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Sample records for centaurea stoebe subsp. micranthos

  1. Comparing susceptibility of eastern and western U.S. grasslands to competition and allelopathy from spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe L. subsp. micranthos (Gugler) Hayek)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centaurea maculosa is native to Eurasia and is invasive in the western portion of the US. Negative impacts of C. maculosa present in the eastern US have not been recorded. In this study, we examine the effects of C. maculosa on species diversity on an eastern grassy bald, compare the competitive a...

  2. The case against (-)-catechin involvement in allelopathy of Centaurea stoebe (spotted knapweed)

    OpenAIRE

    Duke, Stephen O; Franck E. Dayan; Bajsa, Joanna; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Hufbauer, Ruth A; Blair, Amy C

    2009-01-01

    Proving allelopathic chemical interference is a daunting endeavor, in that production and movement of a phytotoxin from a donor plant to a receiving plant must be demonstrated in the substrate in which the plants grow, which is usually a complex soil matrix. The soil levels or soil flux levels of the compound generated by the donor must be proven to be sufficient to adversely affect the receiving plant. Reports of (-)-catechin to be the novel weapon used by Centaurea stoebe (spotted knapweed)...

  3. Influence of plant phenostage and ploidy level on oviposition and feeding of two specialist herbivores of spotted knapweed, Centaurea stoebe

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    Collins, Alexandra R.; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    A caged field experiment was used to determine how Centaurea stoebe L. phenostage (rosette, single-stem, multiple-stem) and ploidy level (diploid = 2× and tetraploid = 4×) influence oviposition and feeding of two biological control agents, Agapeta zoegana (Lep.: Cochylidae) and Cyphocleonus achates (Col.: Curculionidae). Ploidy level did not influence oviposition patterns of A. zoegana but rosette and one-stem plants had significantly more eggs than multiple-stem (4×) plants. Differences in o...

  4. Polyploidy in phenotypic space and invastion context: A morphometric study of Centaurea stoebe s.l

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mráz, Patrik; Bourchier, Robert S.; Treier, Urs;

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomy of the Centaurea stoebe complex is controversial. Diploid and tetraploid plants occur in its native European range, but to date only tetraploids have been recorded from its introduced range in North America. We examined morphological differentiation of C. stoebe using multivariate and...... univariate approaches to clarify the taxonomic status of the known cytotypes. We measured more than 40 morphological traits on plants originating from 78 populations, grown from seed under uniform glasshouse conditions. The ploidy of almost 300 plants from 2 native and 20 introduced populations from Canada...... and 4x plants and thus supported recognition of both cytotypes as separate taxa. Differences in the life cycle, the number of florets, the shape of capitula, and the shape of young rosette leaves were the best discriminant characters. Only minor differences were found between native and introduced...

  5. Fatty acid composition of six Centaurea species growing in Konya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekeli, Yener; Sezgin, Mehmet; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Ozmen Guler, Gokalp; Aydin Sanda, Murad

    2010-12-01

    In this study, fatty acid compositions of six Centaurea species growing in the Konya region were determined. The fatty acid composition of Centaurea balsamita, Centaurea calolepis, Centaurea carduiformis subsp. carduiformis, Centaurea cariensis subsp. maculiceps, C. cariensis subsp. microlepis and Centaurea iberica were analysed. Four species of these six Centaurea are endemic to Turkey. The endemic Centaurea species are C. calolepis, C. carduiformis subsp. carduiformis, C. cariensis subsp. maculiceps and C. cariensis subsp. microlepis. Generally, C 18:2 ω6 linoleic acid, C 16:0 palmitic acid, C 18:3 ω3 linolenic acid and C 18:1 oleic acid were found to be the major fatty acids in all species. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found in higher amounts than saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids in all species. PUFAs were determined at 55.10%, 50.25%, 51.41%, 41.02%, 46.18% and 58.80% in C. balsamita, C. calolepis, C. carduiformis subsp. carduiformis, C. cariensis subsp. maculiceps, C. cariensis subsp. microlepis and C. iberica, respectively. PMID:21108113

  6. Is (-)-Catechin a "Novel Weapon" of Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea stoebe)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The “novel weapons” hypothesis states that some invasive weed species owe part of their success as invaders to allelopathy mediated by allelochemicals that are new to the native species. Presumably, no resistance has evolved among the native species to this new allelochemical (i.e. the novel weapon...

  7. Revisión taxonómica del complejo Centaurea alba L. (Asteraceae) en la Península Ibérica

    OpenAIRE

    Devesa, J. A.; López, E

    2011-01-01

    Taxonomic revision of the Centaurea alba L. complex (Asteraceae) in the Iberian Peninsula.- A taxonomic revision of the Centaurea alba L. complex (Centaurea L. sect. Centaurea) in the Iberian Peninsula is presented, which is represented by two species, C. alba and C. costae Willk. Three subspecies of C. alba with reasonably well-defined areas are recognized: C. alba subsp. alba, with three varieties –alba, macrocephala Pau and latronum (Pau) E. López & Devesa-, C. alba subsp. aristifera (Pau...

  8. The Case Against (-)-Catechin Involvement in Allelopathy in Centaurea stoebe (spotted knapweed)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proving allelopathic chemical interference is a daunting endeavor, in that production and movement of a phytotoxin from a donor plant to a receiving plant must be demonstrated in the substrate in which the plants grow, which is usually a complex soil matrix. The soil levels or soil flux levels of th...

  9. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXIII. Isolation of sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea L. species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Geppert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpene lactones were isolated from 18 species or subspecies of the genus Centaurea L.: salonitenolide (I was found in C. crithmifolia Vis., C. friderici Vis., C, paniculata L., C. calcitrapa L., C. pontica Prodan et E. L' Nyarady, C. eriophora L., C. alba L. subsp. deusta (Ten. Nyman, C. alba L. subsp. caliacrae (Prodan Dostal and C. weldeniana Reichenb.; cnicin (II was found in: C. vallesiaca (DC. Jordan, C. calcitrapa L., C. aspera L. subsp. aspera, C. sphaerocephala L. subsp. lusitanica (Boiss. et Reuter Nyman, C. sulphurea Willd., C. eriophora L. and C. rocheliana (Heuffel Dostal; cynaropicrin (III was detected in C. debeauxii Gren. et Gordon subsp. thuillieri Dostal; acroptillin (V, repin (VI and janerin (VII in C. bella Trautv. Other unidentified sesquiterpene lactones were also found to be present in the examined plants.

  10. Chemical Constituents of Centaurea cuneifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Aslan, Ümit

    1999-01-01

    The whole plant material fo Centaurea cuneifolia Sm. afforded three sesquiterpene lactones; cnicin (1), dehydromelitensin (2) and dehydromelitensin-8-[(2'-a-hydroxy-b- hydroxyethyl)-acryloyl)] (3), the lignan; (-)-arctigenin (4), flavonoids; salvigenin (5), eupatilin (6), jaceosidin (7), acacetin (8), kaemferol (9), 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3-methylether (10), 5-hydroxy-3',',6,7-tetramethoxyflavone (11) and 5-hydroxy-3',4',7,8-tetramet hoxyflavone (12), a trite...

  11. AN AROMATIC COMPOUND from CENTAUREA PTOSIMOPAPPOIDES

    OpenAIRE

    A. ULUBELEN, S. ÖKSÜZ

    2015-01-01

    Centaurea ptosimopappoides was previously investigated by our groupand the presence of two new triterpenes were reported. The rare occurrence ofthis type compounds in the plants prompted us to further investigation of Centaureaptosimopappoides. In this work we report the isolation and structure determinationof an aromatic glycoside which was found in the genus Centaureafor the first time. The structure of the compound was determined by spectralmethods.Key words: Centaurea ptosimopappoides; Co...

  12. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXVI. Sesquiterpene lactones in several subgenera of the genus Centaurea L.

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    Gerard Nowak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of both known and new sesquiterpene lactones was determined in six species classified in different subgenera of Centaurea L. Chlorojanerin, cynaropicrin and janerin were isolated from C. phaeopappoides Bordz. and C. thracica (Janka Hayek. C. marschalliana Spreng. was found to contain acroptilin, chlorojanerin, cebellin D and janerin while C. adjarica Alb. had repin, acroptilin, chlorojanerin, centaurepensin, janerin, repidiolide, cebellin D, E, F and L A new, hitherto underscribed cebellin J quaianolide was found in C. bella Trautv. and another germacranolide, 3α, 15-dihydroxycostunolide was found in C. sphaerocephala subsp. lusitanica (Boiss. et Reuter Nyman.

  13. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXI. New guaianolides in Centaurea bella Trautv. and Centaurea adjarica Alb.

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    Gerard Nowak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nine new guaianolides. I of which are chlorinated, were isolated from the dried, above-ground parts of Centaurea bella Trautv. They are: cebellin A. B, C, D, E. F, G, H and 1. l he known guaianolides centaurepensin and repdiolide were also found. The occurrence of repin. acroptillin and janerin was confirmed. Cebellin F. G. I and repin. acroptillin and janerin were chromatographically shown to occur in Centaurea adjarica Alb.

  14. Determination of the relationship between some Centaurea species based on SDS-PAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Tuna; Arslan, Emine; Tugay, Osman; ERTUĞRUL, Kuddisi

    2010-01-01

    The protein patterns of 47 Centaurea species from Turkey were obtained using SDS-PAGE methods. Relationships between Centaurea species and related genera were evaluated via use of a dendrogram. SDS-PAGE provided protein profiles for an important and applicable selection within Centaurea, particularly for the section Cheirolepis and its relatives. We determined that the technique could be used to resolve taxonomic and evolutionary problems in the genus Centaurea, as most of the Centaurea speci...

  15. A rare case of a natural contact zone in Morocco between an autopolyploid and an allopolyploid of Centaurea aspera with sterile tetraploid hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmendia, A; Ferriol, M; Juarez, J; Zając, A; Kałużny, K; Merle, H

    2015-05-01

    A new contact zone between Centaurea aspera and Centaurea seridis was found in Morocco. Chromosome counts and flow cytometry showed that both taxa were tetraploid (4x = 44). A literature review and morphometric analysis established that C. aspera corresponds to the autopolyploid C. aspera subsp. gentilii and C. seridis corresponds to the allopolyploid C. seridis var. auriculata. This contact area was compared with the homologous contact zones in Spain formed by the diploid C. aspera subsp. stenophylla and the tetraploid C. seridis subsp. maritima. Natural hybrids between parental species were frequent in both areas. In Spain, hybrids were triploid (from reduced gametes A and gamete AB), highly sterile and exerted a 'triploid block'. In Morocco, cytometry showed that hybrids were tetraploid and, therefore, probably fertile, but all the capitula lacked achenes. It is likely that the resulting genome of the new tetraploid hybrid (AAAB), through the fusion of reduced gametes AA (from subsp. gentilii) and AB (from var. auriculata), could explain irregularities in meiosis through formation of aneuploid gametes and, therefore, infertility of the hybrid. Moroccan sterile tetraploid hybrids develop, but have the identical irregularities to Spanish triploids, probably due to the odd number of homologous chromosomes. The new hybrid is first described as C. x subdecurrens nothosubsp. paucispinus. In addition, distribution and ecological traits are analysed. PMID:25363815

  16. Cytotoxic Activities of Flavonoids from Centaurea scoparia

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed A. Ahmed; Kamel, Emadeldin M.

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical studies on the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Centaurea scoparia led to the isolation of two new flavonoids, 3′,4′-dihydroxy-(3′′,4′′-dihydro-3′′-hydroxy-4′′-acetoxy)-2′′,2′′-dimethylpyrano-(5′′,6′′:7,8)-flavone-3-O- β -D-glucopyranoside (1) and 3,3′,4′-trihydroxy-(3′′,4′′-dihydro-3′′,4′′-dihydroxy)-2′′,2′′-dimethylpyrano-(5′′,6′′:7,8)-flavone (2), along with eight known flavonoids isolated for the first time from this plant, cynaroside (3), Apigetrin (4), centaureidin...

  17. Centaurea tchihatcheffii Fischer & C.A. Meyer (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Vural, Mecit

    2007-01-01

    Abstract   Centaurea tchihatcheffii is a steppic annual possessing some unique features absent in other Centaureas. The chromosome number is 2n = 20, differing from all other annual species of Centaurea sect. Cyanus. The type locality as published is erroneous and the correct provenance is provided....

  18. Thymus vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. (Lamiaceae)

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    Pedro Pablo Ferrer-Gallego; Albert J. Navarro Peris; Emilio Laguna Lumbreras; Gonzalo Mateo Sanz

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN: Se describe una nueva subespecie de Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae); Th. vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov., caracterizada por presentar un hábito postrado, tallos estoloníferos, decumbentes y radicantes, hojas muy estrechas y una floración otoñal. ABSTRACT: Thymus vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. (Lamiaceae). A new subspecies of Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae); Th. vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. is described. This new subspecies is characterized by its prost...

  19. Chemical constituents of Centaurea omphalotricha Coss. & Durieu ex Batt. & Trab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumia Mouffok

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the aerial parts of Centaurea omphalotricha Coss. & Durieu ex Batt. & Trab. allowed the isolation of nine secondary metabolites corresponding to five flavonoids: oroxylin A (1, chrysin (2, tenaxin II (3, 5,7,2’-trihydroxyflavone (4 and quercetin (5, and four triterpenoids: lupeol (6, taraxasterol (7, daucosterol (8 and β-sitosterol (9. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods such as 1H and 13C NMR, COSY, HSQC, and HMBC experiments, and ESI-MS, and comparison with literature data. The flavonoids tenaxin II (3 and 5,7,2’-trihydroxyflavone (4 are new for the genus Centaurea L.

  20. Cytotoxic Activities of Flavonoids from Centaurea scoparia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed A. Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical studies on the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Centaurea scoparia led to the isolation of two new flavonoids, 3′,4′-dihydroxy-(3′′,4′′-dihydro-3′′-hydroxy-4′′-acetoxy-2′′,2′′-dimethylpyrano-(5′′,6′′:7,8-flavone-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1 and 3,3′,4′-trihydroxy-(3′′,4′′-dihydro-3′′,4′′-dihydroxy-2′′,2′′-dimethylpyrano-(5′′,6′′:7,8-flavone (2, along with eight known flavonoids isolated for the first time from this plant, cynaroside (3, Apigetrin (4, centaureidin (5, oroxylin A (6, 5,7-dihydroxy-3′,4′,5′-trimethoxyflavone (7, atalantoflavone (8, 5-hydroxy-3′,4′,8-trimethoxy-2′′,2′′-dimethylpyrano (5′′,6′′:6,7-flavone (9, and 3′,4′,5,8-tetramethoxy-2′′,2′′-dimethylpyrano (5′′,6′′:6,7-flavone (10. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by means of spectroscopic tools including 1D and 2D NMR, UV, IR, and mass spectroscopy. Cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated against human cervical carcinoma HeLa, human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2, and human breast carcinoma MCF-7. Compound 2 was the most potent cytotoxic agent against HeLa cells with an IC50 0.079 μM.

  1. Chemical constituents of Centaurea omphalotricha Coss. & Durieu ex Batt. & Trab.

    OpenAIRE

    Soumia Mouffok; Hamada Haba; Catherine Lavaud; Christophe Long; Mohammed Benkhaled

    2012-01-01

    The investigation of the aerial parts of Centaurea omphalotricha Coss. & Durieu ex Batt. & Trab. allowed the isolation of nine secondary metabolites corresponding to five flavonoids: oroxylin A (1), chrysin (2), tenaxin II (3), 5,7,2’-trihydroxyflavone (4) and quercetin (5), and four triterpenoids: lupeol (6), taraxasterol (7), daucosterol (8) and β-sitosterol (9). Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods such as 1H and 13C NMR, COSY, HSQC, and HMBC experiments, and ESI-MS, ...

  2. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay of selected Centaurea L. species (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Janaćković P.; Tešević V.; Marin P.D.; Milosavljević S.; Duletić-Laušević Sonja; Janaćković Slavica; Veljić M.

    2008-01-01

    Ether extracts of 15 Centaurea L. species (Asteraceae) methanol extracts of 12species, and cnicin isolated from C. derventana were tested for general bioactivity using the brine shrimp lethality test. Cnicin showed the most potent activity with LC50 0.2. Also, ether extract of C. splendens showed significant activity with LC50 7.3, as did methanol extract of C. arenaria with LC50 12.4.

  3. Phytotoxic compounds from roots of Centaurea diffusa Lam.

    OpenAIRE

    Quintana, Naira; El Kassis, Elie G; Stermitz, Frank R.; Vivanco, Jorge M.

    2009-01-01

    An extract of roots of Centaurea diffusa (diffuse knapweed) yielded caryophyllene oxide and linoleic acid which were shown to be phytotoxic. Also isolated were germacrene B, a previously-known phytotoxin as well as the inactive polyene aplotaxene. A combination of these compounds, if transferred to the soil, could be one factor in the invasive behavior of this weed. Contrary to a literature report, 8-hydroxyquinoline was not detected in root exudates of in vitro grown C. diffusa nor could it ...

  4. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antiproliferative compounds from Centaurea arenaria

    OpenAIRE

    Csapi, Bence; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Zupko, Istvan; Berényi, Ágnes; Forgo, Peter; Szabó, Pál Tam'S; Hohmann, Judit

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The antiproliferative effects of n-hexane, chloroform and aqueous methanol extracts prepared from the whole plant of Centaurea arenaria M.B. ex Willd. were investigated against cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) and skin epidermoid carcinoma (A431) cells, using the MTT assay. The chloroform extract displayed high tumour cell proliferation inhibitory activity (higher than 85% at 10 ?g/ml concentration), and was therefore subjected to a bioassay-guide...

  5. CENTAUREA CARDUIFORMIS (PEYGAMBER ÇİÇEĞİ)'İN ANTİOKSİDAN AKTİVİTESİNİN BELİRLENMESİ

    OpenAIRE

    TEKELİ, Yener

    2009-01-01

    Özet: Bu çalışmada Konya civarından toplanan Centaurea Carduiformis DC. subsp. 'u yağından uzaklaştırılmak için sokslet apareyi ile petrol eterinde ekstrakte edildi. Sonra materyal %70 lik metanolde tekrar ekstraksiyona tabi tutuldu ve çözücüsünden uzaklaştırılarak liyofilize edildi. Antioksidan aktivitesi ölçülene kadar +4 oC de karanlıkta muhafaza edildi. Toplam fenolik madde konsantrasyonu gallik asit standardına göre Folin-Ciocalteu metoduna, serbest radikal süpürme etkisi DPPH (1,1-difen...

  6. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXIII. Guaianolides in the subgenus Psephellus (Cass. Schmalh., genus Centaurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpene lactones were found to occur in all of the studied species of the subgenus Psephellus (Cass. Schmalh. Differing compositions were found in the representatives of three sections. In Centaurea declinata MB. from the section Leucophylle (Sosn. Sosn.. 15-deoxyrepin, linichlorin B and cynaropicrin were found. Linichlorin B dominated in Centaurea hypoleucu DC. from section Hypoleucae (Sosn. Sosn., while in the species classified in section Psephellus Sosn., repin, acroptilin, jenerin, centaurepensin and, in some, also cynaropicrin. dominated.

  7. Bioactividad de los extractos y aislamiento de los lignanos de las semillas de Centaurea dealbata

    OpenAIRE

    Shoeb, M.; Jaspars, M.; Macmanus, S.M.; Thoo-Lin, P.K.; Celik, S; Sarker, S. D.

    2006-01-01

    La Centaurea dealbata Willd. (familia: Asteraceae) pertenece al g??nero Centaurea, que comprende unas 500 especies. Para evaluar la actividad antioxidante y la toxicidad general de los extractos de n-hexano, diclorometano (DCM) y metanol (MeOH) de las semillas de C. dealbata se han utilizado, respectivamente, el ensayo DPPH y el ensayo de letalidad de gambas en salmuera. Tanto el extracto de DCM como el de MeOH presentaron niveles signifi cativos de actividad antioxidante, con val...

  8. Cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones and other constituents of Centaurea omphalotricha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolli, El Hadj; Leon, Francisco; Benayache, Samir, E-mail: jfleon@ipna.csic.es, E-mail: sbenayache@yahoo.com [Laboratoire de Valorisation des Ressources Naturelles et Synthese de Substances Bioactives, Equipe Associee a l' A.N.D.R.S., Universite Mentouri, Constantine (Algeria); Benayache, Fadila [Laboratoire de Phytochimie et Analyses Physico-Chimiques et Biologiques, Universite Mentouri, Constantine (Algeria); Estevez, Sara; Quintana, Jose; Estevez, Francisco [Departamento de Bioquimica, Unidad Asociada al CSIC, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigacion del Cancer, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Gran Canaria (Spain); Brouard, Ignacio; Bermejo, Jaime [Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2012-05-15

    Phytochemical research of the aerial parts of Centaurea omphalotricha led to the isolation of three new sesquiterpene lactones, 4'-acetyl cynaropicrin, 4'-acetyl cebellin F and 15-acetyl dehydromelitensin, together with twelve known compounds, seven sesquiterpene lactones, two isoprenoids and three flavonoids. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by means of extensive 1D and 2D NMR, and MS, and by comparison with reported data in the literature. The effect of sesquiterpene lactones on the viability of the human tumor cell lines HL-60 and U937 was also investigated and 3-acetyl cynaropicrin, and 4'-acetyl cynaropicrin were found to be the most cytotoxic compounds against human leukemia cells with an IC{sub 50} values of 2.0 =- 0.9 and 5.1 +- 0.4 {mu}mol L{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  9. Effect of Three Centaurea Species Collected from Central Anatolia Region of Turkey on Human Melanoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Alessandra; Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana C E; Rigano, Daniela; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Zengin, Gokhan; Senatore, Felice

    2016-03-01

    Centaurea is the largest genus within the Asteraceae family. Many members of this genus are used in traditional folk medicine, such as Centaurea pulchella used to treat skin problems such as to resolve the abscess. Although biological activities of many Centaurea species have been investigated in different countries and Turkey, cytotoxic effect of C. patula, C. pulchella and C. tchihatcheffii has not been studied yet. Melanoma is one of the most invasive and deadly forms of skin cancer. Therefore, in an ongoing effort to identify new natural anticancer products for the treatment and/or prevention of melanoma cancer, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of these Centaurea species, collected from Central Anatolia region of Turkey on cell growth and death in human melanoma cell line, A375.The results revealed that all extracts were able to inhibit, after 48 h of treatment, the growth of cancer cells, that could be related to an overall action of the phenolic compounds present. In fact, C. pulchella, with the highest level of phenolics, showed a major activity followed by C. patula and C. tchihatcheffii. Our data also demonstrate that these natural products induce apoptotic cell death. In conclusion, the study of plant extracts for their cytotoxic and apoptotic properties has shown that medicinal herbs from Centaurea species might have also importance in the prevention and treatment of melanoma. PMID:27169173

  10. DIGITAL MAPPING AND MONITORING OF CENTAUREA RUTHENICA SPECIES AT THE BONTIDA-JUCU SITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca DIODIU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a short review about digital mapping and monitoring of a plant species. The plant species chosen for this purpose was Centaurea ruthenica, a very rare forest steppe species in both Romanian and Europe’s flora, being considered a postglacial relict. The monitoring and the data collected for digital mapping was realized at the Bontida-Jucu site of Centaurea ruthenica. The data obtained after monitoring the species for several years were compared with the already existing data in the literature.

  11. Nectar plant preferences of Hemaris (Sphingidae on co-occurring native Cirsium and non-native Centaurea (Asteraceae inflorescences

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    Elena S. Tartaglia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Preferences for certain nectar plants by moth pollinators have not been extensively studied, particularly seasonal switches in nectar diet. The genus Hemaris, found throughout North America and parts of other continents, is a useful new system to address questions of flower-insect interactions as the moths are relatively common and day-flying. In this study we address the following questions with a group of three Hemaris species. (1 Does Hemaris display a preference for foraging on the native swamp thistle, Cirsium discolor, over the non-native invasive knapweeds, Centaurea spp.? (2 What factors might be driving Hemaris’ preferences? The bloom periods of C. discolor and Centaurea overlap in the northeastern United States, with Centaurea blooming from approximately June through September and C. discolor blooming for approximately the first three weeks of August. Hemaris typically ecloses in the first week of July and fed on Centaurea until C. discolor bloomed. We tracked and recorded Hemaris visits to both plant species. During the co-blooming period of C. discolor and Centaurea, Hemaris visits significantly more C. discolor inflorescences, demonstrating a possible preference for the native species. Hemaris reverts to nectaring at the non-native Centaurea after native C. discolor’s bloom period ends. The nectar of C. discolor has a significantly higher sugar concentration than does the nectar of Centaurea; this difference may account for part of the moths’ preference for C. discolor.

  12. Poliploïdia, filogènia i biogeografia en "Centaurea" L. Secció "Acrocentron" ("Cass".) DC

    OpenAIRE

    Font Garcia, Mònica

    2008-01-01

    [cat] El grup Acrocentron s'ha anat classificant i estructurant de diferents maneres al llarg dels anys, però segons l'última definició del grup estaria format per Centaurea sect. Acrocentron, a més de dues seccions molt petites, Centaurea sect. Chamaecyanus i Centaurea sect. Stephanochilus. Aquest grup es caracteritza cariològicament per ser un grup amb un elevat número d'espècies poliploides.En aquest treball hem intentat establir l'origen de dues sèries poliploides dins d' Acrocentron , ex...

  13. First Report of Crown Gall Caused by Agrobacterium sp. on Diffuse Knapweed (Centaurea diffusa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A specimen of diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa, DK) with crown gall-like symptoms was collected July 27, 2004, in Mosier, Wasco Co., OR (N 45.6842, W 121.4021), and sent to the USDA at Ft. Detrick, MD, for identification. A bacterium was isolated on Potato Dextrose Agar that caused hyperplasia a...

  14. Centaurea wagenitziana (Asteraceae: Centaureinae), a new species from the Eastern Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Bancheva, Svetlana; Vural, Mecit; Strid, Arne

    2009-01-01

    Centaurea wagenitziana Bancheva & Kit Tan from SE Bulgaria and NW Turkey is described as a species new to Bancheva & Kit Tan from SE Bulgaria and NW Turkey is described as a species new to science. Its chromosome number of 2n = 30 is a first report. It closely resembles C. amplifolia with which i...

  15. A new species of Centaurea (Asteraceae) from the island of Samothraki (NE Greece)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strid, Arne; Tan, Kit

    2009-01-01

    Centaurea samothracica (subgen. Acrolophus) is described and illustrated. It is known from a single locality on (subgen. ) is described and illustrated. It is known from a single locality on the North Aegean island of Samothraki, and appears most closely related to C. chalcidicaea from Mt Athos....

  16. Genetic guidelines for the conservation of the endangered polyploid Centaurea borjae (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Lua; Barreiro, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate management of species of conservation concern requires designing strategies that should include genetic information as small population size and restricted geographic range can reduce genetic variation. We used AFLPs to investigate genetic variation within and among populations of the endangered narrow endemic Centaurea borjae, and found no evidence for genetic impoverishment despite its 80 m to maximize genetic variation. PMID:22678690

  17. Assessment of the antioxidant potential and fatty acid composition of four Centaurea L. taxa from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Zengin, Gokhan; Guler, Gokalp Ozmen; Cakmak, Yavuz Selim; Duran, Ahmet

    2013-11-01

    This paper focused on the assessment of antioxidant property and fatty acid composition of four Centaurea species. The antioxidant activity of its methanol extract was evaluated by several in vitro experiments including phosphomolybedum assay, DPPH assay, β-carotene/linoleic acid, ferric and cupric reducing power. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also evaluated. The methanol extract of Centaurea pulcherrima var. pulcherrima showed the superior free radical scavenging activity, linoleic acid inhibition capacity, reducing power and also had the highest total phenolic content. A significant relationship between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic components was found. The oils of Centaurea taxa were also analysed for fatty acid concentration by gas chromatography. The principal fatty acids in the species were palmitic acid (23.38-30.49%) and linoleic acid (20.19-29.93%). These findings suggest that the Centaurea species could be used as a potential source of new natural antioxidants and unsaturated fatty acids in food industry, cosmetics and pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:23768332

  18. Bioactivity of the extracts and isolation of lignans and a sesquiterpene from the aerial parts of Centaurea pamphylica (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Shoeb M.; Macmanus S.M.; Kong-Thoo-Lin P.; Celik S.; Jaspars M.; Nahar L.; Sarker S.D

    2007-01-01

    Centaurea pamphylica Boiss. & Heldr. (Family: Asteraceae), commonly known as ‘pamphylia daisy', is a Turkish endemic species of the genus Centaurea that comprises ca. 500 species, many of which have been used as traditional medicines.  The n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MeOH) extracts of the aerial parts of C. pamphylica were assessed for antioxidant activity and general toxicity using, respectively, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ...

  19. Components from the Essential oil of Centaurea aeolica Guss. and C. diluta Aiton from Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariem Ben Jemia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile components from florets, leaves and stems and branches of Centaurea aeolica Guss. harvested in Lipari, Sicily, Italy, were analysed by gas phase chomatography (GC and gas chomatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The main constituents were β-eudesmol, caryophyllene oxide, ( E -12-norcaryophyll-5-en-2-one and hexahydrofarnesylacetone in flowers, hexahydrofarnesylacetone, 2-methyloctadecane and tricosane in the leaves and hexadecanoic acid , caryophyllene oxide and β-eudesmol in the stems and branches . The analysis of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Centaurea diluta Aiton gave mainly fatty acids and derivatives, the main ones being hexadecanoic acid and (Z,Z-9,12-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester.

  20. Constituents of the Egyptian Centaurea scoparia; Part II. Guaianolides of the Aerial Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, D; Frahm, A W

    1994-12-01

    Aerial parts of CENTAUREA SCOPARIA Sieb. afforded a new chlorinated guaianolide with an unusual isobutyl structural feature, diain ( 1), together with three known guaianolides, janerin ( 2), cynaropicrin ( 3), and deacylcynaropicrin ( 4). Structural assignments of the isolated compounds are based on spectroscopic methods including 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy as well as mass spectroscopy. New and revised (1)H- and (13)C-NMR data are reported. PMID:17236083

  1. Essential Oil Composition of Centaurea kilaea Boiss. and C. cuneifolia Sm. from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    POLATO?LU, Kaan; ?EN, Ali; Bulut, Gizem; B?T??, Leyla; GÖREN, Nezhun

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil composition of Centaurea kilaea flowers, stems and C. cuneifolia flowers were investigated by GC, GC/MS. Flowers and stems of C. kilaea afforded very low essential oil yield <0.01% (v/w). Nineteen and twenty compounds were identified in the flower and stem oils which represent 59.5% and 77.6% of the C. kilaea oil respectively. The main components of the C. kilaea flower oil were hexadecanoic acid 26.2%, tetradecanoic acid 18.1%, ?-Eudesmol 3.3% and decanoic acid 3.1%. The ste...

  2. Comparative anatomical and ecological investigations on some centaurea (asteracae) taxa from turkey and their taxonomic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anatomical and ecological characteristics of 7 Centaurea L. s. l. taxa (C. urvillei DC. ssp. stepposa Wagenitz, C. pseudoreflexa Hayek, C. simplicicaulis Boiss. and Huet, C. pecho Albow, C. hypoleuca DC., C. cheiranthifolia Willd.var. purpurascens (DC.) Wagenitz, C. woronowii Bornm.), which three of them are endemic (C. pseudoreflexa, C. pecho, C. woronowii) to Turkey has been carried out. Cross sections of stem, leaf blade and midrib and peripheral sections of the leaves, and pH, total N, P, K and organic matter contents of soil samples have been investigated. Variance analysis and Tukey's Honest Significant Difference test were performed on ecological and anatomical data. Ecological characteristics obtained in this investigation were found mostly similar. On the other hand, anatomically important differences were determined in diversity of anticlinal cell walls, length and width of abaxial epidermis, number of bundles in the midrib and number of stomata per mm/sup 2/ both on the epidermis of the leaf, and the shape of transverse section of stem. According to Tukey's Honest Significant Difference test, especially length and width of abaxial epidermis, number of stomata both on the adaxial and abaxial epidermises have displayed three distinct groups. These results are in accordance with sectional delimitation in the Flora of Turkey and also support upgrading the sum of species of the genus Centaurea. (author)

  3. Comparison of extracellular enzymes of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme.

    OpenAIRE

    Amoako, K K; Goto, Y.; Shinjo, T.

    1993-01-01

    A total of 10 strains each of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme were tested for the production of 13 extracellular enzymes. DNase, alkaline phosphatase, and lipase were predominantly associated with all the strains of F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum, with DNase not detected in any of the strains of F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme. In addition, the strains of F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum were generally more hemolytic than t...

  4. Ecological, morphological and allozymic differentiation between diploid and tetraploid knapweeds (Centaurea jacea) from a contact zone in the Belgian Ardennes

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, O J; Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Loose, M.; Meerts, P.

    2000-01-01

    In the northeastern part of Belgium, the Centaurea jacea complex shows extensive morphological variation and is represented by a diploid (2n = 22) and a tetraploid (2n = 44) cytotype. Polysomic inheritance of allozyme markers in the tetraploids, suggesting autopolyploidy, is here demonstrated for the first time. In order to test whether the tno cytotypes occupy distinct habitats and possess different gene pools, patterns of allozymic and morphological variation were investigated in relation t...

  5. Evaluating Antimicrobial Effects of Centaurea Plant’s Essential Oil on Pathogenic Bacteria: Staphylococcus Aureus, Staphylococcus Epidermidis, and Escherichia Coli Isolated from Clinical Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haedeh Mobaiyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives :Nowadays, development of drug resistance against chemical antimicrobial drugs has attracted attention using medicinal plants in treatment of infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of two species of Centaurea plant’s essential oil on drug resistant clinical isolates of three pathogenic isolates. Materials & Methods :The studied plants were collected from Marand city in East Azerbaijan, Iran and were confirmed as Centaurea Depressa M.B. and Centaurea Cyanus L. by botanists of Iran Agriculture Organization. The essential oil of these plants (Stems and leaf were extracted via steam distillation method by Clevenger, and their antimicrobial effects were studied by well diffusion method in the abovementioned bacteria. The components of essential oil were identified by injection to gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry (GC/M. Results :The results of this study prove that the essential oils from the abovementioned plants have bactericidal effects. The most antibacterial effect is observed in Escherichia coli strains. The results of GC/MS chromatography reveal that the essential oils of Centaurea Depressa M.B. and Centaurea Cyanus L. have 28 and 32 compounds, respectively. Conclusion: This study confirmed that the grasses could be used in medicinal plants group with antibacterial properties. However, their effects in vivo must be evaluated and the most effective component of them must be identified carefully so that they can be applied commonly as an alternative synthetic drug in treating infections.

  6. FLAVONOIDS OF TANACETUM PRAETERITUM SUBSP. PRAETERITUM

    OpenAIRE

    GÖREN, N.

    2015-01-01

    A further investigatim on Tanacetum praeteritum subsp. praeteritumwhich is endemic in Turkey afforded five known flavonoids: apigenin, 6-hydroxyapigenin 6-methyl ether, luteolin, 6-methoxy luteolin and quercetagetin3,7-dimethyl ether (tomentin). Their structures were identified by UV, 'H NMR,EIMS and comparision on TLC with authentic compounds.This is the first report on the flavonoids of Tanacetum praeteritum subsp. praeteritum.Key Words: Conipositae,Tanacetum praeteritum subsp. praeteritum,...

  7. Pollinator interactions with yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis across urban, agricultural, and natural landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha Leong

    Full Text Available Pollinator-plant relationships are found to be particularly vulnerable to land use change. Yet despite extensive research in agricultural and natural systems, less attention has focused on these interactions in neighboring urban areas and its impact on pollination services. We investigated pollinator-plant interactions in a peri-urban landscape on the outskirts of the San Francisco Bay Area, California, where urban, agricultural, and natural land use types interface. We made standardized observations of floral visitation and measured seed set of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, a common grassland invasive, to test the hypotheses that increasing urbanization decreases 1 rates of bee visitation, 2 viable seed set, and 3 the efficiency of pollination (relationship between bee visitation and seed set. We unexpectedly found that bee visitation was highest in urban and agricultural land use contexts, but in contrast, seed set rates in these human-altered landscapes were lower than in natural sites. An explanation for the discrepancy between floral visitation and seed set is that higher plant diversity in urban and agricultural areas, as a result of more introduced species, decreases pollinator efficiency. If these patterns are consistent across other plant species, the novel plant communities created in these managed landscapes and the generalist bee species that are favored by human-altered environments will reduce pollination services.

  8. Bioactivity of the extracts and isolation of lignans and a sesquiterpene from the aerial parts of Centaurea pamphylica (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoeb M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Centaurea pamphylica Boiss. & Heldr. (Family: Asteraceae, commonly known as ‘pamphylia daisy', is a Turkish endemic species of the genus Centaurea that comprises ca. 500 species, many of which have been used as traditional medicines.  The n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of C. pamphylica were assessed for antioxidant activity and general toxicity using, respectively, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the brine shrimp lethality assays. The reversed-phase preparative HPLC and PTLC were used to isolate compounds from the extracts.  The structures of these compounds [1-4] were elucidated by spectroscopic means, and also by direct comparison with the respective published data.  Both the DCM and the MeOH extract showed significant levels of antioxidant activities with the RC50 values of 72.6 x 10-2 and 47.3 ´ 10-2 mg/mL, respectively. The MeOH extract exhibited low levels of toxicity towards brine shrimps (LD50 = 125.0 ´ 10-2 mg/mL. Three major bioactive components of the MeOH extract were matairesinoside [1], arctiin [2] and matairesinol [3]. An eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, pterodontriol [4], was also isolated from the DCM extract.  Since reactive oxygen species are important contributors to various ailments, the antioxidant properties of the extracts as well as the isolated compounds may be of medicinal significance. This is the first report on the occurrence of 1-4 in C. pamphylica, and 4 in the genus Centaurea.  

  9. New habitats, new menaces: Centaurea x kleinii (C. moncktonii x C. solstitialis, a new hybrid species between two alien weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna, A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropic alteration of habitat opens the door to the cohabitation of imported species that in their native range would never coexist. Centaurea solstitialis and Centaurea moncktonii are two invasive species whose natural distributions in Eurasia do not overlap. After introduction in North America, invasive spread led to overlapping distributions. Although the environmental requirements differ between the two species, the close proximity of diverse habitats (within pollinator range has resulted in several cases of natural hybridization between the two. The result of the cross between these two distantly related species is a sterile perennial. Many of its characteristics are intermediate between its parents, but morphologically it is closer to Centaurea moncktonii (probably the maternal parent, and itself of hybrid origin. The plant could possibly become an invasive weed through clonal reproduction. The apparent maternal parent, which the hybrid may more closely resemble physiologically as well as morphologically, is a wellknown creeping weed in alpine pastures throughout Europe.La alteración antrópica del hábitat da paso a la cohabitación de especies importadas que nunca coexistirían en su ámbito natural. Centaurea solstitialis y Centaurea moncktonii son dos especies invasoras cuyas distribuciones en Eurasia apenas se solapan. Después de su introducción en Norteamérica, la expansión invasiva condujo a distribuciones superpuestas. Aunque los requerimientos ambientales de las dos especies son distintos, la proximidad de hábitats diversos (dentro del alcance de los polinizadores ha dado lugar a varios casos de hibridación natural entre ambas. El cruce resultante entre dos especies lejanamente emparentadas es una planta perenne estéril. Muchos de los caracteres del híbrido son intermedios entre sus especies parentales, pero morfológicamente es más parecida a Centaurea moncktonii (probablemente la especie materna y a su vez ya de

  10. Bioactivity of two Turkish endemic Centaurea species, and their major constituents Bioatividade e os principais constituintes químicos de duas espécies de Centaurea, endêmicas da Turquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shoeb

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity, general toxicity and cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of Centaurea urvillei subs. armata and C. mucronifera have been assessed, respectively, by the DPPH assay, the brine shrimp lethality and the MTT cytotoxicity assays. The reversed-phase HPLC analysis of the methanol extracts afforded two bioactive dibenzylbutyrolactone-type lignans, matairesinoside (1 and arctiin (2. The structures of these lignans were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses as well as by the direct comparison of experimental data with respective literature data.A atividade antioxidante, a toxicidade geral e a citotoxidade dos extratos metanólicos de Centaurea urvillei subs. armata e C. mucronifera foram analisados, respectivamente, pelo ensaio DPPH e pelos ensaios de letalidade de Artemia salina e de citotoxidade MTT. A análise dos extratos metanólicos em CLAE de fase reversa apresentou duas lignanas biotivas do tipo dibenzilbutirolactona, matairesinosídeo (1 e arctiina (2. As estruturas destas lignanas foram elucidadas através de análises espectroscópicas completas bem como por comparação direta dos dados experimentais com os respectivos dados da literatura.

  11. On the distribution of Cerastium smolikanum (Caryophyllaceae) and Centaurea vlachorum (Asteraceae) in the Balkan Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuka, Lulezim; Tan, Kit

    2009-01-01

    Cerastium smolikanum (Caryophyllaceae) and Centaurea vlachorum (Asteraceae) are reported for the first () and () are reported for the first time in C and NE Albania. These two taxa were previously considered serpentine endemics restricted to a few localities in NW Greece and the extension to their...

  12. Linking Native and Invader Traits Explains Native Spider Population Responses to Plant Invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Jennifer N.; Emlen, Douglas J.; Pearson, Dean E.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretically, the functional traits of native species should determine how natives respond to invader-driven changes. To explore this idea, we simulated a large-scale plant invasion using dead spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) stems to determine if native spiders’ web-building behaviors could explain differences in spider population responses to structural changes arising from C. stoebe invasion. After two years, irregular web-spiders were >30 times more abundant and orb weavers were >23 t...

  13. Evaluating Antimicrobial Effects of Centaurea Plant’s Essential Oil on Pathogenic Bacteria: Staphylococcus Aureus, Staphylococcus Epidermidis, and Escherichia Coli Isolated from Clinical Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Haedeh Mobaiyen; Abolfazl Jafari Sales; Javad Sayyahi

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objectives :Nowadays, development of drug resistance against chemical antimicrobial drugs has attracted attention using medicinal plants in treatment of infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of two species of Centaurea plant’s essential oil on drug resistant clinical isolates of three pathogenic isolates. Materials & Methods :The studied plants were collected from Marand city in East Azerbaijan, Iran and were confirmed ...

  14. Real-time PCR for Detection and Differentiation of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Real-time PCR for Detection and Differentiation of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus SWEDEN (B?verud, V.) SWEDEN Received: 2006-10-03 Revised: 2007-03-27 Accepted: 2007-04-05

  15. Characterization of the parasporal inclusion of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kyushuensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Held, G. A.; Kawanishi, C. Y.; Huang, Y. S.

    1990-01-01

    Electron microscopy of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kyushuensis revealed that the parasporal inclusions are composed of a homogeneous center surrounded by a thick, electron-dense coating. Antibodies directed against the 135- and 65-kilodalton B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis peptides cross-reacted with the 70- and 26-kilodalton peptides, respectively, of B. thuringiensis subsp. kyushuensis.

  16. Structural relatedness between mosquitocidal endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Garduno, F; Thorne, L.; Walfield, A M; Pollock, T J

    1988-01-01

    A mosquitocidal toxin gene, cloned from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, was introduced into mutant crystal-negative B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis cells. Partial toxicity to mosquitos was restored. The 58-kilodalton cloned gene product is a minor protein component of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis crystals and is structurally related to a major, 135-kilodalton crystal toxin.

  17. Laryngeal Scleroma Associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae

    OpenAIRE

    De Champs, C; Vellin, J. F.; Diancourt, L.; Brisse, S.; Kemeny, J L; Gilain, L.; Mom, T.

    2005-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae was isolated from the pharynx of a woman with laryngeal scleroma. K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae is rarely isolated from clinical infections and has never been reported in laryngeal scleroma, which is usually caused by K. pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis.

  18. Complete Genome Sequences of Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis Strain LMG 9260 and C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii Strain LMG 15993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Chapman, Mary H

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter hyointestinalis is isolated primarily from ruminants and swine, but is also occasionally isolated from humans. C. hyointestinalis is currently divided into two subspecies, C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis and C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii This study describes the first closed whole-genome sequences of C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis isolate LMG 9260 and C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii isolate LMG 15993. PMID:27417840

  19. Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue Displays Pathogenic Properties Different from Those of T. pallidum subsp. pallidum

    OpenAIRE

    Wicher, Konrad; Wicher, Victoria; Abbruscato, Frank; Baughn, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    The present study described the susceptibility of C4D guinea pigs to cutaneous infection with Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue Haiti B strain. The general manifestations of the disease in adults and neonates differ, to a certain degree, from those induced by T. pallidum subsp. pallidum Nichols strain. Noticeable differences between the infections were reflected in the character of the skin lesions, their onset and persistence, and the kinetics of the humoral response. The incidence and diss...

  20. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus in homosexual males.

    OpenAIRE

    Devlin, H R; McIntyre, L

    1983-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus was isolated from the stools of two homosexual males. One was asymptomatic at the time of isolation. The other presented with diarrhea. Both isolates were initially grown at 42 degrees C. This organism should be included among the list of organisms that are found in homosexual males.

  1. Odontites verna (Bell.) Dum. subsp. pumila (Nordst.) A. Pedersen in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, Anfred

    1963-01-01

    The author gives a brief survey of ecology, distribution, and differences in flowering time of Odontites verna (Bell.) Dum. subsp. verna, subsp. litoralis (Fr.) A. Pedersen, subsp. fennica (Markl.), subsp. serotina (Wettst.) E. F. Warb., and subsp. pumila (Nordst.) A. Pedersen. In a description of t

  2. Factors affecting in vitro plant regeneration of the critically endangered Mediterranean knapweed ( Centaurea tchihatcheffii Fisch et. Mey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Cigdem Alev; Khawar, Khalid Mahmood; Mirici, Semra; Ozcan, Sebahattin; Arslan, Orhan

    2006-10-01

    Habitat destruction has resulted in the extinction of many plant species from the earth, and many more face extinction. Likely, the annual endemic Mediterranean knapweed ( Centaurea tchihatcheffii) growing in the Golbasi district of Ankara, Turkey is facing extinction and needs urgent conservation. Plant tissue culture, a potentially useful technique for ex situ multiplication, was used for the restoration of this ill-fated plant through seed germination, micropropagation from stem nodes, and adventitious shoot regeneration from immature zygotic embryos. The seeds were highly dormant and very difficult to germinate. No results were obtained from the micropropagation of stem nodes. However, immature zygotic embryos showed the highest adventitious shoot regeneration on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, containing 1 mg l-1 kinetin and 0.25 mg l-1 NAA. Regenerated shoots were best rooted on MS medium containing 1 mg l-1 IBA and transferred to the greenhouse for flowering and seed set. As such, the present work is the first record of in vitro propagation of critically endangered C. tchihatcheffii, using immature zygotic embryos, and is a step forward towards conservation of this indigenous species.

  3. Floral markers of cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) honey and its peroxide antibacterial activity for an alternative treatment of digital dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelschlaegel, Stefanie; Pieper, Laura; Staufenbiel, Rudolf; Gruner, Margit; Zeippert, Linda; Pieper, Bernd; Koelling-Speer, Isabelle; Speer, Karl

    2012-11-28

    Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) honey can be characterized by a greenish yellow color and an intense flavor with a bitter aftertaste. Because cornflower honey contains only a limited amount of pollen for the verification of its floral origin, one objective was the characterization of its polyphenol and norisoprenoid contents to assign floral markers. Here, lumichrome (18.8-43.5 mg/kg), 7-carboxylumichrome, (Z/E)-3-oxo-retro-α-ionol, and 3-oxo-α-ionol appeared to be quite suitable for distinguishing cornflower honey from other unifloral honeys. Additionally, due to its comparably high hydrogen peroxide content (0.5-0.9 mM/h) and the associated antibacterial activity, cornflower honey was used as an alternative treatment of digital dermatitis on an organic dairy farm. Cows affected by this hoof disease often show severe lameness and a subsequent decline in milk yield and loss of body condition. The cows' hooves treated with cornflower honey showed significantly faster healing than the control group without any treatment. PMID:23140532

  4. Biocontrol of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum using bacteriophage PP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong-A; Jee, Samnyu; Lee, Dong Hwan; Roh, Eunjung; Jung, Kyusuk; Oh, Changsik; Heu, Sunggi

    2013-08-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (formerly Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora) is a plant pathogen that causes soft rot and stem rot diseases in several crops, including Chinese cabbage, potato, and tomato. To control this bacterium, we isolated a bacteriophage, PP1, with lytic activity against P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the PP1 phage belongs to the Podoviridae family of the order Caudovirales, which exhibit icosahedral heads and short non-contractile tails. PP1 phage showed high specificity for P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, and several bacteria belonging to different species and phyla were resistant to PP1. This phage showed rapid and strong lytic activity against its host bacteria in liquid medium and was stable over a broad range of pH values. Disease caused by P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum was significantly reduced by PP1 treatment. Overall, PP1 bacteriophage effectively controls P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. PMID:23727798

  5. 矢车菊和大花金鸡菊的核型研究%THE KARYOTYPE STUDIES OF CENTAUREA CYANUS AND COREOPSIS GRANDIFLORA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德奎

    2001-01-01

    对矢车菊和大花金鸡菊的染色体进行了研究,结果显示,矢车菊(Centaurea cyanus L.)染色体数目为2n=48,核型公式为K(2n)=4x=48=20m+28sm,相对长度组成为2n=48=4 L+24M2+12 M1+8 S,核型为“2A”;大花金鸡菊(Coreopsis,grandiflora Hogg.)的染色体数目为2n=26,核型公式为K(2n)=2X=26=26m,相对长度组成为2n=26=14M2+10M1+2S,核型为“1A”.%The results of some karyotype studies of Centaurea cyanus L. and Coreopsis grandi-flora Hogg. from Shandong are reported. The results showed: the chromosome number of Centaurea cyanus L. is 2 n = 48, its karyotype formula is K (2 n ) = 4X = 48 = 20 m + 28 sm, composition of rela-tive length of chromosome is 2n =48=4 L + 24 M2 + 12 M1 + 8 S,belonging to “2A” of Stebbins;the chromosome number of Coreopsis grandiflor Hogg. is 2n = 26,its karyotype formula is K (2n) = 2x=26 =26 m, composition of relative length of chromosome is 2n = 26 = 14 M2 + 10 M1 + 2 S,belonging to ”1A”of Stebbins.

  6. In vitro cholesterol uptake by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Ziarno

    2009-01-01

    Background. Some researchers have indicated that Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus may provide additional health benefits, reduce serum cholesterol level, for example. The aim of this study was to determine cholesterol uptake by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus commercial yoghurt starter isolates in artificial GIT fluids. Material and methods. Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus isolates were cultured in MRS broth and in artificial GIT fluids contained cholesterol at initial con...

  7. Phagocytosis of opsonized Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum proceeds slowly.

    OpenAIRE

    Alder, J D; Friess, L; Tengowski, M; Schell, R F

    1990-01-01

    Macrophages were found to phagocytize Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum attached to polycarbonate filters. This environment simulated the in vivo interaction of surface-adherent treponemes with macrophages. The phagocytosis of T. pallidum subsp. pallidum was found to proceed slowly. Heat-killed T. pallidum subsp. pallidum were susceptible to opsonization with 2% immune serum, whereas live treponemes were resistant to this concentration of antibody. High concentrations of immune serum were fo...

  8. Iridoid Glucosides from Lamium garganicum subsp. laevigatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayfun, Ersöz; Kaya, Duygu; Yalcin, Funda Nuray; Kazaz, Cavit; Palaska, Erhan; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held; Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Calis, Ihsan

    2007-01-01

    Phytochemical investigations on the above ground parts of Lamium garganicum subsp. laevigatum resulted in the isolation of seven iridoid glucosides, shanzhiside methyl ester (1), barlerin (8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester; 2), 6-O-syringyl-8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester (3), 6β-hydroxyipola......Phytochemical investigations on the above ground parts of Lamium garganicum subsp. laevigatum resulted in the isolation of seven iridoid glucosides, shanzhiside methyl ester (1), barlerin (8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester; 2), 6-O-syringyl-8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester (3), 6β......-hydroxyipolamiide (4), lamalbide (5), dehydropenstemoside (6), and sesamoside (7). The structure of the iridoids was elucidated by spectroscopic (UV, IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR, and ESI-MS) evidence....

  9. Cytolytic activity and immunological similarity of the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni isolate PG-14 toxins.

    OpenAIRE

    S S Gill; Hornung, J M; Ibarra, J.E.; Singh, G J; Federici, B A

    1987-01-01

    The parasporal bodies of the mosquitocidal isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and B. thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni isolate PG-14 were compared with regard to their hemolytic and cytolytic activities and the immunological relatedness of the 28- and 65-kilodalton (kDa) proteins that occur in both subspecies. The alkali-solubilized parasporal bodies of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis caused 50% lysis of human erythrocytes at 1.14 micrograms/ml, whereas those of B. thuring...

  10. Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. ranae subsp. nov., isolated from septicaemic farmed frogs in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Geert; Pearson, Marianne; Kämpfer, Peter; Denys, Rik; Cnockaert, Margo; Inglis, Valerie; Swings, Jean

    2003-05-01

    A group of seven sucrose-negative Aeromonas strains (referred to as group Au) isolated from the internal organs of septicaemic farmed frogs (Rana rugulosa) in Thailand was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study including fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) and ERIC-PCR fingerprinting, 16S rDNA sequencing, microplate DNA-DNA hybridizations and extensive phenotypic characterization. Comparison of FAFLP and ERIC-PCR fingerprints indicated that the group Au isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas hydrophila DNA hybridization group (HG) 1 in which they represent a genotypic subgroup closely affiliated to A. hydrophila subsp. hydrophila and subsp. dhakensis. One representative of the Au group exhibited > or = 99.0% 16S rDNA sequence similarity with the type strains of the two A. hydrophila subspecies. DNA-DNA hybridization with type and reference strains of all known Aeromonas taxa revealed that the Au group represented a homogeneous taxon that exhibited the highest relatedness with members of the two A. hydrophila subspecies, ranging from 75 to 93%. Phenotypic characterization on the basis of 152 features further revealed that the Au group isolates differed from A. hydrophila subsp. hydrophila or subsp. dhakensis in a total of 13 biochemical properties. Of these, assimilation of L-glycine and isobutyrate as sole carbon source, acid production from salicin and D-sucrose, and aesculin hydrolysis were of diagnostic value. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that the Aeromonas frog isolates of the Au group represent a new subspecies of A. hydrophila, for which the name Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. ranae subsp. nov. is proposed. Its type strain is Au-1D12(T) (=LMG 19707(T) = CCUG 46211(T)). PMID:12807217

  11. Patterns of chloroplast DNA polymorphism in the endangered polyploid Centaurea borjae (Asteraceae): Implications for preserving genetic diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lua LOPEZ; Rodolfo BARREIRO

    2013-01-01

    A previous study with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints found no evidence of genetic impoverishment in the endangered Centaurea borjae and recommended that four management units (MUs) should be designated.Nevertheless,the high ploidy (6x) of this narrow endemic plant suggested that these conclusions should be validated by independent evidence derived from non-nuclear markers.Here,the variable trnT-F region of the plastid genome was sequenced to obtain this new evidence and to provide an historical background for the current genetic structure.Plastid sequences revealed little genetic variation; calling into question the previous conclusion that C.borjae does not undergo genetic impoverishment.By contrast,the conclusion that gene flow must be low was reinforced by the strong genetic differentiation detected among populations using plastid sequences (global FST =0.419).The spatial arrangement of haplotypes and diversity indicate that the populations currently located at the center of the species range are probable sites of long-persistence whereas the remaining sites may have derived from a latter colonization.From a conservation perspective,four populations contributed most to the allelic richness of the plastid genome of the species and should be given priority.Combined with previous AFLP results,these new data recommended that five,instead of four,MUs should be established.Altogether,our study highlights the benefits of combining markers with different modes of inheritance to design accurate conservation guidelines and to obtain clues on the evolutionary processes behind the present-day genetic structures.

  12. Species-specific effects of polyploidisation and plant traits of Centaurea maculosa and Senecio inaequidens on rhizosphere microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébault, Aurélie; Frey, Beat; Mitchell, Edward A D; Buttler, Alexandre

    2010-08-01

    Invasive plant species represent a threat to terrestrial ecosystems, but their effects on the soil biota and the mechanisms involved are not yet well understood. Many invasive species have undergone polyploidisation, leading to the coexistence of various cytotypes in the native range, whereas, in most cases, only one cytotype is present in the introduced range. Since genetic variation within a species can modify soil rhizosphere communities, we studied the effects of different cytotypes and ranges (native diploid, native tetraploid and introduced tetraploid) of Centaurea maculosa and Senecio inaequidens on microbial biomass carbon, rhizosphere total DNA content and bacterial communities of a standard soil in relation to plant functional traits. There was no overall significant difference in microbial biomass between cytotypes. The variation of rhizosphere total DNA content and bacterial community structure according to cytotype was species specific. The rhizosphere DNA content of S. inaequidens decreased with polyploidisation in the native range but did not vary for C. maculosa. In contrast, the bacterial community structure of C. maculosa was affected by polyploidisation and its diversity increased, whereas there was no significant change for S. inaequidens. Traits of S. inaequidens were correlated to the rhizosphere biota. Bacterial diversity and total DNA content were positively correlated with resource allocation to belowground growth and late flowering, whereas microbial biomass carbon was negatively correlated to investment in reproduction. There were no correlations between traits of the cytotypes of C. maculosa and corresponding rhizosphere soil biota. This study shows that polyploidisation may affect rhizosphere bacterial community composition, but that effects vary among plant species. Such changes may contribute to the success of invasive polyploid genotypes in the introduced range. PMID:20229242

  13. In vitro cholesterol uptake by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ziarno

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Some researchers have indicated that Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus may provide additional health benefits, reduce serum cholesterol level, for example. The aim of this study was to determine cholesterol uptake by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus commercial yoghurt starter isolates in artificial GIT fluids. Material and methods. Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus isolates were cultured in MRS broth and in artificial GIT fluids contained cholesterol at initial concentration ca. 560 µg/mL, as well as in MRS broth with cholesterol addition. Results. All Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus showed ability to uptake of cholesterol from MRS broth and artificial GIT fluids. The isolates incubated in artificial gastric fluid removed the minimal amounts of cholesterol in comparison to the same isolates incubated in MRS broth. Only two isolates removed significantly more cholesterol from MRS broth that from duodenal fluid. The amount of removed cholesterol from artificial duodenal fluid ranged from 20 µg/mL to 78 µg/mL. All Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus isolates survived worse in artificial GIT fluids than in MRS broth. The viability of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in GIT fluids depended on isolate. Conclusions. These results proved that Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus shows ability to uptake cholesterol from MRS broth and artificial GIT fluids, and the degree of cholesterol uptake depends on isolate and incubation environment. The ability of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus to survive in GIT varies according to the isolates and incubation environment.

  14. Genome sequencing identifies Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov., isolated from a ranch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Bakker, Henk C; Manuel, Clyde S; Fortes, Esther D; Wiedmann, Martin; Nightingale, Kendra K

    2013-09-01

    Twenty Listeria-like isolates were obtained from environmental samples collected on a cattle ranch in northern Colorado; all of these isolates were found to share an identical partial sigB sequence, suggesting close relatedness. The isolates were similar to members of the genus Listeria in that they were Gram-stain-positive, short rods, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive; the isolates were similar to Listeria fleischmannii because they were non-motile at 25 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequencing for representative isolates and whole genome sequencing for one isolate was performed. The genome of the type strain of Listeria fleischmannii (strain LU2006-1(T)) was also sequenced. The draft genomes were very similar in size and the average MUMmer nucleotide identity across 91% of the genomes was 95.16%. Genome sequence data were used to design primers for a six-gene multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme. Phylogenies based on (i) the near-complete 16S rRNA gene, (ii) 31 core genes and (iii) six housekeeping genes illustrated the close relationship of these Listeria-like isolates to Listeria fleischmannii LU2006-1(T). Sufficient genetic divergence of the Listeria-like isolates from the type strain of Listeria fleischmannii and differing phenotypic characteristics warrant these isolates to be classified as members of a distinct infraspecific taxon, for which the name Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TTU M1-001(T) ( =BAA-2414(T) =DSM 25391(T)). The isolates of Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov. differ from the nominate subspecies by the inability to utilize melezitose, turanose and sucrose, and the ability to utilize inositol. The results also demonstrate the utility of whole genome sequencing to facilitate identification of novel taxa within a well-described genus. The genomes of both subspecies of Listeria fleischmannii contained putative enhancin genes; the Listeria fleischmannii subsp

  15. Genetic Diversity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis Isolated in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hwan Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant pathogenic bacterial genus Pectobacteirum consists of heterogeneous strains. The P. carotovorum species is a complex strain showing divergent characteristics, and a new subspecies named P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis has been identified recently. In this paper, we re-identified the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates from those classified under the subspecies carotovorum and newly isolated P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis strains. All isolates were able to produce plant cell-wall degrading enzymes such as pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and protease. We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the diversity of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates, and found genetic diversity within the brasiliensis subsp. isolates in Korea. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on the recA gene revealed a unique pattern for the brasiliensis subspecies. The Korean brasiliensis subsp. isolates were divided into four clades based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, correlations between clades and isolated hosts or year could not be found, suggesting that diverse brasiliensis subsp. isolates existed.

  16. Insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kenyae: gene cloning and characterization and comparison with B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki CryIA(c) toxins.

    OpenAIRE

    Von Tersch, M A; Robbins, H L; Jany, C S; Johnson, T B

    1991-01-01

    Genes encoding insecticidal crystal proteins were cloned from three strains of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kenyae and two strains of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. Characterization of the B. thuringiensis subsp. kenyae toxin genes showed that they are most closely related to cryIA(c) from B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. The cloned genes were introduced into Bacillus host strains, and the spectra of insecticidal activities of each Cry protein were determined for six pest lepidopteran in...

  17. KONYA'DA YETİŞEN CENTAUREA PTEROCAULA TRUATV. 'IN FENOLİK YAPISI VE ANTİOKSİDAN ETKİSİ

    OpenAIRE

    TEKELİ, Yener

    2009-01-01

    antioksidan aktivitesinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Centaurea Pterocaula 'u yağından uzaklaştırılmak için sokslet apareyi ile petrol eterinde ekstrakte edildi. Sonra materyal %70 lik metanolde tekrar ekstraksiyona tabi tutuldu ve çözücüsünden uzaklaştırıldı. Toplam fenolik madde konsantrasyonu Folin-Ciocalteu metoduna, serbest radikal süpürme etkisi DPPH metoduna göre ve indirgeme gücü ise Oyaizu metoduna göre yapıldı. Bitkinin fenolik yapısı HPLC ile belirlendi. Sonuçlar sen...

  18. Neighbour Origin and Ploidy Level Drive Impact of an Alien Invasive Plant Species in a Competitive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the potential mechanisms driving the spread and naturalization of alien plant species has increased over the past decades, but specific knowledge on the factors contributing to their increased impact in the introduced range is still urgently needed. The native European plant Centaurea stoebe occurs as two cytotypes with different life histories (monocarpic diploids, allo-polycarpic tetraploids). However, only tetraploids have been found in its introduced range in North America, where C. stoebe has become a most prominent plant invader. Here, we focus on the ploidy level of C. stoebe and origin of neighbouring community in explaining the high impact during the invasion of new sites in the introduced range. We conducted a mesocosm experiment under open-field conditions with the diploid (EU2x) and tetraploid (EU4x) cytotype of Centaurea stoebe from its native European (EU) range, and with the invasive tetraploid (NA4x) cytotype from the introduced North American (NA) range in competition with EU (old) or NA (new) neighbouring plant communities. In the presence of competition, the biomass of EU neighbouring community was reduced to a comparable level by all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe. In contrast, the biomass of the NA neighbouring community was reduced beyond when competing with tetraploid, but not with diploid C. stoebe. The fact that the biomass of all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe was correlated with the biomass of the EU neighbouring community, but not with that of the NA neighbouring community suggests that different mechanisms underlie the competitive interactions between C. stoebe and its old vs. new neighbouring communities, such as competition for the same limiting resources at home vs competition through novel allelo-chemicals or differential resource uptake strategies in the introduced range. We therefore caution to simply use the ecosystem impact assessed at home to predict impact in the introduced range. PMID:27203687

  19. Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolado de bovinos Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolated from cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Agueda C. Vargas; Mateus M. Costa; Ana C.M. Groff; Luciane R. Viana; Cristina C. Krewer; Spricigo, Denis A.; Jackeline K. Kirinus

    2005-01-01

    A campilobacteriose venérea bovina, ocasionada principalmente pelo Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus e Campylobacter subsp. venerealis, é transmitida através do coito ou por inseminação com sêmen contaminado. O propósito deste estudo foi determinar a susceptibilidade in vitro de isolados de C. fetus subesp. venerealis a agentes antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e de sêmen. Foram testadas duas cepas padrão, sendo uma de C. fetus subsp. fetus e outra de C. fetus subs...

  20. Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Infection Caused by Actinomyces neuii subsp. neuii▿

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Richard R.; Anthony, Kathy; Schroder, Suzanne; Hall, Gerri S.

    2008-01-01

    Actinomyces neuii subsp. neuii is a rare isolate in clinical specimens. The organism was previously designated CDC coryneform group 1 and was renamed in 1994. A case of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection caused by this organism is described.

  1. Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Strain HD-1

    OpenAIRE

    Day, Michael; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Dyer, David; Bulla, Lee

    2014-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain HD-1, which serves as the primary U.S. reference standard for all commercial insecticidal formulations of B. thuringiensis manufactured around the world.

  2. Floravervalsing door onachtzaamheid: Bromus inermis subsp. pumpellianus nieuw voor Nederland

    OpenAIRE

    Meijden, van der, B.; Holverda, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    This North American/East Asian taxon has been sown on a road verge in Leiden as a component of a commercial mixture of grass seeds from so-called ‘wild species’. It is likely that it will have been sown elsewhere in the Netherlands, too. After having been deliberately introduced in North America, subsp. inermis appeared to hybridize spontaneously with native subsp. pumpellianus. Thus it is not unlikely that the reverse situation is to be expected in Europe.

  3. Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolado de bovinos Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis isolated from cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agueda C. Vargas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A campilobacteriose venérea bovina, ocasionada principalmente pelo Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus e Campylobacter subsp. venerealis, é transmitida através do coito ou por inseminação com sêmen contaminado. O propósito deste estudo foi determinar a susceptibilidade in vitro de isolados de C. fetus subesp. venerealis a agentes antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e de sêmen. Foram testadas duas cepas padrão, sendo uma de C. fetus subsp. fetus e outra de C. fetus subsp. venerealis, bem como 21 amostras de isolados clínicos de C. fetus subsp. venerealis. Os testes foram realizados conforme o método de Kirby-Bauer. A amostra padrão de C. fetus subsp. fetus demonstrou-se resistente à lincomicina, penicilina e ácido nalidíxico, enquanto a de C. fetus subsp. venerealis apresentou susceptibilidade a todos antimicrobianos testados, com exceção do ácido nalidíxico. Todas as amostras de C. fetus subsp. venerealis foram susceptíveis à amicacina, ampicilina, cefalotina, estreptomicina, gentamicina, penicilina e tetraciclina. Foi observada resistência de 42,86% à lincomicina e 4,76 % a enrofloxacina, e de 100% ao ácido nalidíxico. Ainda, 4,76% apresentaram susceptibilidade intermediária à enrofloxacina, neomicina e polimixina B e 9,52% à lincomicina. Os resultados evidenciaram a sensibilidade das amostras analisadas aos antimicrobianos comumente utilizados para o tratamento clínico e do sêmen.Venereal campylobacteriosis is associated with infection of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis. The etiological agent is transmitted by natural bull breeding or artificial insemination using contaminated semen. The present study aimed to determine the in vitro susceptibility of C. fetus subsp. venerealis isolates to antimicrobial drugs generally used in clinical and semen treatment. Reference strains of C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis and 21 C. fetus

  4. Molecular fingerprinting of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica derby isolated from tropical seafood in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Surendran, P K; Thampuran, Nirmala

    2008-09-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Derby strains isolated from different seafood were genotyped by PCR-ribotyping and ERIC-PCR assays. This study has ascertained the genetic relatedness among serovars prevalent in tropical seafood. PCR-ribotyping exhibited genetic variation in both Salmonella serovars, and ribotype profile (II) was most predominant, which was observed in 10/18 of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium and 7/17 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Derby isolates. Cluster analysis of ERIC-PCR for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium strains exhibited nine different banding patterns and four strains showed >95% genetic homology within the cluster pairs. ERIC-PCR produced more genetic variations in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium; nevertheless, both methods were found to be comparable for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Derby isolates. Discrimination index of PCR-ribotyping for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium isolates was obtained at 0.674 and index value 0.714 was observed for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Derby strains. Molecular fingerprinting investigation highlighted the hypothesis of diverse routes of Salmonella contamination in seafood as multiple clones of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Derby were detected in same or different seafood throughout the study period. PMID:18480975

  5. Bacteraemia caused by Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii: clinical features and susceptibilities of the isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Rui; Ko, Jen-Chung; Liang, Sheng-Kai; Lee, Shih-Wei; Yen, David Hung-Tsang; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2014-05-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus complex (M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii) is an emerging pathogen causing various human infections. However, few studies have focused on M. abscessus complex bacteraemia with detailed species differentiation. The clinical characteristics of patients with bacteraemia due to M. abscessus complex treated at National Taiwan University Hospital from 2005-2012 were evaluated. Species identification was performed by molecular methods, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using a Sensititre RAPMYCO Panel Test for preserved M. abscessus complex isolates. During the study period, 15 patients with M. abscessus complex bacteraemia were found but only 14 isolates from 13 patients were preserved for analysis. One patient had two episodes of bacteraemia (one caused by M. abscessus subsp. bolletii and one by M .abscessus subsp. abscessus with a 9-month interval). Of the remaining 12 patients, 9 patients had M. abscessus subsp. bolletii bacteraemia and 3 had M .abscessus subsp. abscessus bacteraemia. Patients were mainly middle-aged adults with various co-morbidities. Steroid usage and malignancy (5/15) were the most common immunocompromised statuses, followed by diabetes mellitus (4/15). Surgical wound infection was the most common infection foci in all patients (5/15), particularly in M. abscessus subsp. bolletii bacteraemia patients. Clarithromycin and tigecycline exhibited good in vitro activities. Overall, the 14-day mortality was 20% (3/15). M. abscessus complex bacteraemia should be considered an emerging opportunistic infection in immunocompromised hosts. Clarithromycin and tigecycline have potent in vitro activities and are promising agents for treating infections due to M. abscessus complex. PMID:24718088

  6. Biofilm formation of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; Halliday-Simmonds, Iona; Francis, Stewart; Kearney, Michael T; Hansen, John D

    2015-12-31

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen in both marine and fresh water environments. The bacterium is suspected to persist in the environment even without the presence of a suitable fish host. In the present study, the influence of different abiotic factors such as salinity and temperature were used to study the biofilm formation of different isolates of Fno including intracellular growth loci C (iglC) and pathogenicity determinant protein A (pdpA) knockout strains. Finally, we compared the susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm to three disinfectants used in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry, namely Virkon(®), bleach and hydrogen peroxide. The data indicates that Fno is capable of producing biofilms within 24 h where both salinity as well as temperature plays a role in the growth and biofilm formation of Fno. Mutations in the iglC or pdpA, both known virulence factors, do not appear to affect the capacity of Fno to produce biofilms, and the minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum biocidal concentration for the three disinfectants were lower than the minimum biofilm eradication concentration values. This information needs to be taken into account if trying to eradicate the pathogen from aquaculture facilities or aquariums. PMID:26507830

  7. Biofilm formation of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; Halliday-Wimmonds, Iona; Kearney, Michael T; Hansen, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) is an emergent fish pathogen in both marine and fresh water environments. The bacterium is suspected to persist in the environment even without the presence of a suitable fish host. In the present study, the influence of different abiotic factors such as salinity and temperature were used to study the biofilm formation of different isolates of Fno including intracellular growth loci C (iglC)and pathogenicity determinant protein A (pdpA) knockout strains. Finally, we compared the susceptibility of planktonic and biofilm to three disinfectants used in the aquaculture and ornamental fish industry, namely Virkon®, bleach and hydrogen peroxide. The data indicates that Fno is capable of producing biofilms within 24 h where both salinity as well as temperature plays a role in the growth and biofilm formation of Fno. Mutations in theiglC or pdpA, both known virulence factors, do not appear to affect the capacity of Fno to produce biofilms, and the minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum biocidal concentration for the three disinfectants were lower than the minimum biofilm eradication concentration values. This information needs to be taken into account if trying to eradicate the pathogen from aquaculture facilities or aquariums.

  8. Potential Transmission Pathways of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessika Dumke

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, a member of group D streptococci, is an inhabitant of the animal and human gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, it is a facultative pathogen which causes e.g. endocarditis, septicemia and mastitis. S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus may be transmitted either directly or indirectly between animals and humans. However, the transmission routes are an unsolved issue. In this study, we present systematic analyses of an S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolate of an infective endocarditis patient in relation to isolates of his laying hen flock. Isolates from pooled droppings of laying hens, pooled dust samples and human blood culture were characterized by using multilocus sequence typing (MLST and DNA fingerprinting. MLST revealed the same allelic profile of isolates from the human blood culture and from the droppings of laying hens. In addition, these isolates showed clonal identity regarding a similar DNA fingerprinting pattern. For the first time, we received a hint that transmission of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus between poultry and humans may occur. This raises the question about the zoonotic potential of isolates from poultry and should be considered in future studies.

  9. Simultaneous detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis and Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii based on microsphere immunoreaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Li, Jinfeng; Zou, Mingqiang; Chen, Yan; Wang, Yanfei; Qi, Xiaohua

    2013-04-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Cmn) and Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss) are two plant pathogens that can cause tremendous agricultural economic losses. This novel method based on microsphere immunoreaction was developed for the simultaneous detection of Cmn and Pss in maize. This multiplex method was constructed based on microsphere immunodetection with fluorescent labels such as quantum dots (QDs) and R-phycoerythrin (R-PE) for the detection of Cmn and Pss. Captured QDs and R-PE serve as signal reporters for fluorescent readout. The principle of this method is based on a sandwich immunoreaction. Cmn and Pss captured by the microspheres were detected using flow cytometry. The limit of detection of this method was 10 times lower than the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and its analysis time (1 h) was much shorter compared with ELISA (6-8 h). The method, which has been proven to be an effective approach to multiplex detection of plant bacteria (Cmn and Pss as models), not only increased the varieties but also improved the sensitivity. The microsphere immunoreaction provides a universal method for the multiplex determination of microbes because of its high sensitivity, specificity, and speed. In the future, the method will be more fully validated in vivo to detect diversiform bacteria. PMID:23169888

  10. Common genomic features of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei strains distinguish them from C. jejuni subsp. jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn Sharon T

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni has been divided into two subspecies: C. jejuni subsp. jejuni (Cjj and C. jejuni subsp. doylei (Cjd. Nearly all of the C. jejuni strains isolated are Cjj; nevertheless, although Cjd strains are isolated infrequently, they differ from Cjj in two key aspects: they are obtained primarily from human clinical samples and are associated often with bacteremia, in addition to gastroenteritis. In this study, we utilized multilocus sequence typing (MLST and a DNA microarray-based comparative genomic indexing (CGI approach to examine the genomic diversity and gene content of Cjd strains. Results A geographically diverse collection of eight Cjd strains was examined by MLST and determined to be phylogenetically distinct from Cjj strains. Microarray-based CGI approach also supported this. We were able to demonstrate that Cjd strains exhibited divergence from Cjj strains NCTC 11168 and RM1221 in many of the intraspecies hypervariable regions. Moreover, multiple metabolic, transport and virulence functions (e.g. cytolethal distending toxin were shown to be absent in the Cjd strains examined. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that Cjd are phylogenetically distinct from Cjj strains. Using the CGI approach, we identified subsets of absent genes from amongst the C. jejuni genes that provide clues as to the potential evolutionary origin and unusual pathogenicity of Cjd.

  11. Sugar Utilization and Acid Production by Free and Entrapped Cells of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis in a Whey Permeate Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Pascal; Paquin, Celine; Lacroix, Christophe

    1989-01-01

    Cells of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis entrapped in k-carrageenan-locust bean gum gel performed similarly to free cells in the conversion of lactose to lactic acid. Bead diameter influenced the fermentation rate. Cells entrapped in smaller beads (0.5 to 1.0 mm) showed higher release rates, higher lactose, glucose, and formic acid utilization, higher galactose accumulation, and higher lactic acid production than did cells entrapped in larger beads (1.0 to 2.0 mm). Values for smaller beads were comparable with those for free cells. Immobilization affected the fermentation rate of lactic acid bacteria, especially Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. Entrapped cells of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus demonstrated a lower lactic acid production than did free cells in batch fermentation. The kinetics of the production of formic and pyruvic acids by L. lactis subsp. lactis and S. salivarius subsp. thermophilus are presented. PMID:16347822

  12. Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp hyointestinalis, a common Campylobacter species in reindeer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanninen, M.L.; Sarelli, L.; Sukura, A.;

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To study the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the faecal material of reindeer, and to identify the isolates by means of a polyphasic approach. In addition, to study the genetic diversity of Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis reindeer isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...... slaughterhouses. Samples were cultured by methods suitable for isolation of fastidious Campylobacter species. Of all samples, 6% (24/399) were Campylobacter-positive. Phenotypic characteristics, SDS-PAGE protein patterns, dot blot DNA-DNA hybridization, 23S rDNA restriction fragment polymorphism analysis and PFGE...... identified the isolates as Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. kyointestinalis. Conclusions: Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis was the only Campylobacter species isolated from reindeer in this study. The isolates showed high genomic diversity in PFGE with the restriction enzymes SmaI and Kpn...

  13. A single or multistage mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis subunit vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention provides one or more immunogenic polypeptides for use in a preventive or therapeutic vaccine against latent or active infection in a human or animal caused by a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Furthermore a single or multi-phase vaccine...... comprising the one or more immunogenic polypeptides is provided for administration for the prevention or treatment of infection with a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Additionally, nucleic acid vaccines, capable of in vivo expression of the multi-phase vaccine...... comprising the one or more immunogenic polypeptides, is provided for prevention or treatment of infection with a Mycobacterium species, e.g. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis....

  14. Mechanisms involved in quinolone resistance in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Nuno T; Assunção, Patrícia; Poveda, José B; Tavío, María M

    2015-06-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri is a causative agent of contagious agalactia in goats. In this study, M. mycoides subsp. capri mutants were selected for resistance to fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin) by serial passes in broth with increasing concentrations of antibiotic. Mutations conferring cross-resistance to the three fluoroquinolones were found in the quinolone resistance determining regions of the four genes encoding DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Different mutations in the DNA gyrase GyrA subunit suggest a different mechanism of inhibition between norfloxacin and the other tested fluoroquinolones. The presence of an adenosine triphosphate-dependent efflux system was suggested through the use of the inhibitor orthovanadate. PMID:25951987

  15. The Karyotype of Alstroemeria diluta Ehr. Bayer subsp. chrysantha (Alstroemeriaceae) Karyotype of Alstroemeria diluta Ehr. Bayer subsp. chrysantha (Alstroemeriaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos M Baeza; Eduardo Ruiz; Patricio Novoa

    2010-01-01

    The karyotype of Alstroemeria diluta subsp. chrysantha Ehr. Bayer from Chile was examined. The species has 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, with 4m + 4sm + 2st-sat + 4t + 2t-sat. The reported karyotype is very asymmetrical (AsK % = 71.4 and Syi = 40.0%). This karyotype is similar to that published previously for Alstroemeria graminea Phil.Alstroemeria diluta subsp. chrysantha Ehr. Bayer (Alstroemeriaceae) fue examinada citológicamente. Esta especie presenta un número cromosómico somático de 2n = 2x ...

  16. Integrative Cloning, Expression, and Stability of the cryIA(c) Gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in a Recombinant Strain of Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis

    OpenAIRE

    Lampel, Jay S.; Canter, Gayle L.; Dimock, Michael B.; Kelly, Jeffrey L.; Anderson, James J.; Uratani, Brenda B.; Foulke, James S.; Turner, John T.

    1994-01-01

    A bacterial endophyte was engineered for insecticidal activity against the European corn borer. The cryIA(c) gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki was introduced into the chromosome of Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis by using an integrative plasmid vector. The integration vectors pCG740 and pCG741 included the replicon pGEM5Zf(+), which is maintained in Escherichia coli but not in C. xyli subsp. cynodontis; tetM as a marker for selection in C. xyli subsp. cynodontis; and a chrom...

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tamas, Ivica; Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B.; Alam, Maqsudul; Murrell, J. Colin; Dunfield, Peter F.

    2010-01-01

    Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica is an aerobic, acidophilic, exopolysaccharide-producing, N2-fixing soil bacterium. It is a generalist chemoorganotroph that is phylogenetically closely related to facultative and obligate methanotrophs of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium.

  18. New Iridoid Glycosides from Lamium eriocephalum subsp. eriocephalum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yalcin, Funda Nuray; Ersöz, Tayfun; Avci, Kürsat; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held; Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Calis, Ihsan

    2007-01-01

    Two new iridoid glycosides, eriobioside (1) and lamerioside (2) were isolated from the aerial parts of Lamium eriocephalum subsp. eriocephalum, along with two known componds, lamiide (3) and ipolamiide (4). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (UV, 1D- and 2D-NMR) and by mass...

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale is a naturally attenuated subtype that has been used as a vaccine for a century. We sequenced the genome of this organism and compared it to those of virulent senso stricto A. marginale strains. The comparison markedly narrows the number of outer membrane protein ...

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. hygroscopicus NBRC 16556.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaki, Hisayuki; Ichikawa, Natsuko; Oguchi, Akio; Hamada, Moriyuki; Tamura, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro; Fujita, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain NBRC 16556, deposited as Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. hygroscopicus into the NBRC culture collection. An average nucleotide identity analysis confirmed that the taxonomic identification is correct. The genome sequence will serve as a valuable reference for genome mining to search new secondary metabolites. PMID:27198007

  1. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, immunology and pathology of livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in ruminants leads to a chronic and progressive enteric disease (Johne’s disease) that results in loss of intestinal function, poor body condition, and eventual death. Transmission is primarily through a fecal-oral route in neonates but con...

  2. Analysis of labdane-type diterpenes from Cistus creticus (subsp. creticus and subsp. eriocephalus), by GC and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasaki, T; Demetzos, C; Perdetzoglou, D; Gazouli, M; Loukis, A; Harvala, C

    1999-12-01

    The qualitative and quantitative analysis of labdane-type diterpenes of the hexane extracts and of the essential oils of the leaves, fruits and resin "Ladano", of Cistus creticus subsp. creticus and Cistus creticus subsp. eriocephalus, have been carried out by GC and GC-MS analysis using two capillary chromatographic columns, i.e., HP-5MS and CP-Wax. The methanolic extract of the fruits of C. creticus subsp. creticus was examined and seven labdane diterpenes were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods. Data on the investigation of labdane diterpenes by GC and GC-MS is limited and most of them have never been analysed by this method. The results obtained by this analysis could be useful for identifying them in crude plant extracts. Manoyl oxides were studied further for the percentage content of their isomers. The hexane extracts of the two subspecies as well as the manoyl oxide isomers isolated from the methanolic extract of the fruits of C. creticus subsp. creticus, were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Global numerical differences of these C. creticus subspecies, based on labdane diterpenes content in the hexane extracts as well as in the essential oils, were established by statistical methods. Phenotypic differences are discussed. PMID:10630116

  3. Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and subsp. hominissuis give different cytokine responses after in vitro stimulation of human blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Thegerström

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium is the principal etiologic agent of non-tuberculous lymphadenitis in children. It is also a known pathogen for birds and other animals. Genetic typing of M. avium isolates has led to a proposal to expand the set of subspecies to include M. avium subsp. hominissuis. Isolates associated with disease in humans belong to this subspecies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from six healthy blood donors were stimulated in vitro with ten isolates of M. avium avium and 11 isolates of M. avium hominissuis followed by multiplex bead array quantification of cytokines in supernatants. M. avium hominissuis isolates induced significantly more IL-10 and significantly less IL-12p70, TNF, IFN-γ and IL-17 when compared to M. avium avium isolates. All strains induced high levels of IL-17, but had very low levels of IL-12p70. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The strong association between M. avium subsp. hominissuis and disease in humans and the clear differences in the human immune response to M. avium subsp. hominissuis compared to M. avium subsp. avium isolates, as demonstrated in this study, suggest that genetic differences between M. avium isolates play an important role in the pathogenicity in humans.

  4. Indoleacetic acid operon of Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi: transcription analysis and promoter identification.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffney, T D; da Costa e Silva, O.; Yamada, T.; Kosuge, T

    1990-01-01

    Expression of the indoleacetic acid (iaa) operon, which contributes to the virulence of the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi, was monitored by using broad-host-range lacZ reporter gene plasmids. A combination of translational (gene) fusions and transcriptional (operon) fusions of P. syringae subsp. savastanoi sequences to lacZ allowed localization of the iaa operon promoter. RNA recovered from P. syringae subsp. savastanoi strains was mapped with iaa operon-spe...

  5. Draft Genome Sequences for Canadian Isolates of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense with Weak Virulence on Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang Sean; Yuan, Kat Xiaoli; Cullis, Jeff; Lévesque, C André; Chen, Wen; Lewis, Christopher T; De Boer, Solke H

    2015-01-01

    Pectobacterium carotovurum subsp. brasiliense causes soft rot and blackleg diseases on potato. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of three weakly virulent P. carotovurum subsp. brasiliense strains isolated in Canada. Analysis of these genome sequences will help to pinpoint differences in virulence among P. carotovurum subsp. brasiliense strains from tropical/subtropical and temperate regions, such as Canada and United States. A small number of key factors for adaptation to this bacterium's specific environmental niche were also evaluated. PMID:25858837

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovars Typhimurium and Nottingham Isolated from Food Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Ayers, Sherry; Melka, David C.; Curry, Phillip E.; Payne, Justin S.; Laasri, Anna; Wang, Charles; Hammack, Thomas S.; Brown, Eric W.

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) designed to detect Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis, targeting the sdf gene, generated positive results for S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (CFSAN033950) and S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Nottingham (CFSAN006803) isolated from food samples. Both strains show pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns distinct from those of S. Enteritidis. Here, we report the genome sequences of these two strains. PMID:27445384

  7. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis ATCC 27673 Is a Genomically Unique Strain within Its Conserved Subspecies

    OpenAIRE

    Loquasto, Joseph R.; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Dudley, Edward G.; Stahl, Buffy; Chen, Chun; Roberts, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    Many strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are considered health-promoting probiotic microorganisms and are commonly formulated into fermented dairy foods. Analyses of previously sequenced genomes of B. animalis subsp. lactis have revealed little genetic diversity, suggesting that it is a monomorphic subspecies. However, during a multilocus sequence typing survey of Bifidobacterium, it was revealed that B. animalis subsp. lactis ATCC 27673 gave a profile distinct from that of the ...

  8. Construction of targeted insertion mutations in Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jirong; Zogaj, Xhavit; Barker, Jeffrey R; Klose, Karl E

    2007-10-01

    Francisella tularensis is one of the most deadly bacterial agents, yet most of the genetic determinants of pathogenesis are still unknown. We have developed an efficient targeted mutagenesis strategy in the model organism F. tularensis subsp. novicida by utilizing universal priming of optimized antibiotic resistance cassettes and splicing by overlap extension (SOE). This process enables fast and efficient construction of targeted insertion mutations in F. tularensis subsp. novicida that have characteristics of nonpolar mutations; optimized targeted mutagenesis strategies will promote the study of this mysterious bacterium and facilitate vaccine development against tularemia. Moreover the general strategy of gene disruption by PCR-based antibiotic resistance cassette insertion is broadly applicable to many bacterial species. PMID:18019340

  9. Colonization patterns of an mCherry-tagged Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense strain in potato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubheka, Gugulethu C; Coutinho, Teresa A; Moleleki, Ntsane; Moleleki, Lucy N

    2013-12-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense is a newly identified member of the potato soft rot enterobacteriaceae. The pathogenesis of this pathogen is still poorly understood. In this study, an mCherry-P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense-tagged strain was generated to study P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense-potato plant interactions. Prior to use, the tagged strain was evaluated for in vitro growth, plasmid stability, and virulence on potato tubers and shown to be similar to the wild type. Four potato cultivars were evaluated for stem-based resistance against P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy and in vitro viable cell counts showed that P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense is able to penetrate roots of a susceptible potato cultivar as early as 12 h postinoculation and migrate upward into aerial stem parts. Due to the phenotypic differences observed between tolerant and susceptible cultivars, a comparison of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense colonization patterns in these cultivars was undertaken. In the susceptible cultivar, P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense cells colonized the xylem tissue, forming "biofilm-like" aggregates that led to occlusion of some of the vessels. In contrast, in the tolerant cultivar, P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense appeared as free-swimming planktonic cells with no specific tissue localization. This suggests that there are resistance mechanisms in the tolerant cultivar that limit aggregation of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense in planta and, hence, the lack of symptom development in this cultivar. PMID:23758294

  10. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma M. Alves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Myeloma cells Sp2/0-Ag14 and spleen cells from BALB/c mouse immunized with sonicated Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354 were fused with polyethylene glycol (PEG for the selection of clones producing antibodies. Clones were obtained by limiting dilution and screened for the production of specific antibodies to C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354 by indirect ELISA and western blot against a panel of bacteria: C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354, C. fetus subsp fetus ADRI 1812, C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG 6647, C. lari NCTC 11352, and Arcobacter skirrowii LMG 6621 for the ELISA and C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354 and C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG 6647 for the western blotting. Fifteen clones producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs anti-C. fetus subsp. venerealis of the IgM (1 and IgG (14 classes were further screened for species-specificity. Four clones of the 15 obtained were producers of species-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs: two were specific for C. fetus subsp. venerealis and two were specific for C. fetus subsp. fetus. None of the clones were reactive against C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG 6647. All clones recognized a protein with molecular mass of approximately 148 kDa from lysed C. fetus subsp. venerealis NCTC 10354.

  11. Genetic stability of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei F19

    OpenAIRE

    L. Morelli; Campominosi, E.

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of the genetic stability of strains that have to be reproduced at industrial scale and then freeze dried or incorporated into a food matrix is extremely relevant, in order to guarantee consumers of the quality of probiotic products. Stability of plasmid complement of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei isolate F19 (Lactobacillus F19), a strain containing three extrachromosomal elements, was carefully checked in each step of the industrial reproduction process. Results did not ...

  12. Tetracycline Resistance in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Dublin

    OpenAIRE

    Frech, Gabriele; Schwarz, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    The 47-kbp plasmid pGFT1 from Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin mediated tetracycline resistance via a tet(A) gene located on an integrated copy of a Tn1721-analogous transposon. The integration site of the transposon was located within the reading frame of a fip gene. Plasmid pGFT1 was shown to be conjugative and to be able to replicate and express tetracycline resistance in Escherichia coli.

  13. Characterization of Tetragenococcus strains from sugar thick juice reveals a novel species, Tetragenococcus osmophilus sp. nov., and divides Tetragenococcus halophilus into two subspecies, T. halophilus subsp. halophilus subsp. nov. and T. halophilus subsp. flandriensis subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justé, A; Van Trappen, S; Verreth, C; Cleenwerck, I; De Vos, P; Lievens, B; Willems, K A

    2012-01-01

    Most bacteria recovered so far from sugar thick juice during storage represent strains of the species Tetragenococcus halophilus. Recently, several Gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming cocci with other physiological and genetic traits were isolated from sugar thick juice samples from different origins. In this study, representative isolates were investigated using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between these isolates and their closest relative, Tetragenococcus muriaticus, was 97.4%. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between isolate T1(T), representing the newly found Tetragenococcus isolates, and T. muriaticus was 57%. Isolate T1(T) had a DNA G+C content of 36.7 mol%. Phylogenetic data and genomic and phenotypic features demonstrated that the isolates represent a novel species, for which the name Tetragenococcus osmophilus sp. nov. is proposed with T1(T) as the type strain (=LMG 26041(T) =DSM 23765(T)). Additionally, T. halophilus isolates from high-salt and high-sugar environments showed clear differences in several physiological and genetic characteristics like RAPD fingerprints and 16S rRNA gene sequences. DNA-DNA hybridizations, however, showed 79 to 80% relatedness between osmophilic and halophilic T. halophilus isolates, demonstrating that the different strains belong to the same species. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic differences observed, as well as the different origins of the strains and the industrial relevance of thick juice degradation, two subspecies of T. halophilus are described in this manuscript: T. halophilus subsp. halophilus subsp. nov. for the strains isolated from salt media and T. halophilus subsp. flandriensis subsp. nov. for the strains isolated from sugar-rich environments, which were first isolated in Flanders, Belgium. The type strains for the subspecies are IAM 1676(T) (=LMG 11490(T) =DSM 20339(T)) and T5(T) (=LMG 26042(T) =DSM 23766(T)), respectively. PMID:21357458

  14. Reproductive biology of the andromonoecious Cucumis melo subsp. agrestis (Cucurbitaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kouonon, L.; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure; Zoro Bi, I.A.; Bertin, P.; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Dje, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Cucumis melo subsp. agrestis (Cucurbitaceae) is cultivated in many African regions for its edible kernels used as a soup thickener. The plant, an annual, andromonoecious, trailing-vine species, is of high social, cultural and economic value for local communities. In order to improve the yield of this crop, the first step and our aim were to elucidate its breeding system. Methods Eight experimental pollination treatments were performed during three growing seasons to ass...

  15. Novel cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans.

    OpenAIRE

    Ingvorsen, K.; Højer-Pedersen, B; Godtfredsen, S E

    1991-01-01

    A cyanide-metabolizing bacterium, strain DF3, isolated from soil was identified as Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans. Whole cells and cell extracts of strain DF3 catalyzed hydrolysis of cyanide to formate and ammonia (HCN + 2H2O----HCOOH + NH3) without forming formamide as a free intermediate. The cyanide-hydrolyzing activity was inducibly produced in cells during growth in cyanide-containing media. Cyanate (OCN-) and a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic nitriles were not hydrol...

  16. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SUBSP. plantarum PROBIOTIC STRAINS AS PROTEASE PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Маtseliukh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteases from probiotic strains of the genus Bacillus, just like the antibiotics, bacteriocins and other hydrolytic enzymes, are one of the main factors that determine their biological activity. The aim of this work was to study the synthesis and biochemical properties of proteases from two strains Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM B-5139 and UCM B-5140 that included in the probiotic Endosporin. The cultivation of strains was carried out in flasks under rotating for two days. The influence of physico-chemical parameters of the reaction medium on proteolytic activity was studied on partially purified protease preparations. Lytic activity was determined by turbidimetric method. On the second day of cultivation B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM В-5139 and UCM В-5140 synthesized the metal-dependent peptidase and serine protease, respectively. The optimum conditions of their action were the following: temperature 37–40 °C and pH 6.5–7.0. Isolated proteases are able to lyse the living cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Thus we demonstrated that B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM B-5140 and UCM B-5139, included in the probiotic veterinary preparation Endosporin, produced proteolytic enzymes that hydrolyze the native insoluble proteins (elastin, fibrin and collagen. These enzymes belong to the group of neutral metal-dependent and serine proteases. They are active under physiological conditions against gram-positive bacteria and yeasts. The application of these proteases in biotechnology is considered.

  17. Especificidade de anti-soro policlonal à Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli Policlonal antiserum specifity against Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli

    OpenAIRE

    Josil B. Carneiro Jr; Silvaldo F. da Silveira; de Souza Filho, Gonçalo A.; Olivares, Fabio L.; Éder A. Giglioti

    2004-01-01

    Detectar a presença da bactéria Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli em material de propagação da cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum sp.) é importante para direcionar o controle do raquitismo-da-soqueira. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se produzir anticorpo policlonal específico contra Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx), visando utilizá-lo em método sorológico para detecção do patógeno. Para isso, o antígeno foi preparado a partir de células intactas, após lavagem por centrifugação de cultura-pura em tampão fosfato sa...

  18. PEDIOCIN PRODUCTION IN MILK BY PEDIOCOCCUS ACIDILACTICI IN CO-CULTURE WITH STREPTOCOCCUS THERMOPHILUS AND LACTOBACILLUS DELBRUECKII SUBSP. BULGARICUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The production of pediocin in milk by Pediococcus acidilactici was evaluated in co-culture with the dairy fermentation cultures Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. The cultures were tested singly or in different combinations...

  19. Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies and Aptamers Against Major Antigens of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specific antibodies, available in unlimited quantities, have not been produced against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the bacterium that causes Johne’s disease (JD). To fill this gap in JD research, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were produced fr...

  20. Bacterial Canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis) of tomato in commercial seed produced in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anwar, A.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Ilyas, S.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Smith) Davis, the causal organism of bacterial canker of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), was isolated from two of six commercial asymptomatic tomato seed lots produced on Java in Indonesia. C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis has not been

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of a Virulent Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense Isolate Causing Soft Rot of Cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onkendi, Edward M; Ramesh, Aadi Moolam; Kwenda, Stanford; Naidoo, Sanushka; Moleleki, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense causes soft rot and blackleg diseases on potatoes, ornamentals, and other crops of economic importance. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of a highly virulent P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense strain, PcbHPI01, isolated from a cucumber in South Africa. PMID:26744374

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88, an Entomopathogenic Bacterium Isolated from Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, Shimaa; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Khalil, Kamal M; Tisa, Louis S

    2016-01-01

    Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88 is an entomopathogenic bacterium that forms a symbiotic association with Heterorhabditis nematodes. We report here a 5.27-Mbp draft genome sequence for P. luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88, with a G+C content of 42.4% and containing 4,243 candidate protein-coding genes. PMID:26988056

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88, an Entomopathogenic Bacterium Isolated from Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazal, Shimaa; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Khalil, Kamal M.; Tisa, Louis S.

    2016-01-01

    Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88 is an entomopathogenic bacterium that forms a symbiotic association with Heterorhabditis nematodes. We report here a 5.27-Mbp draft genome sequence for P. luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88, with a G+C content of 42.4% and containing 4,243 candidate protein-coding genes.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Strain ATCC 35246

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Zhe; Geng, Jianing; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Haiying; Yi, Li; Lei, Meng; Lu, Cheng-Ping; Fan, Hong-Jie; Hu, Songnian

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is an opportunistic pathogen. It has caused a very large economic loss in the swine industry of China and has become a threat to human health. We announce the complete genome sequence of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strain ATCC 35246, which provides opportunities to understand its pathogenesis mechanism and genetic basis.

  5. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus strain ATCC 35246.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhe; Geng, Jianing; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Haiying; Yi, Li; Lei, Meng; Lu, Cheng-ping; Fan, Hong-jie; Hu, Songnian

    2011-10-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is an opportunistic pathogen. It has caused a very large economic loss in the swine industry of China and has become a threat to human health. We announce the complete genome sequence of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus strain ATCC 35246, which provides opportunities to understand its pathogenesis mechanism and genetic basis. PMID:21914890

  6. Genome Sequence of an Epidemic Isolate of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Rebecca M.; Reynolds, Paul R; Farias-Hesson, Eveline; Duarte, Rafael Silva; Jackson, Mary; Strong, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Multiple isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii, collectively called BRA100, were associated with outbreaks of postsurgical skin infections across various regions of Brazil from 2003 to 2009. We announce the draft genome sequence of a newly sequenced BRA100 strain, M. abscessus subsp. bolletii CRM-0020, isolated from a patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of a Virulent Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense Isolate Causing Soft Rot of Cucumber

    OpenAIRE

    Onkendi, Edward M.; Ramesh, Aadi Moolam; Kwenda, Stanford; Naidoo, Sanushka; Moleleki, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense causes soft rot and blackleg diseases on potatoes, ornamentals, and other crops of economic importance. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of a highly virulent P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense strain, PcbHPI01, isolated from a cucumber in South Africa.

  8. Proposal for designation of F38-type caprine mycoplasmas as Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae subsp. nov. and consequent obligatory relegation of strains currently classified as M. capricolum (Tully, Barile, Edward, Theodore, and Ernø 1974) to an additional new subspecies, M. capricolum subsp. capricolum subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, R H; Ernø, H; MacOwan, K J

    1993-07-01

    A subspecies relationship with the existing species Mycoplasma capricolum is appropriate for the F38 group of mycoplasmas, the causative agent of classical contagious caprine pleuropneumonia. We believe that this classification is justified on the basis of the close DNA-DNA relationship recently reported for isolates belonging to the two groups and the other known serological and biological similarities and differences of these organisms. Strain F38T (T = type strain) and taxonomically indistinguishable strains are therefore proposed as members of a new subspecies of M. capricolum, M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. Strain F38 (= NCTC 10192) is the type strain of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae subsp. nov. As a consequence of this subdivision of the species M. capricolum, strains previously classified as M. capricolum are now necessarily relegated to subspecies status, as M. capricolum subsp. capricolum subsp. nov. Strain California kid (= ATCC 27343 = NCTC 10154) is the type strain of M. capricolum, as well as of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum. A taxonomic description of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae and a brief amended description of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum are presented. PMID:8347517

  9. Biosystematic studies on Enicostema axillare (Lam.) A. Raynal subsp. Axillare (Gentianaceae) in peninsular India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahina, P M; Nampy, Santhosh

    2014-05-01

    The pantropical genus Enicostema (Gentianaceae) has three species and two sub species world over, namely, E. verticillatum (L.) Engl. (America), E. elizabethae Veldkamp (Madagascar) and E. axillare having 3 subsp. viz., subsp. axillare (Lam.) A. Raynal (India), subsp. latilobum (N.E. Br.) A. Raynal (East Africa) and subsp. littorale (Blume) A. Raynal (Indonesia). The present study aims to delimit the Indian taxa based on field and herbarium studies. Comparative morphology is studied using live as well as consulting wide range of specimens housed at various herbaria. The anatomy of leaf, stem, and root is studied using free hand sections and from epidermal peelings. The seed and pollen morphology are studied under SEM. Information on anatomy, palynology and seed micromorphology of E. axillare subsp. axillare is provided for the first time. PMID:26031003

  10. In vitro morphogenesis of Syngonanthus mucugensis Giul: subsp. mucugensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alone Lima-Brito

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Syngonanthus mucugensis Giul. subsp. mucugensis is an herbaceous plant with significant economic value in the ornamental dry flower business. The restricted occurrence of the municipality Mucugê-BA, Brazil, exclusively associated with extractive exploitation, has considered this species as endangered. The objective of this work was to evaluate the organogenic potential of three different types of S. mucugensis subsp. mucugensis explants to promote the development of an alternative method to the propagation of the genetic resources of this important plant. The morphogenetic capacities of the leaf, stem and root this species was tested using Murashige and Skoog culture medium at half salt concentration and different concentrations of growth of regulators benzylaminopurine - BAP (0.00; 2.22 and 4.44 µM, and naphthalene acetic acid - NAA (0.00; 1.34 and 2.68 µM. The morphoanatomic events that lead to formation of shoots were described. Stems proved to be the best source of explants, showing 58.75% regeneration of shoot by direct organogenesis in the absence of growth regulators, and 32.18 and 47.55% of shoot regeneration by indirect organogenesis in the presence of 2.22 and 4.44 µM BAP, respectively. As for leaves, there was callus formation, but without regenerating shoots. Morphogenesis was not observed when roots were used as explants. The histological analyses showed that shoot regeneration in S. mucugensis subsp. mucugensis occurred both indirectly, by unorganized tissue differentiation, and directly through returning to merismatic activity in differentiated mature cells and preexisting bud proliferation.Syngonanthus mucugensis Giul. subsp. mucugensis é uma herbácea com grande potencial de utilização no comércio de flores secas ornamentais. A ocorrência restrita ao município de Mucugê-BA, Brasil, associado à exploração extrativista tem levado essa espécie ao risco de extinção. Neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar o potencial

  11. Complete Genome and Methylome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Panama (ATCC 7378) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Sloterdijk (ATCC 15791).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kuan; Muruvanda, Tim; Roberts, Richard J; Payne, Justin; Allard, Marc W; Hoffmann, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica spp. are pathogenic bacteria commonly associated with food-borne outbreaks in human and animals. Salmonella enterica spp. are characterized into more than 2,500 different serotypes, which makes epidemiological surveillance and outbreak control more difficult. In this report, we announce the first complete genome and methylome sequences from two Salmonella type strains associated with food-borne outbreaks, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Panama (ATCC 7378) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Sloterdijk (ATCC 15791). PMID:26988049

  12. Hospedeiros alternativos de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Alternative hosts of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosa P. Nascimento

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Uma das principais doenças que afeta o meloeiro é a mancha-aquosa, causada pela bactéria Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Visando conhecer hospedeiros alternativos de Aac, plantas no estágio de primeiras folhas definitivas, de várias espécies/cultivares, incluindo cucurbitáceas, solanáceas, gramíneas, leguminosas e caricáceas, foram inoculadas pela atomização da parte aérea com suspensão dos isolados Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13, oriundos de melão e melancia, respectivamente. A suscetibilidade das plantas aos isolados foi avaliada pelo período de incubação (PI e incidência da doença (INC. Caupi, feijão, fumo e milho não apresentaram sintomas. Os menores PIs foram observados em cucurbitáceas (3,0 d, com exceção da bucha (6,83 d. Incidências da doença acima de 90% foram observadas em cucurbitáceas, excetuando a bucha e em solanáceas, para ambos os isolados de Aac. Em outro experimento, frutos de abóbora, abobrinha, berinjela, mamão, maxixe, melancia, melão, pepino, pimentão e tomate foram analisados quanto à suscetibilidade aos isolados Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13. Os frutos foram inoculados pelo método de injeção subepidérmica, determinando-se PI, INC e severidade, avaliada pelo diâmetro da lesão externa (DLE e profundidade da lesão (PL. Menores PIs (2,0 d foram detectados em frutos de mamão, melancia, melão e pimentão. Incidência de 100% foi observada em todos os frutos inoculados, com exceção da abobrinha (93,75% e da abóbora (34,37%. Maiores DLEs foram observados em pepino (1,47 cm para o isolado Aac 1.49 e em melancia (1,60 cm e melão (1,07 cm para Aac 12.13. As maiores PL foram constatadas em melancia (1,72 e 0,75 cm respectivamente para Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13. Frutos de berinjela não apresentaram sintomas externos embora as lesões internas tenham sido profundas.One of the most important melon diseases is the bacterial blotch caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Alternative hosts of this

  13. Assessing the inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis during composting of livestock carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachuk, Victoria L; Krause, Denis O; McAllister, Tim A; Buckley, Katherine E; Reuter, Tim; Hendrick, Steve; Ominski, Kim H

    2013-05-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants, with substantial economic impacts on the cattle industry. Johne's disease is known for its long latency period, and difficulties in diagnosis are due to insensitivities of current detection methods. Eradication is challenging as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can survive for extended periods within the environment, resulting in new infections in naïve animals (W. Xu et al., J. Environ. Qual. 38:437-450, 2009). This study explored the use of a biosecure, static composting structure to inactivate M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Mycobacterium smegmatis was also assessed as a surrogate for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Two structures were constructed to hold three cattle carcasses each. Naturally infected tissues and ground beef inoculated with laboratory-cultured M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. smegmatis were placed in nylon and plastic bags to determine effects of temperature and compost environment on viability over 250 days. After removal, samples were cultured and growth of both organisms was assessed after 12 weeks. After 250 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was still detectable by PCR, while M. smegmatis was not detected after 67 days of composting. Furthermore, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable in both implanted nylon and plastic bags over the composting period. As the compost never reached a homogenous thermophilic (55 to 65°C) state throughout each structure, an in vitro experiment was conducted to examine viability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis after exposure to 80°C for 90 days. Naturally infected lymph tissues were mixed with and without compost. After 90 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable despite exposure to temperatures typically higher than that achieved in compost. In conclusion, it is unlikely composting can be used as a means of inactivating M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis associated with cattle

  14. Triterpenes from the flowers of Gochnatia polymorpha subsp. floccosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana B. Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical study of the flowers of Gochnatia polymorpha subsp. floccosa, Asteraceae, yielded eleven known triterpenes identified as lupeol, lupeyl acetate, lupeyl palmitate, taraxasterol, taraxasteryl acetate, pseudotaraxasterol, pseudotaraxasterol acetate, α-amyrin, α-amyryl palmitate, β-amyrin and β-amyryl palmitate, along with sitosterol, stigmasterol, palmitic and stearic acids. These compounds are been reported for the first time in the species. The compounds were identified by analysis of NMR spectra (¹H, 13C and DEPT, GC-MS and comparison with literature data. Previous work have reported the isolation of triterpenes, diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, coumarins and phenolic compounds from aerial parts and roots from G. polymorpha.

  15. Biological activity of harpin produced by Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, M; Majerczak, D R; Pike, S; Hoyos, M E; Novacky, A; Coplin, D L

    2001-10-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causes Stewart's wilt of sweet corn. A hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (Hrp) secretion system is needed to produce water-soaking and wilting symptoms in corn and to cause a hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco. Sequencing of the hrp cluster revealed a putative harpin gene, hrpN. The product of this gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and shown to elicit the HR in tobacco and systemic resistance in radishes. The protein was designated HrpN(Pnss). Like other harpins, it was heat stable and protease sensitive, although it was three- to fourfold less active biologically than Erwinia amylovora harpin. We used antibodies to purified HrpN(Pnss) to verify that hrpN mutants could not produce harpin. This protein was secreted into the culture supernatant and was produced by strains of P. stewartii subsp. indologenes. In order to determine the importance of HrpN(Pnss) in pathogenesis on sweet corn, three hrpN::Tn5 mutants were compared with the wild-type strain with 50% effective dose, disease severity, response time, and growth rate in planta as parameters. In all tests, HrpN(Pnss) was not required for infection, growth, or virulence in corn or endophytic growth in related grasses. PMID:11605962

  16. Role of Blossoms in Watermelon Seed Infestation by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, R R; Gitaitis, R D; Castro, A C

    2003-05-01

    ABSTRACT The role of watermelon blossom inoculation in seed infestation by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli was investigated. Approximately 98% (84/87) of fruit developed from blossoms inoculated with 1 x 10(7) or 1 x 10(9) CFU of A. avenae subsp. citrulli per blossom were asymptomatic. Using immunomagnetic separation and the polymerase chain reaction, A. avenae subsp. citrulli was detected in 44% of the seed lots assayed, despite the lack of fruit symptoms. Furthermore, viable colonies were recovered from 31% of the seed lots. Of these lots, 27% also yielded seedlings expressing bacterial fruit blotch symptoms when planted under conditions of 30 degrees C and 90% relative humidity. A. avenae subsp. citrulli was detected and recovered from the pulp of 33 and 19%, respectively, of symptomless fruit whose blossoms were inoculated with A. avenae subsp. citrulli. The ability to penetrate watermelon flowers was not unique to A. avenae subsp. citrulli, because blossoms inoculated with Pantoea ananatis also resulted in infested seed and pulp. The data indicate that watermelon blossoms are a potential site of ingress for fruit and seed infestation by A. avenae subsp. citrulli. PMID:18942974

  17. Proposal to reclassify Brenneria quercina (Hildebrand and Schroth 1967) Hauben et al. 1999 into a new genus, Lonsdalea gen. nov., as Lonsdalea quercina comb. nov., descriptions of Lonsdalea quercina subsp. quercina comb. nov., Lonsdalea quercina subsp. iberica subsp. nov. and Lonsdalea quercina subsp. britannica subsp. nov., emendation of the description of the genus Brenneria, reclassification of Dickeya dieffenbachiae as Dickeya dadantii subsp. dieffenbachiae comb. nov., and emendation of the description of Dickeya dadantii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Carrie L; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Denman, Sandra; Venter, Stephanus N; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; Coutinho, Teresa A; De Vos, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Bacterial isolates from oak trees in Spain and Britain, showing symptoms of bark canker and Acute Oak Decline (AOD), respectively, were examined by a polyphasic approach. Both 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), based on partial sequences of gyrB, rpoB, infB and atpD genes, revealed that the isolates were separated into two genetic groups according to their origin. Their closest phylogenetic relative was Brenneria quercina, the causal agent of drippy nut disease of oak, which clustered distant to the other species of the genus Brenneria. MLSA data for species of the genera Brenneria, Pectobacterium, Dickeya, Erwinia, Pantoea and Samsonia confirmed the polyphyletic nature of the genus Brenneria and indicated synonymy of Dickeya dadantii and Dickeya dieffenbachiae. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed this synonymy and also revealed DNA-DNA relatedness values of 58-73% between the new oak isolates and B. quercina. Phenotypic and/or chemotaxonomic methods allowed B. quercina and the two genetic groups of new oak isolates to be discriminated from other recognized species of the genus Brenneria and from members of the closely related genera Dickeya, Pectobacterium and Samsonia. Based on the data obtained, the following taxonomic proposals are made: (1) reclassification of B. quercina as the type species of a novel genus, Lonsdalea gen. nov., as Lonsdalea quercina comb. nov. (type strain LMG 2724(T)=ATCC 29281(T)=CCUG 48867(T)=CFBP 3617(T)=CIP 105201(T)=DSM 4561(T)=ICMP 1845(T)), (2) classification of the oak isolates as Lonsdalea quercina subsp. iberica subsp. nov. (type strain LMG26264(T)=NCPPB 4490(T)) and Lonsdalea quercina subsp. britannica subsp. nov. (type strain LMG 26267(T)=NCPPB 4481(T)) and leading to the automatic creation of Lonsdalea quercina subsp. quercina subsp. nov. (type strain LMG 2724(T)=ATCC 29281(T)), (3) emendation of the description of the genus Brenneria, and (4) reclassification of Dickeya dieffenbachiae as

  18. The Karyotype of Alstroemeria diluta Ehr. Bayer subsp. chrysantha (Alstroemeriaceae Karyotype of Alstroemeria diluta Ehr. Bayer subsp. chrysantha (Alstroemeriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Baeza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype of Alstroemeria diluta subsp. chrysantha Ehr. Bayer from Chile was examined. The species has 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, with 4m + 4sm + 2st-sat + 4t + 2t-sat. The reported karyotype is very asymmetrical (AsK % = 71.4 and Syi = 40.0%. This karyotype is similar to that published previously for Alstroemeria graminea Phil.Alstroemeria diluta subsp. chrysantha Ehr. Bayer (Alstroemeriaceae fue examinada citológicamente. Esta especie presenta un número cromosómico somático de 2n = 2x = 16 cromosomas, con una fórmula haploide constituida por 4m + 4sm + 2st-sat + 4t + 2t-sat cromosomas. El cariotipo es muy asimétrico, con valores de AsK % = 71,4 y Syi = 40,0%. Estos resultados se compararon con los de Alstroemeria graminea Phil., especie que presenta un cariotipo muy similar.

  19. MAO-A inhibition profiles of some benzophenone glucosides from Gentiana verna subsp. pontica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaya, Duygu; Jäger, Anna; Yalçin, Funda N; Ersöz, Tayfun

    2014-01-01

    Gentiana verna L. subsp. pontica (Soltok.) Hayek, G. pyrenaica L., and G. verna L. subsp. balcanica Pritchard from Turkey were tested for their MAO-A inhibitory effects. A photometric peroxidase linked MAO-A bioassay performed on the H20 extracts prepared from the methanolic extracts of the title......-beta-glucopyranoside (3) isolated from G. verna subsp. pontica. Among the benzophenone glucosides 1 and 2 exhibited significant inhibition of MAO-A (IC50 = 31.3 +/- 4 microM and 41 +/- 4.7 microM resp.)....

  20. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii produces an endoglucanase that is required for full virulence in sweet corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mojtaba; Burbank, Lindsey; Roper, M Caroline

    2012-04-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, a xylem-dwelling bacterium, is the causal agent of Stewart's wilt and blight of sweet corn. The goal of this study was to characterize the only gene in the P. stewartii subsp. stewartii genome predicted to encode an endoglucanase (EGase); this gene was designated engY. Culture supernatants from P. stewartii subsp. stewartii and Escherichia coli expressing recombinant EngY protein possessed both EGase and xylanase activities. Deletion of engY abolished EGase and xylanase activity, demonstrating that EngY appears to be the major EGase or xylanase produced by P. stewartii subsp. stewartii. Most importantly, our results show that EngY contributes to movement in the xylem and disease severity during the wilting phase of Stewart's wilt but is not required for water-soaked lesion formation. PMID:22122328

  1. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum type strain 03-427T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum has been isolated from reptiles and humans. This Campylobacter subspecies is genetically distinct from other C. fetus subspecies. Here we present the first whole genome sequence for this C. fetus subspecies....

  2. Efficient production of nonactin by Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yulian; Zheng, Shaolun

    2016-08-01

    Here we report the production of the cyclic macrotetrolide nonactin from the fermentation culture of Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus. Nonactin is a member of a family of naturally occurring cyclic ionophores known as the macrotetrolide antibiotics. Our fermentation procedure of Streptomyces griseus was performed at 30 °C and 200 rev·min(-1) for 5 days on a rotary shaker. Diaion HP-20 and Amberlite XAD-16 were added to the fermentation medium. Isolated yield of nonactin was up to 80 mg·L(-1) using our methodology. Nonactin is commonly known as an ammonium ionophore and also exhibits antibacterial, antiviral, and antitumor activities. It is also widely used for the preparation of ion-selective electrodes and sensors. Chemical synthesis of nonactin has been achieved by some groups; however, overall yields are very low, making efficient biosynthesis an attractive means of production. PMID:27405846

  3. Carbon sources of natural cyanamide in Vicia villosa subsp. varia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, Tsunashi; Kasahara, Ryohei; Abe, Shun; Hirota, Mitsuru; Sugano, Mami; Yamaya, Hiroko; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2010-10-01

    The ¹³C labels of [¹³C]carbon dioxide and D-[¹³C₆]glucose were incorporated into cyanamide (NH₂CN) when they were administered to Vicia villosa subsp. varia shoots. In contrast, the administration of sodium [2,3-¹³C₂]pyruvate did not affect the relative area of the [M + 1]+ ion of cyanamide in the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. [2,3-¹³C₂]pyruvate was incorporated into organic acids that are part of the citric acid cycle, such as succinate and fumarate, confirming that the shoots absorbed and metabolised it. These observations demonstrated that the carbon atom of cyanamide is derived from any of the carbohydrates that are present upstream of pyruvate in the metabolic pathway. PMID:20954091

  4. Genome Sequence of the Clinical Isolate Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Strain UAMS-1

    OpenAIRE

    Sassi, Mohamed; Sharma, Deepak; Brinsmade, Shaun ,; Felden, Brice; Augagneur, Yoann

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus strain UAMS-1. UAMS-1 is a virulent oxacillin-susceptible clinical isolate. Its genome is composed of 2,763,963 bp and will be useful for further gene expression analysis using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. S taphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic human bacterial pathogen responsible for nosocomial and community-associated infections. S. aureus subsp. aureus strain UAMS-1 was originally isolated from the ...

  5. Mycobacterium avium Subsp. avium Infection in Four Veal Calves: Differentiation from Intestinal Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (Maa) is an intracellular pathogen belonging to the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC). Reservoirs of MAC are the natural environment, wildlife and domestic animals. In adult bovine, MAC infections are typically caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). Maa infections in bovine are rarely reported but may cause clinical disease and pathological lesions similar to those observed in paratuberculosis or those induced by members of...

  6. Culture Phenotypes of Genomically and Geographically Diverse Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Isolates from Different Hosts▿

    OpenAIRE

    Whittington, Richard J.; Marsh, Ian B; Saunders, Vanessa; Grant, Irene R.; Juste, Ramon; Sevilla, Iker A; Manning, Elizabeth J. B.; Whitlock, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in ruminants in most countries. Historical data suggest substantial differences in culturability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from small ruminants and cattle; however, a systematic comparison of culture media and isolates from different countries and hosts has not been undertaken. Here, 35 field isolates from the United States, Spain, Northern Ireland, and Australia were propagated in Bactec ...

  7. Genomic variations of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp capripneumoniae detected by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Bolske, G.; Ahrens, Peter; Johansson, K.E.

    2000-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strains based on determination of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) is described. AFLP fingerprints of 38 strains derived from different countries in Africa and the Middle East consisted of over 100 bands in the size...... found by 16S rDNA analysis. The present data support previous observations regarding genetic homogeneity of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, and confirm the two evolutionary lines of descent found by analysis of 16S rRNA genes....

  8. Assessing the Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis during Composting of Livestock Carcasses

    OpenAIRE

    Tkachuk, Victoria L.; Denis O Krause; McAllister, Tim A.; Buckley, Katherine E.; Reuter, Tim; Hendrick, Steve; Ominski, Kim H.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants, with substantial economic impacts on the cattle industry. Johne's disease is known for its long latency period, and difficulties in diagnosis are due to insensitivities of current detection methods. Eradication is challenging as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can survive for extended periods within the environment, resulting in new infections in naïve animals (W. Xu et al., J. Environ. Qual. 38:437-450, 20...

  9. Construction of Streptococcus lactis subsp. lactis Strains with a Single Plasmid Associated with Mucoid Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    von Wright, Atte; Tynkkynen, Soile

    1987-01-01

    Lactose-fermenting mucoid (Lac+ Muc+) variants of plasmid-free Streptococcus lactis subsp. lactis MG1614 were obtained by protoplast transformation with total plasmid DNA from Muc+S. lactis subsp. cremoris ARH87. By using plasmid DNA from these variants for further transformations followed by novobiocininduced plasmid curing, Lac− Muc+ MG1614 strains containing only a single 30-megadalton plasmid could be constructed. This plasmid, designated pVS5, appeared to be associated with the Muc+ phen...

  10. Rapid Expression of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Recombinant Proteins for Antigen Discovery▿

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lingling; Munir, Shirin; Bannantine, John P.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Kanjilal, Sagarika; Kapur, Vivek

    2006-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease, a chronic granulomatous enteritis of ruminants and other species. Detection of infection in animals is hampered by the lack of sensitive and specific diagnostic assays. We describe here an approach that utilizes translationally active PCR fragments for the rapid in vitro transcription and translation of recombinant proteins for antigen discovery in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The investigations showed...

  11. Detection of Goss's Wilt Pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis in Maize by Loop-Mediated Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara-Bell, Jarred; de Silva, Asoka; Heuchelin, Scott A; Chaky, Jennifer L; Alvarez, Anne M

    2016-03-01

    The Goss's wilt pathogen, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, can cause considerable losses in maize (Zea mays) production. Diagnosis of Goss's wilt currently is based on symptomology and identification of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, following isolation on a semiselective medium and/or serological testing. In an effort to provide a more efficient identification method, a loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) assay was developed to detect the tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP)-type C4-dicarboxylate transport system large permease component and tested using strains of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, all other C. michiganensis subspecies and several genera of nontarget bacteria. Only strains of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis reacted positively with the LAMP assay. The LAMP assay was then used to identify bacterial isolates from diseased maize. 16S rDNA and dnaA sequence analyses were used to confirm the identity of the maize isolates and validate assay specificity. The Cmm ImmunoStrip assay was included as a presumptive identification test of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis at the species level. The Cmn-LAMP assay was further tested using symptomatic leaf tissue. The Cmn-LAMP assay was run in a hand-held real-time monitoring device (SMART-DART) and performed equally to in-lab quantitative polymerase chain reaction equipment. The Cmn-LAMP assay accurately identified C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis and has potential as a field test. The targeted sequence also has potential application in other molecular detection platforms. PMID:26595113

  12. Tomato fruit and seed colonization by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis through external and internal routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancos, Matthew A; Chalupowicz, Laura; Barash, Isaac; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit; Smart, Christine D

    2013-11-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, causal agent of bacterial wilt and canker of tomato, is an economically devastating pathogen that inflicts considerable damage throughout all major tomato-producing regions. Annual outbreaks continue to occur in New York, where C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis spreads via infected transplants, trellising stakes, tools, and/or soil. Globally, new outbreaks can be accompanied by the introduction of contaminated seed stock; however, the route of seed infection, especially the role of fruit lesions, remains undefined. In order to investigate the modes of seed infection, New York C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis field strains were stably transformed with a gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). A constitutively eGFP-expressing virulent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis isolate, GCMM-22, was used to demonstrate that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis could not only access seeds systemically through the xylem but also externally through tomato fruit lesions, which harbored high intra- and intercellular populations. Active movement and expansion of bacteria into the fruit mesocarp and nearby xylem vessels followed, once the fruits began to ripen. These results highlight the ability of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis to invade tomato fruits and seeds through multiple entry routes. PMID:24014525

  13. Dose-response study of probiotic bacteria Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis BB-12 and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei CRL-341 in healthy young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C.N.; Nielsen, S.; Kaestel, P.;

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to investigate the dose-response effects of supplementation with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis (BB-12) and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei (CRL-431) on blood lipids, recovery from feces and bowel habits. Changes of the fecal microflora was...... analyzed in the 10(10) CFU/day probiotic and placebo group. Design: The study was designed as a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, parallel dose-response study. Subjects: Healthy young adults (18 - 40 years) were recruited by advertising in local newspapers. Of the 75 persons enrolled, 71 ( 46...

  14. Isolamento de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae no Brasil Detectionof Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Maria Tocchetto Schuch

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou detectar presença de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae em produtos de um entreposto do interior do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a identificação de possíveis fontes de contaminação e a avaliação da possibilidade da transferência de esporos para colméias de apiários adjacentes a partir de produtos importados contaminados. Foram analisados mel e pólen importados disponíveis no entreposto, favo do ninho (crias, pólen e mel colhido de uma colméia sadia, mel estocado em um dos apiários e abelhas adultas. Os resultados foram positivosem relação ao mel e pólen importados, a três grupos de abelhas adultas e ao mel do favo.The objective of this work was to detect the presence of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in products from a warehouse located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, the identification of possible contamination sources, and the assessment of spores transference possibility from contaminated imported products from the warehouse to apiaries located in the surrounding area. Samples of imported pollen and bulk honey stocked in the warehouse, and honeycomb (brood, honey and pollen from a healthy hive, honey from one apiary and adult bees were analyzed. Imported honey and pollen, and three groups of adult bees and the honey collected from the honeycomb resulted positive.

  15. Structural similarity between the lepidoptera- and diptera-specific insecticidal endotoxin genes of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. "kurstaki" and "israelensis".

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, L.; Garduno, F; Thompson, T; Decker, D.; Zounes, M; Wild, M.; Walfield, A M; Pollock, T J

    1986-01-01

    A gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. "israelensis" was cloned from the large plasmids of this subspecies and was shown to code for a mosquitocidal polypeptide. The gene could be expressed in either Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, or B. thuringiensis subsp. "israelensis" to produce the larvicidal activity. Similarly, a Lepidoptera-specific toxin gene from B. thuringiensis subsp. "kurstaki" was also cloned and expressed in E. coli and B. subtilis. Both cloned genes were sequenced and ...

  16. Microbiota of Minas cheese as influenced by the nisin producer Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis GLc05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Luana Martins; Dal Bello, Barbara; Belviso, Simona; Zeppa, Giuseppe; de Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes; Cocolin, Luca; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2015-12-01

    Minas cheese is a popular dairy product in Brazil that is traditionally produced using raw or pasteurized cow milk. This study proposed an alternative production of Minas cheese using raw goat milk added of a nisin producer Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis GLc05. An in situ investigation was carried on to evaluate the interactions between the L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 and the autochthonous microbiota of a Minas cheese during the ripening; production of biogenic amines (BAs) was assessed as a safety aspect. Minas cheese was produced in two treatments (A, by adding L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05, and B, without adding this strain), in three independent repetitions (R1, R2, and R3). Culture dependent (direct plating) and independent (rep-PCR and PCR-DGGE) methods were employed to characterize the microbiota and to assess the possible interferences caused by L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05. BA amounts were measured using HPLC. A significant decrease in coagulase-positive cocci was observed in the cheeses produced by adding L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 (cheese A). The rep-PCR and PCR-DGGE highlighted the differences in the microbiota of both cheeses, separating them into two different clusters. Lactococcus sp. was found as the main microorganism in both cheeses, and the microbiota of cheese A presented a higher number of species. High concentrations of tyramine were found in both cheeses and, at specific ripening times, the BA amounts in cheese B were significantly higher than in cheese A (p<0.05). The interaction of nisin producer L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 was demonstrated in situ, by demonstration of its influence in the complex microbiota naturally present in a raw goat milk cheese and by controlling the growth of coagulase-positive cocci. L. lactis subsp. lactis GLc05 influenced also the production of BA determining that their amounts in the cheeses were maintained at acceptable levels for human consumption. PMID:26310130

  17. Leucobacter chromiireducens subsp. solipictus subsp. nov., a pigmented bacterium isolated from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and emended description of L. chromiireducens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Rachel E; Tan, Man-Wah

    2007-12-01

    A yellow-pigmented, Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming, irregular rod-shaped bacterium (strain TAN 31504(T)) was isolated from the bacteriophagous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, DNA G+C content of 69.5 mol%, 2,4-diaminobutyric acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan, major menaquinone MK-11, abundance of anteiso- and iso-fatty acids, polar lipids diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol and a number of shared biochemical characteristics, strain TAN 31504(T) was placed in the genus Leucobacter. DNA-DNA hybridization comparisons demonstrated a 91 % DNA-DNA relatedness between strain TAN 31504(T) and Leucobacter chromiireducens LMG 22506(T) indicating that these two strains belong to the same species, when the recommended threshold value of 70 % DNA-DNA relatedness for the definition of a bacterial species by the ad hoc committee on reconciliation of approaches to bacterial systematics is considered. Based on distinct differences in morphology, physiology, chemotaxonomic markers and various biochemical characteristics, it is proposed to split the species L. chromiireducens into two novel subspecies, Leucobacter chromiireducens subsp. chromiireducens subsp. nov. (type strain L-1(T)=CIP 108389(T)=LMG 22506(T)) and Leucobacter chromiireducens subsp. solipictus subsp. nov. (type strain TAN 31504(T)=DSM 18340(T)=ATCC BAA-1336(T)). PMID:18048723

  18. Compositions of essential oils and trichomes of Teucrium chamaedrys L. subsp. trapezunticum Rech. fil. and subsp. syspirense (C. Koch) Rech. fil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ayla; Demirci, Betül; Başer, K Hüsnü C

    2009-01-01

    Teucrium chamaedrys L. is a member of the Lamiaceae family and is represented in the Flora of Turkey by six subspecies. The aerial organs of T. chamaedrys L. subsp. trapezunticum Rech. fil. and subsp. syspirense (C. Koch) Rech. fil. bears numerous eglandular and glandular trichomes. Eglandular trichomes are simple, long-multicellular with cuticular micropapillae, and glandular hairs are of peltate and capitate types. The peltate hairs consist of a basal cell, a short unicellular stalk, and multicellular secretory head, and the capitate ones possess 1-2 stalk cells and one glandular head cell. The aerial parts were subjected to microdistillation for the isolation of volatiles. The analysis was simultaneously performed by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major components were characterized as beta-caryophyllene (18%), nonacosane (12%), germacrene D (11%), caryophyllene oxide (7%), and alpha-pinene (7%) for subsp. trapezunticum, and caryophyllene oxide (23%), alpha-pinene (11%), and caryophyllenol II (5%) for subsp. syspirense. PMID:19180459

  19. Quick detection of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli by PCR and necleotide sequence analysis of PCR amplicons from Chinese Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    A quick polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the detection of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx), the bacterial causal agent of ratoon stunting disease (RSD) of sugarcane, in crude juice samples from stalks. After removal of abiotic impurities and large molecular weight microorgani...

  20. Especificidade de anti-soro policlonal à Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli Policlonal antiserum specifity against Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josil B. Carneiro Jr

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Detectar a presença da bactéria Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli em material de propagação da cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum sp. é importante para direcionar o controle do raquitismo-da-soqueira. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se produzir anticorpo policlonal específico contra Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx, visando utilizá-lo em método sorológico para detecção do patógeno. Para isso, o antígeno foi preparado a partir de células intactas, após lavagem por centrifugação de cultura-pura em tampão fosfato salino 0,01 M (PBS e diálise em glutaraldeido 2% em PBS. O plano de imunização em coelho consistiu de duas injeções intramusculares da mistura 1:1 do antígeno com adjuvante Freund (completo e incompleto, a intervalos de 21 dias e duas injeções subcutâneas do antígeno puro, a intervalos de dez dias. O anti-soro foi testado pelo método de Dot Blot com revelação por peroxidase para se determinar: (i título do anticorpo e (ii reação contra Lxx, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria e bactérias endofíticas de cana-de-açúcar (Azospirillum brasilense, A. lipoferum, Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans, H. seropedicae e Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. A maior diluição analisada do anti-soro 1:20.000 mostrou reação fortemente positiva e específica contra Lxx e ausência de reação contra as demais bactérias. A purificação da fração IgG (Imunoglobulina G não resultou em melhoria na reatividade e especificidade do anti-soro. Estimou-se o nível de detecção do método a partir de suspensão bacteriana em 2x10(6 células/ml.To detect the presence of the bacterium Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx in propagation material is important for the control of the ratoon stunting disease. The objective of this work was to improve a serological method for detection of the pathogen and to evaluate the policlonal antiserum specificity produced against Lxx. The antigen was prepared by resuspending pure culture in PBS and dialyzing it in

  1. Caracterização de isolados de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Characterization of strains of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína C. Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram caracterizados 41 isolados de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli com base em aspectos fisiológicos e bioquímicos. Todos os isolados induziram sintomas típicos da mancha-aquosa em plântulas, plantas e frutos de meloeiro (Cucumis melo e melancieira (Citrullus lanatus. Pelo teste de agrupamento de Scott-Knott (P = 0,05 os isolados foram separados quanto ao índice de doença em 5 e 7 grupos, respectivamente para plântulas de meloeiro e melancieira, e em 2 grupos para plantas das duas hospedeiras. Em frutos, os isolados foram separados em 3 e 10 grupos para a variável diâmetro da lesão externa e 2 e 9 grupos para profundidade da lesão, respectivamente para melão e melancia. Todos os isolados induziram reação de hipersensibilidade em fumo (Nicotiana tabacum; utilizaram os compostos asparagina, L-leucina e DL-ácido lático; produziram enzimas lipolíticas e o fitohormônio ácido indol acético; foram sensíveis a oxicloreto de cobre (120 µg mL-1, óxido cuproso (120 µg mL-1, hidróxido de cobre (138,2 µg mL-1, sulfato de estreptomicina (25 µg mL-1 e Agrimaicin 500 (428 µg mL-1; e resistentes a kasugamicina (87 µg mL-1, agrimicina (200 µg mL-1, eritromicina (15 µg, gentamicina (10 µg, amoxicilina (10 µg, neomicina (30 µg, estreptomicina (10 µg, norfloxacina (10 µg e rifampicina (5 µg. Nenhum isolado apresentou atividade pectinolítica, amilolítica, celulolítica e proteolítica ou produção do polissacarídeo levana e da toxina siringomicina. Foi constatada variabilidade entre os 41 isolados de A. avenae subsp. citrulli quanto à sensibilidade à tetraciclina (30 µg, sendo 41,5% resistentes, 46,3% moderadamente sensíveis e 12,2% altamente sensíveis.Forty-one isolates of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli were characterized based on physiological and biochemical aspects. All isolates induced typical symptoms of fruit blotch on seedlings, plants and fruits of melon (Cucumis melo and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus. The

  2. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri type IV Pilus is required for twitching motility, biofilm development, and adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunger, German; Guzzo, Cristiane R; Andrade, Maxuel O; Jones, Jeffrey B; Farah, Chuck S

    2014-10-01

    Bacterial type IV pili (T4P) are long, flexible surface filaments that consist of helical polymers of mostly pilin subunits. Cycles of polymerization, attachment, and depolymerization mediate several pilus-dependent bacterial behaviors, including twitching motility, surface adhesion, pathogenicity, natural transformation, escape from immune system defense mechanisms, and biofilm formation. The Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri strain 306 genome codes for a large set of genes involved in T4P biogenesis and regulation and includes several pilin homologs. We show that X. citri subsp. citri can exhibit twitching motility in a manner similar to that observed in other bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Xylella fastidiosa and that this motility is abolished in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri knockout strains in the genes coding for the major pilin subunit PilAXAC3241, the ATPases PilBXAC3239 and PilTXAC2924, and the T4P biogenesis regulators PilZXAC1133 and FimXXAC2398. Microscopy analyses were performed to compare patterns of bacterial migration in the wild-type and knockout strains and we observed that the formation of mushroom-like structures in X. citri subsp. citri biofilm requires a functional T4P. Finally, infection of X. citri subsp. citri cells by the bacteriophage (ΦXacm4-11 is T4P dependent. The results of this study improve our understanding of how T4P influence Xanthomonas motility, biofilm formation, and susceptibility to phage infection. PMID:25180689

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Strain S31A1, Isolated from Equine Infectious Endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Piedade, Isabelle; Skive, Bolette; Christensen, Henrik; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2013-01-01

    We present the draft genome sequence of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus S31A1, a strain isolated from equine infectious endometritis in Denmark. Comparative analyses of this genome were done with four published reference genomes: S. zooepidemicus strains MGCS10565, ATCC 35246, and H70 and S. equi subsp. equi strain 4047. PMID:24009118

  4. Xylella fastidiosa Isolates from Both subsp. multiplex and fastidiosa Cause Disease on Southern Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) Under Greenhouse Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J E; Cobine, P A; De La Fuente, L

    2015-07-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited gram-negative plant pathogen that affects numerous crop species, including grape, citrus, peach, pecan, and almond. Recently, X. fastidiosa has also been found to be the cause of bacterial leaf scorch on blueberry in the southeastern United States. Thus far, all X. fastidiosa isolates obtained from infected blueberry have been classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex; however, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates are also present in the southeastern United States and commonly cause Pierce's disease of grapevines. In this study, seven southeastern U.S. isolates of X. fastidiosa, including three X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates from grape, one X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolate from elderberry, and three X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry, were used to infect the southern highbush blueberry 'Rebel'. Following inoculation, all isolates colonized blueberry, and isolates from both X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex and X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa caused symptoms, including characteristic stem yellowing and leaf scorch symptoms as well as dieback of the stem tips. Two X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry caused more severe symptoms than the other isolates examined, and infection with these two isolates also had a significant impact on host mineral nutrient content in sap and leaves. These findings have potential implications for understanding X. fastidiosa host adaptation and expansion and the development of emerging diseases caused by this bacterium. PMID:25738552

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Strain S31A1, Isolated from Equine Infectious Endometritis

    OpenAIRE

    da Piedade, Isabelle; Skive, Bolette; Christensen, Henrik; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2013-01-01

    We present the draft genome sequence of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus S31A1, a strain isolated from equine infectious endometritis in Denmark. Comparative analyses of this genome were done with four published reference genomes: S. zooepidemicus strains MGCS10565, ATCC 35246, and H70 and S. equi subsp. equi strain 4047.

  6. Characterization of free exopolysaccharides secreted by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clothilde Bertin

    Full Text Available Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is a severe respiratory disease of cattle that is caused by a bacterium of the Mycoplasma genus, namely Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm. In the absence of classical virulence determinants, the pathogenicity of Mmm is thought to rely on intrinsic metabolic functions and specific components of the outer cell surface. One of these latter, the capsular polysaccharide galactan has been notably demonstrated to play a role in Mmm persistence and dissemination. The free exopolysaccharides (EPS, also produced by Mmm and shown to circulate in the blood stream of infected cattle, have received little attention so far. Indeed, their characterization has been hindered by the presence of polysaccharide contaminants in the complex mycoplasma culture medium. In this study, we developed a method to produce large quantities of EPS by transfer of mycoplasma cells from their complex broth to a chemically defined medium and subsequent purification. NMR analyses revealed that the purified, free EPS had an identical β(1->6-galactofuranosyl structure to that of capsular galactan. We then analyzed intraclonal Mmm variants that produce opaque/translucent colonies on agar. First, we demonstrated that colony opacity was related to the production of a capsule, as observed by electron microscopy. We then compared the EPS extracts and showed that the non-capsulated, translucent colony variants produced higher amounts of free EPS than the capsulated, opaque colony variants. This phenotypic variation was associated with an antigenic variation of a specific glucose phosphotransferase permease. Finally, we conducted in silico analyses of candidate polysaccharide biosynthetic pathways in order to decipher the potential link between glucose phosphotransferase permease activity and attachment/release of galactan. The co-existence of variants producing alternative forms of galactan (capsular versus free extracellular galactan and associated

  7. Characterization of the Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida type IV pilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogaj, Xhavit; Chakraborty, Subhra; Liu, Jirong; Thanassi, David G; Klose, Karl E

    2008-07-01

    Francisella tularensis causes the disease tularaemia. Type IV pili (Tfp) genes are present in the genomes of all F. tularensis subspecies. We show that the wild-type F. tularensis subsp. novicida expresses pilus fibres on its surface, and mutations in the Tfp genes pilF and pilT disrupt pilus biogenesis. Mutations in other Tfp genes (pilQ and pilG) do not eliminate pilus expression. A mutation in pilE4 eliminates pilus expression, whereas mutations in the other pilin subunits pilE1-3 and pilE5 do not, suggesting that pilE4 is the major pilus structural subunit. The virulence regulator MglA is required for pilus expression, and it regulates the transcription of a putative Tfp glycosylation gene (FTN0431). However, MglA does not regulate transcription of pilF, pilT or pilE4, and a strain lacking FTN0431 still expresses pili; thus, it is unclear how MglA regulates pilus expression. Only pilF was also required for protein secretion, while pilE4 and pilT were not, indicating that there is very little overlap of the protein secretion/Tfp functions of the pil genes. The protein secretion component pilE1 was more important for in vitro intramacrophage growth and mouse virulence than the Tfp component pilE4. Our results provide the first genetic characterization of the novel Tfp system of F. tularensis. PMID:18599841

  8. Molecular Subtyping of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum in Lisbon, Portugal▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R.; Prieto, E.; Águas, M. J.; Manata, M. J.; Botas, J.; Martins Pereira, F.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reproducibility of a molecular method for the subtyping of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and to discriminate strains of this microorganism from strains from patients with syphilis. We studied 212 specimens from a total of 82 patients with different stages of syphilis (14 primary, 7 secondary and 61 latent syphilis). The specimens were distributed as follows: genital ulcers (n = 9), skin and mucosal lesions (n = 7), blood (n = 82), plasma (n = 82), and ear lobe scrapings (n = 32). The samples were assayed by a PCR technique to amplify a segment of the polymerase gene I (polA). Positive samples were typed on the basis of the analysis of two variable genes, tpr and arp. Sixty-two of the 90 samples positive for polA yielded typeable Treponema pallidum DNA. All skin lesions in which T. pallidum was identified (six of six [100%]) were found to contain enough DNA for typing of the organism. It was also possible to type DNA from 7/9 (77.7%) genital ulcer samples, 13/22 (59.1%) blood samples, 20/32 (62.5%) plasma samples, and 16/21 (76.2%) ear lobe scrapings. The same subtype was identified in all samples from the same patient. Five molecular subtypes (subtypes 10a, 14a, 14c, 14f, and 14g) were identified, with the most frequently found subtype being subtype 14a and the least frequently found subtype being subtype 10a. In conclusion, the subtyping technique used in this study seems to have good reproducibility. To our knowledge, subtype 10a was identified for the first time. Further studies are needed to explain the presence of this subtype in Portugal, namely, its relationship to the Treponema pallidum strains circulating in the African countries where Portuguese is spoken. PMID:19494073

  9. Fortunella margarita Transcriptional Reprogramming Triggered by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalaf Abeer A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citrus canker disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc has become endemic in areas where high temperature, rain, humidity, and windy conditions provide a favourable environment for the dissemination of the bacterium. Xcc is pathogenic on many commercial citrus varieties but appears to elicit an incompatible reaction on the citrus relative Fortunella margarita Swing (kumquat, in the form of a very distinct delayed necrotic response. We have developed subtractive libraries enriched in sequences expressed in kumquat leaves during both early and late stages of the disease. The isolated differentially expressed transcripts were subsequently sequenced. Our results demonstrate how the use of microarray expression profiling can help assign roles to previously uncharacterized genes and elucidate plant pathogenesis-response related mechanisms. This can be considered to be a case study in a citrus relative where high throughput technologies were utilized to understand defence mechanisms in Fortunella and citrus at the molecular level. Results cDNAs from sequenced kumquat libraries (ESTs made from subtracted RNA populations, healthy vs. infected, were used to make this microarray. Of 2054 selected genes on a customized array, 317 were differentially expressed (P Conclusion Functional categorization of kumquat Xcc-responsive genes revealed an enhanced defence-related metabolism as well as a number of resistant response-specific genes in the kumquat transcriptome in response to Xcc inoculation. Gene expression profile(s were analyzed to assemble a comprehensive and inclusive image of the molecular interaction in the kumquat/Xcc system. This was done in order to elucidate molecular mechanisms associated with the development of the hypersensitive response phenotype in kumquat leaves. These data will be used to perform comparisons among citrus species to evaluate means to enhance the host immune responses

  10. Interaction between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and environmental protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Michael T

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interactions between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map and free-living protozoa in water are likely to occur in nature. The potential impact of ingestion of Map by two naturally occurring Acanthamoeba spp. on this pathogen's survival and chlorine resistance was investigated. Results Between 4.6 and 9.1% of spiked populations of three Map strains (NCTC 8578, B2 and ATCC 19698, which had been added at a multiplicity of infection of 10:1, were ingested by Acanthamoeba castellanii CCAP 1501/1B and A. polyphaga CCAP 1501/3B during co-culture for 3 h at 25°C. Map cells were observed to be present within the vacuoles of the amoebae by acid-fast staining. During extended co-culture of Map NCTC 8578 at 25°C for 24 d with both A. castellanii and A. polyphaga Map numbers did not change significantly during the first 7 days of incubation, however a 1–1.5 log10 increase in Map numbers was observed between days 7 and 24 within both Acanthamoeba spp. Ingested Map cells were shown to be more resistant to chlorine inactivation than free Map. Exposure to 2 μg/ml chlorine for 30 min resulted in a log10 reduction of 0.94 in ingested Map but a log10 reduction of 1.73 in free Map (p Conclusion This study demonstrated that ingestion of Map by and survival and multiplication of Map within Acanthamoeba spp. is possible, and that Map cells ingested by amoebae are more resistant to inactivation by chlorine than free Map cells. These findings have implications with respect to the efficacy of chlorination applied to Map infected surface waters.

  11. Characteristics of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides strains from fresh vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Gordana R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Strains synthesizing extracellular polysaccharide dextran on a medium with 10% sucrose were isolated from different kind of vegetables (cabbage, cucumber, cauliflower, kohlrabi, carrot, green beans, red beet, pepper, eggplant, radish. Carbohydrate fermentation was examined using a bioMerieux API 50 CHL test system. Among micropopulations with characteristic spherical cell morphology, 94.9% belonged to Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and 5.1% were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum. According to fermentation of pentoses L. mesenteroides strains were divided into three groups with a certain number of biotypes; 10 strains were tested on acid production. .

  12. Reação de cultivares de batata à podridão mole causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum, por P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum e por P. chrysanthemi Reaction of potato cultivars to soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum, P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and P. chrysanthemi

    OpenAIRE

    Adilce I. H. Benelli; Norimar D. Denardin; CARLOS A. FORCELINI; Valmir Duarte

    2004-01-01

    A podridão mole em tubérculos de batata (Solanum tuberosum), causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum, por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum e por P. chrysanthemi, é uma preocupante doença que causa danos expressivos à cultura em todo o mundo. Como inexiste tratamento eficiente para a podridão mole, o desenvolvimento de cultivares resistentes é considerado o método mais eficaz para a redução de perdas causadas pela doença. Nesse sentido, quatro cultivares de bata...

  13. Identification and characterization of a previously undescribed cyt gene in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Guerchicoff, A; Ugalde, R A; Rubinstein, C P

    1997-01-01

    Mosquitocidal Bacillus thuringiensis strains show as a common feature the presence of toxic proteins with cytolytic and hemolytic activities, Cyt1Aa1 being the characteristic cytolytic toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. We have detected the presence of another cyt gene in this subspecies, highly homologous to cyt2An1, coding for the 29-kDa cytolytic toxin from B. thuringiensis subsp. kyushuensis. This gene, designated cyt2Ba1, maps upstream of cry4B coding for the 130-kDa cry...

  14. Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118, a GABA-Producing Strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Letícia C; Saraiva, Tessália D L; Soares, Siomar C;

    2014-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118 is a nondairy lactic acid bacterium, a xylose fermenter, and a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producer isolated from frozen peas. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of L. lactis NCDO 2118, a strain with probiotic potential activity.......Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118 is a nondairy lactic acid bacterium, a xylose fermenter, and a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producer isolated from frozen peas. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of L. lactis NCDO 2118, a strain with probiotic potential activity....

  15. Isolation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (O:4,5:i and Salmonella enterica subsp. Typhimurium from free-living domestic pigeons (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Rocha-e-Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the isolation of Salmonella enterica in organs of free-living domestic pigeons. In the clinic examination, the presence of feces in the peri-cloacal and abdominal regions were observed, as well as symptoms such as cachexy, incoordination and opisthotonos. Before any therapeutic protocol was applied the bird died and a necropsy was then performed for the removal of spleen, liver, kidney and intestine for bacteriological examination and antibiotic sensitivity test. Salmonella enterica subsp.enterica (O:4,5:i- and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium were isolated from the liver and intestine and the sensitivity test demonstrated that these strains are sensitive to several antibiotics.

  16. Complete Genome and Methylome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Panama (ATCC 7378) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Sloterdijk (ATCC 15791)

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Kuan; Muruvanda, Tim; Roberts, Richard J.; Payne, Justin; Allard, Marc W.; Hoffmann, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica spp. are pathogenic bacteria commonly associated with food-borne outbreaks in human and animals. Salmonella enterica spp. are characterized into more than 2,500 different serotypes, which makes epidemiological surveillance and outbreak control more difficult. In this report, we announce the first complete genome and methylome sequences from two Salmonella type strains associated with food-borne outbreaks, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Panama (ATCC 7378) and S...

  17. Morphological, chemical and genetic differentiation of two subspecies of Cistus creticus L. (C. creticus subsp. eriocephalus and C. creticus subsp. corsicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Julien; Falchi, Alessandra; Quilichini, Yann; Desjobert, Jean-Marie; Cian, Marie-Cecile De; Varesi, Laurent; Costa, Jean

    2009-06-01

    Cistus creticus L., an aromatic species from the Mediterranean area, contains various diterpenes bearing the labdane skeleton. The production of essential oil from this species has potential economic value, but so far, it has not been optimized. In order to contribute to a better knowledge of this species and to its differentiation, the morphological characters, volatile chemical composition and genetic data of two subspecies (C. creticus subsp. eriocephalus and C. creticus subsp. corsicus) were investigated. The leaf trichomes were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The chemical composition of Corsican essential oil (C. creticus subsp. corsicus) has been reported using GC, GC/MS and 13C NMR; the main constituents were oxygenated labdane diterpenes (33.9%) such as 13-epi-manoyl oxide (18.5%). Using plant material (54 samples) collected from 18 geographically distinct areas of the islands of Corsica and Sardinia, the basis of variation in the headspace solid-phase microextraction volatile fraction and an inter-simple sequence repeat genetic analysis were also examined. It was shown that the two subspecies of C. creticus differed in morphology, essential oil production, volatile fraction composition and genetic data. PMID:19660770

  18. Foliar application of biofilm formation-inhibiting compounds enhances control of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyun; Wang, Nian

    2014-02-01

    Citrus canker caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is an economically important disease of citrus worldwide. Biofilm formation plays an important role in early infection of X. citri subsp. citri on host leaves. In this study, we assessed the hypothesis that small molecules inhibiting biofilm formation reduce X. citri subsp. citri infection and enhance the control of citrus canker disease. D-leucine and 3-indolylacetonitrile (IAN) were found to prevent biofilm formation by X. citri subsp. citri on different abiotic surfaces and host leaves at a concentration lower than the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that IAN repressed expression of chemotaxis/motility-related genes in X. citri subsp. citri. In laboratory experiments, planktonic and biofilm cells of X. citri subsp. citri treated with D-leucine and IAN, either alone or in combination, were more susceptible to copper (CuSO4) than those untreated. In greenhouse assays, D-leucine and IAN applied alone or combined with copper reduced both the number of canker lesions and bacterial populations of X. citri subsp. citri on citrus host leaves. This study provides the basis for the use of foliar-applied biofilm inhibitors for the control of citrus canker alone or combined with copper-based bactericides. PMID:23901828

  19. Divergent immune responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection correlate with kinome responses at the site of intestinal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttänen, Pekka; Trost, Brett; Scruten, Erin; Potter, Andrew; Kusalik, Anthony; Griebel, Philip; Napper, Scott

    2013-08-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD) in cattle. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infects the gastrointestinal tract of calves, localizing and persisting primarily in the distal ileum. A high percentage of cattle exposed to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis do not develop JD, but the mechanisms by which they resist infection are not understood. Here, we merge an established in vivo bovine intestinal segment model for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection with bovine-specific peptide kinome arrays as a first step to understanding how infection influences host kinomic responses at the site of infection. Application of peptide arrays to in vivo tissue samples represents a critical and ambitious step in using this technology to understand host-pathogen interactions. Kinome analysis was performed on intestinal samples from 4 ileal segments subdivided into 10 separate compartments (6 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected compartments and 4 intra-animal controls) using bovine-specific peptide arrays. Kinome data sets clustered into two groups, suggesting unique binary responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Similarly, two M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific immune responses, characterized by different antibody, T cell proliferation, and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) responses, were also observed. Interestingly, the kinomic groupings segregated with the immune response groupings. Pathway and gene ontology analyses revealed that differences in innate immune and interleukin signaling and particular differences in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway distinguished the kinomic groupings. Collectively, kinome analysis of tissue samples offers insight into the complex cellular responses induced by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the ileum and provides a novel method to understand mechanisms that alter the balance between cell-mediated and antibody responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. PMID

  20. Whole-genome sequencing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana strains isolated from agricultural sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report draft genomes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana strain CVM42234 isolated from chick feed in 2012 and Salmonella Cubana strain 76814 isolated from swine in 2004. The genome sizes are 4,975,046 and 4,936,251 base pairs, respectively....

  1. Red stripe caused by Acidovirax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red stripe of sugarcane caused by Acidovirax avenae subsp. avenae is considered to be of minor importance because, most often when found, only the mild leaf stripe symptom is observed. In 2010, both leaf stripe and the more severe top rot symptom were observed in commercial sugarcane fields in Louis...

  2. Thymus herba-barona subsp. bivalens, a new endemic taxon from the Balearic Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Mayol Martínez, Maria; Sáez, Llorenç; Rosselló, Josep Antoni

    1998-01-01

    Se describe un nuevo taxón (Thymus herba-barona subsp. bivalens) de la zona montañosa de Mallorca que se distingue del tipo por ser diploide (2n=28), presentar hojas glabras (con algunos tricomas pluricelulares en el haz), dientes inferiores del cáliz menores y la longitud del tubo mayor que los dientes calicinales.

  3. Intraspecific variability of the essential oil of Calamintha nepeta subsp. nepeta from Southern Italy (Apulia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, C; Notarnicola, S; De Bellis, L; Miceli, A

    2013-03-01

    The essential oil of 46 spontaneous plants of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta growing wild in Sud, Italy (Salento, Apulia), were investigated by GC/MS. Fifty-seven components were identified in the oil representing over the 98% of the total oil composition. Four chemotypes were identified: piperitone oxide, piperitenone oxide, piperitone-menthone and pulegone. PMID:22646908

  4. The genome sequence of the gram-positive sugarcane pathogen Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro-Vitorello, Claudia B; Camargo, Luis E A; Van Sluys, Marie A; Kitajima, João P; Truffi, Daniela; do Amaral, Alexandre M; Harakava, Ricardo; de Oliveira, Julio C F; Wood, Derek; de Oliveira, Mariana C; Miyaki, Cristina; Takita, Marco A; da Silva, Ana C R; Furlan, Luis R; Carraro, Dirce M; Camarotte, Giovana; Almeida, Nalvo F; Carrer, Helaine; Coutinho, Luiz L; El-Dorry, Hamza A; Ferro, Maria I T; Gagliardi, Paulo R; Giglioti, Eder; Goldman, Maria H S; Goldman, Gustavo H; Kimura, Edna T; Ferro, Emer S; Kuramae, Eiko E; Lemos, Eliana G M; Lemos, Manoel V F; Mauro, Sonia M Z; Machado, Marcos A; Marino, Celso L; Menck, Carlos F; Nunes, Luiz R; Oliveira, Regina C; Pereira, Gonsalo G; Siqueira, Walter; de Souza, Alessandra A; Tsai, Siu M; Zanca, A S; Simpson, Andrew J G; Brumbley, Stevens M; Setúbal, João C

    2004-08-01

    The genome sequence of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli, which causes ratoon stunting disease and affects sugarcane worldwide, was determined. The single circular chromosome of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli CTCB07 was 2.6 Mb in length with a GC content of 68% and 2,044 predicted open reading frames. The analysis also revealed 307 predicted pseudogenes, which is more than any bacterial plant pathogen sequenced to date. Many of these pseudogenes, if functional, would likely be involved in the degradation of plant heteropolysaccharides, uptake of free sugars, and synthesis of amino acids. Although L. xyli subsp. xyli has only been identified colonizing the xylem vessels of sugarcane, the numbers of predicted regulatory genes and sugar transporters are similar to those in free-living organisms. Some of the predicted pathogenicity genes appear to have been acquired by lateral transfer and include genes for cellulase, pectinase, wilt-inducing protein, lysozyme, and desaturase. The presence of the latter may contribute to stunting, since it is likely involved in the synthesis of abscisic acid, a hormone that arrests growth. Our findings are consistent with the nutritionally fastidious behavior exhibited by L. xyli subsp. xyli and suggest an ongoing adaptation to the restricted ecological niche it inhabits. PMID:15305603

  5. Comparison of nine PCR primer sets designed to detect Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, the causal agent of Stewart's bacterial wilt of maize, is a major quarantine pest in maize seed. Verifying freedom from P. stewartii remains a significant hurdle in exporting corn seed from the U.S. Several PCR primer sets have been developed and suggested as bein...

  6. Tulum Peynirlerinden izole Edilen Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis YBML9 ve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin TUNCER

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalısmanın amacı tulum peynirlerinden izole edilen Lactococcus lactis suslarının fenotipik tanısı ve bu suslar tarafından üretilen bakteriyosinlerin kısmi karakterizasyonlarıdır. Bu amaçla Türkiye'nin sekiz farklı ilinden (Ankara, Antalya, Burdur, Denizli, Erzincan, Isparta, İstanbul ve İzmir yöresel pazarlardan toplanan 60 adet tulum peyniri örneginden 40 adet Lactococcus lactis susu (31 adet L. lactis subsp. lactis ve 9 adet L. lactis subsp. cremoris izole edildi. 40 adet L. lactis susu içerisinden, 2 adet L. lactis subsp. lactis (YBML9 ve YBML21 susu bakteriyosin üretme yeteneginde bulundu. L. lactis subsp. lactis YBML9 ve YBML21 susları tarafından üretilen bakteriyosinler, farklı enzim, pH ve sıcaklık uygulamaları sonucu; sırasıyla nisin ve laktisin 481 olarak tanımlandı.

  7. Mycobacterium avium Subsp. avium Infection in Four Veal Calves: Differentiation from Intestinal Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Goepfert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (Maa is an intracellular pathogen belonging to the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC. Reservoirs of MAC are the natural environment, wildlife and domestic animals. In adult bovine, MAC infections are typically caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map. Maa infections in bovine are rarely reported but may cause clinical disease and pathological lesions similar to those observed in paratuberculosis or those induced by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC. Therefore, differentiation of MAC from MTBC infection should be attempted, especially if unusual mycobacterial lesions are encountered. Four veal calves from a fattening farm dying with clinical signs of otitis media, fever, and weight loss were submitted for necropsy. Samples from affected organs were taken for histologic investigation, bacteriologic culture, and bacterial specification using PCR. Macroscopic thickening of the intestinal mucosa was induced by granulomatous enteritis and colitis. Intracytoplasmic acid-fast bacteria were detected by Ziehl-Neelsen stains and PCR revealed positive results for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. Clinical and pathological changes of Maa infection in veal calves had features of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and the MTBC. Therefore, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection should be considered in cases of granulomatous enteritis in calves.

  8. Desiccation sensitivity and cell cycle aspects in seeds of Inga vera subsp. affinis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faria, J.M.R.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    The desiccation sensitivity of seeds of Inga vera Willd. subsp. affinis, a recalcitrant-seeded tree from Brazil, was analysed, focusing on water relations and cell-cycle aspects, including DNA content and the microtubular cytoskeleton. Seeds were collected at four developmental stages, dried to diff

  9. Complete genome sequence of salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Thompson Strain RM6836

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Thompson (S. Thompson) strain RM6836 was isolated from lettuce in 2002. We report the complete sequence and annotation of the genome of S. Thompson strain RM6836. This is the first reported complete genome sequence for S. Thompson and will provide a point ...

  10. Characterization of cry1Cb3 and cry1Fb7 from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. galleriae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huang, T.; Xiao, Y.; Pan, J.; Zhang, L.; Gelbič, Ivan; Guan, X.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2015), s. 521-528. ISSN 2391-5412 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. galleriae * PCR-RFLP * cloning Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/biol.2015.10.issue-1/biol-2015-0054/biol-2015-0054.xml

  11. Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Against a Major Membrane Protein of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis 35-kDa major membrane protein (MMP) encoded by MAP2121c has been shown to play a role in invasion of epithelial cells and is an important membrane antigen recognized by cattle with Johne’s disease. In this study, purified recombinant MMP was used to p...

  12. New Tricks from an Old Cow: Infective Endocarditis Caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordal, Stina; Glambek, Marte; Oppegaard, Oddvar

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae, a major cause of bovine mastitis and previously thought to be an animal-restricted pathogen. The patient reported no direct contact with animals, and the clinical course was severe and complicated. PMID:25472489

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium fortuitum subsp. fortuitum Type Strain DSM46621

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Y. S

    2012-10-26

    Mycobacterium fortuitum is a member of the rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). It is ubiquitous in water and soil habitats, including hospital environments. M. fortuitum is increasingly recognized as an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen causing disseminated infection. Here we report the genome sequence of M. fortuitum subsp. fortuitum type strain DSM46621.

  14. Demodicosis in Chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra subsp. rupicapra) in the Italian Alps, 2013-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Claudia; Formenti, Nicoletta; Trogu, Tiziana; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Papini, Roberto A; Poli, Alessandro

    2016-04-28

    We report demodicosis in five alpine chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra subsp. rupicapra) from the Italian Alps that showed moderate crusts on the head and dorsal aspect of the trunk. We detected intramural folliculitis, moderate dermatitis, and T-lymphocytes and macrophages associated with Demodex spp. in follicles and sebaceous glands. PMID:26981687

  15. INGESTION AND ADSORPTION OF 'BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS' SUBSP. 'ISRAELENSIS' BY 'GAMMARUS LACUSTRIS' IN THE LABORATORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several groups of Gammarus lacustris adults were exposed to solutions containing 0.5 and 5.0 mg of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis per liter for 1- or 24-hour periods by using traditional static bioassay exposure procedures. The experiments verified that traditional exp...

  16. Inactivation of Spores of Bacillus anthracis Sterne, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis by Chlorination

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, E W; Adcock, N. J.; Sivaganesan, M; Rose, L. J.

    2005-01-01

    Three species of Bacillus were evaluated as potential surrogates for Bacillus anthracis for determining the sporicidal activity of chlorination as commonly used in drinking water treatment. Spores of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis were found to be an appropriate surrogate for spores of B. anthracis for use in chlorine inactivation studies.

  17. Transformation of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. galleria protoplasts by plasmid pBC16.

    OpenAIRE

    Alikhanian, S. I.; Ryabchenko, N F; Bukanov, N O; Sakanyan, V A

    1981-01-01

    Protoplasts of the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. galleria were transformed by plasmid pBC16. The frequency of transformation was much lower than that of Bacillus subtilis. All isolated B. thuringiensis transformants were characterized by increased sensitivity to lysozyme as compared with the original strain.

  18. Different Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis MIRU-VNTR patterns coexist within cattle herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzen, van K.J.E.; Heuven, H.C.M.; Nielen, M.; Hoeboer, J.; Santema, W.J.; Koets, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    A better understanding of the biodiversity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) offers more insight in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis and therefore may contribute to the control of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity in bovine MAP isolate

  19. Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a Longitudinal Study of Three Dairy Herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether cows that were low shedders of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) were passive shedding animals or whether they were truly infected with MAP. We also evaluated whether these MAP-infected animals could have been infected as adults by ...

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of the Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum Sea81-4 Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacani, Lorenzo; Iverson-Cabral, Stefanie L; King, Jordon C K; Molini, Barbara J; Lukehart, Sheila A; Centurion-Lara, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Using the rabbit model of syphilis, the Sea81-4 strain of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum has been found to be more likely than other strains to invade the central nervous system (CNS). To identify possible explanations for this important phenotype at the genomic level, we sequenced the Sea81-4 strain genome. PMID:24744342

  1. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Milk from Clinically Affected Cows by PCR and culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Steen Bjørck; Ahrens, Peter

    Milk and faecal samples from cows with clinical symptoms of paratuberculosis were examined for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp.paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis) by culture and PCR. M. a. paratuberculosis was isolated in varied numbers from faeces or intestinal mucosa in 8 of 11...

  2. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Drinking Water and Biofilms Using Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne’s disease in domestic animals and has been implicated in Crohn’s disease in humans. Cows infected with Johne’s disease shed large quantities of MAP into soil. Further, MAP has been isolated from surface water, is resi...

  3. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Tanacetum praeteritum subsp praeteritum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goren, N; Woerdenbag, HJ; BozokJohansson, C

    1996-01-01

    Ten sesquiterpene lactones and one sesquiterpene isolated from Tanacetum praeteritum subsp. praeteritum: 1 alpha,6 alpha-dihydroxyisocostic acid methyl ester (2), 1 alpha-hydroxy-1-deoxoarglanine (3), douglanin (5), santamarin (6), reynosin (7), 1-epi-tatridin B (8), ludovicin A (10), armexin (12),

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa Strain Stag’s Leap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F.; Zheng, Z.; Deng, X.; Burbank, L. P.; Stenger, D. C.

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa causes Pierce’s disease of grapevine. Presented here is the draft genome sequence of the Stag’s Leap strain, previously used in pathogenicity/virulence assays to evaluate grapevine germplasm bearing Pierce’s disease resistance and a phenotypic assessment of knockout mutants to determine gene function. PMID:27103713

  5. From mouth to macrophage: mechanisms of innate immune subversion by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johne’s disease (JD) is a chronic enteric infection of cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The high economic cost and potential zoonotic threat of JD have driven efforts to develop tools and approaches to effectively manage this disease within livestock herds. Efforts...

  6. Isolation of Endoglucanase Genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa and a Pseudomonas sp

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Bruce R.; Mudry, Terry A.; Glick, Bernard R.; Pasternak, J J

    1986-01-01

    Endoglucanase genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa and Pseudomonas sp. were cloned and characterized. DNA hybridization studies showed that these genes are homologous and that each species has one copy of the gene per genome. The DNA fragment from Pseudomonas sp. codes for, at most, a 23-kilodalton endoglucanase.

  7. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri associated with goat respiratory disease and high flock mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Laura; Lopez, Jose; St-Jacques, Marcel; Ontiveros, Lourdes; Acosta, Jorge; Handel, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    A high mortality outbreak of respiratory mycoplasmosis occurred in goats in Mexico. The clinicopathologic presentation resembled contagious caprine pleuropneumonia caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae. By using a battery of polymerase chain reaction assays, the mycoplasma associated with this outbreak was identified as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri.

  8. Studies upon morhological and biological traits of Festuca rubra, subsp.fallax (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Sawicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Observation and measurements of some traits of Festuca rubra L., subsp. fallax (Thuill. Hack. ecotypes were made in 1995-1997 using samples selected from natural habitats and collected in Grassland Experimental Station in Sosnowica. High differentiation of traits under study and their correlations were found. Valorized ecotypes are good material for new varieties breeding.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Strain HD73

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guiming; Song, Lai; Shu, Changlong; Wang, Pinshu; Deng, Chao; Peng, Qi; Lereclus, Didier; Wang, Xumin; Huang, Dafang; Zhang, Jie; Song, Fuping

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive bacterium that produces intracellular protein crystals toxic to a wide variety of insect larvae. We report the complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain HD73 from the Centre OILB (Institut Pasteur, France), which belongs to serotype 3ab and is toxic to lepidopteran larvae.

  10. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae bacteremia in a father and daughter with neurological disease

    OpenAIRE

    Woods Christopher W; Hegarty Barbara C; Lantos Paul M; Maggi Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt Edward B; Bradley Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii is an important, emerging, intravascular bacterial pathogen that has been recently isolated from immunocompetent patients with endocarditis, arthritis, neurological disease and vasoproliferative neoplasia. Vector transmission is suspected among dogs and wild canines, which are the primary reservoir hosts. This investigation was initiated to determine if pets and family members were infected with one or more Bartonella species. Methods ...

  11. Fatal Relapse of a Purulent Pleurisy Caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Prouzet-Mauléon, Valérie; Bartizel, Christine; Gin, Thomas; Colin, Jean-Pierre; Fadel, Nicolas; Holler, C.; Pollet, J.; Megraud, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus is associated with invasive disease, while other Campylobacter species, such as C. coli and C. jejuni, are a common cause of bacterial diarrhea. Bacteremia has been well described, but pleurisy remains very uncommon. We report the recurrent isolation of a C. fetus subsp. fetus strain during two episodes of pleural effusion with a fatal outcome.

  12. Fatal relapse of a purulent pleurisy caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Prouzet-Mauléon, Valérie; Bartizel, Christine; Gin, Thomas; Colin, Jean-Pierre; Fadel, Nicolas; Holler, C; Pollet, J; Megraud, Francis

    2007-07-01

    Campylobacter fetus is associated with invasive disease, while other Campylobacter species, such as C. coli and C. jejuni, are a common cause of bacterial diarrhea. Bacteremia has been well described, but pleurisy remains very uncommon. We report the recurrent isolation of a C. fetus subsp. fetus strain during two episodes of pleural effusion with a fatal outcome. PMID:17507518

  13. Fatal Relapse of a Purulent Pleurisy Caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Prouzet-Mauléon, Valérie; Bartizel, Christine; Gin, Thomas; Colin, Jean-Pierre; Fadel, Nicolas; Holler, C.; Pollet, J.; Megraud, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus is associated with invasive disease, while other Campylobacter species, such as C. coli and C. jejuni, are a common cause of bacterial diarrhea. Bacteremia has been well described, but pleurisy remains very uncommon. We report the recurrent isolation of a C. fetus subsp. fetus strain during two episodes of pleural effusion with a fatal outcome. PMID:17507518

  14. Optimization of hexadecylpyridinium chloride decontamination for culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cows in advanced stages of Johne’s disease shed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) into both their milk and feces, allowing for transmission of the bacteria between animals. The objective of this study was to formulate an optimized protocol for the isolation of MAP from milk and colos...

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae DSM 30104T

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Je Hee; Cheon, In Su; Shim, Byoung-Shik; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Suhng Wook; Chun, Jongsik; Song, Manki

    2012-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, nonmotile, and opportunistic pathogenic species with clinical importance. It is a part of natural flora of humans and animals. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the type strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae (DSM 30104T) to provide taxonomic and functional insights into the species.

  16. Lactobacillus Paracasei subsp. Paracasei F19: a farmacogenomic and clinical update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Di Cerbo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many reports in literature have underlined particular features of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei F19, however a critical review of main clinical outcomes has not been performed so far. Objectives: This review summarizes the most relevant reports, in terms of clinical benefits, of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei F19 administration reviewing it's historical background and outlining new interesting perspectives in clinical practice. Methods: We searched Pubmed/Medline using the terms "Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei F19". All clinical and experimental articles on the use of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei F19 were included. Results and discussion: The genetic stability of F19, the most relevant clinical claim, renders it's administration reliable and effective in immunocompromised people. Adequate concentrations of this strain support a dose/effect strategy ranging between NF B host macrophage activation to pathogenic bacteria overgrowth control as well as to fine interaction with the gut nerve endings. Moreover preliminary results from our lab support the formulation of F19 encapsulated with lyophilized HA in patients with IBD due to both an increased mucous-strain adherence and a possible enhanced strain proliferation and maintenance. Conclusions: Further experiments are required to overcome the lack of informations about this new formulation for IBD management.

  17. Conditioned food aversion for control of poisoning by Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conditioned food aversion is a technique that can be used to train livestock to avoid ingestion of poisonous plants. This study tested the efficacy and durability of conditioned food aversion to eliminate goat’s consumption of Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa. We used 14 young Moxotó goats, which wer...

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of the Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum Sea81-4 Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Giacani, Lorenzo; Iverson-Cabral, Stefanie L.; King, Jordon C. K.; Molini, Barbara J.; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Centurion-Lara, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Using the rabbit model of syphilis, the Sea81-4 strain of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum has been found to be more likely than other strains to invade the central nervous system (CNS). To identify possible explanations for this important phenotype at the genomic level, we sequenced the Sea81-4 strain genome.

  19. Selective enumeration and viability of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis in a new fermented milk product Enumeração seletiva e viabilidade de Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis em um novo produto lácteo fermentado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Elisabete Costa Antunes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the key focuses of today's dairy industry worldwide is the continued development of new products, especially probiotic-based products. Buttermilk is originally a by-product of butter making fermented by Mesophilic Aromatic Cultures (MAC. It can also be made by fermentation of pasteurized whole milk or skimmed milk. This product is not marketed in Brazil. The objectives of this work were: (1 to develop a selective medium for Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis enumeration and (2 to determine the viability of this microorganism during the shelf life of the buttermilk. Skim milk added with 10% sucrose or 0.03% sucralose was pasteurized and inoculated with a composite starter culture consisting of 1% MAC (containing Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris and 2% Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. To attain selective counts of Bif. animalis subsp. lactis the MRS agar supplemented with 0.5% L-cysteine hydrochloride at 10%, 1% lithium chloride at 10%, 0.01% aniline blue and 0.5% dicloxacillin at 0.1% was modified by increasing the antibiotic concentration, addition of NaCl, adjusting pH to 4.8 or increasing the incubation temperature (from 37 to 45ºC. Raising the incubation temperature to 45ºC was found to be efficient in inhibiting the MAC cultures, even in media not added with dicloxacillin. Bif. animalis subsp. lactis exhibited high viability in the product. The buttermilk product prepared with sucrose and sweetener contained in excess of 10(8 cfu.ml-1 bifidobacteria throughout the shelf life of the product (28 days.Atualmente, um dos principais focos da indústria de laticínios em todo o mundo é o desenvolvimento de novos produtos, especialmente probióticos. Buttermilk é originalmente um sub-produto do processamento da manteiga fermentado por Culturas Aromáticas Mesofílicas (MAC. Pode também ser

  20. Complete genome and comparative analysis of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, an emerging pathogen of infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreier Jens

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an important causative agent of infectious endocarditis, while the pathogenicity of this species is widely unclear. To gain insight into the pathomechanisms and the underlying genetic elements for lateral gene transfer, we sequenced the entire genome of this pathogen. Results We sequenced the whole genome of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain ATCC BAA-2069, consisting of a 2,356,444 bp circular DNA molecule with a G+C-content of 37.65% and a novel 20,765 bp plasmid designated as pSGG1. Bioinformatic analysis predicted 2,309 ORFs and the presence of 80 tRNAs and 21 rRNAs in the chromosome. Furthermore, 21 ORFs were detected on the plasmid pSGG1, including tetracycline resistance genes telL and tet(O/W/32/O. Screening of 41 S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolates revealed one plasmid (pSGG2 homologous to pSGG1. We further predicted 21 surface proteins containing the cell wall-sorting motif LPxTG, which were shown to play a functional role in the adhesion of bacteria to host cells. In addition, we performed a whole genome comparison to the recently sequenced S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus strain UCN34, revealing significant differences. Conclusions The analysis of the whole genome sequence of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus promotes understanding of genetic factors concerning the pathogenesis and adhesion to ECM of this pathogen. For the first time we detected the presence of the mobilizable pSGG1 plasmid, which may play a functional role in lateral gene transfer and promote a selective advantage due to a tetracycline resistance.

  1. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae bacteremia in a father and daughter with neurological disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woods Christopher W

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii is an important, emerging, intravascular bacterial pathogen that has been recently isolated from immunocompetent patients with endocarditis, arthritis, neurological disease and vasoproliferative neoplasia. Vector transmission is suspected among dogs and wild canines, which are the primary reservoir hosts. This investigation was initiated to determine if pets and family members were infected with one or more Bartonella species. Methods PCR and enrichment blood culture in Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM was used to determine infection status. Antibody titers to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotypes I-III and B. henselae were determined using a previously described indirect fluorescent antibody test. Two patients were tested sequentially for over a year to assess the response to antibiotic treatment. Results Intravascular infection with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype II and Bartonella henselae (Houston 1 strain were confirmed in a veterinarian and his daughter by enrichment blood culture, followed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Symptoms included progressive weight loss, muscle weakness, lack of coordination (the father and headaches, muscle pain and insomnia (the daughter. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype II was also sequenced from a cerebrospinal fluid BAPGM enrichment culture and from a periodontal swab sample. After repeated courses of antibiotics, post-treatment blood cultures were negative, there was a decremental decrease in antibody titers to non-detectable levels and symptoms resolved in both patients. Conclusions B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. henselae are zoonotic pathogens that can be isolated from the blood of immunocompetent family members with arthralgias, fatigue and neurological symptoms. Therapeutic elimination of Bartonella spp. infections can be challenging, and follow-up testing is recommended. An increasing number of arthropod

  2. Cyt1Ab1 and Cyt2Ba1 from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin and B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Synergize Bacillus sphaericus against Aedes aegypti and Resistant Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wirth, Margaret C.; Delécluse, Armelle; Walton, William E.

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of two cytolytic toxins, Cyt1Ab from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin and Cyt2Ba from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, with Bacillus sphaericus was evaluated against susceptible and resistant Culex quinquefasciatus and the nonsensitive species Aedes aegypti. Mixtures of B. sphaericus with either cytolytic toxin were synergistic, and B. sphaericus resistance in C. quinquefasciatus was suppressed from >17,000- to 2-fold with a 3:1 mixture of B. sphaericus and Cyt...

  3. Control of Brochothrix thermosphacta in pork meat using Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis I23 isolated from beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun A Olaoye

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the antimicrobial activities of two lactic acid bacteria (LAB Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis I23 and L. lactis subsp. hordinae E91 against Brochothrix thermosphacta in pork during storage at ambient temperature (30oC over 7 days. Both the LAB strains and spoilage organism were inoculated on fresh pork samples at 1x106cfu/g. About 3 log reduction in the spoilage organism was obtained in LAB treated samples after 48 h of storage. The spoilage organism was confirmed to be sensitive to the bacteriocin nisin produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis I23. There were reductions in the counts of Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus in the treated samples. Conclusively, growth of B. thermosphacta could be effectively controlled by nisin producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis I23 in fresh pork during storage, thereby enhancing shelf life of the product.

  4. Three Genome Sequences of Legionella pneumophila subsp. pascullei Associated with Colonization of a Health Care Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Kozak-Muiznieks, Natalia A.; Morrison, Shatavia S.; Sammons, Scott; Rowe, Lori A.; Sheth, Mili; Frace, Michael; Lucas, Claressa E.; Loparev, Vladimir N.; Raphael, Brian H.; Winchell, Jonas M.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequences of three Legionella pneumophila subsp. pascullei strains (including both serogroup 1 and 5 strains) that were found in the same health care facility in 1982 and 2012.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides T1/44, a Vaccine Strain against Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgues, Géraldine; Barré, Aurélien; Beaudoing, Emmanuel; Weber, Johann; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Barbe, Valérie; Schieck, Elise; Jores, Joerg; Vashee, Sanjay; Blanchard, Alain; Lartigue, Carole

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides is the etiologic agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. We report here the complete genome sequence of the strain T1/44, which is widely used as a live vaccine in Africa. PMID:27081135

  6. Three Genome Sequences of Legionella pneumophila subsp. pascullei Associated with Colonization of a Health Care Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak-Muiznieks, Natalia A.; Morrison, Shatavia S.; Sammons, Scott; Rowe, Lori A.; Sheth, Mili; Frace, Michael; Lucas, Claressa E.; Loparev, Vladimir N.; Raphael, Brian H.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequences of three Legionella pneumophila subsp. pascullei strains (including both serogroup 1 and 5 strains) that were found in the same health care facility in 1982 and 2012. PMID:27151801

  7. Three Genome Sequences of Legionella pneumophila subsp. pascullei Associated with Colonization of a Health Care Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak-Muiznieks, Natalia A; Morrison, Shatavia S; Sammons, Scott; Rowe, Lori A; Sheth, Mili; Frace, Michael; Lucas, Claressa E; Loparev, Vladimir N; Raphael, Brian H; Winchell, Jonas M

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequences of three Legionella pneumophila subsp. pascullei strains (including both serogroup 1 and 5 strains) that were found in the same health care facility in 1982 and 2012. PMID:27151801

  8. Genetic structure and diversity of a collection of Brassica rapa subsp. rapa L. revealed by simple sequence repeat markers.

    OpenAIRE

    Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Cartea González, María Elena; Francisco Candeira, Marta; Lema Márquez, Margarita; Velasco Pazos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Brassica rapa subsp. rapa L. includes three different crops: turnips (roots), turnip greens (leaves) and turnip tops (inflorescences). A collection of B. rapa subsp. rapa from north-western Spain is currently kept at 'Mision Biologica de Galicia' (a research centre of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Spain). This collection has been characterized based on morphological and agronomical traits. A better understanding of the genetic diversity present in the collection ...

  9. The Host Genotype and Environment Affect Strain Types of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum Inhabiting the Intestinal Tracts of Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Min; Hang, Xiaomin; Tan, Jing; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the influences of host genotype and environment on Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum inhabiting human intestines at the strain level, six pairs of twins, divided into two groups (children and adults), were recruited. Each group consisted of two monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs and one dizygotic (DZ) twin pair. Child twins had been living together from birth, while adult twins had been living separately for 5 to 10 years. A total of 345 B. longum subsp. longum isolates obtained fr...

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a Citrate-Fermenting Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Zuljan, Federico; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S.; Esteban, Luis; Alarcón, Sergio; Magni, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a natural strain isolated from artisanal cheese from northwest Argentina. L. lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis is one of the most important microorganisms used as starter culture around the world. The CRL264 strain constitutes a model microorganism in the studies on the generation of aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) by lactic acid bacteria. Our genome analysis shows si...

  11. Transfer of the toxin protein genes of Bacillus sphaericus into Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and their expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgouin, C.; Delécluse, A; La Torre, F.; Szulmajster, J

    1990-01-01

    The genes encoding the toxic determinants of Bacillus sphaericus have been expressed in a nontoxic and a toxic strain of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. In both cases, the B. sphaericus toxin proteins were produced at a high level during sporulation of B. thuringiensis and accumulated as crystalline structures. B. thuringiensis transformants expressing B. sphaericus and B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxins did not show a significant enhancement of toxicity against Aedes aegyp...

  12. Identification of Antifungal Substances of Lactobacillus sakei subsp. ALI033 and Antifungal Activity against Penicillium brevicompactum Strain FI02

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Chang Ki; Hwang, Tae Yean

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the antifungal substances and the antifungal activity against fungi of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from kimchi. LAB from kimchi in Imsil showed antifungal activity against Penicillium brevicompactum strain FI02. LAB LI031 was identified as Lactobacillus sakei subsp. Antifungal substances contained in L. sakei subsp. ALI033 culture media were unstable at high pH levels. Both, the control and proteinase K and protease treated samples showed clear ...

  13. Activation of the classical and alternative pathways of complement by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and Treponema vincentii.

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, T J

    1987-01-01

    Both in vivo and in vitro studies have indicated that complement plays an important role in the syphilitic immune responses. Few quantitative data are available concerning activation of the classical pathway by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, and no information is available on treponemal activation of the alternative pathway. Activation of both pathways was compared by using T. pallidum subsp. pallidum and the nonpathogen T. vincentii. With rabbit and human sources of complement, both org...

  14. Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum has a single, circular chromosome with a size of approximately 900 kilobase pairs.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, E M; Arnett, J K; Heath, J D; Norris, S J

    1991-01-01

    The genome size and chromosome conformation of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, Nichols strain, were determined by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis, a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis technique. Digestion of T. pallidum subsp. pallidum DNA with the restriction endonucleases NotI and SpeI produced 12 and 26 fragments, respectively. Summation of the physical lengths of the fragments produced by NotI and SpeI cleavage yielded average sizes of 900 and 913 kbp, respect...

  15. Evidence for a Novel Gene Expression Program in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Infected Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Coussens, Paul M.; Colvin, Christopher J.; Guilherme J. M. Rosa; Perez Laspiur, Juliana; Elftman, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    A bovine-specific cDNA microarray system was used to compare gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from control uninfected (n = 4) and Johne's disease-positive (n = 6) Holstein cows. Microarray experiments were designed so that for each animal, a direct comparison was made between PBMCs stimulated in vitro with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and PBMCs stimulated with phosphate-buffered saline (nil-stimulated PBMCs). As expected, M. avium subsp. pa...

  16. Novel insights into the genomic basis of citrus canker based on the genome sequences of two strains of Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii

    OpenAIRE

    Nociti Letícia A; Rodrigues Neto Julio; Leite Rui P; Nishiyama Milton Y; Laia Marcelo L; Kitajima Elliot W.; Jones Jeffrey B; Gimenez Daniele F; Furlan Luiz R; Ferro Maria I; Ferraz André L; Facincani Agda P; de Souza Robson F; de Oliveira Julio C; de Moraes Fabrício E

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Citrus canker is a disease that has severe economic impact on the citrus industry worldwide. There are three types of canker, called A, B, and C. The three types have different phenotypes and affect different citrus species. The causative agent for type A is Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, whose genome sequence was made available in 2002. Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii strain B causes canker B and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii strain C causes canker C. R...

  17. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Fibronectin Attachment Protein Facilitates M-Cell Targeting and Invasion through a Fibronectin Bridge with Host Integrins

    OpenAIRE

    Secott, T. E.; Lin, T. L.; Wu, C. C.

    2004-01-01

    Efficient attachment and ingestion of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by cultured epithelial cells requires the expression of a fibronectin (FN) attachment protein homologue (FAP-P) which mediates FN binding by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Invasion of Peyer's patches by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis occurs through M cells, which, unlike other intestinal epithelial cells, express integrins on their luminal faces. We sought to determine if the interaction between FAP-P of M....

  18. Development of an F57 Sequence-Based Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Tasara, T; Stephan, R.

    2005-01-01

    A light cycler-based real-time PCR (LC-PCR) assay that amplifies the F57 sequence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was developed. This assay also includes an internal amplification control template to monitor the amplification conditions in each reaction. The targeted F57 sequence element is unique for M.avium subsp. paratuberculosis and is not known to exist in any other bacterial species. The assay specificity was demonstrated by evaluation of 10 known M. avium subsp. paratube...

  19. Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and Comparison of Serological Methods for Its Sensitive Detection on Potato Tubers

    OpenAIRE

    Gorris, María Teresa; Alarcon, Benito; Lopez, María M.; Cambra, Mariano

    1994-01-01

    Seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica have been produced. One, called 4G4, reacted with high specificity for serogroup I of E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica, the most common serogroup on potato tubers in different serological assays. Eighty-six strains belonging to different E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica serogroups were assayed. Some strains of serogroup XXII also reacted positively. No cross-reactions were observed against other species of plant patho...

  20. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: characterization of the bacteriocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Danielle N; Todorov, Svetoslav D; Landgraf, Mariza; Destro, Maria T; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria capable of producing bacteriocins and presenting probiotic potential open innovative technological applications in the dairy industry. In this study, a bacteriocinogenic strain (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi) was isolated from goat milk, and studied for its antimicrobial activity. The bacteriocin presented a broad spectrum of activity, was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, resistant to heat and pH extremes, and not affected by the presence of SDS, Tween 20, Tween 80, EDTA or NaCl. Bacteriocin production was dependent on the components of the culture media, especially nitrogen source and salts. When tested by PCR, the bacteriocin gene presented 100% homology to nisin Z gene. These properties indicate that this L. lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi can be used for enhancement of dairy foods safety and quality. PMID:25763065

  1. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: characterization of the bacteriocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N. Furtado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria capable of producing bacteriocins and presenting probiotic potential open innovative technological applications in the dairy industry. In this study, a bacteriocinogenic strain (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi was isolated from goat milk, and studied for its antimicrobial activity. The bacteriocin presented a broad spectrum of activity, was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, resistant to heat and pH extremes, and not affected by the presence of SDS, Tween 20, Tween 80, EDTA or NaCl. Bacteriocin production was dependent on the components of the culture media, especially nitrogen source and salts. When tested by PCR, the bacteriocin gene presented 100% homology to nisin Z gene. These properties indicate that this L. lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi can be used for enhancement of dairy foods safety and quality.

  2. Evaluation and histological examination of a Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis small animal infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, A; de Wet, S C; Turner, S; Cawdell-Smith, J; Venus, B; Greer, R M; Lew-Tabor, A E; Boe-Hansen, G B

    2015-04-01

    Bovine genital campylobacteriosis (BGC), caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, is associated with production losses in cattle worldwide. This study aimed to develop a reliable BGC guinea pig model to facilitate future studies of pathogenicity, abortion mechanisms and vaccine efficacy. Seven groups of five pregnant guinea pigs (1 control per group) were inoculated with one of three strains via intra-peritoneal (IP) or intra-vaginal routes. Samples were examined using culture, PCR and histology. Abortions ranged from 0% to 100% and re-isolation of causative bacteria from sampled sites varied with strain, dose of bacteria and time to abortion. Histology indicated metritis and placentitis, suggesting that the bacteria induce inflammation, placental detachment and subsequent abortion. Variation of virulence between strains was observed and determined by culture and abortion rates. IP administration of C. fetus subsp. venerealis to pregnant guinea pigs is a promising small animal model for the investigation of BGC abortion. PMID:25599935

  3. Flavonoids from the leaves of Iranian Linden; Tilia rubra subsp. caucasica

    OpenAIRE

    M.R. Delnavazi; M. Shahabi; N. Yassa

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Plants belonging to the genus Tilia L. (Tiliaceae) are often tall beautiful trees which are considered for various medicinal potentials of their flowers and leaves. The present study was an attempt to investigate the phytochemical constituents of Tilia rubra subsp. caucasica leaves from the hyrcanian forests of north of Iran. Methods: Chromatography on Silica gel (normal and reversed-phase) and Sephadex LH20 was applied for isolation and purification of the compound...

  4. Composition and Toxicity of the Inclusion of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis

    OpenAIRE

    Insell, J. P.; Fitz-James, P C

    1985-01-01

    The multisegmented ovoidal inclusion of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis was found to be composed of two structurally and biochemically distinct components. Electron microscopy of the inclusion revealed it to be composed mainly of osmiophobic or lightly stained segments crystallized in a lattice showing a repeat of approximately 4.3 nm. These light segments of the inclusions were shared by osmiophylic darkly stained segments with a crystal lattice repeat of approximately 7.8 nm. The ...

  5. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: Characterization of the bacteriocin

    OpenAIRE

    Furtado, Danielle N.; Todorov, Svetoslav D.; Mariza Landgraf; Maria T. Destro; Franco, Bernadette D.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria capable of producing bacteriocins and presenting probiotic potential open innovative technological applications in the dairy industry. In this study, a bacteriocinogenic strain (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi) was isolated from goat milk, and studied for its antimicrobial activity. The bacteriocin presented a broad spectrum of activity, was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, resistant to heat and pH extremes, and not affected by the presence of SDS, Tween 20, Tween...

  6. Establishment of a functional genomics platform for Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbley, Stevens M; Petrasovits, Lars A; Murphy, Rachel M; Nagel, Roland J; Candy, Judith M; Hermann, Scott R

    2004-02-01

    Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli, the causal agent of ratoon stunting disease in sugarcane, is a xylem-limited, nutritionally fastidious, slow growing, gram-positive coryneform bacterium. Because of the difficulties in growing this bacterium in pure culture, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis. Currently, the genome sequence of L. xyli subsp. xyli is being completed by the Agronomical and Environmental Genomes group from the Organization for Nucleotide Sequencing and Analysis in Brazil. To complement this work, we produced 712 Lxx::Tn4431 transposon mutants and sequenced flanking regions from 383 of these, using a rapid polymerase chain reaction-based approach. Tn4431 insertions appeared to be widespread throughout the L. xyli subsp. xyli genome; however, there were regions that had significantly higher concentrations of insertions. The Tn4431 mutant library was screened for individuals unable to colonize sugarcane, and one noncolonizing mutant was found. The mutant contained a transposon insertion disrupting two open reading frames (ORF), one of which had homology to an integral membrane protein from Mycobacterium leprae. Sequencing of the surrounding regions revealed two operons, pro and cyd, both of which are believed to play roles in disease. Complementation studies were carried out using the noncolonizing Lxx::Tn4431 mutant. The noncolonizing mutant was transformed with a cosmid containing 40 kbp of wild-type sequence, which included the two ORF disrupted in the mutant, and several transformants were subsequently able to colonize sugarcane. However, analysis of each of these transformants, before and after colonization, suggests that they have all undergone various recombinant events, obscuring the roles of these ORF in L. xyli subsp. xyli pathogenesis. PMID:14964531

  7. Biological Role of Pigment Production for the Bacterial Phytopathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Mojtaba; Burbank, Lindsey; Roper, M Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, the causal agent of Stewart's wilt of sweet corn, produces a yellow carotenoid pigment. A nonpigmented mutant was selected from a bank of mutants generated by random transposon mutagenesis. The transposon insertion site was mapped to the crtB gene, encoding a putative phytoene synthase, an enzyme involved in the early steps of carotenoid biosynthesis. We demonstrate here that the carotenoid pigment imparts protection against UV radiation and also contribute...

  8. Global Regulation of Virulence Determinants During Plant Colonization in the Bacterial Phytopathogen, Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii

    OpenAIRE

    Burbank, Lindsey

    2014-01-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, the etiological agent of Stewart's wilt, is a bacterial pathogen of sweet corn which colonizes both the apoplast and xylem tissues. During the initial stages of the infection process, the pathogen forms water-soaked lesions through lysis of the plant cells, followed by colonization of the xylem tissue where it can grow to high cell densities and form biofilms. Biofilm formation within the xylem vessels can block water flow, causing the characteristic wiltin...

  9. Development of an Immunochromatographic Strip for Rapid Detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii

    OpenAIRE

    Min Feng; Dezhao Kong; Wenbing Wang; Liqiang Liu; Shanshan Song; Chuanlai Xu

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, simple, sensitive, and specific immunochromatographic test strip was developed for the detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss) in corn seed which was soaked overnight and then centrifuged for precipitate re-dissolved as samples. A pair of sensitive monoclonal antibodies for the immunochromatographic test strip was generated by mice immunization and cell fusion. Under optimized conditions, the lower detection limit of the strips for Pss was 1 × 105 cfu/mL both in 0.01 M ...

  10. A negative regulator mediates quorum-sensing control of exopolysaccharide production in Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii

    OpenAIRE

    von Bodman, Susanne Beck; Majerczak, Doris R.; Coplin, David L.

    1998-01-01

    Classical quorum-sensing (autoinduction) regulation, as exemplified by the lux system of Vibrio fischeri, requires N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals to stimulate cognate transcriptional activators for the cell density-dependent expression of specific target gene systems. For Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, a bacterial pathogen of sweet corn and maize, the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) stewartan is a major virulence factor, and its production is controlled by quorum sensing in a...

  11. The Effects of Mistletoe (Viscum album L. subsp. album) Extracts on Isolated Intestinal Contractions

    OpenAIRE

    KARAKAŞ, Alper; SERİN, Erdinç; Bülent GÜNDÜZ; TÜRKER, Arzu UÇAR

    2008-01-01

    Throughout history folk medicine has served as an alternative or complimentary method of treating disorders like intestinal colic. Mistletoe is a common name for many species of semi-parasitic plants that grow on trees throughout the world, and has been used widely to treat intestinal colic. We conducted a study to evaluate the effect of freeze-dried (group 1) and heat-treated (group 2) extracts of Viscum album subsp. album leaves on contractions induced by acetylcholine in isolated hamster i...

  12. No Holes Barred: Invasion of the Intestinal Mucosa by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bannantine, John P; Bermudez, Luiz E.

    2013-01-01

    The infection biology of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis has recently crystallized, with added details surrounding intestinal invasion. The involvement of pathogen-derived effector proteins such as the major membrane protein, oxidoreductase, and fibronectin attachment proteins have been uncovered. Mutations constructed in this pathogen have also shed light on genes needed for invasion. The host cell types that are susceptible to invasion have been defined, along with their transcr...

  13. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum – the causal agent of broccoli soft rot in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Gašić; Veljko Gavrilović; Nenad Dolovac; Nenad Trkulja; Svetlana Živković; Danijela Ristić; Aleksa Obradović

    2014-01-01

    Soft rot symptoms were observed on broccoli plants in several commercial fields in the western part of Serbia. Six strains of bacteria were isolated from diseased tissues and identified as Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum using conventional bacteriological and molecular methods. All strains were non-fluorescent, gram-negative, facultative anaerobes, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive, causing soft rot on potato and carrot slices and did not...

  14. Lettuce genotype resistance to "soft rot" caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum

    OpenAIRE

    Kátia Cilene da Silva Felix; Willams José de Oliveira; Rosa de Lima Ramos Mariano; Elineide Barbosa de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Soft rot, caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), is the main bacterial disease affecting lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crops in Brazil and leads to significant yield losses. This study aimed to assess the reaction of lettuce genotypes to soft rot induced by a virulent isolate and the stability of the resistance to three isolates varying in virulence. Using a descriptive ordinal scale ranging from 1 to 9 a classification system was defined: class 1 = resistant (R): severi...

  15. Novel Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CECT 7210 Strain Active against Rotavirus Infections▿

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Muñoz, José Antonio; Chenoll, Empar; Casinos, Beatriz; Bataller, Esther; Ramón, Daniel; Genovés, Salvador; Montava, Rebeca; Ribes, Juan Manuel; Buesa, Javier; Fàbrega, Joan; Rivero, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis among children worldwide. It is well known that breast-feeding and vaccination afford infants protection. Since breast-feeding has drastically decreased in developed countries, efforts have been focused on the potential use of probiotics as preventive agents. In this study, a novel Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis strain was isolated from infant feces and selected, based on its capacity to inhibit in vitro rotavirus Wa repli...

  16. Isolation and X-ray Crystal Structure of Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloids from Calycotome Villosa Subsp. intermedias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Lachkar

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Two tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids were extracted from the alkaloid fraction of a methanol extract of the seeds of Calycotome Villosa Subsp. intermedia. Their structures were established as (R-1-hydroxymethyl-7-8-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro- isoquinoline (1 and (S-7-hydroxymethyl-2-3-dimethoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydroisoquinoline chloride (2 by spectroscopic techniques and X-ray diffraction analysis.

  17. Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, a bacterium pathogenic for marine animals and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Amable J. Rivas; Lemos, Manuel L.; Osorio, Carlos R.

    2013-01-01

    Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (formerly Vibrio damsela) is a pathogen of a variety of marine animals including fish, crustaceans, molluscs, and cetaceans. In humans, it can cause opportunistic infections that may evolve into necrotizing fasciitis with fatal outcome. Although the genetic basis of virulence in this bacterium is not completely elucidated, recent findings demonstrate that the phospholipase-D Dly (damselysin) and the pore-forming toxins HlyApl and HlyAch play a main role...

  18. Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus from dengue outbreak areas to temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Mohiddin; Asmalia Md Lasim; Wan Fatma Zuharah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To monitor the current duration of the application rates in vector programme and the level of Aedes albopictus larvae susceptibility from three selected areas in northeast district of Penang on two selected larvicides, temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) which are commonly used by Penang Health Department for vector control. Methods: The mosquito larvae were tested against two types of larvicides: (1) temephos (Abate®) with diagnostic dosage (0.012 mg/L)...

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of coumarins from Ligusticum lucidum Mill. subsp. cuneifolium (Guss.) Tammaro (Apiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Menghini, Luigi; Epifano, Francesco; Genovese, Salvatore; Marcotullio, M. Carla; Sosa, Silvio; Tubaro, Aurelia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Four coumarin derivatives [selidinin 1, (+)-praeruptorin A 2, visnadin 3 and (R)-(+)-7-(2',3'-epoxy-3'-methylbutoxy)-coumarin 4] were isolated from the aerial parts of Ligusticum lucidum Mill. subsp. cuneifolium (Guss.) Tammaro (Apiaceae). This is the first report on identification of these compounds in Ligusticum genus. Their topical anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated as inhibition of the Croton oil-induced ear dermatitis in mice. Each compound induced a significant...

  20. Probiotic activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in the oral cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Stamatova, Iva

    2010-01-01

    Yogurt consumption has been related to longevity of some populations living on the Balkans. Yogurt starter L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Str. thermophilus have been recognized as probiotics with verified beneficial health effects. The oral cavity emerges as a arget for probiotic applications. Probiotics have demonstrated promising results in controlling dental diseases and oral yeast infections. However, L. bulgaricus despite its broad availability in dairy products has not been evalua...

  1. Stability of the larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis: amino acid modification and denaturants.

    OpenAIRE

    Pfannenstiel, M A; Couche, G A; G. Muthukumar; Nickerson, K W

    1985-01-01

    The Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis mosquito larvicidal toxin is not a sulfhydryl-activated toxin. The protein disulfide bonds were cleaved and blocked without loss of toxicity. In contrast, modification of the lysine side chains eliminated toxicity. Additionally, the toxin was resistant to high concentrations of salt (8 M NaBr), organic solvents (40% methanol), denaturants (4 M urea), and neutral detergents (10% Triton X-100). However, it was inactivated by both positively and nega...

  2. Evaluation and comparison of molecular techniques for epidemiological typing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar dublin.

    OpenAIRE

    Liebisch, B; Schwarz, S

    1996-01-01

    A total of 28 unrelated isolates of the Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar dublin (S. dublin) collected during a 6-year period, as well as four samples of the S. dublin live vaccine strain Bovisaloral and its prototype strain S. dublin 442/039, were investigated by different molecular typing methods for the following reasons: (i) to find the most discriminatory method for the epidemiological typing of isolates belonging to this Salmonella serovar and (ii) to evaluate these methods fo...

  3. Multi-Method Approach for Characterizing the Interaction between Fusarium verticillioides and Bacillus thuringiensis Subsp. Kurstaki

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Liliana O.; Tralamazza, Sabina Moser; Reis, Gabriela M.; Rabinovitch, Leon; Barbosa, Cynara B.; Corrêa, Benedito

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial antagonists used as biocontrol agents represent part of an integrated management program to reduce pesticides in the environment. Bacillus thuringiensis is considered a good alternative as a biocontrol agent for suppressing plant pathogens such as Fusarium. In this study, we used microscopy, flow cytometry, indirect immunofluorescence, and high performance liquid chromatography to determine the interaction between B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki LFB-FIOCRUZ (CCGB) 257 and F. vertic...

  4. Cytotoxic and antibacterial labdane-type diterpenes from the aerial parts of Cistus incanus subsp. creticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinou, I; Demetzos, C; Harvala, C; Roussakis, C; Verbist, J F

    1994-02-01

    Seven labdane-type diterpenoids were isolated from the leaves of Cistus incanus subsp. creticus; their structures were established by spectroscopic means. All compounds were tested in vitro for their cytotoxicity against three cell line systems: KB, P-388; and NSCLC-N6. Their antibacterial and antifungal activities were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Torulopsis glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans as well. PMID:8134413

  5. CELL-SURFACE BINDING OF DEOXYNIVALENOL TO Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans ISOLATED FROM SOURDOUGH STARTER CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Yousef I. Hassan; Lloyd B. Bullerman

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are two contaminant-mycotoxins frequently found in food commodities produced under poor conditions. Several methods have been suggested for the detoxification of such mycotoxins. Among the proposed methods, biological detoxification seems to be the most promising and cost-efficient. This study explores the capability of one strain of lactic acid bacteria, identified as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans, to bind both DON and FB1 in liquid cultu...

  6. The importance of arbuscular mycorrhiza for Cyclamen purpurascens subsp. immaculatum endemic in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlová, Jana; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Slavíková, Renata; Turis, Peter

    2015-11-01

    At present, there is no relevant information on arbuscular mycorrhiza and the effect of the symbiosis on the growth of wild populations of cyclamens. To fill this gap, two populations of Cyclamen purpurascens subsp. immaculatum, endemic in Nízke Tatry (NT) mountains and Veľká Fatra (VF) mountains, Slovakia, were studied in situ as well as in a greenhouse pot experiment. For both populations, mycorrhizal root colonization of native plants was assessed, and mycorrhizal inoculation potential (MIP) of the soils at the two sites was determined in 3 consecutive years. In the greenhouse experiment, the growth response of cyclamens to cross-inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was tested: plants from both sites were grown in their native soils and inoculated with a Septoglomus constrictum isolate originating either from the same or from the other plant locality. Although the MIP of soil at the NT site was significantly higher than at the VF site, the level of AMF root colonization of C. purpurascens subsp. immaculatum plants in the field did not significantly differ between the two localities. In the greenhouse experiment, inoculation with AMF generally accelerated cyclamen growth and significantly increased all growth parameters (shoot dry weight, leaf number and area, number of flowers, tuber, and root dry weight) and P uptake. The two populations of C. purpurascens subsp. immaculatum grown in their native soils, however, differed in their response to inoculation. The mycorrhizal growth response of NT plants was one-order higher compared to VF plants, and all their measured growth parameters were stimulated regardless of the fungal isolates' origin. In the VF plants, only the non-native (NT originating) isolate showed a significant positive effect on several growth traits. It can be concluded that mycorrhiza significantly increased fitness of C. purpurascens subsp. immaculatum, despite the differences between plant populations, implying that AMF

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex Strain Griffin-1 from Quercus rubra in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianchi; Huang, Hong; Chang, Chung-Jan; Stenger, Drake C

    2013-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. multiplex strain Griffin-1, isolated from a red oak tree (Quercus rubra) in Georgia, is reported here. The bacterium has a genome size of 2,387,314 bp, with a G+C content of 51.7%. The Griffin-1 strain genome contains 2,903 predicted open reading frames and 50 RNA genes. PMID:24115539

  8. Host Responses to the Pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Beneficial Microbes Exhibit Host Sex Specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Karunasena, Enusha; McMahon, K Wyatt; Chang, David; Brashears, Mindy M.

    2014-01-01

    Differences between microbial pathogenesis in male and female hosts are well characterized in disease conditions connected to sexual transmission. However, limited biological insight is available on variances attributed to sex specificity in host-microbe interactions, and it is most often a minimized variable outside these transmission events. In this work, we studied two gut microbes—a pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and a probiotic, Lactobacillus animalis NP-51—and th...

  9. Purification and Characterization of an Aminopeptidase from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, P. S. T.; Konings, W. N.

    1990-01-01

    An aminopeptidase was purified to homogeneity from a crude cell extract of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2 by a procedure that included diethyl-aminoethane-Sephacel chromatography, phenyl-Sepharose chromatography, gel filtration, and high-performance liquid chromatography over an anion-exchange column. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified enzyme showed a single protein band with a molecular weight of 95,000. The aminopeptidase was capable of degradi...

  10. Structural basis for arabinoxylo-oligosaccharide capture by the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis Bl-04

    OpenAIRE

    Ejby, Morten; Fredslund, Folmer; Vujicic-Zagar, Andreja; Svensson, Birte; Slotboom, Dirk Jan; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2013-01-01

    Glycan utilization plays a key role in modulating the composition of the gut microbiota, but molecular insight into oligosaccharide uptake by this microbial community is lacking. Arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) are abundant in the diet, and are selectively fermented by probiotic bifidobacteria in the colon. Here we show how selectivity for AXOS uptake is established by the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactisBl-04. The binding protein BlAXBP, which is associated with an...

  11. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolates from equine infectious endometritis belong to a distinct genetic group

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Camilla Dooleweerdt; Haugaard, Maria Mathilde; Petersen, Morten Roenn; Nielsen, Jesper Møller; Pedersen, Hanne Gervi; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is the pathogen most commonly isolated from the uterus of mares. S. zooepidemicus is an opportunistic pathogen and part of the resident flora in the caudal reproductive tract. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a genotypically distinct subpopulation of S. zooepidemicus is associated with endometritis in the mare, by genotyping and comparing uterine S. zooepidemicus strains with isolates from the vagina and clitoral fossa. Mares with (n = 1...

  12. Identification and Phytotoxicity Assessment of Phenolic Compounds in Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera (Boneseed)

    OpenAIRE

    Al Harun, Md Abdullah Yousuf; Johnson, Joshua; Uddin, Md. Nazim; Robinson, Randall W.

    2015-01-01

    Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera (boneseed), a weed of national significance in Australia, threatens indigenous species and crop production through allelopathy. We aimed to identify phenolic compounds produced by boneseed and to assess their phytotoxicity on native species. Phenolic compounds in water and methanol extracts, and in decomposed litter-mediated soil leachate were identified using HPLC, and phytotoxicity of identified phenolics was assessed (repeatedly) through a stan...

  13. Is there a future for wild grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. silvestris) in the Rhine Valley?

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Claire; Schnitzler, Annik; Douard, Anne; Peter, Richard; Gillet, François

    2011-01-01

    The wild grapevine, Vitis vinifera subsp. silvestris (Gmelin) Hegi, is considered to be an endangered taxon in Europe, mainly as a consequence of the introduction of pathogens from North America and of the destruction of its habitat. In the Rhine Valley, nearly all populations disappeared due to river management, the intensi.cation of forestry, and the introduction of phylloxera. After a growing awareness of the need to preserve endangered forest ecosystems, attempts to reintroduce wild grape...

  14. Genetic and Physiological Responses of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis to Hydrogen Peroxide Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Oberg, Taylor S.; Ward, Robert E.; Steele, James L.; Broadbent, Jeff R.

    2013-01-01

    Consumer interest in probiotic bifidobacteria is increasing, but industry efforts to secure high cell viability in foods is undermined by these anaerobes' sensitivity to oxidative stress. To address this limitation, we investigated genetic and physiological responses of two fully sequenced Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains, BL-04 and DSM 10140, to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stress. Although the genome sequences for these strains are highly clonal, prior work showed that they differ...

  15. Complete Genome Sequences of Probiotic Strains Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis B420 and Bi-07

    OpenAIRE

    Stahl, Buffy; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2012-01-01

    We present the complete genomes of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis B420 and Bi-07. Comparative genomic analysis with the type strain DSMZ10140 revealed 40 to 55 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and an indel in a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) locus. These genetic differences provide a molecular basis for strain typing within the two main phylogenetic groups of this monomorphic species.

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhiza of plants spontaneously colonizing the soda heap in Jaworzno (southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Gucwa-Przepióra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies of the mycorrhizal status of plant species spontaneously established on the soda heap located in Jaworzno (Upper Silesia, Poland are presented. Additionally, the species of arbuscular fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota extracted from field-collected rhizosphere substrate samples of the heap are showed. Arbuscular mycorrhizae were described in 17 plant species. Five Glomus spp. were recognized in the spore populations of arbuscular fungi isolated. The investigation presented in this paper for the first time revealed Centaurea stoebe and Trifolium montanum to be hosts of arbuscular fungi.

  17. (±)-Catechin: Chemical Weapon, Antioxidant, or Stress Regulator?

    OpenAIRE

    Chobot, Vladimir; Huber, Christoph; Trettenhahn, Guenter; Hadacek, Franz

    2009-01-01

    (±)-Catechin is a flavan-3-ol that occurs in the organs of many plant species, especially fruits. Health-beneficial effects have been studied extensively, and notable toxic effects have not been found. In contrast, (±)-catechin has been implicated as a ‘chemical weapon’ that is exuded by the roots of Centaurea stoebe, an invasive knapweed of northern America. Recently, this hypothesis has been rejected based on (±)-catechin’s low phytotoxicity, instability at pH levels higher than 5, and poor...

  18. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormann, Imke; Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M M; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum. PMID:27513459

  19. Production and characterization of bioemulsifier from a marine bacterium, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus SM7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulnaree Phetrong

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine bacterium strain SM7 was isolated as a bioemulsifier-producing bacterium from oil-spilled seawater in Songkhla lagoon, Thailand. It was identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus based on morphology, biochemicalcharacteristics and 16S rRNA sequence. A. calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus SM7 produced an extracellular emulsifying agent when grown in a minimal salt medium (pH 7.0 containing 0.3% (v/v n-heptadecane and 0.1% (w/v ammoniumhydrogen carbonate as carbon source and nitrogen source, respectively, at 30oC with agitation rate of 200 rpm. Crude bioemulsifier was recovered from the culture supernatant by ethanol precipitation with a yield of 2.94 g/l and had a criticalemulsifier concentration of 0.04 g/ml. The crude bioemulsifier was capable of emulsifying n-hexadecane in a broad pH range (6-12, temperatures (30-121oC and in the presence of NaCl up to 12% (w/v. The bioemulsifier was stable in saltsolution ranging from 0 to 0.1% (w/v of MgCl2 and CaCl2. The broad range of pH stability, thermostability and salt tolerance suggested that the bioemulsifier from A. calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus SM7 could be useful in environmentalapplication, especially bioremediation of oil-polluted seawater.

  20. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum. PMID:27513459

  1. Flavonoids from the leaves of Iranian Linden; Tilia rubra subsp. caucasica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Delnavazi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Plants belonging to the genus Tilia L. (Tiliaceae are often tall beautiful trees which are considered for various medicinal potentials of their flowers and leaves. The present study was an attempt to investigate the phytochemical constituents of Tilia rubra subsp. caucasica leaves from the hyrcanian forests of north of Iran. Methods: Chromatography on Silica gel (normal and reversed-phase and Sephadex LH20 was applied for isolation and purification of the compounds from the hydroalcoholic extract of the plant leaves. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using UV, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectral analyses. Results: Four flavonoid glycosides, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnoside (petiolaroside, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (quercitrin, apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (cosmosiin and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (cynaroside were isolated from T. rubra subsp. caucasica leaves, which have been previously documented for their various biological activities. Conclusion: The results of this study introduc T. rubra subsp. caucasica as a source of bioactive flavonoid glycosides and highlight it as an appropriate option for further pharmacognostical studies.

  2. Isolation and characterization of chromosomal promoters of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slos, P; Bourquin, J C; Lemoine, Y; Mercenier, A

    1991-01-01

    A promoter probe vector, pTG244, was constructed with the aim of isolating transcription initiation signals from Streptococcus thermophilus (Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus). pTG244 is based on the Escherichia coli-streptococcus shuttle vector pTG222, into which the promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene of Bacillus pumilus (cat-86) was cloned. Random Sau3A fragments from the S. thermophilus A054 chromosomal DNA were cloned upstream of the cat-86 gene by using E. coli as the host. The pool of recombinant plasmids were introduced into S. thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis in order to search for promoter activity in these hosts. For S. thermophilus, it was necessary to first select erythromycin-resistant transformants and then to screen for chloramphenicol resistance among these. Direct selection of chloramphenicol-resistant clones was, however, possible in L. lactis subsp. lactis. Six fragments exhibiting promoter activity were characterized in S. thermophilus by measuring the levels of cat-86 transcription and/or chloramphenicol acetyltransferase specific activity. Three of the promoter-carrying fragments were sequenced. The 5' ends of their corresponding mRNAs were determined by S1 mapping and shown to correspond to a purine residue in all cases. Upstream from these potential transcription start points, sequences homologous to the E. coli sigma 70 and the Bacillus subtilis vegetative sigma 43 (or sigma A) consensus promoters were identified. Images PMID:1854195

  3. Identification of an Extracellular Endoglucanase That Is Required for Full Virulence in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Xia

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri causes citrus canker disease, which is characterized by the formation of water-soaked lesions, white or yellow spongy pustules and brown corky canker. In this work, we report the contribution of extracellular endoglucanase to canker development during infection. The ectopic expression of nine putative cellulases in Escherichia coli indicated that two endoglucanases, BglC3 and EngXCA, show carboxymethyl cellulase activity. Both bglC3 and engXCA genes were transcribed in X. citri subsp. citri, however, only BglC3 protein was detected outside the cell in western blot analysis. The deletion of bglC3 gene resulted in complete loss of extracellular carboxymethyl cellulase activity and delayed the onset of canker symptoms in both infiltration- and wound-inoculation assays. When growing in plant tissue, the cell density of bglC3 mutant was lower than that of the wild type. Our data demonstrated that BglC3 is an extracellular endoglucanase required for the full virulence of X. citri subsp. citri.

  4. Morphological leaf variability in natural populations of Pistacia atlantica Desf. subsp. atlantica along climatic gradient: new features to update Pistacia atlantica subsp. atlantica key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zerey-Belaskri, Asma; Benhassaini, Hachemi

    2016-04-01

    The effect of bioclimate range on the variation in Pistacia atlantica Desf. subsp. atlantica leaf morphology was studied on 16 sites in Northwest Algeria. The study examined biometrically mature leaves totaling 3520 compound leaves. Fifteen characters (10 quantitative and 5 qualitative) were assessed on each leaf. For each quantitative character, the nested analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine relative magnitude of variation at each level of the nested hierarchy. The correlation between the climatic parameters and the leaf morphology was examined. The statistical analysis applied on the quantitative leaf characters showed highly significant variation at the within-site level and between-site variation. The correlation coefficient (r) showed also an important correlation between climatic parameters and leaf morphology. The results of this study exhibited several values reported for the first time on the species, such as the length and the width of the leaf (reaching up to 24.5 cm/21.9 cm), the number of leaflets (up to 18 leaflets/leaf), and the petiole length of the terminal leaflet (reaching up to 3.4 cm). The original findings of this study are used to update the P. atlantica subsp. atlantica identification key. PMID:26522787

  5. Morphological leaf variability in natural populations of Pistacia atlantica Desf. subsp. atlantica along climatic gradient: new features to update Pistacia atlantica subsp. atlantica key

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zerey-Belaskri, Asma; Benhassaini, Hachemi

    2016-04-01

    The effect of bioclimate range on the variation in Pistacia atlantica Desf. subsp. atlantica leaf morphology was studied on 16 sites in Northwest Algeria. The study examined biometrically mature leaves totaling 3520 compound leaves. Fifteen characters (10 quantitative and 5 qualitative) were assessed on each leaf. For each quantitative character, the nested analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine relative magnitude of variation at each level of the nested hierarchy. The correlation between the climatic parameters and the leaf morphology was examined. The statistical analysis applied on the quantitative leaf characters showed highly significant variation at the within-site level and between-site variation. The correlation coefficient ( r) showed also an important correlation between climatic parameters and leaf morphology. The results of this study exhibited several values reported for the first time on the species, such as the length and the width of the leaf (reaching up to 24.5 cm/21.9 cm), the number of leaflets (up to 18 leaflets/leaf), and the petiole length of the terminal leaflet (reaching up to 3.4 cm). The original findings of this study are used to update the P. atlantica subsp. atlantica identification key.

  6. Co-culturing of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei with a Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii mutant to make high cell density for increased lactate productivity from cassava bagasse hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Rojan Pappy; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan

    2011-03-01

    To increase the productivity of lactic acid, a co-culture of lactobacilli was made by mixing 1:1 ratio of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei and a fast growing L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii mutant. The culture was embedded on to polyurethane foam (PUF) cubes as a biofilm and used for fermentation. In order to prevent the cell leakage, the PUF cubes were further entrapped in calcium cross-linked alginate. The maximum lactic acid production using a high cell density free culture was >38 g l(-1) from ~40 g l(-1) of reducing sugar within 12 h of fermentation. Using PUF biofilms, the same yield of lactic acid attained after 24 h. When the cubes were further coated with alginate it took 36 h for the maximum yield. Even though, the productivity is slightly lesser with the alginate coating, cell leakage was decreased and cubes were reused without much decrease in production in repeated batches. Using a conventional control inoculum (3%, w/v), it took 120 h to yield same amount of lactic acid. PMID:20972788

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Strain Aw12879, a Restricted-Host-Range Citrus Canker-Causing Bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Jalan, Neha; Kumar, Dibyendu; Yu, Fahong; Jones, Jeffrey B; Graham, James H; Wang, Nian

    2013-01-01

    Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri causes citrus canker. The Asiatic strain has a broad host range, whereas the Wellington variant has a restricted host range. Here, we present the complete genome of X. citri subsp. citri strain AW12879. This study lays the foundation to further characterize the mechanisms for virulence and host range of X. citri.

  8. Festuca paniculata (L. Schinz & Thell. subsp. paui, nuevo taxon para la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebolla, Consuelo

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available A new subspecies, Festuca paniculata (L. Schinz & Thell. subsp. paui Cebolla & Rivas Ponce (Poaceae is described.

    Se describe una subespecie nueva, Festuca paniculata (L. Schinz & Thell. subsp. paui Cebolla & Rivas Ponce (Poaceae.

  9. Draft genome sequence of the first human isolate of the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seersholm, Frederik Valeur; Fischer, Anne; Heller, Martin;

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum is a well-known pathogen of small ruminants. A recent human case of septicemia involving this agent raised the question of its potential pathogenicity to humans. We present the first draft genome sequence of a human Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum...

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus M1-1, Isolated from the Gills of a Korean Rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli Hilgendorf, after High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Chong-Tai; Park, Bang Heon; Kwon, Sujin; Cho, Yong-Jin; Kim, Namsoo; Kim, Chul-Jin; Chun, Jongsik; Kwak, Jangyul; Maeng, Jin-Soo

    2012-01-01

    A bacterium designated M1-1 was isolated from the gills of a Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli Hilgendorf, after high hydrostatic pressure processing. Studies of 16S rRNA phylogeny and comparative genomics demonstrated that the isolate belongs to Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of S. saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus M1-1 (KACC 16562).

  11. Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and Comparison of Serological Methods for Its Sensitive Detection on Potato Tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorris, M T; Alarcon, B; Lopez, M M; Cambra, M

    1994-06-01

    Seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica have been produced. One, called 4G4, reacted with high specificity for serogroup I of E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica, the most common serogroup on potato tubers in different serological assays. Eighty-six strains belonging to different E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica serogroups were assayed. Some strains of serogroup XXII also reacted positively. No cross-reactions were observed against other species of plant pathogenic bacteria or 162 saprophytic bacteria from potato tubers. Only one strain of E. chrysanthemi from potato cross-reacted. A comparison of several serological techniques to detect E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica on potato tubers was performed with MAb 4G4 or polyclonal antibodies. The organism was extracted directly from potato peels of artificially inoculated tubers by soaking or selective enrichment under anaerobiosis in a medium with polypectate. MAb 4G4 was able to detect specifically 240 E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica cells per ml by indirect immunofluorescence and immunofluorescence colony staining and after soaking by ELISA-DAS (double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) after enrichment. The same amount of cells was detected by using immunolectrotransfer with polyclonal antibodies, and E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica and subsp. carotovora were distinguished by the latter technique. ELISA-DAS using MAb 4G4 with an enrichment step also efficiently detected E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica in naturally infected tubers and plants. PMID:16349293

  12. In vtro adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explant of brassica oleracea subsp. Italica and brassica oleracea subsp. capitata using tdz and naa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broccoli(Brassica oleracea subsp. italica) cv. Green Dragon King and cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) cv. Gianty are important vegetable crops grown in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. The cotyledons of both cultivars were used as explant source for in vitro shoot regeneration. The objective of this research was to examine the influence of the growth regulators thidiazuron (TDZ) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation in these cultivars. This system of adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explants could be useful as a tool for genetic transformation of the subspecies. Cotyledon explants of both cultivars excised from 5-day-old in vitro germinated seedlings were placed on shoot induction medium containing basal salts of Murashige and Skoog (MS) and various concentrations of TDZ and NAA. The highest percentage of cotyledon explant of broccoli cv. Green Dragon King producing shoot (76.66%) and the highest mean number of shoots produced per explant (0.9) were obtained on 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Meanwhile, the highest percentage of cotyledon explant of cabbage cv. Gianty producing shoots (86.67%) and highest number of shoots produced per explant (1.1) were recorded on 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Therefore, 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1mg/l NAA are the recommended combinations for adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledonary explants of broccoli cv. Dragon King and cabbage cv. Gianty respectively. (author)

  13. Investigación de Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis en leche ultrapasteurizada para consumo humano Research of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in ultrapasteurized milk for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G Magnano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente se vincula al Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis como potencial agente etiológico implicado en la enfermedad de Crohn en humanos. Una de las vías de ingreso sería a través de la ingestión de leche contaminada. El objetivo fue evaluar la presencia de Map en leche comercial homogeneizada y ultrapasteurizada para consumo humano en supermercados de la ciudad de Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina. Se muestrearon 98 envases de 1 litro de leche entera homogeneizada y ultrapasteurizada de seis marcas comerciales. Previa descontaminación con el método de Cornell modificado, se sembraron en medio de cultivo Herrold con y sin micobactina. Todas las muestras fueron negativas. Como posibles causas de estos resultados se discuten: el origen de la leche y su probable muy baja carga de micobacterias, la eficacia de la pasteurización, el proceso en el laboratorio, entre otras.Currently, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is linked to Crohn's disease in humans as a potential etiologic agent. One route of infection to be considered is by the ingestion of contaminated milk. The objective of the present work was to evaluate Map's presence in commercial homogenized and ultrapasteurized milk for human consumption in supermarkets in the city of Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina. Ninety eight packages of 1 liter of entire, homogenized and ultrapasteurized milk of six commercial brands were sampled. After decontamination by the modified Cornell's method, the samples were cultured in Herrold's medium with and without micobactin. All samples were negative. Possible causes of this result such as the origin of the milk and its probable very low amount of micobacterias, the efficiency of the pasteurization, the processing in the laboratory, among others are here discussed.

  14. A negative regulator mediates quorum-sensing control of exopolysaccharide production in Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bodman, S B; Majerczak, D R; Coplin, D L

    1998-06-23

    Classical quorum-sensing (autoinduction) regulation, as exemplified by the lux system of Vibrio fischeri, requires N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals to stimulate cognate transcriptional activators for the cell density-dependent expression of specific target gene systems. For Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, a bacterial pathogen of sweet corn and maize, the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) stewartan is a major virulence factor, and its production is controlled by quorum sensing in a population density-dependent manner. Two genes, esaI and esaR, encode essential regulatory proteins for quorum sensing. EsaI is the AHL signal synthase, and EsaR is the cognate gene regulator. esaI, DeltaesaR, and DeltaesaI-esaR mutations were constructed to establish the regulatory role of EsaR. We report here that strains containing an esaR mutation produce high levels of EPS independently of cell density and in the absence of the AHL signal. Our data indicate that quorum-sensing regulation in P. s. subsp. stewartii, in contrast to most other described systems, uses EsaR to repress EPS synthesis at low cell density, and that derepression requires micromolar amounts of AHL. In addition, derepressed esaR strains, which synthesize EPS constitutively at low cell densities, were significantly less virulent than the wild-type parent. This finding suggests that quorum sensing in P. s. subsp. stewartii may be a mechanism to delay the expression of EPS during the early stages of infection so that it does not interfere with other mechanisms of pathogenesis. PMID:9636211

  15. The catabolism of glucose, glutamate, pyruvate and acetate in neisseria elongata subsp. glycolytica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities corresponding to the enzymes glucokinase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, pyridine nucleotide independent malate dehydrogenase, and glutamate dehydrogenase were found in cell free extracts from Neisseria elongata subsp. glycolytica. Activities corresponding to 6-phosphogluconate dehydrase and 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate aldolase were not found. Glucose was catabolized only via the pentose phosphate pathway. The radiorespirometric findings suggest an extensive recycling of the triose and fructose phosphates. There was no evidence for formation of pyruvate from glucose. Glutamate was oxidized via the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Pyruvate and acetate were obviously catabolized by the glyoxylic and tricarboxylic acid cycle, as in N. elongata. (author)

  16. Reação de cultivares de batata à podridão mole causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum, por P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum e por P. chrysanthemi Reaction of potato cultivars to soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum, P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and P. chrysanthemi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilce I. H. Benelli

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A podridão mole em tubérculos de batata (Solanum tuberosum, causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum, por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum e por P. chrysanthemi, é uma preocupante doença que causa danos expressivos à cultura em todo o mundo. Como inexiste tratamento eficiente para a podridão mole, o desenvolvimento de cultivares resistentes é considerado o método mais eficaz para a redução de perdas causadas pela doença. Nesse sentido, quatro cultivares de batata foram avaliados quanto à resistência natural às pectobactérias, mediante redução de massa de tubérculos após 20, 24, 48, 72 e 96 h de inoculação com suspensões bacterianas. O delineamento experimental constou de um esquema fatorial com quatro cultivares, três bactérias e quatro repetições. Os resultados foram transformados em proporção e integralizados como área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD. Para as três bactérias estudadas, a cultivar Asterix mostrou-se o menos suscetível à podridão mole, diferindo significativamente dos demais.Soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and P. chrysanthemi is a severe disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum worldwide. Since there is no efficient treatment for soft rot, the use of resistant cultivars is considered the most effective method to reduce crop losses due to this disease. In this research, four potato cultivars were evaluated regarding their resistance to pectobacteria. Tubers inoculated with bacterial suspensions were assessed for mass reduction at five periods (20, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after inoculation. The experimental design consisted of a factorial scheme with four cultivars, three bacteria, and four replications. The data on tuber mass loss were transformed into proportion and integrated as the area under the disease progress curve. For all three bacteria, the cultivar Asterix was the less

  17. Mean effective sensitivity for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infection in cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2015-01-01

    control, in order to assist the decision-makers in planning and optimizing these programs economically. We compared six different groups of cattle (three dairy and three non-dairy) in Denmark by calculating the MES for each herd in each group.Results: The distribution of MES showed a large variation...... for MAP, given that the data used are unbiased.......Background: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in cattle are generally challenging to detect and cost-effective test strategies are consequently difficult to identify. MAP-specific antibody ELISAs for milk and serum are relatively inexpensive, but their utility is...

  18. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk from clinically affected cows by PCR and culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Steen Bjørck; Ahrens, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Milk and faeces samples from cows with clinical symptoms of paratuberculosis were examined for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) by culture and PCR. M. paratuberculosis was cultivated in variable numbers from faeces or intestinal mucosa in eight of 11...... animals. In milk from five cows (all faeces culture positive), we cultivated a few colonies of M. paratuberculosis (<100 CFU per ml). Milk samples from two cows were PCR positive (both animals were faeces culture positive, and one cow was milk culture positive). One cow was culture negative on intestinal...

  19. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies to a crystal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki.

    OpenAIRE

    Huber-Lukac, M; Jaquet, F; Luethy, P; Huetter, R; Braun, D G

    1986-01-01

    Ten monoclonal antibodies were produced against a k-1-type crystal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. Eight of the antibodies belong to the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) subclass, with pI values ranging from 5.5 to 8.6, one could be assigned to the IgG2b subclass, and one could be assigned to the IgM class. Competitive antibody-binding assays and analysis of antibody specificity indicated that the 10 antibodies recognized at least nine distinct antigenic determinants. Eight antibod...

  20. Distribution of Dickeya spp. and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp carotovorum in naturally infected seed potatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Czajkowski, R.L.; Grabe, G.J.; Wolf

    2009-01-01

    Detailed studies were conducted on the distribution of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Dickeya spp. in two potato seed lots of different cultivars harvested from blackleg-diseased crops. Composite samples of six different tuber sections (peel, stolon end, and peeled potato tissue 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 cm from the stolon end) were analysed by enrichment PCR, and CVP plating followed by colony PCR on the resulting cavity-forming bacteria. Seed lots were contaminated with Dicke...

  1. Current perspectives on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Johne's disease, and Crohn's disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Ken; Crandall, Philip G; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Ricke, Steven C

    2011-05-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes the disease of cattle, Johne's. The economic impact of this disease includes early culling of infected cattle, reduced milk yield, and weight loss of cattle sold for slaughter. There is a possible link between MAP and Crohn's disease, a human inflammatory bowel disease. MAP is also a potential human food borne pathogen because it survives current pasteurization treatments. We review the current knowledge of MAP, Johne's disease and Crohn's disease and note directions for future work with this organism including rapid and economical detection, effective management plans and preventative measures. PMID:21254832

  2. Reducing the Bitterness of Tuna (Euthynnus pelamis) Dark Meat with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoldi, Fabiano Cleber; Ernani S. Sant’Anna; Luiz H. Beirão

    2004-01-01

    During the process of canning tuna fish, considerable amounts of dark tuna meat are left over because of its bitterness, which are then used in the production of animal food. Fermentation with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393 was used as an alternative to reduce this bitter taste. Samples of meat were prepared, vacuum packed and then stored at –18 °C. The frozen dark meat was used immediately after defrosting and the experiment was carried out with 2 and 4 % of NaCl with the addition...

  3. First Report of Cowpea Mild Mottle Carlavirus on Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgloris Marys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis plants with virus-like systemic mottling and leaf distortion were observed in both experimental and commercial fields in Aragua State, Venezuela. Symptomatic leaves were shown to contain carlavirus-like particles. RT-PCR analysis with carlavirus-specific primers was positive in all tested samples. Nucleotide sequences of the obtained amplicons showed 84%–74% similarity to corresponding sequences of Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV isolates deposited in the GenBank database. This is the first report of CPMMV in Venezuela and is thought to be the first report of CPMMV infecting yardlong bean.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of rabbit leukocyte defensins against Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum.

    OpenAIRE

    Borenstein, L A; Selsted, M E; Lehrer, R I; Miller, J N

    1991-01-01

    Defensins, which are peptides with broad antimicrobial activity, are major constituents of rabbit neutrophils and certain macrophages. We tested six rabbit defensins, NP-1, NP-2, NP-3a, NP-3b, NP-4, and NP-5, for activity against Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum. Mixtures of T. pallidum and defensin in 10% normal rabbit serum (NRS) or heat-inactivated NRS (HI-NRS) were incubated anaerobically for various time periods ranging between 0 and 16 h and then examined by dark-field microscopy for ...

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a Citrate-Fermenting Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuljan, Federico; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Esteban, Luis; Alarcón, Sergio; Magni, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a natural strain isolated from artisanal cheese from northwest Argentina. L. lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis is one of the most important microorganisms used as starter culture around the world. The CRL264 strain constitutes a model microorganism in the studies on the generation of aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) by lactic acid bacteria. Our genome analysis shows similar genetic organization to other available genomes of L. lactis bv. diacetylactis strains. PMID:26847906

  6. Identification of the Minimal Replicon of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis UC317 Plasmid pCI305

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Finbarr; Daly, Charles; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.

    1990-01-01

    Replication functions of the stable, cryptic 8.7-kilobase (kb) plasmid pCI305 from multi-plasmid-containing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis UC317 were studied. Analysis of this replicon was facilitated by the construction of replication probe vectors that consisted of the pBR322 replication region, a pUC18-derived multiple cloning site, and either the cat gene of pC194 (pCI341; 3.1 kb) or the erm gene of pAMβ1 (pCI3330; 4.0 kb). Plasmid pCI305 was introduced into plasmid-free L. lactis subsp...

  7. In Vitro Studies on Some Natural Beverages as Botanical Pesticides against Erwinia amylovora and Curtobacterium flaccumfaciensis subsp. poinsettiae

    OpenAIRE

    NAS, Mehmet Nuri

    2004-01-01

    Several tannin-rich beverages were tested for their antibacterial activity against 2 important phytopathogenic bacteria, Erwinia amylovora and Curtobacterium flacumfaciensis subsp. poinsettiae. Black tea (9.5, 19 and 38 g l-1), green tea (9.5, 19 and 38 g l-1) and tannic acid (0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 g l-1) inhibited the growth of E. amylovora and C. f. subsp. poinsettiae. Coffee (8.75, 17.5 and 35 g l-1) and cocoa (8.75, 17.5 and 35 g l-1) did not display any inhibitory effect on the growth of bact...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a Citrate-Fermenting Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuljan, Federico; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S.; Esteban, Luis; Alarcón, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a natural strain isolated from artisanal cheese from northwest Argentina. L. lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis is one of the most important microorganisms used as starter culture around the world. The CRL264 strain constitutes a model microorganism in the studies on the generation of aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) by lactic acid bacteria. Our genome analysis shows similar genetic organization to other available genomes of L. lactis bv. diacetylactis strains. PMID:26847906

  9. Cross-Amplification of Vicia sativa subsp. sativa Microsatellites across 22 Other Vicia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastin Raveendar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperate and herbaceous genus Vicia L. is a member of the legume tribe Fabeae of the subfamily Papilionoideae. The genus Vicia comprises 166 annual or perennial species distributed mainly in Europe, Asia, and North America, but also extending to the temperate regions of South America and tropical Africa. The use of simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for Vicia species has not been investigated as extensively as for other crop species. In this study, we assessed the potential for cross-species amplification of cDNA microsatellite markers developed from common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa. For cross-species amplification of the SSRs, amplification was carried out with genomic DNA isolated from two to eight accessions of 22 different Vicia species. For individual species or subspecies, the transferability rates ranged from 33% for V. ervilia to 82% for V. sativa subsp. nigra with an average rate of 52.0%. Because the rate of successful SSR marker amplification generally correlates with genetic distance, these SSR markers are potentially useful for analyzing genetic relationships between or within Vicia species.

  10. Volatiles fingerprint of Artemisia umbelliformis subsp. eriantha by headspace-solid phase microextraction GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Samantha; Pace, Loretta; D'Archivio, Angelo Antonio; De Angelis, Francesco; Marcozzi, Giordana

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia umbelliformis subsp. eriantha is a protected species, whose essential oil is used in liqueur industry. Volatile profiles of fresh leaves and flowers from wild plants in comparison with regenerated in vitro plants introduced in experimental fields within an Italian national park were evaluated by headspace-solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). The chromatographic profiles appear to be qualitatively similar. The content of thujones, the characteristic metabolites of this species, is comparable with that obtained by analysis of essential oils. Principal component analysis of the HS-SPME-GC-MS data supports the possibility of differentiating scent blends of genetically identical plants, and even flowers and leaves from the same individual. HS-SPME-GC-MS is shown to be a very efficient method to analyse and to describe the pattern of components of A. umbelliformis subsp. eriantha cultivars' scents. It represents a rapid screening method highly recommended for the study of protected species, because it is non-destructive and it only requires small amounts of fresh material. PMID:23962361

  11. Multilocus Sex Determination Revealed in Two Populations of Gynodioecious Wild Strawberry, Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Tennessen, Jacob A; Dalton, Rebecca M; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Koski, Matthew H; Liston, Aaron

    2015-12-01

    Gynodioecy, the coexistence of females and hermaphrodites, occurs in 20% of angiosperm families and often enables transitions between hermaphroditism and dioecy. Clarifying mechanisms of sex determination in gynodioecious species can thus illuminate sexual system evolution. Genetic determination of gynodioecy, however, can be complex and is not fully characterized in any wild species. We used targeted sequence capture to genetically map a novel nuclear contributor to male sterility in a self-pollinated hermaphrodite of Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata from the southern portion of its range. To understand its interaction with another identified locus and possibly additional loci, we performed crosses within and between two populations separated by 2000 km, phenotyped the progeny and sequenced candidate markers at both sex-determining loci. The newly mapped locus contains a high density of pentatricopeptide repeat genes, a class commonly involved in restoration of fertility caused by cytoplasmic male sterility. Examination of all crosses revealed three unlinked epistatically interacting loci that determine sexual phenotype and vary in frequency between populations. Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata represents the first wild gynodioecious species with genomic evidence of both cytoplasmic and nuclear genes in sex determination. We propose a model for the interactions between these loci and new hypotheses for the evolution of sex determining chromosomes in the subdioecious and dioecious Fragaria. PMID:26483011

  12. Transcriptomic profile of aguR deletion mutant of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Beatriz; Linares, Daniel M; Redruello, Begoña; Martin, Maria Cruz; Fernandez, Maria; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P; Ladero, Victor; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2015-12-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 (formerly GE2-14) is a dairy strain that catabolizes agmatine (a decarboxylated derivative of arginine) into the biogenic amine putrescine by the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway [1]. The AGDI cluster of L. lactis is composed by five genes aguR, aguB, aguD, aguA and aguC. The last four genes are responsible for the deamination of agmatine to putrescine and are co-transcribed as a single policistronic mRNA forming the catabolic operon aguBDAC[1]. aguR encodes a transmembrane protein that functions as a one-component signal transduction system that senses the agmatine concentration of the medium and accordingly regulates the transcription of aguBDAC[2], which is also transcriptionally regulated by carbon catabolic repression (CCR) via glucose, but not by other sugars such as lactose and galactose [1], [3]. Here we report the transcriptional profiling of the aguR gene deletion mutant (L. lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 ∆aguR) [2] compared to the wild type strain, both grown in M17 medium with galactose as carbon source and supplemented with agmatine. The transcriptional profiling data of AguR-regulated genes were deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession no. GSE59514. PMID:26697381

  13. Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, a bacterium pathogenic for marine animals and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amable J. Rivas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (formerly Vibrio damsela is a pathogen of a variety of marine animals including fish, crustaceans, molluscs and cetaceans. In humans, it can cause opportunistic infections that may evolve into necrotizing fasciitis with fatal outcome. Although the genetic basis of virulence in this bacterium is not completely elucidated, recent findings demonstrate that the phospholipase-D Dly (damselysin and the pore-forming toxins HlyApl and HlyAch play a main role in virulence for homeotherms and poikilotherms. The acquisition of the virulence plasmid pPHDD1 that encodes Dly and HlyApl has likely constituted a main driving force in the evolution of a highly hemolytic lineage within the subspecies. Interestingly, strains that naturally lack pPHDD1 show a strong pathogenic potential for a variety of fish species, indicating the existence of yet uncharacterized virulence factors. Future and deep analysis of the complete genome sequence of P. damselae subsp. damselae will surely provide a clearer picture of the virulence factors employed by this bacterium to cause disease in such a varied range of hosts.

  14. Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, a bacterium pathogenic for marine animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Amable J; Lemos, Manuel L; Osorio, Carlos R

    2013-01-01

    Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (formerly Vibrio damsela) is a pathogen of a variety of marine animals including fish, crustaceans, molluscs, and cetaceans. In humans, it can cause opportunistic infections that may evolve into necrotizing fasciitis with fatal outcome. Although the genetic basis of virulence in this bacterium is not completely elucidated, recent findings demonstrate that the phospholipase-D Dly (damselysin) and the pore-forming toxins HlyApl and HlyAch play a main role in virulence for homeotherms and poikilotherms. The acquisition of the virulence plasmid pPHDD1 that encodes Dly and HlyApl has likely constituted a main driving force in the evolution of a highly hemolytic lineage within the subspecies. Interestingly, strains that naturally lack pPHDD1 show a strong pathogenic potential for a variety of fish species, indicating the existence of yet uncharacterized virulence factors. Future and deep analysis of the complete genome sequence of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae will surely provide a clearer picture of the virulence factors employed by this bacterium to cause disease in such a varied range of hosts. PMID:24093021

  15. Production of gamma-aminobutyric acid by Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus Y2 under submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S-Y; Lü, F-X; Lu, Z-X; Bie, X-M; Jiao, Y; Sun, L-J; Yu, B

    2008-04-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, has several well-known physiological functions and has been applied to the production of many drugs and functional foods. The technology of GABA production via submerged fermentation by Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus Y2 was investigated in this paper. It indicated that the GABA production was related to the biochemical characteristics of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) of S. salivarius subsp. thermophilus Y2. After 24 h of fermentation at 37 degrees C, which is the suitable culture conditions for GAD-production, then the culture condition were adjusted to the optimal temperature (40 degrees C) and pH (4.5) for the GAD reaction activity in biotransformation of cells and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (0.02 mmol/l) were added to the broth at the 48 h, the GABA production was increased up to 1.76-fold, reaching 7984.75 +/- 293.33 mg/l. The strain shows great potential use as a starter for GABA-containing yoghurt, cheese and other functional fermented food productions. PMID:17514494

  16. Multi-method approach for characterizing the interaction between Fusarium verticillioides and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana O Rocha

    Full Text Available Bacterial antagonists used as biocontrol agents represent part of an integrated management program to reduce pesticides in the environment. Bacillus thuringiensis is considered a good alternative as a biocontrol agent for suppressing plant pathogens such as Fusarium. In this study, we used microscopy, flow cytometry, indirect immunofluorescence, and high performance liquid chromatography to determine the interaction between B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki LFB-FIOCRUZ (CCGB 257 and F. verticillioides MRC 826, an important plant pathogen frequently associated with maize. B. thuringiensis showed a strong in vitro suppressive effect on F. verticillioides growth and inhibited fumonisin production. Flow cytometry analysis was found to be adequate for characterizing the fungal cell oscillations and death during these interactions. Further studies of the antagonistic effect of this isolate against other fungi and in vivo testing are necessary to determine the efficacy of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in controlling plant pathogens. This is the first report on the use of flow cytometry for quantifying living and apoptotic F. verticillioides cells and the B. thuringiensis Cry 1Ab toxin.

  17. Multi-method approach for characterizing the interaction between Fusarium verticillioides and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Liliana O; Tralamazza, Sabina Moser; Reis, Gabriela M; Rabinovitch, Leon; Barbosa, Cynara B; Corrêa, Benedito

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial antagonists used as biocontrol agents represent part of an integrated management program to reduce pesticides in the environment. Bacillus thuringiensis is considered a good alternative as a biocontrol agent for suppressing plant pathogens such as Fusarium. In this study, we used microscopy, flow cytometry, indirect immunofluorescence, and high performance liquid chromatography to determine the interaction between B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki LFB-FIOCRUZ (CCGB) 257 and F. verticillioides MRC 826, an important plant pathogen frequently associated with maize. B. thuringiensis showed a strong in vitro suppressive effect on F. verticillioides growth and inhibited fumonisin production. Flow cytometry analysis was found to be adequate for characterizing the fungal cell oscillations and death during these interactions. Further studies of the antagonistic effect of this isolate against other fungi and in vivo testing are necessary to determine the efficacy of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in controlling plant pathogens. This is the first report on the use of flow cytometry for quantifying living and apoptotic F. verticillioides cells and the B. thuringiensis Cry 1Ab toxin. PMID:24739804

  18. The generalist Inga subnuda subsp. luschnathiana (Fabaceae): negative effect of floral visitors on reproductive success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, R; Pinheiro, M; Sazima, M

    2015-05-01

    Inga species are characterised by generalist or mixed pollination system. However, this feature does not enhance reproductive rates in species with very low fruit set under natural conditions. Some ecological and genetic factors are associated with this feature, and to test the effect of massive visits on pollination success in Inga subnuda subsp. luschnathiana, we studied the efficacy of polyads deposited on stigmas of flowers isolated from visitors and polyads exposed to visitors. The proportion of polyads fixed in stigmas decreased after exposure to visitors (24 h) in comparison to stigmas isolated from visitors (hummingbirds, bees, wasps, hawkmoths and bats), and fruit set was very low. Furthermore, nectar production, sugar composition and other floral biology traits were evaluated. Increased nectar production, sugar availability and sucrose dominance during the night indicates adaptation to nocturnal visitors and supports their role as main pollinators; although the brush-flower morphology, time of anthesis, nectar dynamics and chemical composition also allow daytime visitors. Thus the species is an important resource for a diverse group of floral visitors. We conclude that excess visits (diurnal and nocturnal) are responsible for the decrease in fixed polyads in stigmas of I. subnuda subsp. luschnathiana flowers, thus contributing, with others factors, to its low fruit set. Therefore, the generalist pollination system does not result in reproductive advantages because the low fruit set in natural conditions could be the result of a negative effect of visitors/pollinators. PMID:25488371

  19. Cloning and characterization of the nicotianamine synthase gene in Eruca vesicaria subsp sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B L; Cheng, C; Zhang, G Y; Su, J J; Zhi, Y; Xu, S S; Cai, D T; Zhang, X K; Huang, B Q

    2015-01-01

    Nicotianamine (NA) is a ubiquitous metabolite in plants that bind heavy metals, is crucial for metal homeostasis, and is also an important metal chelator that facilitates long-distance metal transport and sequestration. NA synthesis is catalyzed by the enzyme nicotianamine synthase (NAS). Eruca vesicaria subsp sativa is highly tolerant to Ni, Pb, and Zn. In this study, a gene encoding EvNAS was cloned and characterized in E. vesicaria subsp sativa. The full-length EvNAS cDNA sequence contained a 111-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 155-bp 3'-UTR, and a 966-bp open reading frame encoding 322-amino acid residues. The EvNAS genomic sequence contained no introns, which is similar to previously reported NAS genes. The deduced translation of EvNAS contained a well-conserved NAS domain (1-279 amino acids) and an LIKI-CGEAEG box identical to some Brassica NAS and to the LIRL-box in most plant NAS, which is essential for DNA binding. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that EvNAS was most closely related to Brassica rapa NAS3 within the Cruciferae, followed by Thlaspi NAS1, Camelina NAS3, and Arabidopsis NAS3. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that EvNAS expression was greatest in the leaves, followed by the flower buds and hypocotyls. EvNAS was moderately expressed in the roots. PMID:26782459

  20. Cross-amplification of Vicia sativa subsp. sativa microsatellites across 22 other Vicia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendar, Sebastin; Lee, Gi-An; Jeon, Young-Ah; Lee, Yun Jeong; Lee, Jung-Ro; Cho, Gyu-Taek; Cho, Joon-Hyeong; Park, Jong-Hyun; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    The temperate and herbaceous genus Vicia L. is a member of the legume tribe Fabeae of the subfamily Papilionoideae. The genus Vicia comprises 166 annual or perennial species distributed mainly in Europe, Asia, and North America, but also extending to the temperate regions of South America and tropical Africa. The use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for Vicia species has not been investigated as extensively as for other crop species. In this study, we assessed the potential for cross-species amplification of cDNA microsatellite markers developed from common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa). For cross-species amplification of the SSRs, amplification was carried out with genomic DNA isolated from two to eight accessions of 22 different Vicia species. For individual species or subspecies, the transferability rates ranged from 33% for V. ervilia to 82% for V. sativa subsp. nigra with an average rate of 52.0%. Because the rate of successful SSR marker amplification generally correlates with genetic distance, these SSR markers are potentially useful for analyzing genetic relationships between or within Vicia species. PMID:25608853

  1. Secondary metabolite content and in vitro biological effects of Ajuga chamaepitys (L. Schreb. subsp. chamaepitys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Dragana Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and contents of total phenolics and flavonoids of Ajuga chamaepitys (L. Schreb. subsp. chamaepitys (Lamiaceae were investigated. Five different extracts from aboveground flowering plant parts were obtained by extraction with water, methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and expressed as the gallic acid equivalent (mg GA/g of extract. The highest value was obtained in the ethyl acetate extract (57.02 mg GA/g. The concentration of flavonoids, determined using a spectrophotometric method with aluminum chloride and expressed as the rutin equivalent (mg RU/g of extract, was highest in the ethyl acetate extract (91.76 mg RU/g. The antioxidant activity was determined in vitro using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH reagent. The highest antioxidant activity was detected in the acetone extract (SC50 value = 330.52 μg/mL. In vitro antimicrobial activities were determined using a microdilution method, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC were determined. The most effective antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus was demonstrated by the acetone extract, with MIC and MMC values of 1.25 mg/mL. Based on the results of this study, A. chamaepitys subsp. chamaepitys could be considered as a valuable source of natural compounds with important biological activities. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 41010 i OI 173032

  2. Duplex TaqMan real-time PCR assay for quantitative detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii and Stenocarpella maydis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new TaqMan real-time PCR assay was developed for the simultaneous quantitative detection of two seedborne maize pathogens in a single assay. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pnss) (syn. Erwinia stewartii) is the causal agent of Stewart's bacterial wilt and leaf blight of maize. Stewart's wilt i...

  3. Deciphering the conserved genetic loci implicated in plant disease control through comparative genomics of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad J Hossain

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To understand the growth-promoting and disease-inhibiting activities of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR strains, the genomes of 12 Bacillus subtilis group strains with PGPR activity were sequenced and analyzed. These B. subtilis strains exhibited high genomic diversity, whereas the genomes of B. amyloliquefaciens strains (a member of the B. subtilis group are highly conserved. A pairwise BLASTp matrix revealed that gene family similarity among Bacillus genomes ranges from 32- 90%, with 2,839 genes within the core genome of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum. Comparative genomic analyses of B. amyloliquefaciens strains identified genes that are linked with biological control and colonization of roots and/or leaves, including 73 genes uniquely associated with subsp. plantarum strains that have predicted functions related to signaling, transportation, secondary metabolite production, and carbon source utilization. Although B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strains contain gene clusters that encode many different secondary metabolites, only polyketide biosynthetic clusters that encode difficidin and macrolactin are conserved within this subspecies. To evaluate their role in plant pathogen biocontrol, genes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis were deleted in B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strain, revealing that difficidin expression is critical in reducing the severity of disease, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria in tomato plants. This study defines genomic features of PGPR strains and links them with biocontrol activity and with host colonization.

  4. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Outbreak Strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Thompson Associated with Cilantro

    OpenAIRE

    Craig T Parker; Huynh, Steven; Gorski, Lisa; Cooper, Kerry K.; Miller, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Thompson strains RM1984 (CADPH-99A2334) and RM1986 (CADPH-99A2345) are associated with a 1999 outbreak in contaminated cilantro. We report here the complete genome sequences and annotation of these two S. Thompson strains. These genomes are distinct and provide additional data for our understanding of S. enterica.

  5. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Outbreak Strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Thompson Associated with Cilantro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Craig T; Huynh, Steven; Gorski, Lisa; Cooper, Kerry K; Miller, William G

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Thompson strains RM1984 (CADPH-99A2334) and RM1986 (CADPH-99A2345) are associated with a 1999 outbreak in contaminated cilantro. We report here the complete genome sequences and annotation of these two S. Thompson strains. These genomes are distinct and provide additional data for our understanding of S. enterica. PMID:26586897

  6. Complete genomic sequences of two outbreak strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Thompson associated with cilantro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Thompson strains RM1984 (CADPH-99A2334) and RM1986 (CADPH -99A2345) are clinical isolates from 1999, putatively related to an outbreak in California from contaminated cilantro. We report the complete genome sequences and annotation of these two S. Thompson...

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of a Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae Isolate from a Clinical Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Andrew R.; Krapp, Fiorella; Henry, Christopher S.; Tyo, Keith E.; Hauser, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant clinical isolate of Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae, KP_Z4175. This strain, isolated as part of a hospital infection-control screening program, is resistant to multiple β-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. PMID:27231362

  8. Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Lubbock Strains Isolated from Liver Abscesses of Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Thomas, Milton; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Scaria, Joy

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequencing of 13 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Lubbock strains isolated from liver abscesses of feedlot cattle is reported here. The availability of these genomes will help to further understand the etiologic role of Salmonella strains in liver abscesses of cattle and will serve as references in microbial trace-back studies to improve food safety. PMID:27151794

  9. Efficacy of florfenicol for control of mortality with Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis in Nile tilapia, oreochromis niloticus (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) (syn. F. asiatica) is an emergent Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium. Although it is considered one of the most pathogenic bacteria in fish, there are no commercially available treatments of vaccines. The objective of this project was ...

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CFL1, a Lactic Acid Bacterium Isolated from French Handcrafted Fermented Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghel, Julie; Irlinger, Françoise; Loux, Valentin; Vidal, Marie; Passot, Stéphanie; Béal, Catherine; Layec, Séverine

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) is a lactic acid bacterium widely used for the production of yogurt and cheeses. Here, we report the genome sequence of L. bulgaricus CFL1 to improve our knowledge on its stress-induced damages following production and end-use processes. PMID:26941141

  11. Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the X-Prolyl Dipeptidyl Aminopeptidase Gene From Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayo, Baltasar; Kok, Jan; Venema, Konraad; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Teuber, Michael; Reinke, Heinz; Venema, Gerhardus

    1991-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris P8-2-47 contains an X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (X-PDAP; EC 3.4.14.5). A mixed-oligonucleotide probe prepared on the basis of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified protein was made and used to screen a partial chromosomal DNA bank in Escherichia

  12. Heterologous Gene Expression in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis : Synthesis, Secretion, and Processing of the Bacillus subtilis Neutral Protease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guchte, Maarten van de; Kodde, Jan; Vossen, Jos M.B.M. van der; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerard

    1990-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis nprE gene lacking its own promoter sequence was inserted in the lactococcal expression vector pMG36e. Upon introduction of the recombinant plasmid into Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain MG1363, neutral protease activity could be visualized by the appearance of large clear

  13. Complete and Closed Genome Sequences of 10 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Anatum Isolates from Human and Bovine Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Scott V.; Bono, James L.; Smith, Timothy P. L.; Fields, Patricia I.; Dinsmore, Blake A.; Santovenia, Monica; Kelley, Christy M.; Wang, Rong; Bosilevac, Joseph M.; Harhay, Gregory P.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is an important pathogen transmitted by numerous vectors. Genomic comparisons of Salmonella strains from disparate hosts have the potential to further our understanding of mechanisms underlying host specificities and virulence. Here, we present the closed genome and plasmid sequences of 10 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Anatum isolates from bovine and human sources. PMID:27257192

  14. Comparison of specificity and sensitivity of immunochemical and molecular techniques for determination of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kokošková, B.; Mráz, Ivan; Fousek, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2010), s. 239-244. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71229 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) * PCR * ELISA * IFAS Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.977, year: 2010

  15. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Strains Isolated from Crohn's Disease Patients and Animal Species Exhibit Similar Polymorphic Locus Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadiali, Alifiya H.; Strother, Megan; Naser, Saleh A.; Manning, Elizabeth J. B.; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of short sequence repeats of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolated from Crohn's disease patients identified two alleles, both of which clustered with strains derived from animals with Johne's disease. Identification of a limited number of genotypes among human strains implies the existence of human disease-associated genotypes and strain sharing with animals.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CFL1, a Lactic Acid Bacterium Isolated from French Handcrafted Fermented Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghel, Julie; Dugat-Bony, Eric; Irlinger, Françoise; Loux, Valentin; Vidal, Marie; Passot, Stéphanie; Béal, Catherine; Layec, Séverine; Fonseca, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) is a lactic acid bacterium widely used for the production of yogurt and cheeses. Here, we report the genome sequence of L. bulgaricus CFL1 to improve our knowledge on its stress-induced damages following production and end-use processes. PMID:26941141

  17. Potential role of specific antibodies in vaccine-induced protection against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Dalsgaard, Inger; Raida, Martin Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Furunculosis caused by infection with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida has now been a known threat to aquaculture for more than a century. Efficient prophylactic precautions against this disease are essential for continued growth of salmonid fish aquaculture. Ever since the introduction of...

  18. Mediation of host immune responses after immunization of neonatal calves with a heat-killed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major drawback of current whole-cell vaccines for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis(MAP) is the interference with diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis and paratuberculosis. The current study was designed to explore effects of immunization with a heat-killed whole cell vaccine (Mycop...

  19. Association between milk antibody and interferon-gamma responses in cattle from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infected herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Jungersen, Gregers; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). It is possible to detect infection with paratuberculosis at different stages of disease by means of various diagnostic test strategies. The objective of the present study was to evalu...

  20. First Fully Closed Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana Associated with a Food-Borne Outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Maria; Muruvanda, Tim; Pirone, Cary; Korlach, Jonas; Timme, Ruth; Payne, Justin; Evans, Peter; Meng, Jianghong; Brown, Eric W.; Allard, Marc W.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana (Salmonella serovar Cubana) is associated with human and animal disease. Here, we used third-generation, single-molecule, real-time DNA sequencing to determine the first complete genome sequence of Salmonella serovar Cubana CFSAN002050, which was isolated from fresh alfalfa sprouts during a multistate outbreak in 2012.

  1. Caracterização farmacognóstica de peninha (Chamaecrista nictans subsp. patellaria var.ramosa Irwin & Barneby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Carvalho Osono

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Peninha-Chamaecrista nictans subsp. patellaria var. ramosa Irwin & Barneby (Cassia patellaria D.C. é usada na medicina popular para problemas renais a pedras nos rins. O estudo farmacognóstico desta planta foi feito a fim de identificar esta planta como droga.

  2. Application of halophilic nuclease H of Micrococcus varians subsp. halophilus to commercial production of flavoring agent 5'-GMP.

    OpenAIRE

    Kamekura, M; Hamakawa, T; Onishi, H.

    1982-01-01

    RNA was degraded at 60 degrees C for 24 h by halophilic nuclease H in supernatants from broth cultures of Micrococcus varians subsp. halophilus containing 12% NaCl. Since contaminating 5'-nucleotidase exhibited almost no activity under these conditions, the 5'-GMP formed could be recovered from the reaction mixture, and the yield was 805 mg from 5 g of RNA.

  3. Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Lubbock Strains Isolated from Liver Abscesses of Feedlot Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G.; Thomas, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequencing of 13 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Lubbock strains isolated from liver abscesses of feedlot cattle is reported here. The availability of these genomes will help to further understand the etiologic role of Salmonella strains in liver abscesses of cattle and will serve as references in microbial trace-back studies to improve food safety. PMID:27151794

  4. Identification of Antifungal Substances of Lactobacillus sakei subsp. ALI033 and Antifungal Activity against Penicillium brevicompactum Strain FI02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Chang Ki; Hwang, Tae Yean

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the antifungal substances and the antifungal activity against fungi of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from kimchi. LAB from kimchi in Imsil showed antifungal activity against Penicillium brevicompactum strain FI02. LAB LI031 was identified as Lactobacillus sakei subsp. Antifungal substances contained in L. sakei subsp. ALI033 culture media were unstable at high pH levels. Both, the control and proteinase K and protease treated samples showed clear zones, suggesting that the antifungal substances produced by ALI033 were non-protein substances unaffected by protesases. Both, the control and catalase showed clear zones, suggesting that the antifungal metabolite was not H2O2. The molecular weights of the antifungal substances were ≤3,000 Da. The organic acid content of crude antifungal substances produced by L. sakei subsp. ALI033 showed high concentrations of lactic acid (502.47 mg/100 g). Therefore, these results suggest that antifungal substance produced by L. sakei subsp. ALI033 is most likely due to its ability in producing organic acid. PMID:27069906

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Actinomyces odontolyticus subsp. actinosynbacter Strain XH001, the Basibiont of an Oral TM7 Epibiont

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey S. McLean; Liu, Quanhui; Bor, Batbileg; Bedree, Joseph K.; Cen, Lujia; Watling, Michael; To, Thao T.; Bumgarner, Roger E; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Actinomyces odontolyticus subsp. actinosynbacter strain XH001, isolated from the human oral cavity. Uniquely, it was discovered as a host bacterium to the ultrasmall epibiont TM7x, which is the first cultivated member of “Candidatus Saccharibacteria” (formerly candidate phylum TM7).

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Actinomyces odontolyticus subsp. actinosynbacter Strain XH001, the Basibiont of an Oral TM7 Epibiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Jeffrey S; Liu, Quanhui; Bor, Batbileg; Bedree, Joseph K; Cen, Lujia; Watling, Michael; To, Thao T; Bumgarner, Roger E; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Actinomyces odontolyticus subsp. actinosynbacter strain XH001, isolated from the human oral cavity. Uniquely, it was discovered as a host bacterium to the ultrasmall epibiont TM7x, which is the first cultivated member of "Candidatus Saccharibacteria" (formerly candidate phylum TM7). PMID:26847892

  7. Comparison of Culture and a Novel 5′ Taq Nuclease Assay for Direct Detection of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in Clinical Specimens from Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    McMillen, Lyle; Fordyce, Geoffry; Doogan, Vivienne J.; Lew, Ala E.

    2006-01-01

    A Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis-specific 5′ Taq nuclease PCR assay using a 3′ minor groove binder-DNA probe (TaqMan MGB) was developed based on a subspecies-specific fragment of unknown identity (S. Hum, K. Quinn, J. Brunner, and S. L. On, Aust. Vet. J. 75:827-831, 1997). The assay specifically detected four C. fetus subsp. venerealis strains with no observed cross-reaction with C. fetus subsp. fetus-related Campylobacter species or other bovine venereal microflora. The 5′ Taq nucleas...

  8. Intoxicação espontânea por Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae em bovinos no Pantanal Matogrossense Spontaneous Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae poisoning of cattle in the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia A.B. Antoniassi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a intoxicação espontânea por Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (canudo, algodoeiro em bovinos no Pantanal Matogrossense. As investigações iniciaram após a morte de 12 bovinos, de um rebanho de 500 animais, criados em uma extensa área intensamente infestada por I. carnea subsp. fistulosa com escassa disponibilidade de outra forragem. As mortes ocorreram entres os meses de junho e setembro de 2006. O quadro clínico foi caracterizado por emagrecimento e sinais neurológicos com dificuldade locomotora. Um bovino foi necropsiado sem que se observassem alterações macroscópicas significativas. Histologicamente havia tumefação e vacuolização celular, em neurônios, células acinares pancreáticas, tubulares renais e foliculares da tireóide. Bovinos com quadro clínico similar foram retirados da área invadida por I. carnea subsp. fistulosa e colocadas em áreas com pastagem nativa e de Brachiaria sp. e apresentaram melhora clínica após período de 15 dias.A spontaneous Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (canudo, algodoeiro poisoning of cattle in the county of Poconé, Brazilian Pantanal, is reported. The investigation began after 12 cattle had died from a flock of 500 animals maintained in an extensive area intensely infested by I. carnea subsp. fistulosa with scarce availability of other fodder plants. The deaths occurred from June to September of 2006. Clinical signs were loss of weight and neurological deficits with hypermetry and incoordination. No significant gross lesions were observed at postmortem examination of one bovine. Histological changes comprised widespread cytoplasmic vacuolation of neurons, cells of the thyroid, kidney and pancreas. Cattle with similar clinical picture, that had been removed from the area invaded by I. carnea subsp. fistulosa and placed into areas with native and Brachiaria sp. pasture, recovered clinically within 15 days.

  9. Genome Sequences of Four Strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis, Isolated from Swine and Humans, Differing in Virulence in a Murine Intranasal Infection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruffaerts, N.; Vluggen, C.; Duytschaever, L.; Mathys, V.; Saegerman, C.; Chapeira, O.

    2016-01-01

    This paper announces the genome sequences of four strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis, isolated from cases of lymphadenopathy in swine and humans, differing in virulence in a murine intranasal infection model. PMID:27313293

  10. The Investigation of Some Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna subsp. monogyna jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat KESER

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and pharmacological effects of hawthorn have mainly been attributed to the polyphenolic contents. The aim of this research is to determine some bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of hawthorn aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves, flowers and ripened fruits. For this purpose, antioxidant activities of extracts were assessed on DPPH and #8226;, ABTS and #8226;+, superoxide scavenging, reducing power and ferrous metal chelating activity assays and phenolic content of extracts was determined by Folin-Cioacalteu and #8217;s reagent. The flavonoids including rutin, apigenin, myricetin, quercetin, naringenin and kaempferol, were identified by HPLC in the hawthorn extract. It was observed the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Crataegus monogyna subsp. monogyna fruits showed highest activity in reducing power and metal chelating activity assays. Additionally, it was determined that the aqueous flower extract showed higher flavonoid content than aqueous leaves extract. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 51-55

  11. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Milk from Clinically Affected Cows by PCR and culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Steen Bjørck; Ahrens, Peter

    intestinal mucosa, but culture-positive in milk, and both faeces and milk were negative in culture and PCR from 2 cows. In conclusion the presence of M. a. paratuberculosis could be detected in raw milk by PCR but cultivation of milk was more sensitive in detecting the organism.......Milk and faecal samples from cows with clinical symptoms of paratuberculosis were examined for the presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp.paratuberculosis (M. a. paratuberculosis) by culture and PCR. M. a. paratuberculosis was isolated in varied numbers from faeces or intestinal mucosa in 8 of 11...... animals. In milk from 5 cows (all faecal culture-positive) we cultivated a few colonies of M. a. paratuberculosis (less than 100 CFU per mi). Milk samples from 2 cows were PCR-positive (both animals were faecal culture-positive, and 1 cow was milk culture positive). One cow was culture-negative on...

  12. Development of an Immunochromatographic Strip for Rapid Detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Feng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple, sensitive, and specific immunochromatographic test strip was developed for the detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss in corn seed which was soaked overnight and then centrifuged for precipitate re-dissolved as samples. A pair of sensitive monoclonal antibodies for the immunochromatographic test strip was generated by mice immunization and cell fusion. Under optimized conditions, the lower detection limit of the strips for Pss was 1 × 105 cfu/mL both in 0.01 M phosphate buffer solution and corn seed samples, with no cross-reactivity with other common plant pathogens. The developed strip is useful and rapid for the detection of Pss in corn seed samples.

  13. Biological role of pigment production for the bacterial phytopathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mojtaba; Burbank, Lindsey; Roper, M Caroline

    2012-10-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, the causal agent of Stewart's wilt of sweet corn, produces a yellow carotenoid pigment. A nonpigmented mutant was selected from a bank of mutants generated by random transposon mutagenesis. The transposon insertion site was mapped to the crtB gene, encoding a putative phytoene synthase, an enzyme involved in the early steps of carotenoid biosynthesis. We demonstrate here that the carotenoid pigment imparts protection against UV radiation and also contributes to the complete antioxidant pathway of P. stewartii. Moreover, production of this pigment is regulated by the EsaI/EsaR quorum-sensing system and significantly contributes to the virulence of the pathogen in planta. PMID:22820327

  14. Development of an immunochromatographic strip for rapid detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Min; Kong, Dezhao; Wang, Wenbing; Liu, Liqiang; Song, Shanshan; Xu, Chuanlai

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, simple, sensitive, and specific immunochromatographic test strip was developed for the detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss) in corn seed which was soaked overnight and then centrifuged for precipitate re-dissolved as samples. A pair of sensitive monoclonal antibodies for the immunochromatographic test strip was generated by mice immunization and cell fusion. Under optimized conditions, the lower detection limit of the strips for Pss was 1 × 10(5) cfu/mL both in 0.01 M phosphate buffer solution and corn seed samples, with no cross-reactivity with other common plant pathogens. The developed strip is useful and rapid for the detection of Pss in corn seed samples. PMID:25686315

  15. Draft genome sequences of two Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates harboring plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Antony T; Tanaka, Katherine H; Trudel, Melanie V; Frenette, Michel; Derome, Nicolas; Charette, Steve J

    2015-02-01

    The bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis, a widespread fish disease causing important economic losses to the fish farming industry. Antibiotic treatments in fish farms may be challenging given the existence of multidrug-resistant isolates of this bacterium. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of the 2004-05MF26 and 2009-144K3 isolates, which harbor plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance. Both isolates also carry the large plasmid pAsa5, which is known to encode a type three secretion system (TTSS) and the pAsal1 plasmid which has the aopP gene producing a TTSS effector. These two isolates are good representatives of the plasmid diversity in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. PMID:25724776

  16. Polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols and chromone O-glucosides from Hypericum henryi subsp. uraloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuan-Qin; Li, Yan; Cheng, Xiao; Wang, Kou; He, Juan; Pan, Zheng-Hong; Li, Ming-Ming; Peng, Li-Yan; Xu, Gang; Zhao, Qin-Shi

    2010-01-01

    Two new C(30)-epimeric polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs), named uralodins B and C (1 and 2, resp.), were isolated from the aerial parts of Hypericum henryi subsp. uraloides together with two new chromone glucosides, urachromones A and B (3 and 4, resp.), as well as 16 known compounds. Their structures were established by extensive NMR techniques and MS analysis. The epimers 1 and 2 always behaved like a single compound when examined by TLC, and were separated by HPLC. Their configuration was distinguished by comparative analysis of the NMR data with known analogues together with the ROESY experiment. All the isolated PPAPs were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against HepG2, SGC7901, HL-60, and K562 cell lines. Compound 1 showed modest cytotoxic activities against SGC7901 and HL-60 cell lines, and 2 showed modest cytotoxic activities against HepG2, SGC7901, HL-60, and K562 cell lines. PMID:20087990

  17. Anatomical differences between stem and branch wood of Ficus carica L. subsp. carica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbaros Yaman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative anatomical differences between the stem and branch wood of Ficus carica L. subsp. carica (Moraceae were investigated. In spite of the similarity in the qualitative traits, according to statistical analysis, tangential vessel diameter, radial vessel diameter, vessel frequency, vessel wall thickness, multiseriate ray width, fibre length, fibre diameter, and fibre wall thickness showed statistically significant differences in the stem and branch wood of taxon examined. Fibre length and vessel element length in branch wood is about 16% and 3% shorter respectively. In addition, vessel frequency in the branch wood is about 52% higher. Whilst the number of rays per mm is not different in branch wood and stem wood, ray width is about 18% narrower in branch wood.

  18. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum – the Causal Agent of Calla Soft Rot in Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Ivanović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial strains were isolated from above- and underground parts of diseased calla plants originating from different localities in Serbia and one locality in Montenegro. They were characterized by studying their pathogenic, cultural, biochemical and physiologicalcharacteristics. All investigated strains caused soft rot of calla leaf stalks, potato slices and aloe leaves, and induced hypersensitive reaction on tobacco. Bacteriological properties of the strains indicated that symptoms on calla plants were caused by Gram-negative, nonfluorescent, oxidase negative, catalase positive and facultatively anaerobic bacterium belonging to the genus Pectobacterium. The investigated strains grew at 37ºC and in 5% NaCl, utilised lactose and trechalose, and produced neither indol nor lecitinase. These results, as well as the characteristic growth on Logan’s differential medium indicated that soft rot of tuber and stem base of calla plants was caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. This is the first report of this pathogen affecting calla plants in Serbia.

  19. Insights into physiological traits of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 through membrane proteome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilad, Ofir; Hjernø, Karin; Østerlund, Eva Christina;

    2012-01-01

    Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 is a widely used probiotic strain associated with a variety of health-promoting traits. There is, however, only limited knowledge available regarding the membrane proteome and the proteins involved in oligosaccharide transport in BB-12. We applied two...... enrichment strategies to improve the identification of membrane proteins from BB-12 cultures grown on glucose and on xylo-oligosaccharides, the latter being an emerging prebiotic substrate recently reported to be fermented by BB-12. Our approach encompassed consecutive steps of detergent- and carbonate......-treatment in order to generate inside-out membrane vesicles and to interfere with binding of membrane-associated proteins to the membrane, respectively. Proteins in the enriched membrane fraction and membrane-associated fraction were digested by lysyl endopeptidase and trypsin followed by peptide sequencing by...

  20. Germination and conjugation of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in the intestine of gnotobiotic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcks, Andrea; Ørum-Smidt, Lasse; Bahl, Martin Iain;

    2008-01-01

    harbouring a plasmid encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP), which enabled quantification of germinated bacteria by flow cytometry. To study in vivo conjugation, germ-free rats were first associated with a B. thuringiensis recipient strain and after 1 week an isogenic donor strain harbouring......Aims: To study the ability of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores to germinate and subsequently transfer a conjugative plasmid in the intestinal tract of gnotobiotic rats. Methods and Results: Germination was studied by feeding germ-free rats with spores of a B. thuringiensis strain...... the conjugative plasmid pXO16 was introduced. Both strains were given as spores and transfer of pXO16 was observed from the donor to the recipient strain. Conclusions: Bacillus thuringiensis is able to have a full life cycle in the intestine of gnotobiotic rats including germination of spores, several cycles...

  1. [Macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum in the Czech Republic and in other countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillová, L; Mikalová, L; Zákoucká, H; Židlická, J; Šmajs, D

    2015-03-01

    Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease syphilis. In the Czech Republic, several hundred cases of syphilis are reported annually; e.g. in 2012, 696 syphilis cases were documented. In the last decades, an increasing prevalence of macrolide resistant TPA strains harboring A2058G or A2059G mutations in the 23S rRNA gene has been reported. Macrolides were used (and rarely are still being used) in the Czech Republic for the treatment of syphilis in patients allergic to penicillin. While 37% of TPA strains were resistant to macrolides between 2004 and 2010, this rate increased to 67% between 2011-2013. High prevalence of A2058G or A2059G mutations and increasing rates of macrolide resistant TPA strains have also been documented in other developed countries. Therefore, macrolides should not be used in the treatment of syphilis. PMID:25872989

  2. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Cistus creticus subsp. eriocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetzos, C; Katerinopoulos, H; Kouvarakis, A; Stratigakis, N; Loukis, A; Ekonomakis, C; Spiliotis, V; Tsaknis, J

    1997-10-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of the leaves of Cistus creticus subsp. eriocephalus (Viv.) Greuter & Burdet, (Cistaceae), was investigated by GC/MS. Thirty-nine components were identified, representing 73.9% (based on % total peak area by GC) of the oil composition. The main components of the oil were alpha-cadinene (6.5%), delta-cadinene (5.6%), viridiflorol (5.4%), bulnesol (6.3%), ledol (3.8%), alpha-copaene (3.8%), beta-selinene (3.4%), cubenene (3.3%), manoyl oxide (9.9%) and 13-epi-manoyl oxide (3.4%). Antibacterial studies were carried out in vitro against Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. PMID:9342956

  3. CELL-SURFACE BINDING OF DEOXYNIVALENOL TO Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans ISOLATED FROM SOURDOUGH STARTER CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef I. Hassan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON and fumonisin B1 (FB1 are two contaminant-mycotoxins frequently found in food commodities produced under poor conditions. Several methods have been suggested for the detoxification of such mycotoxins. Among the proposed methods, biological detoxification seems to be the most promising and cost-efficient. This study explores the capability of one strain of lactic acid bacteria, identified as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans, to bind both DON and FB1 in liquid cultures. Here we report the ability of heat-inactivated cells to significantly reduce concentrations of DON in liquid cultures. Further mechanistic investigation showed that the detoxification process is a result of the physical binding of such mycotoxins to the cell wall of this bacterium.

  4. [Possible association between Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis infection and Crohn's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal, Patricio; Beltrán, Caroll; Abalos, Pedro; Quera, Rodrigo; Hermoso, Marcela

    2011-06-01

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic intestinal disease of animals caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), which has some pathological features similar to Crohn's disease (CD) in humans. The presence of MAP in food for human consumption and in affected tissues of patients with CD has been detected. Therefore, a causal association between this microorganism and the disease in humans, has been postulated. However, several related studies have failed to confirm this hypothesis and the scientific acceptance of MAP as a zoonotic agent remains controversial. This review presents the main findings related to this issue, contrasting evidences for and against an association between MAP and CD. The need to promote national studies focusing on this area is suggested. PMID:22051762

  5. Structural basis for arabinoxylo‐oligosaccharide capture by the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl‐04

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Ejby; Fredslund, Folmer; Vujicic‐Zagar, Andreja;

    2013-01-01

    Glycan utilization plays a key role in modulating the composition of the gut microbiota, but molecular insight into oligosaccharide uptake by this microbial community is lacking. Arabinoxylo‐oligosaccharides (AXOS) are abundant in the diet, and are selectively fermented by probiotic bifidobacteria...... in the colon. Here we show how selectivity for AXOS uptake is established by the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl‐04. The binding protein BlAXBP, which is associated with an ATP‐binding cassette (ABC) transporter that mediates the uptake of AXOS, displays an exceptionally...... broad specificity for arabinosyl‐decorated and undecorated xylo‐oligosaccharides, with preference for tri‐ and tetra‐saccharides. Crystal structures of BlAXBP in complex with four different ligands revealed the basis for this versatility. Uniquely, the protein was able to recognize oligosaccharides in...

  6. Two new species of Lactarius associated with Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Leticia; Bandala, Victor M; Garay, Edith

    2014-01-01

    In pure stands of Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta trees from Sierra Norte de Puebla (central Mexico) two undescribed ectomycorrhizal species of Lactarius were discovered. Distinction of the two new species is based on morphological characters and supported with phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS region and part of the gene that encodes for the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2). The phylogenies inferred recovered the two species in different clades strongly supported by posterior probabilities and bootstrap values. The new Lactarius species are recognized as part of the assemblage of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Alnus acuminata. Information about these taxa includes the morphological variation achieved along 16 monitories 2010-2013. Descriptions are provided. They are accompanied by photos including SEM photomicrographs of basidiospores and information on differences between them and other related taxa from Europe and the United States. PMID:24895428

  7. Crambe (Crambe hispanica subsp. abyssinica) Genotiplerinin Bazı Bitkisel Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    ARSLAN, Yusuf; SUBAŞI, İlhan; KEYVANOĞLU, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Bu çalışma; Crambe genotiplerinin bazı bitkisel özelliklerin belirlemesi amacıyla Ankara koşullarında Tarla Bitkileri Merkez Araştırma Enstitüsü Müdürlüğü’nün Araştırma ve Uygulama tarlasında 2013 yılında yürütülmüştür. Bu çalışmada materyal olarak ABD Ulusal Gen Bankası’ndan temin edilen 82 adet Crambe (Crambe hispanica subsp. abyssinica) genotipinden elde edilen veriler kullanılmıştır. Crambe bitkisinde, rozette kalma gün sayısı, bin tohum ağırlığı (g), bitki başına tohum verimi (g/bitki), ...

  8. Antioxidant activity of polyphenol and ultrasonic extracts from fruits of Crataegus pentagyna subsp. elburensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Kh; Bekhradnia, S; Nabavi, S M; Nabavi, S F; Ebrahimzadeh, M A

    2012-01-01

    The effects of two extracting methods on the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of Crataegus pentagyna subsp. elburensis Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd fruit extracts were investigated. Antioxidant activities of polyphenol (PP) fraction and ultrasonic (US) extraction were evaluated with four different in vitro antioxidant tests. IC(50) for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 32.2 ± 1.6 for PP fraction and 36.7 ± 1.5 µg mL(-1) for US extract. Reducing powers of extracts increased with the increase of their concentrations. PP fraction exhibited high reducing power at 2-32 µg mL(-1). Extracts exhibited good H(2)O(2) radical scavenging and Fe(2+) chelating ability. Their high phenolic and flavonoid contents could be responsible for their antioxidant activity and pharmacologic actions. PMID:22428996

  9. Clonal Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus post breeding endometritis in thoroughbred broodmares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Söderlind, Maja; Rydemann Rudefalk, Sofia;

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is one of the most commonly isolated pathogens from the uterus of mares with infectious endometritis. Its ability to cause chronic latent infection by residing deep within the endometrial tissue has previously been described. The aim of the study was to....... zooepidemicus infection was associated with increased age, high parity and poor vulvar conformation. Mares with clonal infection had a low pregnancy rate (38%) compared with mares with two strains isolated (80%). In conclusion, the results indicate that clonal S. zooepidemicus endometritis is associated with...... increased age, parity and poor vulvar conformation in brood mares. Further studies investigating the host-pathogen interaction in clonal S. zooepidemicus endometritis are needed to support these preliminary results....

  10. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by a Direct In Situ PCR Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Fernando; Aguilar, Diana; Garbaccio, Sergio; Francinelli, Gladys; Hernández-Pando, R.; Romano, María Isabel

    2011-01-01

    In situ detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is useful for diagnosis and research of paratuberculosis. The aim of this paper was to detect this agent in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples by a direct in situ PCR. The technique was performed on ileum or ileocaecal lymph node samples from 8 naturally infected cattle and 1 healthy calf, by using p89 and p92 primers for amplification of IS900 sequence. Moderate positive signal was detected in all positive samples and not in negative control, but tissues resulted were affected in many cases due to the enzymatic treatment and the high temperature exposition. Although the technique was useful for Map detection, the signal was lower than immunohistochemistry probably because of the fixation process. In one case, signal was higher, which might be due to the detection of spheroplasts. Thus, the described method should be recommended when others resulted negative or for spheroplasts detection. PMID:21772965

  11. Antifungal activity and isomerization of octadecyl p-coumarates from Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidiry, Eugene Sebastian J; Ganeshan, Girija; Lokesha, Ankanahalli N

    2011-12-01

    Bioassay monitored HPLC assisted isolation and purification of the chief antifungal fraction of the leaves of Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convulvulaceae) were achieved using Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Cladosporium cucumerinum as test organisms. The activity of the purified fraction was further confirmed by the dose dependent inhibition of the spore germination of Alternaria alternata and A. porri. The active fraction was identified as a mixture of (E)-octadecyl p-coumarate and (Z)-octadecyl p-coumarate. The two isomers were detected on an HPLC column with substantially different retention times, but once eluted from the column, one form was partly converted to the other in daylight. Conclusive evidence for the structures and their isomerization were obtained from the HPLC behavior, IR, UV, HRESIMS, CIMS and and NMR spectral data. Important 1H NMR and 13C NMR signals could be separately assigned for the isomers using 2D NMR techniques. PMID:22312731

  12. PRESENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN ALPACAS (LAMA PACOS) INHABITING THE CHILEAN ALTIPLANO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Miguel; Sevilla, Iker; Rios, Carolina; Crossley, Jorge; Tejeda, Carlos; Manning, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The organism causes disease in both domestically managed and wild ruminant species. South American camelids have a long, shared history with indigenous people in the Andes. Over the last few decades, increasing numbers of alpacas were exported to numerous countries outside South America. No paratuberculosis surveillance has been reported for these source herds. In this study, individual fecal samples from 85 adult alpacas were collected from six separate herds in the Chilean Altiplano. A ParaTB mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture of each individual fecal sample, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was used for confirmation. DNA extracts from a subset of confirmed MAP isolates were subjected to mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Fifteen alpaca were fecal culture test-positive. Five false-positive culture samples were negative on PCR analysis for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA), Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), and the 16 S rDNA gene. Three MAP isolates subset-tested belonged to the same MIRU-VNTR type, showing four repeats for TR292 (locus 1) in contrast to the three repeats typical of the MAP reference strain K10. The number of repeats found in the remaining loci was identical to that of the K10 strain. It is not known how nor when MAP was introduced into the alpaca population in the Chilean Altiplano. The most plausible hypothesis to explain the presence of MAP in these indigenous populations is transmission by contact with infected domestic small ruminant species that may on occasion share pastures or range with alpacas. Isolation of this mycobacterial pathogen from such a remote region suggests that MAP has found its way beyond the confines of intensively managed domestic agriculture premises. PMID:27010259

  13. New Claims for Wild Carrot (Daucus carota subsp. carota) Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Silva, Jorge M; Zuzarte, Mónica; Gonçalves, Maria José; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Cardoso, Susana M; Salgueiro, Lígia

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil of Daucus carota subsp. carota from Portugal, with high amounts of geranyl acetate (29.0%), α-pinene (27.2%), and 11αH-himachal-4-en-1β-ol (9.2%), was assessed for its biological potential. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, dermatophytes, and Aspergillus strains. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were evaluated showing a significant activity towards Gram-positive bacteria (MIC = 0.32-0.64 μL/mL), Cryptococcus neoformans (0.16 μL/mL), and dermatophytes (0.32-0.64 μL/mL). The inhibition of the germ tube formation and the effect of the oil on Candida albicans biofilms were also unveiled. The oil inhibited more than 50% of filamentation at concentrations as low as 0.04 μL/mL (MIC/128) and decreased both biofilm mass and cell viability. The antioxidant capacity of the oil, as assessed by two in chemico methods, was not relevant. Still, it seems to exhibit some anti-inflammatory potential by decreasing nitric oxide production around 20% in LPS-stimulated macrophages, without decreasing macrophages viability. Moreover, the oils safety profile was assessed on keratinocytes, alveolar epithelial cells, macrophages, and hepatocytes. Overall, the oil demonstrated a safety profile at concentrations below 0.64 μL/mL. The present work highlights the bioactive potential of D. carota subsp. carota suggesting its industrial exploitation. PMID:26981143

  14. Transcriptome profiling of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 in response to agmatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; Martin, M Cruz; Fernandez, Maria; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P; Ladero, Victor; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-03-01

    The dairy strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 (formerly GE2-14) synthesizes the biogenic amine putrescine from agmatine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway [1]. The AGDI cluster of L. lactis is composed by five genes aguR, aguB, aguD, aguA and aguC. The last four genes are co-transcribed as a single policistronic mRNA forming the catabolic operon aguBDAC, which encodes the proteins necessary for agmatine uptake and its conversion into putrescine [1], [2]. The first gene of the cluster, aguR, encodes a transmembrane protein that functions as a one-component signal transduction system that senses the agmatine concentration of the medium and accordingly regulates the transcription of aguBDAC[2]. The catabolic operon aguBDAC is transcriptionally activated by agmatine [2] and transcriptionally regulated by carbon catabolite repression (CCR) via glucose, but not by other sugars such as lactose or galactose [1], [3]. On the contrary, the transcription of the aguR regulatory gene is not subject to CCR regulation [1], [3] nor is regulated by agmatine [2]. In this study we report the transcriptional profiling of L. lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 grown in M17 medium with galactose (GalM17) as carbon source and supplemented with agmatine, compared to that of the strain grown in the same culture medium without agmatine. The transcriptional profiling data of agmatine-regulated genes were deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under Accession no. GSE74808. PMID:26981381

  15. Transcriptome profiling of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 in response to agmatine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz del Rio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The dairy strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 (formerly GE2-14 synthesizes the biogenic amine putrescine from agmatine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI pathway [1]. The AGDI cluster of L. lactis is composed by five genes aguR, aguB, aguD, aguA and aguC. The last four genes are co-transcribed as a single policistronic mRNA forming the catabolic operon aguBDAC, which encodes the proteins necessary for agmatine uptake and its conversion into putrescine [1,2]. The first gene of the cluster, aguR, encodes a transmembrane protein that functions as a one-component signal transduction system that senses the agmatine concentration of the medium and accordingly regulates the transcription of aguBDAC [2]. The catabolic operon aguBDAC is transcriptionally activated by agmatine [2] and transcriptionally regulated by carbon catabolite repression (CCR via glucose, but not by other sugars such as lactose or galactose [1,3]. On the contrary, the transcription of the aguR regulatory gene is not subject to CCR regulation [1,3] nor is regulated by agmatine [2]. In this study we report the transcriptional profiling of L. lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 grown in M17 medium with galactose (GalM17 as carbon source and supplemented with agmatine, compared to that of the strain grown in the same culture medium without agmatine. The transcriptional profiling data of agmatine-regulated genes were deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under Accession no. GSE74808.

  16. Host responses to the pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and beneficial microbes exhibit host sex specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunasena, Enusha; McMahon, K Wyatt; Chang, David; Brashears, Mindy M

    2014-08-01

    Differences between microbial pathogenesis in male and female hosts are well characterized in disease conditions connected to sexual transmission. However, limited biological insight is available on variances attributed to sex specificity in host-microbe interactions, and it is most often a minimized variable outside these transmission events. In this work, we studied two gut microbes-a pathogen, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and a probiotic, Lactobacillus animalis NP-51-and the interaction between each agent and the male and female gastrointestinal systems. This trial was conducted in BALB/c mice (n=5 per experimental group and per sex at a given time point), with analysis at four time points over 180 days. Host responses to M.avium subsp. paratuberculosis and L. animalis were sensitive to sex. Cytokines that were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) betweenthe sexes included interleukin-1α/β (IL-1α/β), IL-17, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and gamma interferon (IFN-) and were dependent on experimental conditions. However, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and IL-13/23 showed no sex specificity. A metabolomics study indicated a 0.5- to 2.0-fold (log2 scale) increase in short-chain fatty acids (butyrate and acetate) in males and greater increases in o-phosphocholine or histidine from female colon tissues; variances distinct to each sex were observed with age or long-term probiotic consumption. Two genera, Staphylococcus and Roseburia, were consistently overrepresented in females compared to males; other species were specific to one sex but fluctuated depending on experimental conditions. The differences observed suggest that male and female gut tissues and microbiota respond to newly introduced microorganisms differently and that gut-associated microorganisms with host immune system responses and metabolic activity are supported by biology distinct to the host sex. PMID:24814797

  17. Long lasting persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis Subsp. israelensis (Bti in mosquito natural habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Tilquin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The detrimental effects of chemical insecticides on the environment and human health have lead to the call for biological alternatives. Today, one of the most promising solutions is the use of spray formulations based on Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti in insect control programs. As a result, the amounts of Bti spread in the environment are expected to increase worldwide, whilst the common belief that commercial Bti is easily cleared from the ecosystem has not yet been clearly established. METHODOLOGY/MAIN FINDINGS: In this study, we aimed to determine the nature and origin of the high toxicity toward mosquito larvae found in decaying leaf litter collected in several natural mosquito breeding sites in the Rhône-Alpes region. From the toxic fraction of the leaf litter, we isolated B. cereus-like bacteria that were further characterized as B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis using PCR amplification of specific toxin genes. Immunological analysis of these Bti strains showed that they belong to the H14 group. We finally used amplified length polymorphism (AFLP markers to show that the strains isolated from the leaf litter were closely related to those present in the commercial insecticide used for field application, and differed from natural worldwide genotypes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results raise the issue of the persistence, potential proliferation and environmental accumulation of human-spread Bti in natural mosquito habitats. Such Bti environmental persistence may lengthen the exposure time of insects to this bio-insecticide, thereby increasing the risk of resistance acquisition in target insects, and of a negative impact on non-target insects.

  18. Antibody response to Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae bacterium in small holder dairy goats in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swai, Emmanuel Senyael; Kaaya, Jackson Eliona; Noah, Elly Yesse

    2013-10-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), an Office International des Epizooties listed disease, can cause significant levels of morbidity and mortality in goats in Africa, the Middle East, and Western Asia. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of CCPP, in two contrasting administrative districts of northern Tanzania, namely, Babati and Arumeru. A total of 337 serum samples were collected from January to July 2010, from apparently clinically healthy unvaccinated dairy goats breeds of different ages and sexes. Samples were subjected to monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the specific measurement of antibodies to Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae bacterium. The overall animal flock and village-level seroprevalence of CCPP was found to be 3.3 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-5.8], 9.6 % (95 % CI = 4.7-16.9), and 31.5 % (95 % CI = 15.6-56.5), respectively. There was no evidence (p = 0.659) of differences in seroprevalence between samples from the two administrative locations. Despite the fact that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in seropositivity between sex and age and between breeds sampled, there was a significant difference (p goats showing a higher seroprevalence. The findings of this survey revealed evidence of dairy goat exposure to M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, although at a low prevalence. It is therefore advisable to include CCPP serology in the seromonitoring program so as to give a better indication of flock immunity. This should lead to the establishment of appropriate CCPP control measures in smallholder dairy goat flocks, which are increasingly being recognized for their value as a vital source of livelihood for resource poor livestock keepers in Tanzania. PMID:23558376

  19. Cloning, Expression and Toxicity of a Mosquitocidal Toxin Gene of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo Nora

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt subsp. medellin (Btmed produces parasporal crystalline inclusions which are toxic to mosquito larvae. It has been shown that the inclusions of this bacterium contain mainly proteins of 94, 68 and 28-30 kDa. EcoRI partially digested total DNA of Btmed was cloned by using the Lambda Zap II cloning kit. Recombinant plaques were screened with a mouse policlonal antibody raised against the 94 kDa crystal protein of Btmed. One of the positive plaques was selected, and by in vivo excision, a recombinant pBluescript SK(- was obtained. The gene encoding the 94 kDa toxin of Btmed DNA was cloned in a 4.4 kb DNA fragment. Btmed DNA was then subcloned as a EcoRI/EcoRI fragment into the shuttle vector pBU4 producing the recombinant plasmid pBTM3 and used to transform by electroporation Bt subsp. israelensis (Bti crystal negative strain 4Q2-81. Toxicity to mosquito larvae was estimated by using first instar laboratory reared Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae challenged with whole crystals. Toxicity results indicate that the purified inclusions from the recombinant Bti strain were toxic to all mosquito species tested, although the toxicity was not as high as the one produced by the crystal of the Btmed wild type strain. Poliacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicate that the inclusions produced by the recombinant strain Bti (pBTM3 were mainly composed of the 94 kDa protein of Btmed, as it was determined by Western blot

  20. In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activity of Some Organic and Inorganic Salts Against Asiatic Citrus Canker Agent Xanthomonas Citri Subsp. Citri

    OpenAIRE

    Vahideh Hasabi; Hossein Askari; Seyed Mehdi Alavi; Masood Soltani Najafabadi

    2014-01-01

    Asiatic citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is becoming a disease of high economic impact, affecting all types of important citrus crops. In this study, the potential antibacterial activity of ten organic and inorganic salts on X. citri subsp. citri and on citrus canker disease development was evaluated. Among the salt compounds, copper, iron and zinc inorganic salts particularly zinc (with the highest diameter of inhibition, the lowest MIC and MBC values and the highest ba...

  1. Vaccination of Cattle with the N Terminus of LppQ of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Results in Type III Immune Complex Disease upon Experimental Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mulongo, Musa; Frey, Joachim; Smith, Ken; Schnier, Christian; Wesonga, Hezron; Naessens, Jan; McKeever, Declan

    2015-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a serious respiratory disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides. Current vaccines against CBPP induce short-lived immunity and can cause severe postvaccine reactions. Previous studies have identified the N terminus of the transmembrane lipoprotein Q (LppQ-N') of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides as the major antigen and a possible virulence factor. We therefore immunized cattle with purified recombinant LppQ-N' formulated in Freund's...

  2. Whole Genome Sequence of the Treponema pallidum subsp. endemicum Strain Bosnia A: The Genome Is Related to Yaws Treponemes but Contains Few Loci Similar to Syphilis Treponemes

    OpenAIRE

    Štaudová, Barbora; Strouhal, Michal; Zobaníková, Marie; Čejková, Darina; Fulton, Lucinda L.; Chen, Lei; Giacani, Lorenzo; Centurion-Lara, Arturo; Bruisten, Sylvia M; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M.; Šmajs, David

    2014-01-01

    Background T. pallidum subsp. endemicum (TEN) is the causative agent of bejel (also known as endemic syphilis). Clinical symptoms of syphilis and bejel are overlapping and the epidemiological context is important for correct diagnosis of both diseases. In contrast to syphilis, caused by T. pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA), TEN infections are usually spread by direct contact or contaminated utensils rather than by sexual contact. Bejel is most often seen in western Africa and in the Middle East....

  3. Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhi Isolate PM016/13 from Untreated Well Water Associated with a Typhoid Outbreak in Pasir Mas, Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad Harish, Salwani; Sim, Kee-Shin; Najimudin, Nazalan; Aziah, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi is a human-restricted pathogen that causes typhoid fever. Even though it is a human-restricted pathogen, the bacterium is also isolated from environments such as groundwater and pond water. Here, we describe the genome sequence of the Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi PM016/13 which was isolated from well water during a typhoid outbreak in Kelantan, Malaysia, in 2013. PMID:26564032

  4. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Infection Causes Suppression of RANTES, Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Expression in Peripheral Blood of Experimentally Infected Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Buza, Joram J.; Mori, Yasuyuki; Bari, Abusaleh M.; Hikono Aodon-geril, Hirokazu; Hirayama, Sachiyo; Shu, Yujing; Momotani, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Blood from cattle with subclinical Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection was stimulated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens, and expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), RANTES, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and IL-8 was measured. Expression of TNF-α, RANTES, and MCP-1 was lower in infected than in uninfected cattle. The reduced response may weaken protective immunity and perpetuate infection.

  5. Some biological compounds, radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emre, I.; Kursat, M.; Yilmaz, O.; Erecevit, P.

    2011-07-01

    This study determined some biological compounds (fatty acid compositions, lipid-soluble vitamins, sterols, flavonoids), radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was found that palmitic acid (C16:0; 8.54+-0.13-3.05+-0.04%), oleic acid (C18:1 n9, 22.41+-0.8-18.83+-0.1%) and a-inolenic acid were the dominant fatty acids in both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was concluded that both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contained stigmasterol and ergosterol as well as beta-sitosterol. The present findings show that Nepeta italica L. contains morin, catechin, naringin and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contains morin, naringenin as major flavonoids. It was also determined that methanol extracts of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana were most effective against DPPH radicals. The results of the present study show that the vitamins, flavonoids and fatty acid extracts in the seeds of N. italica L. and S. montana L. subsp. montana prevented the growth of the microorganisms used in the tests at different ratios. (Author).

  6. Prevalence and comparison of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus in raw and fermented dairy products from East and West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christoph; Kaindi, Dasel Wambua Mulwa; Böck, Désirée; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Kouamé-Sina, Sylvie Mireille; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus are members of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) associated with human infections. SBSEC-related endocarditis was furthermore associated with rural residency in Southern Europe. SBSEC members are increasingly isolated as predominant species from fermented dairy products in Europe, Asia and Africa. African variants of Sii displayed dairy adaptations to lactose metabolism paralleling those of Streptococcus thermophilus including genome decay. In this study, the aim was to assess the prevalence of Sii and possibly other SBSEC members in dairy products of East and West Africa in order to identify their habitat, estimate their importance in dairy fermentation processes and determine geographic areas affected by this potential health risk. Presumptive SBSEC members were isolated on semi-selective M17 and SM agar media. Subsequent genotypic identification of isolates was based on rep-PCR fingerprinting and SBSEC-specific16S rRNA gene PCR assay. Detailed identification was achieved through application of novel primers enhancing the binding stringency in partial groES/groEL gene amplification and subsequent DNA sequencing. The presence of S. thermophilus-like lacS and lacZ genes in the SBSEC isolates was determined to elucidate the prevalence of this dairy adaptation. Isolates (n = 754) were obtained from 72 raw and 95 fermented milk samples from Côte d'Ivoire and Kenya on semi-selective agar media. Colonies of Sii were not detected from raw milk despite high microbial titers of approximately 106 CFU/mL on M17 agar medium. However, after spontaneous milk fermentation Sii was genotypically identified in 94.1% of Kenyan samples and 60.8% of Kenyan isolates. Sii prevalence in Côte d'Ivoire displayed seasonal variations in samples from 32.3% (June) to 40.0% (Dec/Jan) and isolates from 20.5% (June) to 27.7% (Dec/Jan) present at titers of 106–108

  7. Identification of genomic differences between Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni and C. jejuni subsp. doylei at the nap locus leads to the development of a C. jejuni subspeciation multiplex PCR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath Sekou

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni contains two subspecies: C. jejuni subsp. jejuni (Cjj and C. jejuni subsp. doylei (Cjd. Although Cjd strains are isolated infrequently in many parts of the world, they are obtained primarily from human clinical samples and result in an unusual clinical symptomatology in that, in addition to gastroenteritis, they are associated often with bacteremia. In this study, we describe a novel multiplex PCR method, based on the nitrate reductase (nap locus, that can be used to unambiguously subspeciate C. jejuni isolates. Results Internal and flanking napA and napB primer sets were designed, based on existing C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli genome sequences to create two multiplex PCR primer sets, nap mpx1 and nap mpx2. Genomic DNA from 161 C. jejuni subsp. jejuni (Cjj and 27 C. jejuni subsp. doylei (Cjd strains were amplified with these multiplex primer sets. The Cjd strains could be distinguished clearly from the Cjj strains using either nap mpx1 or mpx2. In addition, combination of either nap multiplex method with an existing lpxA speciation multiplex method resulted in the unambiguous and simultaneous speciation and subspeciation of the thermophilic Campylobacters. The Cjd nap amplicons were also sequenced: all Cjd strains tested contained identical 2761 bp deletions in napA and several Cjd strains contained deletions in napB. Conclusion The nap multiplex PCR primer sets are robust and give a 100% discrimination of C. jejuni subspecies. The ability to rapidly subspeciate C. jejuni as well as speciate thermophilic Campylobacter species, most of which are pathogenic in humans, in a single amplification will be of value to clinical laboratories in strain identification and the determination of the environmental source of campylobacterioses caused by Cjd. Finally, the sequences of the Cjd napA and napB loci suggest that Cjd strains arose from a common ancestor, providing clues as to

  8. Selective enumeration and viability of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis in a new fermented milk product Enumeração seletiva e viabilidade de Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis em um novo produto lácteo fermentado

    OpenAIRE

    Adriane Elisabete Costa Antunes; Elza Terezinha Grael; Izildinha Moreno; Luana Gajardoni Rodrigues; Fernanda Martelo Dourado; Daniela Marques Saccaro; Alda Luiza Santos Lerayer

    2007-01-01

    One of the key focuses of today's dairy industry worldwide is the continued development of new products, especially probiotic-based products. Buttermilk is originally a by-product of butter making fermented by Mesophilic Aromatic Cultures (MAC). It can also be made by fermentation of pasteurized whole milk or skimmed milk. This product is not marketed in Brazil. The objectives of this work were: (1) to develop a selective medium for Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis enumeration and (2) t...

  9. A peptidome-based phylogeny pipeline reveals differential peptides at the strain level within Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Míguez, Aitor; Gutiérrez-Jácome, Alberto; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Lourenço, Anália; Sánchez, Borja

    2016-12-01

    Bifidobacteria are gut commensal microorganisms belonging to the Actinobacteria group. Some specific strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are used in functional foods as they are able to exert health-promoting effects in the human host. Due to the limited genetic variability within this subspecies, it is sometimes difficult for a manufacturer to properly track its strain once included in dairy products or functional foods. In this paper, we present a peptidome-based analysis in which the proteomes of a set of B. animalis subsp. lactis strains were digested in silico with human gut endopeptidases. The molecular masses were compared along all the strains to detect strain-specific peptides. These peptides may be interesting towards the development of methodologies for strain identification in the final product. PMID:27554155

  10. Detection of antibodies specific to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in the vaginal mucus of Nigerian breeding cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerai Woldehiwet

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of bovine venereal campylobacteriosis in the Lake Chad Basin of Nigeria was investigated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of IgA antibodies specific to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in vaginal mucus (n = 66. IgA antibodies specific to C. fetus subsp. venerealis were detected in 7 (11% vaginal mucus samples. All but one of the IgA-positive samples originated from cows belonging to herds with a history of abortion and infertility which suggested an association between antibody detection and poor herd fertility. It was concluded that bovine venereal campylobacteriosis is prevalent in the Lake Chad Basin of Nigeria and its contribution to reduced reproductive performance in cattle herds may be grossly underestimated in this part of the world.

  11. Quorum sensing in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and the effect of the autoinducer synthase AsaI on bacterial virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwenteit, Johanna; Gram, Lone; Nielsen, Kristian Fog;

    2011-01-01

    Ideficient mutant was 20-fold higher than that of the isogenic wt strain and the mean day to death of the mutant was significantly prolonged. Furthermore, the expression of two virulence factors (a toxic protease, AsaP1, and a cytotoxic factor) and a brown pigment were reduced in the mutant. AsaP1 productionwas...... an important virulence factor, AsaP1, without affecting bacterial growth, makes A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes an interesting target organism to study the effects of QS in disease development and QSI in disease control.......The Gram-negative fish pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida possesses the LuxIRtype quorum sensing (QS) system, termed AsaIR. In this study the role of QS in A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes virulence and pigment production was investigated. Five wild-type Asa strains induced the N...

  12. Identification of seven novel virulence genes from Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri by Tn5-based random mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xue; Guo, Jing; Ma, Wen-xiu; Ji, Zhi-yuan; Zou, Li-fang; Chen, Gong-you; Zou, Hua-song

    2015-05-01

    To identify novel virulence genes, a mutant library of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri 29-1 was produced using EZ-Tn5 transposon and the mutants were inoculated into susceptible grapefruit. Forty mutants with altered virulence phenotypes were identified. Nine of the mutants showed a complete loss of citrus canker induction, and the other 31 mutants resulted in attenuated canker symptoms. Southern blot analysis revealed that each of the mutants carried a single copy of Tn5. The flanking sequence was identified by plasmid rescue and 18 different ORFs were identified in the genome sequence. Of these 18 ORFs, seven had not been previously associated with the virulence of X. citri subsp. citri and were therefore confirmed by complementation analysis. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the seven genes were upregulated when the bacteria were grown in citrus plants, suggesting that the expression of these genes was essential for canker development. PMID:25935304

  13. Morphology, Carbohydrate Composition and Vernalization Response in a Genetically Diverse Collection of Asian and European Turnips (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa)

    OpenAIRE

    Ningwen Zhang; Jianjun Zhao; Frederic Lens; Joan de Visser; Temesgen Menamo; Wen Fang; Dong Xiao; Johan Bucher; Ram Kumar Basnet; Ke Lin; Feng Cheng; Xiaowu Wang; Guusje Bonnema

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa displays enormous morphological diversity, with leafy vegetables, turnips and oil crops. Turnips (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa) represent one of the morphotypes, which form tubers and can be used to study the genetics underlying storage organ formation. In the present study we investigated several characteristics of an extensive turnip collection comprising 56 accessions from both Asia (mainly Japanese origin) and Europe. Population structure was calculated using data from 280 even...

  14. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: Evaluation of the probiotic potential

    OpenAIRE

    Furtado, Danielle N.; Todorov, Svetoslav D.; Mariza Landgraf; Maria T. Destro; Franco, Bernadette D.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria capable of producing bacteriocins and presenting probiotic potential open innovative technological applications in the dairy industry. In this study, a bacteriocinogenic strain (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi) was isolated from goat milk, and studied for its probiotic potential. Lc. lactis DF4Mi was resistant to acidic pH and oxbile, presented co-aggregation with Listeria monocytogenes, and was not affected by several drugs from different generic groups, being sen...

  15. Quorum sensing in the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora: the role of expR(Ecc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, R A; Eriksson, A R; Heikinheimo, R; Mäe, A; Pirhonen, M; Kõiv, V; Hyytiäinen, H; Tuikkala, A; Palva, E T

    2000-04-01

    The production of the main virulence determinants of the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, the extracellular cell wall-degrading enzymes, is partly controlled by the diffusible signal molecule N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (OHHL). OHHL is synthesized by the product of the expI/carI gene. Linked to expI we found a gene encoding a putative transcriptional regulator of the LuxR-family. This gene, expR(Ecc), is transcribed convergently to the expI gene and the two open reading frames are partially overlapping. The ExpR(Ecc) protein showed extensive amino acid sequence similarity to the repressor EsaR from Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (formerly Erwinia stewartii subsp. stewartii) and to the ExpR(Ech) protein of Erwinia chrysanthemi. Inactivation of the E. carotovora subsp. carotovora expR(Ecc) gene caused no decrease in virulence or production of virulence determinants in vitro. In contrast, there was a slight increase in the maceration capacity of the mutant strain. The effects of ExpR(Ecc) were probably mediated by changes in OHHL levels. Inactivation of expR(Ecc) resulted in increased OHHL levels during early logarithmic growth. In addition, overexpression of expR(Ecc) caused a clear decrease in the production of virulence determinants and part of this effect was likely to be caused by OHHL binding to ExpR(Ecc). ExpR(Ecc) did not appear to exhibit transcriptional regulation of expI, but the effect on OHHL was apparently due to other mechanisms. PMID:10755301

  16. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil and Methanol Extract of Hypericum aegypticum subsp. webbii (Spach) N. Robson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marčetić, Mirjana D; Milenković, Marina T; Lakušić, Dmitar V; Lakušić, Branislava S

    2016-04-01

    Hypericum aegypticum subsp. webbii is an evergreen shrub spread in Mediterranean part of central and southeastern Europe. The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and MeOH extract of H. aegypticum subsp. webbii were investigated. The monoterpenes α-pinene (63.4 - 68.5%) and β-pinene (16.9 - 17.0%) were main compounds in the volatile oil from aerial parts. In the cluster analysis, the essential oil of H. aegypticum subsp. webbii was separated and chemically different from the oil of other subspecies of H. aegypticum as well as other Hypericum species from Greece. SIMPER analysis revealed that α-pinene (24.79%) was the component that contributed the most to differences between all oils. Also, there was extremely high overall dissimilarity between three subspecies of H. aegypticum. MeOH extract of aerial parts of H. aegypticum subsp. webbii contained flavonoids rutin (56.4 ± 0.9 mg/g), hyperoside and quercetin, and phenolic acids chlorogenic and caffeic acid, while naphthodianthrones were not detected. The antimicrobial activity of essential oil was moderate (MIC from 100 to >200 μg/ml), while MeOH extract inhibited the growth of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Micrococcus luteus (MIC 50 - 100 μg/ml), more pronounced than the extract of H. perforatum (MIC 200 - >200 μg/ml). PMID:26923468

  17. Genetic and physicochemical characterization of the recombinant DNA-derived 47-kilodalton surface immunogen of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum.

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, N R; Radolf, J D; Hsu, P. L.; Sell, S.; Norgard, M V

    1988-01-01

    Previous work has established the importance of the 47-kilodalton (kDa) surface immunogen of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (T. pallidum) in the immunopathogenesis of syphilis; the 47-kDa immunogen gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (M. V. Norgard, N. R. Chamberlain, M. A. Swancutt, and M. S. Goldberg, Infect. Immun. 54:500-506, 1986). To facilitate additional structural-functional analysis of this protein for immunopathogenesis studies, the recombinant DNA-derived molecule...

  18. The use of date waste for lactic acid production by a fed-batch culture using Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus

    OpenAIRE

    Aicha Nancib; Nabil Nancib; Abdelhafid Boubendir; Joseph Boudrant

    2015-01-01

    The production of lactic acid from date juice by Lactobacillus caseisubsp. rhamnosus in batch and fed-batch cultures has been investigated. The fed-batch culture system gave better results for lactic acid production and volumetric productivity. The aim of this work is to determine the effects of the feeding rate and the concentration of the feeding medium containing date juice glucose on the cell growth, the consumption of glucose and the lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei subsp. r...

  19. A murine oral model for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and immunomodulation with Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334

    OpenAIRE

    Cooney, Meagan A.; Steele, James L; Steinberg, Howard; Talaat, Adel M.

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) the causative agent of Johne's disease, is one of the most serious infectious diseases in dairy cattle worldwide. Due to the chronic nature of this disease and no feasible control strategy, it is essential to have an efficient animal model which is representative of the natural route of infection as well as a viable treatment option. In this report, we evaluated the effect of different doses of M. paratuberculosis in their abil...

  20. Comparative analysis of antioxidant activity in leaves of different hosts infected by mistletoe (Viscum album L. subsp. album)

    OpenAIRE

    Patykowski Jacek; Kołodziejek Jeremi

    2013-01-01

    Studies were performed at different sites in the major city of Lodz (Poland), where mistletoe is particularly abundant. The occurrence of total antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD) and the protein and phenol contents in leaves from different hosts infected by European mistletoe (Viscum album L. subsp. album) were studied. Some elements may vary in samples from the same mistletoe species on different host trees and species. The most ...

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of the aklavinone 11-hydroxylase gene of Streptomyces peucetius subsp. caesius ATCC 27952.

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Y S; Hwang, C K; Hong, S. K.; Kim, Y.H.(Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejon, 305-811, Korea); Lee, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    The gene encoding aklavinone 11-hydroxylase of Streptomyces peucetius subsp. caesius ATCC 27952 was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene contains at least two common motifs of well-conserved amino acid sequences of several flavin-type bacterial hydroxylases. The hydroxylase gene is apparently transcribed from a single transcriptional start point. The phenotype of a dnrF mutant generated by gene disruption supports the idea that the dnrF gene encodes aklavinone 11-...

  2. Purification, properties, and sequence specificity of SslI, a new type II restriction endonuclease from Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbadis, L; Garel, J R; Hartley, D L

    1991-01-01

    SslI, a type II restriction endonuclease, was purified from Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus strain BSN 45. SslI is an isoschizomer of BstNI. SslI activity was maximum at pH 8.8, 0 to 50 mM NaCl, 2 to 8 mM Mg2+, and 42 degrees C. Activity against phage DNA in vitro was demonstrated. Images PMID:1785940

  3. Secretion of TEM beta-lactamase with signal sequences isolated from the chromosome of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis.

    OpenAIRE

    Sibakov, M; Koivula, T; von Wright, A.; Palva, I

    1991-01-01

    With TEM beta-lactamase as a reporter gene, a set of expression-secretion-promoting fragments were isolated from the chromosome of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. The fact that only translocated beta-lactamase renders cells resistant to ampicillin allowed direct ampicillin selection with an Escherichia coli vector (pKTH33). The clones showing the greatest ampicillin resistance were subcloned onto a replicon capable of replication in lactic acid bacteria (pVS2), and the nucleotide sequences ...

  4. Growth of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Enteritidis during Preparation and Storage of Yogurt

    OpenAIRE

    Cirone, K.; Huberman, Y.; Morsella, C.; L. Méndez; Jorge, M.; F Paolicchi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) during preparation and refrigerated storage of yogurt. Three yogurts were prepared using pasteurized commercial milk. Each yogurt was artificially contaminated with (1) MAP, (2) E. coli + S. Enteritidis, and (3) MAP + E. coli + S. Enteritidis. Samples were taken during and after the fermentation process until day...

  5. Complete Sequencing and Pan-Genomic Analysis of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus Reveal Its Genetic Basis for Industrial Yogurt Production

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Pei; Zheng, Huajun; Yu, Yao; Ding, Guohui; Gu, Wenyi; Chen, Shuting; Yu, Zhonghao; Ren, Shuangxi; Oda, Munehiro; Konno, Tomonobu; Wang, Shengyue; Li, Xuan; Ji, Zai-Si; Zhao, Guoping

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Lb. bulgaricus) is an important species of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) used for cheese and yogurt fermentation. The genome of Lb. bulgaricus 2038, an industrial strain mainly used for yogurt production, was completely sequenced and compared against the other two ATCC collection strains of the same subspecies. Specific physiological properties of strain 2038, such as lysine biosynthesis, formate production, aspartate-related carbon-skeleton intermedi...

  6. Effects of Pistacia atlantica (subsp. Mutica oil extracts on antioxidant activities during experimentally induced cutaneous wound healing in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Hamidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of Pistacia atlantica (subsp. mutica have been used traditionally for the treatment of peptic ulcer, as a mouth freshener and have recently been introduced as a source of antioxidant vegetable oils. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of the gel forms, from P. atlantica (subsp. mutica oil extraction on enzymatic antioxidants in experimental wound created in rat. A square-shaped skin defect (2×2 cm was created aseptically by surgical excision at the first thoracic vertebrae. Then animals were randomly allocated in four groups (I, untreated controls; II, topically treated base gel; III, topically treated 5% gel; IV, topically treated 10% gel. Blood sampling was accomplished at 3, 7, 10, 14 and 21 days post-injury. Samples were collected for measuring antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity in red cells and lipid peroxidation (plasma malondialdehyde. The data analysis generally evidenced that the activities of the main antioxidant enzymes began to decrease significantly at 7 days after the wound was created in control and base gel groups. This remarkable decline became more evident in the period between 10 to 21 days post injury but increased progressively in P. atlantica (subsp. mutica treatment groups, especially in gel 10% treatment group during wound healing. The results of this study suggest that excision of the wound leads to oxidative stress and topical administration of P. atlantica (subsp. mutica gels causes remarkable changes in antioxidant parameter during wound closure (especially gel 10% via pro-oxidative, and antioxidant activity can improve oxidative stress.

  7. Molecular analysis and MIRU-VNTR typing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, 'hominissuis' and silvaticum strains of veterinary origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Csivincsik, Ágnes; Dán, Ádám; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2016-06-01

    Besides Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), M. avium subsp. avium (MAA), M. avium subsp. silvaticum (MAS), and 'M. avium subsp. hominissuis' (MAH) are equally important members of M. avium complex, with worldwide distribution and zoonotic potential. Genotypic discrimination is a prerequisite to epidemiological studies which can facilitate disease prevention through revealing infection sources and transmission routes. The primary aim of this study was to identify the genetic diversity within 135 MAA, 62 MAS, and 84 MAH strains isolated from wild and domestic mammals, reptiles and birds. Strains were tested for the presence of large sequence polymorphism LSP(A)17 and were submitted to Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable-number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) analysis at 8 loci, including MIRU1, 2, 3, and 4, VNTR25, 32, and 259, and MATR9. In 12 strains hsp65 sequence code type was also determined. LSP(A)17 was present only in 19.9% of the strains. All LSP(A)17 positive strains belonged to subspecies MAH. The discriminatory power of the MIRU-VNTR loci set used reached 0.9228. Altogether 54 different genotypes were detected. Within MAH, MAA, and MAS strains 33, 16, and 5 different genotypes were observed. The described genotypes were not restricted to geographic regions or host species, but proved to be subspecies specific. Our knowledge about MAS is limited due to isolation and identification difficulties. This is the first study including a large number of MAS field strains. Our results demonstrate the high diversity of MAH and MAA strains and the relative uniformity of MAS strains. PMID:26964909

  8. Modeling of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in farm bulk tank milk

    OpenAIRE

    Okura, Hisako; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in milk of bovine origin is suspected of being implicated Crohn’s disease in humans. Pasteurization is considered to reduce the concentration of MAP by at least 4 to 5 log10. This study aimed at estimating the level of MAP in milk at farm level and simulating the effect of different control options at different infection prevalences. The concentration of MAP in milk was estimated using a hierarchical simulation model representing individual co...

  9. Effects of reindeer on the re-establishment of Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii and Salix phylicifolia in a subarctic meadow

    OpenAIRE

    Michael den Herder; Pekka Niemelä

    2003-01-01

    The effect of reindeer browsing on the regeneration of Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii and Salix phylicifolia was studied in a subarctic meadow in Finnish Lapland. The aim of the study was to see whether tree recovery from seeds is possible under heavy reindeer-browsing pressure. After removal of the ground and field layer vegetation in 1986, two exclosures were established so that the effect of reindeer on the secondary succession, starting from seeds, could be studied. The size and the...

  10. Composition of the essential oil of two Salvia taxa (Salvia sclarea and Salvia verticillata subsp. verticillata) from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Hayta, Sukru; Dogan, Gulden; Yuce, Ebru; Bagci, Eyup

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The essential oil composition of two Salvia taxa (Salvia sclarea and Salvia verticillata subsp. verticillata) analysed and yield of compositions were analysedMaterial and Methods: The essential oil was extracted by hydro distillation using a modified Clevenger apparatus coupled to a 2 L round-bottom flask. A total of 100 g of fresh plant material (aerial parts) and 1 L of water were used for the extraction. Gas chromatography / Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis were applied to ext...

  11. Reclassification of the sulfate- and nitrate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp oxamicus as Desulfovibrio oxamicus sp nov., comb. nov

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez Cortes, A.; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Fauque, Guy; Joulian, C.; Ollivier, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris subsp. oxamicus (type strain, DSM 1925(T)) was found to use nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor, the latter being reduced to ammonium. Phylogenetic studies indicated that strain DSM 1925 T was distantly related to the type strain of Desulfovibrio vulgaris (95(.)4% similarity of the small-subunit rRNA gene) and had as its closest phylogenetic relatives two other nitrate- and sulfate-reducing bacteria, namely Desulfovibrio termitidis (99(.)4% similarity) and Desulfovi...

  12. Organic Cultivation of Triticum turgidum subsp. durum Is Reflected in the Flour-Sourdough Fermentation-Bread Axis

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Ercolini, Danilo; Nionelli, Luana; Pontonio, Erica; De Angelis, Maria; De Filippis, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Triticum turgidum subsp. durum was grown according to four farming systems: conventional (CONV), organic with cow manure (OMAN) or green manure (OLEG), and without inputs (NOINPUT). Some chemical and technological characteristics differed between CONV and organic flours. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, OMAN and OLEG flours showed the highest number of gliadins, and OMAN flour also had the highest number of high-molecular-mass glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prep...

  13. Ficus insipida subsp. insipida (Moraceae) reveals the role of ecology in the phylogeography of widespread Neotropical rain forest tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N.; Dexter, Kyle G.; Poelchau, Monica F; Hollingsworth, Peter M; Phillips, Oliver L.; Pennington, R Toby

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To examine the phylogeography of Ficus insipida subsp. insipida in order to investigate patterns of spatial genetic structure across the Neotropics and within Amazonia. Location: Neotropics. Methods: Plastid DNA (trnH-psbA; 410 individuals from 54 populations) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS; 85 individuals from 27 populations) sequences were sampled from Mexico to Bolivia, representing the full extent of the taxon's distribution. Divergence of plastid lineages was...

  14. Genetic and Physiological Responses of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis to Hydrogen Peroxide Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Oberg, T. S.; Ward, R. E.; Steele, J L; Broadbent, Jeffery R.

    2013-01-01

    Consumer interest in probiotic bifidobact eria is increasing, but industry efforts to secure high cell viability in foods is dermined by these anaerobes’ sensitivity to oxidative stress. To address this limitati on, we investigated genetic and physiological responses of two fully sequenced Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains, BL-04 and DSM 10140, to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stress. Although the genome sequences for these strains are highly clonal, prior work showed they differ in b...

  15. Pathogen specificity of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum integral membrane proteins identified by phase partitioning with Triton X-114.

    OpenAIRE

    Radolf, J D; Norgard, M V

    1988-01-01

    The antigenically conserved proteins of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and four nonpathogenic cultivatable treponemes were investigated by phase partitioning with the nonionic detergent Triton X-114 and immunoblot analysis. None of the T. pallidum integral membrane proteins identified by phase partitioning (detergent-phase proteins) appeared to be antigenically related to proteins of the nonpathogens. Protease-resistant material similar to lipopolysaccharide was identified in the detergen...

  16. Antibody Responses Elicited against the Treponema pallidum Repeat Proteins Differ during Infection with Different Isolates of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum

    OpenAIRE

    Leader, Brandon T.; Hevner, Karin; Molini, Barbara J.; Barrett, Lynn K.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Lukehart, Sheila A.

    2003-01-01

    Variation in the expression of the different Tpr proteins in the syphilis spirochete, Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, may have important implications in its ability to evade host immune detection and cause persistent infection. In the present study we examined the pattern of antibody responsiveness to different Tpr members during infection with three isolates of T. pallidum. There was variability in the specificities and temporal patterns of reactivity of the antibodies elicited against t...

  17. TP0262 is a modulator of promoter activity of tpr Subfamily II genes of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum

    OpenAIRE

    Giacani, Lorenzo; Godornes, Charmie; Puray-Chavez, Maritza; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Tompa, Martin; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Centurion-Lara, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation in Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum is poorly understood, primarily because this organism cannot be cultivated in vitro or genetically manipulated. We have recently shown a phase variation mechanism controlling transcription initiation of Subfamily II tpr (T. pallidum repeat) genes (tprE, tprG, and tprJ), a group of virulence factor candidates. Furthermore, the same study suggested that additional mechanisms might influence the level of transcription of these tprs...

  18. Different Transcriptional Response to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri between Kumquat and Sweet Orange with Contrasting Canker Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Xing-Zheng Fu; Xiao-Qing Gong; Yue-Xin Zhang; Yin Wang; Ji-Hong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Citrus canker disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most devastating biotic stresses affecting the citrus industry. Meiwa kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia) is canker-resistant, while Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) is canker-sensitive. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in responses to Xcc, transcriptomic profiles of these two genotypes following Xcc attack were compared by using the Affymetrix citrus genome GeneChip. ...

  19. Proteolytic action of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 reduces antigenic response to bovine β-lactoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescuma, Micaela; Hébert, Elvira María; Rabesona, Hanitra; Drouet, Martine; Choiset, Yvan; Haertlé, Thomas; Mozzi, Fernanda; de Valdez, Graciela Font; Chobert, Jean-Marc

    2011-07-15

    The whey protein β-lactoglobulin (BLG) is highly allergenic. Lactic acid bacteria can degrade milk proteins. The capacity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 to hydrolyse the major BLG epitopes (V41-K60; Y102-R124; L149-I162) and decrease their recognition by IgE of allergic patients was evaluated. The intensity of BLG degradation was analysed by Tricine SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC. Peptides released were identified by LC-MS/MS and the hydrolysates were tested for their capacity to inhibit IgE binding by ELISA test. L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 degraded BLG (35%, 8h). The sequence analysis of the released peptides indicated that this strain degraded three main BLG epitopes. BLG-positive sera (3-5year old children) were used for testing IgE binding inhibition of BLG hydrolysates from the Lactobacillus strain. The hydrolysates were less immuno-reactive (32%) than the heated BLG. L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 could be used for developing hypoallergenic dairy products. PMID:23140691

  20. Complete genome sequence of Polynucleobacter necessarius subsp. asymbioticus type strain (QLW-P1DMWA-1T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meincke, Linda [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Berry, Kerrie W. [United States Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Schmutz, Jeremy [Stanford University; Brettin, Thomas S [ORNL; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wu, Qinglong L. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Limnology, Mondsee, Austria; Pockl, Matthias [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Limnology, Mondsee, Austria; Hahn, Martin W. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Limnology, Mondsee, Austria; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany

    2012-01-01

    Polynucleobacter necessarius subsp. asymbioticus Hahn et al. 2009 is one of currently two subspecies of P. necessarius. While P. necessarius subsp. asymbioticus is a free-living bacterium, the closely related second subspecies, P. necessarius subsp. necessarius is an obligate endosymbiont living in the cytoplasm of freshwater ciliates of the genus Euplotes aediculatus. The two P. necessarius subspecies were the closest thus far reported phylogenetic neighbors that differ in their lifestyle as obligately free-living vs. obligate endosymbiontic, and they are the only members of the genus Polynucleobacter with completely sequenced genomes. The genome-sequenced strain represents a group of closely related strains not distinguishable by 16S rRNA, 16S-23S ITS or glnA sequences, which is persistent in the home habitat of the strain and frequently contributes > 10% of total bacterial numbers in water samples of the habitat. The 2,159,490 bp long chromosome with a total of 2,088 protein-coding and 48 RNA genes was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Community Sequencing Program 2006.

  1. Milk-derived angiotensin-I-converting enzymeinhibitory peptides generated by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas Josefina M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several strains of Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis were evaluated for their ability to release angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory peptides from α-casein (α-CN and β-casein (β-CN. Casein peptides resulting from L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581-mediated hydrolysis exhibited the highest ACE-inhibitory (ACEI activities, with values of 53 and 40% for α-CN and β-CN, respectively. The casein hydrolysates were fractionated by reversedphase high pressure liquid chromatography and some of the active peptides were identified by mass spectrometry. The fraction with the highest ACEI activity arose from β-CN and contained a mixture of the β-CN f194-206 (QEPVLGPVRGPFP and f198-206 (LGPVRGPFP peptides. Furthermore, the ACEI tripeptide IPP was identified in all β-CN hydrolysates; L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CRL 581 produced the highest amount of this peptide. The bioactive peptides released by CRL 581 strain may be used in the formulation of functional foods and nutraceuticals, representing a healthier and natural alternative for regulating blood pressure.

  2. The genome of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449: insights into the evolution of a fish pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Colleen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is a Gram-negative bacterium that is the causative agent of furunculosis, a bacterial septicaemia of salmonid fish. While other species of Aeromonas are opportunistic pathogens or are found in commensal or symbiotic relationships with animal hosts, A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida causes disease in healthy fish. The genome sequence of A. salmonicida was determined to provide a better understanding of the virulence factors used by this pathogen to infect fish. Results The nucleotide sequences of the A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449 chromosome and two large plasmids are characterized. The chromosome is 4,702,402 bp and encodes 4388 genes, while the two large plasmids are 166,749 and 155,098 bp with 178 and 164 genes, respectively. Notable features are a large inversion in the chromosome and, in one of the large plasmids, the presence of a Tn21 composite transposon containing mercury resistance genes and an In2 integron encoding genes for resistance to streptomycin/spectinomycin, quaternary ammonia compounds, sulphonamides and chloramphenicol. A large number of genes encoding potential virulence factors were identified; however, many appear to be pseudogenes since they contain insertion sequences, frameshifts or in-frame stop codons. A total of 170 pseudogenes and 88 insertion sequences (of ten different types are found in the A. salmonicida genome. Comparison with the A. hydrophila ATCC 7966T genome reveals multiple large inversions in the chromosome as well as an approximately 9% difference in gene content indicating instances of single gene or operon loss or gain. A limited number of the pseudogenes found in A. salmonicida A449 were investigated in other Aeromonas strains and species. While nearly all the pseudogenes tested are present in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains, only about 25% were found in other A. salmonicida subspecies and none were detected in other

  3. Variable volume fed-batch fermentation for nisin production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis W28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaoliang; Wang, Lin; Jing, Yingjun; Li, Xueliang; Zhao, Yanli

    2009-03-01

    A feeding technology that was suitable for improving the nisin production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis W28 was established. The effects of initial sucrose concentration (ISC) in the fermentation broth, feeding time, and feeding rate on the fermentation were studied. It was observed that a fed-batch culture (ISC = 10 g l(-1)) with 100 ml sucrose solution (190 g l(-1)) being evenly fed (9-10 ml h(-1)) into the fermenter after 3-h fermentation gave the best performance in terms of biomass and nisin yield. Under these conditions, the total biomass and the total nisin yield were approximately 23% and 51% higher than those in batch fermentation, respectively. When the sucrose concentration was controlled at 5-10 g l(-1) in variable volume intermittent fed-batch fermentation (VVIF) with ISC = 10 g l(-1), the total biomass and the total nisin yield were 29% and 60% above those in batch fermentation, respectively. The VVIF proved to be effective to eliminate the substrate inhibition by maintaining sucrose at appropriate levels. It is also easy to be scaled up, since various parameters involved in industrial production were taken into account. PMID:18712289

  4. Biodistribution of a Promising Probiotic, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum Strain BBMN68, in the Rat Gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yang; Qiao, Xuewei; Zhao, Liang; Ren, Fazheng

    2015-06-01

    Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum BBMN68, isolated from centenarians in Guangxi, China, has been proved to be a promising probiotic strain for its health benefits. In this study, the biodistribution of this strain in the rat gut was first investigated using the quantitative realtime PCR assay and propidium monoazide. Strain-specific primers were originally designed based on the BBMN68 genome sequence. Healthy rats were orally inoculated with either a single dose of BBMN68 (10(10) colony-forming units/kg), or with one dose per day for 7 days and bacterial concentrations were analyzed in detail from the intestinal contents and feces of four different gut locations, including stomach, small intestine, colon, and rectum. Results indicated that strain BBMN68 could overcome the rigors of passage through the upper gastrointestinal tract and transiently accumulate in the colon, even though survival in the stomach and small intestine was not high. A good level of BBMN8 could stay in vivo for 72 h following a 7-day oral administration, and a daily administration is suggested for a considerable and continuous population of BBMN68 to be maintained in the host intestine. PMID:25639716

  5. Fumigant and repellent properties of sesquiterpene-rich essential oil from Teucrium polium subsp. capitatum (L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abbas Khani; Monireh Heydarian

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To test fumigant and repellent properties of sesquiterpene-rich essential oil from Teucrium polium subsp.capitatum(L.).Methods:The fumigant toxicity test was performed at(27±1)℃,(65±5)% relative humidity, and under darkness condition and24 h exposure time.The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.Results:The major compounds wereα-cadinol(46.2%), caryophyllene oxide(25.9%), α muurolol epi(8.1%), cadalene(3.7%) and longiverbenone(2.9%).In all cases, considerable differences in mortality of insect to essential oil vapor were observed in different concentrations and exposure times.Callosobruchus maculatus(C. maculates)(LC50=148.9 μL/L air) was more susceptible to the tested plant product thanTeucrium castaneum(T. castaneum) (LC50=360.2 μL/L air) based onLC50 values.In the present investigation, the concentration of3 μL /mL acetone showed60% and52% repellency againstT. casteneumandC. maculatus adults, respectively.Conclusions:The results suggests that sesquiterpene-rich essential oils from the tested plant could be used as a potential control agent for stored-product insects.

  6. Genetic mapping of agronomic traits in false flax (Camelina sativa subsp. sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehringer, A; Friedt, W; Lühs, W; Snowdon, R J

    2006-12-01

    The crucifer oilseed plant false flax (Camelina sativa subsp. sativa) possesses numerous valuable agronomic attributes that make it attractive as an alternative spring-sown crop for tight crop rotations. The oil of false flax is particularly rich in polyunsaturated C18-fatty acids, making it a valuable renewable feedstock for the oleochemical industry. Because of the minimal interest in the crop throughout the 20th century, breeding efforts have been limited. In this study, a genetic map for C. sativa was constructed, using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, in a population of recombinant inbred lines that were developed, through single-seed descent, from a cross between 'Lindo' and 'Licalla', 2 phenotypically distinct parental varieties. Three Brassica simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were also integrated into the map, and 1 of these shows linkage to oil-content loci in both C. sativa and Brassica napus. Fifty-five other SSR primer combinations showed monomorphic amplification products, indicating partial genome homoeology with the Brassica species. Using data from field trials with different fertilization treatments (0 and 80 kg N/ha) at multiple locations over 3 years, the map was used to localize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seed yield, oil content, 1000-seed mass, and plant height. Some yield QTLs were found only with the N0 treatment, and might represent loci contributing to the competitiveness of false flax in low-nutrient soils. The results represent a starting point for future marker-assisted breeding. PMID:17426770

  7. Lettuce genotype resistance to "soft rot" caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Cilene da Silva Felix

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot, caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc, is the main bacterial disease affecting lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. crops in Brazil and leads to significant yield losses. This study aimed to assess the reaction of lettuce genotypes to soft rot induced by a virulent isolate and the stability of the resistance to three isolates varying in virulence. Using a descriptive ordinal scale ranging from 1 to 9 a classification system was defined: class 1 = resistant (R: severity (Sev 3.5. Of the 41 tested genotypes, 14 were classified as MR and 27 as S when inoculated with a Pcc isolate of intermediate virulence. Eleven of these genotypes (four S and seven MR were selected to test their resistance stability against three other isolates with an increasing degree of virulence (Pcc36 < Pcc-A1.1 < Pcc-23. Out of the 11 genotypes eight retained the original classification and three moved from S to MR resistant class when challenged with the least virulent isolate. Vitória de Santo Antão was the only genotype classified as MR for all tested isolates and is a promising candidate for durable soft rot resistance breeding.

  8. Lanthanide-labeled immunochromatographic strips for the rapid detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zou, Mingqiang; Chen, Yan; Li, Jinfeng; Wang, Yanfei; Qi, Xiaohua; Xue, Qiang

    2014-01-15

    The lateral flow immunoassay is used in commercial pregnancy detection, and is an accepted point-of-care testing technique. The most widely used format for lateral flow immunochromatographic strips uses gold nanoparticles for colorimetric detection. However, this method often suffers from poor quantitative discrimination and low analytical sensitivity. To address these limitations, lanthanide chelate-loaded silica nanoparticles have been used as fluorescent labels. The fluorescent nanoparticles can easily bind to antibodies, with dextran as a linker. The strip reader described here was based on a sandwich immunoreaction performed on a strip, using lanthanide-labeled antibodies that served as signal vehicles for the fluorescent readout. The strip reader was used as a quantitative test system. In this work, Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss) was used as a model analyte to demonstrate the use of the strip reader. Under optimal conditions, the detection limit was determined as 10(3)cfu/mL. The quantification limit was calculated to be 10(4)cfu/mL. The detection limit for Pss was 100 times lower than those displayed by colloidal gold-labeled strips or ELISAs. No cross-reactions were observed with the other nine strains, indicating the good specificity of the Pss strip. This strip showed good stability in repeated tests. The tests using the fluorescence immunochromatographic strip were easy to perform, rapid, and sensitive. Methods using fluorescence strips and a strip reader have the potential to be a powerful tool for the quantification of bacteria. PMID:23928093

  9. The type III protein secretion system contributes to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri biofilm formation

    KAUST Repository

    Zimaro, Tamara

    2014-04-18

    Background: Several bacterial plant pathogens colonize their hosts through the secretion of effector proteins by a Type III protein secretion system (T3SS). The role of T3SS in bacterial pathogenesis is well established but whether this system is involved in multicellular processes, such as bacterial biofilm formation has not been elucidated. Here, the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri) was used as a model to gain further insights about the role of the T3SS in biofilm formation. Results: The capacity of biofilm formation of different X. citri T3SS mutants was compared to the wild type strain and it was observed that this secretion system was necessary for this process. Moreover, the T3SS mutants adhered proficiently to leaf surfaces but were impaired in leaf-associated growth. A proteomic study of biofilm cells showed that the lack of the T3SS causes changes in the expression of proteins involved in metabolic processes, energy generation, exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and bacterial motility as well as outer membrane proteins. Furthermore, EPS production and bacterial motility were also altered in the T3SS mutants. Conclusions: Our results indicate a novel role for T3SS in X. citri in the modulation of biofilm formation. Since this process increases X. citri virulence, this study reveals new functions of T3SS in pathogenesis. 2014 Zimaro et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  10. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiaolin; Luo, Ju; Qiu, Wen; Cai, Li; Anjum, Syed Ishtiaq; Li, Bin; Hou, Mingsheng; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2016-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice. PMID:27472315

  11. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum – the causal agent of broccoli soft rot in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Gašić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot symptoms were observed on broccoli plants in several commercial fields in the western part of Serbia. Six strains of bacteria were isolated from diseased tissues and identified as Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum using conventional bacteriological and molecular methods. All strains were non-fluorescent, gram-negative, facultative anaerobes, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive, causing soft rot on potato and carrot slices and did not induce hypersensitive reaction on tobacco leaves. They grew in 5% NaCl and at 37°C, did not produce acid from α-methyl glucoside, sorbitol and maltose, nor reducing substances from sucrose, but utilized lactose and trehalose, and did not produce indole or lecithinase. The investigated strains showed characteristic growth on Logan’s medium and did not produce blue pigmented indigoidine on GYCA medium nor “fried egg” colonies on PDA. The identity of strains was confirmed by ITS-PCR and ITS-RFLP analyses and by sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. In a pathogenicity assay, all strains caused tissue discoloration and soft rot development on inoculated broccoli head tissue fragments.

  12. Preventive effect of taraxasteryl acetate from Inula britannica subsp. japonica on experimental hepatitis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, K; Kiyohara, H; Tanaka, M; Matsumoto, T; Cyong, J C; Yamada, H

    1995-02-01

    The survival rate for acute hepatic failure induced by Propionibacterium acnes and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was increased when a hot water extract from the flowers of Inula britannica L. subsp. japonica Kitam. was injected into the experimental hepatitis mice, and anti-hepatitis substances could be extracted with CHCl3. The CHCl3 extract from I.britannica was fractionated and anti-hepatitis fractions IB-3-2 and IB-3-3 were obtained. IB-3-3 had the most potent anti-hepatitis activity among the fractions but further purification of the active compound was not achieved because of the low yield. IB-3-2 contained only one substance which was identified to be taraxasteryl acetate by 1H- and 13C-NMR and MS. Taraxasteryl acetate showed potent preventive activity against acute hepatic failure induced by P.acnes and LPS in a dose-dependent manner, however deacetylation and modification of the olefinic bonds significantly decreased the anti-hepatitis activity of taraxasteryl acetate. Taraxasteryl acetate also inhibited the increment of plasma transaminase on acute hepatic failure induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or D-galactosamine. From a histological study it appeared that degeneration and necrosis, which were observed in the liver from CCl4 mice, were not found in the liver cells from taraxasteryl acetate treated mice. These results indicates that taraxasteryl acetate shows preventive effects on experimental hepatitis caused by either immunologically induced injuries or hepatotoxic chemicals. PMID:7700992

  13. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolates from equine infectious endometritis belong to a distinct genetic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Camilla Dooleweerdt; Haugaard, Maria Mathilde; Petersen, Morten Roenn; Nielsen, Jesper Møller; Pedersen, Hanne Gervi; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is the pathogen most commonly isolated from the uterus of mares. S. zooepidemicus is an opportunistic pathogen and part of the resident flora in the caudal reproductive tract. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a genotypically distinct subpopulation of S. zooepidemicus is associated with endometritis in the mare, by genotyping and comparing uterine S. zooepidemicus strains with isolates from the vagina and clitoral fossa. Mares with (n=18) or without (n=11) clinical symptoms of endometritis were included. Uterine samples were obtained using a guarded endometrial biopsy punch, whereas a swab was used to recover samples from the cranial vagina and the clitoral fossa. If S. zooepidemicus was present, up to three colonies were selected from each anatomical location (max. 9 isolates per mare). Bacterial isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). S. zooepidemicus was isolated from the endometrium of 12 mares. A total of 88 isolates were analyzed by PFGE: 31 from the endometrium, 26 from the cranial vagina and 31 isolates from the clitoral fossa. For MLST 21 isolates were chosen. Results demonstrated a higher genetic similarity of the isolates obtained from infectious endometritis compared to isolates obtained from the caudal reproductive tract. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that a genetically distinct group of S. zooepidemicus is associated with infectious endometritis in the mare. PMID:23597033

  14. Capsular polysaccharide from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides shows potential for protection against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwirigi, Martin; Nkando, Isabel; Olum, Moses; Attah-Poku, Samuel; Ochanda, Horace; Berberov, Emil; Potter, Andrew; Gerdts, Volker; Perez-Casal, Jose; Wesonga, Hezron; Soi, Reuben; Naessens, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a severe respiratory disease caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) which is widespread in Africa. The capsule polysaccharide (CPS) of Mmm is one of the few identified virulence determinants. In a previous study, immunization of mice against CPS generated antibodies, but they were not able to prevent multiplication of Mmm in this model animal. However, mice cannot be considered as a suitable animal model, as Mmm does not induce pathology in this species. Our aim was to induce antibody responses to CPS in cattle, and challenge them when they had specific CPS antibody titres similar or higher than those from cattle vaccinated with the live vaccine. The CPS was linked to the carrier protein ovalbumin via a carbodiimide-mediated condensation with 1-ethyl-3(3-imethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC). Ten animals were immunized twice and challenged three weeks after the booster inoculation, and compared to a group of challenged non-immunized cattle. When administered subcutaneously to adult cattle, the vaccine elicited CPS-specific antibody responses with the same or a higher titre than animals vaccinated with the live vaccine. Pathology in the group of immunized animals was significantly reduced (57%) after challenge with Mmm strain Afadé compared to the non-immunized group, a figure in the range of the protection provided by the live vaccine. PMID:27496744

  15. Vaccination trials against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (large-colony-type) infection in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Moshe, B; Rapoport, E; Brenner, J

    1984-10-01

    Vaccination trials against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides in suckling and weaned kids are described. A formalin-killed vaccine with adjuvant was used. Challenge to the vaccinated suckling kids was by ingestion of dam's infected milk and by subcutaneous inoculation of 10(6) organisms, and to the vaccinated weaned kids, by subcutaneous inoculation alone. The weaned 6-week-old kids were vaccinated, given a booster 3 weeks later and challenged 1 month after that. Serological monitoring was by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The six control kids remained serologically negative and after challenge were pyrexic and mycoplasmaemic. All died or were killed in extremis, with a characteristic cellulitis at the site of inoculation, arthritis and swollen spleen. In contrast, the vaccinated kids remained healthy. There was a modest antibody response to the initial vaccination and a further steep rise after the booster. After challenge the organism was recovered only from the lymph nodes proximal to the site of challenge in some animals, and from the liver and kidney in two animals. All the vaccinated suckling kids were unaffected by ingestion of their dam's infected milk. The kids that received only one vaccine inoculation on the day of birth, and one control kid, succumbed to subcutaneous challenge, whereas the kids that were given a booster, except for one, remained healthy. PMID:6511322

  16. In vitro assessment of the antimicrobial susceptibility of caprine isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterna, A; Tatay-Dualde, J; Amores, J; Prats-van der Ham, M; Sánchez, A; de la Fe, C; Contreras, A; Corrales, J C; Gómez-Martín, Á

    2016-08-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum mycoplasmacidal concentration (MMC) of 17 antimicrobials against 41 Spanish caprine isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) obtained from different specimens (milk, external auricular canal and semen) were determined using a liquid microdilution method. For half of the isolates, the MIC was also estimated for seven of the antimicrobials using an epsilometric test (ET), in order to compare both methods and assess the validity of ET. Mutations in genes gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE conferring fluoroquinolone resistance, which have been recently described in Mmc, were investigated using PCR. The anatomical origin of the isolate had no effect on its antimicrobial susceptibility. Moxifloxacin and doxycycline had the lowest MIC values. The rest of the fluoroquinolones studied (except norfloxacin), together with tylosin and clindamycin, also had low MIC values, although the MMC obtained for clindamycin was higher than for the other antimicrobials. For all the aminoglycosides, spiramycin and erythromycin, a notable level of resistance was observed. The ET was in close agreement with broth microdilution at low MICs, but not at intermediate or high MICs. The analysis of the genomic sequences revealed the presence of an amino acid substitution in codon 83 of the gene gyrA, which has not been described previously in Mmc. PMID:27387734

  17. Osteomyelitis due to Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae: the price of exotic pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, S; Itsekzon, T; Yinnon, A M; Lachish, T

    2012-02-01

    We describe a 31-year-old immunocompromised patient who developed sepsis and osteomyelitis due to Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae secondary to exposure to iguana and snakes kept as pets at her home, and review all 23 previously published cases of bone and joint infections due to this organism, for a total of nine children and 15 adults. Eleven of the adults were female (73%), compared with three (33%) of the children (p <0.01). Significant underlying illnesses were present in all 15 adults and in five children (55%, p <0.05); 10 (77%) of the adults were immunosuppressed, compared with one child only (17%) (p <0.05). In ten of the adults the knee was infected (67%), compared with one child only (11%, p <0.01). Antibiotic therapy was prolonged in both adults and children, and in most cases consisted of 4-6 weeks of parenteral treatment. Complete cure and survival was attained in 11 of 15 adults (73%) and all nine children (NS). Optimal antibiotic treatment probably consists of ceftriaxone or a fluoroquinolone, if the organism is susceptible. PMID:21745257

  18. THE EFFECT OF HYPO- AND HYPERTHERMIA ON THE INFECTION OF POTATO BY Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graskova I.A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of ring rot pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms on activity of weak-associated with wall cell peroxidase of cell suspension cultures of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivars which are differs in resistance to this pathogen during hypoand hyperthermia. In low resistant cultivar temperature changes did not caused changes in weakassociated with wall cell peroxidase activity. Pathogen influence did not cause changes in its activity in these conditions too. At the same time pathogen actively grew under low temperature conditions, but at 38 0C the increase of bacterial cell number was detected only during the first five days of experiment, but after this date bacterial cell began perishes. In resistant cultivar temperature increase caused some increase of peroxidase activity. Temperature decrease caused the decrease of peroxidase activity, but following pathogen addition caused increase of weak-associated with wall cell peroxidase activity. In high temperature conditions pathogen addition caused significant increase of peroxidase activity during the first minutes after pathogen addition (because of changes in peroxidase molecule activity and after 1.5-2 h of incubation (because of changes in genome expression and peroxidase synthesis. The data obtained allows us to conclude that if potatoes are putting in cold soil it could promote potato contamination by ring rot.

  19. A seroepidemiological survey of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in sheep from North of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Coelho

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the risk factors for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map seroprevalence in sheep in the North of Portugal. The effects on seroprevalence of several variables such as individual characteristics, management practices, farm characteristics, animal health, and available veterinary services were evaluated. This information was then used in a multivariable logistic regression model in order to identify risk factors for Map seropositivity. Univariable analysis was used to screen the variables used in the logistic regression model. Variables that showed p values of <0.15 were retained for the multivariable analysis. Fifteen variables were associated with paratuberculosis in univariable analysis. The multivariable logistic regression model identified a number of variables as risk factors for seropositivity like sheep pure local and/or a cross of a local breed (OR=2.02, herd size with 31-60 head (OR=2.14, culling during the Spring-Summer season (OR=1.69 and the use of an anti-parasitic treatment such as Ivermectin as the only anti-parasitic medication (OR=5.60. Potential risk factors identified in this study support current recommendations for the control of paratuberculosis.

  20. Development of healthy whey drink with Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.K. Maity

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Whey beverage was prepared by utilizing Lactobacillus rhamnosus NCDO 243, Bifidobacterium bifidum NCDO 2715 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii MTCC 1371 in order to make a fermented probiotic healthy drink. The product made with 4 % mixed culture (1:1:1 inoculated (initial count - lactobacilli 6.2 x 107 CFU/mL, bifidobacteria 5.4 x 107 CFU/mL, propionibacteria 3.9 x 107 CFU/mL in deprotienized whey (4.6 % lactose, 0.62 % ash, 0.48 % fat and 0.5 % protein adjusted to pH 6.4 and incubated at 37 °C for 8 h has a good technological and dietetic criteria required for a probiotic product. Total bacterial count, lactobacilli count, bifidobacteria count, propionibacteria count, titratable acidity, β-D galactosidase activity, concentration of lactic acid and sensory properties were monitored during storage period. The whey beverage fermented for 8 h and prepared with 4 % inoculum of mixed culture (1:1:1 met the probiotic criterion by maintaining each type of bacterial population at counts greater than 108 CFU/mL up to 10 days of storage period. The titratable acidity as well as sensory properties did not change appreciably during first 7 days of storage. At the end of 15 days of storage, slight acidification was detected, although the beverage still retained an acceptable flavour.

  1. Expression of NRAMP1 and iNOS in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis naturally infected cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, F; Estrada-Chávez, C; Romano, M; Paolicchi, F; Blanco-Viera, F; Capellino, F; Chavez-Gris, G; Pereira-Suárez, A L

    2010-09-01

    Paratuberculosis (PTB) is a chronic disease caused by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that affects several animal species, and some studies have suggested that there may be a relationship between Crohn's disease and PTB. Significant aspects of PTB pathogenesis are not yet completely understood, such as the role of macrophages. Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1) and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) molecules have shown nonspecific effects against several intracellular pathogens residing within macrophages. However, these molecules have been scarcely studied during natural infection with MAP. In this work, changes in NRAMP1 and iNOS expression were surveyed by immunohistochemistry in tissue samples from MAP-infected cattle and healthy controls. Our findings show strong specific immunolabeling against both NRAMP1 and iNOS molecules, throughout granulomatous PTB-compatible lesions in ileum and ileocaecal lymph nodes from paratuberculous cattle compared with uninfected controls, suggesting a relationship between the expression of these molecules and the pathogenesis of PTB disease. PMID:19345998

  2. Crohn's disease and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: the need for a study is long overdue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William C; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A

    2012-01-15

    The initial suggestion that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) might be involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) was based on the apparent similarity of lesions in the intestine of patients with CD with those present in cattle infected with Map, the etiological agent of Johne's disease (JD). Recent investigations have now revealed the presence of Map or Map DNA in blood or lesions from adults and children with CD. Of special interest, Map has also been found in patients with other diseases as well as healthy subjects. The latter observations indicate all humans are susceptible to infection with Map and that, like with other mycobacterial pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, infection does not invariably lead to development of clinical disease but rather development of a persistent latent stage of infection where an immune response controls but does not eliminate the pathogen. Limited information has been obtained on the immune response to Map in healthy subjects and patients with CD. Understanding how Map may be involved in the pathogenesis of CD will require a better understanding of the immune response to Map in one of its common hosts as well as healthy humans and patients with CD. PMID:22209202

  3. Prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk and dairy cattle in Southern Italy: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Marchetti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Paratuberculosis affects all ruminants worldwide. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP could have a role in human diseases like Crohn’s. Some extra European Union (EU countries request importation of MAP-free products. Italy has not yet actualised a control programme and the diffusion of the infection is still unknown in Southern Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the infection in five regions of Southern Italy. Bulk tank milk and in-line milk filters were sampled in 780 dairy cattle herds and respectively analysed by ELISA and real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR. One hundred and 55 out of 780 herds (19.9% were found positive by ELISA and/or real time PCR. Individual milk samples were then collected from all the producing animals of positive herds and from a selection of negative herds. The estimated prevalence varies from region to region between 2.8 and 5.5%. Our results indicate that the disease is widespread in the five regions. The observed prevalence could be underestimated.

  4. Genome-Wide Diversity and Phylogeography of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Canadian Dairy Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Christina; Barkema, Herman W; Stevenson, Karen; Zadoks, Ruth N; Biek, Roman; Kao, Rowland; Trewby, Hannah; Haupstein, Deb; Kelton, David F; Fecteau, Gilles; Labrecque, Olivia; Keefe, Greg P; McKenna, Shawn L B; Tahlan, Kapil; De Buck, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative bacterium of Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants. The control of JD in the dairy industry is challenging, but can be improved with a better understanding of the diversity and distribution of MAP subtypes. Previously established molecular typing techniques used to differentiate MAP have not been sufficiently discriminatory and/or reliable to accurately assess the population structure. In this study, the genetic diversity of 182 MAP isolates representing all Canadian provinces was compared to the known global diversity, using single nucleotide polymorphisms identified through whole genome sequencing. MAP isolates from Canada represented a subset of the known global diversity, as there were global isolates intermingled with Canadian isolates, as well as multiple global subtypes that were not found in Canada. One Type III and six "Bison type" isolates were found in Canada as well as one Type II subtype that represented 86% of all Canadian isolates. Rarefaction estimated larger subtype richness in Québec than in other Canadian provinces using a strict definition of MAP subtypes and lower subtype richness in the Atlantic region using a relaxed definition. Significant phylogeographic clustering was observed at the inter-provincial but not at the intra-provincial level, although most major clades were found in all provinces. The large number of shared subtypes among provinces suggests that cattle movement is a major driver of MAP transmission at the herd level, which is further supported by the lack of spatial clustering on an intra-provincial scale. PMID:26871723

  5. Sodium and potassium allocation under drought stress in Atlas mastic tree (Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica

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    Fayyaz P

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sodium and potassium ions have crucial roles in drought tolerant mechanisms of plants. In a pot experiment, seedlings of Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica were cultivated in a silty clay soil (Kex=21 mg/l, Naex=143 mg/l and exposed to different levels of soil water content (90, 65 and 45% FC. P. atlantica maintained leaf transpiration rate, and relative water content and cation (Na+ and K+ content of different organs under moderate water deficit (above permanent wilting point. At higher water shortage, the amount of transpiration rate and the relative water content of tissues were reduced, but the amount of Na+ and K+ remained unaffected even under severe drought stress (below permanent wilting point. Generally, the amount of K+ content in plant organism was higher than that of Na+. The amount of root to shoot Na+ was higher than that of K+. Potassium contents of leaves and stems were positively related with transpiration rate, whereas Na+ contents of roots and stems were positively related with root relative water content. Roots and stem of Atlas mastic tree seedlings exhibit high drought tolerance index for Na+ and K+.

  6. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of natural isolate Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis BGSM1-19

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    Strahinić Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis BGSM1-19, isolated from traditionally homemade white cheese, produces two bacteriocins: lactococcin B-like bacteriocin named bacteriocin BacSMa and bacteriocin BacSMb which have shown similarity with lacticin RM. Plasmid curing resulted in a low yield (0.33% of BacSMa- BacSMas and BacSMa- BacSMas, BacSMb-, BacSMbs derivatives. The bacteriocin biosynthesis was observed in the logarithmic phase of growth and the production plateau was reached after 8 h of incubation at 30oC, when the culture entered the early stationary phase. Biochemical characterization showed that strain BGSM1-19 retained antimicrobial activity within the pH range of 1 to 12 or after treatment at 100oC for 15 min. However, bacteriocin activity was completely lost after treatment with different proteolytic enzymes. The strain BGSM1-19 contains five plasmids. Plasmid curing indicated that genes coding for bacteriocins synthesis and immunity seem to be located on plasmids. BGSM1-19 exhibited antimicrobial activity against some pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella paratyphi, Micrococcus flavus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.

  7. A protein expression system for tandem affinity purification in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri

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    Giordanni C. Dantas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Citrus canker, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xac, is one of the most devastating diseases to affect citrus crops. There is no treatment for citrus canker; effective control against the spread of Xac is usually achieved by the elimination of affected plants along with that of asymptomatic neighbors. An in depth understanding of the pathogen is the keystone for understanding of the disease; to this effect we are committed to the development of strategies to ease the study of Xac. Genome sequencing and annotation of Xac revealed that ∼37% of the genome is composed of hypothetical ORFs. To start a systematic characterization of novel factors encoded by Xac, we constructed integrative-vectors for protein expression specific to this bacterium. The vectors allow for the production of TAP-tagged proteins in Xac under the regulation of the xylose promoter. In this study, we show that a TAP-expression vector, integrated into the amy locus of Xac, does not compromise its virulence. Furthermore, our results also demonstrate that the polypeptide TAP can be overproduced in Xac and purified from the soluble phase of cell extracts. Our results substantiate the use of our vectors for protein expression in Xac thus contributing a novel tool for the characterization of proteins and protein complexes generated by this bacterium in vivo.

  8. A protein expression system for tandem affinity purification in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Giordanni C; Martins, Paula M M; Martins, Daniela A B; Gomes, Eleni; Ferreira, Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Citrus canker, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xac), is one of the most devastating diseases to affect citrus crops. There is no treatment for citrus canker; effective control against the spread of Xac is usually achieved by the elimination of affected plants along with that of asymptomatic neighbors. An in depth understanding of the pathogen is the keystone for understanding of the disease; to this effect we are committed to the development of strategies to ease the study of Xac. Genome sequencing and annotation of Xac revealed that ∼37% of the genome is composed of hypothetical ORFs. To start a systematic characterization of novel factors encoded by Xac, we constructed integrative-vectors for protein expression specific to this bacterium. The vectors allow for the production of TAP-tagged proteins in Xac under the regulation of the xylose promoter. In this study, we show that a TAP-expression vector, integrated into the amy locus of Xac, does not compromise its virulence. Furthermore, our results also demonstrate that the polypeptide TAP can be overproduced in Xac and purified from the soluble phase of cell extracts. Our results substantiate the use of our vectors for protein expression in Xac thus contributing a novel tool for the characterization of proteins and protein complexes generated by this bacterium in vivo. PMID:26991273

  9. Screening bactericidal effect of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum strains against causal agent of potato soft rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Zaromi, Samaneh; Baghaee-Ravari, Sareh; Khodaygan, Pejman; Falahati-Rastegar, Mahrokh

    2016-02-01

    This study focuses on the potential of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc) strains producing bacteriocin as a tool to control potato soft rot disease. Thirty out of 48 purified bacterial strains were characterized as Pcc using specific PCR and phenotypic tests. The pathogenicity and pectate degrading assays were recorded positive for 13 strains. Bacteriocin typing clustered producers into three groups according to their antimicrobial spectra. Majority of the producers except strains of group II showed antibacterial activity toward relative genus and the role of UV or mitomycin C was inductive. In addition, none of the distant genus was sensitive to Pcc bacteriocins except Rhizobium vitis. Molecular detection of four bacteriocins including carotovoricin, carosin S1, S2 and carosin D was performed. Overall, 54.5% of group I, 47.3 and 70% of groups II and III strains carried carotovoricin and four strains harbored gene corresponding to carosin S1. According to our data divers antimicrobial patterns obtained by Pcc strains and existence of new bateriocines could be possible. Moreover, our findings recommended that direct application of P29 or expression of corresponding genes of Pog22 or P21 in a nonpathogenic strain as a biocontrol agent may improve soft rot disease control. PMID:26523939

  10. The influence of lactulose on growth and survival of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 in reconstituted sweet whey

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    Bojan Matijević

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was examined the influence of lactulose, a well-defined prebiotic, on the growth and activity of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 in reconstituted sweet whey as well as their survival in fermented whey during 28 days of cool storage. Reconstituted sweet whey was supplemented with 5 and 10 g/kg lactulose. Fermentation of whey with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 was about 1.8 h shorter (approximately 11 h in comparison to fermentation with Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 (approximately 13 h. Lactulose addition in reconstituted sweet whey prolonged the time of fermentation in both bacteria species, but it did not influence on the viable cells count at the end of fermentation. Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 better grew (Δlog CFU/ml = 1.25 during fermentation in comparison with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 (Δlog CFU/ml = 0.27, regardless to the added amount of lactulose. During storage of fermented whey viable cells count of species Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 was more stable than count of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5. The obtained results show that lactulose, as a well-defined prebiotic did not have a significant effect on fermentation and survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 in whey, regardless to the added amount.

  11. Genome-wide DNA microarray analysis of Francisella tularensis strains demonstrates extensive genetic conservation within the species but identifies regions that are unique to the highly virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuijsen, M.P.; Larsson, P.; Johansson, A.; Byström, M.; Eriksson, U.; Larsson, E.; Prior, R.G.; Sjöstedt, A.; Titball, R.W.; Forsman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a potent pathogen and a possible bioterrorism agent. Little is known, however, to explain the molecular basis for its virulence and the distinct differences in virulence found between the four recognized subspecies, F. tularensis subsp. tularensis, F. tularensis subsp. medi

  12. Caracterização de solos de pernambuco quanto à supressividade a Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Characterization of soils from pernambuco state related to suppressiveness for Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum

    OpenAIRE

    Indira del C.M. Alvarado; Sami J Michereff; Rosa L.R. Mariano; Adriano M.F. Silva; Clístenes W. A. Nascimento

    2007-01-01

    A podridão-mole causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc) é fator limitante para o cultivo de olerícolas no estado de Pernambuco. As características do solo e os fatores ambientais podem influenciar a população de Pcc e o desenvolvimento da doença. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a taxa de extinção da população de Pcc em 24 amostras de solos de Pernambuco e analisar as características físicas, químicas e microbiológicas dos solos associadas com a supressividade ou conduc...

  13. Estudo dos parâmetros da ultrafiltração de permeado de soro de queijo fermentado por Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis Ultrafiltration conditions of whey permeate fermented by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane BRONSTEIN

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Permeado de soro doce, suplementado com extrato de levedura e peptona, foi utilizado como meio de crescimento para Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. No final da fase exponencial de crescimento, o meio de cultura fermentado foi submetido a uma ultrafiltração com o objetivo de concentrar o microrganismo. Foram realizados 6 processamentos diferentes, nos quais variou-se as condições iniciais da ultrafiltração, tendo sido avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: porosidade da membrana, pH e número de células viáveis no permeado e no retentado, a fim de ser estudado a influência de cada parâmetro na taxa de permeação da ultrafiltração. As membranas utilizadas foram eficazes como meio de barragem para o microrganismo Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, ficando o retentado com uma média celular de 10(8 ufc/ml e o permeado com uma média celular de 10² ufc/ml. Membranas de diferentes porosidades tiveram taxas de fluxo semelhantes. O aumento da concentração celular provocou a diminuição do fluxo. O pH também influenciou a taxa de permeação, havendo um aumento do fluxo quando foi utilizado um pH inicial mais alto.Cheese whey permeate supplemented with yeast extract and peptone was used as a growth medium for the bacteria Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. At the end of the exponential growth phase, the fermented growth medium was ultrafiltered to concentrate the microorganism and to evaluate the effect of the membrane porosity, inicial UF pH and cellular concentration in permeation rate during the ultrafiltration process. The membranes used were efficient as a mean of a barrage for the Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. On average, the cellular concentrations were 10(8 CFU/mL and 10² CFU/mL for retentate and permeate, respectively. Membranes of different porosities had very similar flux rates. Better flow rates were obtained with inicial UF pH 6,5 and with the minors micrrorganism concentration.

  14. Virulence of Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida isolated from outbreaks of fowl cholera in wild birds for domestic poultry and game birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, K D; Christensen, J P; Permin, A; Bisgaard, M

    2001-02-01

    Chickens, turkeys, partridges and pheasants were experimentally infected with Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida to investigate whether outbreaks of fowl cholera in avifauna might represent a risk for organic, backyard and industrial poultry production. Birds were infected intra-tracheally with a strain of P. multocida subsp. multocida (40605-1) isolated from outbreaks of fowl cholera in wild birds in Denmark. P. multocida subsp. multocida strain P-1059 was included as a reference strain. The outbreak strain was highly virulent for turkeys, partridges and pheasants, while chickens were more resistant. The present findings underline the importance of wild birds as a reservoir for P. multocida. Intratracheal challenge proved useful for studying the virulence of P. multocida. PMID:19184870

  15. Existence of two geographically-linked clonal lineages in the bacterial fish pathogen Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida evidenced by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magariños, B; Toranzo, A E; Barja, J L; Romalde, J L

    2000-08-01

    In this work, we applied the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique to evaluate the genetic diversity in Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (formerly Pasteurella piscicida), an important pathogen for different marine fish. Regardless of the oligonucleotide primer employed, the 29 isolates of Ph. damselae subsp. piscicida tested were separated into two groups, the RAPD-PCR analysis differentiated the European strains from the Japanese strains. The similarity between both groups estimated on the basis of the Dice coefficient was 75-80%. These results show that European and Japanese isolates of Ph. damselae subsp. piscicida, regardless of their host fish species, belong to two different clonal lineages. Our findings also indicate that RAPD profiling constitutes a useful tool for epidemiological studies of this fish pathogen. PMID:11057980

  16. Comparison of culture and a novel 5' Taq nuclease assay for direct detection of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in clinical specimens from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Lyle; Fordyce, Geoffry; Doogan, Vivienne J; Lew, Ala E

    2006-03-01

    A Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis-specific 5' Taq nuclease PCR assay using a 3' minor groove binder-DNA probe (TaqMan MGB) was developed based on a subspecies-specific fragment of unknown identity (S. Hum, K. Quinn, J. Brunner, and S. L. On, Aust. Vet. J. 75:827-831, 1997). The assay specifically detected four C. fetus subsp. venerealis strains with no observed cross-reaction with C. fetus subsp. fetus-related Campylobacter species or other bovine venereal microflora. The 5' Taq nuclease assay detected approximately one single cell compared to 100 and 10 cells in the conventional PCR assay and 2,500 and 25,000 cells from selective culture from inoculated smegma and mucus, respectively. The respective detection limits following the enrichments from smegma and mucus were 5,000 and 50 cells/inoculum for the conventional PCR compared to 500 and 50 cells/inoculum for the 5' Taq nuclease assay. Field sampling confirmed the sensitivity and the specificity of the 5' Taq nuclease assay by detecting an additional 40 bulls that were not detected by culture. Urine-inoculated samples demonstrated comparable detection of C. fetus subsp. venerealis by both culture and the 5' Taq nuclease assay; however, urine was found to be less effective than smegma for bull sampling. Three infected bulls were tested repetitively to compare sampling tools, and the bull rasper proved to be the most suitable, as evidenced by the improved ease of specimen collection and the consistent detection of higher levels of C. fetus subsp. venerealis. The 5' Taq nuclease assay demonstrates a statistically significant association with culture (chi2 = 29.8; P < 0.001) and significant improvements for the detection of C. fetus subsp. venerealis-infected animals from crude clinical extracts following prolonged transport. PMID:16517880

  17. Comparison of Culture and a Novel 5′ Taq Nuclease Assay for Direct Detection of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in Clinical Specimens from Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Lyle; Fordyce, Geoffry; Doogan, Vivienne J.; Lew, Ala E.

    2006-01-01

    A Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis-specific 5′ Taq nuclease PCR assay using a 3′ minor groove binder-DNA probe (TaqMan MGB) was developed based on a subspecies-specific fragment of unknown identity (S. Hum, K. Quinn, J. Brunner, and S. L. On, Aust. Vet. J. 75:827-831, 1997). The assay specifically detected four C. fetus subsp. venerealis strains with no observed cross-reaction with C. fetus subsp. fetus-related Campylobacter species or other bovine venereal microflora. The 5′ Taq nuclease assay detected approximately one single cell compared to 100 and 10 cells in the conventional PCR assay and 2,500 and 25,000 cells from selective culture from inoculated smegma and mucus, respectively. The respective detection limits following the enrichments from smegma and mucus were 5,000 and 50 cells/inoculum for the conventional PCR compared to 500 and 50 cells/inoculum for the 5′ Taq nuclease assay. Field sampling confirmed the sensitivity and the specificity of the 5′ Taq nuclease assay by detecting an additional 40 bulls that were not detected by culture. Urine-inoculated samples demonstrated comparable detection of C. fetus subsp. venerealis by both culture and the 5′ Taq nuclease assay; however, urine was found to be less effective than smegma for bull sampling. Three infected bulls were tested repetitively to compare sampling tools, and the bull rasper proved to be the most suitable, as evidenced by the improved ease of specimen collection and the consistent detection of higher levels of C. fetus subsp. venerealis. The 5′ Taq nuclease assay demonstrates a statistically significant association with culture (χ2 = 29.8; P < 0.001) and significant improvements for the detection of C. fetus subsp. venerealis-infected animals from crude clinical extracts following prolonged transport. PMID:16517880

  18. The environment of "Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis" microaggregates induces synthesis of small proteins associated with efficient infection of respiratory epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babrak, Lmar; Danelishvili, Lia; Rose, Sasha J; Kornberg, Tiffany; Bermudez, Luiz E

    2015-02-01

    "Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis" is an opportunistic environmental pathogen that causes respiratory illness in immunocompromised patients, such as those with cystic fibrosis as well as other chronic respiratory diseases. Currently, there is no efficient approach to prevent or treat M. avium subsp. hominissuis infection in the lungs. During initial colonization of the airways, M. avium subsp. hominissuis forms microaggregates composed of 3 to 20 bacteria on human respiratory epithelial cells, which provides an environment for phenotypic changes leading to efficient mucosal invasion in vitro and in vivo. DNA microarray analysis was employed to identify genes associated with the microaggregate phenotype. The gene encoding microaggregate-binding protein 1 (MBP-1) (MAV_3013) is highly expressed during microaggregate formation. When expressed in noninvasive Mycobacterium smegmatis, MBP-1 increased the ability of the bacteria to bind to HEp-2 epithelial cells. Using anti-MBP-1 immune serum, microaggregate binding to HEp-2 cells was significantly reduced. By far-Western blotting, and verified by coimmunoprecipitation, we observed that MBP-1 interacts with the host cytoskeletal protein vimentin. As visualized by confocal microscopy, microaggregates, as well as MBP-1, induced vimentin polymerization at the site of bacterium-host cell contact. Binding of microaggregates to HEp-2 cells was inhibited by treatment with an antivimentin antibody, suggesting that MBP-1 expression is important for M. avium subsp. hominissuis adherence to the host cell. MBP-1 immune serum significantly inhibited M. avium subsp. hominissuis infection throughout the respiratory tracts of mice. This study characterizes a pathogenic mechanism utilized by M. avium subsp. hominissuis to bind and invade the host respiratory epithelium, suggesting new potential targets for the development of antivirulence therapy. PMID:25422262

  19. Screening in a Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus Collection to select a strain able to survive to the human intestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Vázquez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Genetic diversity and resistance of Lactobacillus bulgaricus sbsp. delbrueckii collection with 100 isolates from different home-made yogurt in rural Bulgarian areas were determined. Methods: The strain K98 was the most resistant to bile salts and low pH. Survival and effects on short chain fatty acids production were tested in 20 healthy volunteers. High genetic diversity was observed in the L. bulgaricus collection by RAPD, whereas the ability of tolerate high deoxycholic acid concentrations, and different acid pHs was variable. The strain K98 was selected and used to prepare a homemade yogurt which was administered to 20 healthy volunteers (500 ml/day during 15d. A basal faecal sample and another after yogurt intake were recovered. Results: DGGE experiments, using both universal and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB primers, demonstrated no significant changes in the qualitative composition of gut microbiota. A band corresponding to L. bulgaricus was observed in all 20 samples. Viable L. bulgaricus K98 strain was only recovered in one volunteer. After yogurt intake we found an increase of LAB and Clostridium perfringens, and a decrease of Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas. In addition, increases of acetic, butyric and 2-hydroxybutyric acids in faeces were detected. Conclusions: Genetic diversity of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus especie is high We have isolated a probiotic resistant strain to bile and high acidity, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus-K98. Qualitative and quantitative changes in the intestinal microbiota are found after ingestion of a homemade yogurt containing this strain, with a concomitant increase in faecal SCFA. Our findings support the interest in developing further studies providing different amounts of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus-K98, and should evaluate its clinical effects in human disease.

  20. Molecular characterization of a DNA fragment harboring the replicon of pBMB165 from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis

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    Yu Ziniu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus thuringiensis belongs to the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group of Gram-positive and spore-forming bacteria. Most isolates of B. thuringiensis can bear many endogenous plasmids, and the number and size of these plasmids can vary widely among strains or subspecies. As far as we know, the replicon of the plasmid pBMB165 is the first instance of a plasmid replicon being isolated from subsp. tenebrionis and characterized. Results A 20 kb DNA fragment containing a plasmid replicon was isolated from B. thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis YBT-1765 and characterized. By Southern blot analysis, this replicon region was determined to be located on pBMB165, the largest detected plasmid (about 82 kb of strain YBT-1765. Deletion analysis revealed that a replication initiation protein (Rep165, an origin of replication (ori165 and an iteron region were required for replication. In addition, two overlapping ORFs (orf6 and orf10 were found to be involved in stability control of plasmid. Sequence comparison showed that the replicon of pBMB165 was homologous to the pAMβ1 family replicons, indicating that the pBMB165 replicon belongs to this family. The presence of five transposable elements or remnants thereof in close proximity to and within the replicon control region led us to speculate that genetic exchange and recombination are potentially responsible for the divergence among the replicons of this plasmid family. Conclusion The replication and stability features of the pBMB165 from B. thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis YBT-1765 were identified. Of particular interest is the homology and divergence shared between the pBMB165 replicon and other pAMβ1 family replicons.

  1. Triclosan Resistance in a Bacterial Fish Pathogen, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, is Mediated by an Enoyl Reductase, FabV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Raees; Lee, Myung Hwan; Joo, Hae-Jin; Jung, Yong-Hoon; Ahmad, Shabir; Choi, Jin-Hee; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2015-04-01

    Triclosan, the widely used biocide, specifically targets enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (ENR) in the bacterial fatty acid synthesis system. Although the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida exhibits triclosan resistance, the nature of this resistance has not been elucidated. Here, we aimed to characterize the triclosan resistance of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida causing furunculosis. The fosmid library of triclosan-resistant A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida was constructed to select a fosmid clone showing triclosan resistance. With the fosmid clone showing triclosan resistance, a subsequent secondary library search resulted in the selection of subclone pTSR-1. DNA sequence analysis of pTSR-1 revealed the presence of a chromosomal-borne fabV-encoding ENR homolog. The ENR of A. salmonicida (FabVas) exhibited significant homology with previously known FabV, including the catalytic domain YX(8)K. fabVas introduction into E. coli dramatically increased its resistance to triclosan. Heterologous expression of FabVas might functionally replace the triclosan-sensitive FabI in vivo to confer E. coli with triclosan resistance. A genome-wide search for fabVas homologs revealed the presence of an additional fabV gene (fabVas2) paralog in A. salmonicida strains and the fabVas orthologs from other gram-negative fish pathogens. Both of the potential FabV ENRs expressed similarly with or without triclosan supplement. This is the first report about the presence of two potential FabV ENRs in a single pathogenic bacterium. Our result suggests that triclosan-resistant ENRs are widely distributed in various bacteria in nature, and the wide use of this biocide can spread these triclosan-tolerant ENRs among fish pathogens and other pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25370725

  2. Differential expression of in vivo and in vitro protein profile of outer membrane of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ibrahim

    Full Text Available Outer membrane (OM proteins play a significant role in bacterial pathogenesis. In this work, we examined and compared the expression of the OM proteins of the rice pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1, a Gram-negative bacterium, both in an in vitro culture medium and in vivo rice plants. Global proteomic profiling of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 comparing in vivo and in vitro conditions revealed the differential expression of proteins affecting the survival and pathogenicity of the rice pathogen in host plants. The shotgun proteomics analysis of OM proteins resulted in the identification of 97 proteins in vitro and 62 proteins in vivo by mass spectrometry. Among these OM proteins, there is a high number of porins, TonB-dependent receptors, lipoproteins of the NodT family, ABC transporters, flagellins, and proteins of unknown function expressed under both conditions. However, the major proteins such as phospholipase and OmpA domain containing proteins were expressed in vitro, while the proteins such as the surface anchored protein F, ATP-dependent Clp protease, OmpA and MotB domain containing proteins were expressed in vivo. This may indicate that these in vivo OM proteins have roles in the pathogenicity of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1. In addition, the LC-MS/MS identification of OmpA and MotB validated the in silico prediction of the existance of Type VI secretion system core components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal the in vitro and in vivo protein profiles, in combination with LC-MS/MS mass spectra, in silico OM proteome and in silico genome wide analysis, of pathogenicity or plant host required proteins of a plant pathogenic bacterium.

  3. Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cyt1Aa synergizes Cry11Aa toxin by functioning as a membrane-bound receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Claudia; Fernandez, Luisa E.; Sun, Jianguang; Folch, Jorge Luis; Gill, Sarjeet S.; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2005-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis produces crystal proteins, Cry (4Aa, 4Ba, 10Aa, and 11Aa) and Cyt (1Aa and 2Ba) proteins, toxic to mosquito vectors of human diseases. Cyt1Aa overcomes insect resistance to Cry11Aa and Cry4 toxins and synergizes the toxicity of these toxins. However, the molecular mechanism of synergism remains unsolved. Here, we provide evidence that Cyt1Aa functions as a receptor of Cry11Aa. Sequential-binding analysis of Cyt1Aa and Cry11Aa revealed that Cyt1Aa bind...

  4. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp: lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: Evaluation of the probiotic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N. Furtado

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria capable of producing bacteriocins and presenting probiotic potential open innovative technological applications in the dairy industry. In this study, a bacteriocinogenic strain (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi was isolated from goat milk, and studied for its probiotic potential. Lc. lactis DF4Mi was resistant to acidic pH and oxbile, presented co-aggregation with Listeria monocytogenes, and was not affected by several drugs from different generic groups, being sensitive to most tested antibiotics. These properties indicate that this Lc. lactis strain can be used for enhancement of dairy foods safety and quality, in combination with potential probiotic properties.

  5. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: evaluation of the probiotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Danielle N; Todorov, Svetoslav D; Landgraf, Mariza; Destro, Maria T; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria capable of producing bacteriocins and presenting probiotic potential open innovative technological applications in the dairy industry. In this study, a bacteriocinogenic strain (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi) was isolated from goat milk, and studied for its probiotic potential. Lc. lactis DF4Mi was resistant to acidic pH and oxbile, presented co-aggregation with Listeria monocytogenes, and was not affected by several drugs from different generic groups, being sensitive to most tested antibiotics. These properties indicate that this Lc. lactis strain can be used for enhancement of dairy foods safety and quality, in combination with potential probiotic properties. PMID:25477942

  6. Temporal Transcription Profiling of Sweet Orange in Response to PthA4-Mediated Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Duan, Shuo; Zhang, Yunzeng; Shantharaj, Deepak; Jones, Jeffrey B; Wang, Nian

    2016-05-01

    Citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, is a devastating disease of most commercial citrus varieties. In our previous study, we analyzed the transcriptional response of 'Valencia' sweet orange to X. citri subsp. citri wild-type and pthA4 mutant infection at 48 h postinoculation (hpi). Using microarray analysis, two PthA4 targets, CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1, were identified. We have shown that PthA4 binds to the effector binding element (EBE) of CsLOB1 and activates gene expression of this susceptibility gene. However, how PthA4 modulates host genes at different stages of infection remains to be determined. In this study, we compared the transcriptional profiles between citrus leaf tissue inoculated with Xcc306 and those inoculated with a pthA4-deletion mutant strain (Xcc306∆pthA4) at 6, 48, and 120 hpi. At both 48 and 120 hpi, the PthA4-mediated infection significantly upregulated expression of a variety of genes involved in cell-wall degradation and modification, DNA packaging, G-protein, protein synthesis, sucrose metabolism, and cell division functions, while the downregulated genes were mainly enriched in photosynthesis, transport, secondary metabolism, cytochrome P450, and various plant defense-associated mechanisms. To validate microarray results, gene expression of 26 genes representing genes associated with cell-wall-associated, immunity system, and carbohydrate metabolism was confirmed using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Expression patterns of these genes at 48 and 120 hpi were consistent with the microarray results. We also identified putative EBE for PthA4 (EBEPthA4) in the promoter regions of multiple genes upregulated by PthA4, to which PthA4 might bind directly to control their gene expression. Our study provided a dynamic picture of citrus genes regulated by PthA4 during the X. citri subsp. citri infection of citrus leaves at different stages. This study will be useful in further understanding the virulence

  7. Suitability of Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis ATCC 11454 as a protective culture for lightly preserved fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Stephen Wallace; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    This study is part of strategy to control the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in lightly preserved fish products by using food-grade lactic acid bacteria. When the nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis ATCC 11454 was cultured in the same vessel as L-monocytogenes Scott A in brain......-heart infusion broth (BHI) at 30-degrees C, the pathogen declined from 5x10(5) to fewer than 5 cfu ml(-1) within 31 h. The effect was not due to lactic acid inhibition. Growth and nisin production by L- lactis ATCC 11454 were investigated under the conditions of temperature and salt used for light preservation...

  8. Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk at dairy cattle farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2012-01-01

    Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in milk for human consumption is a concern due to its possible relationship with Crohn’s disease in humans. Pasteurization effectively reduces the MAP load by four to five logs, but the efficacy depends on the MAP concentration, which...... depends on the prevalence among contributing herds and individuals. Considerable variation of MAP in bulk tank milk (BTM) and individual cow’s milk (IM) is reported, but factors associated with MAP occurrence in milk at farm level have not been described. This study systematically reviewed published...

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni assessed by E-test and double dilution agar method in Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández H

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility patterns of 108 Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni clinical strains, to six antimicrobial agents was determined by using the E-test and the double dilution agar methods. Using both metods, no strain was found to be resistant to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and gentamicin, but two (1.8% were resistant to tetracycline and all to aztreonam. Seven (6.5% strains were resistant to ampicillin by the E-test and five (4.6% by the double dilution agar method and by both meyhods. No great discrepancies were observed between both methods.

  10. Purification and characterization of a cell wall peptidase from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris IMN-C12.

    OpenAIRE

    Sahlstrøm, S; J. Chrzanowska; Sørhaug, T

    1993-01-01

    A peptidase from the cell wall fraction of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris IMN-C12 has been purified to homogeneity by hydrophobic interaction chromatography, two steps of anion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 72 kDa by gel filtration and 23 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme has a pI of 4.0, and it has the following N-terminal sequence from the 2nd to the 17th amino acid re...

  11. New genes of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri involved in pathogenesis and adaptation revealed by a transposon-based mutant library

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    Silva Ana CR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citrus canker is a disease caused by the phytopathogens Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolli and Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis. The first of the three species, which causes citrus bacterial canker type A, is the most widely spread and severe, attacking all citrus species. In Brazil, this species is the most important, being found in practically all areas where citrus canker has been detected. Like most phytobacterioses, there is no efficient way to control citrus canker. Considering the importance of the disease worldwide, investigation is needed to accurately detect which genes are related to the pathogen-host adaptation process and which are associated with pathogenesis. Results Through transposon insertion mutagenesis, 10,000 mutants of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri strain 306 (Xcc were obtained, and 3,300 were inoculated in Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia leaves. Their ability to cause citrus canker was analyzed every 3 days until 21 days after inoculation; a set of 44 mutants showed altered virulence, with 8 presenting a complete loss of causing citrus canker symptoms. Sequencing of the insertion site in all 44 mutants revealed that 35 different ORFs were hit, since some ORFs were hit in more than one mutant, with mutants for the same ORF presenting the same phenotype. An analysis of these ORFs showed that some encoded genes were previously known as related to pathogenicity in phytobacteria and, more interestingly, revealed new genes never implicated with Xanthomonas pathogenicity before, including hypothetical ORFs. Among the 8 mutants with no canker symptoms are the hrpB4 and hrpX genes, two genes that belong to type III secretion system (TTSS, two hypothetical ORFS and, surprisingly, the htrA gene, a gene reported as involved with the virulence process in animal-pathogenic bacteria but not described as involved in phytobacteria virulence. Nucleic acid hybridization using

  12. Novel Monoclonal Antibody and Peptide Binders for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Their Application for Magnetic Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Lorna M O'Brien; Stewart, Linda D.; Strain, Sam A. J.; Grant, Irene R

    2016-01-01

    The generation of novel Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-specific monoclonal antibodies and phage-display derived peptide binders, along with their application for the magnetic separation (MS) of MAP cells, is described. Our aim was to achieve even greater MAP capture capability than is possible with peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS) using a 50:50 mix of biotinylated-aMp3 and biotinylated-aMptD peptide-coated beads. Gamma-irradiated whole MAP cells and ethanol extrac...

  13. The extracellular proteome of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB‐12 reveals proteins with putative roles in probiotic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilad, Ofir; Svensson, Birte; Viborg, Alexander Holm; Stuer‐Lauridsen, Birgitte; Jacobsen, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB‐12, proteins secreted by the bacterium, i.e. belonging to the extracellular proteome present in the culture medium, were identified by 2‐DE coupled with MALDI‐TOF MS. Among the 74 distinct proteins identified, 31 are predicted to carry out their physiological role either...... outside the cell or on its surface. These proteins include solute‐binding proteins for oligosaccharides, amino acids and manganese, cell wall‐metabolizing proteins, and 18 proteins that have been described to interact with human host epithelial cells or extracellular matrix proteins. The potential...

  14. RelA-Dependent (p)ppGpp Production Controls Exoenzyme Synthesis in Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jinhong; Gardiol, Noemie; Burr, Tom; Salmond, George P. C.; Welch, Martin

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we investigate the link between nutrient limitation, RelA-mediated (p)ppGpp production, and virulence in the phytopathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica. A relA null mutant (JWC7) was constructed by allelic exchange, and we confirmed that, unlike the wild-type progenitor, this mutant did not produce elevated levels of (p)ppGpp upon nutrient downshift. However, (p)ppGpp production could be restored in strain JWC7 during nutrient limitation by supplying relA in trans. Du...

  15. Effect of Initial Oxygen Concentration on Diacetyl and Acetoin Production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis

    OpenAIRE

    Bassit, Naïma; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Picque, Daniel; Corrieu, Georges

    1993-01-01

    The production of aroma compounds (acetoin and diacetyl) in fresh unripened cheese by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis CNRZ 483 was studied at 30°C at different initial oxygen concentrations (0, 21, 50, and 100% of the medium saturation by oxygen). Regardless of the initial O2 concentration, maximal production of these compounds was reached only after all the citrate was consumed. Diacetyl and acetoin production was 0.01 and 2.4 mM, respectively, at 0% oxygen. Maximum ace...

  16. In Vitro efficacy of antimicrobial extracts against the atypical ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjoon Amanda V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasmosis is a common infection in human and veterinary medicine, and is associated with chronic inflammation and high morbidity. Mycoplasma species are often intrinsically resistant to many conventional antimicrobial therapies, and the resistance patterns of pathogenic mycoplasmas to commonly used medicinal (antimicrobial plant extracts are currently unknown. Methods Aqueous extracts, ethanol extracts, or oils of the targeted plant species and colloidal silver were prepared or purchased. Activity against the wall-less bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri was determined and compared to activities measured against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution assays. The lethal or inhibitory nature of each extract was determined by subculture into neat growth medium. Results Growth of M. mycoides capri, E. coli, and B. subtilis was inhibited by elderberry extract, oregano oil, ethanol extract of oregano leaves, and ethanol extract of goldenseal root. No inhibition was seen with aqueous extract of astragalus or calendula oil. Growth of M. mycoides capri and B. subtilis was inhibited by ethanol extract of astragalus, whereas growth of E. coli was not. Similarly, M. mycoides capri and E. coli were inhibited by aqueous extract of thyme, but B. subtilis was unaffected. Only B. subtilis was inhibited by colloidal silver. Measured MICs ranged from 0.0003 mg/mL to 3.8 mg/mL. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects differed by species and extract. Conclusions The atypical pathogen M. mycoides capri was sensitive to extracts from many medicinal plants commonly used as antimicrobials in states of preparation and concentrations currently available for purchase in the United States and Europe. Variation in bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities between species and extracts indicates that multiple effecter compounds are present in these plant species.

  17. Detection of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cheeses from small ruminants in Tuscany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiero, Alessia; Fratini, Filippo; Mataragka, Antonia; Turchi, Barbara; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Ikonomopoulos, John; Cerri, Domenico

    2016-01-18

    Paratuberculosis is an infectious disease which affects mainly domestic and wild ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). Map has been associated with human diseases like Crohn disease, type-1 diabetes, sarcoidosis, multiple sclerosis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The aim of this study was to determine the level of Map positivity of cheeses produced in Tuscany (Italy) as an indication of human exposure to the specific pathogen. Sampling was focused on artisanal cheeses produced without commercial starter culture from raw sheep or goat milk, on small-scale farms. Samples were tested by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and culture. Map DNA was detected in 4/7 (57.14%) goat, and in 14/25 (56%) sheep cheeses by qPCR, whereas cultivation produced a positive result in only one case. This corresponded to a goat cheese that had also reacted positively by qPCR and yielded a viable Type S (sheep) strain of Map. The Map load of the tested samples based on qPCR ranged from 6×10 to 1.8×10(4)Map cells/g of cheese. The results indicate on average 56.57% and 66.6% positivity of cheese samples and farms, respectively. Hence, the type of cheeses that were analyzed within the context of this study seem to constitute a considerable source of human exposure to Map; although the question remains of whether the Map cells were present in a viable form, since positive results were almost exclusively recorded by qPCR. PMID:26555160

  18. A Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Predicted Serine Protease Is Associated with Acid Stress and Intraphagosomal Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugadas, Abirami; Lamont, Elise A; Bannantine, John P; Shoyama, Fernanda M; Brenner, Evan; Janagama, Harish K; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2016-01-01

    The ability to maintain intra-cellular pH is crucial for bacteria and other microbes to survive in diverse environments, particularly those that undergo fluctuations in pH. Mechanisms of acid resistance remain poorly understood in mycobacteria. Although, studies investigating acid stress in M. tuberculosis are gaining traction, few center on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the etiological agent of chronic enteritis in ruminants. We identified a MAP acid stress response network involved in macrophage infection. The central node of this network was MAP0403, a predicted serine protease that shared an 86% amino acid identity with MarP in M. tuberculosis. Previous studies confirmed MarP as a serine protease integral to maintaining intra-bacterial pH and survival in acid in vitro and in vivo. We show that MAP0403 is upregulated in infected macrophages and MAC-T cells that coincided with phagosome acidification. Treatment of mammalian cells with bafilomcyin A1, a potent inhibitor of phagosomal vATPases, diminished MAP0403 transcription. MAP0403 expression was also noted in acidic medium. A surrogate host, M. smegmatis mc(2) 155, was designed to express MAP0403 and when exposed to either macrophages or in vitro acid stress had increased bacterial cell viability, which corresponds to maintenance of intra-bacterial pH in acidic (pH = 5) conditions, compared to the parent strain. These data suggest that MAP0403 may be the equivalent of MarP in MAP. Future studies confirming MAP0403 as a serine protease and exploring its structure and possible substrates are warranted. PMID:27597934

  19. Lack of recruitment in Lavandula stoechas subsp. pedunculata: a case of safe-site limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Ana M.; Peco, Begoña

    2007-01-01

    Lavandula stoechas subsp. pedunculata regeneration depends exclusively on the establishment of new individuals. Seed availability and seedling emergence and survival are therefore critical life stages and processes for species regeneration. In this study, seedling emergence and survival was monitored for two years in the scrub, both in clearings and adjacent to adult plants, and the surrounding perennial grassland, at 1, 3 and 5 m from the scrub. Soil seed bank spatial distribution was also studied for one year in the same two habitats, using the same sampling design. Soil seed availability in the scrub is high regardless of the distance from the adult individuals. On the contrary, the adjacent grassland shows a drastic fall in seed density, and almost no seedlings were observed there. In the scrub, seedling density was negatively related to distance from the three nearest adult plants in the clearings, and positively related to adult plant size beneath the adult Lavandula plants. There was also a negative relationship between seedling density and the percentage of bare soil. Only one seedling survived the first drought period, with no detection of effects of either position with respect to adult individuals or seedling density. We hypothesized that the study populations suffer a lack of appropriate safe sites within the scrubland while in the adjacent perennial grassland, observed low seed availability was added to safe-site limitation. That results in a lack of successful seedling establishments and a poor expansion potential of Lavandula scrublands, whose edges remain static in the short and medium term. As found in other Mediterranean scrubland, recruitment may only occur in years with particularly favourable weather, under disturbance regimes that increase seedling survival probability or when external dispersal agents increased seed availability in adequate places for Lavandula establishment.

  20. Characterization of a novel plasmid, pMAH135, from Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei-ichi Uchiya

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC causes mainly two types of disease. The first is disseminated disease in immunocompromised hosts, such as individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The second is pulmonary disease in individuals without systemic immunosuppression, and the incidence of this type is increasing worldwide. M. avium subsp. hominissuis, a component of MAC, causes infection in pigs as well as in humans. Many aspects of the different modes of M. avium infection and its host specificity remain unclear. Here, we report the characteristics and complete sequence of a novel plasmid, designated pMAH135, derived from M. avium strain TH135 in an HIV-negative patient with pulmonary MAC disease. The pMAH135 plasmid consists of 194,711 nucleotides with an average G + C content of 66.5% and encodes 164 coding sequences (CDSs. This plasmid was unique in terms of its homology to other mycobacterial plasmids. Interestingly, it contains CDSs with sequence homology to mycobactin biosynthesis proteins and type VII secretion system-related proteins, which are involved in the pathogenicity of mycobacteria. It also contains putative conserved domains of the multidrug efflux transporter. Screening of isolates from humans and pigs for genes located on pMAH135 revealed that the detection rate of these genes was higher in clinical isolates from pulmonary MAC disease patients than in those from HIV-positive patients, whereas the genes were almost entirely absent in isolates from pigs. Moreover, variable number tandem repeats typing analysis showed that isolates carrying pMAH135 genes are grouped in a specific cluster. Collectively, the pMAH135 plasmid contains genes associated with M. avium's pathogenicity and resistance to antimicrobial agents. The results of this study suggest that pMAH135 influence not only the pathological manifestations of MAC disease, but also the host specificity of MAC infection.

  1. Strand-specific RNA-seq analysis of the Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huajun; Liu, Enuo; Shi, Tao; Ye, Luyi; Konno, Tomonobu; Oda, Munehiro; Ji, Zai-Si

    2016-02-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2038 (Lb. bulgaricus 2038) is an industrial bacterium that is used as a starter for dairy products. We proposed several hypotheses concerning its industrial features previously. Here, we utilized RNA-seq to explore the transcriptome of Lb. bulgaricus 2038 from four different growth phases under whey conditions. The most abundantly expressed genes in the four stages were mainly involved in translation (for the logarithmic stage), glycolysis (for control/lag stages), lactic acid production (all the four stages), and 10-formyl tetrahydrofolate production (for the stationary stage). The high expression of genes like d-lactate dehydrogenase was thought as a result of energy production, and consistent expression of EPS synthesis genes, the restriction-modification (RM) system and the CRISPR/Cas system were validated for explaining the advantage of this strain in yoghurt production. Several postulations, like NADPH production through GapN bypass, converting aspartate into carbon-skeleton intermediates, and formate production through degrading GTP, were proved not working under these culture conditions. The high expression of helicase genes and co-expressed amino acids/oligopeptides transporting proteins indicated that the helicase might mediate the strain obtaining nitrogen source from the environment. The transport system of Lb. bulgaricus 2038 was found to be regulated by antisense RNA, hinting the potential application of non-coding RNA in regulating lactic acid bacteria (LAB) gene expression. Our study has primarily uncovered Lb. bulgaricus 2038 transcriptome, which could gain a better understanding of the regulation system in Lb. bulgaricus and promote its industrial application. PMID:26675359

  2. Function and protective capacity of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, C E; Castro, C; Lukehart, S A; Van Voorhis, W C

    1998-12-01

    Infectious syphilis, caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, remains a public health concern worldwide. The immune-response evasion mechanisms employed by T. pallidum are poorly understood, and prior attempts to identify immunoprotective antigens for subsequent vaccine design have been unsuccessful. Previous investigations conducted in our laboratory identified the T. pallidum glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase as a potential immunoprotective antigen by using a differential immunologic expression library screen. In studies reported here, heterologous expression of the T. pallidum glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase in Escherichia coli yielded a full-length, enzymatically active protein. Characterization of the recombinant molecule showed it to be bifunctional, in that it exhibited specific binding to human immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgD, and IgG in addition to possessing enzymatic activity. IgG fractionation studies revealed specific binding of the recombinant enzyme to the Fc fragment of human IgG, a characteristic that may play a role in enabling the syphilis spirochete to evade the host immune response. In further investigations, immunization with the recombinant enzyme significantly protected rabbits from subsequent T. pallidum challenge, altering lesion development at the sites of challenge. In all cases, animals immunized with the recombinant molecule developed atypical pale, flat, slightly indurated, and nonulcerative reactions at the challenge sites that resolved before lesions appeared in the control animals. Although protection in the immunized rabbits was incomplete, as demonstrated by the presence of T. pallidum in the rabbit infectivity test, glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase nevertheless represents a significantly immunoprotective T. pallidum antigen and thus may be useful for inclusion in an antigen cocktail vaccine for syphilis. PMID:9826352

  3. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of clinical Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Binghuai; Fang, Yujie; Huang, Lei; Diao, Baowei; Du, Xiaoli; Kan, Biao; Cui, Yanchao; Zhu, Fengxia; Li, Dong; Wang, Duochun

    2016-06-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) is presently considered as a human pathogen associated with clinical infection. We characterized 56 SDSE isolates collected from two tertiary hospitals in Beijing, China. Sixteen distinct emm types/subtypes were detected, dominated by stG245.0 (32.1%), stG652.0 (10.7%), stG6.1 (10.7%) and stG485.0 (10.7%), and a novel stG840.0 variant type was identified. All isolates possessed virulence genes of sagA and scpA, and most carried slo (98.2%), ska (98.2%) and speG(dys) (35.7%). By multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, 17 individual sequence types (STs) were distinguished, including 7 newly-identified STs (26.8% of isolates), of which ST127 (30.4%), ST7 (12.5%) and ST44 (10.7%) dominated. Meanwhile, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis revealed 33 pattern types (PTs), which were further combined into 16 pattern clusters (PCs), and 59.3% of isolates were distributed into 2 dominant PCs. Notably, emm types had both close relationship and consistency with STs and PFGE PCs. Furthermore, of 56 SDSE isolates, the predominant antibiotic resistances were erythromycin (71.4%), clindamycin (71.4%) and tetracycline (60.7%). Correspondingly, the prevalent resistance genes of macrolide and tetracycline were erm(B) (78.6%) and tet(M) (73.2%). In addition, multiple point mutations of parC, one of fluoroquinolone resistance genes, were observed (accounting for 75%), and were divided into 12 types, with parC 07 as the predominant type. Our data suggested the wide molecular diversity and distinctive regional features of SDSE from clinical infection in Beijing, China. PMID:26925701

  4. Temperature stress promotes cell division arrest in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumares, Júlia A P; Morão, Luana Galvão; Martins, Paula M M; Martins, Daniela A B; Gomes, Eleni; Belasque, José; Ferreira, Henrique

    2016-04-01

    Citrus canker is an economically important disease that affects orange production in some of the most important producing areas around the world. It represents a great threat to the Brazilian and North American citriculture, particularly to the states of São Paulo and Florida, which together correspond to the biggest orange juice producers in the world. The etiological agent of this disease is the Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), which grows optimally in laboratory cultures at ~30°C. To investigate how temperatures differing from 30°C influence the development of Xcc, we subjected the bacterium to thermal stresses, and afterward scored its recovery capability. In addition, we analyzed cell morphology and some markers of essential cellular processes that could indicate the extent of the heat-induced damage. We found that the exposure of Xcc to 37°C for a period of 6 h led to a cell cycle arrest at the division stage. Thermal stress might have also interfered with the DNA replication and/or the chromosome segregation apparatuses, since cells displayed an increased number of sister origins side-by-side within rods. Additionally, Xcc treated at 37°C was still able to induce citrus canker symptoms, showing that thermal stress did not affect the ability of Xcc to colonize the host citrus. At 40-42°C, Xcc lost viability and became unable to induce disease symptoms in citrus. Our results provide evidence about essential cellular mechanisms perturbed by temperature, and can be potentially explored as a new method for Xanthomonas citri synchronization in cell cycle studies, as well as for the sanitation of plant material. PMID:26663580

  5. The Science behind the Probiotic Strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12®

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    Mikkel Jungersen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This review presents selected data on the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12® (BB-12®, which is the world’s most documented probiotic Bifidobacterium. It is described in more than 300 scientific publications out of which more than 130 are publications of human clinical studies. The complete genome sequence of BB-12® has been determined and published. BB-12® originates from Chr. Hansen’s collection of dairy cultures and has high stability in foods and as freeze dried powders. Strain characteristics and mechanisms of BB-12® have been established through extensive in vitro testing. BB-12® exhibits excellent gastric acid and bile tolerance; it contains bile salt hydrolase, and has strong mucus adherence properties, all valuable probiotic characteristics. Pathogen inhibition, barrier function enhancement, and immune interactions are mechanisms that all have been demonstrated for BB-12®. BB-12® has proven its beneficial health effect in numerous clinical studies within gastrointestinal health and immune function. Clinical studies have demonstrated survival of BB-12® through the gastrointestinal tract and BB-12® has been shown to support a healthy gastrointestinal microbiota. Furthermore, BB-12® has been shown to improve bowel function, to have a protective effect against diarrhea, and to reduce side effects of antibiotic treatment, such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In terms of immune function, clinical studies have shown that BB-12® increases the body’s resistance to common respiratory infections as well as reduces the incidence of acute respiratory tract infections.

  6. Plant Pathogenic Microbial Communication Affected by Elevated Temperature in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, N D; Chaudhary, A; Singh, S D; Singh, D; Walia, S; Das, T K

    2015-11-01

    Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria regulate specific gene expression in a population density-dependent manner by sensing level of Acyl-Homoserine Lactone (HSL) molecules which they produce and liberate to the environment, called Quorum Sensing (QS). The production of virulence factors (extracellular enzyme viz. cellulase, pectinase, etc.) in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc) is under strong regulation of QS. The QS signal molecule, N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-Homoserine Lactone (OHHL) was found as the central regulatory system for the virulence factor production in Pcc and is also under strict regulation of external environmental temperature. Under seven different incubation temperatures (24, 26, 28, 30, 33, 35, and 37 °C) in laboratory condition, highest amount of OHHL (804 violacein unit) and highest (79 %) Disease Severity Index (DSI) were measured at 33 °C. The OHHL production kinetics showed accumulation of highest concentration of OHHL at late log phase of the growth but diminution in the concentration occurred during stationary phase onwards to death phase. At higher temperature (35 and 37 °C) exposure, OHHL was not at detectable range. The effect of temperature on virulence factor production is the concomitant effect of HSL production and degradation which justifies less disease severity index in cross-inoculated tomato fruits incubated at 35 and 37 °C. The nondetection of the OHHL in the elevated temperature may because of degradation as these signal molecules are quite sensitive and prone to get degraded under different physical factors. This result provides the rationale behind the highest disease severity up to certain elevated temperature and leaves opportunities for investigation on mutation, co-evolution of superior plant pathogen with more stable HSL signals-mediated pathogenesis under global warming context. PMID:26271295

  7. Epidemiology of a Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica serovar Typhimurium strain associated with a songbird outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David S.; Hernandez, Sonia M.; Keel, Kevin; Sanchez, Susan; Trees, Eija; Peter Gerner-Smidt

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium is responsible for the majority of salmonellosis cases worldwide. This Salmonella serovar is also responsible for die-offs in songbird populations. In 2009, there was an S. Typhimurium epizootic reported in pine siskins in the eastern United States. At the time, there was also a human outbreak with this serovar that was associated with contaminated peanuts. As peanuts are also used in wild-bird food, it was hypothesized that the pine siskin epizootic was related to this human outbreak. A comparison of songbird and human S. Typhimurium pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns revealed that the epizootic was attributed not to the peanut-associated strain but, rather, to a songbird strain first characterized from an American goldfinch in 1998. This same S. Typhimurium strain (PFGE type A3) was also identified in the PulseNet USA database, accounting for 137 of 77,941 total S. Typhimurium PFGE entries. A second molecular typing method, multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), confirmed that the same strain was responsible for the pine siskin epizootic in the eastern United States but was distinct from a genetically related strain isolated from pine siskins in Minnesota. The pine siskin A3 strain was first encountered in May 2008 in an American goldfinch and later in a northern cardinal at the start of the pine siskin epizootic. MLVA also confirmed the clonal nature of S. Typhimurium in songbirds and established that the pine siskin epizootic strain was unique to the finch family. For 2009, the distribution of PFGE type A3 in passerines and humans mirrored the highest population density of pine siskins for the East Coast.

  8. Do phytotoxic allelochemicals remain in ashes after burning Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera (boneseed)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Md Abdullah Yousuf Al; Johnson, Joshua; Robinson, Randall W

    2016-06-01

    Australia is facing challenges in controlling Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera (boneseed). However, burning has achieved some success in this regard. We aimed to investigate the comparative phytotoxicity of boneseed dried powder and ashes (burnt at 450°C and 250°C). Phenolic compounds in powder and ashes were measured using Folin-Ciocalteu assay and HPLC. The phytotoxicity of boneseed powder and ash extracts was assessed through germination bioassay on Lactuca sativa and the phytotoxicity of litter and ashes was evaluated using field soil, both in growth chamber. Burning of boneseed reduced total phenolics in ashes of boneseed organs by 99% and 100% both at high and low temperatures. The four phenolic compounds that were detected in boneseed were either absent or at negligible levels in the ashes, with inversely related to temperature. Both boneseed ash extracts and litter ash-mediated soil significantly reduced phytotoxicity displaying increased germination, biometric and biochemical parameters of test species compared with unburnt powder extracts and litter powder-mediated soil respectively, with greater reduction of phytotoxicity found for ashes produced at the lower temperature. Interestingly, the ash extracts and litter ash-mediated soil were found to stimulate some of those parameters of the test species compared to control. There was no excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in test species exposed to ash extracts compared with unburnt powder extracts. These findings suggest that burning of boneseed is an appropriate method of weed control and that this approach will reduce phytotoxicity of this species on native plants. PMID:27266307

  9. Phosphate regulated proteins of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri: a proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegos, Vanessa Rodrigues; Nascimento, Jéssica Faria; Sobreira, Tiago José Paschoal; Pauletti, Bianca Alves; Paes-Leme, Adriana; Balan, Andrea

    2014-08-28

    Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri) is the causative agent of the citrus canker, a disease that affects several citrus plants in Brazil and across the world. Although many studies have demonstrated the importance of genes for infection and pathogenesis in this bacterium, there are no data related to phosphate uptake and assimilation pathways. To identify the proteins that are involved in the phosphate response, we performed a proteomic analysis of X. citri extracts after growth in three culture media with different phosphate concentrations. Using mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis, we showed that X. citri conserved orthologous genes from Pho regulon in Escherichia coli, including the two-component system PhoR/PhoB, ATP binding cassette (ABC transporter) Pst for phosphate uptake, and the alkaline phosphatase PhoA. Analysis performed under phosphate starvation provided evidence of the relevance of the Pst system for phosphate uptake, as well as both periplasmic binding proteins, PhoX and PstS, which were formed in high abundance. The results from this study are the first evidence of the Pho regulon activation in X. citri and bring new insights for studies related to the bacterial metabolism and physiology. Biological significance Using proteomics and bioinformatics analysis we showed for the first time that the phytopathogenic bacterium X. citri conserves a set of proteins that belong to the Pho regulon, which are induced during phosphate starvation. The most relevant in terms of conservation and up-regulation were the periplasmic-binding proteins PstS and PhoX from the ABC transporter PstSBAC for phosphate, the two-component system composed by PhoR/PhoB and the alkaline phosphatase PhoA. PMID:24846853

  10. Volatile emissions from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis mirror bacterial growth and enable distinction of different strains.

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    Phillip Trefz

    Full Text Available Control of paratuberculosis in livestock is hampered by the low sensitivity of established direct and indirect diagnostic methods. Like other bacteria, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP emits volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Differences of VOC patterns in breath and feces of infected and not infected animals were described in first pilot experiments but detailed information on potential marker substances is missing. This study was intended to look for characteristic volatile substances in the headspace of cultures of different MAP strains and to find out how the emission of VOCs was affected by density of bacterial growth. One laboratory adapted and four field strains, three of MAP C-type and one MAP S-type were cultivated on Herrold's egg yolk medium in dilutions of 10(-0, 10(-2, 10(-4 and 10(-6. Volatile substances were pre-concentrated from the headspace over the MAP cultures by means of Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME, thermally desorbed from the SPME fibers and separated and identified by means of GC-MS. Out of the large number of compounds found in the headspace over MAP cultures, 34 volatile marker substances could be identified as potential biomarkers for growth and metabolic activity. All five MAP strains could clearly be distinguished from blank culture media by means of emission patterns based on these 34 substances. In addition, patterns of volatiles emitted by the reference strain were significantly different from the field strains. Headspace concentrations of 2-ethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran, 2-pentylfuran, ethyl acetate, 1-methyl-1-H-pyrrole and dimethyldisulfide varied with density of bacterial growth. Analysis of VOCs emitted from mycobacterial cultures can be used to identify bacterial growth and, in addition, to differentiate between different bacterial strains. VOC emission patterns may be used to approximate bacterial growth density. In a perspective volatile marker substances could be used to

  11. Identification and Phytotoxicity Assessment of Phenolic Compounds in Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera (Boneseed).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Harun, Md Abdullah Yousuf; Johnson, Joshua; Uddin, Md Nazim; Robinson, Randall W

    2015-01-01

    Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera (boneseed), a weed of national significance in Australia, threatens indigenous species and crop production through allelopathy. We aimed to identify phenolic compounds produced by boneseed and to assess their phytotoxicity on native species. Phenolic compounds in water and methanol extracts, and in decomposed litter-mediated soil leachate were identified using HPLC, and phytotoxicity of identified phenolics was assessed (repeatedly) through a standard germination bioassay on native Isotoma axillaris. The impact of boneseed litter on native Xerochrysum bracteatum was evaluated using field soil in a greenhouse. Collectively, we found the highest quantity of phenolic compounds in boneseed litter followed by leaf, root and stem. Quantity varied with extraction media. The rank of phenolics concentration in boneseed was in the order of ferulic acid > phloridzin > catechin > p-coumaric acid and they inhibited germination of I. axillaris with the rank of ferulic acid > catechin > phloridzin > p-coumaric acid. Synergistic effects were more severe compared to individual phenolics. The litter-mediated soil leachate (collected after15 days) exhibited strong phytotoxicity to I. axillaris despite the level of phenolic compounds in the decomposed leachate being decreased significantly compared with their initial level. This suggests the presence of other unidentified allelochemicals that individually or synergistically contributed to the phytotoxicity. Further, the dose response phytotoxic impacts exhibited by the boneseed litter-mediated soil to native X. bracteatum in a more naturalistic greenhouse experiment might ensure the potential allelopathy of other chemical compounds in the boneseed invasion. The reduction of leaf relative water content and chlorophyll level in X. bracteatum suggest possible mechanisms underpinning plant growth inhibition caused by boneseed litter allelopathy. The presence of a substantial quantity of free

  12. Metabolomic profiling in cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

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    Jeroen De Buck

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of current diagnostics for Johne's disease, a slow, progressing enteritis in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP, is too low to reliably detect all infected animals in the subclinical stage. The objective was to identify individual metabolites or metabolite profiles that could be used as biomarkers of early MAP infection in ruminants. In a monthly follow-up for 17 months, calves infected at 2 weeks of age were compared with aged-matched controls. Sera from all animals were analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Spectra were acquired, processed, and quantified for analysis. The concentration of many metabolites changed over time in all calves, but some metabolites only changed over time in either infected or non-infected groups and the change in others was impacted by the infection. Hierarchical multivariate statistical analysis achieved best separation between groups between 300 and 400 days after infection. Therefore, a cross-sectional comparison between 1-year-old calves experimentally infected at various ages with either a high- or a low-dose and age-matched non-infected controls was performed. Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS DA yielded distinct separation of non-infected from infected cattle, regardless of dose and time (3, 6, 9 or 12 months after infection. Receiver Operating Curves demonstrated that constructed models were high quality. Increased isobutyrate in the infected cattle was the most important agreement between the longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis. In general, high- and low-dose cattle responded similarly to infection. Differences in acetone, citrate, glycerol and iso-butyrate concentrations indicated energy shortages and increased fat metabolism in infected cattle, whereas changes in urea and several amino acids (AA, including the branched chain AA, indicated increased protein turnover. In conclusion, metabolomics

  13. Identification and Phytotoxicity Assessment of Phenolic Compounds in Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera (Boneseed.

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    Md Abdullah Yousuf Al Harun

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera (boneseed, a weed of national significance in Australia, threatens indigenous species and crop production through allelopathy. We aimed to identify phenolic compounds produced by boneseed and to assess their phytotoxicity on native species. Phenolic compounds in water and methanol extracts, and in decomposed litter-mediated soil leachate were identified using HPLC, and phytotoxicity of identified phenolics was assessed (repeatedly through a standard germination bioassay on native Isotoma axillaris. The impact of boneseed litter on native Xerochrysum bracteatum was evaluated using field soil in a greenhouse. Collectively, we found the highest quantity of phenolic compounds in boneseed litter followed by leaf, root and stem. Quantity varied with extraction media. The rank of phenolics concentration in boneseed was in the order of ferulic acid > phloridzin > catechin > p-coumaric acid and they inhibited germination of I. axillaris with the rank of ferulic acid > catechin > phloridzin > p-coumaric acid. Synergistic effects were more severe compared to individual phenolics. The litter-mediated soil leachate (collected after15 days exhibited strong phytotoxicity to I. axillaris despite the level of phenolic compounds in the decomposed leachate being decreased significantly compared with their initial level. This suggests the presence of other unidentified allelochemicals that individually or synergistically contributed to the phytotoxicity. Further, the dose response phytotoxic impacts exhibited by the boneseed litter-mediated soil to native X. bracteatum in a more naturalistic greenhouse experiment might ensure the potential allelopathy of other chemical compounds in the boneseed invasion. The reduction of leaf relative water content and chlorophyll level in X. bracteatum suggest possible mechanisms underpinning plant growth inhibition caused by boneseed litter allelopathy. The presence of a substantial

  14. Optimization of growth and bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei2a

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    Patrícia S. Malheiros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 2a is a bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterium isolated from Brazilian pork sausage, capable of inhibiting the growth of microbial pathogens, mainly Listeria monocytogenes. In order to optimize bacteriocin production for industrial applications, this study evaluated the effect of supplementation of MRS broth with glucose, Tween 20, Tween 80, sodium citrate, potassium chloride and cysteine, and effect of the initial pH and temperature of incubation of the medium on production of bacteriocins by L. sakei 2a. Adding glucose and Tween 20 to the medium, an initial pH of 5.0 or 5.5, and incubation temperatures of 25 °C or 30 °C resulted to the highest bacteriocin yields. Thus, a 24 factorial design with the four variables was performed, and statistical analysis showed that it was an adequate model (R2 = 0.8296. In the studied range, the four parameters significantly influenced bacteriocin production, with the maximum yield produced at an initial pH between 5.5 and 7.0, a temperature between 25 and 30 °C and supplementation of the MRS broth with glucose from 3.25 to 6.0 g L−1 and Tween 20 from 0.575 to 1.15% (v/v. Response Surface Methodology analysis indicated that the highest bacteriocin production (12800 AU mL−1 occurred in the MRS broth supplemented with 5.5 g L−1 glucose and 1.05% Tween 20 at an initial pH of 6.28 and an incubation temperature of 25 °C. The amount of bacteriocin produced in commercial MRS broths under the same conditions was only 5600AU mL−1.

  15. Proteome of the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri: a global expression profile

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    Ferro Jesus A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Citrus canker is a disease caused by Xantomonas citri subsp.citri (Xac, and has emerged as one of the major threats to the worldwide citrus crop because it affects all commercial citrus varieties, decreases the production and quality of the fruits and can spread rapidly in citrus growing areas. In this work, the first proteome of Xac was analyzed using two methodologies, two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D LC and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS. Results In order to gain insight into the metabolism of Xac, cells were grown on two different media (NB - Nutrient Broth and TSE - Tryptone Sucrose broth enriched with glutamic acid, and proteins were proteolyzed with trypsin and examined by 2D LC-MS/MS. Approximately 39% of all predicted proteins by annotation of Xac were identified with their component peptides unambiguously assigned to tandem mass spectra. The proteins, about 1,100, were distributed in all annotated functional categories. Conclusions This is the first proteomic reference map for the most aggressive strain of Xanthomonas pathogen of all orange varieties. The compilation of metabolic pathways involved with bacterial growth showed that Xac expresses a complete central and intermediary metabolism, replication, transcription and translation machineries and regulation factors, distinct membrane transporters (ABC, MFS and pumps and receptors (MCP, TonB dependent and metabolites acquisition, two-component systems (sensor and regulatory components and response regulators. These data corroborate the growth curve in vitro and are the first reports indicating that many of these genome annotated genes are translated into operative in Xac. This proteomic analysis also provided information regarding the influence of culture medium on growth and protein expression of Xac.

  16. Evaluación del Riesgo de Acidovorax avenae Subsp. citrulli Asociada a Semilla de Sandía de Importación a México

    OpenAIRE

    Norma Alejandra Elizalde Jiménez; Javier Hernández Morales; Santos Gerardo Leyva Mir; Cristian Nava Díaz; Ronald A. Sequeira; Glenn Fowler; Roger Magarey

    2011-01-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, causante de la mancha bacteriana del fruto de la sandía, se considera un patógeno con alto potencial de destrucción capaz de causar pérdidas del 100% en vivero o plantación, cuando se desarrolla bajo condiciones ambientales favorables para su multiplicación y diseminación. Por lo anterior, el objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar el riesgo de introducción y establecimiento de A. avenae subsp. citrulli (plaga cuarentenaria para México), asociada a semil...

  17. Derivation of Mutants of Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum Deficient in Export of Pectolytic Enzymes with Potential for Biological Control of Potato Soft Rot

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, José M.; Loper, Joyce E.

    1994-01-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum Ecb168 produces an antibiotic(s) that suppresses growth of the related bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora in culture and in wounds of potato tubers. Strain Ecb168 also produces and secretes pectolytic enzymes and causes a vascular necrosis and root rot of sugar beet. Genes (out) involved in secretion of pectolytic enzymes by Ecb168 were localized to two HindIII fragments (8.5 and 10.5 kb) of Ecb168 genomic DNA by hybridization to the cloned...

  18. In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activity of Some Organic and Inorganic Salts Against Asiatic Citrus Canker Agent Xanthomonas Citri Subsp. Citri

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    Vahideh Hasabi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Asiatic citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is becoming a disease of high economic impact, affecting all types of important citrus crops. In this study, the potential antibacterial activity of ten organic and inorganic salts on X. citri subsp. citri and on citrus canker disease development was evaluated. Among the salt compounds, copper, iron and zinc inorganic salts particularly zinc (with the highest diameter of inhibition, the lowest MIC and MBC values and the highest bacterial growth inhibitory effect had direct antibacterial activity and strongly reduced the development of canker disease and bacterial population of lime plants.

  19. Estructura y diversidad genética de poblaciones bacterianas en la rizosfera de olivo (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea) en Andalucía

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda Ocampo, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    El olivo (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea) ha sido culturalmente y económicamente el principal cultivo oleaginoso de la Cuenca Mediterránea. España es el mayor productor de aceite de oliva en el mundo, y Andalucía, la región sur del país, es el principal área de cultivo con 62% de la superficie de olivar en España, ocupando >1.5 millones ha, y un 17% de su superficie total en un monocultivo impresionante. En España, el olivo se puede encontrar en dos formas, silvestre (Olea europaea L. subsp...

  20. Influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis lafti® b94, inulin and transglutaminase on the properties of set- style yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Benković; Blaženka Kos; Katarina Tonković; Andreja Leboš; Jagoda Šušković; Ljerka Gregurek

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase on quality and sensory properties of set-style yoghurt. Fresh, homogenized milk with 3,3% of milk fat was used for yoghurt production, with addition of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase activated during 1h 30 min at 55 °C. Enzyme inactivation was carried out by pasteurization of milk during 15 minu...