel-head and their progeny in streams in the Columbia River Basin upstream from the Yakima River to the United States/Canada border. The NMFS has identified a general listing of activities that could potentially result in harm to steelhead (62 FR 43937, August 18, 1997). One of these concerns includes land-use changes resulting in mass wasting or surface erosion. Landslide activity along the White Bluffs on the east ,side of Locke Island has redirected river flow into the island where substantial erosion has occurred. This erosion has exposed important anthropological and archaeological resources that were previously buried on the island. The DOE is working with affected tribes and other agencies to develop a plan for addressing the erosion of Locke Island. As part of this effort, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has prepared an assessment of potential alternatives to stabilize the erosion, including a no-action alternative. Steelhead historically spawned in the vicinity of Locke Island, but recent information on the occurrence of steelhead spawning or availability of spawning habitat was lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if steelhead spawned in the vicinity of Locke Island erosion and to evaluate the composition of substrate in the affected area. Surveys to document the occurrence of steelheads redds were conducted in Spring 1999. The surveys were conducted from the air as well as with the use of an underwater video camera. Neither aerial nor underwater surveys documented steelhead spawning within the survey area. Habitat surveys were

  8. Design of a System to Retrieve Sludge from the K East Spent Fuel Basin at Hanford

    TWITCHELL, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the Sludge Retrieval System (SRS), which was designed to safely remove radioactive sludge from the K East spent fuel basin at the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. Basin water and sludge have the potential to leak to the environment due to the age and condition of the basins. Since the 100 K Area spent fuel basins are located next to the Columbia River, the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project mission includes the safe removal, containment, and transportation of sludge from the basins to a secure storage location. The scope of the SRS includes: (1) a system capable of retrieving sludge from the K East basin floor, pits, and fuel canisters; (2) separation of debris from sludge, where debris is defined as any material greater than 0.64 cm (0.25 in.) in diameter; (3) collection of sludge particles in a container that can be transported away from the basin; and (4) modifications to the K East basin to allow installation of the SRS. The SRS was designed by Fluor Federal Services. Changes to the designed system were made by Fluor Hanford as a result of full-scale testing performed after design. This paper discusses this testing, as well as operation and control of the system. Construction and startup testing was initially scheduled to be complete by the end of December 2002. Startup of the system is now expected in April 2003

  9. DESIGN OF A SYSTEM TO RETRIEVE SLUDGE FROM THE K EAST SPENT FUEL BASIN AT HANFORD

    Twitchell, A.L.; MacLean, G.T.; Ho, Q.T.; Fort, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the Sludge Retrieval System (SRS), which was designed to safely remove radioactive sludge from the K East spent fuel basin at the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. Basin water and sludge have the potential to leak to the environment due to the age and condition of the basins. Since the 100 K Area spent fuel basins are located next to the Columbia River, the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project mission includes the safe removal, containment, and transportation of sludge from the basins to a secure storage location. The scope of the SRS includes: A system capable of retrieving sludge from the K East basin floor, pits, and fuel canisters; Separation of debris from sludge, where debris is defined as any material greater than 0.64 cm (0.25 in.) in diameter; Collection of sludge particles in a container that can be transported away from the basin; Modifications to the K East basin to allow installation of the SRS. The SRS was designed by Fluor Federal Services. Changes to the designed system were made by Fluor Hanford as a result of full-scale testing performed after design. This paper discusses this testing, as well as operation and control of the system. Construction and startup testing was initially scheduled to be complete by the end of December 2002. Startup of the system is now expected in April 2003

  10. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1993-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) review and summarize historical data on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River, (2) determine present-day radionuclide tissue burdens from different locations in the Columbia River, and (3) compare historical data with current data. We first reviewed and summarized the historical literature on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Hanford Reach. Field studies were then conducted to evaluate the relationship among sample locations, age/length of white sturgeon, and present radionuclide tissue burdens. Results and comparisons are discussed in the remainder of this report

  11. Computer Simulation Performed for Columbia Project Cooling System

    Ahmad, Jasim

    2005-01-01

    This demo shows a high-fidelity simulation of the air flow in the main computer room housing the Columbia (10,024 intel titanium processors) system. The simulation asseses the performance of the cooling system and identified deficiencies, and recommended modifications to eliminate them. It used two in house software packages on NAS supercomputers: Chimera Grid tools to generate a geometric model of the computer room, OVERFLOW-2 code for fluid and thermal simulation. This state-of-the-art technology can be easily extended to provide a general capability for air flow analyses on any modern computer room. Columbia_CFD_black.tiff

  12. Feasibility of storing radioactive wastes in Columbia River basalts

    Deju, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    In 1968 Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company initiated a study to assess the feasibility of final geologic storage of Hanford defense, radioactive waste in deep caverns constructed in the Columbia River flood basalts. The project, which included geologic studies, hydrologic tests, heat flow analysis, compatibility analysis, and tectonic studies, was suspended in 1972 before completion of interpretive work. In 1976 the interpretation and documentation were completed. These data may be valuable in qualifying the Columbia River flood basalts as a viable medium for final geologic storage of commercial radioactive waste. The findings to date are summarized, and the proposed future work is presented

  13. Hanford K Basins spent nuclear fuels project update

    Hudson, F.G.

    1997-01-01

    Twenty one hundred metric tons of spent nuclear fuel are stored in two concrete pools on the Hanford Site, known as the K Basins, near the Columbia River. The deteriorating conditions of the fuel and the basins provide engineering and management challenges to assure safe current and future storage. DE and S Hanford, Inc., part of the Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. lead team on the Project Hanford Management Contract, is constructing facilities and systems to move the fuel from current wet pool storage to a dry interim storage facility away from the Columbia River, and to treat and dispose of K Basins sludge, debris and water. The process starts in the K Basins where fuel elements will be removed from existing canisters, washed, and separated from sludge and scrap fuel pieces. Fuel elements will be placed in baskets and loaded into Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and into transportation casks. The MCO and cask will be transported into the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, where free water within the MCO will be removed under vacuum at slightly elevated temperatures. The MCOs will be sealed and transported via the transport cask to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in the 200 Area for staging prior to hot conditioning. The conditioning step to remove chemically bound water is performed by holding the MCO at 300 C under vacuum. This step is necessary to prevent excessive pressure buildup during interim storage that could be caused by corrosion. After conditioning, MCOs will remain in the CSB for interim storage until a national repository is completed

  14. Hanford K Basins spent nuclear fuels project update

    Hudson, F.G.

    1997-10-17

    Twenty one hundred metric tons of spent nuclear fuel are stored in two concrete pools on the Hanford Site, known as the K Basins, near the Columbia River. The deteriorating conditions of the fuel and the basins provide engineering and management challenges to assure safe current and future storage. DE and S Hanford, Inc., part of the Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. lead team on the Project Hanford Management Contract, is constructing facilities and systems to move the fuel from current wet pool storage to a dry interim storage facility away from the Columbia River, and to treat and dispose of K Basins sludge, debris and water. The process starts in the K Basins where fuel elements will be removed from existing canisters, washed, and separated from sludge and scrap fuel pieces. Fuel elements will be placed in baskets and loaded into Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and into transportation casks. The MCO and cask will be transported into the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, where free water within the MCO will be removed under vacuum at slightly elevated temperatures. The MCOs will be sealed and transported via the transport cask to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in the 200 Area for staging prior to hot conditioning. The conditioning step to remove chemically bound water is performed by holding the MCO at 300 C under vacuum. This step is necessary to prevent excessive pressure buildup during interim storage that could be caused by corrosion. After conditioning, MCOs will remain in the CSB for interim storage until a national repository is completed.

  15. Ecosystem-level changes that may be expected in a changing global climate - a British Columbia perspective. [Canada - British Columbia

    Kimmins, J.P.; Lavender, D.P. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Science)

    1992-08-01

    British Columbia is a vast province encompassing a wide latitudinal and elevational range. Four of the five major classes of climate in the world are found in British Columbia, where prevailing westerly winds from the Pacific and a series of north-south mountain ranges have produced widely differing local climates. The predicted global warming may result in the migration of species and communities upslope and toward the north, but the heterogenous nature of the present landscape suggests that such migration may not be as pronounced as that likely to occur in regions of Canada with less relief. Effects of climatic warming on long-lived temperate zone trees include possible increased frost damage in early spring; reduced seed production; increased insect and disease incidence; increased damage to forests by wildfire; and, in the warmer parts of coastal British Columbia, a winter climate too warm to satisfy the chilling requirements of some perennial plants.

  16. International Water Center

    The urban district of Nancy and the Town of Nancy, France, have taken the initiative of creating an International Center of Water (Centre International de l'Eau à Nancy—NAN.C.I.E.) in association with two universities, six engineering colleges, the Research Centers of Nancy, the Rhine-Meuse Basin Agency, and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The aim of this center is to promote research and technology transfer in the areas of water and sanitation. In 1985 it will initiate a research program drawing on the experience of 350 researchers and engineers of various disciplines who have already been assigned to research in these fields. The research themes, the majority of which will be multidisciplinary, concern aspects of hygiene and health, the engineering of industrial processes, water resources, and the environment and agriculture. A specialist training program offering five types of training aimed at university graduates, graduates of engineering colleges, or experts, will start in October 1984.

  17. Lower Columbia River and Estuary Habitat Monitoring Study, 2011 - Final Report

    Borde, Amy B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kaufmann, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cullinan, Valerie I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zimmerman, Shon A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thom, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wright, Cynthia L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The Ecosystem Monitoring Program is a collaborative effort between the Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (LCREP), University of Washington, Wetland Ecosystem Team (UW), US Geological Survey, Water Science Center (USGS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA-Fisheries, hereafter NOAA), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Sciences Laboratory (PNNL). The goal of the program is to conduct emergent wetland monitoring aimed at characterizing salmonid habitats in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) from the mouth of the estuary to Bonneville Dam (Figure 1). This is an ecosystem based monitoring program focused on evaluating status and trends in habitat and reducing uncertainties regarding these ecosystems to ultimately improve the survival of juvenile salmonids through the LCRE. This project comprehensively assesses habitat, fish, food web, and abiotic conditions in the lower river, focusing on shallow water and vegetated habitats used by juvenile salmonids for feeding, rearing and refugia. The information is intended to be used to guide management actions associated with species recovery, particularly that of threatened and endangered salmonids. PNNL’s role in this multi-year study is to monitor the habitat structure (e.g., vegetation, topography, channel morphology, and sediment type) as well as hydrologic patterns.

  18. Steelhead migration - Tracking steelhead migration from the Columbia River through the Pacific Ocean

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tag juvenile Columbia River steelhead in the Columbia estuary with acoustic tags to determine their marine distributions. This was a small pilot project to test our...

  19. 75 FR 66009 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    2010-10-27

    ... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously the Lancair... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously The Lancair...-15895. Applicability (c) This AD applies to the following Cessna Aircraft Company (type certificate...

  20. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and petrology of neogene rocks in the Deschutes Basin, Central Oregon: a record of continental-margin volcanism and its influence on fluvial sedimentation in an arc-adjacent basin

    Smith, G.A.

    1986-07-01

    Neogene rocks of the Deschutes basin include the middle Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group and Simtustus Formation, and late Miocene to early Pliocene Deschutes Formation. Assignment of Prineville chemical-type flows to the Grande Ronde Basalt of the Columbia River Basalt Group is based on correlation of these lavas from their type area through the Deschutes basin and onto the Columbia Plateau, where they have been previously mapped as Grande Ronde Basalt. Simtustus Formation is a newly defined unit intercalated with and conformable upon these basalts, and is unconformably overlain by Deschutes Formation. Burial of mature topography by middle Miocene basalts raised local base levels and initiated aggradation by low-gradient streams within the basin represented by the tuffaceous sandstones and mudstones of the Simtustus Formation. These sediments are enriched in pyroclastic constituents relative to contemporaneous Western Cascades volcanics, reflecting preferential incorporation of easily eroded and more widespread pyroclastic debris in distal sedimentary sequences compared to epiclastic contributions from lavas. The abundance of basalts, combined with the paucity of hydrous minerals and FeO and TiO 2 enrichment in intermediate lavas, characterizes early High Cascade volcanics as atypical for convergent-margin arcs. These petrologic characteristics are consistent with high-level fractionation in an extensional regime. Extension culminated in the development of an intra-arc graben, which ended Deschutes Formation deposition by structurally isolating the basin from the High Cascade source area

  1. Evaluation of water resource economics within the Pasco Basin, Washington

    Leaming, G.F.

    1981-01-01

    The Columbia River basalt beneath the Hanford Site in south-central Washington is being considered for possible use as a terminal repository medium for high-level nuclear waste. Such underground storage would require that the facility be contiguous to at least a portion of the ambient groundwater system of the Pasco Basin. This report attempts to evaluate the economic factors and conditions related to the water resources of the Pasco Basin and the probable economic effects associated with selected hypothetical changes in local water demand and supply as a basis for eventual selection of credible water supply alternatives and more detailed analyses of the consequences of such alternative selection. It is most likely that total demand for water for consumptive uses in the Pasco Basin will increase from nearly 2.0 million acre-feet per year in 1980 to almost 2.8 million acre-feet in 2010, with total demand slightly more than 3.6 million acre-feet per year in 2080. The Columbia River and other surface streams constitute the source of more than 99 percent of the water available each year for all uses, both consumptive and non-consumptive, in the Pasco Basin. It is estimated that pumped groundwater accounted for 3 percent of the value of all water supplied to consumers of water in the Pasco Basin in 1980. Groundwater's share of the total cost is proportionately higher than groundwater's share of total use because it is generally more costly to acquire than is surface water and the value of water is considered equivalent to its cost of acquisition. Because groundwater represents such a small part of the total water supply and demand within the Pasco Basin, it is concluded that if the development of a nuclear waste repository on the Hanford Site were to result in changes in the groundwater supply during the next 100 years, the economic impact on the overall water supply picture for the entire basin would be insignificant

  2. System-wide significance of predation on juvenile salmonids in Columbia and Snake River reservoirs and evaluation of predation control measures. Annual report 1993

    Gadomski, D.M.; Poe, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    This project had three major goals. The first was to assist the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife with predation indexing as part of an effort to estimate the relative magnitude of juvenile salmonid losses to northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis in reservoirs throughout the Columbia River Basin. The second goal was to evaluate the northern squawfish control program and test critical assumptions about mid-reservoir predation processes. The final goal was to determine mechanisms underlying northern squawfish recruitment and factors affecting year-class strength

  3. 1993-1994 Final technical report for establishing the SECME Model in the District of Columbia

    Vickers, R.G.

    1995-12-31

    This is the final report for a program to establish the SECME Model in the District of Columbia. This program has seen the development of a partnership between the District of Columbia Public Schools, the University of the District of Columbia, the Department of Energy, and SECME. This partnership has demonstrated positive achievement in mathematics and science education and learning in students within the District of Columbia.

  4. 1993-1994 Final technical report for establishing the SECME Model in the District of Columbia

    Vickers, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    This is the final report for a program to establish the SECME Model in the District of Columbia. This program has seen the development of a partnership between the District of Columbia Public Schools, the University of the District of Columbia, the Department of Energy, and SECME. This partnership has demonstrated positive achievement in mathematics and science education and learning in students within the District of Columbia

  5. Summary Report for Bureau of Fisheries Stream Habitat Surveys: Cowlitz River Basin, 1934-1942 Final Report.

    McIntosh, Bruce A.; Clark, Sharon E.; Sedell, James R.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains summary reports of stream habitat surveys, conducted in the Cowlitz River basin, by the Bureau of Fisheries (BOF, now National Marine Fisheries Service) from 1938-1942. These surveys were part of a larger project to survey streams in the Columbia River basin that provided, or had provided, spawning and rearing habitat for salmon and steelhead. The purpose of the survey was, as described by Rich, [open quotes]to determine the present condition of the various tributaries with respect to their availability and usefulness for the migration, breeding, and rearing of migratory fishes[close quotes]. Current estimates of the loss of anadromous fish habitat in the Columbia River Basin are based on a series of reports published from 1949-1952 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The reports were brief, qualitative accounts of over 5000 miles of stream surveys conducted by the BOF from 1934-1946. Despite their brevity, these BOF reports have formed the basis for estimating fish habitat losses and conditions in the Columbia River Basin.

  6. 40 CFR 81.108 - Columbia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.108 Columbia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Columbia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (South Carolina) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Columbia Intrastate Air Quality...

  7. 77 FR 58126 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Offer of Settlement

    2012-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RP12-1021-000] Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Offer of Settlement Take notice that on September 4, 2012, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia) filed a Stipulation and Agreement (Settlement), including pro forma tariff records...

  8. 77 FR 3115 - Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment Vessels, Columbia and Snake Rivers

    2012-01-23

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Grain-Shipment Vessels, Columbia and Snake Rivers AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Terminal, Longview, WA, while they are located on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. This safety zone extends... on the Columbia and Snake rivers when vessels begin arriving at EGT, Longview, WA. Under 5 U.S.C. 553...

  9. 78 FR 3893 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    2013-01-17

    ... any natural gas service; however, Columbia would terminate service to one free gas customer pursuant to the terms of the lease agreement between the customer and Columbia. Columbia estimates that it... contact FERC Online Support at FERC Online[email protected] or call toll-free at (866) 206-3676, or, for...

  10. 76 FR 6525 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    2011-02-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft... following new AD: 2011-03-04 Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft... the following Cessna Aircraft Company (type certificate previously held by Columbia Aircraft...

  11. Threshold friction velocity of soils within the Columbia Plateau

    Wind erosion only occurs when the friction velocity exceeds the threshold friction velocity (TFV) of the surface. The TFV of loessial soils commonly found across the Columbia Plateau region of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is virtually unknown even though these soils are highly erodible and a source of...

  12. Green Street in District of Columbia Curbs Harmful Runoff

    The name of the block hasn’t been changed to “Oh!” Street, but a revamped section of O Street NW in the District of Columbia is turning heads with green features that are keeping stormwater pollution out of the Anacostia River.

  13. Nieuws uit het westen : meerouderschap en draagmoederschap in British Columbia

    Vonk, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 is in de Canadese provincie British Columbia nieuwe familierechtwetgeving in werking getreden: de Family Law Act, met daarin een regeling voor draagmoederschap, meerouderschap en meeroudergezag. Gezien de discussie in Nederland over deze onderwerpen en de instelling van de Staatscommissie

  14. 75 FR 33296 - Columbia Gulf Transmission Company; Notice of Filing

    2010-06-11

    ... Transmission Company; Notice of Filing June 2, 2010. Take notice that on May 20, 2010, Columbia Gulf..., pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), for a certificate of public convenience and... of its existing transmission system to transport unprocessed gas (wet gas) near Centerville...

  15. Separation of the Shuttle Columbia's external fuel tank

    1981-01-01

    Separation of the Shuttle Columbia's external fuel tank (ET), photographed by a camera in the umbilical bay. Camera was able to record the underside of the tank as the orbiter toward its earth-orbital mission and the fuel tank fell toward the earth.

  16. Identification of contaminants of concern Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    Napier, B.A.; Batishko, N.C.; Heise-Craff, D.A.; Jarvis, M.F.; Snyder, S.F.

    1995-01-01

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA) Project at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating the current human and ecological risks from contaminants in the Columbia River. The risks to be studied are those attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is located in southcentral Washington State near the town of Richland. Human risk from exposure to radioactive and hazardous materials will be addressed for a range of river use options. Ecological risk will be evaluated relative to the health of the current river ecosystem. The overall purpose of the project is to determine if enough contamination exists in the Columbia River to warrant cleanup actions under applicable environmental regulations. This report documents an initial review, from a risk perspective, of the wealth of historical data concerning current or potential contamination in the Columbia River. Sampling data were examined for over 600 contaminants. A screening analysis was performed to identify those substances present in such quantities that they may pose a significant human or ecological risk. These substances will require a more detailed analysis to assess their impact on humans or the river ecosystem

  17. Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Rock Removal Blasting: Monitoring Plan

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2010-01-29

    This document provides a monitoring plan to evaluate take as outlined in the National Marine Fisheries Service 2002 Biological Opinion for underwater blasting to remove rock from the navigation channel for the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project. The plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District.

  18. Chinese Gold Miners of the Mid-Columbia Region; TOPICAL

    J. J. Sharpe

    1999-01-01

    This report was compiled to provide historical information to assist cultural resources personnel to identify features and artifacts that might relate to Chinese placer mining along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. Historical information indicates that Chinese miners pursued placer gold along the Hanford Reach

  19. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves Will Speak At Columbia University

    2010-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves esineb 22. septembril 2010 Columbia Ülikoolis kõnega ""Vana ja uus" Euroopa pärast Lissaboni lepingu jõustumist". Töövisiit Ameerika Ühendriikidesse 20.-27.09.2010

  20. Hydrological variability in the Fraser River Basin during the 20th century: A sensitivity study with the VIC model

    Kang, D.; Gao, H.; Dery, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, a macroscale surface hydrology model, was applied to the Fraser River Basin (FRB) of British Columbia, Canada. Previous modeling studies have demonstrated that the FRB is a snow-dominated system but with climate change may evolve to a pluvial regime. The ultimate goal of this model application is to evaluate the changing contribution of snowmelt to streamflow in the FRB both spatially and temporally. To this end, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data combined with meteorological observations over 1953 to 2006 are used to drive the model at a resolution of 0.25°. Model simulations are first validated with daily discharge observations from the Water Survey of Canada (WSC). In addition, the snow water equivalent (SWE) results from VIC are compared with snow pillow observations from the B.C. Ministry of Environment. Then peak SWE values simulated each winter are compared with the annual runoff data to quantify the changing contribution of snowmelt to the hydrology of the FRB. With perturbed model forcings such as precipitation and air temperature, how streamflow and surface energy-mass balance are changed is evaluated. Finally, interactions between the land surface and ambient atmosphere are evaluated by analyzing VIC results such as evaporation, soil moisture, snowmelt and sensible-latent heat flux with corresponding meteorological forcings, i.e. precipitation and air temperature.

  1. Basalt stratigraphy - Pasco Basin

    Waters, A.C.; Myers, C.W.; Brown, D.J.; Ledgerwood, R.K.

    1979-10-01

    The geologic history of the Pasco Basin is sketched. Study of the stratigraphy of the area involved a number of techniques including major-element chemistry, paleomagnetic investigations, borehole logging, and other geophysical survey methods. Grande Ronde basalt accumulation in the Pasco Basin is described. An illustrative log response is shown. 1 figure

  2. Melo carboniferous basin

    Flossdarf, A.

    1988-01-01

    This report is about of the Melo carboniferous basin which limits are: in the South the large and high Tupambae hill, in the west the Paraiso hill and the river mountains, in the North Yaguaron river basin to Candidata in Rio Grande del Sur in Brazil.

  3. Basin Hopping Graph

    Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of the folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results We introduce the basin hopping graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect...

  4. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries are the primary water system in the Pacific Northwest, draining some 219,000 square miles in seven states and another 39,500 square miles in British Columbia. Beginning in the 1930's, the Columbia River has been significantly modified by construction of 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries, along with dozens of non-Federal projects. Construction and subsequent operation of these water development projects have contributed to eight primary uses of the river system, including navigation, flood control, irrigation, electric power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water supply and quality considerations. Increasing stress on the water development of the Columbia River and its tributaries has led primary Federal agencies to undertake intensive analysis and evaluation of the operation of these projects. These agencies are the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, who operate the large Federal dams on the river, and the Bonneville Power Administration who sells the power generated at the dams. This review, termed the System Operation Review (SOR), has as its ultimate goal to define a strategy for future operation of the major Columbia River projects which effectively considers the needs of all river uses. This volume, Appendix D: Cultural resources appendix, Technical imput includes the following: Development of geomorphology based framework for cultural resources management, Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho; Impact profiles for SOR reservoirs; comments from the following Native American tribes: Burns Paiute Tribe; Coville Confederated Tribes; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation; Confederated Tribes and bands of the Yakama Indian Nation (comments); Nez Perce Tribe; Coeur D'Alene Tribe; Spokane Tribe of Indians; The confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

  5. Potential Effects of Dams on Migratory Fish in the Mekong River: Lessons from Salmon in the Fraser and Columbia Rivers

    Ferguson, John W.; Healey, Michael; Dugan, Patrick; Barlow, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We compared the effects of water resource development on migratory fish in two North American rivers using a descriptive approach based on four high-level indicators: (1) trends in abundance of Pacific salmon, (2) reliance on artificial production to maintain fisheries, (3) proportion of adult salmon that are wild- versus hatchery-origin, and (4) number of salmon populations needing federal protection to avoid extinction. The two rivers had similar biological and physical features but radically different levels of water resource development: the Fraser River has few dams and all are located in tributaries, whereas the Columbia River has more than 130 large mainstem and tributary dams. Not surprisingly, we found substantial effects of development on salmon in the Columbia River. We related the results to potential effects on migratory fish in the Mekong River where nearly 200 mainstem and tributary dams are installed, under construction, or planned and could have profound effects on its 135 migratory fish species. Impacts will vary with dam location due to differential fish production within the basin, with overall effects likely being greatest from 11 proposed mainstem dams. Minimizing impacts will require decades to design specialized fish passage facilities, dam operations, and artificial production, and is complicated by the Mekong's high diversity and productivity. Prompt action is needed by governments and fisheries managers to plan Mekong water resource development wisely to prevent impacts to the world's most productive inland fisheries, and food security and employment opportunities for millions of people in the region.

  6. Monitoring land- and water-use dynamics in the Columbia Plateau using remote-sensing computer analysis and integration techniques

    Wukelic, G.E.; Foote, H.P.; Blair, S.C.; Begej, C.D.

    1981-09-01

    This study successfully utilized advanced, remote-sensing computer-analysis techniques to quantify and map land- and water-use trends potentially relevant to siting, developing, and operating a national high-level nuclear waste repository on the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in eastern Washington State. Specifically, using a variety of digital data bases (primarily multidate Landsat data) and digital analysis programs, the study produced unique numerical data and integrated data reference maps relevant to regional (Columbia Plateau) and localized (Pasco Basin) hydrologic considerations associated with developing such a facility. Accordingly, study results should directly contribute to the preparation of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project site-characterization report currently in progress. Moreover, since all study data developed are in digital form, they can be called upon to contribute to furute reference repository location monitoring and reporting efforts, as well as be utilized in other DOE programmatic areas having technical and/or environmental interest in the Columbia Plateau region. The results obtained indicate that multidate digital Landsat data provide an inexpensive, up-to-date, and accurate data base and reference map of natural and cultural features existing in any region. These data can be (1) computer enhanced to highlight selected surface features of interest; (2) processed/analyzed to provide regional land-cover/use information and trend data; and (3) combined with other line and point data files to accomodate interactive, correlative analyses and integrated color-graphic displays to aid interpretation and modeling efforts

  7. Assessment of potential impacts of major groundwater contaminants to fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    Geist, D.R.; Poston, T.M.; Dauble, D.D.

    1994-10-01

    Past operations of Hanford Site facilities have contaminated the groundwater adjacent to the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, with various chemical and radiological constituents. The groundwater is hydraulically connected to the river and contains concentrations of contaminants that sometimes exceed federal and/or state drinking water standards or standards for the protection of aquatic life. For example, concentrations of chromium in shoreline seeps and springs at most 100 Area operable units exceed concentrations found to be toxic to fish. Nitrate and tritium concentrations in shoreline seeps are generally below drinking water standards and concentrations potentially toxic to aquatic life, but nitrate concentrations may be high enough to synergistically interact with and exacerbate chromium toxicity. The Hanford Reach also supports the largest run of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River Basin. Numbers of fall chinook salmon returning to the Hanford Reach have increased relative to other mainstem populations during the last 30 years. Groundwater discharge appears to occur near some salmon spawning areas, but contaminants are generally not detectable in surface water samples. The concentration and potential toxicity of contaminants in the interstitial waters of the substrate where fall chinook salmon embryogenesis occurs are presently unknown. New tools are required to characterize the extent of groundwater contaminant discharge to the Hanford Reach and to resolve uncertainties associated with assessment of potential impacts to fall chinook salmon

  8. Vulnerability of larval lamprey to Columbia River hydropower system operations—effects of dewatering on larval lamprey movements and survival

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Weiland, Lisa K.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2015-08-27

    Numbers of adult and juvenile Pacific lamprey ( Entosphenus tridentatus ) in the upper Columbia River Basin of the interior Pacific Northwest have decreased from historical levels (Close and others, 2002), raising concerns f rom State and Federal agencies and Tribal entities. In 1994, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service designated Pacific lamprey as a Category 2 candidate species and in 2003, the species was petitioned for listing under the Endangered Species Act. Listing consideration and potential recovery planning are significantly hindered by a lack of information on the basic biology and ecology of lampreys, including limiting factors. To date (2015), several factors that may limit lamprey production require study, including dam passage issues, contaminants, and effects on habitat.

  9. K Basin safety analysis

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall

  10. Annotated bibliography of the geology of the Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt) and adjacent areas of Oregon

    Bela, J.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography containing approximately 2000 entries was prepared by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries under Subcontract SA-913 with Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. The objective of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program is to determine the feasibility of storing nuclear waste within the Columbia River Basalt Group. Under the geologic portion of this program, the stratigraphic, structural, tectonic, seismic, and hydrologic aspects of the Columbia Plateau are being examined. Other aspects of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program are concerned with systems integration, engineered barriers, engineering testing, and construction of a near-surface test facility. The area covered in this bibliography comprises that area north of 43 0 30' latitude and east of the Willamette Meridian, which is located just west of Portland. The bibliographic entries are presented in two forms. The first is an alphabetized listing of all articles dealing with the geology of the Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt) and adjacent areas of Oregon. The second form consists of an alphabetized listing of the entries subdivided under fourteen categories

  11. Annotated bibliography of the geology of the Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt) and adjacent areas of Oregon

    Bela, J.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography containing approximately 2000 entries was prepared by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries under Subcontract SA-913 with Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. The objective of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program is to determine the feasibility of storing nuclear waste within the Columbia River Basalt Group. Under the geologic portion of this program, the stratigraphic, structural, tectonic, seismic, and hydrologic aspects of the Columbia Plateau are being examined. Other aspects of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program are concerned with systems integration, engineered barriers, engineering testing, and construction of a near-surface test facility. The area covered in this bibliography comprises that area north of 43/sup 0/30' latitude and east of the Willamette Meridian, which is located just west of Portland. The bibliographic entries are presented in two forms. The first is an alphabetized listing of all articles dealing with the geology of the Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt) and adjacent areas of Oregon. The second form consists of an alphabetized listing of the entries subdivided under fourteen categories. (RWR)

  12. Are the Columbia River Basalts, Columbia Plateau, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, USA, a viable geothermal target? A preliminary analysis

    Burns, Erick R.; Williams, Colin F.; Tolan, Terry; Kaven, Joern Ole

    2016-01-01

    The successful development of a geothermal electric power generation facility relies on (1) the identification of sufficiently high temperatures at an economically viable depth and (2) the existence of or potential to create and maintain a permeable zone (permeability >10-14 m2) of sufficient size to allow efficient long-term extraction of heat from the reservoir host rock. If both occur at depth under the Columbia Plateau, development of geothermal resources there has the potential to expand both the magnitude and spatial extent of geothermal energy production. However, a number of scientific and technical issues must be resolved in order to evaluate the likelihood that the Columbia River Basalts, or deeper geologic units under the Columbia Plateau, are viable geothermal targets.Recent research has demonstrated that heat flow beneath the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System may be higher than previously measured in relatively shallow (characteristic of natural hydrothermal reservoirs. From a hydraulic perspective, Columbia River Basalts are typically divided into dense, impermeable flow interiors and interflow zones comprising the top of one flow, the bottom of the overlying flow, and any sedimentary interbed. Interflow zones are highly variable in texture but, at depths 10-14 m2) interflows are documented at depths up to ~1,400 m. If the elevated permeability in these zones persists to greater depths, they may provide natural permeability of sufficient magnitude to allow their exploitation as conventional geothermal reservoirs. Alternatively, if the permeability in these interflow zones is less than 10-14 m2 at depth, it may be possible to use hydraulic and thermal stimulation to enhance the permeability of both the interflow zones and the natural jointing within the low-permeability interior portions of individual basalt flows in order to develop Enhanced/Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) reservoirs. The key challenge for an improved Columbia Plateau

  13. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic-simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. Volume 2: results

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.; Baldwin, A.J.; Craig, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    This report contains the input data and computer results for the Geologic Simulation Model. This model is described in detail in the following report: Petrie, G.M., et. al. 1981. Geologic Simulation Model for a Hypothetical Site in the Columbia Plateau, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington. The Geologic Simulation Model is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simulates, for a million years into the future, the development of the geologic and hydrologic systems of the ground-water basin containing the Pasco Basin. Effects of natural processes on the ground-water hydrologic system are modeled principally by rate equations. The combined effects and synergistic interactions of different processes are approximated by linear superposition of their effects during discrete time intervals in a stepwise-integration approach

  14. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic-simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. Volume 2: results

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.; Baldwin, A.J.; Craig, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    This report contains the input data and computer results for the Geologic Simulation Model. This model is described in detail in the following report: Petrie, G.M., et. al. 1981. Geologic Simulation Model for a Hypothetical Site in the Columbia Plateau, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington. The Geologic Simulation Model is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simulates, for a million years into the future, the development of the geologic and hydrologic systems of the ground-water basin containing the Pasco Basin. Effects of natural processes on the ground-water hydrologic system are modeled principally by rate equations. The combined effects and synergistic interactions of different processes are approximated by linear superposition of their effects during discrete time intervals in a stepwise-integration approach.

  15. Neoproterozoic rift basins and their control on the development of hydrocarbon source rocks in the Tarim Basin, NW China

    Zhu, Guang-You; Ren, Rong; Chen, Fei-Ran; Li, Ting-Ting; Chen, Yong-Quan

    2017-12-01

    The Proterozoic is demonstrated to be an important period for global petroleum systems. Few exploration breakthroughs, however, have been obtained on the system in the Tarim Basin, NW China. Outcrop, drilling, and seismic data are integrated in this paper to focus on the Neoproterozoic rift basins and related hydrocarbon source rocks in the Tarim Basin. The basin consists of Cryogenian to Ediacaran rifts showing a distribution of N-S differentiation. Compared to the Cryogenian basins, those of the Ediacaran are characterized by deposits in small thickness and wide distribution. Thus, the rifts have a typical dual structure, namely the Cryogenian rifting and Ediacaran depression phases that reveal distinct structural and sedimentary characteristics. The Cryogenian rifting basins are dominated by a series of grabens or half grabens, which have a wedge-shaped rapid filling structure. The basins evolved into Ediacaran depression when the rifting and magmatic activities diminished, and extensive overlapping sedimentation occurred. The distributions of the source rocks are controlled by the Neoproterozoic rifts as follows. The present outcrops lie mostly at the margins of the Cryogenian rifting basins where the rapid deposition dominates and the argillaceous rocks have low total organic carbon (TOC) contents; however, the source rocks with high TOC contents should develop in the center of the basins. The Ediacaran source rocks formed in deep water environment of the stable depressions evolving from the previous rifting basins, and are thus more widespread in the Tarim Basin. The confirmation of the Cryogenian to Ediacaran source rocks would open up a new field for the deep hydrocarbon exploration in the Tarim Basin.

  16. Status review of the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in Alaska and British Columbia

    Piatt, John F.; Kuletz, K.J.; Burger, A.E.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Friesen, Vicki L.; Birt, T.P.; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Drew, G.S.; Harding, A.M.A.; Bixler, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    The Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) is a small, diving seabird inhabiting inshore waters of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. This species feeds on small, schooling fishes and zooplankton, and nests primarily on the moss-covered branches of large, old-growth conifers, and also, in some parts of its range, on the ground. We reviewed existing information on this species to evaluate its current status in the northern part of its range-Alaska (U.S.) and British Columbia (Canada). Within the southern part of its range (Washington, Oregon, and California, U.S.), the Marbled Murrelet was listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1993, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) needed information on the species throughout its range for ESA deliberations. We compiled published information on the conservation status, population biology, foraging ecology, population genetics, population status and trends, demography, marine and nesting habitat characteristics, threats, and ongoing conservation efforts for Marbled Murrelets in Alaska and British Columbia. We conducted a new genetic study using samples from a segment of the range that had not been included in previous studies (Washington, Oregon) and additional nuclear intron and microsatellite markers. We also analyzed available at-sea survey data from several locations for trend. To understand the reasonableness of the empirical trend data, we developed demographic models incorporating stochasticity to discern what population trends were possible by chance. The genetic studies substantially confirmed previous findings on population structure in the Marbled Murrelet. Our present work finds three populations: (1) one comprising birds in the central and western Aleutian Islands; (2) one comprising birds in central California; and (3) one comprising birds within the center of the range from the eastern Aleutians to northern California. Our knowledge of genetic structure within this

  17. The Ogaden Basin, Ethiopia: an underexplored sedimentary basin

    Teitz, H.H.

    1991-01-01

    A brief article examines the Ogaden Basin in Ethiopia in terms of basin origin, basin fill and the hydrocarbon exploration history and results. The natural gas find in pre-Jurassic sandstones, which appears to contain substantial reserves, justifies continuing investigations in this largely underexplored basin. (UK).

  18. Radium 228 as a tracer of basin wide processes in the Abyssal Ocean

    Sarmiento, J.L.; Rooth, C.G.H.; Broecker, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    A simple model of isopycnal mixing in a circular basin is developed in order to examine the utility of the 5.75-year half-life tracer radium 228 for studying basin wide processes in the deep ocean. The model shows that it is possible to resolve diffusivities of 7 cm 2 s - 1 in a basin of approx.3000-km diameter with profiles measured near the center and edge of the basin. A least squares fit of the model to four abyssal profiles measured during GEOSECS in the North American Basin gives an isopycnal diffusivity of 6 x 10 7 cm 2 s - 1

  19. Water quality in the central Columbia Plateau, Washington and Idaho, 1992-95

    Williamson, Alex K.; Munn, Mark D.; Ryker, Sarah J.; Wagner, Richard J.; Ebbert, James C.; Vanderpool, Ann M.

    1998-01-01

    Water quality in the Central Columbia Plateau of eastern Washington and western Idaho has been adversely affected by agriculture, especially in irrigated areas, according to the results of a five-year investigation by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS). Some improvements, however, are noticeable, such as less sediment being washed into streams. These improvements may be the result of increased use of best management practices (BMPs) by area farmers. Areas with intensive fertilizer use and irrigation, such as in the Columbia Basin Irrigation Project (CBIP), showed the greatest impacts on ground-water quality. (The CBIP includes parts of Franklin, Grant, and Adams counties in eastern Washington.) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.) 'The story on pesticides is a mixed bag,' Williamson said. 'We found at least one pesticide in nearly half of the drinking water wells sampled, but pesticide levels were only a very small fraction of their MCLs.' As a cautionary note, however, Williamson said that about half of the pesticides detected in Central Columbia Plateau wells do not have MCLs established. A lack of information makes it difficult to assess the significance of finding pesticides in drinking water. 'As scientists, we don't know enough yet about what happens when these pesticides are combined,' he said. 'In some of the very shallow wells that the USGS installed for monitoring purposes, we found up to seven different pesticides.' Encouraging news is that none of the newer pesticides, which break down more rapidly in the environment, were found at concentrations exceeding MCLs. Compounds that exceed drinking water standards were found in only 1 percent of the wells sampled-and those compounds have not been sold as pesticides since the mid-1980s. However, agricultural impacts on water quality go beyond the concerns for drinking water-the aquatic ecosystem of the plateau also has been significantly affected. 'Very little surface water is used for drinking water

  20. Vertical movement in mare basins: relation to mare emplacement, basin tectonics, and lunar thermal history

    Solomon, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    The spatial and temporal relationships of linear rilles and mare ridges in the Serenitatis basin region of the moon are explained by a combination of lithospheric flexure in response to basin loading by basalt fill and a time-dependent global stress due to the thermal evolution of the lunar interior. The pertinent tectonic observations are the radial distance of basin concentric rilles or graben from the mare center; the location and orientation of mare ridges, interpreted as compressive features; and the restriction of graben formation to times older than 3.6 +- 0.2 b.y. ago, while ridge formation continued after emplacement of the youngest mare basalt unit (approx.3 b.y. ago). The locations of the graben are consistent with the geometry of the mare basalt load expected from the dimensions of multiring basins for values of the thickness of the elastic lithosphere beneath Serenitatis in the range 25--50 km at 3.6--3.8 b.y. ago. The locations and orientations of mare ridges are consistent with the load inferred from surface mapping and subsurface radar reflections for values of the elastic lithosphere thickness near 100 km at 3.0--3.4 b.y. ago. The thickening of the lithosphere beneath a major basin during the evolution of mare volcanism is thus clearly evident in the tectonics. The cessation of rille formation and the prolonged period of ridge formation are attributed to a change in the global horizontal thermal stress from extension to compression as the moon shifted from net expansion to overall cooling and contraction. Severe limits as placed on the range of possible lunar thermal histories. The zone of horizontal extensional stresses peripheral to mare loads favors the edge of mare basins as the preferred sites for mare basalt magma eruption in the later stages of mare fill, although subsidence may lead to accumulation of such young lavas in basin centers

  1. Transuranic radionuclides in the Columbia River: sources, inventories, and geochemical behavior

    Beasley, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    The sources, inventories, and geochemical behavior of transuranic and other long-lived radionuclides in the lower Columbia River are summarized. Inventories have been estimated from the measured activities of the different radionuclides in 50 cores raised in 1977 and 1978, while annual export of transuranic radionuclides was determined from monthly water collections in the estuary. Continental shelf inventories of Pu and Am isotopes have been estimated using excess 210 Pb inventories and the mean 210 Pb//sup 239,240/Pu inventory ratio of 100 +/- 19 observed in representative cores raised from the shelf. Despite the substantial past addition of radioactivity to the river from operation of the plutonium production reactors at Hanford, the amounts of reactor-derived radionuclides in river sediments are small relative to fallout-derived nuclides. Erosional processes have mobilized both fallout-derived /sup 239,240/Pu and 137 Cs from the landscape to the river, but the quantities involved represent <1% of their fallout inventories within the river's drainage basin. 36 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  2. Late Miocene mollusks from the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada

    Addicott, Warren O.

    1978-01-01

    A fauna of bivalve mollusks, scattered gastropods, and an echinoid from exposures of the Skonun Formation in the northeastern part of Graham Island is indicative of an early late Miocene age and correlation with the provincial Wishkahan Stage. The molluscan assemblages are from the upper 600 of the 1800-m-thick marine and nonmarine formation, which appears to be entirely of late Miocene age. The Skonun Formation is the strandline fa.cies of marginal marine and nonmarine deposits of the northwestern part of the Queen Charlotte basin, a Nieogene embayment paralleling the modern mainland coast. The molluscan fauna and associated lignite beds are known from a few widely scattered outcrops; they are indicative of alternating marine and nonmarine to brackish-water environments in the upper part of the formation. The Skonun fauna occurs near the northern boundary of the Pacific Northwest Neogene molluscan province. It is the only marine Neogene molluscan fauna known from the British Columbia coast. The fauna has strong taxonomic ties with the fauna of the Empire Formation of southwestern Oregon and has several species in common with the upper Miocene of the Lituya district, southeastern Alaska, implying that these three faunas are coeval.

  3. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix K: Resident fish

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. In this appendix the Resident Fish Work Group (RFWG) has attempted to characterize and evaluate impacts of dam operation on an extremely complex and diverse integrated resource. Not only is this required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for SOR, there are resident fish populations that have status under the Federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) or equivalent state regulations (Kootenai River white sturgeon, Snake River white sturgeon, sandroller, shorthead and torrent sculpins, bull trout, westslope cutthroat trout, redband trout, and burbot). The RFWG has also attempted to develop operating alternatives that benefit not only resident fish, but anadromous fish, wildlife, and other human interests as well. The authors have recognized the co-evolution of resident fish, anadromous fish, and other integrated resources in the basin

  4. River basin administration

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  5. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2006 Final Season Summary.

    Roby, Daniel D. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Oregon State University; Collis, Ken [Real Time Research, Inc.; Lyons, Donald E. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Oregon State University

    2009-06-18

    This study investigates predation by piscivorous waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River Basin. During 2006, study objectives in the Columbia River estuary, work funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, were to (1) monitor and evaluate previous management initiatives to reduce Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) predation on juvenile salmonids (smolts); (2) measure the impact of double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) predation on smolt survival, and assess potential management options to reduce cormorant predation; and (3) monitor large colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds in the estuary (i.e., glaucous-winged/western gulls [Larus glaucescens/occidentalis]) to determine the potential impacts on smolt survival. Study objectives on the mid-Columbia River, work funded by the Walla Walla District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, were to (1) measure the impact of predation by Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants on smolt survival; and (2) monitor large nesting colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds (i.e., California gulls [L. californicus], ring-billed gulls [L. delawarensis], American white pelicans [Pelecanus erythrorhynchos]) on the mid-Columbia River to determine the potential for significant impacts on smolt survival. Our efforts to evaluate system-wide losses of juvenile salmonids to avian predation indicated that Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants were responsible for the vast majority of smolt losses to avian predators in the Columbia Basin, with most losses occurring in the Columbia River estuary. In 2006, East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary supported the largest known breeding colonies of Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants in the world. The Caspian tern colony on East Sand Island consisted of about 9,200 breeding pairs in 2006, up slightly (but not significantly so) from the estimate of colony size in 2005 (8,820 pairs). There has not been a

  6. Oregon Trust Agreement Planning Project : Potential Mitigations to the Impacts on Oregon Wildlife Resources Associated with Relevant Mainstem Columbia River and Willamette River Hydroelectric Projects.

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-10-01

    A coalition of the Oregon wildlife agencies and tribes (the Oregon Wildlife Mitigation Coalition) have forged a cooperative effort to promote wildlife mitigation from losses to Oregon wildlife resources associated with the four mainstream Columbia River and the eight Willamette River Basin hydroelectric projects. This coalition formed a Joint Advisory Committee, made up of technical representatives from all of the tribes and agencies, to develop this report. The goal was to create a list of potential mitigation opportunities by priority, and to attempt to determine the costs of mitigating the wildlife losses. The information and analysis was completed for all projects in Oregon, but was gathered separately for the Lower Columbia and Willamette Basin projects. The coalition developed a procedure to gather information on potential mitigation projects and opportunities. All tribes, agencies and interested parties were contacted in an attempt to evaluate all proposed or potential mitigation. A database was developed and minimum criteria were established for opportunities to be considered. These criteria included the location of the mitigation site within a defined area, as well as other criteria established by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Costs were established for general habitats within the mitigation area, based on estimates from certified appraisers. An analysis of the cost effectiveness of various types of mitigation projects was completed. Estimates of operation and maintenance costs were also developed. The report outlines strategies for gathering mitigation potentials, evaluating them, determining their costs, and attempting to move towards their implementation.

  7. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River

  8. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  9. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  10. Kinbasket Reservoir and Upper Columbia River Kokanee spawner index 2005

    Manson, H.; Porto, L.

    2006-01-01

    The results of an escapement survey for tributaries to the Kinbasket Reservoir and the Upper Columbia River were provided. Two aerial surveys were conducted during October, 2005. The Kokanee were grouped in schools and summed in order to provide independent estimates. Otoliths of the fish were also extracted in order to determine their age. Results of the survey showed that an estimated 236,760 Kokanee fish were spawning within 11 index streams and rivers within the Kinbasket Reservoir drainage area. Mean fork length was estimated at 24.7 cm. While the Columbia River continues to be the most important Kokanee spawning location in the Kinbasket Reservoir drainage area, the 2005 Kokanee escapement index was the third lowest recorded since 1996. It was concluded that declining fish size and declining abundance may indicate reduced reservoir productivity. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  11. Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium malmoense in British Columbia

    Mohamed S Al-Moamary

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium malmoense was first described in northern Europe and the United Kingdom in 1977. Since then, reports have appeared with increasing frequency. Cases have, however, rarely been reported from the United States, and, until now, none have been reported in Canada. This may reflect either true low prevalence of the disease or underdiagnosis by laboratories due to slow growth of the organism. This report describes a case of pulmonary disease caused by M malmoense in a 44-year-old man from British Columbia who was successfully treated with an 18-month course of conventional antituberculous drugs combined with a macrolide. This is the first report of this disease in British Columbia and, to our knowledge, in Canada.

  12. Regional basalt hydrology of the Columbia Plateau in Washington

    Tanaka, H.; Barrett, G.; Wildrick, L.

    1979-10-01

    This study is part of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, operated for the US Department of Energy by Rockwell Hanford Operations. The overall purpose of the study is to assess locations within the Columbia River Basalt Group beneath the Hanford Site in south-central Washington suitable for a geologic repository for radioactive waste. This hydrologic study was made to describe the hydrologic characteristics of the basalt units of the Columbia Plateau. This was done by comprehensive data compilation, data interpretation and analysis. Data are presented in the form of maps and tables suitable as input information about the regional hydrology for possible future analysis by computer models. The report includes: an introduction; basic data; interpretation which covers stratigraphic trend surface, water levels, transmissivity and storage of aquifers, recharge, discharge, flow, subbasins, cross sections, references and appendix of record of wells

  13. K Basin spent fuel sludge treatment alternatives study. Volume 2, Technical options

    Beary, M.M.; Honekemp, J.R.; Winters, N.

    1995-01-01

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of irradiated N Reactor fuel are stored in the KE and KW Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Corrosion of the fuel has led to the formation of sludges, both within the storage canisters and on the basin floors. Concern about the degraded condition of the fuel and the potential for leakage from the basins in proximity to the Columbia River has resulted in DOE's commitment in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to Milestone M-34-00-T08 to remove the fuel and sludges by a December 2002 target date. To support the planning for this expedited removal action, the implications of sludge management under various scenarios are examined. This report, Volume 2 of two volumes, describes the technical options for managing the sludges, including schedule and cost impacts, and assesses strategies for establishing a preferred path

  14. K Basin spent fuel sludge treatment alternatives study. Volume 2, Technical options

    Beary, M.M.; Honekemp, J.R.; Winters, N. [Science Applications International Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of irradiated N Reactor fuel are stored in the KE and KW Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Corrosion of the fuel has led to the formation of sludges, both within the storage canisters and on the basin floors. Concern about the degraded condition of the fuel and the potential for leakage from the basins in proximity to the Columbia River has resulted in DOE`s commitment in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to Milestone M-34-00-T08 to remove the fuel and sludges by a December 2002 target date. To support the planning for this expedited removal action, the implications of sludge management under various scenarios are examined. This report, Volume 2 of two volumes, describes the technical options for managing the sludges, including schedule and cost impacts, and assesses strategies for establishing a preferred path.

  15. K Basin spent fuel sludge treatment alternatives study. Volume 1, Regulatory options

    Beary, M.M.; Honekemp, J.R.; Winters, N.

    1995-01-01

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of irradiated N Reactor fuel are stored in the KE and KW Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Corrosion of the fuel has led to the formation of sludges, both within the storage canisters and on the basin floors. Concern about the degraded condition of the fuel and the potential for leakage from the basins in proximity to the Columbia River has resulted in DOE's commitment in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to Milestone M-34-00-T08 to remove the fuel and sludges by a December 2002 target date. To support the planning for this expedited removal action, the implications of sludge management under various scenarios are examined. Volume 1 of this two-volume report describes the regulatory options for managing the sludges, including schedule and cost impacts, and assesses strategies for establishing a preferred path

  16. BASINS Framework and Features

    BASINS enables users to efficiently access nationwide environmental databases and local user-specified datasets, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven nonpoint loading and water quality models within a single GIS format.

  17. Oil spill response planning on the Columbia river estuary

    Christopherson, S.K.; Slyman, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Columbia River Estuary lies along the Washington-Oregon state boundary on the west coast of the United States. The entire area is environmentally very sensitive with numerous large, shallow bays, exposed mud flats, wetland areas, and central channels having maximum currents of three to four knots. These features make the area very difficult to protect from an oil spill. Spill response is further complicated because of the many different state, federal, and local jurisdictions with mandated responsibilities in oil spill response and environmental protection. Under the leadership of the US Coast Guard Marine Safety Office in Portland, Oregon, a steering group was established to guide the development of a response plan for the Columbia River Estuary. A concerted effort was made to include representatives from response organizations, natural resource agencies, and resource users from federal, state, and local governments, and commercial sectors in the planning process. The first draft of an operational response plan was completed the summer of 1992 through a combination of technical workshops, field trips, and small working groups meeting with local communities. The Columbia River Estuary Response Plan prioritizes areas to protect; identifies specific response strategies for protecting these areas; and outlines the Iogistics needed to implement these strategies, including equipment needs, the location of staging areas, and the identification of pre-designed command posts. The local spill response cooperative and oil transportation industry are using the plan to coordinate the purchase of response equipment and the staging of this equipment at numerous locations along the river. The key to success is ensuring that all the groups responding to an event participate in the planning process together. This process has worked well and will serve as a model for response planning for other areas along the Columbia River and coastal areas of Washington and Oregon

  18. Evaluating management strategies for grizzly bears in British Columbia, Canada

    Schroeder, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    In British Columbia, The Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations manages grizzly bear hunting as the most rigid and conservatively managed hunt in the province. However, there has been concern raised in the media and from some members of the academic community over the sustainability of grizzly bear hunting. It is unclear whether the current management strategy effectively incorporates uncertainties in grizzly bear biology and management. My research intends to address thes...

  19. British Columbia at the crossroads: clean energy or more pollution?

    Foley, D.; Hertzog, S.; Scott, G.

    2001-11-01

    Some of the challenges facing policy makers as we enter this century are related to regional air pollution and global climate change, where both are a consequence of the combustion of fossil fuels. Data on smog and particulates has been compiled for decades by medical authorities and regulators, thereby documenting the causes, the characteristics and the impact of global warming. Sustainable energy policies are required. A historic compromise was forged in July 2001 on how to implement the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. It is increasingly important for Canada to make energy policy decisions that support the protection of the climate. Key aspects of human activity, such as tourism, forestry, fishing, agriculture, water supplies and flows, infrastructure reliability and costs, and public health factors are at risk in British Columbia. For British Columbia to comply with the Kyoto Protocol, some sources would be able to expand emissions while others would have to reduce them much more to achieve an overall reduction. This document represents an outline and a vision for new opportunities and analyses the challenges facing energy patterns in British Columbia. It was presented to the British Columbia (BC) Energy Policy Task Force. This broad policy review is an ideal opportunity to build energy policies and related economic initiatives leading to new industries, new jobs, and increased energy security. The document is divided in five parts: the BC situation: trends and impacts, BC Hydro and the rush to gas, the BC gas turbine experience: conflict and controversy, gas and the changing dynamics of the BC energy market, and the clean energy path: lessons and policy recommendations. refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  20. British Columbia at the crossroads: clean energy or more pollution?

    Foley, D.; Hertzog, S.; Scott, G. (eds.)

    2001-11-01

    Some of the challenges facing policy makers as we enter this century are related to regional air pollution and global climate change, where both are a consequence of the combustion of fossil fuels. Data on smog and particulates has been compiled for decades by medical authorities and regulators, thereby documenting the causes, the characteristics and the impact of global warming. Sustainable energy policies are required. A historic compromise was forged in July 2001 on how to implement the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. It is increasingly important for Canada to make energy policy decisions that support the protection of the climate. Key aspects of human activity, such as tourism, forestry, fishing, agriculture, water supplies and flows, infrastructure reliability and costs, and public health factors are at risk in British Columbia. For British Columbia to comply with the Kyoto Protocol, some sources would be able to expand emissions while others would have to reduce them much more to achieve an overall reduction. This document represents an outline and a vision for new opportunities and analyses the challenges facing energy patterns in British Columbia. It was presented to the British Columbia (BC) Energy Policy Task Force. This broad policy review is an ideal opportunity to build energy policies and related economic initiatives leading to new industries, new jobs, and increased energy security. The document is divided in five parts: the BC situation: trends and impacts, BC Hydro and the rush to gas, the BC gas turbine experience: conflict and controversy, gas and the changing dynamics of the BC energy market, and the clean energy path: lessons and policy recommendations. refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  1. Factors affecting radon levels in homes in British Columbia, Canada

    Morley, D.R.; Phillips, B.G.; Van Netten, C.

    1992-01-01

    British Columbia, Canada's most westerly province, has diverse geologic and climatic characteristics, making it a region where predicting radon gas level is quite complex. Data recently obtained for eleven (11) communities confirm an association between background terrestrial gamma radiation measurements and indoor radon levels in homes. Direct links between radon levels and other factors such as home design/construction features and heating/ventilation systems were observed in data for some communities, but not necessarily from the overall data. (author)

  2. The Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-03-12

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers are working on the Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Project. This project is a U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies, and technologies for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Technologies Project staff.

  3. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  4. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  5. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  6. Sedimentary processes and depositional environments of the Horn River Shale in British Columbia, Canada

    Yoon, Seok-Hoon; Koh, Chang-Seong; Joe, Young-Jin; Woo, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Suk

    2017-04-01

    The Horn River Basin in the northeastern British Columbia, Canada, is one of the largest unconventional gas accumulations in North America. It consists mainly of Devonian shales (Horn River Formation) and is stratigraphically divided into three members, the Muskwa, Otterpark and Evie in descending order. This study focuses on sedimentary processes and depositional environments of the Horn River shale based on sedimentary facies analysis aided by well-log mineralogy (ECS) and total organic carbon (TOC) data. The shale formation consists dominantly of siliceous minerals (quartz, feldspar and mica) and subordinate clay mineral and carbonate materials, and TOC ranging from 1.0 to 7.6%. Based on sedimentary structures and micro texture, three sedimentary facies were classified: homogeneous mudstone (HM), indistinctly laminated mudstone (ILM), and planar laminated mudstone (PLM). Integrated interpretation of the sedimentary facies, lithology and TOC suggests that depositional environment of the Horn River shale was an anoxic quiescent basin plain and base-of-slope off carbonate platform or reef. In this deeper marine setting, organic-rich facies HM and ILM, dominant in the Muskwa (the upper part of the Horn River Formation) and Evie (the lower part of the Horn River Formation) members, may have been emplaced by pelagic to hemipelagic sedimentation on the anoxic sea floor with infrequent effects of low-density gravity flows (turbidity currents or nepheloid flows). In the other hand, facies PLM typifying the Otterpark Member (the middle part of the Horn River Formation) suggests more frequent inflow of bottom-hugging turbidity currents punctuating the hemipelagic settling of the background sedimentation process. The stratigraphic change of sedimentary facies and TOC content in the Horn River Formation is most appropriately interpreted to have been caused by the relative sea-level change, that is, lower TOC and frequent signal of turbidity current during the sea

  7. Evaluation and prioritization of stream habitat monitoring in the Lower Columbia Salmon and Steelhead Recovery Domain as related to the habitat monitoring needs of ESA recovery plans

    Puls, Amy L.; Anlauf Dunn, Kara; Graham Hudson, Bernadette

    2014-01-01

    The lower Columbia River and its tributaries once supported abundant runs of salmon and steelhead; however, there are five species currently listed under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA). The National Marine Fisheries Service has completed, and is proposing for adoption, a comprehensive ESA Recovery Plan for the Lower Columbia Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs) based on the recovery plans developed by Oregon and Washington. One of the primary factors attributed to the decline of these species is habitat degradation. There are numerous entities conducting status and/or trends monitoring of instream habitat in the lower Columbia River Basin, but because the programs were developed for agency specific reasons, the existing monitoring efforts are not well coordinated, and often lack the spatial coverage, certainty, or species coverage necessary to answer questions related to status and trends of the ESA listed populations. The Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership’s Integrated Status and Trends Monitoring (ISTM) project was initiated to improve integration of existing and new monitoring efforts by developing recommendations for sampling frames, protocols, and data sharing. In an effort to meet the ISTM project goals, five objectives were identified: (1) identify and prioritize decisions, questions, and monitoring objectives, (2) evaluate how existing programs align with these management decisions, questions, and objectives, (3) identify the most appropriate monitoring design to inform priority management decisions, questions, and objectives, (4) use trade-off analysis to develop specific recommendations for monitoring based on outcomes of Objectives 1-3 and (5) recommend implementation and reporting mechanisms. This report summarizes the effort to address Objectives 1 and 2, detailing the commonalities among the habitat characteristics that all entities measure and monitor, and how the metrics align with the priorities listed in the

  8. PROTECTING GROUNDWATER & THE COLUMBIA RIVER AT THE HANFORD SITE

    GERBER, M.S.

    2006-06-29

    Along the remote shores of the Columbia River in southeast Washington state, a race is on. Fluor Hanford, a prime cleanup contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Hanford Site, is managing a massive, multi-faceted project to remove contaminants from the groundwater before they can reach the Columbia. Despite the daunting nature and size of the problem--about 80 square miles of aquifer under the site contains long-lived radionuclides and hazardous chemicals--significant progress is being made. Many groups are watching, speaking out, and helping. A large. passionate, diverse, and geographically dispersed community is united in its desire to protect the Columbia River--the eighth largest in the world--and have a voice in Hanford's future. Fluor Hanford and the DOE, along with the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) interact with all the stakeholders to make the best decisions. Together, they have made some remarkable strides in the battle against groundwater contamination under the site.

  9. Did you know? Petroleum industry fast facts: British Columbia

    1999-10-01

    This is part of a series of brochures published by the Petroleum Communication Foundation, a non-profit society established in 1975. The foundation's objective is to stimulate public awareness and understanding of Canada's petroleum industry and its contribution to the economy of each of the provinces where the industry's presence and impact is substantial. This brochure provides brief, but useful, information about British Columbia, about its area (947,800 sq.km), capital (Victoria), population (4.009,922 in 1998), major industries (forestry, wood and paper, petroleum and mining, tourism, agriculture, fishing, manufacturing), revenue from natural resources ($ 350 million from oil and natural gas in 1998-1999, or about 20 per cent of total provincial government revenues), some facts about the petroleum industry in British Columbia, (production, employment, pipelines, etc.), major exports (wood products, pulp and paper products, machinery and equipment, coal, petroleum products, electricity) and upstream industry expenditures in British Columbia (in excess of $ 1 billion). map, pie-chart, figs

  10. Union-Active School Librarians and School Library Advocacy: A Modified Case Study of the British Columbia Teacher-Librarians' Association and the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    Ewbank, Ann Dutton

    2015-01-01

    This modified case study examines how the members of the British Columbia Teacher-Librarians' Association (BCTLA), a Provincial Specialist Association (PSA) of the British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF), work together to advocate for strong school library programs headed by a credentialed school librarian. Since 2002, despite nullification…

  11. Water Quality Projects Summary for the Mid-Columbia and Cumberland River Systems

    Stewart, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Scheduling and operational control of hydropower systems is accompanied with a keen awareness of the management of water use, environmental effects, and policy, especially within the context of strict water rights policy and generation maximization. This is a multi-objective problem for many hydropower systems, including the Cumberland and Mid-Columbia river systems. Though each of these two systems have distinct operational philosophies, hydrologic characteristics, and system dynamics, they both share a responsibility to effectively manage hydropower and the environment, which requires state-of-the art improvements in the approaches and applications for water quality modeling. The Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed tools for total dissolved gas (TDG) prediction on the Mid-Columbia River and a decision-support system used for hydropower generation and environmental optimization on the Cumberland River. In conjunction with IIHR - Hydroscience & Engineering, The University of Iowa and University of Colorado s Center for Advanced Decision Support for Water and Environmental Systems (CADSWES), ORNL has managed the development of a TDG predictive methodology at seven dams along the Mid-Columbia River and has enabled the ability to utilize this methodology for optimization of operations at these projects with the commercially available software package Riverware. ORNL has also managed the collaboration with Vanderbilt University and Lipscomb University to develop a state-of-the art method for reducing high-fidelity water quality modeling results into surrogate models which can be used effectively within the context of optimization efforts to maximize generation for a reservoir system based on environmental and policy constraints. The novel contribution of these efforts is the ability to predict water quality conditions with simplified methodologies at the same level of accuracy as more complex and resource intensive computing methods

  12. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 2000 Annual Report.

    McGowan, Vance R.; Powell, Russ M.; Stennfeld, Scott P.

    2001-04-01

    On July 1, 1984 the Bonneville Power Administration and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife entered into an agreement to initiate fish habitat enhancement work in the Joseph Creek subbasin of the Grande Ronde River Basin in northeast Oregon. In July of 1985 the Upper and Middle Grande Ronde River, and Catherine Creek subbasins were included in the intergovernmental contract, and on March 1, 1996 the Wallowa River subbasin was added. The primary goal of ''The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project'' is to access, create, improve, protect, and restore riparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin. This project provided for implementation of Program Measure 703 (C)(1), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC, 1987), and continues to be implemented as offsite mitigation for mainstem fishery losses caused by the Columbia River hydro-electric system. All work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife is on private lands and therefore requires that considerable time be spent developing rapport with landowners to gain acceptance of, and continued cooperation with this program throughout 10-15 year lease periods. This project calls for passive regeneration of habitat, using riparian enclosure fencing as the primary method to restore degraded streams to a normative condition. Active remediation techniques using plantings, off-site water developments, site-specific instream structures, or whole channel alterations are also utilized where applicable. Individual projects contribute to and complement ecosystem and basin-wide watershed restoration efforts that are underway by state, federal, and tribal agencies, and local watershed councils. Work undertaken during 2000 included: (1) Implementing 2 new projects in the Grande Ronde drainage, and retrofitting one old

  13. Additions and corrections to the bibliography of geologic studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Besalt) and adjacent Areas, in Idaho, 1980

    Strowd, W.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography is an update to Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 78-6, Bibliography of Geological Studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt Group) and adjacent areas in Idaho (also known as Rockwell Hanford Operations' contractor report RHO-BWI-C-44). To keep the original document current, this additions and corrections report was prepared for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project of Rockwell Hanford Operations. This update is supplementary; therefore, references cited in the original document have not been included here. What is included are materials that have become available since the original publication and pertinent literature that had originally been overlooked. Accompany this updated bubliography are index maps that show locations of geologic studies and geochemical petrographic, remanent paleomagnetic, and radiometric age-dated sites within the Columbia River Basalt Group field within Idaho; also identified are archeological sites, test wells, mines, quarries, and other types of excavations. References on the index maps are keyed to the bibliography and cover the Spokane, Pullman, Hamilton, Grangeville, Elk City, Baker, Boise, and Jordan Valley Army Map Service two-degree quadrangles

  14. Geologic Setting and Hydrogeologic Units of the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho

    Kahle, Sue C.; Olsen, Theresa D.; Morgan, David S.

    2009-01-01

    The Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System (CPRAS) covers approximately 44,000 square miles of northeastern Oregon, southeastern Washington, and western Idaho. The area supports a $6 billion per year agricultural industry, leading the Nation in production of apples and nine other commodities (State of Washington Office of Financial Management, 2007; U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2007). Groundwater availability in the aquifers of the area is a critical water-resource management issue because the water demand for agriculture, economic development, and ecological needs is high. The primary aquifers of the CPRAS are basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) and overlying basin-fill sediments. Water-resources issues that have implications for future groundwater availability in the region include (1) widespread water-level declines associated with development of groundwater resources for irrigation and other uses, (2) reduction in base flow to rivers and associated effects on temperature and water quality, and (3) current and anticipated effects of global climate change on recharge, base flow, and ultimately, groundwater availability. As part of a National Groundwater Resources Program, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study of the CPRAS in 2007 with the broad goals of (1) characterizing the hydrologic status of the system, (2) identifying trends in groundwater storage and use, and (3) quantifying groundwater availability. The study approach includes documenting changes in the status of the system, quantifying the hydrologic budget for the system, updating the regional hydrogeologic framework, and developing a groundwater-flow simulation model for the system. The simulation model will be used to evaluate and test the conceptual model of the system and later to evaluate groundwater availability under alternative development and climate scenarios. The objectives of this study were to update the hydrogeologic framework for the CPRAS using the available

  15. Salt anticlines in the Castile-Salado evaporite sequence, northern Delaware Basin, New Mexico

    Anderson, R.Y.; Powers, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    Anticlines are more common around basin margin but are present in basin-center areas. Both Halite I and Halite II may have flowed but Halite I was movement more extensive. Depressions associated with anticlines may be due to either flowage or subsequent dissolution. Association with brine flows is common. Anticline probably was formed with mid-Cenozoic uplift and tilting of basin and with adjustments around reef margin

  16. Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project, Phase 2

    1991-08-01

    Implementation of the Yakima Basin Fish Passage Project -- Phase 2 would significantly improve the production of anadromous fish in the Yakima River system. The project would provide offsite mitigation and help to compensate for lower Columbia River hydroelectric fishery losses. The Phase 2 screens would allow greater numbers of juvenile anadromous fish to survive. As a consequence, there would be higher returns of adult salmon and steelhead to the Yakima River. The proposed action would play an integral part in the overall Yakima River anadromous fish enhancement program (fish passage improvement, habitat enhancement, hatchery production increases, and harvest management). These would be environmental benefits associated with implementation of the Fish Passage and Protective Facilities Phase 2 Project. Based on the evaluation presented in this assessment, there would be no significant adverse environmental impacts if the proposed action was carried forward. No significant adverse environmental effects have been identified from construction and operation of the Yakima Phase 2 fish passage project. Proper design and implementation of the project will ensure no adverse effects will occur. Based on the information in this environmental analysis, BPA's and Reclamation's proposal to construct these facilities does not constitute a major Federal action that could significantly affect the quality of the human environment. 8 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Hillson, Todd D. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-10-15

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River chum as threatened under the auspices of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March of 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than half a million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present day spawners. Harvest, loss of habitat, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for the decline of Columbia River chum salmon. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Currently, only two main populations are recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning has been documented in most lower Columbia River tributaries. The first is located in the Grays River (RKm 34) (Grays population), a tributary of the Columbia, and the second is a group of spawners that utilize the Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks (Lower Gorge population). A possible third population of mainstem spawners, found in the fall of 1999, were located spawning above the I-205 bridge (approximately RKm 182), this aggregation is referred to as the Woods Landing/Rivershore population or the I-205 group. The recovery strategy for Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum as outlined in Hatchery Genetic Management Plans (HGMP) has three main tasks. First, determine if remnant populations of LCR chum salmon exist in LCR tributaries. Second, if such populations exist, develop stock-specific recovery plans involving habitat restoration including the creation of

  18. Laboratory Evaluation of Underwater Grouting of CPP-603 Basins

    Johnson, V.J.; Pao, J.H.; Demmer, R.L.; Tripp, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    A project is underway to deactivate a Fuel Storage Basin. The project specifies the requirements and identifies the tasks that will be performed for deactivation of the CPP- 603 building at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Fuel Receiving and Storage Building (CPP- 603) was originally used to receive and store spent nuclear fuel from various facilities. The area to undergo deactivation includes the three spent nuclear fuel storage basins and a transfer canal (1.5 million gallons of water storage). Deactivation operations at the task site include management of the hot storage boxes and generic fuel objects, removal of the fuel storage racks, basin sludge, water evaporation and basin grouting, and interior equipment, tanks, and associated components. This includes a study to develop a grout formulation and placement process for this deactivation project. Water will be allowed to passively evaporate to r educe the spread of contamination from the walls of the basin. The basins will be filled with grout, underwater, as the water evaporates to maintain the basin water at a safe level. The objective of the deactivation project is to eliminate potential exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials and eliminate potential safety hazards associated with the CPP-603 building

  19. Southwest British Columbia natural gas supply and deliverability: Discussion paper

    1994-02-01

    A review is presented of energy in British Columbia, the role of natural gas, and options available to enhance gas supply security in the province's most densely populated area, the southwest. British Columbia has abundant natural gas supplies, and production exceeds domestic demand. In 1992, natural gas supplied ca 25% of total provincial end-use energy requirements, but this share is expected to rise to 30% by 2015. Although some say that the province's natural gas production and transmission system should serve only domestic needs, this would have significant negative impacts. Domestic gas supply policy allows gas consumers to contract their own supplies, but contract security is required. Provincial guidelines allow demand-side programs to compete with supply sources to ensure that the resource profile is achieved at least cost. In the southwest, natural gas demand is projected to increase from 189 PJ in 1991 to 262 PJ by 2005. Most gas supplied to this region comes from northeast British Columbia through pipelines that are generally fully contracted. Short-term deliverability can be a problem, especially in peak winter demand periods. The gas industry's contingency plans for shortages are outlined and alternatives to enhance deliverability to the southwest are assessed, including storage, expansion of the pipeline system, supply curtailment, and peaking supply contracts. Aspects of provincial natural gas planning are discussed, including security of supply and deliverability, economic and environmental impacts, consumer costs, safety, and the public interest. A least-cost option for enhancing deliverability (underground storage and an additional liquefied natural gas plant) is estimated to cost consumers $3.69/GJ over 20 years. 9 figs., 1 tab

  20. Report on geologic remote sensing of the Columbia Plateau

    Sandness, G.A.; Kimball, C.S.; Schmierer, K.E.; Lindberg, J.W.

    1982-05-01

    The purpose of this remote sensing study is to identify faults or other geologic features which may have a significant bearing on the structural and tectonic character of the Hanford Site and the surrounding region. Landsat imagery, Skylab photographs, and U-2 photographs were analyzed to identify and map geologic photolineaments in the Columbia Plateau. The Landsat and Skylab imagery provided a regional perspective and allowed the identification of large-scale linear features. The U-2 photography provided much greater spatial resolution as well as a stereoscopic viewing capability. This allowed identification of smaller structural or geologic features and the identification of many cultural and nongeologic lineaments detected in the Landsat and Skylab imagery. The area studied totals, approximately 85,000 square miles, and encompasses virtually all exposures of Columbia River Basalt in the states of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. It also includes an area bordering the Columbia River Basalt outcrop. This border area was studied in order to identify significant structures that may extend into the plateau. Included are a description of the procedures used for image analysis, 20 lineament maps at a scale of 1:250,000, geological summaries for the areas covered by the lineament maps, and discussions of many of the lineaments shown on the maps. Comparisons of the lineament maps with available geologic maps showed that the number of detected lineaments was much greater than the number of known faults and other linear features. Approximately 70% of the faults shown on the geologic maps were detected and are characterized as lineaments. Lineament trends in the northwest-southeast and northeast-southwest directions were found to predominate throughout the study area