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Sample records for centaurea diffusa lam

  1. Notas taxonómicas sobre el género Centaurea (Asteraceae en la Península Ibérica. C. paniculata, C. hanryi y C. diffusa

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    Devesa, Juan Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphologic variability in the Iberian Peninsula of Centaurea paniculata L. (Centaurea L. sect. Centaurea, an endemic species of SW Europe, is discussed. It is represented by three subspecies with well-defined areas: subsp. paniculata, subsp. leucophaea (Jord. Arcang. and subsp. oscensis, a new subspecies, whose chromosome number is counted (2n = 18. Moreover, the variability of C. hanryi Jord, an endemism of NE Spain and SE France is studied, and finally, the distribution in the Iberian Peninsula of the neophyte C. diffusa Lam. is commented.Se comenta la variabilidad morfológica en la Península Ibérica de Centaurea paniculata L. (Centaurea L. sect. Centaurea, un endemismo del SW de Europa, para el que reconocen tres subespecies con áreas bien definidas: C. paniculata subsp. paniculata, C. paniculata subsp. leucophaea (Jord. Arcang. y C. paniculata subsp. oscensis, una nueva subespecie para la que se estudia además el número cromosómico (2n = 18. También se comenta la variabilidad en el territorio de C. hanryi Jord., endémica del NE de España y SE de Francia y se comenta el área de distribución peninsular del neófito C. diffusa Lam.

  2. Notas taxonómicas sobre el género Centaurea (Asteraceae) en la Península Ibérica. C. paniculata, C. hanryi y C. diffusa

    OpenAIRE

    Devesa Alcaraz, Juan Antonio; López, Eusebio

    2010-01-01

    Se comenta la variabilidad morfológica en la Península Ibérica de Centaurea paniculata L. (Centaurea L. sect. Centaurea), un endemismo del SW de Europa, para el que reconocen tres subespecies con áreas bien definidas: C. paniculata subsp. paniculata, C. paniculata subsp. leucophaea (Jord.) Arcang. y C. paniculata subsp. oscensis, una nueva subespecie para la que se estudia además el número cromosómico (2n = 18). También se comenta la variabilidad en el territorio de C. ha...

  3. Application of novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for rapid authentication of the herbal tea ingredient Hedyotis diffusa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Wong, Yuk-Lau; Jiang, Li-Li; Wong, Ka-Lok; Wong, Yuen-Ting; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2013-12-01

    Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (Baihuasheshecao) is an ingredient of herbal teas commonly consumed in the Orient and tropical Asia for cancer treatment and health maintenance. In the market, this ingredient is frequently adulterated by the related species Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. The objective of this study is to develop a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique to differentiate H. diffusa from its adulterant H. corymbosa. A set of four internal control primers (F3, FIP, BIP and B3) were designed based on six loci in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) for LAMP of both H. diffusa and H. corymbosa. Two specific primers (S_F3 and S_FIP) were designed for specific LAMP detection of H. diffusa only. Our data showed that LAMP was successful for both H. diffusa and H. corymbosa in internal control. In contrast, only H. diffusa was detected in specific LAMP using the specific primers S_F3 and S_FIP. This study showed that LAMP was useful to differentiate H. diffusa from its adulterant H. corymbosa. This study is significant for the verification of the authenticity for better quality control of this common herbal tea ingredient. The strategy of including an internal control assures the quality of the concerned DNA region for LAMP.

  4. Volatile constituents of aerial parts of three endemic Centaurea species from Turkey: Centaurea amanicola Hub.-Mor., Centaurea consanguinea DC. and Centaurea ptosimopappa Hayek and their antibacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Celik, Sezgin; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the aerial parts of Centaurea amanicola Hub.-Mor., Centaurea consanguinea DC. and Centaurea ptosimopappa Hayek were extracted by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS. Altogether 94 components were identified. Sesquiterpenoids, fatty acids and carbonylic compounds were the most abundant components in the oils. Hexadecanoic acid and (Z,Z )-9,12-octadecadienoic acid were the main fatty acids in all the examined samples, that showed different patterns of composition. The study on the biological activity of the oils showed an action mainly against the Gram-positive pathogens.

  5. Centaurea tchihatcheffii Fischer & C.A. Meyer (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Vural, Mecit

    2007-01-01

    Abstract   Centaurea tchihatcheffii is a steppic annual possessing some unique features absent in other Centaureas. The chromosome number is 2n = 20, differing from all other annual species of Centaurea sect. Cyanus. The type locality as published is erroneous and the correct provenance is provided....

  6. Secondary Metabolites of Centaurea cadmea Boiss.

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    Kaveh Alizadeh Astari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlorogenic acid (1, scutellarin (2, syringin (3, 6S, 9R-roseoside (4 and b -sitosterol-3- O - b - D-glucopyranoside (5 were isolated from the aerial parts of Centaurea cadmea Boiss. (Asteraceae. S tructure elucidation of the compounds were performed by using spectroscopic methods (1-D and 2-D NMR and LC-MS-MS. To the best of our knowledge, compounds 1 , 2, 3 and 4 have been isolated for the first time from this endemic species. C ompound 4 is new for the genus Centaurea.

  7. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXI. New guaianolides in Centaurea bella Trautv. and Centaurea adjarica Alb.

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    Gerard Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine new guaianolides. I of which are chlorinated, were isolated from the dried, above-ground parts of Centaurea bella Trautv. They are: cebellin A. B, C, D, E. F, G, H and 1. l he known guaianolides centaurepensin and repdiolide were also found. The occurrence of repin. acroptillin and janerin was confirmed. Cebellin F. G. I and repin. acroptillin and janerin were chromatographically shown to occur in Centaurea adjarica Alb.

  8. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXI. New guaianolides in Centaurea bella Trautv. and Centaurea adjarica Alb.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Nowak; Bohdan Drożdż; Miroslav Holub; Miros Budesinsky; David Sman

    2014-01-01

    Nine new guaianolides. I of which are chlorinated, were isolated from the dried, above-ground parts of Centaurea bella Trautv. They are: cebellin A. B, C, D, E. F, G, H and 1. l he known guaianolides centaurepensin and repdiolide were also found. The occurrence of repin. acroptillin and janerin was confirmed. Cebellin F. G. I and repin. acroptillin and janerin were chromatographically shown to occur in Centaurea adjarica Alb.

  9. Effect of Boerhaavia diffusa in experimental prostatic hyperplasia in rats

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    Bhavin A Vyas

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The results suggested that treatment with B. diffusa may improve symptoms of disease and inhibit the increased prostate size. In vitro study implies that herbal extracts has the machinery to produce beneficial effect on prostatic smooth muscle, which would relieve the urinary symptoms of disease. B. diffusa could be a potential source of new treatment of prostatic hyperplasia.

  10. How Is LAM Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... no cure for LAM, doctors treat LAM with sirolimus (rapamycin), a medicine that stabilizes lung function, treats an ... new treatment recommendations. Medicines Your doctor may prescribe sirolimus (rapamycin) to treat your condition, or bronchodilators or ...

  11. Cynaratriol, a sesquiterpene lactone from Centaurea musimomum

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    Matías López-Rodríguez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: 3,8-dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl-9-methyl-6-methylenedecahydroazuleno[4,5-b]furan-2(3H-one], C15H22O5, is a sesquiterpene lactone showing the typical tricyclic guaianolide skeleton which has been isolated, together with other related metabolites, from the plant Centaurea musimomum. The present study confirms the molecular structure, assigned by 1H NMR and MS spectroscopy, as well as the the 11β-hydroxymethyl, 3β-hydroxy and 4α-methyl stereochemistry. The crystal structure is built through a network of O—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the three hydroxyl groups that are present in the molecular skeleton.

  12. Antibacterial activities of extracts from twelve Centaurea species from Turkey

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    Tekeli Yener

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Centaurea (Asteraceae have been used in traditional plant-based medicine. The methanol extracts of twelve Centaurea species, of which five are endemic to Turkey flora, were screened for antibacterial activity against four bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by the microdilution method and the minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC of the extracts were determined. C. cariensis subsp. microlepis exhibited an antimicrobial effect on all tested microorganisms. The extracts from eight Centaurea species (C. balsamita, C. calolepis, C. cariensis subsp. maculiceps, C. cariensis subsp. microlepis, C. kotschyi var. kotschyi, C. solstitialis subsp. solstitialis, C. urvillei subsp. urvillei and C. virgata possessed antibacterial activity against several of the tested microorganisms.

  13. Taxonomical and nomenclatural notes on Centaurea: A proposal of classification, a description of new sections and subsections, and a species list of the redefined section Centaurea

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    Hilpold, A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we summarize the results of our long-date research on the genus Centaurea. The first part of the paper deals with the overall classification of the genus, which we propose to divide into three subgenera: subgenus Centaurea, subgenus Cyanus and subgenus Lopholoma. The second part of this publication gives a recopilation of the species of the redefined section Centaurea, a group that includes former sections Acrolophus (sect. Centaurea s. str., Phalolepis and Willkommia, together with taxonomical, geographical, ecological and karyological considerations. Finally, new descriptions or nomenclatural combinations are proposed to correlate nomenclature to the new classification: a new combination (sect. Acrocentron subsect. Chamaecyanus is proposed in subgenus Lopholoma; three new sections (sects. Akamantis, Cnicus, and Hyerapolitanae are described in subgenus Centaurea; two subsections (subsects. Phalolepis and Willkommia in sect. Centaurea; and three subsections (subsects. Exarata, Jacea, and Subtilis in sect. Phrygia.En este trabajo presentamos los resultados de nuestras investigaciones de larga fecha en el género Centaurea. La primera parte del trabajo trata de la clasificación del género, que proponemos dividir en tres subgéneros: subgénero Centaurea, subgénero Cyanus y subgénero Lopholoma. La segunda parte es una recopilación de las especies de la redefinida sección Centaurea, que incluye las antiguas secciones Acrolophus (sect. Centaurea s. str., Phalolepis y Willkommia, junto con consideraciones geográficas, ecológicas y cariológicas. Por último, proponemos nuevas secciones, subsecciones y combinaciones para correlacionar nomenclatura y clasificación: proponemos una nueva (sect. Acrocentron subsect. Chamaecyanus en el subgénero Lopholoma; se describen tres secciones nuevas (sects. Akamantis, Cnicus y Hyerapolitanae en el subgénero Centaurea; dos subsecciones (subsects. Phalolepis and Willkommia en la secci

  14. Chemical constituents of Centaurea omphalotricha Coss. & Durieu ex Batt. & Trab.

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    Soumia Mouffok

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the aerial parts of Centaurea omphalotricha Coss. & Durieu ex Batt. & Trab. allowed the isolation of nine secondary metabolites corresponding to five flavonoids: oroxylin A (1, chrysin (2, tenaxin II (3, 5,7,2’-trihydroxyflavone (4 and quercetin (5, and four triterpenoids: lupeol (6, taraxasterol (7, daucosterol (8 and β-sitosterol (9. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods such as 1H and 13C NMR, COSY, HSQC, and HMBC experiments, and ESI-MS, and comparison with literature data. The flavonoids tenaxin II (3 and 5,7,2’-trihydroxyflavone (4 are new for the genus Centaurea L.

  15. Anti-Convulsant Activity of Boerhaavia diffusa: Plausible Role of Calcium Channel Antagonism

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    Mandeep Kaur; Rajesh Kumar Goel

    2011-01-01

    “Ethnopharmacological” use of roots of Boerhaavia diffusa (B. diffusa) in the treatment of epilepsy in Nigerian folk medicine and reports showing the presence of a calcium channel antagonistic compound “liriodendrin” in its roots, led us to undertake the present study. The study was designed to investigate the methanolic root extract of B. diffusa and its different fractions including liriodendrin-rich fraction for exploring the possible role of liriodendrin in its anti-convulsant activity. A...

  16. Bioactivity of Centaurea persica boiss. (Asteraceae

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    Sarker Satyajit D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The free-radical-scavenging property, antibacterial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of petroleum ether (PE, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of Centaurea persica, a Turkish medicinal plant, were assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay, the resazurin microtiter plate based assay, and the brine shrimp lethality assay, respectively. Additionally, the disc diffusion assay was also used to assess antibacterial activity. Only the MeOH extract of C. persica exhibited a significant free-radical-scavenging property in the DPPH assay, with an RC50 value of 0.025 mg/mL. However, in the TLC-based qualitative assay, petroleum ether and DCM extracts showed an extremely low level of free-radical-scavenging property. Among the solid-phase extraction fractions of the MeOH extract, the fractions eluted with 60% and 80% MeOH in water exhibited the highest level of free-radicalscavenging activity (RC50 = 0.010 and 0.015 mg/mL, respectively. While DCM extract showed reasonable antibacterial activity against five out of the nine test strains both in the disc diffusion assay and in the resazurin assay, the MeOH extract was highly active against both Escherichia coli and ampicillin-resistant E. coli strains. Among the solid-phase extraction fractions of the MeOH extract, fractions eluted with 80% MeOH in water and 100% MeOH displayed significant antibacterial potencies against both E. coli species. None of the extracts showed any significant toxicity towards brine shrimps (LD50 = >1.00 mg/mL.

  17. Antihepatotoxic activity of eclipta alba, tephrosia purpurea and boerhaavia diffusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, V N; Reddy, B P; Venkateshwarlu, V; Kokate, C K

    1992-01-01

    Alcoholic and chloroform extracts of E. albaT. purpurea and B. diffusa were screened for antihepatotoxic activity. The extracts were given after the liver was damaged with CCl4. Liver function was assessed based on liver to boy weight ratio, pentobarbitone sleep time, serum levels of transaminase (SGPT, SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP) and bilirubin. Alcoholic extract of E. alba was found to have good antihepatotoxic activity.

  18. Anti-Aromatase Activity of the Constituents from Damiana (Turnera diffusa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd. Ex Schult) has traditionally been used as an herbal aphrodisiac. Aim of the study: The study was aimed to investigate the anti-aromatse activity and the estrogenic activity of the constituents isolated from T. diffusa. Material and me...

  19. Effective Long-Distance Pollen Dispersal in Centaurea jacea

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, M; Duelli, P; M. K. Obrist; Müller, C.; Kleijn, D.; Schmid, B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Agri-environment schemes play an increasingly important role for the conservation of rare plants in intensively managed agricultural landscapes. However, little is known about their effects on gene flow via pollen dispersal between populations of these species. Methodology/Principal Findings In a 2-year experiment, we observed effective pollen dispersal from source populations of Centaurea jacea in restored meadows, the most widespread Swiss agri-environment scheme, to potted plant...

  20. Effective Long-Distance Pollen Dispersal in Centaurea jacea

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Albrecht; Peter Duelli; Obrist, Martin K.; David Kleijn; Bernhard Schmid

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Agri-environment schemes play an increasingly important role for the conservation of rare plants in intensively managed agricultural landscapes. However, little is known about their effects on gene flow via pollen dispersal between populations of these species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a 2-year experiment, we observed effective pollen dispersal from source populations of Centaurea jacea in restored meadows, the most widespread Swiss agri-environment scheme, to potted pla...

  1. Apoptosis of multiple myeloid cells induced by polysaccharides extracts from Hedyotis diffusa and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林圣云

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the proliferation inhibition and apoptosis effects of polysaccharides extracts from Hedyotis diffusa(PEHD)on multiple myeloma(MM) cell line RPMI 8226 cells in vitro,so as to provide experimental

  2. Efficient micropropagation and assessment of genetic fidelity of Boerhaavia diffusa L- High trade medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Kapil S; Bhalsing, Sanjivani R

    2015-07-01

    Boerhaavia diffusa L is a medicinal herb with immense pharmaceutical significance. The plant is used by many herbalist, Ayurvedic and pharmaceutical industries for production biopharmaceuticals. It is among the 46 medicinal plant species in high trade sourced mainly from wastelands and generally found in temperate regions of the world. However, the commercial bulk of this plant shows genetic variations which are the main constraint to use this plant as medicinal ingredient and to obtain high value products of pharmaceutical interest from this plant. In this study, we have regenerated the plant of Boerhaavia diffusa L through nodal explants and evaluated genetic fidelity of the micropropagated plants of Boerhaavia diffusa L with the help of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The results obtained using RAPD showed monomorphic banding pattern revealing genetic stability among the mother plant and in vitro regenerated plants of Boerhaavia diffusa L.

  3. Hepatogenic Efficacy of Boerhaavia Diffusa (Punarnava on Clinical Cases of Liver Disorders in Dogs

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    Agrawal P

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the hepatogenic efficacy of Boerhaavia diffusa (Punarnavaon clinical cases of liver disorders in dogs referred to Teaching Veterinary Clinical Service Complex(T.V.C.S.C. Polyclinic, Veterinary College, Jabalpur. Afore-mentioned treatment with Boerhaaviadiffusa showed hepatogenic activity causing altered histological changes returning to normalarchitecture of the liver. Hence Boerhaavia diffusa (punarnava may be used as a hepatogenic agent inclinical cases of liver disorders in dogs.

  4. Safety assessment and attenuation of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity by tuberous roots of Boerhaavia diffusa.

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    Karwasra, Ritu; Kalra, Prerna; Nag, T C; Gupta, Y K; Singh, Surender; Panwar, Anuj

    2016-11-01

    Cisplatin (Cis-diaminedichloroplatinum II) is a chemotherapeutic agent having well documented adverse effect as nephrotoxicity. This study was designed to evaluate the nephroprotective role of Boerhaavia diffusa in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. Wistar rats (n = 6) were allocated into six groups constituting normal control, cisplatin-induced, Boerhaavia diffusa root extract in doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg and Boerhaavia diffusa per se group, administered orally for a period of ten days. Intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin was administered on day 7, to all groups except normal control and Boerhaavia diffusa per se group. On day 10, cisplatin resulted in substantial nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats with significant (p < 0.001) elevation in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, decline in the concentrations of reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase, elevation in TNF-α level in renal tissues. Boerhaavia diffusa at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight significantly (p < 0.001) ameliorates increased in serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. In parallel to this, it also exhibits antiapoptotic activity through the reduction of active caspase-3 expression in kidneys. Findings indicate that Boerhaavia diffusa is effective in mitigating cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and thus, for this the acute and sub-acute toxicity studies conducted to evaluate the safety profile of Boerhaavia diffusa. The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of tuberous roots of Boerhaavia diffusa root extract was 1000 mg/kg.

  5. The Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (Rubiaceae: A Review on Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Quality Control and Pharmacokinetics

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    Rui Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hedyotis diffusa Willd (H. diffusa is a well-known Chinese medicine with a variety of activities, especially its anti-cancer effect in the clinic. Up to now, 171 compounds have been reported from H. diffusa, including 32 iridoids, 26 flavonoids, 24 anthraquinones, 26 phenolics and their derivatives, 50 volatile oils and 13 miscellaneous compounds. In vitro and in vivo studies show these phytochemicals and plant extracts to exhibit a range of pharmacological activities of anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibroblast, immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects. Although a series of methods have been established for the quality control of H. diffusa, a feasible and reliable approach is still needed in consideration of its botanical origin, collecting time and bioactive effects. Meanwhile, more pharmacokinetics researches are needed to illustrate the characteristics of H. diffusa in vivo. The present review aims to provide up-to-date and comprehensive information on the phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control and pharmacokinetic characteristics of H. diffusa for its clinical use and further development.

  6. BOERHAAVIA DIFFUSA IN CANCER THERAPY – AN INSILICO ANALYSIS

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    Priya Antony.P

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and it is characterized by uncontrolled growth of cells in the body. Apoptosis or programmed cell death plays a major role in normal cell development and tissue homeostasis and cancer cells do lack this property. The Bcl-2 family of proteins regulates apoptotic pathway by the interaction of pro apoptotic and anti apoptotic proteins. They maintain a balance between newly forming cells and old dying cells. Over expressed anti apoptotic Bcl-2 will alter the ratio of pro and anti apoptotic proteins, resulting in the prevention of apoptosis. Elevated levels of apoptosis-inhibitory protein Bcl-2 has frequently been detected in many forms of human cancer. Therefore, Bcl-2 appears to be a relevant target for cancer therapy. Plants have been used for treating various diseases since ancient times. Boerhaavia diffusa is an important medicinal plant used in various human ailments, including cancer, diabetes, hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. However, most of the reports in traditional medicine are yet to be validated through scientific studies. The present study focuses on identifying phytocompounds in Boerhaavia diffusa having anticancer potential to effectively inhibit the action of Bcl- 2 protein. Insilico docking analysis are well adapted for screening of phytocompounds so as to find the inhibitory or promotive role of potent lead molecules against respective targets. Thirty seven ligands of various confirmations were docked to target protein Bcl-2 using Discovery studio 3.5. The most effective ones were identified through docking score and interaction energy.

  7. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXIII. Guaianolides in the subgenus Psephellus (Cass.) Schmalh., genus Centaurea L.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Nowak; Bohdan Drożdż; Miroslav Holub; Agnieszka Łagodzińska

    2014-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones were found to occur in all of the studied species of the subgenus Psephellus (Cass.) Schmalh. Differing compositions were found in the representatives of three sections. In Centaurea declinata MB. from the section Leucophylle (Sosn.) Sosn.. 15-deoxyrepin, linichlorin B and cynaropicrin were found. Linichlorin B dominated in Centaurea hypoleucu DC. from section Hypoleucae (Sosn.) Sosn., while in the species classified in section Psephellus Sosn., repin, acroptilin, jener...

  8. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXIII. Guaianolides in the subgenus Psephellus (Cass. Schmalh., genus Centaurea L.

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    Gerard Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpene lactones were found to occur in all of the studied species of the subgenus Psephellus (Cass. Schmalh. Differing compositions were found in the representatives of three sections. In Centaurea declinata MB. from the section Leucophylle (Sosn. Sosn.. 15-deoxyrepin, linichlorin B and cynaropicrin were found. Linichlorin B dominated in Centaurea hypoleucu DC. from section Hypoleucae (Sosn. Sosn., while in the species classified in section Psephellus Sosn., repin, acroptilin, jenerin, centaurepensin and, in some, also cynaropicrin. dominated.

  9. Cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones and other constituents of Centaurea omphalotricha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolli, El Hadj; Leon, Francisco; Benayache, Samir, E-mail: jfleon@ipna.csic.es, E-mail: sbenayache@yahoo.com [Laboratoire de Valorisation des Ressources Naturelles et Synthese de Substances Bioactives, Equipe Associee a l' A.N.D.R.S., Universite Mentouri, Constantine (Algeria); Benayache, Fadila [Laboratoire de Phytochimie et Analyses Physico-Chimiques et Biologiques, Universite Mentouri, Constantine (Algeria); Estevez, Sara; Quintana, Jose; Estevez, Francisco [Departamento de Bioquimica, Unidad Asociada al CSIC, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigacion del Cancer, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Gran Canaria (Spain); Brouard, Ignacio; Bermejo, Jaime [Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2012-05-15

    Phytochemical research of the aerial parts of Centaurea omphalotricha led to the isolation of three new sesquiterpene lactones, 4'-acetyl cynaropicrin, 4'-acetyl cebellin F and 15-acetyl dehydromelitensin, together with twelve known compounds, seven sesquiterpene lactones, two isoprenoids and three flavonoids. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by means of extensive 1D and 2D NMR, and MS, and by comparison with reported data in the literature. The effect of sesquiterpene lactones on the viability of the human tumor cell lines HL-60 and U937 was also investigated and 3-acetyl cynaropicrin, and 4'-acetyl cynaropicrin were found to be the most cytotoxic compounds against human leukemia cells with an IC{sub 50} values of 2.0 =- 0.9 and 5.1 +- 0.4 {mu}mol L{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  10. [Impact of priming on seed germination and seedling growth of Oldenlandia diffusa under drought stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zai-Biao; Lu, Wei-Wei; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Cao, Ya-Yue; Feng, Shan; Ning, Zi-Jun

    2014-04-01

    Current study was carried out to optimize the priming condition of Oldenlandia diffusa seeds, and improve germination rate and seed vigor of 0. diffusa seeds under drought conditions. Uniform design was used to optimize the concentration and priming time of three priming materials (PEG, KNO3, GA3). Different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used to simulate drought stress. The seedling was cultured in 1/4 Hoagland medium for 30 d. The results showed that seed priming treatment with 366 mg x kg(-1) GA3 for 1h resulted in significant increase in germination rate, germination index, vigor, root length, plant height and biomass of O. diffusa seeds under drought stress (15% PEG), while seed priming with 3.0% KNO3 for 1 h showed little effect on germination and growth of O. diffusa seeds under drought stress. Seed priming treatment with appropriate GA3 concentration and priming time could enhance seed germination and drought resistance of O. diffusa in seedling stage.

  11. Prof. Dr Herman Johannes Lam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1958-01-01

    Since this silver jubilee does not mean the end of a career, let it merely be regarded as a landmark from which we may now look back. Herman Johannes Lam, born at Veendam in 1892, received his grammarschool education at the ‘Gymnasium Erasmianum’ in Rotterdam (1904—1911). He studied natural history

  12. Anti-Convulsant Activity of Boerhaavia diffusa: Plausible Role of Calcium Channel Antagonism

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    Mandeep Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available “Ethnopharmacological” use of roots of Boerhaavia diffusa (B. diffusa in the treatment of epilepsy in Nigerian folk medicine and reports showing the presence of a calcium channel antagonistic compound “liriodendrin” in its roots, led us to undertake the present study. The study was designed to investigate the methanolic root extract of B. diffusa and its different fractions including liriodendrin-rich fraction for exploring the possible role of liriodendrin in its anti-convulsant activity. Air-dried roots of B. diffusa were extracted with methanol by cold maceration. The methanol soluble fraction of extract thus obtained was successively extracted to obtain liriodendrin-rich fraction and two side fractions, that is, chloroform fraction and phenolic compound fraction. Anti-convulsant activity of methanolic extract (1000, 1500 and 2000 mg kg-1, intraperitoneally (i.p. and its different fractions, that is, liriodendrin-rich fraction (10, 20 and 40 mg kg-1, i.p., chloroform fraction (20 mg kg-1, i.p. and phenolic compound fraction (1 mg kg-1, i.p. were studied in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ-induced seizures (75 mg kg-1, i.p.. The crude methanolic extract of B. diffusa and only its liriodendrin-rich fraction showed a dose-dependent protection against PTZ-induced convulsions. The liriodendrin-rich fraction also showed significant protection against seizures induced by BAY k-8644. These findings reiterated the anti-convulsant activity of methanolic extract of B. diffusa roots. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the observed anti-convulsant activity was due to its calcium channel antagonistic action as this activity was retained only in the liodendrin-rich fraction, which has additionally been confirmed by significant anti-convulsant activity of liriodendrin-rich fraction in BAY k-8644-induced seizures.

  13. Anti-Convulsant Activity of Boerhaavia diffusa: Plausible Role of Calcium Channel Antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    "Ethnopharmacological" use of roots of Boerhaavia diffusa (B. diffusa) in the treatment of epilepsy in Nigerian folk medicine and reports showing the presence of a calcium channel antagonistic compound "liriodendrin" in its roots, led us to undertake the present study. The study was designed to investigate the methanolic root extract of B. diffusa and its different fractions including liriodendrin-rich fraction for exploring the possible role of liriodendrin in its anti-convulsant activity. Air-dried roots of B. diffusa were extracted with methanol by cold maceration. The methanol soluble fraction of extract thus obtained was successively extracted to obtain liriodendrin-rich fraction and two side fractions, that is, chloroform fraction and phenolic compound fraction. Anti-convulsant activity of methanolic extract (1000, 1500 and 2000 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneally (i.p.)) and its different fractions, that is, liriodendrin-rich fraction (10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1), i.p., chloroform fraction (20 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and phenolic compound fraction (1 mg kg(-1), i.p.) were studied in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures (75 mg kg(-1), i.p.). The crude methanolic extract of B. diffusa and only its liriodendrin-rich fraction showed a dose-dependent protection against PTZ-induced convulsions. The liriodendrin-rich fraction also showed significant protection against seizures induced by BAY k-8644. These findings reiterated the anti-convulsant activity of methanolic extract of B. diffusa roots. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the observed anti-convulsant activity was due to its calcium channel antagonistic action as this activity was retained only in the liodendrin-rich fraction, which has additionally been confirmed by significant anti-convulsant activity of liriodendrin-rich fraction in BAY k-8644-induced seizures.

  14. Hemijski sastav i antimikrobna aktivnost nekih sekundarnih metabolita biljaka Centaurea pannonica (Heuffel) Simonkai (Asteraceae) i Origanum scabrum Boiss. & Heldr. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević-Ifantis, Tanja S.

    2013-01-01

    Predmet doktorske disertacije je izolovanje i identifikacija sekundarnih metabolita iz ekstrakata nadzemnih delova biljaka Centaurea pannonica (Heuffel) Simonkai (Asteraceae) i Origanum scabrum Boiss. & Heldr. (Lamiacea), kao i ispitivanje obima njihove antimikrobne aktivnosti i hemotaksonomski značaj. Takođe, predmet ispitivanja je hemijski sastav etarskog ulja Centaurea pannonica i antimikrobna aktivnost. Primenom hromatografskih metoda izolovanja jedinjenja i spektroskopskih metod...

  15. Inhibition of Human Cervical Cancer Cell Growth by Ethanolic Extract of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. (Punarnava Root

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    Rakhi Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Indian traditional medicine, Boerhaavia diffusa (punarnava roots have been widely used for the treatment of dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of spleen, abdominal pain and as an anti-stress agent. Pharmacological evaluation of the crude ethanolic extract of B. diffusa roots has been shown to possess antiproliferative and immunomodulatory properties. The extract of B. diffusa was studied for anti-proliferative effects on the growth of HeLa cells and for its effect on cell cycle. Bio-assays of extracts from B. diffusa root showed that a methanol : chloroform fraction (BDF 5 had an antiproliferative effect on HeLa cells. After 48 h of exposure, this fraction at a concentration of 200 μg mL−1 significantly reduced cell proliferation with visible morphological changes in HeLa cells. Cell cycle analysis suggests that antiproliferative effect of BDF 5 could be due to inhibition of DNA synthesis in S-phase of cell cycle in HeLa cells, whereas no significant change in cell cycle was detected in control cells. The fraction BDF 5 caused cell death via apoptosis as evident from DNA fragmentation and caspase-9 activation. Thus the extract has potential to be evaluated in detail to assess the molecular mechanism-mediated anticancer activities of this plant.

  16. Allogamy-Autogamy Switch Enhance Assortative Mating in the Allotetraploid Centaurea seridis L. Coexisting with the Diploid Centaurea aspera L. and Triggers the Asymmetrical Formation of Triploid Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriol, María; Garmendia, Alfonso; Gonzalez, Ana; Merle, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization between tetraploids and their related diploids is generally unsuccessful in Centaurea, hence natural formation of triploid hybrids is rare. In contrast, the diploid Centaurea aspera and the allotetraploid C. seridis coexist in several contact zones where a high frequency of triploid hybrids is found. We analyzed the floral biology of the three taxa to identify reproductive isolation mechanisms that allow their coexistence. Flowering phenology was recorded, and controlled pollinations within and between the three taxa were performed in the field. Ploidy level and germination of progeny were also assessed. There was a 50% flowering overlap which indicated a phenological shift. Diploids were strictly allogamous and did not display mentor effects, while tetraploids were found to be highly autogamous. This breakdown of self-incompatibility by polyploids is first described in Centaurea. The asymmetrical formation of the hybrid was also found: all the triploid intact cypselae came from the diploid mothers pollinated by the pollen of tetraploids. Pollen and eggs from triploids were totally sterile, acting as a strong triploid block. These prezygotic isolation mechanisms ensured higher assortative mating in tetraploids than in diploids, improving their persistence in the contact zones. However these mechanisms can also be the cause of the low genetic diversity and high genetic structure observed in C. seridis. PMID:26469271

  17. A new species of Centaurea (Asteraceae) from the island of Samothraki (NE Greece)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strid, Arne; Tan, Kit

    2009-01-01

    Centaurea samothracica (subgen. Acrolophus) is described and illustrated. It is known from a single locality on (subgen. ) is described and illustrated. It is known from a single locality on the North Aegean island of Samothraki, and appears most closely related to C. chalcidicaea from Mt Athos....

  18. On the distribution of Cerastium smolikanum (Caryophyllaceae) and Centaurea vlachorum (Asteraceae) in the Balkan Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuka, Lulezim; Tan, Kit

    2009-01-01

    Cerastium smolikanum (Caryophyllaceae) and Centaurea vlachorum (Asteraceae) are reported for the first () and () are reported for the first time in C and NE Albania. These two taxa were previously considered serpentine endemics restricted to a few localities in NW Greece and the extension...

  19. Centaurea wagenitziana (Asteraceae: Centaureinae), a new species from the Eastern Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Bancheva, Svetlana; Vural, Mecit

    2009-01-01

    Centaurea wagenitziana Bancheva & Kit Tan from SE Bulgaria and NW Turkey is described as a species new to Bancheva & Kit Tan from SE Bulgaria and NW Turkey is described as a species new to science. Its chromosome number of 2n = 30 is a first report. It closely resembles C. amplifolia with which i...

  20. Lolium multiflorum Lam. Welsches Weidelgras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, C.U.

    1982-01-01

    Male-steriles of Lolium multiflorum Lam. were studied from 1978 to 1981 in order to determine the influence of hereditary and environmental effects. The necessary crossing and back-crossing was carried out and, after visual inspection, the pryogeny was tested for the percentage of sterile-male genotypes. To obtain strictly sterile male pryogeny, a maintainer is required which could not be found in earlier test crossings. For this reason, and on the assumption that male sterility in Lolium multiflorum Lam. is inherited via a combined plasmatic and genetic transmission the ms allele, which together with an (S) plasma causes male sterility, was transferred into normal (N) plasma in a backcrossing programme. In one out of three backcrossing-progeny groups, mostly male-steriles were observed, with only a few fertile plants in between. This means that the pollinators employed have high maintainer quality. A splitting of the progeny not according to expectations and male-sterile clones not remaining sterile caused the author to make an investigation of environmental influences. In this experiment, plant of different fertility groups were studied for male sterility and for nine other characteristics. Male sterility was found to be less variable than the other features. Of the correlations established, only antheral length and colour were correlated with male sterility in an applicable manner.

  1. A progenitor of the outer membrane LamB trimer.

    OpenAIRE

    Stader, J.; Silhavy, T J

    1988-01-01

    During its localization to the outer membrane, LamB possesses distinctive biochemical properties as it passes through the cytoplasmic membrane. Because LamB entered this dynamic state with an attached signal sequence and leaves after cleavage, we call this export-related form of LamB the early-translocation form (et-LamB).

  2. Evaluation of Diuretic activity of an Alcoholic extracts of Boerhaavia diffusa and Anisochilus carnosus in Rats

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    P Venkatesh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate diuretic effect of alcoholic extracts of stem and leaves of Boerhaavia diffusa (AEBD and leaves of Anisochilus carnosus (AEAC in normal rats. The extracts were administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 150 & 300mg/kg of AEBD and 200 & 400mg/kg of AEAC. Furosemide was used as a standard drug at a dose of 20mg/kg in the present study. The diuretic effect was evaluated by measuring urine volume, sodium and potassium content in urine. Urine volume was significantly increased by the doses of AEBD and AEAC in comparison to control group. While the excretion of sodium also increased by the test drugs. The diuretic effect of the extracts was comparable to that of standard drug. Hence the present study provides a quantitative basis for explaining the folkloric use of Boerhaavia diffusa and Anisochilus carnosus as a diuretic agent.

  3. Effective long-distance pollen dispersal in Centaurea jacea.

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    Matthias Albrecht

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Agri-environment schemes play an increasingly important role for the conservation of rare plants in intensively managed agricultural landscapes. However, little is known about their effects on gene flow via pollen dispersal between populations of these species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a 2-year experiment, we observed effective pollen dispersal from source populations of Centaurea jacea in restored meadows, the most widespread Swiss agri-environment scheme, to potted plants in adjacent intensively managed meadows without other individuals of this species. Potted plants were put in replicated source populations at 25, 50, 100 m and where possible 200 m distance from these source populations. Pollen transfer among isolated plants was prevented by temporary bagging, such that only one isolated plant was accessible for flower visitors at any one time. Because C. jacea is self-incompatible, seed set in single-plant isolates indicated insect mediated effective pollen dispersal from the source population. Seed set was higher in source populations (35.7+/-4.4 than in isolates (4.8+/-1.0. Seed set declined from 18.9% of that in source populations at a distance of 25 m to 7.4% at 200 m. At a distance of 200 m seed set was still significantly higher in selfed plants, indicating long-distance effective pollen dispersal up to 200 m. Analyses of covariance suggested that bees contributed more than flies to this long-distance pollen dispersal. We found evidence that pollen dispersal to single-plant isolates was positively affected by the diversity and flower abundance of neighboring plant species in the intensively managed meadow. Furthermore, the decline of the dispersal was less steep when the source population of C. jacea was large. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that insect pollinators can effectively transfer pollen from source populations of C. jacea over at least 200 m, even when "recipient populations" consisted of single-plant isolates

  4. Growth Inhibition of Struvite Crystals in the Presence of Herbal Extract Boerhaavia diffusa Linn

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    C. K. Chauhan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The formation of a urinary stone, known as nephrolithiasis, urolithiasis, renal calculi or kidney stone is a serious, debilitating problem in all societies throughout the world. Struvite or Ammonium Magnesium Phosphate Hexahydrate (AMPH is one of the components of urinary stone (calculi. Struvite stones are commonly found in women. Struvites form in humans as a result of urinary tract infection with ureolithic urea splitting micro organisms. These stones can grow rapidly forming "staghorn-calculi", which is more painful urological disorder. Therefore, it is of prime importance to study the growth and inhibition of Struvite crystals. Approach: This in vitro study had been carried out in the presence of herbal extract of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. by using single diffusion gel growth technique. Sodium metasilicate solution of specific gravity 1.05 and an aqueous solution of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate of 0.5 M concentration were mixed so that the pH value 7.0 could be set. After the gelation, equal amount of supernatant solution of 1.0 M magnesium acetate prepared with 0.5 and 1% concentrations of the herbal extract of B. diffusa Linn. were gently poured on the set gels in the respective test tubes in the aseptic medium. Results: The growth of crystals without and with herbal extracts was monitored at regular time intervals. As the concentration of B. diffusa Linn. increased, the inhibition of crystals also increased in the gel media as well as the dissolution of crystals at the gel-liquid interface increases. The de-fragmentation of some grown crystals was also noticed. Conclusion: The herbal extract of B. diffusa Linn. inhibited the growth of struvite crystals in vitro. This study incorporated multidisciplinary interests and may be used for formulating the strategy for prevention or dissolution of urinary stones.

  5. Floral trait variation and integration as a function of sexual deception in Gorteria diffusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Allan G; Brockington, Samuel F; de Jager, Marinus L; Mellers, Gregory; Walker, Rachel H; Glover, Beverley J

    2014-08-19

    Phenotypic integration, the coordinated covariance of suites of morphological traits, is critical for proper functioning of organisms. Angiosperm flowers are complex structures comprising suites of traits that function together to achieve effective pollen transfer. Floral integration could reflect shared genetic and developmental control of these traits, or could arise through pollinator-imposed stabilizing correlational selection on traits. We sought to expose mechanisms underlying floral trait integration in the sexually deceptive daisy, Gorteria diffusa, by testing the hypothesis that stabilizing selection imposed by male pollinators on floral traits involved in mimicry has resulted in tighter integration. To do this, we quantified patterns of floral trait variance and covariance in morphologically divergent G. diffusa floral forms representing a continuum in the levels of sexual deception. We show that integration of traits functioning in visual attraction of male pollinators increases with pollinator deception, and is stronger than integration of non-mimicry trait modules. Consistent patterns of within-population trait variance and covariance across floral forms suggest that integration has not been built by stabilizing correlational selection on genetically independent traits. Instead pollinator specialization has selected for tightened integration within modules of linked traits. Despite potentially strong constraint on morphological evolution imposed by developmental genetic linkages between traits, we demonstrate substantial divergence in traits across G. diffusa floral forms and show that divergence has often occurred without altering within-population patterns of trait correlations.

  6. Attenuation of Oxidative Damage by Boerhaavia diffusa L. Against Different Neurotoxic Agents in Rat Brain Homogenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyappan, Prathapan; Palayyan, Salin Raj; Kozhiparambil Gopalan, Raghu

    2016-01-01

    Due to a high rate of oxidative metabolic activity in the brain, intense production of reactive oxygen metabolite occurs, and the subsequent generation of free radicals is implicated in the pathogenesis of traumatic brain injury, epilepsy, and ischemia as well as chronic neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, protective effects of polyphenol rich ethanolic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa (BDE), a neuroprotective edible medicinal plant against oxidative stress induced by different neurotoxic agents, were evaluated. BDE was tested against quinolinic acid (QA), 3-nitropropionic acid (NPA), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and Fe (II)/EDTA complex induced oxidative stress in rat brain homogenates. QA, NPA, SNP, and Fe (II)/EDTA treatment caused an increased level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in brain homogenates along with a decline in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. BDE treatment significantly decreased the production of TBARS (p tissues. Therefore, B. diffusa had high antioxidant potential that could inhibit the oxidative stress induced by different neurotoxic agents in brain. Since many of the neurological disorders are associated with free radical injury, these data may imply that B. diffusa, functioning as an antioxidant agent, may be beneficial for reducing various neurodegenerative complications.

  7. Components from the Essential oil of Centaurea aeolica Guss. and C. diluta Aiton from Sicily, Italy

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    Mariem Ben Jemia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Volatile components from florets, leaves and stems and branches of Centaurea aeolica Guss. harvested in Lipari, Sicily, Italy, were analysed by gas phase chomatography (GC and gas chomatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The main constituents were β-eudesmol, caryophyllene oxide, ( E -12-norcaryophyll-5-en-2-one and hexahydrofarnesylacetone in flowers, hexahydrofarnesylacetone, 2-methyloctadecane and tricosane in the leaves and hexadecanoic acid , caryophyllene oxide and β-eudesmol in the stems and branches . The analysis of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Centaurea diluta Aiton gave mainly fatty acids and derivatives, the main ones being hexadecanoic acid and (Z,Z-9,12-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester.

  8. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXVI. Sesquiterpene lactones in several subgenera of the genus Centaurea L.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Nowak; Miroslaw Holub; Miloš Buděšĺnský

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of both known and new sesquiterpene lactones was determined in six species classified in different subgenera of Centaurea L. Chlorojanerin, cynaropicrin and janerin were isolated from C. phaeopappoides Bordz. and C. thracica (Janka) Hayek. C. marschalliana Spreng. was found to contain acroptilin, chlorojanerin, cebellin D and janerin while C. adjarica Alb. had repin, acroptilin, chlorojanerin, centaurepensin, janerin, repidiolide, cebellin D, E, F and L A new, hitherto underscr...

  9. Inactivation of the cytotoxic activity of repin, a sesquiterpene lactone from Centaurea repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukov, Francis F; Anand, S; Gadepalli, Rama Sarma V S; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie; Matthews, John C; Rimoldi, John M

    2004-09-01

    Prolonged ingestion of Yellow Starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) and Russian Knapweed (Centaurea repens) by horses has been shown to result in a fatal neurodegenerative disorder called equine nigropallidal encephalomalacia (ENE). Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from Centaurea species using the PC12 cell line have led to the identification of one of several putative agents, which may contribute to ENE, namely, the sesquiterpene lactone (SQL) repin (1), previously linked to ENE due to its abundance in C. repens. To characterize the molecular basis of repin-induced neurotoxicity, the present study was designed to identify reactive functional groups that may contribute overall to its toxicity. The reaction of repin (1) with glutathione (GSH) led to the exclusive addition of GSH to the alpha-methylenebutyrolactone affording a GSH conjugate (3b) that lacked toxicity in the PC12 cell assay, while selective reduction of the alpha-methylenebutyrolactone double bond of 1 also resulted in an analogue (2) that was devoid of toxicity relative to the parent compound. Unlike repin, analogue 2 failed to decrease cellular dopamine levels in PC12 cells, further substantiating the requirement of the alpha-methylenebutyrolactone group. Results from this study are suggestive that GSH depletion by the SQL repin may be a primary event in the etiology of ENE, increasing the susceptibility to oxidative damage.

  10. Moringa oleifera Lam: Targeting Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Nurul Ashikin Abd; Ibrahim, Muhammad Din; Kntayya, Saie Brindha; Rukayadi, Yaya; Hamid, Hazrulizawati Abd; Razis, Ahmad Faizal Abdull

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam, family Moringaceae, is a perennial plant which is called various names, but is locally known in Malaysia as "murungai" or "kelor". Glucomoringin, a glucosinolate with from M. oleifera is a major secondary metabolite compound. The seeds and leaves of the plant are reported to have the highest amount of glucosinolates. M. oleifera is well known for its many uses health and benefits. It is claimed to have nutritional, medicinal and chemopreventive potentials. Chemopreventive effects of M. oleifera are expected due to the existence of glucosinolate which it is reported to have the ability to induce apoptosis in anticancer studies. Furthermore, chemopreventive value of M. oleifera has been demonstrated in studies utilizing its leaf extract to inhibit the growth of human cancer cell lines. This review highlights the advantages of M. oleifera targeting chemoprevention where glucosinolates could help to slow the process of carcinogenesis through several molecular targets. It is also includes inhibition of carcinogen activation and induction of carcinogen detoxification, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Finally, for synergistic effects of M. oleifera with other drugs and safety, essential for chemoprevention, it is important that it safe to be consumed by human body and works well. Although there is promising evidence about M. oleifera in chemoprevention, extensive research needs to be done due to the expected rise of cancer in coming years and to gain more information about the mechanisms involved in M. oleifera influence, which could be a good source to inhibit several major mechanisms involved in cancer development.

  11. Phytonutrient analysis of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Litchi tomato) is grown ornamentally, and in Europe it is used as a trap crop for management of the potato cyst nematode (PCN). Its berries are edible, but little is known about their nutritional content. If more was known about their nutritional value this could provid...

  12. ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLIEFERA. LAM

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous and ethanolic (90%) extract of the leaves of M.Oliera Lam (Fam: Moringaceae) were studied for their anti inflammatory action in ale albino rats. Two extracts exhibited maximum action within two hours of challenge. The aqueous extract sowed significant (P

  13. Effects of fertility, weed density and crop competition on biomass partitioning in Centaurea cyanus L.

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    Łukasz Chachulski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environmental factors on biomass partitioning of annual arable weed Centaurea cyanus was analysed. We investigated the effect of fertilisation, density and competition with the winter rye crop on the reproductive investment. Three fertiliser treatments and three density levels were applied. In Centaurea cyanus differences in the pattern of biomass allocation to reproduction are related to plant size. The relationship between reproductive and vegetative mass is close to linear. It is consistent with the model of linear size-dependent reproductive output. In Centaurea cyanus this model worked well for size differences that have been generated by interspecific competition, nutrients supply and density. Our data support the hypothesis that plastic changes in relationship between vegetative and generative biomass are environmentally-induced. Significantly different relationship between vegetative and reproductive biomass were detected among populations growing at different density and fertility levels. The fertilisation with mineral fertiliser and manure resulted in an increase of generative biomass allocated to flowerheads and a decrease of reproductive effort. Generative dry weight increased more rapidly with plant size in higher densities of population and at lower fertility levels. The experiment showed that the rate of weight allocated to reproductive structures was bigger under the pressure of competition with cereal crop. At low fertility level and high density, when the individuals were small, generative biomass increased faster with plant size. The production of seeds was not directly dependent on biomass allocated into total reproductive structures. At low level, of nutrient supply C. cyanus gave more offspring per gram of its biomass. We discuss the results in context of life-history theory. From the strategic point of view, size-dependent variation in reproductive effort and in efficiency of reproduction can be

  14. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXVI. Sesquiterpene lactones in several subgenera of the genus Centaurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of both known and new sesquiterpene lactones was determined in six species classified in different subgenera of Centaurea L. Chlorojanerin, cynaropicrin and janerin were isolated from C. phaeopappoides Bordz. and C. thracica (Janka Hayek. C. marschalliana Spreng. was found to contain acroptilin, chlorojanerin, cebellin D and janerin while C. adjarica Alb. had repin, acroptilin, chlorojanerin, centaurepensin, janerin, repidiolide, cebellin D, E, F and L A new, hitherto underscribed cebellin J quaianolide was found in C. bella Trautv. and another germacranolide, 3α, 15-dihydroxycostunolide was found in C. sphaerocephala subsp. lusitanica (Boiss. et Reuter Nyman.

  15. Evaluating the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of three Centaurea species

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    H. Hajimehdipoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors such as oxidative stress and reduced acetylcholine level have been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD pathology and recently there has been a trend towards natural product research to find potential sources of antioxidants and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in the plants kingdom. Centaurea is a genus with about 500 species world wild, many of them have shown to possess biologic activity; Centaurea albonites, C. aucheri and C. pseudoscabiosa are three species which little investigation has been carried out about their biological properties. In the present study, the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the above mentioned species have been evaluated. The ability of the total extract and methanol fraction of the plants to scavenge free radicals has been assessed through DPPH radical scavenging assay, and the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory property has been evaluated by Ellman method. The total extract of all species exhibited moderate antioxidant activity whereas the extracts of C. pseudoscabiosa showed the strongest antioxidant property; its total extract also demonstrated the highest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity among the evaluated samples (19.2% inhibition. The results suggest the species as potential sources of natural antioxidants which could be focused in future studies of Alzheimer’s disease.

  16. Inhibitory effect of the plant Boerhavia diffusa l. against the dermatophytic fungus Microsporum fulvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag; Srivastava, Shalini; Srivastava, J N; Srivastava, M M

    2004-07-01

    Antifungal activity (reduction in colony diameter) of various extracts (pt. ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and aqueous) of aerial and root parts of Boerhavia diffusa (Nictaginaceae) was screened against dermatophytic fungi Microsporum fulvum. Statistically significant increase has been recorded in the % inhibition of the target fungal species with increasing test concentrations (1000-5000 ppm) of chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol extracts of the root. The maximum % inhibition observed in various solvent extracts of root was about 26% (chloroform), 46% (ethyl alcohol) and 57% (ethyl acetate) at 5000 ppm concentration with time exposure of 10 days. The colony diameter of the target mycelial colony decreased with increasing supplementation of the phytoextract, showing the presence of significant amount of some antifungal phytochemical moiety.

  17. Antifungal activity of Boerhavia diffusa against some dermatophytic species of Microsporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag; Srivastava, Shalini; Srivastava, M M

    Various extracts petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol) of aerial and root parts of Boerhavia diffusa was sereened for Antitungal activity (Inhibition in sporulation) against dermatophytic fungi Microsporum gypseum, M. fulvum and M. canis by using broth dilution method. Extracts of aerial part not show any noticeable antifungal activity. Ethyl acetate extract of root part of the plant was found to be most effective of against target fungal species. The maximum inhibition of mycelial growth was observed for M. gypseum (78.83%) followed by M. fulvum (62.33%) and M. canis (42.30%) of ethyl acetate in the test concentration of 1000 microg/ml 24 hours of incubation. The sporulation of target fungal species decreases with increasing supplementation of phytoextract, confirms the presence of some antifungal phytochemical moiety in roots of the plant.

  18. Immunomodulatory activity of Bauhinia Racemosa Lam

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Sohrab A.; Ghaisas, Mahesh M.; Deshpande, Avinash D.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extract of stem bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam swiss albino mice. Material and Methods: The specific humoral immunity was assessed by performing hemagglutinating antibody titer (H.A.Titer) and the non-specific immunity was assessed by performing carbon clearance test and neutrophil adhesion test. Results: The methanolic extract of stem bark of Bauhinia Racemosa (MEBR) was found effective in increasing the H.A.Titer. Primary and sec...

  19. Anti inflammatory activity of moringa oliefera. Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K N; Gopalakrishnan, V; Loganathan, V; Nathan, S S

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous and ethanolic (90%) extract of the leaves of M.Oliera Lam (Fam: Moringaceae) were studied for their anti inflammatory action in ale albino rats. Two extracts exhibited maximum action within two hours of challenge. The aqueous extract sowed significant (P<0.01) odema suppression similar to that of Ibuprofen at the first hour of carrageenan injection. The results confirms the folkers claim of the plant.

  20. Comparative clinical evaluation of Boerhavia diffusa root extract with standard Enalapril treatment in Canine chronic renal failure

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    Nethaji Lokeswar Oburai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complementing herbal drugs with conservative modern treatment could improve renal condition in canine chronic renal failure (CRF. Objective: In this study, clinical evaluation of Boerhavia diffusa root extract was carried out in CRF in dogs in comparison with standard enalapril. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 dogs of mixed breeds suffering from CRF from 1 to 2 months were divided into two groups (n = 10 and treated as follows: Group I - Enalapril at 0.5 mg/kg p.o. once daily for 90 days + amoxicillin and cloxacillin at 25 mg/kg i.m. once daily for 1-week; Group II - B. diffusa root extract at 500 mg p.o per dog daily for 90 days. Both groups were maintained on a supportive fluid therapy. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's post-hoc test. Results: CRF caused a significant (P < 0.05 increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, urinary protein, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and glutamyl transferase (GGT. A significant (P < 0.05 decrease in hemoglobin and total erythrocyte count (TEC was also observed. Nephrosonography revealed indistinct corticomedullary junction, altered renal architecture, hyper-echoic cortex, medulla, and sunken kidneys. Both the treatments significantly (P < 0.05 reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure by day 30. Serum Creatinine, urea nitrogen, phosphorus, urinary protein, ALP, and GGT showed significant (P < 0.05 reduction by day 60 in both the treatments. However, potassium levels were normalized only by B. diffusa root extract treatment by day 30. Both the treatments failed to show a significant improvement in nephrosonographic picture even after 90 days posttreatment. Conclusions: In conclusion, the efficacy of B. diffusa root extract was comparable to standard enalapril treatment of CRF in dogs.

  1. Determination of Oleanolic and Ursolic Acids in Hedyotis diffusa Using Hyphenated Ultrasound-Assisted Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Chromatography

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    Ming-Chi Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA were extracted from Hedyotis diffusa using a hyphenated procedure of ultrasound-assisted and supercritical carbon dioxide (HSC–CO2 extraction at different temperatures, pressures, cosolvent percentages, and SC–CO2 flow rates. The results indicated that these parameters significantly affected the extraction yield. The maximal yields of OA (0.917 mg/g of dry plant and UA (3.540 mg/g of dry plant were obtained at a dynamic extraction time of 110 min, a static extraction time of 15 min, 28.2 MPa, and 56°C with a 12.5% (v/v cosolvent (ethanol/water = 82/18, v/v and SC–CO2 flowing at 2.3 mL/min (STP. The extracted yields were then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to quantify the OA and UA. The present findings revealed that H. diffusa is a potential source of OA and UA. In addition, using the hyphenated procedure for extraction is a promising and alternative process for recovering OA and UA from H. diffusa at high concentrations.

  2. Allelopathic effects of two cover crops Commelina diffusa Burm. F. and Tradescantia zebrina Shunltz on Coffea arabica L.

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    Georgina Berroa Navarro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic effect of the cover crops Tradescantia zebrina Shunltz (cucaracha and Commelina diffusa Burm. F. (canutillo were evaluated on Coffea arabica Lin. seeds Caturra Rojo variety. Germination tests were carried out “in vitro” and it was evaluated the root longitude, percentage of total germination and period of germination, as well as the height of the plant and the emergency percentage for the incorporation tests to the soil. It was also carried out, to both over crops, the preliminary chemical qualitative characterization. The results showed that the extracts of T. zebrina and of C. diffusa stimulated the “in vitro” germination and growth of C. arabica at different concentration levels. The incorporation to the soil of the extracts of C. diffusa stimulated the development of the plants of C. arabica, in a significant way, that supposes a considerable advantage in that concerns to the employment of these cover crops, when not implying noxious effects beside all the benefits implied when using cover crops. These last ones go from the protection and improvement of the properties of the soil, to the control of the spontaneous flora in the coffee agroecosystems.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of secondary metabolites isolated from Centaurea spruneri Boiss. & Heldr.

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    ANA ĆIRIĆ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two coumarins, scopoletin (1 and isoscopoletin (2, two simple phenolic acids, protocatechuic acid (3 and isovanillic acid (4 and one flavonoid, eriodictyol (5 were isolated from the aerial parts of Centaurea spruneri. The structure of the compounds was established by spectroscopic methods. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds was tested against eight bacteria and eight fungal species, using a microdilution method. All compounds tested showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activities. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations were in the range 0.655–2.38 µmol ml-1 and their minimal bactericidal concentrations ranged from 0.694 to 4.15 µmol ml-1 against the tested bacterial species. All compounds showed fungistatic activity at 0.259–2.38 µmol ml-1 and fungicidal at 0.69–2.6 µmol ml-1 against all fungi tested.

  4. Secondary metabolites from the aerial parts of Centaurea pannonica (Heuff.) Simonk. from Serbia and their chemotaxonomic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milošević Ifantis, Tanja; Solujić, Slavica; Pavlović-Muratspahić, Dragana; Skaltsa, Helen

    2013-10-01

    The non polar extract of Centaurea pannonica (Heuff.) Simonk., growing wild in Serbia, was studied and twenty-five compounds including 14 sesquiterpene lactones, 7 flavonoids, 3 lignans and 1 phenylpropanoid glycoside were isolated. All compounds were isolated for the first time from this species. Among them, one germacranolide 2α-hydroxy, 8-dehydroxy 15-O-methacrylate salonitenolide (1) and two guaianolides 2α,8α-dihydroxy-dehydrocostus lactone (2) and pannonin (3) are new natural compounds. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, HREIMS and 1D & 2D NMR). The chemical profile of C. pannonica, which belongs to the "Centaurea jacea" group, was compared to previously studied taxa of the same group and used to assess the phylogenetic relationships in the group.

  5. Phytochemical, Therapeutic, and Ethnopharmacological Overview for a Traditionally Important Herb: Boerhavia diffusa Linn.

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    Shikha Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Boerhavia diffusa (BD is a plant of rasayana category as per ayurvedic claims. It is reported to possess antiaging, disease prevention, and life strengthening activities which hold enormous influence in disease burden and affordability/availability of healthcare in the world. Objective. This paper has been compiled to comment on the studies reported for BD to highlight its chemical and therapeutic potential along with its ethnopharmacological considerations. Methods. In the present paper, a detailed account of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities has been presented. All the findings were correlated with modern pharmacological activities to appraise the value of BD. Results. Chemical analysis of BD gives a wide variety of chemical constituents, namely, rotenoids, flavonoids, xanthones, purine nucleoside, lignans, and steroids. Various ethnopharmacological reports emphasize its role in disorders of reproductive system, gastrointestinal system, respiratory system, urinary system, hepatic system/jaundice, cardiovascular system, and cancer. Conclusions. The studies on the therapeutic activities of BD range from studies on crude extracts to isolated compounds; however some of the studies require sophistication and validated results. BD is a plant of enormous importance in the purview of its chemical and therapeutic properties.

  6. Oldenlandia diffusa Promotes Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects in a Rat Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Liver Cirrhosis

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    Yun-Young Sunwoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oldenlandia diffusa (OD is commonly used with various diseases such as cancer, arthritis, and autoimmune disease. Liver cirrhosis is a predominant risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Here, we show that the therapeutic effect of OD, which was investigated both in vitro and chemically, induced HCC model. OD significantly enhanced apoptosis and antiproliferative activity and reduced migration ability of HCC cells. In vivo, OD was treated twice a day for 28 days after confirmed HCC model through 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG imaging. The survival in OD treated groups was shown to have a greater therapeutic effect than the control group. 28 days after OD treatment, OD treated groups resulted in a significant reduction in tumor number, size, 18F-FDG uptake, and serum levels such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphate compared to the control group. Also, proliferated cells in tumor sites by OD were reduced compared to the control group. Furthermore, several rats in OD treated group survived over 60 days and liver morphology of these rats showed the difference between tumor mass and normal tissue. These results suggest that OD may have antiproliferative activity, inhibition of metastasis, and apoptotic effects in chemically induced HCC model and can have the potential use for clinical application as anticancer drug of the herbal extract.

  7. Biological Control of Spreading Dayflower (Commelina diffusa with the Fungal Pathogen Phoma commelinicola

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    Clyde D. Boyette

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse and field experiments showed that conidia of the fungal pathogen, Phoma commelinicola, exhibited bioherbicidal activity against spreading dayflower (Commelina diffusa seedlings when applied at concentrations of 106 to 109 conidia·mL−1. Greenhouse tests determined an optimal temperature for conidial germination of 25 °C–30 °C, and that sporulation occurred on several solid growth media. A dew period of ≥ 12 h was required to achieve 60% control of cotyledonary-first leaf growth stage seedlings when applications of 108 conidia·mL−1 were applied. Maximal control (80% required longer dew periods (21 h and 90% plant dry weight reduction occurred at this dew period duration. More efficacious control occurred on younger plants (cotyledonary-first leaf growth stage than older, larger plants. Mortality and dry weight reduction values in field experiments were ~70% and >80%, respectively, when cotyledonary-third leaf growth stage seedlings were sprayed with 108 or 109 conidia·mL−1. These results indicate that this fungus has potential as a biological control agent for controlling this problematic weed that is tolerant to the herbicide glyphosate.

  8. Intragenic regions required for LamB export.

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, S A; Bremer, E.; Silhavy, T J

    1984-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains containing a series of lamB-lacZ fusions have been isolated and characterized. Each of these fusions specifies a hybrid protein with LamB sequences at the NH2 terminus and a large functional COOH-terminal fragment of beta-galactosidase. The amount of LamB present in the various hybrid proteins ranges from as few as 4 amino acids to a complete signal sequence (25 amino acids) plus 49 amino acids of the mature protein. With respect to hybrid protein export these fusions...

  9. Antileishmanial compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Kaur, Preet Kamal; Singh, Sushma; Singh, Inder Pal

    2014-01-01

    The antileishmanial activity of extracts and phytoconstituents of Moringa oleifera Lam. was investigated in vitro against promastigotes of Leishmania donavani. The 70% ethanolic extract of roots and the methanolic extract of leaves showed moderate inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 83.0 microg/ml and 47.5 microg/ml, respectively. Antileishmanial activity of the methanolic extract of leaves increased upon fractionation, as its ethyl acetate fraction was found to be more active with an IC50 value of 27.5 microg/ml. The most active antileishmanial compound niazinin, a thiocarbamate glycoside isolated from this fraction, showed an IC50 value of 5.25 microM. Results presented in this study indicate that extracts from M. oleifera may be developed as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  10. SynLam(TM) Primary Mirror Evaluation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), has developed sandwich core composite material (SynLam(TM)) and related fabrication technology to address the drawbacks of...

  11. Potent antioxidant and genoprotective effects of boeravinone G, a rotenoid isolated from Boerhaavia diffusa.

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    Gabriella Aviello

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of some gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and genoprotective activity of some rotenoids (i.e. boeravinones isolated from the roots of Boerhaavia diffusa, a plant used in the Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Antioxidant activity has been evaluated using both chemical (Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy, ESR and Caco-2 cells-based (TBARS and ROS assays. DNA damage was evaluated by Comet assay, while pERK(1/2 and phospho-NF-kB p65 levels were estimated by western blot. Boeravinones G, D and H significantly reduced the signal intensity of ESR induced by hydroxyl radicals, suggesting a scavenging activity. Among rotenoids tested, boeravinone G exerted the most potent effect. Boeravinone G inhibited both TBARS and ROS formation induced by Fenton's reagent, increased SOD activity and reduced H(2O(2-induced DNA damage. Finally, boeravinone G reduced the levels of pERK(1 and phospho-NF-kB p65 (but not of pERK(2 increased by Fenton's reagent. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that boeravinone G exhibits an extraordinary potent antioxidant activity (significant effect in the nanomolar range. The MAP kinase and NF-kB pathways seem to be involved in the antioxidant effect of boeravinone G. Boeravinone G might be considered as lead compound for the development of drugs potentially useful against those pathologies whose aetiology is related to ROS-mediated injuries.

  12. LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate (LAMP-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0132 TITLE: LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate ( LAMP -1) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Charlie...AND SUBTITLE LAM Pilot Study with Imatinib Mesylate ( LAMP -1) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0132 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The LAMP -1 study is

  13. Antioxidant Activity and Isolation of Luteoline from Centaurea behen L. Grown in Iran

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    Akbar Esmaeili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are secondary metabolites providing Ultraviolet-visible (UV spectroscopy protection and color in almost all terrestrial plants and fruits. They have a fused ring system consisting of an aromatic ring and a benzopyran ring with a phenyl substituent. As their biological activities have an impact on human health, they serve as target molecules in the development of new drugs. The objective of this research was to study the antioxidant activity and chemical analysis of the luteoline from Centaurea behen L. (Compositae family. The aerial parts of powdered and dried C. behen were extracted with methanol (MeOH in a Soxhlet apparatus over a period of 2 days. The concentrated total extract was extracted with petroleum ether, diethylether, and methanol. From the methanol extract of the aerial parts of C. behen, the flavonoid derivative (luteoline was identified. The aerial parts’ extract demonstrated effective antioxidant activity measured in terms of half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50. The product extract has been isolated by UV, column chromatography (CC, and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The structures involved were elucidated by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC spectra. The compound identified had not been reported in previous studies of C. behen L.

  14. Reconciling contradictory findings of herbivore impacts on spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) growth and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knochel, David G; Seastedt, Timothy R

    2010-10-01

    Substantial controversy surrounds the efficacy of biological control insects to reduce densities of Centaurea stoebe, a widespread, aggressive invasive plant in North America. We developed a graphical model to conceptualize the conditions required to explain the current contradictory findings, and then employed a series of manipulations to evaluate C. stoebe responses to herbivores. We manipulated soil nitrogen and competition in a field population and measured attack rates of a foliage and seed feeder (Larinus minutus), two gall flies (Urophora spp.), and a root feeder (Cyphocleonus achates), as well as their effects on the growth and reproduction of C. stoebe. Nitrogen limitation and competing vegetation greatly reduced C. stoebe growth. L. minutus most intensively reduced seed production in low-nitrogen soils, and removal of neighboring vegetation increased Larinus numbers per flower head and the percentage of flowers attacked by 15% and 11%, respectively. Cyphocleonus reduced flower production and aboveground biomass over two years, regardless of resources or competition. Our results, in conjunction with other published studies, demonstrate that positive, neutral, and negative plant growth responses to herbivory can be generated. However, under realistic field conditions and in the presence of multiple herbivores, our work repudiates earlier studies that indicate insect herbivores increase C. stoebe dominance.

  15. Larvicidal Activity of Centaurea bruguierana ssp. belangerana Against Anopheles stephensi Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Rajabi, Afsaneh; Behzad, Masoud; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abaee, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the total 80% of MeOH extract and also petroleum ether, CHCl3, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and the remaining MeOH fractions obtained by solvent-solvent fractionation of the whole flowering samples of Centaurea bruguierana (DC.) Hand.-Mzt. ssp. belangerana (DC.) Bornm. (Asteraceae), namely "Baad-Avard", collected from Borazjan in Bushehr Province (Bushehr, Iran) were investigated for larvicidal activity against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston, according to WHO methods. The mortality rate of total extract and petroleum ether fraction in concentration of 40 ppm were 28% and 86% respectively and the other fractions were inactive. The probit regression analysis for the dose-response to petroleum ether fraction treatment of larvae exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 15.7 ppm and 48.3 ppm, respectively. As results showed, the larvicidal activity of the petroleum ether fraction would be due to the nonpolar compounds in the plant which further isolation and purification would obtain the more active compounds in lower concentrations useful for preparation of biological insecticides.

  16. Antiviral and antimicrobial activities of three sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozçelik, Berrin; Gürbüz, Ilhan; Karaoglu, Taner; Yeşilada, Erdem

    2009-01-01

    Three sesquiterpene lactones (centaurepensin = chlorohyssopifolin A, chlorojanerin and 13-acetyl solstitialin A) isolated from the aerial parts of Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis (Asteraceae) were investigated for antimicrobial and antiviral activities. For the antimicrobial activity assessment, both standard and isolated strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis were employed by the microdilution method. Herpes simplex type-1, a DNA virus, and Parainfluenza, an RNA virus, were employed for the determination of the antiviral activity of these three sesquiterpene lactones using Vero cell lines. Ampicilline, ofloxocine, ketoconazole, fluconazole, acyclovir and oseltamivir were used as the reference drugs. 13-Acetyl solstitialin A displayed remarkable antibacterial activity against isolated strains of E. faecalis at 1 microg/ml concentration, which was close to the effective concentrations of ampicillin. The same compound also showed significant activity against the DNA virus, being as potent as the reference compound acyclovir at maximum and minimum concentrations of 16-<0.00006 microg/ml. This is the first report showing that 13-acetyl solstitialin A possesses significant antiviral activity.

  17. Pollinator interactions with yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) across urban, agricultural, and natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Misha; Kremen, Claire; Roderick, George K

    2014-01-01

    Pollinator-plant relationships are found to be particularly vulnerable to land use change. Yet despite extensive research in agricultural and natural systems, less attention has focused on these interactions in neighboring urban areas and its impact on pollination services. We investigated pollinator-plant interactions in a peri-urban landscape on the outskirts of the San Francisco Bay Area, California, where urban, agricultural, and natural land use types interface. We made standardized observations of floral visitation and measured seed set of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis), a common grassland invasive, to test the hypotheses that increasing urbanization decreases 1) rates of bee visitation, 2) viable seed set, and 3) the efficiency of pollination (relationship between bee visitation and seed set). We unexpectedly found that bee visitation was highest in urban and agricultural land use contexts, but in contrast, seed set rates in these human-altered landscapes were lower than in natural sites. An explanation for the discrepancy between floral visitation and seed set is that higher plant diversity in urban and agricultural areas, as a result of more introduced species, decreases pollinator efficiency. If these patterns are consistent across other plant species, the novel plant communities created in these managed landscapes and the generalist bee species that are favored by human-altered environments will reduce pollination services.

  18. Sobre la circunscripción y posición taxonómica de Centaurea caballeroi (Compositae [On the circumscription and taxonomic status of Centaurea caballeroi (Compositae

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    Llorenç Sáez Goñalons

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se aportan datos sobre algunos táxones del grupo de Centaurea linifolia presentes en las sierras de la Comunidad Valenciana y áreas limítrofes. Como resultado se propone reconocer en C. antennata tres subespecies, con síndromes de caracteres propios, que ocupan áreas geográficas bien delimitadas y presentan un comportamiento ecológico diferenciado. Según esto, se propone la nueva combinación C. antennata subsp. caballeroi para las poblaciones del sur de Tarragona y norte de Castellón, seleccionándose además un lectótipo. Para cada taxon aceptado se indican sus caracteres morfológicos diferenciales, distribución y ecología. Además, se aporta una clave de identificación. SUMMARY: On the circumscription and taxonomic status of Centaurea caballeroi (Compositae: Data are reported on several taxa of the aggregate of Centaurea linifolia that grow in the mountains of the Valencian Community and neighboring areas. As a result, in the complex of C. antennata three taxa are accepted at the subspecific rank, which have their own syndromes of morphological characters, occur in well-defined territories and show different ecological behavior. The new combination C. antennata subsp. caballeroi is stated to name populations from southern Tarragona and northern Castellón provinces. Moreover, a lectotype is selected for the latter name. For each accepted taxon, its diagnostic morphological traits, distribution and ecology are commented. An identification key is also presented.

  19. A remarkable new species of Coeliccia from the Tuyen Lam Lake area, Lam Dong, southern Vietnam (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platycnemididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Rory A

    2016-04-15

    Coeliccia suoitia sp. nov. (holotype ♂, from Suoi Tia, Tuyen Lam Lake, Da Lat, Lam Dong Province, Vietnam, deposited in RMNH) is described from males from southern Vietnam. It is a distinctive species that possess highly unusual characters in the thorax and anal appendages that make its ultimate generic placement questionable. Relationships between Coeliccia Kirby, Asthenocnemis Lieftinck and Indocnemis Laidlaw, and within Coeliccia, are briefly discussed.

  20. Peyote identification on the basis of differences in morphology, mescaline content, and trnL/trnF sequence between Lophophora williamsii and L. diffusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragane, Masako; Sasaki, Yohei; Nakajima, Jun'ichi; Fukumori, Nobutaka; Yoshizawa, Masao; Suzuki, Yukiko; Kitagawa, Shigemi; Mori, Ken'ichiro; Ogino, Shuzo; Yasuda, Ichiro; Nagumo, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    Genus Lophophora (Cactaceae) has two species: Lophophora williamsii Coulter, which is called peyote, and L. diffusa Bravo. Although it was reported that L. williamsii contained mescaline and L. diffusa did not, we found L. williamsii specimens that did not contain mescaline. This finding indicated that the two species could not be differentiated in terms of mescaline content. Moreover, the relationship between mescaline content and morphology of the two species is also unknown. In this study, we attempted to clarify the difference in morphology, mescaline content, and DNA alignment of the chloroplast trnL/trnF region between L. williamsii and L. diffusa. As a result, L. williamsii specimens were classified into two groups. Group 1 had small protuberances on the epidermis, contained mescaline, and the analyzed region on the trnL/trnF sequence was 881 base pairs (bp) long in all except one (877 bp). Group 2 had large protuberances on the epidermis, did not contain mescaline, and the analyzed region was 893 bp long. On the other hand, L. diffusa had medium-sized protuberances on the epidermis, did not contain mescaline, and the analyzed region was 903 bp long. Also investigated was the potential application of the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method as a means of identification based on the trnL/trnF sequence. By applying the PCR-RFLP method, the two species could be distinguished and L. williamsii specimens could be differentiated into group 1 and group 2.

  1. Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata Induce Bladder Cancer Cell Apoptosis by Inhibiting Akt Signaling Pathway through Downregulating miR-155 Expression

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    Li-Tao Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine is increasingly used to treat cancer. Our clinical experiences identify Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata as the most common herb-pair (couplet medicinal used for the core treatment of bladder cancer. This study aims to investigate the antitumor effect of the herb-pair in bladder cancer cells. The results show that Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata inhibited bladder cancer cell growth and clone formation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. It also induced cell apoptosis through decreasing Akt activation and reducing the expression of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. Further experiments showed that miR-155 was reduced by the herb-pair and miRNA-155 inhibitor induced cell apoptosis and suppressed Akt activation. Overexpression of miR-155 reversed herb-pair induced cell apoptosis through activating Akt pathway in both bladder cancer cell lines. The findings reveal that Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata reduce Akt activation through reducing miR-155 expression, resulting in cell apoptosis. It demonstrated the potential mechanism of Hedyotis diffusa plus Scutellaria barbata for the core treatment of bladder cancer.

  2. Bioactivity of the extracts and isolation of lignans and a sesquiterpene from the aerial parts of Centaurea pamphylica (Asteraceae

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    Shoeb M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Centaurea pamphylica Boiss. & Heldr. (Family: Asteraceae, commonly known as ‘pamphylia daisy', is a Turkish endemic species of the genus Centaurea that comprises ca. 500 species, many of which have been used as traditional medicines.  The n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of C. pamphylica were assessed for antioxidant activity and general toxicity using, respectively, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the brine shrimp lethality assays. The reversed-phase preparative HPLC and PTLC were used to isolate compounds from the extracts.  The structures of these compounds [1-4] were elucidated by spectroscopic means, and also by direct comparison with the respective published data.  Both the DCM and the MeOH extract showed significant levels of antioxidant activities with the RC50 values of 72.6 x 10-2 and 47.3 ´ 10-2 mg/mL, respectively. The MeOH extract exhibited low levels of toxicity towards brine shrimps (LD50 = 125.0 ´ 10-2 mg/mL. Three major bioactive components of the MeOH extract were matairesinoside [1], arctiin [2] and matairesinol [3]. An eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, pterodontriol [4], was also isolated from the DCM extract.  Since reactive oxygen species are important contributors to various ailments, the antioxidant properties of the extracts as well as the isolated compounds may be of medicinal significance. This is the first report on the occurrence of 1-4 in C. pamphylica, and 4 in the genus Centaurea.  

  3. New habitats, new menaces: Centaurea x kleinii (C. moncktonii x C. solstitialis, a new hybrid species between two alien weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna, A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropic alteration of habitat opens the door to the cohabitation of imported species that in their native range would never coexist. Centaurea solstitialis and Centaurea moncktonii are two invasive species whose natural distributions in Eurasia do not overlap. After introduction in North America, invasive spread led to overlapping distributions. Although the environmental requirements differ between the two species, the close proximity of diverse habitats (within pollinator range has resulted in several cases of natural hybridization between the two. The result of the cross between these two distantly related species is a sterile perennial. Many of its characteristics are intermediate between its parents, but morphologically it is closer to Centaurea moncktonii (probably the maternal parent, and itself of hybrid origin. The plant could possibly become an invasive weed through clonal reproduction. The apparent maternal parent, which the hybrid may more closely resemble physiologically as well as morphologically, is a wellknown creeping weed in alpine pastures throughout Europe.La alteración antrópica del hábitat da paso a la cohabitación de especies importadas que nunca coexistirían en su ámbito natural. Centaurea solstitialis y Centaurea moncktonii son dos especies invasoras cuyas distribuciones en Eurasia apenas se solapan. Después de su introducción en Norteamérica, la expansión invasiva condujo a distribuciones superpuestas. Aunque los requerimientos ambientales de las dos especies son distintos, la proximidad de hábitats diversos (dentro del alcance de los polinizadores ha dado lugar a varios casos de hibridación natural entre ambas. El cruce resultante entre dos especies lejanamente emparentadas es una planta perenne estéril. Muchos de los caracteres del híbrido son intermedios entre sus especies parentales, pero morfológicamente es más parecida a Centaurea moncktonii (probablemente la especie materna y a su vez ya de

  4. Bioactivity of two Turkish endemic Centaurea species, and their major constituents Bioatividade e os principais constituintes químicos de duas espécies de Centaurea, endêmicas da Turquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shoeb

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity, general toxicity and cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of Centaurea urvillei subs. armata and C. mucronifera have been assessed, respectively, by the DPPH assay, the brine shrimp lethality and the MTT cytotoxicity assays. The reversed-phase HPLC analysis of the methanol extracts afforded two bioactive dibenzylbutyrolactone-type lignans, matairesinoside (1 and arctiin (2. The structures of these lignans were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses as well as by the direct comparison of experimental data with respective literature data.A atividade antioxidante, a toxicidade geral e a citotoxidade dos extratos metanólicos de Centaurea urvillei subs. armata e C. mucronifera foram analisados, respectivamente, pelo ensaio DPPH e pelos ensaios de letalidade de Artemia salina e de citotoxidade MTT. A análise dos extratos metanólicos em CLAE de fase reversa apresentou duas lignanas biotivas do tipo dibenzilbutirolactona, matairesinosídeo (1 e arctiina (2. As estruturas destas lignanas foram elucidadas através de análises espectroscópicas completas bem como por comparação direta dos dados experimentais com os respectivos dados da literatura.

  5. Tipificación y estatus raxonómico de Centaurea resupinata subsp. virens (sect. Willkommia Blanca, Asteraceae [Typification and taxonomic status of Centaurea resupinata subsp. virens comb. et stat. nov. (Sect. Willkommia Blanca, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pablo FERRER GALLEGO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se reivindica el valor taxonómico y lectotipifica el nombre de Centaurea incana Lag. (non auct. β virens (Sect. Willkommia Blanca, Asteraceae propuesto por Carlos Pau para describir una planta presente en la sierra litoral valenciana de Carcaixent (Valencia. Esta variedad se recombina con rango subespecífico dentro C. resupinta Coss., acorde con la actual sistemática propuesta para este complejo grupo de plantas. Morfológicamente esta planta se caracterizada por la ausencia o el pequeño tamaño de las fimbrias en el ápice de las brácteas involucrales del capítulo. ABSTRACT: We both propose the taxonomic value and lectotypify the name of Centaurea incana Lag. (non auct. β virens (Sect. Willkommia Blanca, Asteraceae proposed by Carlos Pau to describe a plant taxa living in the Valencian litoral range of Carcaixent (Valencia, Spain. This variety is recombined with subspecific rank inside C. resupinata Coss., following the current systematics proposed for this plant group. As main morphological trait, this subspecies is characterised by the absence or very low size of fimbriae under the involucral bract ápex.

  6. Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus L.) honey quality parameters: chromatographic fingerprints, chemical biomarkers, antioxidant capacity and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuś, Piotr Marek; Jerković, Igor; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Congiu, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The samples of cornflower (Centaurea cyanus L.) honey from Poland were subjected to ultrasonic solvent extraction applying the mixture of pentane and diethyl ether 1:2v/v (solvent A) as well as dichloromethane (solvent B). The major compounds of the extracts (analysed by GC-MS/GC-FID) were C13 and C9 norisoprenoids. Among them, (E)-3-oxo-retro-α-ionol (2.4-23.9% (solvent A); 3.9-14.4% (solvent B)) and (Z)-3-oxo-retro-α-ionol (3.7-29.9% (solvent A); 8.4-20.4% (solvent B)) were found to be useful as chemical biomarkers of this honey. Other abundant compounds were: methyl syringate (0.0-31.4% (solvent A); 0.0-25.4% (solvent B)) and 3-hydroxy-4-phenylbutan-2-one (1.6-15.8% (solvent A); 5.1-15.1% (solvent B)). HPLC-DAD analysis of the samples revealed lumichrome (4.7-10.0mg/kg), riboflavin (1.9-2.7mg/kg) and phenyllactic acid (112.1-250.5mg/kg) as typical compounds for this honey type. Antioxidant and antiradical properties as well as total phenolic content of the samples were found to be rather moderate by FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) and Folin-Ciocalteu assays, respectively. Additionally, CIE L(∗)a(∗)b(∗)C(∗)h chromatic coordinates were evaluated. Colour attributes of cornflower honey were characterised by elevated values of L(∗) and particularly high values of b(∗) and h coordinates, which correspond to medium bright honey with intense yellow colour.

  7. Increased phenotypic plasticity to climate may have boosted the invasion success of polyploid Centaurea stoebe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Min A; van Kleunen, Mark; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may allow organisms to cope with altered environmental conditions as e.g. after the introduction into a new range. In particular polyploid organisms, containing more than two sets of chromosomes, may show high levels of plasticity, which could in turn increase their environmental tolerance and invasiveness. Here, we studied the role of phenotypic plasticity in the invasion of Centaurea stoebe (Asteraceae), which in the native range in Europe occurs as diploids and tetraploids, whereas in the introduced range in North America so far only tetraploids have been found. In a common garden experiment at two sites in the native range, we grew half-sibs of the three geo-cytotypes (native European diploids, European tetraploids and invasive North American tetraploids) from a representative sample of 27 populations. We measured the level and the adaptive significance of phenotypic plasticity in eco-physiological and life-history traits in response to the contrasting climatic conditions at the two study sites as well as three different soil conditions in pots, simulating the most crucial abiotic differences between the native and introduced range. European tetraploids showed increased levels of phenotypic plasticity as compared to diploids in response to the different climatic conditions in traits associated with rapid growth and fast phenological development. Moreover, we found evidence for adaptive plasticity in these traits, which suggests that increased plasticity may have contributed to the invasion success of tetraploid C. stoebe by providing an advantage under the novel climatic conditions. However, in invasive tetraploids phenotypic plasticity was similar to that of native tetraploids, indicating no evolution of increased plasticity during invasions. Our findings provide the first empirical support for increased phenotypic plasticity associated with polyploids, which may contribute to their success as invasive species in novel environments.

  8. Dispersal Pathways and Genetic Differentiation among Worldwide Populations of the Invasive Weed Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Renée L.; Hierro, José L.; Eren, Özkan; Andonian, Krikor; Török, Katalin; Becerra, Pablo I.; Montesinos, Daniel; Khetsuriani, Liana; Diaconu, Alecu; Kesseli, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of introduced species is often unclear due to a lack of historical records. Even when historical information is readily available, important factors of the invasions such as genetic bottlenecks, hybridization, historical relationships among populations and adaptive changes are left unknown. In this study, we developed a set of nuclear, simple sequence repeat markers and used these to characterize the genetic diversity and population structure among native (Eurasian) and non-native (North and South American) populations of Centaurea solstitialis L., (yellow starthistle). We used these data to test hypotheses about the invasion pathways of the species that were based on historical and geographical records, and we make inferences about historical relationships among populations and demographic processes following invasion. We confirm that the center of diversity and the native range of the species is likely the eastern Mediterranean region in the vicinity of Turkey. From this region, the species likely proceeded to colonize other parts of Europe and Asia via a slow, stepwise range expansion. Spanish populations were the primary source of seed to invade South America via human-mediated events, as was evident from historical records, but populations from the eastern Mediterranean region were also important. North American populations were largely derived from South America, but had secondary contributors. We suggest that the introduction history of non-native populations from disparate parts of the native range have allowed not just one, but multiple opportunities first in South America then again in North America for the creation of novel genotypes via intraspecific hybridization. We propose that multiple intraspecific hybridization events may have created especially potent conditions for the selection of a noxious invader, and may explain differences in genetic patterns among North and South America populations, inferred differences in demographic

  9. Lipoarabinomanano (LAM de Mycobacterium spp: Respuesta inmune inducida en terneros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jolly

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La paratuberculosis es una enfermedad que afecta al ganado vacuno cuyo agente etiológico es el Mycobacterium avium subespecie paratuberculosis. El LAM es el principal componente antigénico de superficie de las micobacterias, y se lo considera de relevancia en la patogenia de las enfermedades que éstas causan. Un extracto enriquecido en LAM fue obtenido a partir de un cultivo de Mycobacterium spp. y empleado para inocular terneros. Se evaluó en ellos la respuesta inmune humoral y celular inducida por la vacunación. Los resultados de este estudio demuestran que el extracto enriquecido en LAM resultó ser inmunogénico en todos los animales inoculados, obteniéndose títulos considerables de anticuerpos específicos, sin generar falsos positivos a la prueba de intradermorreacción con el derivado proteico purificado utilizado para el diagnóstico de la tuberculosis bovina. Estos hallazgos justifican continuar el trabajo en esta línea intentando finalmente establecer si el LAM es un candidato potencial para la elaboración de una vacuna a subunidades contra la paratuberculosis bovina.Paratuberculosis is a chronic enteric disease affecting cattle. The causative agent is Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. LAM is the main antigenic component of mycobacterial surface, and it is considered a key virulence factor involved in its pathogenicity. A LAM-enriched extract obtained from a culture of Mycobacterium spp. was prepared with incomplete Freund's adjuvant for calves inoculation. Specific antibodies response and delayed-type hypersensitivity to intradermal injection of purified protein derivative antigen (PPD from Mycobacterium bovis were then evaluated in inoculated animals. Our results demonstrate that anti-LAM antibodies can be successfully obtained in calves immunized with LAM-enriched extract, without generating cross-reaction with PPD of M. bovis. This work could represent the initial step in order to determine the relevance of

  10. Comparing susceptibility of eastern and western U.S. grasslands to competition and allelopathy from spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe L. subsp. micranthos (Gugler) Hayek)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centaurea maculosa is native to Eurasia and is invasive in the western portion of the US. Negative impacts of C. maculosa present in the eastern US have not been recorded. In this study, we examine the effects of C. maculosa on species diversity on an eastern grassy bald, compare the competitive a...

  11. Efeito do glyphosate sobre a morfoanatomia das folhas e do caule de Commelina diffusa e C. benghalensis Effect of glyphosate on the morpho-anatomy of leaves and stems of C. diffusa and C. benghalensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Tuffi Santos

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do glyphosate nas estruturas anatômicas e morfológicas do caule e das folhas de duas espécies de Commelina, bem como investigar o envolvimento do amido de reserva na maior tolerância ao glyphosate de C. diffusa em relação a C. benghalensis. De 10 vasos cultivados de cada espécie, nove receberam 1.440 g ha-1 de glyphosate e um serviu como testemunha. Fragmentos de caule e folhas foram coletados e fixados nos tempos de zero (antes da aplicação do glyphosate, 15, 30 e 50 dias após a aplicação (DAA. O laminário histológico foi obtido conforme metodologia usual, enfatizando-se a aplicação do reagente lugol para verificação de amido. Atribuíram-se notas de 1 a 5, conforme a intensidade crescente da reação. Na folha, as células epidérmicas e os tecidos vasculares são pouco afetados; já o mesofilo é integralmente desorganizado, culminando com a morte das células. As injúrias são mais evidentes no caule e nas folhas de C. benghalensis. Morfologicamente, verificam-se regiões cloróticas e áreas necrosadas dispersas pela superfície foliar, culminando com a queda a partir do 15º DAA em C. benghalensis. Em C. diffusa, a abscisão foliar é mais tardia, apesar de as injúrias serem semelhantes. Ambas as espécies apresentaram maior quantidade de amido na região do nó que do entrenó. C. benghalensis tem poucos e pequenos grãos de amido, enquanto em C. difusa eles são grandes e numerosos. Em resposta à aplicação do glyphosate, houve variação na quantidade de grãos de amido no caule conforme o tempo após a aplicação. Assim, C. difusa terá sempre maiores possibilidades de se restabelecer após aplicação do glyphosate, por manter maior reserva de amido.The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of glyphosate in the anatomical and morphologic structures of leaves and stems of two species of Commelina, and to investigate the involvement of the starch reservation

  12. Lam6 Regulates the Extent of Contacts between Organelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Elbaz-Alon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Communication between organelles is crucial for eukaryotic cells to function as one coherent unit. An important means of communication is through membrane contact sites, where two organelles come into close proximity allowing the transport of lipids and small solutes between them. Contact sites are dynamic in size and can change in response to environmental or cellular stimuli; however, how this is regulated has been unclear. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Lam6 resides in several central contact sites: ERMES (ER/mitochondria encounter structure, vCLAMP (vacuole and mitochondria patch, and NVJ (nuclear vacuolar junction. We show that Lam6 is sufficient for expansion of contact sites under physiological conditions and necessary for coordination of contact site size. Given that Lam6 is part of a large protein family and is conserved in vertebrates, our work opens avenues for investigating the underlying principles of organelle communication.

  13. Lam6 Regulates the Extent of Contacts between Organelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaz-Alon, Yael; Eisenberg-Bord, Michal; Shinder, Vera; Stiller, Sebastian Berthold; Shimoni, Eyal; Wiedemann, Nils; Geiger, Tamar; Schuldiner, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Summary Communication between organelles is crucial for eukaryotic cells to function as one coherent unit. An important means of communication is through membrane contact sites, where two organelles come into close proximity allowing the transport of lipids and small solutes between them. Contact sites are dynamic in size and can change in response to environmental or cellular stimuli; however, how this is regulated has been unclear. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Lam6 resides in several central contact sites: ERMES (ER/mitochondria encounter structure), vCLAMP (vacuole and mitochondria patch), and NVJ (nuclear vacuolar junction). We show that Lam6 is sufficient for expansion of contact sites under physiological conditions and necessary for coordination of contact site size. Given that Lam6 is part of a large protein family and is conserved in vertebrates, our work opens avenues for investigating the underlying principles of organelle communication. PMID:26119743

  14. PHARMACOLOGICAL POTENTIALS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Kumar Biswas et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this literature review was to provide advance research information for the future scientists to discover new drug molecules from the medicinal plant, Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae. The plant provides a rich and rare combination of zeatin, quercetin, beta-sitosterol and kaempferol. In addition to its high nutritional value, Moringa oleifera Lam is very important for its medicinal value. Various parts of this plant such as leaves, roots, seed, bark, fruit, flowers and immature pods act as cardiac and circulatory stimulants, possess antitumor, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihypertensive, cholesterol lowering, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial and antifungal activities, and are being employed for the treatment of different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine. This review gives the scientific information regarding pharmacological potentials of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae.

  15. Constituents of the roots of Boerhaavia diffusa L. III. Identification of Ca2+ channel antagonistic compound from the methanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lami, N; Kadota, S; Kikuchi, T; Momose, Y

    1991-06-01

    Two known lignans, liriodendrin and syringaresinol mono-beta-D-glucoside, have been isolated from the methanol extract of the roots of Boerhaavia diffusa L. (Nyctaginaceae), and the former compound was found to exhibit a significant calcium (Ca2+) channel antagonistic effect in frog heart single cells using the whole-cell voltage clamp method. Reexamination of the carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) spectra of these compounds was also carried out by the use of two-dimensional NMR techniques including a 1H-detected heteronuclear multiple bond connectivity (HMBC) experiment, and it was found that the previous signal assignments for C-1' and C-4' have to be revised.

  16. Effect of hydrothermal processing on total polyphenolics and antioxidant potential of underutilized leafy vegetables, Boerhaavia diffusa and Portulaca oleracea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gunasekaran Nagarani; Arumugam Abirami; Prasad Nikitha; Perumal Siddhuraju

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of different processing methods on antioxidant properties of acetone extract of aerial parts from Boerhaavia diffusa and Portulaca oleracea.Methods:The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined by Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride method, respectively. FRAP, metal chelating activity, DPPH, ABTS, nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activities, carotene/linoleic acid bleaching activity were used for the determination of antioxidant capacity.Results:The total phenolics in Boerhaavia diffusa (82.79-162.80 mg GAE/g extract) were found to be higher when compared to that of Portulaca oleracea (22.94-10.02 mg GAE/g extract). Hydrothermal processing enhanced the level of inhibition on synthetic radicals such as DPPH (3439-309549 mmol TE/g extract) and ABTS (17808-53818 mmol TE/g extract) as well as biologically relevant radicals such as superoxide anion (70%-90%) and nitric oxide (49%-57%). In addition, boiling of the vegetables were found to be maximum capacity of FRAP (6 404.95 mmol Fe (II)/g extract) and metal chelating activity (1.53 mg EDTA/g extract) than the respective raw samples. Conclusions: The present investigation suggests that the processing enhance the functionality and improves the availability of bioactive substances of these vegetables. In addition, they also exhibited more potent antioxidant activity. Therefore these natural weeds from the crop land ecosystem could be suggested as cost effective indigenous green vegetables for human diet and potential feed resources for animals. Further extensive studies on role and importance of those weeds in sustaining the agro biodiversity are also needed.

  17. EVALUATION OF NEPHRO-PROTECTIVE AND ANTI-NEPHRO-TOXIC PROPERTIES OF RAKTA PUNARNAVA ROOTS (Boerhaavia diffusa, L. GOKSHUR FRUITS (Tribulus terrestris, L. IN DRUG INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Yogini Ramachandra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Kwath of Rakta Punarnava roots (Boerhaavia diffusa, L. and Gokshur fruits (Tribulus terrestris,L. were tried for their Nephro-protective and anti-nephro-toxic properties by using Gentamycin induced Nephro-toxic model in Wistar strain Albino Rats. The effects were assessed on the basis of Biochemical and Histo-pathological investigations. Both the selected drugs have proven statistically significant results as Nephro-protective agent whereas Punarnava has got pronounced anti-nephro-toxic action too.

  18. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION OF THE LEAF EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Saroj K.; Mukherjee, Pulok K.; Saha, Kakali; Pal, M.; Saha, B.P

    1995-01-01

    The ethnolic extract of the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Fam. Moringaceae) was tested for antimicrobial activities against Gram Positive – Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea: Gram negative – Escherichia coli and Acid fast Mycobacterium phlei. Significant antimicrobial activity of the extract was found in this study.

  19. Når TV-kokken ofrer lam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2014-01-01

    programmet Jamie’s Italian Escape (Channel 4, 2006) og det franske madprogram Le Chef en France (M6, 2012) med kokken Cyril Lignac. De to analyseeksempler har det til fælles, at det i begge tilfælde er lam, der slås ihjel og tilberedes. I artiklen analyseres, hvordan slagtningerne i disse madprogrammer...

  20. Some pharmacognostical characteristics of moringa oleifera lam. Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, S K; Mukherjee, P K; Saha, K; Pal, M; Saha, B P

    1996-04-01

    The macroscopic character of the leaflets ash values extractive values by different solvent extractive behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents fluorescence characters by treatment with different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of Maoringa oleifera lam (fam moringaceae) were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters, chemical group test of different extracts of the leaves were also performed.

  1. Antimicrobial action of the leaf extract of moringa oleifera lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, S K; Mukherjee, P K; Saha, K; Pal, M; Saha, B P

    1995-01-01

    The ethnolic extract of the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Fam. Moringaceae) was tested for antimicrobial activities against Gram Positive - Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea: Gram negative - Escherichia coli and Acid fast Mycobacterium phlei. Significant antimicrobial activity of the extract was found in this study.

  2. SOME PHARMACOGNOSTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM. LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The macroscopic character of the leaflets ash values extractive values by different solvent extractive behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents fluorescence characters by treatment with different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of Maoringa oleifera lam (fam moringaceae) were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters, chemical group test of different extracts of the leaves were also performed.

  3. A New 10-Hydroxyl Anthrone Glycoside from Cassia siamea Lam.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new 10-hydroxyl anthrone glycoside, 1, 8, 10 - trihydroxyl-1-O-β-D-glucopyrano-syl-3-methyl-10- C (S) - β - D- glucopyranosyl-anthrone-9 1 was isolated from the stem of Cassia siamea Lam. The structure was elucidated by spectral evidences, especially by 2 D techniques.

  4. Antimicrobial activity and a comparative essential oil analysis of Centaurea pulcherrima Willd. var. pulcherrima extracted by hydrodistillation and microwave distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahriman, N; Tosun, G; İskender, N Yılmaz; Alpay Karaoğlu, Ş; Yayli, N

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils of Centaurea pulcherrima Willd. var. pulcherrima (Asteraceae) were isolated by hydrodistillation (HD) and a microwave distillation (MD), than characterised by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 58 and 57 compounds were identified, constituting over 93.7%, and 91.6% of volatile oil composition of C. pulcherrima var. pulcherrima, respectively. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were shown to be the main group of constituents (HD: 42.4% versus MD: 51.5%). The major component of the oils of C. pulcherrima var. pulcherrima was germacrene D (HD, 17.8% versus MD, 23.2%). The antimicrobial activity of the isolated essential oils of the plant was also investigated, and they showed good antibacterial activity against to tested gram-positive bacteria, especially to M. smegmatis and a yeast-like fungus C. albicans.

  5. Polyploidy in phenotypic space and invastion context: A morphometric study of Centaurea stoebe s.l

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mráz, Patrik; Bourchier, Robert S.; Treier, Urs;

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomy of the Centaurea stoebe complex is controversial. Diploid and tetraploid plants occur in its native European range, but to date only tetraploids have been recorded from its introduced range in North America. We examined morphological differentiation of C. stoebe using multivariate...... and univariate approaches to clarify the taxonomic status of the known cytotypes. We measured more than 40 morphological traits on plants originating from 78 populations, grown from seed under uniform glasshouse conditions. The ploidy of almost 300 plants from 2 native and 20 introduced populations from Canada...... was assessed to test for the absence of diploids from North America. Finally, we explored whether postintroduction processes have resulted in phenotypic changes in introduced plants which may have contributed to the invasion success of C. stoebe. Morphometric analyses showed a clear separation of 2x and 4x...

  6. Discovery and Classification of DES15S2lam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15S2lam discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectrum (540-965nm) was obtained using GMOS on Gemini-North. Object classification was performed using superfit (Howell et al, 2005, ApJ, 634, 1190) and SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), the details of which are reported in the table below.

  7. Targeting Estrogen-Induced COX-2 Activity in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    rapamycin treatment. However both Torin 1 treatment and Rictor knockdown, led to reduced COX-2 expression and phospho-Akt-S473. Prostaglandin... rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a master regulator of cell growth, protein translation, and metabolism. In LAM patients the mTORC1 inhibitor Rapamycin ...published PLOS One 2014. “ Rapamycin -insensitive up-regulation of adipocyte phospholipase A2 in tuberous sclerosis complex and

  8. Cytotoxic evaluation of essential oil from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Saulo Luis da; Figueiredo, Patrícia Maria; YANO, Tomomasa

    2007-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam is a plant popularly used as antimicrobial, for malaria and inflammatory treatment. The essential oil of Z. rhoifolium was extracted and its cytotoxic effects against HeLa (human cervical carcinoma), A-549 (human lung carcinoma), HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma), Vero (monkey kidney) cell lines and mice macrophages were evaluated. Some of the terpenes of its essential oil (ß-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, alpha -pinene, myrcene and linalool) were also tested to ve...

  9. PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE STEM BARK OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Maria

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the stem bark of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae furnished two new phytoconstituents identified as n-heptacosanyl n-octadec-9,12,15 trieneoate (moringyl linoleneate and n- docas- 4-en-11-one-1-yl n-decanoate (oleiferyl capriate along with the known compounds β-sitosterol, epilupeol, glyceropalmityl phosphate and glycerol-oleiostearyl phosphate. The structures of all the phytoconstituents have been elucidated on the basis of spectral data analyses and chemical reactions.

  10. BDP-30, a systemic resistance inducer from Boerhaavia diffusa L., suppresses TMV infection, and displays homology with ribosome- inactivating proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shalini Srivastava; H N Verma; Aparana Srivastava; Vivek Prasad

    2015-03-01

    Root extract of Boerhaavia diffusa L. induced systemic resistance in tobacco against Tobacco mosaic virus. A 30 kDa protein was isolated as the active component, called BDP-30 on the basis of the molecular weight and source plant. BDP-30, a glycoprotein, was found to be temperature and protease resistant. It was basic, possessing a pI greater than 9.0. In-gel proteolytic digestion of BDP-30 generated two peptides that possessed the amino acid sequence KLYDIPPLR and KVTLPYSGNYER by LC/MS/MS. Both peptides shared absolute sequence identity with trichosanthin, a ribosome-inactivating protein from Trichosanthes kirilowii, and a 78% and 100% homology respectively with an RIP from Bryonia dioica, bryodin. Further, effort was made to look at the fate of TMV in induced resistant Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi, a systemic host of the virus, at specified days after inoculation in control and treated plants. TMV coat protein (CP) was detected by immunoblot 7 days post inoculation up to 21 days in the control set, but not in treated resistant plants. TMV RNA was detected by RT-PCR using TMV-CP specific primers. Resistant tobacco did not show presence of TMV RNA up to 21 days of inoculation. This suggests that BDP-30 may be suppressing TMV replication.

  11. Effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae, in tests for adaptogenic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia G. Bezerra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess whether Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae, (TD, plant known in popular medicine as tonic and aphrodisiac, has other effects that are characteristic of an adaptogen substance, such as improvement of the memory and reduction of the damage caused by stress. We carried out an initial screening to detect a possible toxicity of the plant. In that phase of the study we used tests of observational screening; evaluation of acute toxicity; measurement of motor activity and motor coordination, and sleeping time induced by pentobarbital, and observed that the extract presented low toxicity and no stimulant or depressant effect on the animals. We then performed specific tests for the evaluation of an adaptogen effect. TD did not protect the stomach of the animals from the formation of ulcers, neither did it alter the plasmatic levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone of the animals submitted to immobilization and cold. As regards the evaluation of memory in passive avoidance, TD did not inhibit scopolamine-induced amnesia. Additionally, the hydroalcoholic extract presented low antioxidant activity in vitro. In the models used, TD produced no changes in relation to a possible adaptogen effect.

  12. DESCOMPOSICIÓN Y LIBERACIÓN DE NITRÓGENO Y MATERIA ORGÁNICA EN HOJAS DE Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. Y Moringa oleifera Lam. EN UN BANCO MIXTO DE FORRAJE

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Petit-Aldana; Gabriel Uribe-Valle; Fernando Casanova-Lugo; Javier Solorio-Sánchez; Luis Ramírez-Avilés

    2012-01-01

    Se evaluaron las tasas de descomposición, la liberación de N y MO en hojas de Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. y Moringa oleifera Lam. en un banco mixto de forraje en Yucatán, México, en las épocas de lluvias y sequía, en un diseño de bloques completos al azar, cinco tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones. Se llenaron 120 bolsas con hojas frescas de las especies colectadas, y se colocaron en cada unidad experimental. Se evaluaron tres periodos de incubación para cada tr...

  13. Mutations that alter the transport function of the LamB protein in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Wandersman, C; Schwartz, M

    1982-01-01

    Some Escherichia coli K-12 lamB mutants, those producing reduced amounts of LamB protein (one-tenth the wild type amount), grow normally on dextrins but transport maltose when present at a concentration of 1 microM at about one-tenth the normal rate. lamB Dex- mutants were found as derivatives of these strains. These Dex- mutants are considerably impaired in the transport of maltose at low concentrations (below 10 microM), and they have a structurally altered LamB protein which is impaired in...

  14. Antioxidant responses of damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd to exposure to artificial ultraviolet (UV radiation in an in vitro model: part I; UV-C radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluvia de Abril Alexandra Soriano-Melgar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ultraviolet type C (UV-C radiation has higher energy than the UV-B radiation and has been less studied because it is completely absorbed by the ozone layer. However, artificial UV-C radiation can generate diverse modifications in the plants. Given that exposure to UV-C for short periods of time increases the antioxidant content, improving the appearance and shelf-life of products, its potential application in postharvest treatments to modify the antioxidant content of medicinal plants, such as damiana (Turnera diffusa, is novel and relevant. Objective: To determine the effects of UV-C radiation on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses, as well as oxidative damage levels, in damiana (Turnera diffusa plants in vitro. Results: UV-C radiation decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1 and total peroxidases (POX, EC 1.11.1 activities, the concentration of chlorophylls (a and b, carotenes, vitamin C, and total antioxidant capacity. UV-C radiation increased the phenolic compound levels in damiana. Loss of antioxidant defenses was higher in damiana plants exposed to higher UV-C doses and/or for longer periods. This study suggests that UV-C radiation induces oxidative stress, evidenced as increased protein carbonyls and phenolic compound content, in damiana (T. diffusa. Conclusion: Low dose, short exposure to UV-C stimulates phenolic compound content in damiana. Thus, controlled UV-C treatments could be used as postharvest treatment to increase phenolic compound content in damiana plants.

  15. Protective effect of Boerhaavia diffusa L. against mitochondrial dysfunction in angiotensin II induced hypertrophy in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyappan Prathapan

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. So mitochondria are emerging as one of the important druggable targets in the management of cardiac hypertrophy and other associated complications. In the present study, effects of ethanolic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa (BDE, a green leafy vegetable against mitochondrial dysfunction in angiotensin II (Ang II induced hypertrophy in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts was evaluated. H9c2 cells challenged with Ang II exhibited pathological hypertrophic responses and mitochondrial dysfunction which was evident from increment in cell volume (49.09±1.13%, protein content (55.17±1.19%, LDH leakage (58.74±1.87%, increased intracellular ROS production (26.25±0.91%, mitochondrial superoxide generation (65.06±2.27%, alteration in mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm, opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP and mitochondrial swelling. In addition, activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (I-IV, aconitase, NADPH oxidase, thioredoxin reductase, oxygen consumption rate and calcium homeostasis were evaluated. Treatment with BDE significantly prevented the generation of intracellular ROS and mitochondrial superoxide radicals and protected the mitochondria by preventing dissipation of ΔΨm, opening of mPTP, mitochondrial swelling and enhanced the activities of respiratory chain complexes and oxygen consumption rate in H9c2 cells. Activities of aconitase and thioredoxin reductase which was lowered (33.77±0.68% & 45.81±0.71% respectively due to hypertrophy, were increased in BDE treated cells (P≤0.05. Moreover, BDE also reduced the intracellular calcium overload in Ang II treated cells. Overall results revealed the protective effects of B. diffusa against mitochondrial dysfunction in hypertrophy in H9c2 cells and the present findings may shed new light on the therapeutic potential of B. diffusa in addition to its

  16. Anticancer Effects of 1,3-Dihydroxy-2-Methylanthraquinone and the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Hedyotis Diffusa Willd against HepG2 Carcinoma Cells Mediated via Apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Lan Li

    Full Text Available Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, is a treatment for various diseases including cancer, owing to its mild effectiveness and low toxicity. The aim of this study was to identify the main anticancer components in Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, and explore mechanisms underlying their activity. Hedyotis Diffusa Willd was extracted and fractionated using ethyl acetate to obtain the H-Ethyl acetate fraction, which showed higher anticancer activity than the other fractions obtained against HepG2 cells with sulforhodamine B assays. The active component of the H-Ethyl acetate fraction was identified to be 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (DMQ with much high inhibitory rate up to 48.9 ± 3.3% and selectivity rate up to 9.4 ± 4.5 folds (p<0.01 at 125 μmol/L. HepG2 cells treated with the fraction and DMQ visualized morphologically using light and fluorescence microscopy. Annexin V--fluorescein isothiocyanate / propidium iodide staining flow cytometry, DNA ladder and cell cycle distribution assays. Mechanistic studies showed up-regulation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 proteases activities (p<0.001, indicating involvement of mitochondrial apoptotic and death receptor pathways. Further studies revealed that reactive oxygen species in DMQ and the fraction treated HepG2 cells increased (p<0.01 while mitochondrial membrane potential reduced significantly (p<0.001 compared to the control by flow cytometry assays. Western blot analysis showed that Bax, p53, Fas, FasL, p21 and cytoplasmic cytochrome C were up-regulated (p<0.01, while Bcl-2, mitochondrial cytochrome C, cyclin E and CDK 2 were down-regulated dose-dependently (p<0.01. The reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed that mRNA expressions of p53 and Bax increased (p<0.001 while that of Bcl-2 decreased (p<0.001. Pre-treatment with caspase-8 inhibitor Z-IETD-FMK, or caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK, attenuated the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of DMQ and the

  17. Factors affecting in vitro plant regeneration of the critically endangered Mediterranean knapweed ( Centaurea tchihatcheffii Fisch et. Mey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Cigdem Alev; Khawar, Khalid Mahmood; Mirici, Semra; Ozcan, Sebahattin; Arslan, Orhan

    2006-10-01

    Habitat destruction has resulted in the extinction of many plant species from the earth, and many more face extinction. Likely, the annual endemic Mediterranean knapweed ( Centaurea tchihatcheffii) growing in the Golbasi district of Ankara, Turkey is facing extinction and needs urgent conservation. Plant tissue culture, a potentially useful technique for ex situ multiplication, was used for the restoration of this ill-fated plant through seed germination, micropropagation from stem nodes, and adventitious shoot regeneration from immature zygotic embryos. The seeds were highly dormant and very difficult to germinate. No results were obtained from the micropropagation of stem nodes. However, immature zygotic embryos showed the highest adventitious shoot regeneration on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, containing 1 mg l-1 kinetin and 0.25 mg l-1 NAA. Regenerated shoots were best rooted on MS medium containing 1 mg l-1 IBA and transferred to the greenhouse for flowering and seed set. As such, the present work is the first record of in vitro propagation of critically endangered C. tchihatcheffii, using immature zygotic embryos, and is a step forward towards conservation of this indigenous species.

  18. Lam Kin Chung Morning Sun China- Japan Friendship Fund Set up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Lam Kin Chung Morning Sun Charity Fund of HoneKong has decided to donate, from January 2004, 100,000 RMB yuan each year for 5 consecutive years, which totals 500,000 RMB yuan, to set up the Lam Kin Chung Morning Sun China-Japan Friendship Fund under the China Friend-

  19. Removal of nitrobenzene from aqueous solution by a novel lipoid adsorption material (LAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Qinxue [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology (SKLUWRE, HIT), Harbin 150090 (China); Chen, Zhiqiang, E-mail: czq0521@tom.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology (SKLUWRE, HIT), Harbin 150090 (China); Lian, Jiaxiang; Feng, Yujie; Ren, Nanqi [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology (SKLUWRE, HIT), Harbin 150090 (China)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized a novel adsorbent-lipoid adsorption material (LAM). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the adsorption behavior isotherms of nitrobenzene on LAM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the adsorption kinetics of nitrobenzene on LAM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We proved that the reaction is spontaneous and is an exothermic reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The removal efficiency of LAM was higher than that of GAC. - Abstract: In this study, a novel adsorbent referred to as a lipoid adsorption material (LAM) was synthesized with a hydrophobic nucleolus (triolein) and hydrophilic membrane structure (polyamide). The LAM was applied to the adsorption and removal of nitrobenzene from aqueous systems. Experiments were carried out to investigate the adsorption behavior of nitrobenzene on LAM, including the development of adsorption isotherms, the determination of adsorption kinetics, and to explore the influence of adsorbent dosage, contact time, temperature and the initial concentration of nitrobenzene on adsorption. The performance of LAM was compared with equal amounts of granular activated carbon (GAC) for adsorption. The adsorption isotherms for LAM were found to be described by the Linear equation, while the adsorption isotherms for granular activated carbon (GAC) were described by the Freundlich equation. Results indicated that the adsorption of nitrobenzene by LAM occurred mainly due to the partition function caused by the triolein nucleolus. Two kinetics models, pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models were used to fit the experimental data for LAM adsorption. By comparing the correlation coefficients, it was found that the pseudo-first-order model was most suitable to describe the adsorption of nitrobenzene on LAM. The results also indicated that the factors that affect the adsorption rate would be either the nitrobenzene concentration or the character of the adsorbent

  20. The Lamé equation in shell membrane theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schief, W. K.; Szereszewski, A.; Rogers, C.

    2007-07-01

    A classical nonlinear shell membrane system has recently been demonstrated to have underlying integrable structure. Here, a wide class of corresponding parallel membranes is shown to be generated via a Schrödinger equation of Lamé type. This class is characterized by the existence of a multiplicity of stress distributions for a given membrane geometry. A variety of viable membrane geometries such as generalized Dupin cyclides are constructed explicitly together with the associated one-parameter families of stress resultants. A Lax pair which encapsulates both the Gauss-Mainardi-Codazzi and constrained equilibrium equations is also recorded.

  1. X-LAM: Roots of Terror and the Battle Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    perpetrators, this paper refers to this particular brand of Islam as "X-Lam". This paper researches the roots of Islamic extremism. It begins with a medieval ...writings of Egyptian fundamentalist scholar, Sayyid Qutb. Qutb was born in Upper Egypt in 1906.40 Throughout the 1930’s and 40’s he was a literary man...two major literary genres: 1) the roots of jurisprudence and 2) the branches of jurisprudence. In the course of the 9 th and 10 th Centuries AD, the

  2. 矢车菊和大花金鸡菊的核型研究%THE KARYOTYPE STUDIES OF CENTAUREA CYANUS AND COREOPSIS GRANDIFLORA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德奎

    2001-01-01

    对矢车菊和大花金鸡菊的染色体进行了研究,结果显示,矢车菊(Centaurea cyanus L.)染色体数目为2n=48,核型公式为K(2n)=4x=48=20m+28sm,相对长度组成为2n=48=4 L+24M2+12 M1+8 S,核型为“2A”;大花金鸡菊(Coreopsis,grandiflora Hogg.)的染色体数目为2n=26,核型公式为K(2n)=2X=26=26m,相对长度组成为2n=26=14M2+10M1+2S,核型为“1A”.%The results of some karyotype studies of Centaurea cyanus L. and Coreopsis grandi-flora Hogg. from Shandong are reported. The results showed: the chromosome number of Centaurea cyanus L. is 2 n = 48, its karyotype formula is K (2 n ) = 4X = 48 = 20 m + 28 sm, composition of rela-tive length of chromosome is 2n =48=4 L + 24 M2 + 12 M1 + 8 S,belonging to “2A” of Stebbins;the chromosome number of Coreopsis grandiflor Hogg. is 2n = 26,its karyotype formula is K (2n) = 2x=26 =26 m, composition of relative length of chromosome is 2n = 26 = 14 M2 + 10 M1 + 2 S,belonging to ”1A”of Stebbins.

  3. Dos novedades de Marruecos: Linaria imzica Gómiz, sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae: y Centaurea austromaroccana (Förther & Podlech: Gómiz, comb. & stat. nov. (Compositae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómiz García, Francisco

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Linaria imzica of the western end of the mountain range of Antiatlas (S of Morocco is described. The new species is characterized by its leaves proportionally quite wide (relation length/width Se describe Linaria imzica del extremo occidental de la cordillera del Antiatlas (sur de Marruecos. La nueva especie se caracteriza por sus hojas proporcionalmente bastante anchas (relación longitud/anchura <5 para lo que es habitual en la sect. Versicolores. Asimismo se propone la nueva combinación Centaurea austromaroccana (Förther & Podlech Gómiz.

  4. Ladder Operators for Lamé Spheroconal Harmonic Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Méndez-Fragoso

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Three sets of ladder operators in spheroconal coordinates and their respective actions on Lamé spheroconal harmonic polynomials are presented in this article. The polynomials are common eigenfunctions of the square of the angular momentum operator and of the asymmetry distribution Hamiltonian for the rotations of asymmetric molecules, in the body-fixed frame with principal axes. The first set of operators for Lamé polynomials of a given species and a fixed value of the square of the angular momentum raise and lower and lower and raise in complementary ways the quantum numbers $n_1$ and $n_2$ counting the respective nodal elliptical cones. The second set of operators consisting of the cartesian components $hat L_x$, $hat L_y$, $hat L_z$ of the angular momentum connect pairs of the four species of polynomials of a chosen kind and angular momentum. The third set of operators, the cartesian components $hat p_x$, $hat p_y$, $hat p_z$ of the linear momentum, connect pairs of the polynomials differing in one unit in their angular momentum and in their parities. Relationships among spheroconal harmonics at the levels of the three sets of operators are illustrated.

  5. Patterns of chloroplast DNA polymorphism in the endangered polyploid Centaurea borjae (Asteraceae): Implications for preserving genetic diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lua LOPEZ; Rodolfo BARREIRO

    2013-01-01

    A previous study with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints found no evidence of genetic impoverishment in the endangered Centaurea borjae and recommended that four management units (MUs) should be designated.Nevertheless,the high ploidy (6x) of this narrow endemic plant suggested that these conclusions should be validated by independent evidence derived from non-nuclear markers.Here,the variable trnT-F region of the plastid genome was sequenced to obtain this new evidence and to provide an historical background for the current genetic structure.Plastid sequences revealed little genetic variation; calling into question the previous conclusion that C.borjae does not undergo genetic impoverishment.By contrast,the conclusion that gene flow must be low was reinforced by the strong genetic differentiation detected among populations using plastid sequences (global FST =0.419).The spatial arrangement of haplotypes and diversity indicate that the populations currently located at the center of the species range are probable sites of long-persistence whereas the remaining sites may have derived from a latter colonization.From a conservation perspective,four populations contributed most to the allelic richness of the plastid genome of the species and should be given priority.Combined with previous AFLP results,these new data recommended that five,instead of four,MUs should be established.Altogether,our study highlights the benefits of combining markers with different modes of inheritance to design accurate conservation guidelines and to obtain clues on the evolutionary processes behind the present-day genetic structures.

  6. Long-term stable lung function and second uncomplicated pregnancy on sirolimus in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faehling, Martin; Wienhausen-Wilke, Vera; Fallscheer, Sabine; Trinajstic-Schulz, B; Weber, J; Leschke, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    We present a patient with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) on long-term sirolimus (now 79 months) who has had a second successful pregnancy. The second pregnancy on uninterrupted low-dose sirolimus (plasma levels 3-5 mg/L) was uncomplicated both with respect to mother and child suggesting that low-dose sirolimus might be safe in selected pregnant patients with stable LAM. The long-term time course in this patient is in agreement with recent reports of a long-term beneficial effect of sirolimus in LAM. In this patient, the pregnancies did not seem to impair the long-term improvement of lung-function on sirolimus.

  7. A rare case of a natural contact zone in Morocco between an autopolyploid and an allopolyploid of Centaurea aspera with sterile tetraploid hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmendia, A; Ferriol, M; Juarez, J; Zając, A; Kałużny, K; Merle, H

    2015-05-01

    A new contact zone between Centaurea aspera and Centaurea seridis was found in Morocco. Chromosome counts and flow cytometry showed that both taxa were tetraploid (4x = 44). A literature review and morphometric analysis established that C. aspera corresponds to the autopolyploid C. aspera subsp. gentilii and C. seridis corresponds to the allopolyploid C. seridis var. auriculata. This contact area was compared with the homologous contact zones in Spain formed by the diploid C. aspera subsp. stenophylla and the tetraploid C. seridis subsp. maritima. Natural hybrids between parental species were frequent in both areas. In Spain, hybrids were triploid (from reduced gametes A and gamete AB), highly sterile and exerted a 'triploid block'. In Morocco, cytometry showed that hybrids were tetraploid and, therefore, probably fertile, but all the capitula lacked achenes. It is likely that the resulting genome of the new tetraploid hybrid (AAAB), through the fusion of reduced gametes AA (from subsp. gentilii) and AB (from var. auriculata), could explain irregularities in meiosis through formation of aneuploid gametes and, therefore, infertility of the hybrid. Moroccan sterile tetraploid hybrids develop, but have the identical irregularities to Spanish triploids, probably due to the odd number of homologous chromosomes. The new hybrid is first described as C. x subdecurrens nothosubsp. paucispinus. In addition, distribution and ecological traits are analysed.

  8. Antioxidant responses of damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd) to exposure to artificial ultraviolet (UV) radiation in an in vitro model; part I; UV-C radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Melgar, Lluvia de Abril Alexandra; Alcaraz-Meléndez, Lilia; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía C; Puente, María Esther; Rivera-Cabrera, Fernando; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2014-05-01

    Introducción: La radiación ultravioleta tipo C (UV-C) presenta mayor energía y es menos estudiada que la radiación UV-B, debido a que se considera que es totalmente absorbida por la capa de ozono. Sin embargo, la radiación UV-C artificial es capaz de generar diversas modificaciones en las plantas. Dado que la exposición a UV-C por intervalos de tiempo cortos incrementa la concentración de compuestos antioxidantes, mejorando la apariencia y vida de anaquel de los productos, su potencial aplicación en tratamientos poscosecha para modificar el contenido antioxidante de plantas medicinales, como la damiana (Turnera diffusa), es novedoso y relevante. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto de la radiación UV-C sobre las defensas antioxidantes enzimáticas y no enzimáticas, así como en los niveles de daño oxidativo de damiana (Turnera diffusa) in vitro. Resultados: La radiación UV-C disminuyó la actividad de las enzimas superóxido dismutasa (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) y peroxidasas totales (POX, CE 1.11.1), la concentración de clorofila (a y b), carotenos, vitamina C y la capacidad antioxidante total, e incrementó el contenido de compuestos fenólicos en damiana. La disminución de las defensas antioxidantes fue mayor en plantas de damiana expuestas a dosis más altas de UV-C o por períodos más largos. Estos resultados sugieren que la radiación UV-C induce estrés oxidativo, evidenciado por el incremento del contenido de carbonilos proteicos y el contenido de compuestos fenólicos en damiana (T. diffusa). Conclusión: Dosis bajas y menor exposición a UV-C estimulan la síntesis de compuestos fenólicos en damiana. Por ello, tratamientos controlados con UV-C podrían emplearse como tratamientos poscosecha para incrementar el contenido de compuestos fenólicos en plantas de damiana.

  9. ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF LEAF EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Sharma

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera tree is known as a Miracle tree as almost every part of this tree possesses product useful for humans. The leaves and pods are eaten. The plant is also reported to be medicinally important and almost all parts of the Moringa oleifera tree are considered to possess medicinal properties and are used in the treatment of ascites, rheumatism and venomous bites and as cardiac and circulatory stimulant Leaves are also known to have anti-oxidant properties and are known to cures hallucinations, dry tumors, hiccups and asthma. The root and bark are useful in treatment of heart complaints, eye diseases, inflammation, dyspepsia and enlargement of spleen. In Present study the antimicrobial activity was investigated by employing main model Kirby-bauer disc diffusion method. The results showed that 50% ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam leaf have very little antibacterial activity and it shows mild inhibitory activity at high concentration of extract of Moringa oleifera.

  10. Condensed tannins from the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Gisely C.; Rocha, Juliana C.B.; Mello, Joao C.P. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas], e-mail: mello@uem.br; Almeida, Glalber C. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    From the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae), nine compounds were isolated and identified: ent-catechin, epicatechin, ent-gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, epiafzelechin-(4{beta}?8)-epicatechin, epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-catechin (procyanidin B1), epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-epicatechin (procyanidin B2), epicatechin-(4{beta}?8)-epigallocatechin, and the new compound 4'-O-methyl-epiafzelechin. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral and literature data. HPLC fingerprint analysis of the semipurified extract was performed on a C18 column, with a mixture of acetonitrile (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid):water (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid) (v/v) with a flow rate of 0.8 mL min-1. The sample injection volume was 100 {mu}L and the wavelength was 210 nm. (author)

  11. A new tigliane-type diterpene from Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lin-Feng; Liang, Qian; Liu, Tie; He, Ming-Yu; Zhao, Ping; Xu, Wen-Hui

    2016-07-01

    One new tigliane-type diterpene, 4-deoxy-4(β)H-8-hydroperoxyphorbol-12-benzoate-13-isobutyrate (1), together with two known diterpenoids, 3-acetyl-5,8-dibenzoyl-14α-propanoyl-13,17-epoxy-7-myrsinaone diterpene with C9-C10 cyclised to form an additional lactone ring (2), Euphodendriane A (3) have been isolated from the whole plants of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. Their structures were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic analysis (NMR and HR-ESI-MS) and comparison with data reported in the literature. This is the first isolation of 8-hydroperoxy tigliane diterpene (1) from the genus of Euphorbia. All compounds were evaluated for their antifungal activities.

  12. Analysis of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) patent tomograms: Stereology and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, V.; Wing, G.M.; Winter, L.; Zahrt, J.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computing, Information, and Communications Div.

    1995-02-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is an insidious disease of young women which attacks the lungs and if untreated results in death. Treatment is radical. Currently a woman diagnosed as having LAM (usually by computed tomography (CT) of the lung) is run through an exhausting set of tests and exercises to determine the extent of the disease. Image processing techniques have been able to quantify the tomograms by providing a histogram of the number of cyst intercepts of a given area. The images are digital, so the data are discrete, and the areas are in terms of square pixels. It is hoped that by analyzing the data and by recovering the probability density of the cysts themselves one can provide a set of parameters that will aid in the early diagnosis of the disease and that will correlate well with the physiology. The desire to invert the data, that is to determine the probability density of the cysts from the probability density of the circular intersections of the cysts with the tomographic plane, led to a re-examination of the Wicksell equation. In Section 2, the authors transform Wicksell`s equation in diameter (a generalized Abel equation) into an equation in areas (the original Abel equation). In Section 3 they present the adjoint equation in several equivalent forms. Analytic solutions of the adjoint equation necessary for later use are developed in Section 4. Outside of the framework of integral equations they have done some modeling of the data. They find that, to a very high degree of reliability, the data follows a simple power law. The distribution of spheres likewise follows a simple power law. These considerations are given in Section 5. Then in Section 6 they explore the exponential model as an alternative. Section 7 solves the Wicksell equation and uses the Golberg device, via the adjoint, to solve a related problem. They finally get to the number of cysts and their average size in Section 8. Their conclusions are in Section 9.

  13. Clinical effect of oldenlandia diffusa on postoperative glioma patients%胶质瘤术后白花蛇舌草的应用体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张焱; 陈坚; 袁志诚; 李巧玉; 湛利平

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价术后采用白花蛇舌草注射液治疗脑胶质瘤的临床疗效.方法 我们对2010年2月至9月10例胶质瘤患者,在手术后给予白花蛇舌草注射液20ml加入5%葡萄糖250ml中静脉滴注,15d为1个周期,1周后重复上述治疗,3个周期为1个疗程,1个疗程后间歇1个月,常规治疗2个疗程.观察肿瘤的复发情况及治疗的毒副作用.结果 肿瘤全切9例,次全切1例.使用白花蛇舌草最常见毒副反应为消化道症状,本组5例出现恶性呕吐,静脉滴注减慢及对症治疗后症状消失.未见骨髓抑制及肾脏毒性.血常规及肝肾功能检查术前与术后无明显变化.全部病例随访至今均存活,1例复发.结论 手术后使用白花蛇舌草注射液是一种治疗脑胶质瘤的有效方法,但远期疗效有待进一步观察研究.%Objective To assess the clinical effect of oldenlandia diffusa on postoperative glioma patients. Methods The clinical data of 10 cases of glioma were treated with intravenous infusion of 20 ml oldenlandia diffusa injection mixed into 250ml 5% glucose resolution after surgery from February 2010 to September 2010. The 15 - day treatment cycle was repeated after a week, and 3 treatment cycles constituted a course. There were 2 courses with an 1 - month interval. Tumor recurrence and treatment side effects were observed. Results Total tumor removal was achieved in 11 cases ( 91. 6% ) and subtotal in 1 (8.3% ). The main toxicities of oldenlandia diffusa were gastrointestinal symptoms, as 5 cases in this group reported nausea and vomit,and symptoms disappeared after treatment with slowing the infusion rate and symptomatic treatment. There was no marrow depression or renal toxicity. Changes of blood routine examination or liver function were not observed before or after operation. One case recurred. Conclusion Combined application of operation with oldenlandia diffusa injection is an effective way to treat glioma. However the long - term effect

  14. Rad-hard Location and Attitude Module (R-LAM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — R-LAM (Rad-hard Location and Attitude Module), promises a new generation of both integrated navigation modules and stand-alone navigation subsystems including...

  15. Structure of corylifuran: a clerodane-type diterpene from Croton corylifolius Lam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, B.A. (Univ. of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica); Chan, W.R.; Prince, E.C.; Manchand, P.S.; Eickman, N.; Clardy, J.

    1976-01-01

    The structure and stereochemistry of corylifuran, a clerodane-type diterpene from Croton corylifolius Lam, have been determined as 2 by chemical and spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallographic analysis.

  16. Overview of Sustainability Studies of CNC Machining and LAM of Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamekye, Patricia; Leino, Maija; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM), known also as 3D printing, is a powder bed fusion (PBF) type of additive manufacturing (AM) technology used to fabricate metal parts out of metal powder. The development of the technology from building prototype parts to functional parts has increased remarkably in 2000s. LAM of metals is promising technology that offers new opportunities to manufacturing and to resource efficiency. However, there is only few published articles about its sustainability. Aim in this study was to create supply chain model of LAM and CNC machining and create a methodology to carry out a life cycle inventory (LCI) data collection for these techniques. The methodology of the study was literature review and scenario modeling. The acquisition of raw material, production phase and transportations were used as basis of comparison. The modelled scenarios were fictitious and created for industries, like aviation and healthcare that often require swift delivery as well as customized parts. The results of this study showed that the use of LAM offers a possibility to reduce downtime in supply chains of spare parts and reduce part inventory more effectively than CNC machining. Also the gap between customers and business is possible to be shortened with LAM thus offering a possibility to reduce emissions due to less transportation. The results also indicated weight reduction possibility with LAM due to optimized part geometry which allow lesser amount of metallic powder to be used in making parts.

  17. KONYA'DA YETİŞEN CENTAUREA PTEROCAULA TRUATV. 'IN FENOLİK YAPISI VE ANTİOKSİDAN ETKİSİ

    OpenAIRE

    TEKELİ, Yener

    2009-01-01

    antioksidan aktivitesinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Centaurea Pterocaula 'u yağından uzaklaştırılmak için sokslet apareyi ile petrol eterinde ekstrakte edildi. Sonra materyal %70 lik metanolde tekrar ekstraksiyona tabi tutuldu ve çözücüsünden uzaklaştırıldı. Toplam fenolik madde konsantrasyonu Folin-Ciocalteu metoduna, serbest radikal süpürme etkisi DPPH metoduna göre ve indirgeme gücü ise Oyaizu metoduna göre yapıldı. Bitkinin fenolik yapısı HPLC ile belirlendi. Sonuçlar sen...

  18. Cytotoxic murine monoclonal antibody LAM8 with specificity for human small cell carcinoma of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahel, R A; O'Hara, C J; Mabry, M; Waibel, R; Sabbath, K; Speak, J A; Bernal, S D

    1986-04-01

    The reactivity of the murine immunoglobulin monoclonal antibody LAM8 directed against a membrane antigen of human small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung was investigated on human cell lines and tissues. Indirect immunofluorescence staining, radioimmunoassays, and cytotoxicity assays showed LAM8 antibody to selectively react with SCC but not with non-SCC lung cancer cell lines and extrapulmonary tumor cell lines. Unlike other SCC antibodies, including those we have previously described, highly preferential reactivity with SCC tissues was also demonstrated by immunoperoxidase staining of deparaffinized formalin-fixed tissue sections. Membrane and cytoplasmic staining was seen in of 9 of 12 SCC tissues. No significant staining was seen in non-SCC lung cancer and a wide range of other tumors, including mesothelioma and bronchial carcinoids. Significant LAM8 reactivity was also absent in normal tissues of all major organs. Few tumors and epithelial tissues, including bronchial epithelium had rare LAM8 positive cells which were always less than 2% of the entire cell population. In vitro treatment with antibody and human complement was highly cytotoxic to SCC cells, but had not effect on bone marrow progenitor cells. Immunoblotting of membrane extracts separated on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels showed the LAM8 antigen to have a band of an approximate molecular weight of 135,000 and a cluster of bands with approximate molecular weights of 90,000. This reactivity was lost after incubation of the extracts with periodate. LAM8 antibody shows a highly preferential reactivity with SCC cell lines and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded SCC tissues and is selectively cytotoxic to cells expressing LAM8 antigen.

  19. Other chemical constituents isolated from Solanum crinitum Lam. (Solanaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelius, Marli T.F.; Carvalho, Mario G. de; Silva, Tania M.S. da; Alves, Cassia C.F.; Siston, Ana P.N.; Alves, Kelly Z.; Sant' Anna, Carlos M.R., E-mail: mgeraldo@ufrrj.b [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Benassi Neto, Mario; Eberlin, Marcos N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2010-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Solanum crinitum Lam led to the isolation from the fruit trichomes of four flavonoids, tiliroside (1), astragalin (2), kaempferol (3), biochanin A-7-O-{beta}-D-apiofuranosyl-(1->5)-{beta}-D-apiofuranosyl-(1->6)-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (7), along with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (12), and four cinnamic acid derivatives, cis- and trans-coumaric acids (10 and 11) and cis- and trans- ethyl coumarate (8 and 9). Three tri-glycosyl-steroidal alkaloids, solamargine (13), 20-epi-solamargine (14) and solasonine (16) were isolated from the methanolic extract of the green fruits. The derivatives 3,5,7,4'-tretra-O-methyl-kaempferol (4), 3,7,4'-tri-O-methyl-kaempferol (5), 3,7,4'-tri-O-methyl-5-O-acetyl-kaempferol (6), the peracetyl-episolamargine (15) and peracetyl-solasonine (17) were prepared. The structures were established through the analysis of their spectral data. The complete {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR data assignments of the new peracetyl derivatives of the alkaloids were made. (author)

  20. MORPHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES OF IPOMOEA BATATAS (L. LAM. DURING DROUGHT STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Rosa, R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems in the world is desertification so we must to know physiological responses and morphological adaptations from species with tolerance to drought stress. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam. is one of the most important crops of the world, especially because of its great tolerance to drought stress. Hence, we decided to know what morphophysiological and metabolic responses has I. batatas under drought stress. So, we got cuttings of variety INA-100, from INIA Huaral, and were planted in 22 recipients of 4 L with substrate consisting in a mixing of sand and humus (3:1. Half of them were irrigated monthly and other half only receives water to establish plants and no more after that. We measured transpiration, histological changes in leaves and metabolic changes at protein and starch level. We confirmed transpiration is not affected for air humidity or substrate humidity. But, the effect of drought can be better observed in foliage growth, therefore in histological changes in leaves. No significance in concentration of proteins but significance in carbohydrates concentration shows an osmotic regulation in order to maintain stomata open and also an increase in photosynthetic activity in stressed plants.

  1. New phytoconstituents from the aerial parts of Fumaria parviflora Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jameel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumariaceae is an annual herb found throughout the world. Traditionally it has great significance in various disorders. In folk medicine of Turkey it is used against hepato-biliary dysfunction and imported from Iran. In Charaka and Sushruta, it is recommended for treatment of fevers, blood disorders, chronic skin diseases, urinary diseases and cough. The compounds were isolated from methanolic extract of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel (60-120 mesh as stationary phase and structure of the isolated compounds have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. Phytochemical investigation of its aerial parts led to the isolation of five new compounds characterized as (5αH,11αH-8-oxo-homoiridolide (1, n-docosanyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl salicylate (2, 2-methyl-6-hydroxymethylenedodecan-10-oyl-12, 15-olide14-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (3, 4-oxo-stigmast-5-en-3β-ol-D-glucopyranoside (4 and salicylic acid-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (5 along with the known compounds α-D-glucopyranosyl hexadecanoate (6 and α-D-glucopyranosyl- (2 → 1ʹ-α-D-glucopyranoside (7. The isolated compounds are useful as they will provide essential data and information for the further researchers and development of effective analytical marker for identity, purity and quality control of this traditional plant in future.

  2. Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz.: Phytochemical and pharmacological profile : A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjoo Kamboj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz (Crassulaceae is a perennial herb growing widely and used in folkloric medicine in tropical Africa, tropical America, India, China, and Australia. The divine herb contains a wide range of active compounds, including alkaloids, triterpenes, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, bufadienolides, lipids and organic acids, have been isolated from this species. The plant is widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of variety of ailments and well known for its haemostatic and wound healing properties. The pharmacological studies are reviewed and discussed, focussing on that different extracts from this plant have been found to possess pharmacological activities as immunomodulator, CNS depressant, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antiallergic, antianaphylactic, antileishmanial, antitumorous, antiulcerous, antibacterial, antifungal, antihistamine, antiviral, febrifuge, gastroprotective, immunosuppressive, insecticidal, muscle relaxant, sedative. However, future efforts should concentrate more on in vitro and in vivo studies and also on clinical trials in order to confirm traditional wisdom in the light of a rational phytotherapy. The present review is an attempt to highlight the various ethnopharmacological and traditional uses as well as phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of B. pinnatum and to discuss them.

  3. Atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato aquoso da Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz Antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract from Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Braz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz pertence a família Crassulaceae e é conhecida vulgarmente como coirama, folha-da-fortuna, ou folha-do-ar, sendo usada popularmente como antifúngico, no tratamento da hipertensão, em úlceras e em inflamações. O presente estudo objetivou analisar a atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato aquoso das folhas de Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz em modelo de úlcera gástrica induzida por indometacina em Rattus norvegicus, machos (150 a 250 g com idade de 70 dias. Os animais receberam por via oral: água, extrato aquoso de Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz (1 e 2 g Kg-1 ou ranitidina (60 mg Kg-1 , fármaco com ação gastroprotetora conhecida que atua bloqueando os receptores de histamina H2. Após uma hora dos tratamentos, todos animais receberam indometacina via intraperitoneal. Os resultados demonstraram que o extrato aquoso da Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz possui ação gastroprotetora; na dose de 1 g Kg-1 inibiu 45,49% o índice de ulceração induzido pela indometacina, e, na dose de 2 g Kg-1, inibiu 49,50%. Sugere-se o envolvimento de vários mecanismos na ação gastroprotetora dessa planta e não somente uma possível participação das prostaglandinas nesse efeito. Estudos futuros com diferentes modelos de indução de úlcera gástrica tornam-se necessários para melhor avaliar a atividade antiulcerogênica do extrato aquoso de Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz.Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz belongs to the family Crassulaceae, is popularly known as "coirama", "folha-da-fortuna", or "folha-do-ar" and has been commonly used as antifungal, in the treatment of hypertension, ulcers and inflammation. The present study aimed to analyze the antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract from the leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. Kurz using indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer models in Rattus norvegicus, males (150-250 g aged 70 days old. The animals received by the oral route: water, aqueous extract from

  4. Bacteriophage lambda receptor site on the Escherichia coli K-12 LamB protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, K; Charbit, A; Brissaud, E; Hofnung, M

    1987-05-01

    We have analyzed eight new phage-resistant missense mutations in lamB. These mutations identify five new amino acid residues essential for phage lambda adsorption. Two mutations at positions 245 and 382 affect residues which were previously identified, but lead to different amino acid changes. Three mutations at residues 163, 164, and 250 enlarge and confirm previously proposed phage receptor sites. Two different mutations at residue 259 and one at 18 alter residues previously suggested as facing the periplasmic face. The mutation at residue 18 implicates for the first time the amino-terminal region of the LamB protein in phage adsorption. The results are discussed in terms of the topology of the LamB protein.

  5. Temperature compensation of silicon Lamé resonators using etch holes: theory and design methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luschi, Luca; Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Pieri, Francesco

    2017-02-09

    We present a new approach to the temperature compensation of MEMS Lamé resonators, based on the combined effect of the doping concentration and of the geometry of etch holes on the equivalent temperature coefficients of silicon. To this purpose, we develop and validate an analytical model which describes the effect of etch holes on the temperature stability of Lamé resonators through comparison with experiments available in the literature and FEM simulations. We show that two interesting regions of the design space for Lamé resonators exist, where a cancellation of the first-order temperature coefficient of the resonance frequency is possible: [100]-oriented silicon with n-doping of 2.5∙1019 cm-3, and [110]-oriented silicon with p-doping higher than 1.4∙1020 cm-3.

  6. CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE MORINGA (Moringa oleifera Lam SOB OMISSÃO DE NUTRIENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam is a leguminous species well adapted to arid and semi arid conditions and is largely used as ornamental for parks and gardens in the animal feeding and human diet and as medicinal. Since research informations on this plant species are scarce, the current work aimed to evaluate the production of leaves, stems and roots dry matter in Moringa oleifera Lam seedlings hidroponicaly grown under physiological conditions or not. The treatments used were the following: (1 nutrient solution containing all required macronutrients (experimental control or lacking (2 N; (3 P; (4 K; (5 Ca; (6 Mg and (7 S. The Moringa oleifera Lam showed different responses to the imposed treatments. Nutrient solution free of N, P and Mg decreased whole dry matter production (WDM and increased root to shoot ratios (R/S, however both parameters were not affected in plants grown under absence of K, Ca and S in the nutrient solution.

  7. Morphology and pollen viability of Lolium multiflorum Lam. Morfologia e viabilidade polínica de Lolium multiflorum Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Castro Nunes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Study and characterization of pollen grains are essential for different areas, especially taxonomy, genetic improvement, phylogeny, and paleobotany. As yet, there are no reports on pollen morphology of genotypes of naturalized Lolium multiflorum Lam., introduced cultivars or breeding populations, diploid or polyploid. Ten genotypes of annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum were evaluated for the viability of pollen grains using propionic carmine and Alexander's stains, while morphology was assessed by the acetolysis technique. Measures of polar axis (P, equatorial diameter (E, exine thickness, and analysis of pollen grains were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. All genotypes showed high rate of pollen viability (> 89% for both stains. There were differences between genotypes in the following quantitative traits: polar axis, equatorial diameter, exine, endexine, ektexine, and P/E ratio. Pollen grains were characterized as small, monoporates, with circular and non-prominent apertures. In addition to helping distinction of pollen grains, morphometric differences can be used later to compare ploidy levels, thus assisting in breeding programs of the species.O estudo e a caracterização do grão de pólen são fundamentais para diferentes áreas, em especial, para a taxonomia, o melhoramento genético, a filogenia e a paleobotânica. Para genótipos de Lolium multiflorum Lam., naturalizados no Brasil, cultivares introduzidas ou populações de melhoramento, diploides e poliploides, não existem relatos sobre a caracterização morfopolínica. Nesse trabalho foram analisados dez gentótipos de azevém anual (L. multiflorum. A viabilidade dos grãos de pólen foi verificada por coloração com os corantes carmim propiônico e Alexander e a morfologia por meio da técnica de acetólise, sendo obtidas medidas do eixo polar (P, do diâmetro equatorial (E, e da espessura da exina, e análise dos grãos de pólen por microscopia eletrônica de

  8. Morfo-anatomia foliar de Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. - Myrtaceae Leaf morphoanatomy of Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. - Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M Donato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Folhas de Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. são usadas na medicina popular como hipoglicemiantes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar morfológica e anatomicamente as folhas desta planta, de modo que os dados obtidos possam ser utilizados como referência em exames de controle de qualidade de amostras de fármacos, com vistas a verificar a autenticidade. Folhas inteiras foram diafanizadas e coradas para o estudo da nervação. Secções transversais do pecíolo e transversais e paradérmicas da lâmina foliar foram analisadas em microscópio óptico (MO e a superfície do limbo foi observada, também, em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Foram aplicados testes histoquímicos em material fresco, para identificação e localização de glicídios, amido, taninos, lignina, cristais e sílica. Morfologicamente, a folha é simples, oval-elíptica, com margem inteira, base aguda, ápice acuminado e textura cartácea. A venação é do tipo camptódromo-broquidódromo. Anatomicamente, a folha é hipostomática, com mesofilo compacto e dorsiventral, com três estratos de parênquima paliçádico. A epiderme é uniestratificada, silicificada em algumas regiões e as células exibem paredes anticlinais retas. Em posição subepidérmica ocorrem numerosas cavidades secretoras de óleos essenciais. Os feixes vasculares são colaterais e acompanhados por séries cristalíferas. Os dados obtidos são comparados com os de outras espécies de Myrtaceae e conclui-se que as características morfológicas e anatômicas de M. multiflora contribuem para a diagnose.Myrcia multiflora (Lam. DC. leaves have been used in folk medicine as hypoglycemic. The aim of this work is to describe morphoanatomically the leaves of this plant in order to use the obtained data as reference in quality control tests of drug samples, investigating their authenticity. Whole leaves were diaphanized and stained for venation study. Petiole transverse sections and leaf blade

  9. Evaluation of thin-layer chromatography methods for quality control of commercial products containing Aesculus hippocastanum, Turnera diffusa, Matricaria recutita, Passiflora incarnata, and Tilia occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Durón, Rosalba; Ceniceros-Almaguer, Lucía; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Salazar-Cavazos, Ma de la Luz; Waksman de Torres, Noemi

    2007-01-01

    In Mexico, plant-derived products with health claims are sold as herbal dietary supplements, and there are no rules for their legal quality control. Aesculus hippocastanum, Turnera diffusa, Matricaria recutita, Passiflora incarnata, and Tilia occidentalis are some of the major commercial products obtained from plants used in this region. In this paper, we describe the effectiveness of thin-layer chromatography methods to provide for the quality control of several commercial products containing these plants. Standardized extracts were used. Of the 49 commercial products analyzed, only 32.65% matched the chromatographic characteristic of standardized extracts. A significant number of commercial products did not match their label, indicating a problem resulting from the lack of regulation for these products. The proposed methods are simple, sensitive, and specific and can be used for routine quality control of raw herbals and formulations of the tested plants. The results obtained show the need to develop simple and reliable analytical methods that can be performed in any laboratory for the purpose of quality control of dietary supplements or commercial herbal products sold in Mexico.

  10. 78 FR 3319 - Amendments to Existing Validated End User Authorizations: Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc., Lam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... Authorizations: Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc., Lam Research Corporation, SK hynix Semiconductor (China) Ltd., and SK hynix Semiconductor (Wuxi) Ltd. in the People's Republic of China; Clarification of Scope of... Semiconductor (China) Ltd. and SK hynix Semiconductor (Wuxi) Ltd. Finally, BIS amends Supplement No. 7 to...

  11. Evaluating educational media using traditional folk songs ('lam') in Laos: a health message combined with oral tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Itsuko; Kobayashi, Toshio; Sapkota, Sabitri; Akkhavong, Kongsap

    2012-03-01

    In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos), health education is clearly a core aspect of the health service and is vital in improving people's lives through good health. However, there are many obstacles to conducting effective health education. The development of effective educational media is one solution to these problems. In Laos, traditional folk songs (lam) are preserved as part of the local communication media, and recently this communication medium has been used for health education. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of educational media using lam. For this purpose, we conducted focus group discussions with 48 participants. The reactions of the participants towards a lam, developed for preventing HIV/AIDS, were analysed using the KJ (Kawakita Jiro) method. The analysis showed there were eight areas of concern: (1) interest in a lam talking about HIV/AIDS; (2) knowledge and perception related to HIV infection routes; (3) expressing a willingness for preventing HIV/AIDS; (4) togetherness with people living with HIV/AIDS; (5) HIV/AIDS education for children; (6) improving educational methods; (7) characteristics and effectiveness of the lam and (8) song preferences. The reactions of the participants, such as gaining knowledge and expressing individual attitudes and community actions for preventing HIV/AIDS, were promoted by the characteristics and effectiveness of the lam such as oral tradition, artistry and cultural values. In particular, the oral tradition represented by lam is useful for the Lao people in memorizing and communicating information.

  12. Experimental Research on Inhabitation Effect of Hedyotis Diffusa Willd on Lewis Lung Canser Spontaneous Metastasis in Mouse%白花蛇舌草抑制Lewis肺癌小鼠自发转移的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁; 李玉基; 李博

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of Hedyotis diffusa on inhibiting Lewis lung spontaneous metastasis in mouse. Methods: To establish the spontaneous metastasis model with subcutaneous injection Lewis lung cancer tumor cell suspension into the C57BL mouse through right axillaries and observe the changes of mouse's weight, solid tumor growth, lung metastasis, and immune organ index. Results: For the mice in Hedyotis diffusa role groups, the quality of mice' life obviously improved; the index of immune organs and the tumor inhibition rate were increased significantly, pulmonary metastasis nodules was significantly reduced compared with the blank group. Conclusion: Hedyotis diffusa has an inhibitory effect on Lewis lung cancer spontaneous metastasis.%目的:观察白花蛇舌草对Lewis肺癌小鼠自发转移的影响.方法:在C57BL小鼠右侧腋下皮下注射接种肺癌Lewis瘤细胞悬液,复制自发转移模型,观察小鼠体重变化、实体瘤生长情况、肺转移瘤生长情况、免疫器官指数等指标变化.结果:白花蛇舌草作用组的小鼠,小鼠生活质量得到明显改善,免疫器官指数、抑瘤率明显增加,肺部转移结节数较空白组明显减少.结论:白花蛇舌草可抑制Lewis肺癌小鼠自发转移.

  13. Desarrollo y validación de métodos analíticos para estandarización de fitofármacos con Turnera diffusa (damiana)

    OpenAIRE

    Garza Juárez, Aurora; Pérez Meseguier, Jonathan; Salazar Aranda, Ricardo, 1968-; Salazar Cavazos, Ma. de la Luz

    2010-01-01

    Para desarrollar protocolos clínicos de productos herbales es necesario contar con productos estandarizados de calidad consistente. Para ello se requiere el desarrollo de una metodología analítica que asegure la calidad y reproducibilidad de estos productos. Damiana (Turnera diffusa) es una planta medicinal utilizada en México como afrodisíaca, antidepresiva, termogénica, etcétera. Nuestro grupo ha demostrado su actividad antioxidante y hepatoprotectora. No hay méto...

  14. Export-defective lamB protein is a target for translational control caused by ompC porin overexpression.

    OpenAIRE

    Click, E M; Schnaitman, C A

    1989-01-01

    Overexpression of OmpC protein from an inducible plasmid vector reduced the amount of the precursor form of LamB protein in LamB signal sequence mutants. The stability of the precursor form of LamB protein was not affected, indicating that the effect of OmpC overexpression was on the synthesis of the precursor rather than on degradation. These results indicate that a functional signal sequence is not required on an outer membrane protein for it to be a target for translational control.

  15. Genetic Structuration, Demography and Evolutionary History of Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM9 Sublineage in the Americas as Two Distinct Subpopulations Revealed by Bayesian Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Reynaud

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains broadly present in the Americas despite intense global efforts for its control and elimination. Starting from a large dataset comprising spoligotyping (n = 21183 isolates and 12-loci MIRU-VNTRs data (n = 4022 isolates from a total of 31 countries of the Americas (data extracted from the SITVIT2 database, this study aimed to get an overview of lineages circulating in the Americas. A total of 17119 (80.8% strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage 4, among which the most predominant genotypic family belonged to the Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM lineage (n = 6386, 30.1% of strains. By combining classical phylogenetic analyses and Bayesian approaches, this study revealed for the first time a clear genetic structuration of LAM9 sublineage into two subpopulations named LAM9C1 and LAM9C2, with distinct genetic characteristics. LAM9C1 was predominant in Chile, Colombia and USA, while LAM9C2 was predominant in Brazil, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe and French Guiana. Globally, LAM9C2 was characterized by higher allelic richness as compared to LAM9C1 isolates. Moreover, LAM9C2 sublineage appeared to expand close to twenty times more than LAM9C1 and showed older traces of expansion. Interestingly, a significant proportion of LAM9C2 isolates presented typical signature of ancestral LAM-RDRio MIRU-VNTR type (224226153321. Further studies based on Whole Genome Sequencing of LAM strains will provide the needed resolution to decipher the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this successful family.

  16. Genetic Structuration, Demography and Evolutionary History of Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM9 Sublineage in the Americas as Two Distinct Subpopulations Revealed by Bayesian Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Yann; Millet, Julie; Rastogi, Nalin

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains broadly present in the Americas despite intense global efforts for its control and elimination. Starting from a large dataset comprising spoligotyping (n = 21183 isolates) and 12-loci MIRU-VNTRs data (n = 4022 isolates) from a total of 31 countries of the Americas (data extracted from the SITVIT2 database), this study aimed to get an overview of lineages circulating in the Americas. A total of 17119 (80.8%) strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage 4, among which the most predominant genotypic family belonged to the Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) lineage (n = 6386, 30.1% of strains). By combining classical phylogenetic analyses and Bayesian approaches, this study revealed for the first time a clear genetic structuration of LAM9 sublineage into two subpopulations named LAM9C1 and LAM9C2, with distinct genetic characteristics. LAM9C1 was predominant in Chile, Colombia and USA, while LAM9C2 was predominant in Brazil, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe and French Guiana. Globally, LAM9C2 was characterized by higher allelic richness as compared to LAM9C1 isolates. Moreover, LAM9C2 sublineage appeared to expand close to twenty times more than LAM9C1 and showed older traces of expansion. Interestingly, a significant proportion of LAM9C2 isolates presented typical signature of ancestral LAM-RDRio MIRU-VNTR type (224226153321). Further studies based on Whole Genome Sequencing of LAM strains will provide the needed resolution to decipher the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this successful family.

  17. Rapid Urine LAM Testing Improves Diagnosis of Expectorated Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis in an HIV-endemic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drain, Paul K; Gounder, Lilishia; Sahid, Faieza; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus S

    2016-02-11

    We sought to determine if urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) would improve diagnosis of pulmonary TB. We enrolled consecutive adults presenting with ≥2 TB-related symptoms, obtained one induced sputum sample for smear microscopy (AFB) and mycobacterial culture, and performed urine LAM testing (Determine(TM) TB LAM, Alere). We used culture-confirmed pulmonary TB as the gold standard, and compared accuracy with area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). Among 90 participants, 82 of 88 tested (93%) were HIV-infected with a median CD4 168/mm(3) (IQR 89-256/mm(3)). Diagnostic sensitivities of urine LAM and sputum AFB were 42.1% (95% CI 29.1-55.9%) and 21.1% (95% CI 11.4-33.9%), and increased to 52.6% (95% CI 39.0-66.0%) when combined. Sensitivity of LAM increased significantly among participants with a lower Karnofsky Performance score, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and higher C-reactive protein. Combining LAM with AFB had an AUROC = 0.68 (95% CI 0.59-0.77), significantly better than AFB alone (AUROC=0.58; 95% CI 0.51-0.64). The combination of LAM and AFB was significantly better than AFB alone among patients with Karnofsky Performance score ≤90, hemoglobin ≤10 g/dL, albumin ≤25 g/L, C-reactive protein ≥25 mg/L, or CD4 <200/mm(3). Urine LAM testing may be most beneficial among patients with functional impairment, elevated inflammatory markers, or greater immunosuppression.

  18. Economic evaluation of micafungin vs. liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) for the treatment of candidaemia and invasive candidiasis (IC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neoh, Chin Fen; Liew, Danny; Slavin, Monica A; Marriott, Debbie; Chen, Sharon C-A; Morrissey, Orla; Stewart, Kay; Kong, David C M

    2013-09-01

    Micafungin was non-inferior to liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) for the treatment of candidaemia and invasive candidiasis (IC) in a major clinical trial. The present study investigated the economic impact of micafungin vs. LAmB in treating candidaemia and IC. A decision analytical model was constructed to capture downstream consequences of using micafungin or LAmB as primary definitive therapy. The main outcomes were treatment success and treatment failure due to mycological persistence, or death. Outcome probabilities were derived from key published sources. Resource used was estimated by an expert panel and cost inputs were from the latest Australian resources. The analysis was from an Australian hospital perspective. Sensitivity analyses using Monte Carlo simulation were conducted. Micafungin (AU$61 426) had a lower total cost than LAmB (AU$72 382), with a total net cost-saving of AU$10 957 per patient. This was primarily due to the lower cost associated with initial antifungal treatment and shorter length of stay for patients in the micafungin arm. Hospitalisation was the main cost driver for both arms. Results were robust over a wide range of variables. The uncertainty analysis demonstrated that micafungin had a 99.9% chance of being cost-saving compared with LAmB. Micafungin was associated with cost-saving relative to LAmB in the treatment of candidaemia and IC in Australia.

  19. 比色法测定白花蛇舌草中总黄酮含量的研究%Study on Quantitative Determination of Total Flavonoids in Hedyotis diffusa Willd by Colorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨悠; 许军; 刘燕华; 熊俭

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To select a kind of colorimetry as the best detection method of determination of total flavonoids in Hedyotis diffusa Willd. Methods: Take rutin as the standard sample, the paper compared three detection methods,which are direct method,aluminum nitrate method and aluminunl chloride method,and confirmed which is the best detection method as determination of total flavonoids in Hedyotis diffusa Willd. Results: To compare, confirmed aluminum chloride method had the best result for quantitative determination of total flavonoids in Hedyotis diffusa Willd. If the determination wavelength was 410 nm. the standard sample and the concentration of analyte was within the range of 0.05mg-0.3mg,the result showed a good linear relationhip between absorbance and the concentration of analyte,with the correlation coefficient R = 0.0094. The average recovery of this method was 99.84% with RSD of 1.31% ( n =5).The stability,precision and repetition of this method were excellent. Conclusion: the most of the indicators of Aluminum chloride colorimetry are better than the other two methods and this method is easily operated,accurate and have shorter analysis time,so Aluminum chloride colorimetry is more suitable for the determination of total flavonoids diffusa in Hedyotis diffusa Willd.%目的:选择一种比色法作为白花蛇舌草总黄酮的最优测定方法.方法:以芦丁为标准品,通过直接测定法、硝酸铝法、氯化铝法3种检测方法的比较,确定一种检测方法作为白花蛇舌草总黄酮的测定最优方法.结果:经过比较,选择氯化铝法作为测定白花蛇舌草总黄酮含量更好,在410nm波长下测定,样品在0.05mg~0.3mg范围内,其浓度与吸光度呈良好的线性关系,相关系数R=0.9997,平均加样回收率为99.84%,RsD=1.31%(n=5),稳定性、精密度和重现性均理想.结论:氯化铝显色法的大部分指标都好于其他两种比色法,且分析时间较短,准确度高,因此三氯化铝比色

  20. The rules on suspension cell batch culture of Hedyotis diffusa%白花蛇舌草悬浮细胞分批培养规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于瑞莲; 许金国; 顾晓娟

    2012-01-01

    目的 利用白花蛇舌草茎尖的分生组织建立植物悬浮细胞培养系,确定白花蛇舌草悬浮细胞分批培养时的变化规律.方法 通过接种不同量的细胞液确定最适接种量,以细胞干重、蔗糖、铵离子、硝酸盐氮和多糖含量作为检测指标,确定白花蛇舌草悬浮细胞分批培养时的变化规律.结果 白花蛇舌草悬浮细胞分批培养的最适接种量为15%,此时细胞干重达到最大值.在此接种量下,当培养时间达到9d时,pH很快降低到3左右,细胞干重不再增加.培养液中的主要营养成分碳源——蔗糖,在培养开始时,有比较大的降低,在培养后期,细胞干重不再增加时,也不再有大的改变.氮源[N03-]优于[NH4+]先被利用,而且[N0f]的利用速率要远高于[NH4+],达到7.14 μg/(mL·d);细胞液中多糖的生成和细胞的生长属于非偶联型,在培养后期,逐渐大量生成.结论 初步确定白花蛇舌草悬浮细胞分批培养时的变化规律,为以后的培养工艺优化打下了基础.%Purpose Hedyotis diffusa suspension cell was established by the tip of meristem to find out the rules on suspension cell batch culture of Hedyotis diffusa with the time. Methods The optimum inoculum was determined by different inoculation of cell medium. The rules on suspension cell batch culture of Hedyotis diffusa with the time were found by the detection of the amount of cell dry weight, sucrose, ammonium, nitrate and polysaccharide. Results The suspension cell batch culture of Hedyotis diffusa optimum inoculum is 15% .maximum dry cell weight at the same time. At this inoculation,when the incubation time was of 9 days,and pH quickly reduced to about 3 ,the cell dry weight did not increase. The main medium nutrients were carbon -sucrose, a relatively large decreased in the beginning of culture, and the cell dry weight no longer had a big change in the late culture stage. Nitrogen [ NO3-] was used prior to [ NH4+ ] ,and the use

  1. Lunar digital elevation model and elevation distribution model based on Chang’E-1 LAM data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    More than 8.2 million effective data samples were obtained by the Chang’E-1 Laser Altimeter (LAM).In order to produce a global topographic model of the moon with improved accuracy,a hierarchical many-knot spline method was proposed in this paper.This algorithm makes use of a hierarchy of control lattices to approximate or interpolate the LAM data.Based on the proposed algorithm,a 0.0625°×0.0625° grid of global lunar DEM was obtained and it was compared with ULCN2005,CLTMs01 and Kaguya models,respectively.At the same time,this paper explored the elevation distribution law and established the elevation distribution model.It is shown that the global lunar and nearside elevation distribution is positively skewed and leptokurtic normal distribution,and the farside elevation distribution is a positively skewed and platykurtic normal distribution.

  2. The chemical investigations on the ripe fruits of Ammi visnaga (Lam.) Lamarck growing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günaydin, Keriman; Beyazit, Neslihan

    2004-04-01

    Two furanochromones and one furanochromone glycoside were isolated from the fruits of Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam. They were identified as khellin, visnagin, and khellol glycoside by interpretation of spectral analyses. Quantitative determination of furanochromones in A. visnaga (L.) ripe fruits from Hatay region (Turkey) was carried out by ultraviolet spectrophotometry and gas chromatography. In addition, photochemical properties of furanochromones and chemical composition of essential oil were determined.

  3. Study of Making Fish Meatball With Jackfruit Seed Flour (Artocarpus Heterophyllus Lam)

    OpenAIRE

    YUNARNI

    2012-01-01

    - YUNARNI (G61108011) Study of Making Fish Meatball With Jackfruit Seed Flour (Artocarpus Heterophyllus Lam) (SUPERVISED BY Prof. Dr. Ir. Hj META MAHENDRADATTA AND Prof. Dr. Ir. H. JALIL GENISA, MS). ABSTRACT Jackfruit fruit is commodity that has a distinctive taste, it is relatively short shelf life. Jackfruit has many benefits, especially the young jackfruit it can be cooked as a vegetable, the flesh can be eat ...

  4. Bioecological features and corrective properties of Achillea filipendulina Lam., Calendula officinalis L. and Hypericum perforatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshan Shamilov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to investigations on bioecological features and corrective properties of two species from the family Asteraceae Dumort. (Achillea filipendulina Lam. and Calendula officinalisL. and one species from the family Hypericaceae Juss. (Hypericum perforatumL. which are growing in the flora of Azerbaijan. It has revealed that the extract obtained from the collection of these plants shows corrective influence.

  5. Regeneration of plants from mesophyll protoplasts of the wild crucifer Eruca sativa Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, S R; Chatterjee, G; Das, S; Sen, S K

    1987-12-01

    Protoplasts isolated from mesophyll cells of Eruca sativa Lam., cultured on suitable medium, underwent sustained cell divisions to form calli. The plating efficiency was found to be 0.4%. The protoplast-derived calli subsequently produced plantlets through organogenesis (15.71%) and somatic embryogenesis (11.25%). Regenerated plants exhibited normal appearance. These results indicate potential to introgress desirable traits from this wild crucifer into important oilseed and cole Brassicas by protoplast fusion and hybrid recovery.

  6. Hexane soluble extract of Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. root possesses anti-leukaemic activity

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Musa; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem; Hussain, Masroor; Mehmood, Khalid; Khan, Rahmat Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. is a well known medicinal plant of Asia and Australia. Various compounds from different aerial parts of the plant have been reported possessing potent pharmacological, antiviral, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. We were interested to determine the effects of some root extracts from M. philippensis on human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cell proliferation, cell cycle regulators and apoptosis in order to investigate its anti-leukemic pot...

  7. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) grown in Nigeria: In vitro antisickling activity on deoxygenated erythrocyte cells

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Context: Traditional medicine, which is more available and affordable for the poor uses medicinal plants for the treatment and management of various ailments, including the sickle cell disease (SCD). About 24 million Nigerians are carriers of this sickled cell gene, while approximately 2.4 million are SCD patients. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) possesses high nutritional value and has been used in folklore medicine to treat various ailments related to pain and inflammation. Chemical, ph...

  8. Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC., Asteraceae: development of granules from spray dried powder

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovick,Gustavo F.; Pedro R. Petrovick; Valquiria L. Bassani

    2010-01-01

    Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC., Asteraceae, is a herbal specie widely used in folk medicine in the south of Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina and Paraguay. The technological characteristics of an Achyrocline satureioides spray dried extract powder, produced in semi-industrial scale, as well as the feasibility of the granules are reported in the present work. The spray dried powder was characterized as a fine powder consisting of small spherical particles with rough and porous surface. The Hausn...

  9. Biosorption and removal of chromium from water by using moringa seed cake (Moringa oleifera Lam.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Meneghel; Affonso Celso Gonçalves Jr.; Leonardo Strey; Fernanda Rubio; Daniel Schwantes; Juliana Casarin

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the adsorption capacity of chromium from contaminated aqueous solutions by using Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds. Parameters such as solution pH, adsorbent mass, contact time between solution and adsorbent, isotherms, thermodynamic, kinetics, and desorption were evaluated. The maximum adsorption capacity (Qm) calculated to be 3.191 mg g-1 for the biosorbent. Activated carbon was used for comparison purposes in addition to the biosorbent. The best fit was obtained by the Langm...

  10. New α-glucosides of caffeoyl quinic acid from the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Ahmed, Fakhruddin Ali; Kurimoto, Shin-ichiro; Kim, Sang-Yong; Shibata, Hirofumi; Fujioka, Toshihiro; Takaishi, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    Two new caffeoyl quinic acid α-glucosides, together with three known caffeoyl quinic acids and five known flavonoid glucosides, were isolated from the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 4-O-(4'-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-caffeoyl quinic acid (1) and 4-O-(3'-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-caffeoyl quinic acid (2) by spectroscopic analyses.

  11. Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Wei; Chou, Jia-Ying; Murugan, M; Shieh, Bor-Jinn; Chen, Hueih-Min

    2007-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated extracts could be of use for the future development of anti-skin disease agents.

  12. Frying stability of sunflower oil blended with jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extract

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of present study was to compare the effects of ultrasound‐assisted and microwave‐assisted extraction with solvent extraction method on antioxidant activities of jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extracts in stability of sunflower oil during deep frying. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using 2, 2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging and β‐carotene bleaching assays. Ultrasound‐assisted extraction was the most effective method on...

  13. Molecular Characteristics of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM-RUS Family Prevalent in Central Russia▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiley, Svetlana; Kirillov, Eugene; Ignatova, Anna; Stepanshina, Valentina; Shemyakin, Igor

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed IS6110-associated polymorphisms in the phospholipase C genes of 107 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis selected to be representative of isolates circulating in central Russia. We found that the majority of Latin American-Mediterranean family strains contained an insertion in a unique position in the plcA gene, suggesting a common ancestor. This insertion can serve as a specific genetic marker for this group, which we designate the LAM-RUS family. PMID:17942651

  14. Molecular Characteristics of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM-RUS Family Prevalent in Central Russia▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Dubiley, Svetlana; Kirillov, Eugene; Ignatova, Anna; Stepanshina, Valentina; Shemyakin, Igor

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed IS6110-associated polymorphisms in the phospholipase C genes of 107 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis selected to be representative of isolates circulating in central Russia. We found that the majority of Latin American-Mediterranean family strains contained an insertion in a unique position in the plcA gene, suggesting a common ancestor. This insertion can serve as a specific genetic marker for this group, which we designate the LAM-RUS family.

  15. Growth of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit favored by organic waste in the Brazilian semiarid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco H. C. Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sources and rates of organic waste and their interaction on the growth of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit, in the Southeast region of Piauí State. The treatments consisted of two sources (Copernicia prunifera (Mill. H.E. palm residue and plant compound and six organic waste rates. The study was conducted in the period of March-June 2011 and the following parameters were evaluated: stem diameter, height, number of leaves, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, total dry matter, root volume, shoot dry weight/root dry weight ratio, height/stem diameter ratio and the Dickson Quality Index. The Copernicia prunifera (Mill. H.E. palm residue and plant compound showed a great potential to be used in the manufacture of substrates for the production of seedlings Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit, since their initial development was influenced by the sources and proportions of these organic residues and by the interaction between these treatments. The substrate containing 50% of plant compound produced better quality of plants of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit in their initial development stage.

  16. INTEGRATING LMSs IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS:Greek Teachers’ Initial Perceptions about LAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros PAPADAKIS,

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available E-learning with the use of Learning Management Systems, has been increasingly adopted in Primary, Secondary and Higher Education with the expectation to increase students’ motivation and infuse activity-centred learning strategies with various educational benefits. This study has investigated the initial perceptions of Greek teachers about the integration of LAMS, a Learning Activity Management System, in the educational praxis. Through a multifaceted research method, involving a small scale participatory action research, the research team attempted to investigate the preconditions required to integrate LAMS in the everyday lesson. Two tutorial workshops were organized with the participation of 46 educators from geographically diverse urban areas, from K-12 to Tertiary Education. Results indicated that teachers have developed a positive attitude towards LAMS and the use of collaborative online tools during the educational process. Although teachers have certain objections on integrating LMSs, which stem mainly from the current status of the Greek educational system, they accept relative advantages of integrating online collaborative approaches over the traditional face-to-face approach. Well-organized and carefully implemented tutorial workshops can spark teachers’ interest and bring about change in the educational process. Small scale interventions such as these can prove to foster dialogue among teachers of various backgrounds and set the foundations to create online communities of practice for innovative teachers.

  17. Interaction of Bacteriophage λ with Its E. coli Receptor, LamB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sujoy; Rothenberg, Eli

    2012-01-01

    The initial step of viral infection is the binding of a virus onto the host cell surface. This first viral-host interaction would determine subsequent infection steps and the fate of the entire infection process. A basic understating of the underlining mechanism of initial virus-host binding is a prerequisite for establishing the nature of viral infection. Bacteriophage λ and its host Escherichia coli serve as an excellent paradigm for this purpose. λ phages bind to specific receptors, LamB, on the host cell surface during the infection process. The interaction of bacteriophage λ with the LamB receptor has been the topic of many studies, resulting in wealth of information on the structure, biochemical properties and molecular biology of this system. Recently, imaging studies using fluorescently labeled phages and its receptor unveil the role of spatiotemporal dynamics and divulge the importance of stochasticity from hidden variables in the infection outcomes. The scope of this article is to review the present state of research on the interaction of bacteriophage λ and its E. coli receptor, LamB. PMID:23202520

  18. PREDICTING WATER ACTIVITY IN ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS WITH THE CISTERNAS-LAM MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REYNOLDS JG; GREER DA; DISSELKAMP RL

    2011-03-01

    Water activity is an important parameter needed to predict the solubility of hydrated salts in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. A number of models available in the scientific literature predict water activity from electrolyte solution composition. The Cisternas-Lam model is one of those models and has several advantages for nuclear waste application. One advantage is that it has a single electrolyte specific parameter that is temperature independent. Thus, this parameter can be determined from very limited data and extrapolated widely. The Cisternas-Lam model has five coefficients that are used for all aqueous electrolytes. The present study aims to determine if there is a substantial improvement in making all six coefficients electrolyte specific. The Cisternas-Lam model was fit to data for six major electrolytes in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. The model was first fit to all data to determine the five global coefficients, when they were held constant for all electrolytes it yielded a substantially better fit. Subsequently, the model was fit to each electrolyte dataset separately, where all six coefficients were allowed to be electrolyte specific. Treating all six coefficients as electrolyte specific did not make sufficient difference, given the complexity of applying the electrolyte specific parameters to multi-solute systems. Revised water specific parameters, optimized to the electrolytes relevant to Hanford waste, are also reported.

  19. Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. (Rhamnaceae en la provincia de Alicante [Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. (Rhamnaceae in the province of Alicante (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pablo FERRER GALLEGO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se cita por primera vez para la flora de la Comunidad Valenciana la presencia de Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. en la provincia de Alicante, especie hasta el momento únicamente localizada dentro de la Península Ibérica en las provincias de Almería y Murcia, y con una cita dispersa en Córdoba. La planta se ha localizado cerca del límite con la Región de Murcia. Aparentemente se trata de la cita mundial más septentrional para la especie en el Mediterráneo Occidental.. ABSTRACT: A first citation of Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. in the Valencian Community (Spain is reported. Formerly the species was citated in the Iberian peninsule from the provinces of Murcia and Almeria; in addition there is a disperse citation from Cordoba. This plant has been found in the province of Alicante, close to the borderline with the neighbouring Region of Murcia. It deals apparently with the Northernmost site for this species in the Western Mediterranean.

  20. Role of Within‐individual Variation in Capitulum Size and Achene Mass in the Adaptation of the Annual Centaurea eriophora to Varying Water Supply in a Mediterranean Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUIZ DE CLAVIJO, E.

    2002-01-01

    To clarify the adaptive value of variation in capitulum size and achene mass, plants of Centaurea eriophora were studied in a glasshouse and in a natural population. C. eriophora plants consist of a basal leaf rosette from which an erect stem grows, with lateral branches of various orders ending in capitula of different orders. Primary, secondary and tertiary capitula are comparable in size and they produce similar numbers of achenes, which are similar in weight (large achenes). These capitula are formed during April, May and early June, and constitute the normal or primary flowering. Following ripening of tertiary capitula, leaves senesce, but, later during June and the first half of July, a secondary flowering of a variable number of smaller capitula may occur if wet conditions persist for longer than usual. Plants that have almost senesced develop small lateral branches 1–2 cm long bearing a few small leaves and ending in a capitulum about half the diameter of capitula from the primary flowering period. The number of achenes produced in these capitula (small achenes) and their weight are 70 and 30 % less, respectively, than those of capitula formed during primary flowering. These reductions appear to result from restricted availability of resources. Large and small achenes have similar dispersal characteristics and possess similar germination potential. However, large achenes produce seedlings that are capable of emerging from greater burial depths, providing the resulting plants with a potential advantage. The normal flowering period coincides with the optimum time of year for flowering and fruiting in the south of Spain, and only if rainfall lasts longer than usual does secondary flowering occur. Secondary flowering extends the normal flowering and fruiting periods, thereby providing a supplementary crop of smaller, yet viable, fruits. It can be considered to be an adaptive response to the unpredictable Mediterranean climate, optimizing the use of available

  1. Antioxidant responses of damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd) to exposure to artificial ultraviolet (UV) radiation in an in vitro model; part ii; UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Melgar, Lluvia de Abril Alexandra; Alcaraz-Meléndez, Lilia; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía C; Puente, María Esther; Rivera-Cabrera, Fernando; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2014-05-01

    Introducción: Los efectos de la radiación ultravioleta tipo B (UV-B) sobre las plantas medicinales se han investigado recientemente en el contexto del cambio climático, pero las modificaciones que genera la radiación UV-B podrían emplearse para modificar el contenido de compuestos antioxidantes, incluyendo los compuestos fenólicos. Objetivo: Generar información sobre el efecto de una alta exposición a UV-B artificial en el contenido antioxidante de damiana (Turnera diffusa, Willd) en un modelo in vitro. Método: Plántulas de damiana en cultivo de tejidos (medio Murashige-Skoog) fueron irradiadas con UV-B artificial en 3 diferentes dosis: (1) 0,5 ± 0,1 mW cm-2 (alto) por 2 h diarias, (2) 1 ± 0,1 mW cm-2 (severa) por 2 h diarias, o (3) 1 ± 0,1 mW cm-2 durante 4 horas diarias por 3 semanas. Se cuantificó la concentración de pigmentos fotosintéticos (clorofilas a y b, carotenoides), vitaminas (C y E) y compuestos fenólicos totales, la actividad enzimática de la superóxido dismutasa (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) y las peroxidasas totales (POX, EC 1.11.1), así como la capacidad antioxidante total y la peroxidación de lípidos para evaluar el efecto de la alta radiación UV-B artificial en el contenido antioxidante de damiana in vitro. Resultados: Dosis altas y severas de radiación UV-B artificial modificaron el contenido antioxidante incrementando el contenido de vitamina C y disminuyendo el contenido de compuestos fenólicos totales, además de modificar el daño oxidativo de plantas de damiana en un modelo in vitro. Conclusión: La radiación UV-B modifica el contenido antioxidante en damiana en un modelo in vitro, dependiendo de la intensidad y el tiempo de exposición.

  2. 传统中药白花蛇舌草的抗肿瘤活性研究%Anti-tumor activity of Hedyotis diffusa Willd. in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英锋; 郑宜; 库宝善; 姚海燕; 姚广印; 万阳丽

    2013-01-01

    The whole plant with root ofHedyotis diffusa Willd.(AE) has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory,antioxidant,and anti-bacterial activities.In our study,we aim to examine the anti-tumor effect of alcoholic extract of AE in mice implanted with sarcoma S 180 cells (SBT mice).We also compared the immune system function and the life span of SBT mice with that of control mice.We found that AE displayed a significant inhibitory effect on solid tumor growth,as well as increased the life span.At the dose of 10 mg/kg body weight,both tumor weight and volume were decreased significantly.We also measured several immune function markers,inlcuding spleen index (SI),thymus index (TI) and parameters of hematological.We observed no reduce in these markers,indicating that AE could inhibit tumor growth without affecting immune function in SBT mice.%研究了传统中药白花蛇舌草的乙醇提取有效部位对S180小鼠模型的肿瘤生长抑制作用、免疫系统及小鼠生存天数的影响.该醇提部位能有效抑制S180小鼠的肿瘤生长,并延长荷瘤小鼠的生存天数.通过灌胃给药,醇提有效部位在10 mg/kg的剂量下与阳性对照药物环磷酰胺(20 mg/kg)相比,能够有效降低荷瘤小鼠体内的肿瘤大小与重量.对荷瘤小鼠的脾指数,胸腺指数及血常规参数研究表明,该醇提有效部位对荷瘤小鼠未见明显的毒副作用.总之,研究结果表明白花蛇舌草的醇提部位具有有效的抗肿瘤活性.

  3. Effects of Different Solvents and Extraction Methods on Antioxidant Activity of Hedyotis diffusa Extracts%白花蛇舌草不同溶剂和方法提取物的抗氧化活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨新周; 郝志云; 朱以常; 董毅

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the in vitro antioxidant activity of H .diffusa extracts,different solvents including methanol,acetone and 80% alcohol and different methods such as ultrasonic wave extraction, stirring extraction and reflux extraction were investigated.The scavenging capacity on DPPH free radical activity in different H . diffusa extracts,and their comparisons with multiple antioxidants were researched.The results showed that reflux extraction with 80% alcohol was the optimal method,the scavenging capacity on DPPH free radical activity of five antioxidants and H .diffusa extracts with reflux extraction in three different solvents were as follows:P-coumaric acid < acetone extract < methanol extract

  4. Anthelmintic effects of Salix babylonica L. and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. extracts in growing lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Pablo Mejia; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Elghandour, Mona M M Y; Cipriano-Salazar, Moisés; Cruz-Lagunas, Blas; Camacho, Luis Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Twenty Katahdin × Pelibuey crossbreed male lambs, 3 to 4 months of age and 24 ± 0.3 kg of body weight, were used to study the anthelmintic effects of administering extracts of Salix babylonica L. (SB) and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. (LL). Lambs had not been treated with anthelmintics previously and were randomly allocated into four groups of five lambs each in a completely randomized design. Treatments were as follows: control (lambs fed on total mixed ration without extracts), SB (as control plus S. babylonica L. extract at 30 ml/day), LL (as control plus L. leucocephala Lam. extract at 30 ml/day), and SBLL (as control plus 30 ml/day of S. babylonica L. and L. leucocephala Lam. extracts in a 1:1 (v/v) mixture) for 63 days. Extracts were orally administered before the 8:00 a.m. feeding to each lamb. Rectal fecal samples were collected from each lamb at day 22 (P1), day 43 (P2), and day 63 (P3) of the experiment. Adult worm and egg counts were determined in each fecal sample immediately after collection. Plant secondary metabolites of total phenolics, saponins, and the aqueous fraction were 50 % lower in the SB versus LL extracts. Overall, the oral administration of extracts has improved the egg and worm count reductions in lamb feces by 54, 47, and 40 % for LL, SB, and SBLL, respectively, versus the control lambs. Reductions of worm egg counts in lamb feces were higher (P < 0.05) in P2 and P3 versus P1. Extracts of SB and LL or possibly isolated bioactive compounds could be a promising alternative to conventional anthelmintics to treat gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants. Such treatments could be used in control strategies against gastrointestinal nematodes in organic and conventional production systems.

  5. Evaluation of the process of coagulation/flocculation of produced water using Moringa oleifera Lam. as natural coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, C.R.; Pereira, D.F.; Sousa, S.C S N.; Silva, G.F. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: claudia@ufs.br; Cavalcanti, E.B. [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), SE (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia e Pesquisa

    2010-07-15

    In the lifetime of an oil well, there comes a moment when a lot of water begins to be produced along with oil, either by the conditions of the reservoir, or as a result of water injection in the secondary recovery of the well. An important step in such process involves the treatment of the produced water by means of coagulation techniques. Therefore, the use of environmentally correct coagulants is presented as a viable alternative and has demonstrated advantages over the use of chemical coagulants. The plant of the genus Moringa, whose species is oleifera Lam, stands out as one of the most promising natural coagulants. The present study investigated the evaluation of the coagulation/flocculation of produced water, using seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. as coagulant. The results were very significant, demonstrating that Moringa oleifera Lam. can be used as a natural coagulant in this type of treatment. (author)

  6. Efficient Design for the Implementation of Wong-Lam Multicast Authentication Protocol Using Two-Levels of Parallelism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada F. Elkabbany

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Group communication can benefit from Internet Protocol (IP multicast protocol to achieve efficient exchange of messages. However, IP multicast does not provide any mechanisms for authentication. In literature, many solutions to solve this problem were presented. It has been shown that Wong and Lam protocol is the only protocol that can resist both packet loss and pollution attacks. In contrast, it has high computation and communication overheads. In the present paper, an efficient design for the implementation of Wong and Lam multicast authentication protocol is proposed. In order to solve the computation overhead problem, we use two-levels of parallelism. To reduce the communication overhead, we use Universal Message Authentication Codes (UMAC instead of hash functions. The design is analyzed for both NTRU and elliptic curve cryptography signature algorithms. The analysis shows that the proposed design decreases significantly the execution time of Wong-Lam protocol which makes it suitable for real-time applications.

  7. Quantitative and Qualitative analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Sankhalkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Objective: To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Results: Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. Conclusions: In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance.

  8. Transport solutions of the Lamé equations and shock elastic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeyeva, L. A.; Kaishybaeva, G. K.

    2016-07-01

    The Lamé system describing the dynamics of an isotropic elastic medium affected by a steady transport load moving at subsonic, transonic, or supersonic speed is considered. Its fundamental and generalized solutions in a moving frame of reference tied to the transport load are analyzed. Shock waves arising in the medium at supersonic speeds are studied. Conditions on the jump in the stress, displacement rate, and energy across the shock front are obtained using distribution theory. Numerical results concerning the dynamics of an elastic medium influenced by concentrated transport loads moving at sub-, tran- and supersonic speeds are presented.

  9. Lithographically defined aluminum nitride cross-sectional Lamé mode resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; Cassella, C.; Qian, Z.; Hummel, G. E.; Rinaldi, M.

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports on aluminum nitride (AlN) cross-sectional Lamé mode resonators (CLMRs) showing high electromechanical coupling coefficient (kt{2} ) in excess of 4% in a lithographically defined 307 MHz frequency range around 920 MHz. In addition, we report the performance of a CLMR showing a figure of merit (FoM, defined as the product of quality factor, Q, and kt{2} ) in excess of 85. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, such FoM value is the highest reported for AlN resonators using interdigitated metal electrodes (IDTs).

  10. Antipyretic and wound healing activities of moringa oleifera lam. in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hukkeri V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative chemical tests confirmed the presence of phytosterols, glycosides, tannins, and amino acids in the various leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam., whereas its seed extracts showed the presence of phytosterols, glycosides, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates and amino acids. The ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of seeds showed significant antipyretic activity in rats, whereas ethyl acetate extract of dried leaves showed significant wound healing activity (10% extracts in the form of ointment on excision, incision and dead space (granuloma wound models in rats.

  11. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and phenol content in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) fruit pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Umesh B; Panaskar, Shrimant N; Bapat, V A

    2010-06-01

    The antioxidant capacity of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Fam. Moracae) fruit pulp (JFP) obtained from Western Ghats India was determined by evaluating the scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing power assays and N, N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine (DMPD) radical cation decolorization assay. JFP was analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoids content (TFC). The ethanol and water are the best solvents for the extracting phenols and flavonoids from the JFP. The antioxidant activities of JFP extracts were correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoids content. The results indicated that the jackfruit pulp is one natural source of antioxidant compounds.

  12. Isolation, characterization and pharmacological activity of Magydaris pastinacea (Lam) Paol. glucosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, R; Pintore, G; Dessí, G; Asproni, B; Piseddu, G; Sini, S

    1995-12-01

    The glycoside fraction of fresh rhizomes from Magydaris pastinacea (Lam.) Paol. was separated from the alcoholic extract using the method of Kobayashi et al. The fraction was found to have six main constituents, the most abundant of which had previously been isolated and identified as 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-8-(2',3'-dihydroxy-3-methyl-butylcoumarin++ +). The present paper describes the separation and characterization of the other constituents, all with coumarin or furancoumarin structures. Pharmacological experiments to test these compounds as platelet antiaggregants are also reported.

  13. Firewood yields of individual trees of Guazuma Ulmifolia Lam. In Pastures in Hojancha Guanacaste - Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, R.; Rose, D.

    1984-12-01

    Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (guacimo), because of its wide distribution, easy handling, and high firewood quality, is a promising native species for firewood production in the wet and dry regions of Central America. It is possible to make an accurate estimate of the firewood weight of the crown of a guacimo tree that has been periodically harvested, using regression models based on basal diameter of the branches and diameter at breast height crown diameter and age. Several firewood weight tables were developed which can be used to make estimates for periodically harvested individual trees growing in pastures.

  14. Achyrocline satureioides (lam.) dc., asteraceae : development of granules from spray dried powder

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovick, Gustavo Freire; Petrovick, Pedro Ros; Bassani, Valquiria Linck

    2010-01-01

    Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC., Asteraceae, é uma planta amplamente utilizada na medicina popular no sul do Brasil, Uruguai, Argentina e Paraguai. As características tecnológicas do extrato seco por aspersão de Achyrocline satureioides, produzido em escala semi-industrial, assim como a viabilidade da produção de granulados são relatadas no presente trabalho. O extrato seco por aspersão foi caracterizado como um pó fino, composto por pequenas partículas esféricas com superfície rugosa e p...

  15. Photoelectrochemical solar cell using extract of Eugenia jambolana Lam as a natural sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Christian G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The extract of Jambolão (java plum, Eugenia jambolana Lam, was used as a natural sensitizer of a wide band-gap semiconductor (TiO2 in photoelectrochemical solar cells. The natural dye, adsorbed onto the semiconductor surface, absorbs visible light and promotes electron transfer across the dye/semiconductor interface. Photogenerated current and voltage as high as 2.3 mA and 711 mV, respectively, were obtained and effective conversion of visible light into electricity was achieved. The use of a natural product as the semiconductor sensitizer enables a faster and simpler production of cheaper and environmentally friendly solar cells.

  16. Antioxidant action of Moringa oleifera Lam. (drumstick) against antitubercular drugs induced lipid peroxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok Kumar, N; Pari, L

    2003-01-01

    The protective effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) on hepatic marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidants was investigated during antitubercular drug (isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide)-induced toxicity in rats. Enhanced hepatic marker enzymes and lipid peroxidation of antitubercular drug treatment was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of vitamin C, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase. Administration of Moringa oleifera extract and silymarin significantly decreased hepatic marker enzymes and lipid peroxidation with a simultaneous increase in the level of antioxidants. We speculate that Moringa oleifera extract exerts its protective effects by decreasing liver lipid peroxides and enhancing antioxidants.

  17. Phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial, antioxidant and urease inhibitory potential of Cyphostemma digitatum Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rasool; Saif, Abdullah Qasem; Quradha, Mohammad Mansour; Ali, Jawad; Rauf, Abdur

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report the antimicrobial, antiradical and urease inhibitory potential along with photochemical investigation of the crude extracts of Cyphostemma digitatum Lam. Phytochemical screening of both the crude (hot/cold) alcoholic and aqueous extracts of C. digitatum showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, coumarins, steroids, terpenoids and tannins. The crude methanolic extract (hot/cold) exhibited good antioxidant activity, while the aqueous extract was a weak antioxidant. The crude methanolic extract was found to be more active against Bacillus subtilis, while both the extracts showed moderate antifungal potential, the methanolic crude extract showed good urease inhibitory activity compared with the aqueous crude extract.

  18. Interaction of human laminin receptor with Sup35, the [PSI⁺] prion-forming protein from S. cerevisiae: a yeast model for studies of LamR interactions with amyloidogenic proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Pampeno

    Full Text Available The laminin receptor (LamR is a cell surface receptor for extracellular matrix laminin, whereas the same protein within the cell interacts with ribosomes, nuclear proteins and cytoskeletal fibers. LamR has been shown to be a receptor for several bacteria and viruses. Furthermore, LamR interacts with both cellular and infectious forms of the prion protein, PrP(C and PrP(Sc. Indeed, LamR is a receptor for PrP(C. Whether LamR interacts with PrP(Sc exclusively in a capacity of the PrP receptor, or LamR specifically recognizes prion determinants of PrP(Sc, is unclear. In order to explore whether LamR has a propensity to interact with prions and amyloids, we examined LamR interaction with the yeast prion-forming protein, Sup35. Sup35 is a translation termination factor with no homology or functional relationship to PrP. Plasmids expressing LamR or LamR fused with the green fluorescent protein (GFP were transformed into yeast strain variants differing by the presence or absence of the prion conformation of Sup35, respectively [PSI⁺] and [psi⁻]. Analyses by immunoprecipitation, centrifugal fractionation and fluorescent microscopy reveal interaction between LamR and Sup35 in [PSI⁺] strains. The presence of [PSI⁺] promotes LamR co-precipitation with Sup35 as well as LamR aggregation. In [PSI⁺] cells, LamR tagged with GFP or mCherry forms bright fluorescent aggregates that co-localize with visible [PSI⁺] foci. The yeast prion model will facilitate studying the interaction of LamR with amyloidogenic prions in a safe and easily manipulated system that may lead to a better understanding and treatment of amyloid diseases.

  19. Antineoplastic potential of Bryophyllum pinnatum lam. on chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Afzal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. used in folk medicine in tropical Africa, tropical America, India, China and Australia contains a wide range of active compounds, well known for their haemostatic and wound-healing properties. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. on N-diethylnitrosamine (DENA-induced hepatic injury in rats. Material and Methods: The aerial part of B. pinnatum aqueous and ethanolic extract was prepared in doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. Hepatic injury was induced by DENA. Acute toxicity was also carried out. Result: Treatment with different doses of ethanolic extract of B. Pinnatum (250 mg/kg, p.o. was not significantly able to treat the liver injury induced by DENA, but 500 mg/kg dose of ethanolic extract of B. Pinnatum protects the liver slightly. Treatment with different doses of aqueous extract of B. Pinnatum (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. significantly (PFNx01<0.05; PFNx08<0.01 and PFNx18<0.001 treated the liver injury induced by DENA. Conclusion: It may be inferred from the present study that the hepatoprotective activities of the aqueous extract of B. Pinnatum leaves in DENA-induced hepatotoxicity may involve its antioxidant or oxidative free radical scavenging activities by alleviating lipid peroxidation through scavenging of free radicals, or by enhancing the activity of antioxidants.

  20. Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Alaaeldin A

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), twice weekly and for 8 weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well as symptoms of liver fibrosis. The administration of Moringa seed extract decreased the CCl(4)-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities and globulin level. The elevations of hepatic hydroxyproline content and myeloperoxidase activity were also reduced by Moringa treatment. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical study showed that Moringa markedly reduced the numbers of smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells and the accumulation of collagens I and III in liver. Moringa seed extract showed significant inhibitory effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, as well as strong reducing antioxidant power. The activity of superoxide dismutase as well as the content of both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, which are oxidative stress markers, were reversed after treatment with Moringa. Finally, these results suggested that Moringa seed extract can act against CCl(4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation.

  1. Sirolimus Therapy for Patients With Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Leads to Loss of Chylous Ascites and Circulating LAM Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Sergio; Elia, Davide; Torre, Olga; Bulgheroni, Elisabetta; Provasi, Elena; Moss, Joel

    2016-08-01

    A young woman received a diagnosis of abdominal, sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and multiple abdominal lymphangioleiomyomas and was referred for recurrent chylous ascites responding only to a fat-free diet. On admission, pulmonary function test (PFT) results showed a moderate reduction in the transfer factor for carbon monoxide with normal exercise performance. The serum vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) level was 2,209 pg/mL. DNA sequences, amplified at loci kg8, D16S3395, D16S3024, D16S521, and D16S291 on chromosome 16p13.3, showed a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) only for kg8. Fat-free total parenteral nutrition in association with sirolimus (2 mg po daily) was initiated. Serum sirolimus levels were maintained at concentrations between 5 and 15 ng/mL. After 1 month, reintroduction of a low-fat oral feeding was achieved without recurrence of ascites. PFT results were stable. Interestingly, clinical improvement was associated with a reduction in the VEGF-D serum level (1,558 pg/mL). LOH at the kg8 biomarker in blood LAM cells was no longer detected.

  2. Total polyphenolic (flavonoids content and antioxidant capacity of different Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuge Tian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper investigates the total polyphenolic and flavonoid content as well as the antioxidant activity of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. extracts of different polarity. Materials and Methods: The total polyphenolic content was analysed using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content analysis was performed using the colorimetric method. Results: The total polyphenolic content of Z. clinopodioides is concentrated in parts of ethyl acetate (19.27%, chloroform (4.99% and n-butanol extracts (3.94% containing a small amount of the total polyphenolic content. The petroleum ether (0.23% and ethanol extracts (1.64% contain almost no polyphenolic content. The total flavonoid content of Z. clinopodioides is concentrated in parts of ethyl acetate (65.61%, chloroform (14.36% and n-butanol extracts (10.76% containing a small amount of the total polyphenolic content. The Z. clinopodioides Lam. ethyl acetate extract exhibits a good antioxidant activity. Conclusion: Ethyl acetate extracts contain a large number of polyphenolic compounds (19.27% and flavonoids (65.61% owing to good antioxidant capacity.

  3. Identication of potivirus present in lulo (solanum quitoense lam Identificación de potivirus presentes en plantas de lulo (solanum quitoense lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peñaranda J.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The Solanaceous fruit Solanum quitoense Lam, is originally from Andean región of South America. This fruit has commercial prospective. The Leaf Yellowing Disease in Lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam was first described by Zuluaga in 1991. It causes economically losses and has been associated with a virus attack. The disease's symptoms included stunting, yellow streaking or mosaic patterns in leaves, often with a curling of the leaf margins. In order to diagnostic the presence of virus, we applied two different strategies. The first one consisted of a modified technique of RNA double strand isolation (Morris and Dodds, 1979. The second one consisted on applying RT-PCR system using specific "primers" designed to amplify cDNA fragments spaning the 3'-terminal part of the Nlb cistron and the 5'-terminal part of the potyvirus CP cistron (Langeveld et al 1991. By applying the modified method of Morris and Dodds, it was possible to observe characteristic bands of double strand RNA. Amplification with "primers" POT1 and POT2 yielded a fragment of about 1 Kpb, whose length was in agreement with the known sequences of potyvirus. Here we report by the first time a potyvirus presence in Lulo plants affected with leaf yellowing disease, identified by dsRNA analysis and RT-PCR procedure.El lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam., siendo una planta nativa de la región andina con gran potencial comercial, aún está en proceso de domesticación y presenta problemas fitosanitarios de importancia. La enfermedad del Amarillamiento de la hoja que causa pérdidas importantes fue descrita por Zuluaga (1996; de acuerdo con su sintomatología (enanismo, muestras de patrones de amarillamiento o de mosaico en hojas, las que a su vez sufren enrollamientos de los bordes hacia la parte baja, se atribuía a la acción de un virus no identificado. Dada la especificidad mostrada por los virus y la semejanza de la enfermedad con la causada por potivirus en otras solanáceas, se planteó que

  4. Qualidade de jaca (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Lam. desidratada sob diferentes condições de processo Quality of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Lam. dehydrated under different processing conditions

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    Lenice Freiman de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Os frutos da jaqueira (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. são consumidos na forma in natura pelas mais diversas camadas da população e sua alta perecibilidade leva a um índice elevado de perda pós-colheita, acarretando prejuízos para os produtores dessa frutífera. Sendo assim, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da temperatura de secagem (50, 60 e 70 °C e do teor de umidade final (20 e 25% sobre as características químicas e sensoriais da jaca desidratada. Foram realizadas análises de matéria seca, cinzas, proteínas, lipídeos, carboidratos, além da avaliação sensorial. Os resultados globais obtidos mostraram que a jaca desidratada possui teor de matéria seca de 74,2 a 80,9%, cinzas de 3,1 a 3,8%, proteínas de 3,2 a 6,6%, lipídeos de 0,09 a 1,2% e carboidratos de 89,8 a 92,4%. A avaliação sensorial mostrou que o produto de maior aceitação (média de 5,95 foi aquele desidratado a 50 °C e com 20% de umidade final, demonstrando que este pode ser uma alternativa alimentar para as regiões produtoras de jaca.Jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. are consumed in natura by the most diverse sectors of the population, and their high perishability lead to high indexes of postharvest losses, leading to prejudice for the producers of this fruit. Thus the objectives of this work were to evaluate the effects of the drying temperature (50, 60 and 70 °C and the final moisture content (20 and 25% on the chemical and sensory characteristics of dried jackfruit. The overall results obtained showed that the dehydrated jackfruit had a dry matter content of from 74.2 to 80.9%, ash content from 3.1 to 3.8%, protein content from 3.2 to 6.6%, fat content from 0.09 to 1.2% and carbohydrate content from 89.8 to 92.4%. The sensory evaluation showed that the most accepted product (average of 5.95 was dehydrated at 50 °C, with a final moisture content of 20%, showing that this could be a food alternative for areas producing jackfruit.

  5. "Phloem sap analysis of Schleichera oleosa (Lour) Oken, Butea monosperma (Lam) Taub. and Ziziphus mauritiana (Lam) and hemolymph of Kerria lacca (Kerr) using HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashishtha, Amit; Rathi, Brijesh; Kaushik, Sandeep; Sharma, K K; Lakhanpaul, Suman

    2013-10-01

    Females of lac insects especially of Kerria lacca (Kerr) secret a resin known as lac for their own protection, which has tremendous applications. Lac insect completes its lifecycle on several host taxa where it exclusively feeds on phloem sap but Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken, Butea monosperma (Lam.) and Ziziphus mauritiana (Lam.) are its major hosts. Analysis of phloem sap constituents as well as hemolymph of lac insect is important because it ultimately gets converted into lac by insect intervention. Main phloem sap constituent's viz. sugars and free amino acids and hemolymph of lac insect were analyzed using HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. The results were transformed to relative percentage of the total sugars and free amino acids analyzed in each sample for comparison among lac insect hemolymph and the phloem sap of the three different host taxa. Sucrose (58.9 ± 3.6-85.6 ± 0.9) and trehalose (62.3 ± 0.4) were the predominant sugars in phloem sap of three taxa and hemolymph of lac insect, respectively. Glutamic acid (33.1 ± 1.4-39.8 ± 1.4) was found to be main amino acid among the phloem sap of three taxa while tyrosine (61 ± 2.6) was the major amino acid in hemolymph of lac insect. The relative percentage of non-essential amino acids (60.8 %-69.9 %) was found to be more in all the three host taxa while essential amino acids (30.1 %-35.4 %) were present at a lower relative percentage. In contrast to this, the relative percentage of essential amino acids (81.9 %) was observed to be higher as compared to non-essential amino acids (17.7 %) in lac insect hemolymph. These results led to the detection of lac insect's endosymbionts. Moreover, this study revealed a clue regarding the importance of development of a synthetic diet for this insect so that a precise pathway of lac biosynthesis could be investigated for thorough understanding.

  6. Two additions to the Jacea-Lepteranthus complex: parallel adaptation in the enigmatic species Centaurea subtilis and C. exarata

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    Hilpold, A.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Centaurea subtilis from south east Italy and C. exarata from south west Iberia were classified in the Acrolophus- Phalolepis group and therein in section Maculosae. A molecular survey based on ITS sequence data indicates that both species should rather be placed in the Jacea-Lepteranthus group instead. This placement is consistent with the chromosome number of the two species, which is x = 11 like the rest of species of the Jacea-Lepteranthus group, and differs from the x = 9 of the other taxa included in sect. Maculosae. These results confi rm previous suggestions on the unnaturality of sect. Maculosae. Centaurea exarata and C. subtilis are quite different from the other species of Jacea-Lepteranthus in some striking morphological characters, which we hypothesize to be the result of parallel adaptation to dryer climates. The lack of competitors for pollination might be a good explanation for the partial or even total loss of showy flowers in these two species.

    [es] Centaurea subtilis del sureste de Italia y C. exarata del suroeste de la Península Ibérica fueron clasificadas anteriormente en el grupo Acrolophus-Phalolepis y dentro de él en la sect. Maculosae. Una revisión molecular basada en secuencias de la región ITS indica que ambas deberían clasificarse en el grupo Jacea-Lepteranthus. Este cambio es coherente con el número cromosómico de las dos especies, que tienen x = 11 como el resto de las especies del grupo Jacea-Lepteranthus y no x = 9 como las especies del grupo Acrolophus-Phalolepis. Estos resultados confirman advertencias anteriores sobre el carácter artificial de la sect. Maculosae. Centaurea exarata y C. subtilis son bastante diferentes de las otras especies de Jacea-Lepteranthus en algunos caracteres morfológicos importantes, resultado, según nuestra hipótesis, de adaptaciones a

  7. MicroRNA-21 is induced by rapamycin in a model of tuberous sclerosis (TSC and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM.

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    Anil J Trindade

    Full Text Available Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM, a multisystem disease of women, is manifest by the proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells in the lung resulting in cystic lung destruction. Women with LAM can also develop renal angiomyolipomas. LAM is caused by mutations in the tuberous sclerosis complex genes (TSC1 or TSC2, resulting in hyperactive mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR signaling. The mTOR inhibitor, Rapamycin, stabilizes lung function in LAM and decreases the volume of renal angiomyolipomas, but lung function declines and angiomyolipomas regrow when treatment is discontinued, suggesting that factors induced by mTORC1 inhibition may promote the survival of TSC2-deficient cells. Whether microRNA (miRNA, miR signaling is involved in the response of LAM to mTORC1 inhibition is unknown. We identified Rapamycin-dependent miRNA in LAM patient angiomyolipoma-derived cells using two separate screens. First, we assayed 132 miRNA of known significance to tumor biology. Using a cut-off of >1.5-fold change, 48 microRNA were Rapamycin-induced, while 4 miRs were downregulated. In a second screen encompassing 946 miRNA, 18 miRs were upregulated by Rapamycin, while eight were downregulated. Dysregulation of miRs 29b, 21, 24, 221, 106a and 199a were common to both platforms and were classified as candidate "RapamiRs." Validation by qRT-PCR confirmed that these microRNA were increased. miR-21, a pro-survival miR, was the most significantly increased by mTOR-inhibition (p<0.01. The regulation of miR-21 by Rapamycin is cell type independent. mTOR inhibition promotes the processing of the miR-21 transcript (pri-miR-21 to a premature form (pre-miR-21. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that Rapamycin upregulates multiple miRs, including pro-survival miRs, in TSC2-deficient patient-derived cells. The induction of miRs may contribute to the response of LAM and TSC patients to Rapamycin therapy.

  8. Research on the Isolation, Identification and N-hexadecane Biodegrading Characteristics of Gordonia sp.LAM0048%Gordonia sp.LAM0048的分离鉴定及其降解正十六烷的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小蓉; 阮志勇; 王彦伟; 王慧敏; 郭翔; 孔德龙; 邵承斌

    2015-01-01

    以正十六烷为唯一碳源,从长期受石油污染的土壤中筛选到一株高效降解正十六烷的菌株LAM0048。通过形态学观察、生理生化试验、细胞化学组分分析、16S rRNA基因序列分析、细胞脂肪酸和极性脂试验,确定其属于棒杆菌亚目( Corynebacterineae)、诺卡菌科( Nocardiaceae)、戈登氏属( Gordonia),且可能为戈登氏属的一株新种。采用单因素实验对菌株LAM0048在无机盐培养基中降解正十六烷的降解率进行初步探讨,发现该菌株能在以正十六烷为唯一碳源的培养基中生长,菌株LAM0048能够在36 h内完全降解0.05%( V/V)的正十六烷,当烷烃浓度达到1.0%( V/V)时,降解率达46.4%。结果表明LAM0048是一株具有耐受高浓度烷烃的石油降解菌,在石油污染环境的微生物修复中具有一定的应用潜力。%An n-hexadecane-degrading bacterium LAM0048 was isolated from hydrocarbon-polluted soil by using n-hexadecane as sole carbon source.Based on analyses of the morphological, physiological and biochemical character, cellular chemical composition, 16S rRNA sequences, strain LAM0048 was suggested to represent a member of the genus Gordonia of family Nocardiaceae, suborder Corynebacterineae.Comparative analysis of the fatty acids and polar lipid composition revealed that LAM0048T was a novel species within the genus Gordonia.Study on the degradation efficiency of strain LAM0048 with different n-hexadecane concentration indicated that strain LAM0048 was able to degrade 100%of n-hexadecane in the mineral medium containing 0.05%( V/V) n-hexadecane after 36 h incubation at 30℃, and was able to degrade 46.4%of n-hexadecane in the mineral medium containing 1.0% ( V/V ) n-hexadecane.The new isolate was an alkane-degrading bacterium with highly concentration of alkane tolerance ability,and may provide new insight into microbial degradation of alkane.

  9. Screening antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties of extracts isolated from Jackfruit pulp (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Montañez, G; Burgos-Hernández, A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; López-Saiz, C M; Velázquez-Contreras, C A; Navarro-Ocaña, A; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A

    2015-05-15

    The present focused on the study of the antimutagenic and antiproliferative potential of pulp Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) extract, using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line M12.C3.F6 (murine B-cell lymphoma), respectively. Jackfruit pulp extract was sequentially fractionated by chromatography (RP-HPLC) and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. The organic extracts obtained from Jackfruit pulp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and proliferation of cells M12.C3.F6; a dose-response relationship was showed. Sequential RP-HPLC fractionation of the active extracts produced both antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the Jackfruit contained compounds with chemoprotective properties to reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1, also proliferation of a cancer cell line.

  10. Screening of Analgesic and Immunomodulator activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Leaves (Jackfruit in Mice

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    Jyoti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Adaptability is probably the most distinct characteristics of life which may be defined as sum of all nonspecific response of the body to any demands made upon it; fundamentally it was a physiological response; primary object of which was to maintain life and to re-establish the normal state. Analgesic and Immunomodulator activity of leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. was evaluated by using Eddy’s hot plate method and Swimming endurance test at the dose levels of 250 and 500mg/kg in Swiss albino mice respectively. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves of A. heterophyllus were administered to the experimental animals among which the methanolic extract of A. heterophyllus leaves have shown to be exhibit significant analgesic and immunomodulator effect by paw licking and increasing the swimming or survival time (P<0.001 respectively in mice.

  11. High quality reference genome of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a potential perennial crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yang; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Yang, ChengGuang; Yan, Liang; Wang, XuanJun; Shi, ChongYing; Xie, Jing; Dai, TianYi; Peng, Lei; Zeng Huan, Yu; Xu, AnNi; Huang, YeWei; Zhang, JiaJin; Ma, Xiao; Dong, Yang; Hao, ShuMei; Sheng, Jun

    2015-07-01

    The drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a perennial crop that has gained popularity in certain developing countries for its high-nutrition content and adaptability to arid and semi-arid environments. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of M. oleifera. This assembly represents 91.78% of the estimated genome size and contains 19,465 protein-coding genes. Comparative genomic analysis between M. oleifera and related woody plant genomes helps clarify the general evolution of this species, while the identification of several species-specific gene families and positively selected genes in M. oleifera may help identify genes related to M. oleifera's high protein content, fast-growth, heat and stress tolerance. This reference genome greatly extends the basic research on M. oleifera, and may further promote applying genomics to enhanced breeding and improvement of M. oleifera.

  12. Biosorption and removal of chromium from water by using moringa seed cake (Moringa oleifera Lam.

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    Ana Paula Meneghel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the adsorption capacity of chromium from contaminated aqueous solutions by using Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds. Parameters such as solution pH, adsorbent mass, contact time between solution and adsorbent, isotherms, thermodynamic, kinetics, and desorption were evaluated. The maximum adsorption capacity (Qm calculated to be 3.191 mg g-1 for the biosorbent. Activated carbon was used for comparison purposes in addition to the biosorbent. The best fit was obtained by the Langmuir model for both adsorbents. The average desorption value indicated that both the biosorbent and activated carbon have a strong interaction with the metal. The results showed that the biosorbent has advantages owing to its low cost and efficiency in Cr3+ removal from contaminated waters.

  13. Evaluation of anti-pyretic potential of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam

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    Sutar N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to evaluate the anti-pyretic effect of an ethanol extract of seeds, of Moringa oleifera Lam. belonging to the family of Moringiaceae, at normal body temperature and yeast-induced pyrexia, in albino rats. An yeast suspension (10 ml/kg body wt. increased rectal temperature 19 hours after the subcutaneous injection. The ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera , at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body wt. p.o., showed significant dose-dependent reduction in normal body temperature and yeast-provoked elevated temperature. The effect extended up to five hours after drug administration. The anti-pyretic effect of the ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera was comparable to that of paracetamol (150 mg/kg body wt., p.o., a standard anti-pyretic agent.

  14. In vitro antioxidant studies of Begonia malabarica Lam. and Begonia floccifera Bedd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Velusamy Kalpanadevi; Veerabahu Ramasamy Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the total phenolic, flavonoid contents and in vitro antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Begonia malabarica Lam. and Begonia floccifera Bedd. whole plant.Methods:Total phenolic content was estimated using the Folin Ciocalteu method. The flavonoid content was determined using aluminium chloride. In vitro antioxidant activities and reducing power capacity were determined using standard methods. Results: The total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated. The methanol extracts of whole plants of Begonia malabarica and Begonia floccifera showed potent in vitro antioxidant activities using various models viz, DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide and ABTS radical scavenging activity. Conclusions: The present study confirmed that methanol extracts have potential in vitro antioxidant activity. The phytochemical phenolics and flavonoids could be the reason for its antioxidant activity.

  15. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. root-wood on ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadi, Ravindra V; Gadge, Navneet B; Alagawadi, K R; Savadi, Rudraprabhu V

    2006-04-21

    In India, drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae)) is commonly used as a phytotherapeutic agent. The effect of oral administration of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera root-wood on calcium oxalate urolithiasis has been studied in male Wistar albino rats. Ethylene glycol feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal excretion of calcium and phosphate. Supplementation with aqueous and alcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera root-wood significantly reduced the elevated urinary oxalate, showing a regulatory action on endogenous oxalate synthesis. The increased deposition of stone forming constituents in the kidneys of calculogenic rats was also significantly lowered by curative and preventive treatment using aqueous and alcoholic extracts. The results indicate that the root-wood of Moringa oleifera is endowed with antiurolithiatic activity.

  16. Responses of Moringa oleifera Lam. plants inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi and submitted to water stress

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    Séfora Gil Gomes Farias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was to verify the efficiency of mycorrhizal in Moringa oleifera Lam. plants submitted to water deficit. The experiment was conducted in screenhouse distributted a completely randomized design in a 4x2 factorial with four replications. The first factor was the treatment of inoculation with Glomus etunicatum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, an indigenous community treatment and control (without inoculation. The second factor was the treatment of irrigation and water deficit. Plant height, accumulation of dry weight in the shoots, roots and total and mycorrhizal efficiency were evaluated. The plants inoculated with Glomus etunicatum increases in height, biomass and biomass underground when not subject to water stress. There was no contribution of mycorrhizae to increase the resistance of plants to water deficit, independent of the fungus employee. The efficiency of plants in mycorrhizal, was variable according to the species of fungi used.

  17. Sodium Chloride-Induced leaf senescence in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L.

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    Claudia R. B. Haddad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence induced by sodium chloride was studied in Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. and Foeniculum vulgare L. Both species belong to Umbelliferae family, however only H. bonariensis grows spontaneously in sandy soils of coastal regions (saline soils. Leaves of plants receiving nutrient solutions containing different concentrations of NaCl were evaluated for fresh and dry weights and chlorophyll content. The denaturating electrophoretic profiles of leaf proteins were also studied. Sodium chloride changed the protein profile of F. vulgare and hastened the leaf senescence of both the species. However, plants of H. bonariensis receiving 599 mM NaCl lasted longer than F. vulgare. Therefore, the occurrence of H. bonariensis in saline soils might be related with mechanisms of salinity tolerance.Foi estudada a senescência de folhas, induzida por cloreto de sódio, em Hidrocotyle bonariensis Lam. e Foeniculum vulgare L. Ambas as espécies pertencem à família Umbellifera. Contudo, somente H. bonariensis cresce espontaneamente em solos arenosos da região costeira (solos salinos. Foram verificadas a massa fresa, massa seca e concentração de clorofila de folhas de plantas recebendo soluções de NaCl com diferentes concentrações. O perfil eletroforético denaturante de proteínas das folhas também foi avaliado. Aplicação de cloreto de sódio levou a alterações no perfil protéico de F. vulgare e acelerou a senescência das folhas das duas espécies. Todavia, plantas de H. bonariensis recebendo soluções de NaCl com 599 mM sobreviveram mais tempo que as de F. vulgare. Assim a ocorrência de H. bonariensis em solos salinos pode estar relacionada a mecanismos de tolerância à salinidade.

  18. Chemotherapeutic potential of the volatile oils from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Saulo L; Figueiredo, Patrícia M S; Yano, Tomomasa

    2007-12-08

    In this work, the anti-tumor properties of the volatile oil from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam leaves and some terpenes (alpha-humulene, beta-caryophyllene, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene) were investigated in vitro and in vivo using the Ehrlich ascites tumor model. Treatment of Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice with 20 mg/kg of the volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene for 4 days has significantly increased survival, whereas administration of alpha-humulene, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene were ineffective in affording protection. Volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene exhibited little direct activity against Ehrlich tumor cells in vitro, while alpha-humulene, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene did not such activity. Investigation of the effects of the volatile oil (and terpenes) treatment on total natural killer cells (NK cell) activity from tumor-bearing mice as a possible mechanism of these compounds in vivo revealed that volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene significantly improved NK cell cytotoxicity against YAC-1, a Moloney virus-induced mouse T-cell lymphoma of A/SN origin and Ehrlich ascites cells. As expected, tumor growth in non-treated mice markedly suppressed NK cell cytolysis while the volatile oil and beta-caryophyllene reversed this effect when mice were treated with 20-mg/kg dosages of these compounds for 4 days. Summing up, volatile oil exhibits anti-tumor efficacy and significative immunomodulatory action in vivo, which may be related to beta-caryophyllene associated to the synergism of other natural compounds presented in volatile oil from Z. rhoifolium Lam leaves.

  19. Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest

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    Felipe M. Nuvoloni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mites associated to Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in urban and rural fragments of semidecidual forest. Native plants can shelter a great diversity of mites. Notwithstanding, the conservation of the forest fragments where the plants are located can influence the structure of the mites community. Generally, in homogenous environments the diversity is lower due to the dominance of one or a few species. In this work, we studied the mite community on Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae in two fragments of semidecidual forest: one on rural and other on urban area. Seven individuals of X. aromatica were monthly sampled from April 2007 to March 2008, in each of these fragments. Descriptive indexes of diversity, dominance and evenness were applied to verify the ecological patterns of the mite community, besides the Student's t-test to compare the abundance between the fragments. We collected 27,365 mites of 37 species belonging to 11 families. Calacarus sp. (Eriophyidae was the most abundant species, representing 73% of the total sampled. The abundance was greater in the urban fragment (67.7%, with the diversity index reaching only 25% of the theoretical maximum expected. Probably, these values might have been influenced by the location of this fragment in the urban area, being more homogeneous and submitted directly to the presence of atmospheric pollution. In this manner, X. aromatica is able to shelter a higher diversity of mites when inserted in preserved ecosystems, since the highest diversity of available resources allows the establishment of richer and most diverse mite community.

  20. Investigation of chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of aerial parts of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam.

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    F. Yousefbeyk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Ziziphora clinopodioides is a perennial herb and grows widely in west and northwest of Iran. The aerial parts are used as appetizer, carminative and antiseptic as well as for the treatment of medical conditions such as high blood pressure, asthma hyperhidrosis, palpitation and insomnia Methods: The aerial parts of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. were extracted by ethanol (70% and fractionated by n-hexane. The n-hexane fraction was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. This fraction and the total extract were further investigated for in vitro cytotoxic activity against HT-29 (colon carcinoma, K-562 (leukemia, T-47D (breast ductal carcinoma and NIH-3T3 (Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast cells using MTT assay. Results:  Nineteen compounds were identified by GC/MS. The main constituents of the n-hexane fraction were pulegone (24.35%, menthol (14% and menthone (9.61%. The results of cytotoxicity evaluation showed that the n-hexane fraction strongly exhibited cytotoxic activity against T-47D and K-562 cells with IC50 value of 77.41±12.89 and 80±2.56 μg/mL. The total extract did not show considerable activity against any of the cell lines in comparison to the n-hexane fraction. Conclusion: The presence of compounds such as pulegone, menthol and menthone could explain the cytotoxic activity of the n-hexane fraction of Z. clinopodioides Lam on K-562, T-47D and HT-29 cell lines.

  1. Evaluación de patógenos en clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. Pathogenity evaluation on Solanum quitoense Lam. Clones

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    Consuelo Montes Rojas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En el noroccidente de Popayán, Colombia, se evaluó la presencia de plagas causadas por patógenos en 42 clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.. Los clones fueron plantados en bolsas plásticas, donde se desarrollaron por 3 semanas antes de ser trasplantados al campo. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones, la parcela útil estuvo conformada por 6 plantas, las cuales se sembraron a ‘tresbolillo’ a 2.5 m entre surcos y 2 m entre plantas. Para determinar el efecto de las plagas en el cultivo, se calculó el porcentaje de incidencia y severidad del ataque. La incidencia se evaluó como porcentaje de plantas afectadas, y la severidad como porcentaje de tejido afectado por el patógeno. Las enfermedades más limitantes para los 42 clones fueron: gota (Phytophthora infestans que provocó una mortalidad de plantas superior a 40%; fusarium (Fusarium oxysporum que se presentó en 12 de los clones evaluados; antracnosis (Colletotrichum sp. que afectó 21 clones, los cuales se clasificaron entre tolerantes y medianamente tolerantes; y mancha clorótica (Cladosporium sp. que afectó 21 clones, clasificados como susceptibles. Los clones PL19, PL24, PL11, PL35 fueron medianamente tolerantes. Se seleccionaron por supervivencia los clones: JY E1 (52.2%, PH E 1 (45.8%, VM E2 (45.8%; por supervivencia y por tolerancia a Fusarium oxysporum los clones PL35, PL11, PL24, PL8, PL19, 120052, 120043, ORE1, AGE1. Los clones SER 7, SER 15, SER 9, SEC 31, SEC 27 presentaron alta mortalidad pero se seleccionaron por ser medianamente tolerantes a gota, tolerantes a antracnosis y medianamente resistentes a nematodos, con buen vigor y producción.Presence of plant disease caused by pathogens on 42 clones of Solanum quitoense Lam. were evaluated in the north-western region of Popayán, Colombia. The seed of the clons were planted in plastic bags during three weeks and afterwards transplanted to the field. The statistical design

  2. Evaluation of the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the ethanolic extract of Pericampylus glaucus (Lam. Merr. in BALB/c mice

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    Muhammad Kifayatullah

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: The result indicates that the oral administration of Pericampylus glaucus (Lam. Merr. extract did not produce any significant toxic effect in BALB/c mice. Hence, the extract can be utilized safely for therapeutic use in pharmaceutical formulations.

  3. GIS-based predicative modelling of agricultural non point pollution. A case study; Modellazione previsionale GIS-based dell'inquinamento di origine diffusa da fonti agricole. Un caso di studio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistocchi, A. [Studio di Ingegneria per l' Ambiente e il Territorio, Cesena (Italy); Bettini, S.; Miserocchi, R. [Geaprogetti Ambiente e Territorio, Ravenna (Italy)

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical modelling approach is presented for agricultural non point source pollution, based on a GIS paradigm. The capability of GIS technology is exploited so to achieve a detailed description of the study area via simple mathematical relations. The features that make the approach preferable for land use management and planning are highlighted. An application to a case study is also given that shows how the model can be set up using currently available cartography. [Italian] Viene presentato un approccio alla modellazione matematica dell'inquinamento di origine diffusa da fonti agricole, che si basa sul paradigma dei sistemi informativi geografici e sulla possibilita' di descrivere i fenomeni idrologici mediante relazioni matematiche semplici e una quantita' di dati capillarmente distribuiti. Vengono messe in evidenza le caratteristiche che rendono questo tipo di approccio preferibile alla modellazione classica per quanto riguarda la pianificazione territoriale. Si illustra l'applicazione al caso di studio del bacino del fiume Savio in Emilia Romagna, mostrando l'applicabilita' del metodo a partire dalle conoscenze rappresentate nella cartografia corrente.

  4. Constituintes químicos voláteis e não-voláteis de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae Volatile and non-volatile chemical constituents of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    O estudo fitoquímico do extrato etanólico das folhas de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, resultou no isolamento dos derivados benzilnitrilas niazirina, niazirinina e 4-hidroxifenil-acetonitrila, enquanto que das cascas dos frutos somente o octacosano foi obtido. Os óleos essenciais das folhas, flores e frutos foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massa. Os constituintes principais identificados foram: fitol (21,6%) e timol (9,6%) nas folhas, octadecano (27,...

  5. Comparative analysis of the anatomical structure of heartwood and sapwood selected Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. trees in Srpska Crnja

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    Vilotić Dragica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results obtained from the study of the macroscopic-microscopic structure (capillary system in the growth stem of Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. originating from North America, which grows in “Muzljanski rit” in the area of Srpska Crnja. Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. falls under the ring-porous species according to its porosity, with large tracheas in its early zone. The early zone trachea lumens, contained in the sapwood, reach dimensions of up to 160 μm, while early zone trachea lumens in the growth stem rings of the sapwood reach dimensions of up to 120 μm. Examination of the microscopic structure of this tree show good properties of the tree.

  6. Process of nodulation and total amino acids content of leucaena leucocephala (lam.) de wit (fabaceae) at different substrates nutritives

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Alex Rezende de; rondon, josimara nolasco; Ítavo,Luis Carlos Vinhas; Piccinin, Rayssa Caldas

    2013-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/223611709196Plants of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit were evaluated for nodulation and nitrogenous compounds. The plants (n = 18) were grown on substrates of sand, in plastic tubes, in treatments with distilled water (control) and Hoagland solution for a period of five months. Growth evaluations (measures of average height and counted the number of leaves, number of active nodes) and determination of total amino acids were performed. Data were subjected to analy...

  7. Isolation, characterization and pharmacological activity of Magydaris pastinacea (Lam.) Paol. glucosides

    OpenAIRE

    Cerri, Riccardo; Pintore, Giorgio Antonio Mario; Dessì, Giuseppina; Asproni, Battistina; Piseddu, Gavino; Sini, Silvia

    1995-01-01

    The glycoside fraction of fresh rhizomes from Magydaris pastinacea (Lam.) Paol. was separated from the alcoholic extract using the method of Kobayashi et al. The fraction was found to have six main constituents, the most abundant of which had previously been isolated and identified as 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-8-(2',3'-dihydroxy-3-methyl-butylcoumarin). The present paper describes the separation and characterization of the other constituents, all with coumarin or furancoumarin structures....

  8. Karyotypes of two cytotypes of Paspalum quadrifarium Lam. (Poaceae): an alternative technique for small chromosomes in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Speranza; Magdalena Vaio; Cristina Mazzella

    2003-01-01

    Paspalum quadrifarium Lam. is a bunchgrass native to Uruguay, Argentina, and southern Brazil. Diploid, triploid, tetraploid and hexaploid cytotypes have been reported for this species of the Quadrifaria group of Paspalum. In this group, a high degree of cytogenetic homology between the genomes of several diploid species has been reported, based on meiotic pairing in interspecific hybrids; multivalent associations would thus be expected in polyploid hybrids. Karyotype analysis could provide us...

  9. Moringa Oleifera Lam Mitigates Oxidative Damage and Brain Infarct Volume in Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Woranan Kirisattayakul; Jintanaporn Wattanathorn; Terdthai Tong-Un; Supaporn Muchimapura; Panakaporn Wannanon

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: At present, the therapeutic outcome of cerebral ischemia is still not in the satisfaction level. Therefore, the preventive strategy is considered. Based on the protective effect against oxidative damage of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves extract, we hypothesized that this plant extract might protect against cerebral ischemia, one of the challenge problems nowadays. In order to test this hypothesis, we aimed to determine the protective effect of M.oleifera leaves extract in ani...

  10. Inhibitory effects of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) against the infection and infectivity of macrophages by Leishmania amazonensis

    OpenAIRE

    BERNARDO MELO NETO; JOSEANA M.S.R. LEITÃO; OLIVEIRA,LUCIANO G.C.; SANTOS,SÉRGIO E.M.; SABRINA M.P. CARNEIRO; Rodrigues, Klinger A. F.; Chaves, Mariana H.; DANIEL D.R. ARCANJO; CARVALHO,FERNANDO A.A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of microbial infections and parasitic diseases. In the present study, the antileishmanial effect induced by the ethanol extract of stem barks from Z. rhoifolium (ZR-EEtOH) and its n-hexane fraction (ZR-FHEX) on infection and infectivity of murine macrophages by promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. In different set of experiments, macrophages or promastigotes were pretreated ...

  11. Analisis Kandungan Mangan dan Zink Pada Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Kering dan Rebus Secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Faza, Afina

    2017-01-01

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is included in the family Moringaceae, the utilizaation of moringa plant in indonesia society has been a long a time, but moringa’s leaves is the most common used to be dietary fiber. Moringa contains excess nutrients for body needed, one of them is mineral such as calcium, cromium, cupri, flour, iron, manganese, magnesium, molybdenum, phosphor, potasium, sodium, selenium, sulphur, and zinc. The aim of this study is to determine the differentiation content of m...

  12. GERMINAÇÃO E VIGOR DE SEMENTES DE Moringa oleifera Lam. EM DIFERENTES SUSTRATOS E TEMPERATURAS

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    KLEANE TARGINO OLIVEIRA PEREIRA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam. is an exotic species, from the Indian Northeast, the Moringaceae family and has significant economic importance, with many applications in industry and medi-cine. This species spreads mainly by seed, so obtaining information on the behavior of different temperature and substrate on germination becomes essential since there is no standardized methodology for installation of the germination test. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the influence of substrate and temperature on germination and vigor of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds. The experiment was conducted at the Seed Analysis Laboratory of the Federal Rural University of the Semi-Arid (UFERSA. The statistical design was completely randomized in a 5x2 factorial scheme (temperature x substrate, totaling ten treatments with four replicates of 25 seeds. The substrates were tested roll paper and vermiculite. Then the seeds were incubated at room Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand (B.O.D. at constant temperatures of 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C and 20-30 °C alternating with a photoperiod of 8 hours. We evaluated the percentage, the average time and the germination speed index and the shoot length and root and total dry weight of seedlings. The roll paper substrate at temperatures of 25 to 30 °C, as well as vermiculite of 30 °C temperature are the most suitable combinations to evaluate germination and vigor of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam.

  13. Beneficial effect of Berberis buxifolia Lam, Ziziphus mistol Griseb and Prosopis alba extracts on oxidative stress induced by chloramphenicol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Claudia; Pellarin, Gabriela; Rojas, María José; Albesa, Inés; Eraso, Alberto F

    2010-01-01

    The chemiluminescence of luminol, a measure of oxidative stress, increased immediately as a consequence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulated by this antibiotic. The effect of Ch was dose dependent with maximum stimulus at 8 mg/ml (Vmax); above this concentration the cells began to reduce the production of ROS. The oxidative injury of Ch was counteracted by water extracts of Berberis buxifolia lam, Zizyphus mistol Griseb and Prosopis alba, indigenous fruits from Argentina. The relatively light units (RLU) emitted decreased immediately as a consequence of a protective effect exerted by the extracts of these fruit extracts on blood cells. The three indigenous fruit extracts reduced to a different extent the oxidative injury caused by Ch. B.buxifolia lam exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity followed by Z.mistol Griseb. Water extracts of both fruit extracts were the most effective against the oxidative stress, while P.alba presented better antioxidant capacity in the ethanolic fraction obtained. Hexane extracts showed low protective action on blood cells, with little reduction of area under curve (AUC) of RLU plotted versus time. Leukocytes remained viable in blood samples incubated for 3h with Ch and water extracts of B. buxifolia lam or Z. mistol Griseb (97.1% and 92.5% viability by Trypan blue exclusion, respectively); whereas with Ch only the cells were stressed and viability decreased to 30%. The three fruit extracts protected the viability of leukocytes in parallel with the decrease of ROS. Erythrocytes were not lysed in the presence of Ch.

  14. Growth and Forage Value of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam. under Different Organic Fertilization and Cut Intervals

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    Patrícia Carneiro Souto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out in two UFPB Experimental Stations (NUPEARIDO (Luvissolo Planossólico (Bruno não Cálcico and Lameirão farms (Luvissolo located in the semi-arid region of Brazil, from February to August/2000. Its objective consisted to verify the influence of organic fertilizers (bovine, goat and donkey manures, and organic compost of plants remains and cut intervals (three and six months after seedling planting in the bromatological composition of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam above ground forage. Planting of 15cm high seedlings took place in February, into 0.30m x 0.30m x 0.30m openings in the soil, arranged in a 1.5m x 1.5m grid, in the beginning of the rainy season. Plants were cut three and six months after planting. Also, new stems were cut three months after the first cutting. Collected materials were analyzed for Dry Matter (DM, Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF, Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF, Crude Protein (CP, ash and Hemicellulose (HC contents. Forage from six-month-old plants showed an increased HC content when fertilized with bovine or goat manure. Forage from three-month old plants showed different NDF, ADF, PB, and ash contents than the older ones, except for stem DM and HC. Three-month-old moringa sprouts showed higher CP and ash contents than material from three or six month old non-cut plants.

  15. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES E DESENVOLVIMENTO DE PLÂNTULAS DE MORINGA oleifera Lam

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    Naedja Nara Araújo Neves

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out at Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA, Mossoró - RN, for screening the effect of substrate for germination of seeds and seedling growth of Moringa oleifera Lam. It was utilized a completely randomized design with four treatments (substrates: T1= 75% sand + 25% bovine manure, T2= 100% washed sand, T3= 75% sand + 25% worm castings and T4= 75% sand + 25% sawdust and four replications of 25 seeds. The seeds were sown in the substrates contained in wooden boxes (7,5 cm long x 23,5 cm wide x 39 cm deep. Each box was filled with approximately 6 kg of substrate. The substrates were irrigated once a day (until the tenth day, then twice a day until the end experiment (19 th day. Seedling height, root length, number of leaves, whole seedling fresh and dry matter weights, germination velocity index and germination percent were evaluated. It was concluded that the mix 75% sand + 25% worm castings was the most suitable for the initial growth of moringa and the substrate containing 100% sand provided the best germination index for this species.

  16. Study of the Effect of Magnetic Stimulation of Leucaena Leucocephala (Lam. of Wit Seeds

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    Eduard A. Hincapié-Ladino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of third phase of experiments of seeds magnetic stimulation of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. of Wit are presented; work aimed to improving physical methodologies technically feasible, and which can be extrapolated to recovery of wild plant species with potential use. Factorial experiments were performed using levels of magnetic flux density (B of 30; 62,5; 125; 200 y 250 mT, exposure time between 0,5 y 60 minutes, number of magnetic expositions 1 and 4 times, and time between each of these, 24 hours and 7 days. Proving that in some doses the magnetic field generates a positive influence on Leucana plant development, affecting mainly root length, leaf mass and nitrogen percentage. Results show that B has a greater influence than exposure time in seed pretreatment for this species. The better responses were given to 30 mT, and it is detected that the action of magnetic stimulation on this specie presents an accumulative behavior.

  17. Bioactive Compound Evaluation of Ethanol Extract from Geodorum densiflorum (Lam. Schltr. by GC-MS analysis

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    Keerthiga Manohar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical constituents are responsible for medicinal value of the plant species. The present investigation was carried out to analyze the bioactive components from the whole plant of Geodorum densiflorum (Lam. Schltr using GC-MS technique. The chemical compositions of the ethanolic extract of G. densiflorum were investigated using Perkin - Elmer Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry and about twenty one bioactive phytochemical compounds were identified. The prevailing compounds where Hexadecanoic acid, Ethyl ester (38.884 %, Ionone (7.125 %, 3-Deoxy-d-mannoic lactone (7.4441 %, 2,3-Butanediol (4.725 % and 2-Piperidinone, N-[4-bromo-n-butyl]- (4.004 %, (E-9-Octadeconoic acid ethyl ester (3.891 %, 1H-Pyrrole-2-Carbonitrile (3.778 %, Pyridinium, 1-amino-, chloride (3.305 %, 4H- Pyran-4-one, 3,5-dihydroxy-2-methyl- (3.274 and having various biological activities. This was the first report on the identification of bioactive compounds from ethanol extract of G. densiflorum.

  18. Phytochemical Analysis of Leaf Extract of Abutilon hirtum (Lam. Sweet by GC-MS Method

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    Vivekraj P.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abutilon hirtum (Lam. Sweet (Malvaceae commonly known as Vadathuthi. It is used as one of the most important drugs in traditional system of medicine to treat various ailments. The plant is used for to its various properties as demulcent, diuretics, anti-diabetics, anthelmintic, laxative, wound healing properties, antibacterial and antifungal properties. The present study revealed the presence of phytochemicals like Diethyl Phthalate (19.171%,Benzaldehyde 4-propyl (5.219%,Methoxyacetic acid 3-tridecyl ester (5.196%,Sulfurous acid dodecyl 2-propyl ester (0.455%,Sulfurous acid, butyl dodecyl ester (0.442%etc., from the chloroform extracts of leaves in A. hirtum. In the present study an attempt was made to investigate the phytochemical present in the extracts in the preliminary level by using Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The study will provide information for the correct identification of the crude drug. This will be further considered for pharmacological activities and isolation of individual components would however, help to find new drugs.The results are reported for the first time in A. hirtum.

  19. Fatty acids and physiological quality of tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica Lam. seed during natural ageing

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    Juan M Pichardo-González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In México, 44 thousand hectares are planted with tomatillo or husk tomato (Physalis philadelphica Lam., which occupies fourth place among the country's vegetable species. However, research on this species is scarce, especially that related to the process of seed deterioration. We studied the effects of deterioration in tomatillo seed, var. CHF1-Chapingo, stored from 2-mo up to 7 yr with no climate control, 18.2 ± 5 °C and 41 ± 10% relative humidity, on physiological and biochemical variables during germination. It was found that germination, vigor, and respiratory activity decrease significantly from the first year of storage; thus, after 7 yr, germination and vigor decreased 99%, and respiratory activity of seed after 48 h imbibition decreased 78%. Linoleic acid (unsaturated content correlated positively with germination (R = 0.78** and with speed of radicle emergence (R = 0.79**. Germination correlated with speed of radicle emergence (R = 0.99** and with respiratory activity after 48 h of imbibition (R = 0.79**. Both respiratory activity and fatty acid content are involved in natural deterioration of tomatillo seed.

  20. Simultaneous HPLC quantitative analysis of active compounds in leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2014-08-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases. A simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was developed and validated for the determination of the contents of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin, the primary antioxidative compounds, in M. oleifera leaves. HPLC analysis was successfully conducted by using a Hypersil BDS C18 column, eluted with a gradient of methanol-1% acetic acid with a flow rate of 1 mL/min, and detected at 334 nm. Parameters for the validation included linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of detection and quantitation. The developed HPLC method was precise, with relative standard deviation oleifera leaf extracts were 98.50, 98.47 and 98.59%, respectively. The average contents of these compounds in the dried ethanolic extracts of the leaves of M. oleifera collected from different regions of Thailand were 0.081, 0.120 and 0.153% (w/w), respectively. The developed HPLC method was appropriate and practical for the simultaneous analysis of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin in the leaf extract of M. oleifera. This work is valuable as guidance for the standardization of the leaf extracts and pharmaceutical products of M. oleifera.

  1. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Moringa oleifera Lam. flower targeting Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manoj Kumar; Paul, Joydeep; De, Tripti; Chakraborti, Tapati

    2015-11-01

    Leishmaniases is a group of diseases caused by the protozoan parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. At least 20 species of Leishmania are known to infect humans transmitted by female sandflies, Phlebotomus spp. Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis, considered most lethal among the common three forms of leishmaniasis. Lack of appropriate vaccines, emergence of drug resistance and side effects of currently used drugs stress the need for better alternative drugs, particularly from natural sources. Here, we conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments to study the efficacy of different parts of Moringa oleifera Lam. against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. The flower extract of M. oliefera (MoF) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial agent when compared to other parts of the plant like leaf, root, bark and stem. It imparted significant reduction in parasite number in infected macrophages. The bioactivity guided fractionation of MoF showed ethyl acetate fraction (MoE) as the most active and gave significant parasite reduction in the infected macrophages. Further, growth kinetics studies revealed loss of L. donovani promastigotes viability in the presence of MoE in both time and dose dependent manner. In vivo experiment in Balb/c mouse model of leishmaniasis supported the in vitro findings with a remarkable reduction of the parasite burden in both liver and spleen.

  2. Transcriptome and selected metabolite analyses reveal points of sugar metabolism in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lisong; Wu, Gang; Hao, Chaoyun; Yu, Huan; Tan, Lehe

    2016-07-01

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., commonly known as jackfruit, produces the largest tree-borne fruit known thus far. The edible part of the fruit develops from the perianths, and contains many sugar-derived compounds. However, its sugar metabolism is poorly understood. A fruit perianth transcriptome was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform, producing 32,459 unigenes with an average length of 1345nt. Sugar metabolism was characterized by comparing expression patterns of genes related to sugar metabolism and evaluating correlations with enzyme activity and sugar accumulation during fruit perianth development. During early development, high expression levels of acid invertases and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for the rapid utilization of imported sucrose for fruit growth. The differential expression of starch metabolism-related genes and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for starch accumulated before fruit ripening but decreased during ripening. Sucrose accumulated during ripening, when the expression levels of genes for sucrose synthesis were elevated and high enzyme activity was observed. The comprehensive transcriptome analysis presents fundamental information on sugar metabolism and will be a useful reference for further research on fruit perianth development in jackfruit.

  3. Evaluation of genetic diversity in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) based on amplified fragment length polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyamalamma, S; Chandra, S B C; Hegde, M; Naryanswamy, P

    2008-07-22

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., commonly called jackfruit, is a medium-sized evergreen tree that bears high yields of the largest known edible fruit. Yet, it has been little explored commercially due to wide variation in fruit quality. The genetic diversity and genetic relatedness of 50 jackfruit accessions were studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Of 16 primer pairs evaluated, eight were selected for screening of genotypes based on the number and quality of polymorphic fragments produced. These primer combinations produced 5976 bands, 1267 (22%) of which were polymorphic. Among the jackfruit accessions, the similarity coefficient ranged from 0.137 to 0.978; the accessions also shared a large number of monomorphic fragments (78%). Cluster analysis and principal component analysis grouped all jackfruit genotypes into three major clusters. Cluster I included the genotypes grown in a jackfruit region of Karnataka, called Tamaka, with very dry conditions; cluster II contained the genotypes collected from locations having medium to heavy rainfall in Karnataka; cluster III grouped the genotypes in distant locations with different environmental conditions. Strong coincidence of these amplified fragment length polymorphism-based groupings with geographical localities as well as morphological characters was observed. We found moderate genetic diversity in these jackfruit accessions. This information should be useful for tree breeding programs, as part of our effort to popularize jackfruit as a commercial crop.

  4. Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Afzal Sheikh; Zahangir Alam Saud; Khaled Hossain; Fouzia Yeasmin; Smita Agarwal; Mashiur Rahman; Khairul Islam; Ekhtear Hossain; Shakhawoat Hossain; Md Rezaul Karim; Farjana Nikkon

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the protective role of leaves of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) Lam. against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice.Methods:non-treated control group while, the second, third, and fourth groups were treated with M.oleifera leaves (50 mg/kg body weight per day), sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg body weight per day) and sodium arsenite plus M. oleifera leaves, respectively. Serum indices related to cardiac, liver and renal functions were analyzed to evaluate the protective effect of Moringa leaves on arsenic-induced effects in mice.Results:Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. The first group was used as induced elevation of triglyceride, glucose, urea and the activities of alkaline phospatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum. M. oleifera leaves also prevented the arsenic-induced perturbation of serum butyryl cholinesterase activity, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol.Conclusions:The results indicate that the leaves of M. oleifera may be useful in reducing the It revealed that food supplementation of M. oleifera leaves abrogated the arsenic-effects of arsenic-induced toxicity.

  5. ANTIDIURETIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF PROP ROOTS OF PANDANUS FASCICULARIS LAM.

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    Jothimani Rajeswari et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The extracts of the prop roots of Pandanus fascicularis Lam (Family: Pandanaceae is claimed as an antidiuretic by some traditional practitioners. However, the validity of this claim has not been scientifically proven or refuted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiuretic potential of ethanol and aqueous extracts of prop roots of P. fascicularis in rats following oral administration. Ethanol and aqueous extracts were prepared from P. facicularis by percolation and cold maturation, respectively. Furosemide was used as a diuretic agent to induce diuresis. Vasopressin (ADH was used as a standard. The results demonstrated both the ethanol and aqueous extracts of P. facicularis and ADH significantly impaired the total urine output. However, antidiuretic potential of ethanolic extract was similar to that of ADH. The extracts caused a significant decrease in natriuresis and kaliuresis. From this study, we can conclude that ethanol extract of prop roots of Pandanus fascicularis has beneficial effects on anti diuretic activity. It has the potential to impart therapeutic effect in diuretic.

  6. The Effect of Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. Extracts on In Vitro Dengue Replication

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    Fitrien Husin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the potential effect of Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam. (H. sibthorpioides extracts against in vitro dengue viral replication. Methods. The cytotoxicity of H. sibthorpioides was evaluated using a cell viability assay. Cells were pre- and posttreated with water and methanol extracts of H. sibthorpioides, and the viral inhibitory effect was investigated by observing the morphological changes, which were further confirmed by plaque assay. Results. The methanolic extract cytotoxicity was higher in Vero and C6/36 cells than the cytotoxicity of the water extract. Preincubation of the cells with H. sibthorpioides extract showed nonexistent to mild prophylactic effects. The posttreatment of Vero cells with H. sibthorpioides methanolic extract presented higher antidengue activities when compared with the water extract. Surprisingly, posttreatment of C6/36 cells resulted in an enhancement of viral replication. Conclusion. H. sibthorpioides had variable effects on dengue viral replication, depending on the treatment, cell lines, and solvent types. This study provides important novel insights on the phytomedicinal properties of H. sibthorpioides extracts on dengue virus.

  7. Lam-Tung relation breaking in $Z^0$ hadroproduction as a probe of parton transverse momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Motyka, Leszek; Stebel, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The Lam-Tung relation breaking coefficient $A_{\\mathrm{LT}} = A_0 - A_2$ in the Drell-Yan dilepton angular distributions in the $Z^0$ boson mass region at the LHC is analyzed in the $k_T$-factorization approach. This observable was recently measured with high precision by ATLAS collaboration. Within the $k_T$-factorization approach we perform an approximate NNLO calculation of the off-shell parton hard matrix elements in which we include the leading contributions of valence quarks and off-shell gluons: the well known $q_{\\mathrm{val}} g^* \\to qZ^0$ channel and a new $g^*g^* \\to q\\bar q Z^0$ channel. The resulting $A_{\\mathrm{LT}}$ exhibits high sensitivity to the gluon transverse momentum distribution (TMD). Several gluon TMDs are probed derived from the CCFM and BFKL evolution equations, and given by QCD-inspired phenomenological parameterizations. The ATLAS data favor a simple "Weizs\\"{a}cker-Williams" (WW) hard gluon TMD with the asymptotic behavior of one-gluon exchange at large gluon transverse momenta a...

  8. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of Salvia amplexicaulis Lam. extracts

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    Alimpić Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, and the total phenolic and flavonoid content of ethanol and methanol extracts of Salvia amplexicaulis Lam. in the whole plant and different parts, leaves, stems and flowers. The largest amounts of extract yield were obtained from the flowers, 14.14% and 12.00 % (w/w in the ethanol of methanol extracts, respectively. The ethanol extract of leaves (16.07 μg/ml and methanol extract of the whole plant (21.28 μg/ml showed the highest activity against the DPPH radical. The ethanol extract of the leaves was the richest in phenols (222.40 mg GAE/g and flavonoids (49.81 mg QE/g, whereas the methanol extract of the whole plant contained the highest amount of phenolics (180.89 mg GAE/g and flavonoids (38.15 mg QE/g. A very strong linear correlation between antioxidant activity and the phenolic content of the extracts was established. The obtained results suggest that S. amplexicaulis could be regarded as an important source of natural antioxidants. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173029

  9. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves′ extract from Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam

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    Márcia Thaís Pochapski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., popularly known as sweet potato (SP, has played an important role as an energy and a phytochemical source in human nutrition and animal feeding. Ethnopharmacological data show that SP leaves have been effectively used in herbal medicine to treat inflammatory and/or infectious oral diseases in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves′ extract of SP leaves. Materials and Methods: The screening was performed for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. The color intensity or the precipitate formation was used as analytical responses to these tests. The total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum complex method. Antimicrobial activity was made by agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Results: The phytochemical screening showed positive results for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Total contents of 345.65, 328.44, and 662.02 mg were respectively obtained for alkaloids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds in 100 g of the dry sample. The total antioxidant capacity was 42.94% as compared to ascorbic acid. For antimicrobial studies, no concentration of the SP freeze dried extract was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in both agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Conclusions: SP leaves demonstrated the presence of secondary metabolites with potential biological activities. No antimicrobial activity was observed.

  10. Contribuição para o estudo da Euphorbia brasiliensis Lam

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    R. J. de Siqueira-Jaccoud

    1956-06-01

    Full Text Available O autor, após tecer rápidas considerações sôbre Phytomonas da planta em questão e do gênero Manihot, passa a dar: métodos por êle empregados na confecção da presente nota; sucinta descrição da Euphorbia brasiliensis Lam. e suas variedades; nomes vulgares por que é a mesma conhecida no Brasil; resultado negativo, por êle encontrado, nas pesquisas de alcalóide e, finalmente, descrição anatômica da fôlha e caule. Fôlha. a - limbo: epidermes com cutícula e estoma, uma camada de células paliçadicas, tecido lacunoso, ramificações dos tubos laticiferos e bainha dos feixes bem desenvolvida. b - nervura principal: epidermes com cutícula, uma camada de tecido paliçadico, bainha dos feixes em semicírculo, xilema, floema e parênquima. Caule - Epiderme com cutícula, colênquima, parênquima cortical, tubos laticíferos, esclerócitos, floema, câmbio e fibras do lenho (inclusive gelatinosas, vasos e, finalmente, parênquima fundamental.

  11. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochapski, Márcia Thaís; Fosquiera, Eliana Cristina; Esmerino, Luís Antônio; dos Santos, Elizabete Brasil; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Santos, Fábio André; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., popularly known as sweet potato (SP), has played an important role as an energy and a phytochemical source in human nutrition and animal feeding. Ethnopharmacological data show that SP leaves have been effectively used in herbal medicine to treat inflammatory and/or infectious oral diseases in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract of SP leaves. Materials and Methods: The screening was performed for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. The color intensity or the precipitate formation was used as analytical responses to these tests. The total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum complex method. Antimicrobial activity was made by agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Results: The phytochemical screening showed positive results for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Total contents of 345.65, 328.44, and 662.02 mg were respectively obtained for alkaloids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds in 100 g of the dry sample. The total antioxidant capacity was 42.94% as compared to ascorbic acid. For antimicrobial studies, no concentration of the SP freeze dried extract was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in both agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Conclusions: SP leaves demonstrated the presence of secondary metabolites with potential biological activities. No antimicrobial activity was observed. PMID:21716926

  12. Postharvest Quality and Physiological Behavior of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) Leaf Stalks Under Three Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yan; XU Yong-quan; DUAN Dao-fu; MAO Lin-chun

    2009-01-01

    Sweet potato (lpomoea batatas Lam.) leaf stalks were cut into 20 cm length, and stored at 20, 6, and 2℃. The respiration rate, ethylene production, ascorbic acid, free amino acid, total chlorophyll content, freshness, and shelf life were determined during storage to investigate the effect of storage temperatures on the quality and physiological responses in sweet potato leaf stalks. Wound responses were observed as high respiration rate and ethylene production immediately after cutting. Sweet potato leaf stalks were found to be sensitive to chilling injury manifested as browning and water-soaking on the surface at 2℃. In contrast, sweet potato leaf stalks were susceptible to senescence, exhibited by etiolating and yellowing, at 20℃. Loss in weight and chlorophyll was minimized under low temperatures. High temperatures also caused the accumulation of amino acids with a significant loss of ascorbic acid and chlorophyll. Sweet potato leaf stalks had a storage life of 16 days at 6℃, 8 days at 2℃, and 6 days at 20℃, respectively.

  13. The use of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) in traditional medicine practice in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwa, J A; Jondiko, I J O; Minja, R J A; Bekunda, M

    2008-01-17

    Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) has been used by traditional health practitioners in East Africa for management of diseases, however, the extent of its usefulness has not been established to date. Fieldwork for this study was carried out in the Lake Victoria Basin between March and September 2006. The purpose was to collect ethnomedical information that will serve as a basis for further studies to establish current and potential medicinal uses. The ethnomedical information was obtained through interviews using semi-structured questionnaires. Consultative meetings were also conducted with traditional health practitioners and other members of the communities in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Results of this study show that Toddalia asiatica is collected in the wild, prepared mostly as decoctions or concoctions and administered orally. It is used for the management of a number of disease conditions. The most frequently cited diseases were stomach problems (78%) followed by malaria (25%). Cough (22%), chest pain (13%), food poisoning (8%), sore throat (7%), were also mentioned among other disease conditions treated. Validation studies of therapeutic claims will be carried out at a later date.

  14. Extraction and derivatization of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) galactomannan: Optimization and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Neeraj; Mattu, Pooja; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2016-11-01

    Water soluble gums also known as hydrocolloids are increasingly finding applications in the pharmaceutical and food industry due to their versatile functional properties. They possess considerable use in food and pharmaceutical industries as emulsifying, thickening and gelling agents. In the present investigation a heteropolysaccharide galactomannan was extracted from Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) seeds by an aqueous method, characterized for its compositional analysis (mannose: galactose ratio), physicochemical and functional properties (solubility), and mechanical properties. The extracted gum was derivatized to form its carboxymethyl derivative and the method of its derivatization was optimized by varying the reaction parameters. The native and derivatized gum was characterized by FTIR, XRD, DSC, NMR, SEM and elemental analysis, etc. The yield of Leucaena leucocephala galactomannan (LLG) was found to be 20% (w/w). The optimized parameters for carboxymethylation reaction (degree of substitution 0.805) were found to be 6.0g NaOH, 10.0g MCA, at 60°C for 4h. The physicochemical and functional characteristics of native and derivatized gum suggest its potential role in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  15. Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit., "subabul" stem lignin: Isolation, structural characterization and thermal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearla, Srinivasa Rao; Padmasree, Kollipara

    2016-06-01

    Lignin is the second most abundant renewable biopolymer on earth after cellulose. It is being used in many industrial applications due to its abundance. In the present study, lignin was isolated from the stems of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit., a high biomass yielding plant using acidic dioxane under N2 atmosphere. Structural characterization of isolated dioxane lignin (DL) was performed by analytical techniques: UV, FT-IR, ¹H NMR and ¹³C NMR. Their monolignol content was determined by nitrobenzene oxidation followed by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The data was compared with commercial alkali lignin (AL). The results showed that DL is of hardwood guaiacyl-syringyl (GS) type, whereas AL is softwood type with more guaiacyl units and trace amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl units (H). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of DL showed two stage thermal degradation profile similar to AL. The DTGmax for DL and AL were found in the second major loss event of second stage of TGA at 424°C and 404°C, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study exhibited the glass transition temperatures (Tg) at 132°C and 122°C for DL and AL, respectively. The results from thermal stability studies suggest that dioxane lignin isolated from the "miracle tree" (subabul) can be exploited in various thermoplastic industrial applications.

  16. Thermodynamic properties of water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content

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    Ana Paula Prette

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Jackfruit tree is one of the most significant trees in tropical home gardens and perhaps the most widespread and useful tree in the important genus Artocarpus. The fruit is susceptible to mechanical and biological damage in the mature state, and some people find the aroma of the fruit objectionable, particularly in confined spaces. The dehydration process could be an alternative for the exploitation of this product, and the relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for its processing and storage. The aim of this study was to determine the thermodynamic properties of the water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content. Desorption isotherms of the different parts of the jackfruit (pulp, peduncle, mesocarp, peel, and seed were determined at four different temperatures (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15 K in a water activity range of 0.02-0.753 using the static gravimetric method. Theoretical and empirical models were used to model the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to calculate the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs' free energy using the Guggenhein-Anderson-de Boer and Oswin models considering the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium.

  17. Antifilarial activity of Mallotus philippensis Lam. on Setaria cervie (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Singhal, K C; Khan, N U

    1997-10-01

    The effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the leaves of Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. was studied on the spontaneous movements of the whole worm and nerve-muscle (n.m.) preparation of Setaria cervi and on the survival of microfilariae in vitro. Both the extracts caused inhibition of spontaneous motility of whole worm and the n.m. preparation of S. Cervi characterized by initial stimulation followed by depression in amplitude. The tone and rate of contractions remained visibly unaffected. Aqueous extract at higher concentration showed immediate reduction in tone. The concentration required to inhibit the movements of n.m. preparation was 1/5th for aqueous and 1/11th for alcoholic extract compared to that for the whole worm, suggesting a cuticular permeability barrier. The stimulatory response of acetylcholine was blocked by aqueous extract on whole worm movements. On the microfilariae the LC50 and LC90 were 18 and 20 ng/ml for aqueous and 12 and 15 ng/ml for alcoholic extracts respectively.

  18. A new myrsinol-type diterpene polyester from Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Yang, Jing; Chi, Yu-Qian; Ouyang, Wen-Bin; Zang, Zhen; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Cao, Pei; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A new myrsinol-type diterpene polyester, 14-deoxo-3β-O-propinoyl-2α,5α,7β,15β-tetra-O-acetyl-14α-O-benzoyl-myrsinol (1), and its known analogue, 14-deoxo-3β-O-prorionyl-5α,15β-di-O-acetyl-7β-O-nicotinoyl-myrsinol-14β-acetate (2), together with a monoterpenoid, pubinernoid A (3), two indole alkaloids, neoechinulin A (4) and dihydroxyisoechinulin A (5), two benzene derivatives, siringin (6) and (3-methoxyphenyl) acetic acid (7), were isolated from the 70% acetone extract of the aerial parts of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with literature reports. The absolute configuration of 1 was deduced by comparing experimental and calculated ECD spectra. Among them, compounds 4 and 5 were first obtained from the plant source. In addition, the (13)C NMR data of compound 2 was reported for the first time.

  19. Volatiles of Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi Leaves Influencing Attraction of Two Generalist Insect Herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Nupur; Karmakar, Amarnath; Barik, Anandamay

    2016-10-01

    Epilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabr. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are important pests of Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi (Cucurbitaceae), commonly known as creeping cucumber. The profiles of volatile organic compounds from undamaged plants, plants after 48 hr continuous feeding of adult females of either E. vigintioctopunctata or A. foveicollis, by adults of both species, and after mechanical damaging were identified and quantified by GC-MS and GC-FID analyses. Thirty two compounds were detected in volatiles of all treatments. In all plants, methyl jasmonate was the major compound. In Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassays under laboratory conditions, both insect species showed a significant preference for complete volatile blends from insect damaged plants, compared to those of undamaged plants. Neither E. vigintioctopunctata nor A. foveicollis showed any preference for volatiles released by heterospecifically damaged plants vs. conspecifically damaged plants or plants attacked by both species. Epilachna vigintioctopunctata and A. foveicollis showed attraction to three different synthetic compounds, linalool oxide, nonanal, and E-2-nonenal in proportions present in volatiles of insect damaged plants. Both species were attracted by a synthetic blend of 1.64 μg linalool oxide + 3.86 μg nonanal + 2.23 μg E-2-nonenal, dissolved in 20 μl methylene chloride. This combination might be used as trapping tools in pest management strategies.

  20. In vitro wound healing potential and identification of bioactive compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Pauzi, Nur Aimi Syarina; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Abas, Faridah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) from the monogeneric family Moringaceae is found in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed at exploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. Different solvent crude extracts were screened, and the most active crude extract was further subjected to differential bioguided fractionation. Fractions were also screened and most active aqueous fraction was finally obtained for further investigation. HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for identification and confirmation of bioactive compounds. The results of our study demonstrated that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera significantly enhanced proliferation and viability as well as migration of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells compared to the untreated control and other fractions. The HPLC and LC-MS/MS studies revealed kaempferol and quercetin compounds in the crude methanolic extract and a major bioactive compound Vicenin-2 was identified in the bioactive aqueous fraction which was confirmed with standard Vicenin-2 using HPLC and UV spectroscopic methods. These findings suggest that bioactive fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 compound may enhance faster wound healing in vitro.

  1. Clinical Efficacy of Moringa oleifera Lam. Stems Bark in Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common problem in clinical practice. Usually they are asymptomatic and are commonly present with distressing symptoms like pain and burning sensation on urination. Antibiotics are widely used to treat UTIs; however, they have their own limitations like resistance, reinfection, and relapses. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the value of Moringa oleifera Lam. stem bark as a potential medicine for UTIs. Study Design. 30 patients with UTI were randomly divided into two groups with 15 patients in each group. Shigru bark was given to patients of the first group (trial group) and modern medicines were prescribed to the other group of patients. At least three follow-ups are taken in both groups at the end of every week of treatment. Results. After treatment 66.67 % were cured, 13.33 % improved, 13.33% patients have no change, and 6.67% relapsed in trial group and in control group 46.67% were cured, 26.66% improved, 6.67% patients have no change, and 20% relapsed. Interpretation and Conclusion. The trial drug is significant in the management of UTI. This study needs to be done on a large scale and for a long time.

  2. Removal of cadmium from aqueous system by shelled Moringa oleifera Lam. seed powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Parul; Kumari, Pushpa; Srivastava, M M; Srivastava, Shalini

    2006-01-01

    The present study explores the unexploited sorption properties of the plant Moringa oleifera Lam. for decontamination of Cd at laboratory scale. Sorption studies using standard practices were carried out in batch experiments as functions of biomass dosage, contact time, metal concentrations, particle size and pH. Percentage sorption in each case was computed on the basis of Cd estimation using a planar NaI (TI) detector coupled to a 4K MCA (Canberra Accuspec Card with PC-AT 386). The adsorption data accurately in a Freundlich isotherm. Sorption studies resulted in the standardization of optimum conditions for removal of Cd (85.10%) as follows: biomass dosage (4.0 g), metal concentration (25 microg/ml), contact time (40 min) and volume of the test solution (200 ml) at pH 6.5. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry highlighted amino acid-Cd interactions responsible for sorption phenomenon. The findings open up new avenues in the removal of toxic metals by shelled Moringa oleifera seeds (SMOS) from water bodies as low cost, domestic and environmentally friendly safe technology.

  3. Antifilarial activity of gum from Moringa oleifera Lam. on human lymphatic filaria Brugia malayi

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    V Kushwaha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Currently available antifilarial drugs diethylcarbamazine, ivermectin and albendazole and their combinations, are not able to control lymphatic filariasis. Therefore, a better antifilarial agent is urgently required for proper management of the disease. Materials and Methods: In this study, we evaluated the antifilarial activity of gum extract of plant Moringa oleifera Lam. against the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi using adult worms and microfilariae (mf in two in vitro assays (motility and inhition in MTT reduction for viability and two animal models, primary (Meriones unguiculatus implanted with B. malayi adult worms in the peritoneal cavity and secondary (subcutaneous B. malayi infective larvae induced Mastomys coucha, the model closer to the natural human filarial infection screens. Results: The gum extract inhibited 100% motility (irreversible loss of motility of mf and inhibited more than 56% MTT reduction potential of the adult female worms. The extract was safe in cytotoxicity test using Vero cell line, therefore followed in vivo in primary and secondary screens. In primary screen, the extract (5×500 mg/kg caused 69% macrofilaricidal and 83% sterilization of female worms and 44% macrofilaricidal activity in secondary screen (5 × 1000 mg/kg by oral route. Conclusion: Thus, it is concluded that the gum of the plant is macrofilaricidal in both in vitro and in vivo and may provide valuable leads for design and development of new antifilarial agents. This is the first ever report on the antifilarial efficacy of M. oleifera.

  4. Moringa oleifera Lam prevents acetaminophen induced liver injury through restoration of glutathione level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakurazi, S; Hairuszah, I; Nanthini, U

    2008-08-01

    Initiation of acetaminophen (APAP) toxicities is believed to be promoted by oxidative stress during the event of overdosage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective action of Moringa oleifera Lam (MO), an Asian plant of high medicinal value, against a single high dose of APAP. Groups of five male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-administered with MO (200 and 800 mg/kg) prior to a single dose of APAP (3g/kg body weight; p.o). Silymarin was used as an established hepatoprotective drug against APAP induced liver injury. The hepatoprotective activity of MO extract was observed following significant histopathological analysis and reduction of the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in groups pretreated with MO compared to those treated with APAP alone. Meanwhile, the level of glutathione (GSH) was found to be restored in MO-treated animals compared to the groups treated with APAP alone. These observations were comparable to the group pretreated with silymarin prior to APAP administration. Group that was treated with APAP alone exhibited high level of transaminases and ALP activities besides reduction in the GSH level. The histological hepatocellular deterioration was also evidenced. The results from the present study suggested that the leaves of MO can prevent hepatic injuries from APAP induced through preventing the decline of glutathione level.

  5. Aproveitamento da torta da Moringa oleifera Lam para tratamento de água produzida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Farias Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de coagulantes ambientalmente corretos apresenta-se como uma alternativa viável na separação água/óleo. A polpa da semente do polímero natural conhecido como Moringa oleifera Lam atua como agente clarificante de águas devido à presença de uma proteína catiônica que desestabiliza as partículas contidas na água. O objetivo neste trabalho foi estudar o tratamento de água produzida, obtida na extração de petróleo, utilizando o coagulante extraído das sementes moringa em meio salino e em aquoso. Os resultados mostraram que se obteve 96% de eficiência na remoção de óleo, utilizando 0,5 mL/L do coagulante extraído em meio salino; e 76%, usando 2,5 mL do coagulante extraído em meio aquoso. Isso indica que o extrato da moringa pode ser uma excelente alternativa para o tratamento da água produzida na extração do petróleo.

  6. Antimicrobial Activity and Chromatographic Analysis of Extracts from Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam. Tubers

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    Ritiel Corrêa da Cruz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam. tubers (Tropaeolaceae are known and used as a condiment and for the treatment of skin infections in Southern Brazil. However, its activity and composition has not yet been investigated. Thus, different extracts and the essential oil from the tubers were tested against a range of microorganisms. The most active extracts were submitted to chromatographic analysis. Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract (70%, fractions of it, and the essential oil from the tubers were tested against several bacteria, yeasts and molds, furnishing the corresponding inhibitory, bactericidal and fungicidal minimal concentration values. The most active extracts were submitted to GC-MS investigation. Results: The strongest effects against different strains of microorganisms, such as Gram-positive and negative bacteria, Candida spp. and dermatophytes were observed for the essential oil and the chloroform fraction, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs well below 200 µg/mL. GC-MS analysis revealed that the major essential oil constituent is benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC, while the chloroform fraction is constituted of BITC, amides, sulfur, fatty acids and its esters, all compounds that may be related to the demonstrated activity. Conclusions: Overall, the results support the popular use of the plant for the treatment of skin infections, and revealed the main active compounds.

  7. Frying stability of sunflower oil blended with jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-11-01

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of ultrasound-assisted and microwave-assisted extraction with solvent extraction method on antioxidant activities of jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) leaf extracts in stability of sunflower oil during deep frying. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. Ultrasound-assisted extraction was the most effective method on antioxidant activities of extracts and extraction yield of phenolic compounds compared to other extraction techniques. Protective effect of methanol-water extract of jujube leaf obtained with ultrasound-assisted extraction (ULMW) at 500 and 700 ppm in stability of sunflower oil was compared to synthetic antioxidants by measuring total polar compounds (TPC), carbonyl value (CV), peroxide value (PV), free fatty acids (FFA), oxidative stability index (OSI), conjugated dienes (CD), and trienes values (CT). Results showed ULMW at 700 ppm had higher stabilization efficiency than synthetic antioxidants.

  8. Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. D.C. Hydroalcoholic Extract Inhibits Neutrophil Functions Related to Innate Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Diego Barioni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. D.C. is a herb native to South America, and its inflorescences are popularly employed to treat inflammatory diseases. Here, the effects of the in vivo actions of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from inflorescences of A. satureioides on neutrophil trafficking into inflamed tissue were investigated. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with A. satureioides extract, and inflammation was induced one hour later by lipopolysaccharide injection into the subcutaneous tissue. The number of leukocytes and the amount of chemotactic mediators were quantified in the inflammatory exudate, and adhesion molecule and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4 expressions and phorbol-myristate-acetate- (PMA- stimulated oxidative burst were quantified in circulating neutrophils. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions were quantified in the mesentery tissue. Enzymes and tissue morphology of the liver and kidney were evaluated. Treatment with A. satureioides extract reduced neutrophil influx and secretion of leukotriene B4 and CINC-1 in the exudates, the number of rolling and adhered leukocytes in the mesentery postcapillary venules, neutrophil L-selectin, β2-integrin and TLR-4 expression, and oxidative burst, but did not cause an alteration in the morphology and activities of liver and kidney. Together, the data show that A. satureioides extract inhibits neutrophil functions related to the innate response and does not cause systemic toxicity.

  9. Cytoprotective effect against mercury chloride and bioinsecticidal activity of Eugenia jambolana Lam.

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    Celestina E. Sobral-Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is often utilized in genetic research, and in the last decades, it has become one of best organisms for studies of human diseases and toxicological research. Mercury chloride (HgCl2, the main representative of mercury compounds, is the target of numerous investigations, not only because of its intrinsic toxicity but also because it accounts for the toxicity of elemental mercury since the latter is converted to Hg+2 by oxidation. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Myrtaceae, known in Brazil as “jambolão”, is of great interest because of its medicinal applications, especially its leaves and fruits. The aim of this work was to characterize, by CG–MS, the chemical constituents of the essential oil of Eugenia jambolana and to evaluate its bioinsecticidal action in the Drosophila melanogaster model, as well as to determine the cytoprotective and chelating effect of the extract of E. jambolana. The results obtained here point to the potential of essential oils as a source in biological prospecting for bioinsecticides. Because of their biodegradability, essential oils can be important tools in the biological control of pests. The results demonstrated that the extract has an allelopathic effect on lettuce seeds and that its interaction with mercury chloride allows a greater growth of the radicle and plumule of Lactuta sativa seedlings, showing that this plant can provide an alternative solution to the problem of contamination by heavy metals, besides having cytoprotective potential and moderate chelating activity.

  10. In Vitro Wound Healing Potential and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam

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    Abubakar Amali Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera from the monogeneric family Moringaceae is found in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed at exploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. Different solvent crude extracts were screened, and the most active crude extract was further subjected to differential bioguided fractionation. Fractions were also screened and most active aqueous fraction was finally obtained for further investigation. HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for identification and confirmation of bioactive compounds. The results of our study demonstrated that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera significantly enhanced proliferation and viability as well as migration of human dermal fibroblast (HDF cells compared to the untreated control and other fractions. The HPLC and LC-MS/MS studies revealed kaempferol and quercetin compounds in the crude methanolic extract and a major bioactive compound Vicenin-2 was identified in the bioactive aqueous fraction which was confirmed with standard Vicenin-2 using HPLC and UV spectroscopic methods. These findings suggest that bioactive fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 compound may enhance faster wound healing in vitro.

  11. Investigation on the influence of foreign metal ions in crystal growth and characterization of L-Alaninium Maleate (LAM) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby Nirmala, L.; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J.

    2013-11-01

    A Nonlinear Optical, good quality, single crystals of doped and undoped L-Alaninium Maleate (LAM) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. The lattice parameters were analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The identification of Cadmium ion in the doped crystals was done using the EDAX spectrum. The presence of functional group of the dopant with LAM molecule was studied using FTIR spectra. The results of UV-Vis study is used to compare the transparencies of the doped and undoped LAM crystals. The optical band gap energy of the grown crystal was also calculated. The relative second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency measurement with KDP reference is used to find the incorporation of metal to L-Alaninium Maleate crystals and the parent material. Also the thermal stability of the grown crystals was studied by TGA/DTA spectrum. The mechanical stability of the grown crystals was confirmed through Vickers micro hardness study. By parallel plate capacitor technique, the dielectric response was studied over a wide range of frequencies at different temperatures. The various studies showed the incorporation of the impurity Cd2+ into LAM crystals and the investigations indicated that the impurity played an important role in the changes of the spectral and structural properties of LAM crystals.

  12. Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos

    OpenAIRE

    Jain,Pankaj G.; Savita D. Patil; HASWANI, Nitin G.; Manoj V. Girase; Surana, Sanjay J.

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o.) along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to th...

  13. Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., Asteraceae: development of granules from spray dried powder

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    Gustavo F. Petrovick

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., Asteraceae, is a herbal specie widely used in folk medicine in the south of Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina and Paraguay. The technological characteristics of an Achyrocline satureioides spray dried extract powder, produced in semi-industrial scale, as well as the feasibility of the granules are reported in the present work. The spray dried powder was characterized as a fine powder consisting of small spherical particles with rough and porous surface. The Hausner's factor, Carr's index, and densification index of the spray dried powder were, respectively, 1,23, 18,9%, and 27,2 mL, characterizing it as a poor flow and low density powder. The preparation of granules from this spray dried powder, through dry disaggregation method, yielded irregularly shaped granules, with a rough surface, but with better flow and compactability characteristics. These granules presented a Hausner's factor, a Carr's index, and a densification index of, respectively, 1,09, 8,16%, and 12,33 mL. The LC assay of the main polyphenols, quercetin, luteolin, and 3-O-methylquercetin revealed that the granulation process did not changed the quantitative and qualitative profile of these constituents originally present in the spray dried powder. The comparative evaluation of the physical stability of both the spray dried powder and the granules, under relative humidity conditions of 65% and 99%, showed an expressive reduction in the humidity sorption on the granules as compared to the spray dried powders.Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., Asteraceae, é uma planta amplamente utilizada na medicina popular no sul do Brasil, Uruguai, Argentina e Paraguai. As características tecnológicas do extrato seco por aspersão de Achyrocline satureioides, produzido em escala semi-industrial, assim como a viabilidade da produção de granulados são relatadas no presente trabalho. O extrato seco por aspersão foi caracterizado como um pó fino, composto por

  14. Phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons by using a freshwater fern species Azolla filiculoides Lam.

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    Kösesakal, Taylan; Ünal, Muammer; Kulen, Oktay; Memon, Abdülrezzak; Yüksel, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the phytoremediation capacity of Azolla filiculoides Lam. for the water resources contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was investigated. The plants were grown in nitrogen-free Hoagland nutrient solution containing 0.005%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.5% crude oil under greenhouse conditions for 15 days. Although the growth rate of the plants were not negatively influenced by the presence of crude oil in the media for the concentration of 0.005% and 0.01% v/v, a gradual impeding effect of crude oil in the growth media has been observed at concentrations 0.05-0.1%. More than 0.1% crude oil in the growth medium ostensibly retarded the growth. For example, 0.2% oil in the media reduced growth approximately 50% relative to the control, and the presence of crude oil at concentrations 0.3% or more were lethal. The data about the percentage of plant growth, fresh weight increase and root growth clearly indicated that the tolerance level of A. filiculoides plants to crude oil ranges between 0.1% and 0.2%. In comparison to control samples, the biodegradation rate of total aliphatic and aromatic (phenathrene) hydrocarbons at 0.05-0.2% oil concentrations, was 94-73% and 81-77%, respectively. On the other hand, in case of further increases in oil concentration in media, i.e.; 0.3-0.5%, the biodegradation rate was still higher in the experimental samples, respectively 71-63% and 75-71%. The high biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons in the experimental samples suggested that A. filiculoides plants could be a promising candidate to be used for the phytoremediation of low crude oil contaminated precious freshwater resources.

  15. Phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation of prop roots of Pandanus fascicularis Lam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jothimani Rajeswari; Karthikeyan Kesavan; Balasundaram Jayakar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of prop roots of Pandanus fascicularis (P. fascicularis) Lam (pandanaceae). And provide experimental evidence for its traditional use such as rheumatoid arthritis and spasmodic. Methods:The anti-inflammatory activity was observed by carrageenan-induced edema of the hind paw of rats. Analgesic activities of prop roots ofP. fascicularis were determined using acetic acid induced writhing model and tail clip method in mice and rat, respectively. The ethanol fraction was then subjected to chromatographic analysis and a compound has been isolated and characterized byIR,1H-NMR and mass spectroscopy.Results: Edema suppressant effect of ethanol extract was found to be37.03% inhibition whereas aqueous extract was found to be 63.22% inhibition after 3 h which was nearly equivalent to that of 10mg/kg of indomethacin (67.81%). Percentage inhibition of writhing compared to control were63.15%, 54.38%, 14.90%for aspirin, aqueous extract and ethanolic extract, respectively. Both ethanol and aqueous extracts show significant activity against appropriate controls after60 min of treatment on tail clip method. The structure of the isolated compound is may be characterized as Hepta deca-5-ene-1-ol by analysis it’sIR,1H-NMR and mass spectroscopy data.Conclusions: The extracts of prop roots ofP. fascicularis produce significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this herb in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

  16. Callogenesis in leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. by 2,4-D and BA action

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    M.R.A. Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. is a bush species of the Crassulaceae that is distinguished by its important medicinal properties. Its leaves are used as cataplasm to treat headaches and wounds. There is evidence for a hypotensive and anti-inflammatory effect. Techniques of plant tissue culture have been applied to plant species that produce substances likely to be explored in pharmacology, cell suspension being the main technique. At the industrial level, this method utilizes bioreactors in order to produce secondary metabolites on a large scale. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of in vitro combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxiacetic acid (2,4-D and benzylaminopurine (BA on callus induction in leaf explants of K. pinnata. Leaf fragments were inoculated in MS medium supplemented with 3.0% sucrose, 0.8% agar and factorial combinations of 2,4-D (0.00, 4.52, 9.06, 18.12 µM and BA (0.00, 4.44, 8.88, 17.76 µM. The cultures were kept in the darkness at 24±2ºC for 50 days. The percentage of callus induction and the area of explants covered by callus cells were evaluated. In the absence of growth regulators, callus induction did not occur, with necrosis of all explants. The highest percentage of callus induction was 100%, obtained with the combination of 9.06 µM 2,4-D and 8.88 µM BA, but the calluses covered only 25% of the leaf area. The most efficient combination was 4.52 µM 2,4-D and 8.88 µM BA, resulting in 91% callus induction with 50 to 100% of the explants being covered by callus cells.

  17. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae grown in Nigeria: In vitro antisickling activity on deoxygenated erythrocyte cells

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    Olufunmilayo E Adejumo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Traditional medicine, which is more available and affordable for the poor uses medicinal plants for the treatment and management of various ailments, including the sickle cell disease (SCD. About 24 million Nigerians are carriers of this sickled cell gene, while approximately 2.4 million are SCD patients. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae possesses high nutritional value and has been used in folklore medicine to treat various ailments related to pain and inflammation. Chemical, pharmacological and pharmacognostical applications of Moringa oleifera have been reported. Objective: This study investigated the antisickling potential of polar and non-polar extracts of the seed, flower and leaf of Moringa oleifera for the first time. Materials and Methods: Using crude methanol extract, aqueous extract, ethyl acetate and butanol, the in vitro antisickling activities of Moringa oleifera fractions, were evaluated using erythrocyte cells deoxygenated with 2% sodium metabisulphite. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid and normal saline were employed as positive and negative controls. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, free anthraquinones, and alkaloids. Extracts of the seed and flower demonstrated a higher (P<0.05 antisickling activity in comparison to the leaf extract. The leaf extract, as well as those of the seed and flower, equally demonstrated a (P<0.05 reversal of sickled erythrocytes. Discussions and Conclusions: These findings suggest that Moringa oleifera may play a role in the management of SCD, by incorporation of its fractions into recipes. More extensive biological evaluations and further studies will be necessary for the chemical characterization of the antisickling principles.

  18. Comparison of two sampling methods when studying periphyton colonization in Lam Tsuen River, Hong Kong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Anping; LAM Kwan-sing Paul; HU Zhangli

    2011-01-01

    We used standard periphyton samplers to examine the colonization pattern of periphytic algae on artificial substrates (glass slides) in Lam Tsuen River, Hong Kong, in dry (winter) and wet (summer) seasons. In each season, six replicated slides were retrieved randomly and replaced by new slides at weekly intervals over a period of 6 weeks. We thus obtained two batches of slides, both with a series of different exposure times (1 to 6 weeks): one batch was set up at the same time (start of the sampling) and the other was harvested at the same time (end of the sampling). Changes in taxonomic composition, species diversity (Shannon-Wiener diversity index), standing crop (in terms of cell density and cell biovolume), and abundance of the abundant algal species were monitored and compared between the two batches of slides. The succession patterns of the periphytic algae were similar between the two batches in each season, while more remarkable differences were observed between the two seasons, suggesting that either batch would be suitable for a colonization study of periphytic algae. The cell density was dominated by diatoms in both seasons, while the cell biovolume was dominated by diatoms in winter and by green algae in summer. The cell density and biovolume attributed to blue green algae was relatively small. Most of the diatom species exhibited similar colonization patterns throughout the experiment, while green algae showed different succession patterns in different seasons or sampling methods, indicating that diatoms are better bio-indicators than green algae for a periphyton colonization study. In general, the diversity indices and the standing crops reached their maximums at around week 4, and they were higher in summer than in winter.

  19. Quality improvement of sweet-potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) roots as feed by ensilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y H; Huang, T C; Huang, C

    1988-07-01

    1. Sweet-potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) strips (SPS) mixed with maize powder (CP) in proportions 10:0, 9:1, 8:2, and 7:3 were ensiled for 1, 2 or 3 months. 2. Trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) decreased during ensilage in samples of all treatments while the SPS-CP mixture (7:3, w/w) ensiled for 3 months contained the lowest TIA. 3. SPS-CP (8:2, w/w) dried or ensiled for 2 months, or ensiled for 2 months and dried, were each mixed with twice the amount of control diet (1:2, w/w) to make three diets. These three diets together with the control diet were used for a feeding experiment with rats to evaluate the nutritive value. 4. General composition analysis (including metabolizable energy), fatty acid composition and amino acid analysis (including percentage of essential amino acids) of the samples did not change during ensilage to an extent which could explain the improved performance of rats fed on ensiled diets. 5. Rats fed on diets containing dried SPS-CP (8:2, w/w) showed significantly lower (P less than 0.05) body-weight gain than rats fed on the control diet or ensiled SPS diets, at the end of the 8th week. They also showed enlargement of the pancreas. The adverse effect of SPS was associated with TIA which seemed to be prevented to some extent by ensilage. 6. The possibility that the starch of SPS may also contribute to the adverse effect cannot be excluded at present.

  20. Transcriptional response of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam. following exposure to heat stress and copper.

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    Alessandro Negri

    Full Text Available Global warming is a major factor that may affect biological organization, especially in marine ecosystems and in coastal areas that are particularly subject to anthropogenic pollution. We evaluated the effects of simultaneous changes in temperature and copper concentrations on lysosomal membrane stability (N-acetyl-hexosaminidase activity and malondialdehyde accumulation (MDA in the gill of the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.. Temperature and copper exerted additive effects on lysosomal membrane stability, exacerbating the toxic effects of metal cations present in non-physiological concentrations. Mussel lysosomal membrane stability is known to be positively related to scope for growth, indicating possible effects of increasing temperature on mussel populations in metal-polluted areas. To clarify the molecular response to environmental stressors, we used a cDNA microarray with 1,673 sequences to measure the relative transcript abundances in the gills of mussels exposed to copper (40 µg/L and a temperature gradient (16°C, 20°C, and 24°C. In animals exposed only to heat stress, hierarchical clustering of the microarray data revealed three main clusters, which were largely dominated by down-regulation of translation-related differentially expressed genes, drastic up-regulation of protein folding related genes, and genes involved in chitin metabolism. The response of mussels exposed to copper at 24°C was characterized by an opposite pattern of the genes involved in translation, most of which were up-regulated, as well as the down-regulation of genes encoding heat shock proteins and "microtubule-based movement" proteins. Our data provide novel information on the transcriptomic modulations in mussels facing temperature increases and high copper concentrations; these data highlight the risk of marine life exposed to toxic chemicals in the presence of temperature increases due to climate change.

  1. Identification of QTLs for Starch Content in Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao-xia; ZHAO Ning; LI Hui; JIE Qin; ZHAI Hong; HE Shao-zhen; LI Qiang; LIU Qing-chang

    2014-01-01

    Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) breeding is challenging due to its genetic complexity. In the present study, interval mapping (IM) and multiple quantitative trait locus (QTL) model (MQM) analysis were used to identify QTLs for starch content with a mapping population consisting of 202 F1 individuals of a cross between Xushu 18, a cultivar susceptible to stem nematodes, with high yield and moderate starch, and Xu 781, which is resistant to stem nematodes, has low yield and high starch content. Six QTLs for starch content were mapped on six linkage groups of the Xu 781 map, explaining 9.1-38.8% of the variation. Especially, one of them,DMFN_4, accounted for 38.8% of starch content variation, which is the QTL that explains the highest phenotypic variation detected to date in sweetpotato. All of the six QTLs had a positive effect on the variation of the starch content, which indicated the inheritance derived from the parent Xu 781. Two QTLs for starch content were detected on two linkage groups of the Xushu 18 map, explaining 14.3 and 16.1% of the variation, respectively. They had a negative effect on the variation, indicating the inheritance derived from Xu 781. Seven of eight QTLs were co-localized with a single marker. This is the ifrst report on the development of QTLs co-localized with a single marker in sweetpotato. These QTLs and their co-localized markers may be used in marker-assisted breeding for the starch content of sweetpotato.

  2. Effect of soil medium amendment on chemical composition and digestibility of Lolium multiflorum Lam.

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    Jacek Sosnowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of used soil medium amendment on the background of mineral fertilizers and on the chemical composition, and digestibility of dry matter of Lolium multiflorum Lam. (‘Gaza’ variety. Experiment with the cultivation of this species was carried out in the rings of polyurethane, in four replications. For each of the pots, eight ryegrass seeds were sown. After seeds germination when seedlings reached the two-three leaf stage, negative selection was made by removing the four weakest plants and then experimental factors were introduced in the form of the following combinations: NPK – mineral fertilization in annual doses of 0.6 g N, 0.25 g P2O5 and 0.9 g of K2O per ring, B-NPK – without fertilization, UG – soil medium amendment in the form of 0.25% solution and a dose of 3.7 cm3 per ring, B-UG – without soil medium amendment. Nitrogen fertilization (34% ammonium nitrate and potassium (60% potassium salt were used in three doses, and phosphorus (46% TSP in a single dose in spring. The soil medium amendment solution was used for watering plants in a phase of shooting. The full period of this experiment was in 2009-2010. During this time, the analysis of chemical composition of dry matter yield was performed for all cuts at the Institute of Technology and Life Sciences in Falenty. The using of soil fertilizer in cultivation of ryegrass led to increase the crude ash content, expand the sugar-protein ratio and slight improvement of dry matter digestibility of the tested plant material.

  3. Moringa Oleifera Lam Mitigates Oxidative Damage and Brain Infarct Volume in Focal Cerebral Ischemia

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    Woranan Kirisattayakul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: At present, the therapeutic outcome of cerebral ischemia is still not in the satisfaction level. Therefore, the preventive strategy is considered. Based on the protective effect against oxidative damage of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves extract, we hypothesized that this plant extract might protect against cerebral ischemia, one of the challenge problems nowadays. In order to test this hypothesis, we aimed to determine the protective effect of M.oleifera leaves extract in animal model of focal cerebral ischemia induced by permanent occlusion of right middle cerebral artery. Approach: Male Wistar rats, weighing 300-350 g, were orally given the extract once daily at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1 BW at a period of 2 weeks, then, they were permanently occluded the right Middle Cerebral Artery (MCAO. The animals were assessed the cerebral infarction volume and oxidative damage markers including MDA level and the activities of SOD, CAT and GSHPx enzymes at 24 h after occlusion. Results: Rats subjected to M.oleifera extract at all doses used in this study significantly decreased brain infarct volume both at cortical and subcortical structures in accompany with the elevation of SOD activity in both hippocampus and striatum while only the rats exposed to the extract at doses of 100 and 400 mg kg-1 BW showed the increased GSHPx activity in hippocampus. No the changes were observed. Therefore, our results demonstrates the potential benefit of M.oleifera leaves to decrease oxidative stress damage and brain infarct volume. Conclusion: This study is the first study to demonstrate the neuroprotective effect against focal cerebral ischemia of M.oleifera leaves. It suggests that M.oleifera may be served as natural resource for developing neuroprotectant against focal cerebral ischemia. However, the precise underlying mechanism and possible active ingredient are still required further study.

  4. Evaluación de patógenos en clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.

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    Consuelo Montes Rojas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En el noroccidente de Popayán, Colombia, se evaluó la presencia de plagas causadas por patógenos en 42 clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.. Los clones fueron plantados en bolsas plásticas, donde se desarrollaron por 3 semanas antes de ser trasplantados al campo. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones, la parcela útil estuvo conformada por 6 plantas, las cuales se sembraron a ‘tresbolillo’ a 2.5 m entre surcos y 2 m entre plantas. Para determinar el efecto de las plagas en el cultivo, se calculó el porcentaje de incidencia y severidad del ataque. La incidencia se evaluó como porcentaje de plantas afectadas, y la severidad como porcentaje de tejido afectado por el patógeno. Las enfermedades más limitantes para los 42 clones fueron: gota (Phytophthora infestans que provocó una mortalidad de plantas superior a 40%; fusarium (Fusarium oxysporum que se presentó en 12 de los clones evaluados; antracnosis (Colletotrichum sp. que afectó 21 clones, los cuales se clasificaron entre tolerantes y medianamente tolerantes; y mancha clorótica (Cladosporium sp. que afectó 21 clones, clasificados como susceptibles. Los clones PL19, PL24, PL11, PL35 fueron medianamente tolerantes. Se seleccionaron por supervivencia los clones: JY E1 (52.2%, PH E 1 (45.8%, VM E2 (45.8%; por supervivencia y por tolerancia a Fusarium oxysporum los clones PL35, PL11, PL24, PL8, PL19, 120052, 120043, ORE1, AGE1. Los clones SER 7, SER 15, SER 9, SEC 31, SEC 27 presentaron alta mortalidad pero se seleccionaron por ser medianamente tolerantes a gota, tolerantes a antracnosis y medianamente resistentes a nematodos, con buen vigor y producción.

  5. Anti-nutritional factors in the roots of a local cultivar of Moringa oleifera (Lam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwilo, I O; Ezeonu, F C; Ezekwesili-Ofili, J O; Igwilo, S N; Nsofor, C I; Abdulsalami, M S; Obi, E

    2014-01-01

    The evergreen plant, Moringa oleifera (Lam) has been known to have both medicinal and nutritional properties, thus its wide use in traditional medicine in Africa and Asia. The roots, in particular, have been reported to possess antibiotic, anti-tumour and anti-oxidative activities. This study therefore seeks to determine the levels of the anti-nutritional factors and other proximate analyses in the roots of a local cultivar of Moringa oleifera which might be responsible for such activities. The concentrations of oxalates and phytates in the roots were determined using the methods of Munro and Bassir and Griffith and Thomas, respectively. The methods of Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) were used to estimate the amount of tannins, saponins and cyanogenic glycosides while the Technicon sequential Multi-sample amino acid analyzer (TSM) was used determine the amino acid concentration in the roots. Tannins (45 mg 100 g(-1)) and oxalates (17.08 mg 100 g(-1)) were present in the roots at higher levels while saponins (4.20mg 100 g(-1)), cyanogenic glycosides (2.72 mg 100 g(-1)) and phytates (0.07 mg 100 g(-1)) occurred at much lower levels. The roots contained (Mean +/- Standard Error of mean) %crude lipid (6.33 +/- 1.64), %crude proteins (5.02 +/- 1.52), %carbohydrates (76.75), %ash (4.97 +/- 0.53) and %moisture (6.93 +/- 0.58). The roots lacked the water-soluble vitamins pyridoxine, riboflavin and thiamine but contained ascorbic acid (48.13 mg 100 g(-1)) and niacin (5.83 mg 100 g(-1)). This study has shown that Moringa oleifera roots are rich in anti-nutritional factors and that is why they are widely used in traditional medicine in Africa, Asia and Americas for its medicinal importance.

  6. Inhibitory Action of Ethanolic Extract of Seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. On Systemic and Local Anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mehta, Anita A

    2007-10-01

    The current study characterizes the mechanism by which the seed extract of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) decreases the mast cell-mediated immediate type hypersensitivity reaction. The immediate type hypersensitivity reaction is involved in many allergic diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. Moringa oleifera, a shrub widely used in the traditional medicine in India, has been reported to possess anti-cancer, hypotensive, anti-arthritic, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the effects of the ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera (MOEE-herbal remedy) on systemic and local anaphylaxis were investigated. The potential anti-anaphylactic effect of MOEE was studied in a mouse model of Compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylactic shock. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti IgE-antibody was also used to assess the effect of MOEE. In addition, rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) were used to investigate the effect of MOEE on histamine release induced by compound 48/80. When administered 1 hr before 48/80 injection, MOEE at doses of 0.001-1.000 g/kg completely inhibited the inducible induced anaphylactic shock. MOEE significantly inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti-IgE antibody at a dose of 1 g/kg. When MOEE extract was given as pretreatment at concentrations ranging 0.1-100 mg/ml, the histamine release from the mast cells that was induced by the 48/80 was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest a potential role for MOEE as a source of anti-anaphylactic agents for use in allergic disorders.

  7. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mehta, Anita A

    2008-08-01

    To determine the therapeutic potential of herbal medicine Moringa oleifera Lam. family: Moringaceae in the control of allergic diseases, the efficacy of the ethanolic extract of the seeds of the plant (MOEE) against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs was examined. During the experimental period, the test drugs (MOEE or dexamethasone) were administered by oral route prior to challenge with aerosolized 0.5% OVA. Bronchoconstriction tests were performed and respiratory parameters (i.e., tidal volume and respiratory rate) were measured. At the end of experiment, blood was collected from each animal to perform total and differential counts and serum was used for assay of IL-4, IL-6, and TNFalpha. Lung lavage fluid (BAL) was collected for estimation of cellular content and cytokine levels. Lung tissue histamine assays were performed using the homogenate of one lobe from each animal; a separate lobe and the trachea were subjected to histopathology to measure the degree of any airway inflammation. The results suggest that in OVA-sensitized control animals that did not receive either drug, tidal volume (V(t)) was decreased, respiration rate (f) was increased, and both the total and differential cell counts in blood and BAL fluid were increased significantly. MOEE-treatment of sensitized hosts resulted in improvement in all parameters except BAL TNFalpha and IL-4. Moreover, MOEE-treatment also showed protection against acetylcholine-induced broncho-constriction and airway inflammation which was confirmed by histological observations. The results of these studies confirm the traditional claim for the usefulness of this herb in the treatment of allergic disorders like asthma.

  8. Chemical characteristics and fractionation of proteins from Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Estelamar Maria Borges; Carvalho, Maria Regina Barbieri; Neves, Valdir Augusto; Silva, Maraíza Apareci; Arantes-Pereira, Lucas

    2014-03-15

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a leguminous plant, originally from Asia, which is cultivated in Brazil because of its low production cost. Although some people have used this plant as food, there is little information about its chemical and nutritional characteristics. The objective of this study was to characterise the leaves of M. oleifera in terms of their chemical composition, protein fractions obtained by solubility in different systems and also to assess their nutritional quality and presence of bioactive substances. The whole leaf flour contained 28.7% crude protein, 7.1% fat, 10.9% ashes, 44.4% carbohydrate and 3.0mg 100g(-1) calcium and 103.1mg 100g(-1) iron. The protein profile revealed levels of 3.1% albumin, 0.3% globulins, 2.2% prolamin, 3.5% glutelin and 70.1% insoluble proteins. The hydrolysis of the protein from leaf flour employing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) resulted in 39.5% and 29.5%, respectively. The total protein showed low in vitro digestibility (31.8%). The antinutritional substances tested were tannins (20.7 mg g(-1)), trypsin inhibitor (1.45TIU mg g(-1)), nitrate (17 mg g(-1)) and oxalic acid (10.5 mg g(-1)), besides the absence of cyanogenic compounds. β-Carotene and lutein stood out as major carotenoids, with concentrations of 161.0 and 47.0 μg g(-1) leaf, respectively. Although M. oleifera leaves contain considerable amount of crude protein, this is mostly insoluble and has low in vitro digestibility, even after heat treatment and chemical attack. In vivo studies are needed to better assess the use of this leaf as a protein source in human feed.

  9. Constituintes químicos voláteis das flores e folhas do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata, Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Claudia M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents obtained from a static cryogenic headspace of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Leguminosae showed E-beta-ocimene as the major compound (57.2%, beside other monoterpenes, C6 derivatives like n-hexanal and (E-2-hexenal and nitrogen compounds such as indole and methyl anthranilate. From the essential oil of the leaves obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus, (E-3-hexen-1-ol was identified as the major constituent while phenolic compounds were the most representative class of secondary metabolites.

  10. Analisis Kandungan Kalsium, Kalium, dan Magnesium pada Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Segar dan Direbus Secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuni, Sri

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam that we know as Moringa is the best-known species of the thirteen species of the genus Moringacae. Minerals contained in Moringa are calcium, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sulphur, and zinc. Moringa leaves as a source of vitamins and minerals can be consumed in a way cooked, or eaten raw or dried into powder. One of the cooking method is boiling in the water. Vitamins and minerals are easily soluble in water is a nutrient that is quick...

  11. Catalytic Chan–Lam coupling using a ‘tube-in-tube’ reactor to deliver molecular oxygen as an oxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Carl J; Burton, Paul M; Smith, Alexander M R; Walter, Gary C

    2016-01-01

    Summary A flow system to perform Chan–Lam coupling reactions of various amines and arylboronic acids has been realised employing molecular oxygen as an oxidant for the re-oxidation of the copper catalyst enabling a catalytic process. A tube-in-tube gas reactor has been used to simplify the delivery of the oxygen accelerating the optimisation phase and allowing easy access to elevated pressures. A small exemplification library of heteroaromatic products has been prepared and the process has been shown to be robust over extended reaction times. PMID:27559412

  12. Target site mutation and reduced translocation are present in a glyphosate-resistant Lolium multiflorum Lam. biotype from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torralva, Fidel; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Barro, Francisco; Brants, Ivo; De Prado, Rafael

    2012-09-01

    The resistance mechanism of a glyphosate-resistant Lolium multiflorum Lam. biotype collected in Córdoba (Southern Spain) was examined. Resistance Factor values at three different growth stages ranged between 4.77 and 4.91. At 96 hours after treatment (HAT) the S biotype had accumulated seven times more shikimic acid than the R biotype. There were significant differences in translocation of (14)C-glyphosate between biotypes, i.e. at 96 HAT, the R biotype accumulated in the treated leaf more than 70% of the absorbed herbicide, in comparison with 59.21% of the S biotype; the R biotype translocated only 14.79% of the absorbed (14)C-glyphosate to roots, while in the S population this value was 24.79%. Visualization of (14)C-glyphosate by phosphor imaging showed a reduced distribution in the R biotype compared with the S. Glyphosate metabolism was not involved in the resistance mechanism due to both biotypes showing similar values of glyphosate at 96 HAT. Comparison of the EPSPS gene sequences between biotypes indicated that the R biotype has a proline 182 to serine amino acid substitution. In short, the resistance mechanism of the L. multiflorum Lam. biotype is due to an impaired translocation of the herbicide and an altered target site.

  13. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Increases lifespan and ameliorates experimentally induced neurodegeneration in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Bezerra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, dyslipidemia (DL and inflammation (IF are associated with reduced lifespan (LS and increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases (NDG. Dysregulation in insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 (IIS signaling, forkhead box O transcription factor (FOXO and Silent Information Regulators or Sirtuins (SIRT may be responsible. We investigated the effect of spray dried Jambolan (Eugenia jambolana Lam. fruit in Caenorhabditis elegans model for lifespan, amyloid b1-42 (Ab1-42 aggregation induced paralysis and MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium induced neurodegeneration. Effect on modulating critical genes involved signaling pathways important in IIS, LS and NDG were also studied in C. elegans. Results show suggest statistically significant increase in lifespan (9-22.7% coupled with a delay in Ab1-42 induced paralysis (11.5% and MPP+ induced paralysis (38-43%. Gene expression studies indicated a significant upregulation in expression of  C. elegans homologs of foxo, sirt1, dopamine D1 receptor and suggested a non-FOXO mediated mechanism of action.Industrial relevance. Jambolan is a bioactive-rich tropical fruit with high colorant potential. Despite this fact, its perishability has hampered its market and industrial use beyond the countries where it is cultivated. Considering that drying is a popular technique able to extend fruits shelf life and concentrate their natural bioactive compounds, this research investigates the health relevance of spray dried jambolan. Here we addressed the potential of dried Jambolan fruit to extend lifespan and inhibit the progression of experimentally induced neurodegeneration using the C. elegans model. We demonstrated that this convenient fruit product was able to increase the lifespan of C. elegans. The jambolan extracts also influenced some critical genes of signaling pathways relevant to metabolic diseases, aging and neurodegeneration. Based on our results, some insight about

  14. Evaluación de patógenos en clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Rojas Consuelo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En el noroccidente de Popayán, Colombia, se evaluó la presencia de plagas causadas por patógenos en 42 clones de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.. Los clones fueron plantados en bolsas plásticas, donde se desarrollaron por 3 semanas antes de ser trasplantados al campo. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones, la parcela útil estuvo conformada por 6 plantas, las cuales se sembraron a 'tresbolillo' a 2.5 m entre surcos y 2 m entre plantas. Para determinar el efecto de las plagas en el cultivo, se calculó el porcentaje de incidencia y severidad del ataque. La incidencia se evaluó como porcentaje de plantas afectadas, y la severidad como porcentaje de tejido afectado por el patógeno. Las enfermedades más limitantes para los 42 clones fueron: gota (Phytophthora infestans que provocó una mortalidad de plantas superior a 40%; fusarium (Fusarium oxysporum que se presentó en 12 de los clones evaluados; antracnosis (Colletotrichum sp. que afectó 21 clones, los cuales se clasificaron entre tolerantes y medianamente tolerantes; y mancha clorótica (Cladosporium sp. que afectó 21 clones, clasificados como susceptibles. Los clones PL19, PL24, PL11, PL35 fueron medianamente tolerantes. Se seleccionaron por supervivencia los clones: JY E1 (52.2%, PH E 1 (45.8%, VM E2 (45.8%; por supervivencia y por tolerancia a Fusarium oxysporum los clones PL35, PL11, PL24, PL8, PL19, 120052, 120043, ORE1, AGE1. Los clones SER 7, SER 15, SER 9, SEC 31, SEC 27 presentaron alta mortalidad pero se seleccionaron por ser medianamente tolerantes a gota, tolerantes a antracnosis y medianamente resistentes a nematodos, con buen vigor y producción.

  15. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resources potential of crop wild relatives of sweeetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. I. series Batatas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, and the limited availability of germplasm wi...

  16. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoury, C.K.; Heider, B.; Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P.; Achicanoy, H.A.; Sosa, C.C.; Miller, R.E.; Scotland, R.W.; Wood, J.R.I.; Rossel, G.; Eserman, L.A.; Jarret, R.L.; Yencho, G.C.; Bernau, V.; Juarez, H.; Sotelo, S.; Haan, de S.; Struik, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which t

  17. Oriënterend onderzoek over de reuzen- en dwergplanten in F1 en volgende generaties van Phaseolus vulgaris L. x Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Sipke Johannes

    1949-01-01

    A cross is studied between the selffertilising bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) "Zeeuwse Bruine Boon" and crossfertilising runner bean (Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.) "stam" (a scarlet flowering stockrunner-bean) or some other (climbing) runners. With the bushbean as mother this cross easily results i

  18. Preface: Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Liquid and Amorphous Metals (LAM13) (Ekaterinburg, Russia, 8 14 July 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popel, Pjotr; Gelchinskii, Boris; Sidorov, Valeriy

    2008-03-01

    The most recent developments in the field of liquid and amorphous metals and alloys are regularly updated through two complementary international conferences: the liquid and amorphous metals conference (LAM) and the rapidly quenched materials (RQ) conference. The first series of conferences started as LM1 in 1966 at Brookhaven for the basic understanding of liquid metals. The subsequent LM conferences were held in Tokyo (1972) and Bristol (1976). The conference was renewed in Grenoble (1980) as a LAM conference including amorphous metals and continued in Los Angeles (1983), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (1986), Kyoto (1989), Vienna (1992), Chicago (1995), Dortmund (1998), Yokohama (2001) and Metz (2004). The conferences are mainly devoted to liquid and amorphous metals and alloys. However, communications on some non-metallic systems such as semiconductors, quasicrystals etc, are also accepted. The conference tradition strongly encourages participation from junior researchers and graduate students. The 13th conference of the LAM series was organized in Ekaterinburg, Russia, by the Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMet UB RAS) and the Ural State Pedagogical University (USPU), and held from 8-14 July 2007 under the chairmanship of Professors Pjotr Popel (USPU) and Boris Gelchinskii (IMet UB RAS). Two hundred and forty two active participants and about 60 guest participants from 20 countries attended the conference. There were no parallel sessions and all oral reports were separated into three groups: invited talks (40 min), full-scale oral reports (25 min), and brief oral reports (15 min). The program included ten sessions, ranging from purely theoretical subjects to the technological application of molten and amorphous alloys. The following sessions took place: A: Electronic structure and transport, magnetic properties; B: Phase transitions; C: Structure; D: Atomic dynamics and transport; E: Thermodynamics; F: Modelling

  19. Constituintes químicos voláteis e não-voláteis de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae Volatile and non-volatile chemical constituents of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena B. Barreto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo fitoquímico do extrato etanólico das folhas de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, resultou no isolamento dos derivados benzilnitrilas niazirina, niazirinina e 4-hidroxifenil-acetonitrila, enquanto que das cascas dos frutos somente o octacosano foi obtido. Os óleos essenciais das folhas, flores e frutos foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massa. Os constituintes principais identificados foram: fitol (21,6% e timol (9,6% nas folhas, octadecano (27,4% e ácido hexadecanóico (18,4% nas flores e docosano (32,7% e tetracosano (24,0% nos frutos. As estruturas dos compostos isolados foram identificadas a partir de técnicas espectroscópicas (RMN, IV e EM. A 4-hidroxifenil-acetonitrila está sendo citada pela primeira vez para o gênero Moringa e os óleos essenciais das flores e frutos estão sendo citados pela primeira vez para a espécie M. oleifera.Phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract from leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, yield the benzylnitriles: niazirine, niazirinine and 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile, while of fruit shells only octacosane was isolated. The essential oils from leaves, flowers and fruits were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents identified were: phytol (21.6% and thymol (9.6% in the leaves oil, octadecane (27.4% and hexadecanoic acid (18.4% in the flowers oil, docosane (32.7% and tetracosane (24.0% in the fruits oil. The structures of all compounds were identified by spectroscopic analyses (NMR, IR and MS. 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile is reported for the first time to the Moringa genus and the essential oils of flowers and fruits are reported for the first time to the species M. oleifera.

  20. Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats Atividade hipolipidemica de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, na hiperlipidemia induzida por dieta rica em gordura em ratos albinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj G. Jain

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypolipidemic agent in obese patients. Albino Wistar rats were fed with methanolic extract of M. oleifera (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o. and simvastatin (4 mg/kg, p.o. along with hyperlipidemic diet for 30 days. Moringa oleifera and simvastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, triacylglyceride, VLDL, LDL, and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL as compared to the corresponding high fed cholesterol diet group (control. The Moringa oleifera methanolic extract was also investigated for its mechanism of action by estimating HMG CO-A reductase activity. Moringa oleifera was found to increase the excretion of fecal cholesterol. Thus, the study demonstrates that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidemic effect.As folhas de Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, são usados na medicina natural da Índia como um agente hipolipemiante em pacientes obesos. Ratos albinos Wistar foram alimentados com extrato metanólico de M. oleifera (150, 300 e 600 mg/kg, p.o. e sinvastatina (4 mg/kg, p.o., juntamente com dieta hiperlipídica por 30 dias. Moringa oleifera e sinvastatina reduziram o colesterol, triacilglicerídeoss, VLDL, LDL e índice aterogênico, mas não aumentaram o HDL em comparação com o grupo controle, com dieta rica em colesterol. O mecanismo de ação do extrato metanólico de Moringa oleifera foi também investigado estimando atividade de HMG CO-A redutase. Moringa oleifera aumentou a excreção fecal de colesterol. Assim, o estudo demonstra que a M. oleifera parece ter efeito hipolipemiante.

  1. 白花蛇舌草注射液逆转人肝癌细胞BEL-7402/5-FU 的多药耐药作用%Effect of Hedyotic diffusa injection in reversing multi-drug resistance of human hepatoma BEL-7402/5-FU cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖作庄; 韦丽美; 徐灵源; 梁钢

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect and mechanism of Hedyotic diffusa injection in reversing multi-drug resistance of BEL-7402/5-FU cells.Methods The IC50 of BEL-7402/5-FU cells was examined by MTT,apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry,and the content of tyrosine kinase in total protein of tumor cells was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results The IC50 of Hedyotic diffusa injection (6 μL/mL ) combined with 5-FU (636.5 μmol/L)decreased significantly compared with that of 5-FU applied alone (1 071.6 6μmol/L). The reversal on BEL-7402/5-FU was 1.68-fold.After injection of 5-FU plus Hedyotic diffusa ,the apoptosis rate of BEL-7402/5-FU cells was increased significantly and the tyrosine kinases of BEL-7402/5-FU cells decreased significantly.Conclusion Hedyotic diffusa injection plays a certain role in reversing multi-drug resistance of BEL-7402/5-FU cells,which may be related to decreasing their tyrosine kinases.%目的:研究白花蛇舌草注射液对 BEL-7402/5-FU 细胞多药耐药的逆转作用,并探讨其作用机制。方法四甲基偶氮唑蓝(MTT)法检测药物对 BEL7402/5-FU 细胞的半数抑制浓度(IC50);流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡;ELISA 双抗体一步夹心法测定酪氨酸激酶含量。结果无毒剂量的白花蛇舌草注射液(6μL/mL)联合5-FU 对 BEL-7402/5-FU细胞的 IC50为636.5μmol/L,比单独应用5-FU 的 IC50(1071.6μmol/L)明显下降,逆转倍数为1.68;加白花蛇舌草注射液后,5-FU 对 BEL-7402/5-FU 细胞的凋亡比例明显增加,且显著下调 BEL-7402/5-FU 细胞的酪氨酸激酶含量。结论白花蛇舌草注射液对 BEL-7402/5-FU 细胞的多药耐药性具有一定的逆转作用,其机制可能与下调酪氨酸激酶有关。

  2. Genetic diversity and relationships in cultivars of Lolium multiflorum Lam. using sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L K; Jiang, X Y; Huang, Q T; Xiao, Y F; Chen, Z H; Zhang, X Q; Miao, J M; Yan, H D

    2014-12-04

    Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used to analyze and estimate the genetic variability, level of diversity, and relationships among 20 cultivars and strains of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). Eighteen SRAP primer combinations generated 334 amplification bands, of which 298 were polymorphic. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.4715 (me10 + em1) to 0.5000 (me5 + em7), with an average of 0.4921. The genetic similarity coefficient ranged from 0.4304 to 0.8529, and coefficients between 0.65 and 0.90 accounted for 90.00%. The cluster analysis separated the accessions into five groups partly according to their germplasm resource origins.

  3. Application of a puffer fish skin gelatin film containing Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract to the packaging of Gouda cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ka-Yeon; Yang, Hyun-Ju; Song, Kyung Bin

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to develop a puffer fish skin gelatin (PSG) film that contains Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract (ME) as a new biodegradable film. With the increase in ME concentration, the tensile strength and elongation at break of the PSG film increased, whereas the oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability decreased. In addition, the PSG film with ME exhibited antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and antioxidant activity. To apply the ME-containing PSG film to food packaging, Gouda cheese was wrapped with the ME-containing PSG film. During storage, the cheese packaging with the ME-containing PSG film effectively inhibited the microbial growth and retarded the lipid oxidation of cheese compared with the control sample. Thus, the ME-containing PSG film can be used as an antimicrobial and antioxidative packaging material to improve the quality of food products.

  4. Composition of the essential oils in various organs at different developmental stages of Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam. from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Hela Kallel; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Smiti, Samira

    2011-11-01

    The composition of the essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from various organs at different development stages of Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam. growing in Tunisia was determined by GC/MS analysis. In particular, the oil profiles of the leaves, stems, flower buds, roots, umbels, and fruits have been examined during the whole life cycle. The oil from the flowering aerial parts was characterized by a high content of isoamyl 2-methylbutanoate. After flowering and during desiccation and fructification, the umbels and fruits expressed a high content of linalool. The oils, extracted from the roots collected in the vegetatif, buds floral, and floral stages, were rich in monoterpene aldehydes, oxygenated monoterpenes, and monoterpene hydrocarbons. The highest level of non-terpene hydrocarbons was found at the flower-bud stage, represented by 61.3% of nonane. Among the monoterpenes, sabinene (12.5%) and β-pinene (8.5%) were identified in the flower buds.

  5. Studies of Pb2+ adsorption by Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds from an aqueous medium in a batch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghel, Ana Paula; Gonçalves, Affonso Celso; Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira; Stangarlin, José Renato; Rubio, Fernanda; Nacke, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) seeds for removing lead ions (Pb(2+)) from water was evaluated. Parameters such as solution pH, adsorbent mass, contact time between solution and adsorbent, isotherms, thermodynamic, kinetics, and desorption were evaluated. The maximum adsorption capacity of the biosorbent was found to be 12.24 mg g(-1). In order to verify the effectiveness of this material, comparative studies were performed with activated carbon under the same optimal conditions for the construction of isotherms and the desorption process. Average desorption rate values led to the assumption that a strong interaction took place between the adsorbents and the metal ions. Thus, it has been concluded that the biosorbent studied herein can be considered very effective and feasible for remediating Pb(2+)-contaminated solutions, since this material is itself an untreated and low-cost byproduct.

  6. In vivo anti-fatigue activity of total flavonoids from sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] leaf in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunguang; Zhang, Lianying

    2013-08-01

    The in vivo anti-fatigue activity of the total flavonoids from sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] leaf was investigated in male Kunming mice. The total flavonoids from sweet potato leaf (TFSL) were orally administered at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 4 weeks and the anti-fatigue effect was studied using a weight-loaded swimming test, along with the determination of serum urea nitrogen (SUN), blood lactic acid (BLA) and hepatic and muscle glycogen contents. The results showed that TFSL had significant anti-fatigue effects. TFSL extended the exhaustive swimming time, effectively inhibited the increase of BLA, decreased the level of SUN and increased the hepatic and muscle glycogen content of mice. Thus, TFSL may have potential as an anti-fatigue agent.

  7. Potencial productivo de Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. en bancos de forraje y asociado a gramíneas tropicales.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Se realizaron dos experimentos en un rodal de árboles de Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. El primero para determinar el momento en que el árbol debe podarse en la época de lluvias para producir forraje que se conserve verde durante la época seca. Se realizaron tres podas (P-1 en agosto, P-2 en septiembre y P-3 en octubre) y cuatro cosechas (C-a en febrero, C-b y C-c en marzo, y C-d en abril). El momento de poda afectó la cantidad de biomasa forrajera (P = 0.001), siendo mayor en P-1 (P = 0.001). La bio...

  8. The occurrence of Glyceria striata (Lam. Hitchc. in Europe and the new localities of the species in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Piwowarski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Glyceria striata (Lam. Hitchc. is a North American species that has been recorded in most, semi-natural habitats in Europe, e.g. in meadows, bog springs, margins of water bodies. It is circumscribed within two taxa of lower rank: G. striata subsp. striata and G. striata subsp. stricta. Only G. striata subsp. stricta has been reported from Europe. This paper gives a list of the European locali- ties of the species (48 and describes two newly discovered localities in Poland (the Wyżyna Małopolska upland and the Western Carpathian Mts.. The distribution of G. striata in Europe is mapped and potential migration routes of the species are discussed.

  9. Bioactive secondary metabolites from Nigrospora sp. LLGLM003, an endophytic fungus of the medicinal plant Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J H; Zhang, Y L; Wang, L W; Wang, J Y; Zhang, C L

    2012-05-01

    An endophytic fungus was isolated from the root of the medicinal plant Moringa oleifera Lam. Based on analyzing the rDNA sequence, the fungus was identified as Nigrospora sp. This is the first report of the isolation of endophytic Nigrospora from M. oleifera. By bioassay-guided fractionation, four antifungal secondary metabolites were isolated from liquid cultures of the fungus Nigrospora sp. LLGLM003, and their chemical structures were determined to be griseofulvin (1), dechlorogriseofulvin (2), 8-dihydroramulosin (3) and mellein (4) on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Compound 2, 3 and 4 were isolated from Nigrospora sp. for the first time. In vitro antifungal assay showed that griseofulvin displayed clear inhibition of the growth of 8 plant pathogenic fungi. Dechlorogriseofulvin and mellein exhibited only weak antifungal activities, whereas 8-dihydroramulosin displayed no antifungal activities.

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on the vitamins, phytochemicals, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima; Rahman, Taj Ur

    2016-10-01

    Plant based food products and medicines are given more consideration for their efficacy, safety and synergistic effects. Radiation processing has been valuably used for microbial decontamination and value addition of the plant materials. The current study is about the effect of gamma irradiation on the quality attributes of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. leaves. The leaves of the plant were irradiated at the dose levels of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 kGy. The irradiated and control samples were evaluated for vitamin, phytochemicals, antibacterial and DPPH scavenging activities. The results showed that gamma irradiation doses up to 12.5 kGy enhanced the levels of certain phytochemicals and augmented the biological activities.

  11. Increased in vitro fitness of multi- and extensively drug-resistant F15/LAM4/KZN strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, C C; Pillay, M

    2014-06-01

    The role of fitness in transmission of drug-resistant strains has been explored in previous studies; but has not been established for F15/LAM4/KZN strains, which were responsible for the extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) outbreak in Tugela Ferry, South Africa. The biological fitness of 15 clinical strains representing the F15/LAM4/KZN, Beijing, F11 and F28 families was determined by growth, viability and competition assays and correlated with DNA sequencing of eight genes associated with drug resistance and putative compensatory mechanisms. Similar growth rates were observed among susceptible, multidrug-resistant (MDR) and XDR strains of the KZN and F28 genotypes. In contrast, Beijing and F11 MDR strains demonstrated significantly reduced fitness. Resistant strains exhibited heterogeneous fitness profiles in competition with different susceptible strains, suggesting strain dependence. In addition, co-culture growth rates were consistently higher than independent growth rates in 13/14 competition pairs. All 14 drug-resistant strains retained viability, at a low CFU/mL, when paired with susceptible strains. The persistence of such resistant strains could consequently support the acquisition of additional drug-resistance-conferring mutations and/or the evolution of compensatory mechanisms. Frequently occurring mutations were detected in KZN and F28 resistant strains whereas, the Beijing MDR strain harboured a less common katG mutation and the F11 MDR strain had no katG mutation. Contrary to drug-resistant Beijing and F11 strains, the successful transmission of KZN strains, particularly during the outbreak, may be attributed to the presence of drug-resistance-conferring mutations associated with little or no associated fitness costs. Amplified growth in co-culture may be suggestive of in vivo trans-complementation.

  12. Suppressive effects of Moringa oleifera Lam pod against mouse colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budda, Sirintip; Butryee, Chaniphun; Tuntipopipat, Siriporn; Rungsipipat, Anudep; Wangnaithum, Supradit; Lee, Jeong-Sang; Kupradinun, Piengchai

    2011-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam (horseradish tree; tender pod or fruits) is a major ingredient in Thai cuisine and has some medicinal properties. Previous studies have shown potentially antioxidant, antitumor promoter, anticlastogen and anticarcinogen activities both in vitro and in vivo. The present study was conducted to investigate chemopreventive effects on azoxymethane (AOM)-initiated and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-promoted colon carcinogenesis in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into 8 groups: Group 1 served as a negative control; Group 2 received AOM/DSS as a positive control; Groups 3-5 were fed boiled freeze-dried M. oleifera (bMO) at 1.5%, 3.0% and 6.0%, respectively supplemented in basal diets for 5 weeks; Groups 6-8 were fed with bMO diets at the designed doses above for 2 weeks prior to AOM, during and 1 week after DSS administration. At the end of the study, colon samples were processed for histopathological examination. PCNA indices, and iNOS and COX-2 expression were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated the incidences and multiplicities of tumors in Groups 6-8 to be decreased when compared to Group 2 in a dose dependent manner, but this was significant only in Group 8. The PCNA index was also significantly decreased in Group 8 whereas iNOS and COX-2 protein expression were significantly decreased in Groups 7 and 8. The findings suggest that M. oleifera Lam pod exerts suppressive effects in a colitis-related colon carcinogenesis model induced by AOM/DSS and could serve as a chemopreventive agent.

  13. Immunomodulatory Activity and Anti-Tumor Activity of Oldenlandia Diffusa in vitro%白花蛇舌草的免疫学调节活性和抗肿瘤活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单保恩; 张金艳; 杜肖娜; 李巧霞; 山下优毅; 吉田安宏; 杉浦勉

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of Oldenlandia diffusa (OD) onlymphocytes and tumor cells in vitro. Methods: Effects of OD extract (ODE) on proliferation of spleen cells of mice and the phagocytosis of monocytes to tumor cells using 3H incorporation were analysed, and effect on specific activity of natural killer (NK) cells to human and mice′s tumor cells was determined using free 51Cr experiments, effects on B cells′ antibody production and cytokine of monocyte production were investigated by ELISA and biological method, the chemical composition of OD was analyzed by chromatography, protease digestion and sugar decomposition (NaIO4) test. Results: ODE could vigorously promote the proliferative activity of spleen cells in mice, specific lethal activity of human and mice′s NK cell to tumor cells, B cells′ antibody production, monocytes′ cytokine production and its phagocytosis to remove the tumor cells. By means of chromatography, protease E digestion and NaIO4 treatment, the result of chemical compostion analysis showed that the component of OD was 90 kDa glycoprotein. Conclusion: ODE has immuno-modulating activity and anti-tumor activity in vitro through stimulating the immune system to kill or engulf tumor cells, which could be used clinically for immune function modulation and to treat tumor and other diseases.%目的:研究白花蛇舌草的免疫学调节活性和抗肿瘤活性。方法:用3H介入法分析了白花蛇舌草提取物(Oldenlandiadiffusaextract,ODE)对小鼠脾细胞的增殖活性;用51Cr游离实验测定了小鼠和人杀伤细胞对肿瘤细胞的特异性杀伤活性,用ELISA法和生物法研究了B细胞抗体的产生以及单核细胞的细胞因子产生,并用3H介入法分析了单核细胞对肿瘤细胞的吞噬功能;用层析法、蛋白酶消化法和糖分解处理(即NaIO4处理)分析了白花蛇舌草的化学成分。结果:ODE对小鼠脾细胞的增殖活性有很强的促进作用;ODE增强小

  14. 模拟气候变暖对不同地区多斑矢车菊形态属性的影响%Effects of Climate Warming on Growth and Morphological Characteristics of Centaurea maculosa from Different Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勤; 赖星竹; 李景吉; 彭培好

    2011-01-01

    Infrared simulation warming is used to investigate the effect on Centaurea maculosa 's growth and morphological characteristics under the conditions of warming 2°C (overground 10 cm). The C. Maculosa seeds came from different regions in North America and Europe. The results indicated that the temperature increase may impact the plant height,leaf number,and leaf area,shoot biomass,root biomass,root-top ratio of C. Maculosa from different regions. It can promote or restrain these processes in a certain extent. Comparing to other situations,the temperature increase made Arkansas,Ukraine and Canada C. Maculosa's plant height increase significantly. Warming also made Maryland C. Maculosa's plant height decrease significantly. The total leaf number increased 1 - 5, but the leaf number of Ukraine, Maryland did not increase. The leaf morphological properties became smaller. At the same time,the total leaf area of Canada C. Maculosa increased obviously, while Vermont group decreased significantly. Montana C. Maculosa's shoot biomass increased by warming, whereas Romania group was significantly reduced. For root biomass,Ukraine,Romania, Vermont C. Maculosa reduced obviously. The warming made Ukraine,Montana,Maryland and VermontC.maculosa's root-top ratio decreased obviously in this condition. Their response orders (from promote to restrain) are:Arkanses group, Canada group, Montana group, Ukraine group, Vermont group, Maryland group,Romania group. It indicated that C.maculosa from different regions have different adaptabilities under warming condition,the differences reflect in the C. Maculosa's growth and morphologies. As invasive species,the invasiveness are also different under the environment of global warming.%以北美及欧洲7个不同地区种源恶性杂草多斑矢车菊(Centaurea maculosa)为材料,采用红外辐射加热器模拟增温方法研究增温2℃(地上10 cm)对其生长及形态属性的影响.结果表明:与对照相比,增温使乌克兰、阿

  15. 辣木组织培养技术研究进展%A review of tissue culture techniques of Moringa oleifera Lam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭梦桥; 程薪宇; 徐海军; 王晓飞

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a review of tissue culture techniques of Moringa oleifera Lam was made in the aspects of explant, disinfection method, medium and growth regulator. The problems of tissue culture techniques have been discussed. The purpose of this paper is to promote the development of Moringa oleifera Lam.%从外植体、消毒方法、培养基、生长调节剂等方面,综述了国内在辣木组织培养技术上的研究进展。在此基础上针对一些问题进行探讨,旨在为辣木的研究和推广应用提供参考。

  16. Predominance of multi-drug-resistant LAM and Beijing family strains among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates recovered from prison inmates in Tula Region, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Anna; Dubiley, Svetlana; Stepanshina, Valentina; Shemyakin, Igor

    2006-10-01

    The genotypic characteristics and drug susceptibility profiles of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis recovered from prison hospital patients in the Tula region (central Russia) during 2001 and 2002 are reported. The emergence of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) poses a major health risk to the population, with economic implications for TB control. Prisons serve as a continuous source of TB transmission. The results showed that members of the LAM and Beijing families are major contributors to the epidemiological picture of TB in the population studied. The two families of strains accounted for most of the drug-resistant TB in the population. The genotypic characteristics of the M. tuberculosis predominant LAM strain that was responsible for 31 % of TB cases in this setting are presented.

  17. Elisa de captura com IgY para quantificação de acetato de lupeol em Vernonia scorpioides lam. Pers (asteraceae Capture IgY-elisa to quantify lupeol acetate in Vernonia scorpioides lam. Pers (asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Bastos Freire

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento descreve, pela primeira vez, a elaboração de um ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA de captura com anticorpos IgY para a detecção e quantificação de acetato de lupeol (LAc em Vernonia scorpioides Lam. Pers (Asteraceae. Anticorpos anti-LAc, obtidos partir do soro das aves e gemas de seus ovos, após imunização com o conjugado acetato de lupeol-cBSA, foram concentrados em coluna contendo LAc-BSA acoplado a sepharose. A eficácia da metodologia de detecção imunológica foi de 97%, com índices de sensibilidade e especificidade de 99% e 95%, respectivamente com limites de detecção do ensaio entre 0,02µg.g-1 (inferior e 10 µg.g-1 (superior. A robustez do método foi atestada pela sua elevada reprodutibilidade (entre 94,75% e 96,81%, e pelo baixo coeficiente de variação interna (4,22 ± 1,03% nas condições de execução descritas.For the first time, a yolk immunoglobulins-based immunenzymatic assay (capture IgY-ELISA was carried out to detect Lupeol acetate (LAc from Vernonia scorpioides Lam. Pers (Asteraceae. Antibodies (IgY against lupeol acetate (anti-LAc antibodies were raised in White Leghorn hens immunized with LAc conjugated to the bovine serum albumin (LAc-BSA. The anti-LAc antibodies were recovered by cleanup columns containing LAc-BSA coupled to sepharose. The capture IgY-ELISA efficacy was of 97% when the predictive indices of sensitivity and specificity were 99.0% and 95%, respectively. The lowest and highest detection limits were of 0.02µg g-1 and 10µg.g-1 of plant extract, respectively. The strength of this method was attested by its high reproducibility (between 94.75% and 96.81%, and a low internal variation (4.22 ± 1.03%, under the described conditions.

  18. Applicability of Moringa oleifera Lam. pie as an adsorbent for removal of heavy metals from waters Aplicabilidade da torta de Moringa oleifera Lam. como adsorvente para remoção de metais pesados de águas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affonso C. Gonçalves Junior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficacy of moringa seeds (Moringa oleifera Lam. as an adsorbent material for removing toxic heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, and chromium from contaminated solutions. The effect of the adsorbent mass was investigated at two pH conditions (5.0 and 7.0. The optimized conditions were 0.300 g of adsorbent at pH 5.0, used for the isotherms construction, and linearized according to Langmuir and Freundlich models. Results showed that cadmium adsorption was similar in both the models used. For lead, the Freundlich model had the best adjustment and chromium was better adjusted by the Langmuir model. It was concluded that the adsorbent was effective in the remediation of solutions containing cadmium, lead and chromium, thus, its use as sustainable alternative material is feasible, since it has low cost, does not need a previous treatment and it is a byproduct.Este estudo objetivou avaliar a eficácia do uso da torta de moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam. como material adsorvente dos metais pesados tóxicos cádmio (Cd, chumbo (Pb e cromo (Cr de soluções contaminadas. Nos testes cinéticos foram variadas as massas do adsorvente em duas condições de pH (5,0 e 7,0. As condições otimizadas foram pH 5,0 e massa de 0.300 g de adsorvente, utilizados para a construção das isotermas e linearizadas conforme os modelos de Langmuir e Freundlich. Realizou-se a determinação dos metais por espectrometria de absorção atômica. Os resultados mostraram que houve semelhança em ambos os modelos utilizados para a adsorção do Cd. Para o Pb, o modelo de Freundlich apresentou o melhor ajuste e, para o Cr, houve melhor ajuste pelo modelo de Langmuir. Conclui-se, com base nos resultados obtidos, que o adsorvente foi eficaz na remediação de soluções contendo Cd, Pb e Cr e, assim, é viável a utilização desse adsorvente como material alternativo sustentável, pois apresenta baixo custo, não necessita de tratamento prévio e se trata de

  19. Cytotoxic evaluation of essential oil from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves Avaliação citotóxica do óleo volátil extraído das folhas do Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Luis da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam is a plant popularly used as antimicrobial, for malaria and inflammatory treatment. The essential oil of Z. rhoifolium was extracted and its cytotoxic effects against HeLa (human cervical carcinoma, A-549 (human lung carcinoma, HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma, Vero (monkey kidney cell lines and mice macrophages were evaluated. Some of the terpenes of its essential oil (ß-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, alpha -pinene, myrcene and linalool were also tested to verify their possible influence in the oil cytotoxic activity. The results obtained permitted to confirm that the essential oil is cytotoxic against tumoral cells (CD50 = 82.3, 90.7 and 113.6 µg/ml for A-549, HeLa e HT-29 cell lines, respectively, while it did not show cytotoxicity against non-tumoral cells (Vero and mice macrophages. Thus, the essential oil from Z. rhoifolium leaves seems to present a possible therapeuthic role due to its selective cytotoxic activity against tumoral cell lines.O Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. é uma planta popularmente utilizada como antimicrobianos, no tratamento da malária e de inflamações. O óleo volátil do Z. rhoifolium foi extraído e posteriormente foi avaliada a sua citotoxicidade contra células HeLa (carcinoma cervical humano, A-549 (carcinoma de pulmão humano, HT-29 (adenocarcinoma de cólon humano, Vero (rim de macaco e macrófagos de camundongos. Alguns terpenos constituintes do óleo volátil (beta-cariofileno, alfa -humuleno, alfa -pineno, mirceno e linalool também foram testados para verificar as possíveis influências sobre a citotoxicidade do óleo. Os resultados obtidos permitiram verificar que o óleo volátil é citotóxico contra células as tumorais (CD50 = 82.3, 90.7 e 113.6 µg/ml para A-549, HeLa e HT-29 cell lines, respectivamente, mas não apresenta citotoxicidade contra as células não tumorais (Vero e macrófagos de camundongos. Desta forma o óleo volátil das folhas do Z. rhoifolium demonstra

  20. Functional Component and Synthetical Utilization of Gleditsia Sinensis Lam%皂荚的功能成分及其综合利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵金良; 袁唯; 董文明; 焦凌梅; 王伟

    2005-01-01

    皂荚(Gleditsia sinensis Lam.)是一种具有多种功能作用和广泛应用前景的豆科(Leguminosae)苏木亚科的多年生木本植物.本文对皂荚的营养成分和药理成分进行了论述,并对皂荚仁和果壳的综合利用进行了探讨.

  1. One-step synthesis of highly-biocompatible spherical gold nanoparticles using [i]Artocarpus heterophyllus[/i] Lam. (jackfruit fruit extract and its effect on pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj Basavegowda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Novel approaches for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs are of great importance due to its vast spectrum of applications in diverse fields, including medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Te presented study reports the successful AuNPs’ synthesis using [i]Artocarpus heterophyllus[/i] Lam. extract, and provides detailed characterization and evaluation of its antibacterial potential. [b]Objective[/b]. The aim was to develop a cost-effective and environmentally friendly synthesis method of gold nanoparticles using aqueous fruit extract of [i]Artocarpus heterophyllus[/i] Lam. as a reducing and capping agent, which has proven activity against human pathogens, such as microbial species [i]E.coli[/i] and [i]Streptobacillus[/i] sps. [b]Materials and method[/b]. Characterizations were carried out using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray and Fourier-Transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR. [b]Results[/b]. SEM images showed the formation of gold nanoparticles with an average size of 20–25 nm. Spectra collected while infra-red analysis contained broad peaks in ranges from 4000–400 cm -1 . [b]Conclusions[/b]. It can be concluded that the fruit of [i]Artocarpus heterophyllus[/i] Lam. can be good source for synthesis of gold nanoparticles which showed antimicrobial activity against investigated microbes, in particul [i]E. coli[/i], and [i]Streptobacillus[/i]. An important outcome of this study will be the development of value-added products from the medicinal plant [i]Artocarpus heterophyllus[/i] Lam. for the biomedical and nanotechnology-based industries.

  2. Estudos morfoanatômico, fitoquímico e de atividades biológicas de folha e caule de Zanthoxylum rhoifolium LAM., Rutaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Mariana Saragioto

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A especie medicinal Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. e uma Rutaceae, nativa do Brasil, conhecida popularmente como mamica-de-porca. O suco das folhas e usado, quando aplicado topicamente, contra dores de ouvido. Seu caule e utilizado na medicina popular no tratamento de dispepsias, colicas e flatulencia. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar estudos morfoanatomico, fitoquimico e de atividades biologicas de folha e caule dessa especie medicinal. Com referencia a morfoanatomia, observou-se ...

  3. Avaliação citotóxica do óleo volátil extraído das folhas do Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam.

    OpenAIRE

    Saulo Luis da Silva; Patrícia Maria Figueiredo; Tomomasa Yano

    2007-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam is a plant popularly used as antimicrobial, for malaria and inflammatory treatment. The essential oil of Z. rhoifolium was extracted and its cytotoxic effects against HeLa (human cervical carcinoma), A-549 (human lung carcinoma), HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma), Vero (monkey kidney) cell lines and mice macrophages were evaluated. Some of the terpenes of its essential oil (ß-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, alpha -pinene, myrcene and linalool) were also tested to ve...

  4. Transition metal-promoted synthesis of 2-aryl/heteroaryl-thioquinazoline: C-S Bond formation by “Chan-Lam Cross-Coupling” Reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SATYA KARUNA PULAKHANDAM; NARESH KUMAR KATARI; RAVI PRAKASH REDDY MANDA

    2017-02-01

    An efficient method for the synthesis of S-aryl/heteroaryl-quinazoline has been developed through the cross-coupling of 1,4-dihydroquinazoline with a variety of aryl and heteroaryl boronic acids assisted by [Cu(OAc)₂] as the catalyst for the formation of carbon-sulfur bonds. This newly developed method demonstratesthat the conditions of the traditional copper-catalyzed Chan-Lam reaction can be improved. Optimized reaction involves base, solvent and catalyst.

  5. Electro-flocculation associated with the extract of Moringa oleifera Lam as natural coagulant for the removal of reactive blue 5G dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Souza dos Santos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although an important significant sector in world economy, the textile industry is known for its large volumes of wastewater generated in production processes. In the search for cleaner technologies, the application of electrochemical processes, such as electro-flocculation, or natural coagulants, such as Moringa oleifera Lam extract, have become recurrent in literature. Since the required operating conditions for alternative technologies are such that they hamper effective application, current paper presents results obtained with the use of a hybrid system of treatment which combines electro-flocculation and the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera lam to evaluate the removal of reactive blue 5G dye from aqueous solutions. Milder conditions of electric current intensity (0.10 – 1.50 A and natural coagulant concentration (250-2000 mg L-1 were tested. Through a Central Composite Rotatable Design, it was possible to obtain a quadratic model which subsidized the optimization of operating conditions. Applying an electric current of 0.97 A to sacrificial electrodes of iron and a concentration of 2000 mg L-1 for the extract of Moringa oleifera Lam, an average 86.79% color removal was obtained, considered a satisfactory rate.

  6. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Cadaba indica lam leaf extract and its larvicidal and pupicidal activity against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kalimuthu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Green nanoparticle synthesis was achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extracts and eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. In the present study, activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs synthesized using Cadaba indica lam plant against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. A range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 ppm and crude extract (50, 100, 150, 200, 250 ppm were tested against A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus. The synthesized AgNPs from C. indica lam were much more toxic than crude extract in both mosquito species. The cured extract high mortality values were 50% lethal concentration (LC50=88.22, 90.84 ppm; 90% lethal concentration (LC90=172.94, 178.55 ppm, and the AgNPs high mortality values were LC50=3.90, 4.39 ppm; LC90=19.04, 17.35 ppm against A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results recorded from ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and Fourier transformed infrared support the biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles. These results suggest that the leaf cured extracts of C. indica lam and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus.

  7. Caracterización química del aceite y harina residual de solanum sisymbriifolium lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiese, B.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Seeds from Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam harvested at Olavarría (Buenos Aires, Argentine were defatted with hexane and the raw oil obtained with a yield of 20,6 % dry basis. The physicochemical characteristics of crude oil were: refractive index: 1,4610 (at 25ºC, iodine value: 112,8; saponification index: 170,0; unsaponifiable matter: 14,0 % and free fatty acid content: 2,4 (mg KOH/g. The fatty acid composition of seed oil was studied by gas-liquid chromatography. Major fatty acids of seed oil were: linoleic (52,3%, oleic (23,4 % and palmitic acid (16,4 %. The residual seed meal contained moderate level of crude protein (14,75%, dry basis, low level of available lysine (2,25 g/16gN and high content of crude fiber (51,5%, dry basis. Total and phytic acid phosphorous, calcium, ash, sugar and polysaccharides contents are reported.Semillas de Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam cosechadas en Olavarría (prov. de Buenos Aires, Argentina se trataron con hexano (soxhlet obteniéndose el aceite crudo (rendimiento:20,6% y la harina residual de extracción. Las características fisicoquímicas del aceite crudo fueron: Índice de refracción: 1.4610 (a 25ºC; Índice de iodo: 112,8; Índice de saponificación: 170,0; Insaponificable: 14,0%, Índice de acidez: 2,4 (mgKOH/g. Se determinó la composición acídica del aceite por cromatografía gas-líquido. Los ácidos grasos mayoritarios fueron: ácido linoleico (52,3%, ácido oleico (23,4% y ácido palmítico (16,4%. La harina residual de extracción contenía una moderada proporción de proteína cruda (14,75% b.s, baja proporción de lisina disponible (2,25 g/16gN y un alto contenido de fibra cruda (51,5 %b.s. Se informan valores de fósforo total y de ácido fítico, cenizas, calcio e hidratos de carbono.

  8. 超声波提取紫薯多糖的工艺优化%Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction Process of Ipomoea batatas ( Linn. ) Lam. Polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚惠伶; 蒋林彬

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] To optimize the extraction conditions of polysaccharide from lpomoea batatas ( Linn. ) Lam. [ Method ] Polysaccharide from Ipomoea batatas ( Linn. ) Lam. was extracted by ultrasonic technology,and the extraction conditions were optimized by orthogonal test combined with single factor test. [ Result ] The influencing order of each factor on yield of polysaccharide was determined to be ultrasonic frequency > solid to liquid ratio > extraction temperature > extraction duration. The optimum conditions for extracting polysaccharide from Ipomoea batatas ( Linn. ) Lam. were: solid to liquid ratio of 1: 15, extraction duration of 40 min, extraction temperature of 60 ℃ and ultrasonic frequency of 80 kHz. Under the optimal extracting conditions,extraction rate of polysaccharide from Ipomoea batatas (Linn.) Lam. reached as high as 3.63%.[ Conclusion] Ipomoea batatas ( Linn. ) Lam. polysaccharide extracted by ultrasonic technology was high in yield and short in extraction time. If carried out at low temperature,the extraction was less in extracting solvent and less in cost.%[目的]优化紫薯多糖的提取工艺.[方法]利用超声波技术提取紫薯粗多糖,用单因素试验和正交试验设计相结合的方法获得最佳提取工艺.[结果]影响紫薯多糖得率的主要因素按重要性排序为:超声频率>料液比>提取温度>提取时间;紫薯粗多糖最佳提取工艺条件为:料液比1:15,提取时间40min,提取温度60℃,超声频率80 kHz,此条件下紫薯多糖的提取率为3.63%.[结论]利用超声技术提取紫薯多糖可以提高多糖得率、缩短提取时间、采用较低温度提取、节省提取溶剂,降低提取成本.

  9. Lysosomal membrane stability and metallothioneins in digestive gland of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam.) as biomarkers in a field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, S.; Ozretic, B.; Krajnovic-Ozretic, M. [Ruder Boskovic Inst., Center for Marine Research, Rovinj (Croatia); Bobinac, D. [Rijeka Univ., Dept. of Anatomy, Rijeka (Croatia)

    2001-07-01

    The lysosomal membrane destabilisation and the metallothionein content in the digestive gland cells of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam.), collected along the east coast of the North Adriatic (Istrian and Kvarnerine coast, Croatia), were examined over a period of four years (1996-1999). The lysosomal membrane stability, as a biomarker of general stress, showed that the membrane labilisation period in mussels from polluted, urban- and industrial-related areas was significantly decreased (p<0.05) when compared to mussels from control, clean sea water sites. In the harbour of Rijeka, the most contaminated site, the lysosomal membrane stability was reduced by more than 70% compared to the control. This method also proved to be a useful biomarker for detection of additional stress caused by short-term hypoxia that occurred once during this study inside the polluted and periodically quite eutrophic Pula Harbour. The concentration of metallothioneins in the mussel digestive gland, as a specific biomarker of exposure to heavy metals, did not reveal significant differences (p<0.05) between sites covered by this study. (Author)

  10. Karyotypes of two cytotypes of Paspalum quadrifarium Lam. (Poaceae: an alternative technique for small chromosomes in plants

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    Pablo Speranza

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Paspalum quadrifarium Lam. is a bunchgrass native to Uruguay, Argentina, and southern Brazil. Diploid, triploid, tetraploid and hexaploid cytotypes have been reported for this species of the Quadrifaria group of Paspalum. In this group, a high degree of cytogenetic homology between the genomes of several diploid species has been reported, based on meiotic pairing in interspecific hybrids; multivalent associations would thus be expected in polyploid hybrids. Karyotype analysis could provide useful information about the genomic architecture of polyploid plants; however, the fully condensed mitotic chromosomes of Paspalum do not provide enough morphological features for such an analysis. In this paper, we used mitotic prometaphase chromosomes treated with 70% acetic acid at 40 °C after cover slip removal. This process removes cytoplasm that remains from chromosome squashes and makes prometaphases available for karyological analysis. The karyotypes of a triploid (2n = 3x = 30 and a tetraploid (2n = 4x = 40 accession of Paspalum quadrifarium were studied using this technique, and evidence of segmental allopolyploidy was found in both cases. In both accessions, meiotic behavior was in accordance with that origin. This technique greatly improved the number and quality of analyzable metaphases and prometaphases on otherwise conventional slides and is recommended for plants with small chromosomes.

  11. Analysis of chemical composition and evaluation of antigenotoxic, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramaraj Thirugnanasampandan; Rajarajeswaran Jayakumar; Murugaiyan Prabhakaran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the chemical composition of essential oil isolated from the leaves ofToddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. and to test its bioactive properties. Methods: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis and antigenotoxicity, cytotoxicity and antioxidant studies of isolated oil. Results: GC-MS analysis of oil revealed the presence of 42 compounds. The major compound in the oil was β-phellandrene (21.35%). DNA protecting activity of oil was considerably significant against H2O2 induced genotoxicity in human lymphocytes. Concentration of oil needed to protect 50% of DNA was calculated as 100 μg/mL. Cytotoxicity of oil against breast (MCF-7) and colorectal (HT-29) cancer cells were observed with the IC50 value of (7.80±0.03) μg/mL and (100.00±0.16) μg/mL respectively. Considerable DPPH free radical, hydroxyl radical scavenging, iron chelation and inhibition of lipid peroxidation activities of oil were also studied. Conclusions: The results of the present study clearly indicate oil could be a promising candidate for food and drug preparation.

  12. Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. Against Inflammation Associated with Development of Arthritis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mali, Ravindra G; Mehta, Anita A

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. (MOEE) in adjuvant-induced arthritis in adult female Wistar rats. During the experimental period, body weight, paw edema volume (primary lesion) and arthritic index (secondary lesion) was observed. On the 21st day, serum from each animal was used for estimation of Rheumatoid Factor (RF) value and levels of selected cytokines (TNFalpha, IL-1, and IL-6). Whole blood was used for measurement of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Liver homogenate was utilized for assessment of oxidative stress and histopathology was performed to measure degree of inflammation in synovial joint. Our results suggest that, percentage reduction in body weight was less, paw edema volume and arthritic index score was decreased significantly as compared to diseased control animals. Serum levels of RF, TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-6 also showed decreased levels as compared to those in the diseased control group. Treatment with MOEE also altered oxidative stress in relation to its anti-inflammatory activity. Histopathological observations showed mild or less infiltration of lymphocytes, angiogenesis and synovial lining thickening. From all above results and observations, it can be concluded that Moringa oleifera possesses promising antiarthritic property.

  13. Cloning and Functional Analysis of Lycopeneε-Cyclase (IbLCYe) Gene from Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ling; ZHAI Hong; CHEN Wei; HE Shao-zhen; LIU Qing-chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper reported firstly successful cloning of lycopeneε-cyclase (IbLCYe) gene from sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), IbLCYe gene was cloned from sweetpotato cv. Nongdafu 14 with high carotenoid content. The 1 805 bp cDNA sequence of IbLCYe gene contained a 1 236 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 411 amino acids polypeptide with a molecular weight of 47 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.95. IbLCYe protein contained one potential lycopeneε-cyclase domain and one potential FAD (flavinadenine dinucleotide)/NAD(P) (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)-binding domain, indicating that this protein shares the typical characteristics of LCYe proteins. The gDNA of IbLCYe gene was 4 029 bp and deduced to contain 5 introns and 6 exons. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of IbLCYe gene was significantly higher in the storage roots of Nongdafu 14 than those in the leaves and stems. Transgenic tobacco (cv. Wisconsin 38) expressing IbLCYe gene accumulated significantly moreβ-carotene compared to the untransformed control plants. These results showed that IbLCYe gene has an important function for the accumulation of carotenoids of sweetpotato.

  14. 辣木的化学成分研究%Study on Chemical Constituents of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长倩; 高巍; 杨柳; 胡江苗

    2016-01-01

    [目的]研究辣木Moringa oleifera Lam.的化学成分.[方法]采用硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20凝胶柱色谱、反相硅胶色谱等柱层析方法进行分离纯化,根据理化性质和谱学数据进行结构鉴定.[结果]从辣木茎叶95%乙醇提取物中分离得到11个单体化合物,分别鉴定为多萜醇(1)、植醇(2)、邻苯二甲酸-双(2-乙基庚基)酯(3)、邻苯二甲酸-双(2-乙基辛基)酯(4)、杜叶醇(5)、N-苯乙基乙酰酸(6)、顺-3,4-二羟基-β-紫罗兰酮(7)、4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl] isothiocyanate(8)、甘油亚麻酸酯(9)、β-谷甾醇(10)、胡萝卜苷(11).[结论]化合物2、5、7为首次从辣木中分离得到.

  15. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract

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    Aye Moh Moh San

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics  mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g extract and total flavonoids  mg quercetin equivalent (QE/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg body weight. These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product.

  16. Inhibitory effects of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) against the infection and infectivity of macrophages by Leishmania amazonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Bernardo; Leitão, Joseana M S R; Oliveira, Luciano G C; Santos, Sérgio E M; Carneiro, Sabrina M P; Rodrigues, Klinger A F; Chaves, Mariana H; Arcanjo, Daniel D R; Carvalho, Fernando A A

    2016-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of microbial infections and parasitic diseases. In the present study, the antileishmanial effect induced by the ethanol extract of stem barks from Z. rhoifolium (ZR-EEtOH) and its n-hexane fraction (ZR-FHEX) on infection and infectivity of murine macrophages by promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. In different set of experiments, macrophages or promastigotes were pretreated with ZR-EEtOH or ZR-FHEX at non-lethal concentrations for 24 hours, and then macrophages were submitted to infection by promastigotes. Moreover, their effects on activation of macrophages, as well as on the DNA content, size and number of promastigotes by flow cytometry were also evaluated. The infection rate and the number of internalized amastigote forms were markedly decreased after pretreatment of macrophages or promastigotes when compared with non-treated cells. The increase in phagocytic capability and nitrite content was also observed. Furthermore, the decrease of DNA content, size and number of promastigotes was also observed. In conclusion, ZR-EEtOH and ZR-FHEX promoted a markedly significant antileishmanial effect and reduction of infection of macrophages, probably underlying defense mechanisms activation in macrophages. These findings reinforce the potential application of Z. rhoifolium in the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  17. Inhibitory effects of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae against the infection and infectivity of macrophages by Leishmania amazonensis

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    BERNARDO MELO NETO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae has been traditionally used in the treatment of microbial infections and parasitic diseases. In the present study, the antileishmanial effect induced by the ethanol extract of stem barks from Z. rhoifolium (ZR-EEtOH and its n-hexane fraction (ZR-FHEX on infection and infectivity of murine macrophages by promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. In different set of experiments, macrophages or promastigotes were pretreated with ZR-EEtOH or ZR-FHEX at non-lethal concentrations for 24 hours, and then macrophages were submitted to infection by promastigotes. Moreover, their effects on activation of macrophages, as well as on the DNA content, size and number of promastigotes by flow cytometry were also evaluated. The infection rate and the number of internalized amastigote forms were markedly decreased after pretreatment of macrophages or promastigotes when compared with non-treated cells. The increase in phagocytic capability and nitrite content was also observed. Furthermore, the decrease of DNA content, size and number of promastigotes was also observed. In conclusion, ZR-EEtOH and ZR-FHEX promoted a markedly significant antileishmanial effect and reduction of infection of macrophages, probably underlying defense mechanisms activation in macrophages. These findings reinforce the potential application of Z. rhoifolium in the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  18. La pertinencia de imaginar modelos universitarios: El caso del Laboratorio: Aula Multimedia (LAM en la UAM Xochimilco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Andión Gamboa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo parte de un cuestionamiento sobre la pertinencia de imaginar modelos universitarios y para darle respuesta se explica desde una perspectiva teórica el papel de los modelos universitarios en los proceso de cambio y reconfiguración de la organización universitaria. Posteriormente, se hace una descripción de la experiencia que significó implantar un modelo “autóctono” dentro de un aula universitaria multimedia, en la Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Xochimilco, y su transfiguración en un laboratorio multifuncional. Al final, se reflexiona sobre este proceso de cambio organizacional, llegando a la conclusión que cuando los modelos se imaginan, diseñan, planean, aplican, evalúan y sirven a la comunidad, como es el caso del Laboratorio: Aula Multimedia (LAM, entonces resulta evidente la vigencia, relevancia y pertinencia de esta actividad académica.

  19. Investigation of active biomolecules involved in the nucleation and growth of gold nanoparticles by Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam leaf extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Xinde; Sun Daohua, E-mail: sdaohua@xmu.edu.cn; Zhang Genlei; He Ning; Liu Hongyu; Huang Jiale; Odoom-Wubah, Tareque; Li Qingbiao, E-mail: kelqb@xmu.edu.cn [Xiamen University, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology (China)

    2013-06-15

    The effects of different biomolecules in Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam leaf extract on the morphology of obtained gold nanoparticles were investigated in this study. The results indicated that reducing sugars, flavones, and polyphenols consisting of about 79.8 % dry weight of the leaf extract were mainly involved in providing the dual function of reduction and the size/shape control during the biosynthesis. The gold nanoparticles present included 64 {+-} 10 nm nanospheres, 131 {+-} 18 nm nanoflowers, and 347 {+-} 136 nm (edge length) nanoplates and they were synthesized using the main content of reducing sugars, flavones, and polyphenols, respectively, after they were desorbed by the AB-8 macroporous adsorption resin column. Particularly, flower-like and triangular/hexagonal gold nanoparticles with a yield more than 80 % were obtained. Possible shape-directed agents for the nucleation and growth were characterized by FTIR, it can be seen that ketones were bound on the surface of the spherical and flower-like GNPs, while both the ketones and carbonyls bound on the Au {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane this may have favored the formation of the twin defects, which are very essential for nanoplates' formation.

  20. Hypocholesterolemic effects of crude extract of leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam in high-fat diet fed wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasi, S; Nwobodo, E; Ofili, J O

    2000-01-01

    The leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) are used by the Indians in their herbal medicine as a hypocholesterolemic agent in obese patients. The scientific basis for their use in hypercholesterolemia was therefore examined. It was found that administration of the crude leaf extract of Moringa oleifera along with high-fat diet decreased the high-fat diet-induced increases in serum, liver, and kidney cholesterol levels by 14.35% (115-103.2 mg/100 ml of serum), 6.40% (9.4-8.8 mg/g wet weight) and 11.09% (1.09-0.97 mg/g wet weight) respectively. The effect on the serum cholesterol was statistically significant. No significant effect on serum total protein was observed. However, the crude extract increased serum albumin by 15.22% (46-53 g/l). This value was also found to be statistically significant. It was concluded that the leaves of Moringa oleifera have definite hypocholesterolemic activity and that there is valid pharmacological basis for employing them for this purpose in India.

  1. An ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits human macrophage cytokine production induced by cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooltheat, Nateelak; Sranujit, Rungnapa Pankla; Chumark, Pilaipark; Potup, Pachuen; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

    2014-02-18

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF) was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-κB p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8) which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6) which mediate tissue disease and damage.

  2. Effects of Oral Administration of Moringa oleifera Lam on Glucose Tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndong, Moussa; Uehara, Mariko; Katsumata, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2007-05-01

    Medicinal plants constitute an important source of potential therapeutic agents for diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) Lam, Moringacea, on glucose tolerance in Wistar rats and Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, modeled type 2 diabetes. Major polyphenols in MO powder were quercetin glucosides, rutin, kaempferol glycosides and chlorogenic acids by HPLC analysis. As the results of glucose tolerance test, MO significantly decreased the blood glucose at 20, 30, 45and 60 min for GK rats and at 10, 30 and 45 min for Wistar rats (p<0.05) compared to the both controls after glucose administration. The area under the curve of changes in the blood glucose was significantly higher in the GK control group than in the GK plus MO group (p<0.05) in the periods 30-60 min and 60-120 min. Furthermore, MO significantly decreased stomach emptying in GK rats (p<0.05). The results indicated that MO has an ameliorating effect for glucose intolerance, and the effect might be mediated by quercetin-3-glucoside and fiber contents in MO leaf powder. The action of MO was greater in GK rats than in Wistar rats.

  3. Phytochemical screening and studies of analgesic potential of Moringa oleifera Lam. stem bark extract on experimental animal model

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    Shumaia Parvin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The work has been done for the phytochemical investigation and study of analgesic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam. ethanolic stem bark extract using Acetic Acid Induced Writhing method. The effect of extract was tested for qualitative chemical analysis which reveals the presence of alkaloid, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, saponin, carbohydrate etc. For peripheral analgesic effect acetic acid induced writhing test was used and for this stem bark extract was administered intraperitoneally at doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of body weight to young Swiss-albino mice. Both doses of the extract significantly inhibited writhing response induced by acetic acid in a dose dependent manner which is comparable to the positive control drug Diclofenac Na. These two different doses were found to exhibit 13.22% and 28.94% writhing inhibitory response respectively where the Diclofenac Na inhibited about 42.15% of writhes at a dose of 100mg/kg of body weight. The obtained results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of these crude extract in the treatment of pain.

  4. An Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits Human Macrophage Cytokine Production Induced by Cigarette Smoke

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    Nateelak Kooltheat

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE—induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-κB p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8 which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6 which mediate tissue disease and damage.

  5. Effect of Butea monosperma Lam. leaves and bark extracts on blood glucose in streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic rats

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    Faiyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that has significant impact on the health, quality of life and life expectancy, as well as on the health care system. Butea monosperma Lam. Kuntze (Fabaceae, commonly known as palash, is widely used in the treatment of various diseases and disorders including diabetes. Materials and Methods: The present study was planned to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of aqueous extracts of B. monosperma leaves and bark in streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic rats. The animals were divided into four groups, with each consisting of six rats, viz. control, diabetic control, leaf extract-treated and bark extract-treated groups. Treatment was continued for 6 weeks. The biochemical estimations included blood glucose and serum insulin levels. Histopathology of pancreas was also performed. Results: The results indicated that both leaf and bark extracts of B. monosperma produced insignificant antihyperglycemic activity. The leaf and bark extracts reduced blood glucose to an extent of 28% and 11%, respectively. It was also evidenced that both leaf and bark extracts did not increase insulin synthesis or secretion and did not improve pancreatic architecture as reflected by the histopathologic studies. Conclusions: The findings of the study emphasize that B. monosperma does not possess significant antidiabetic activity in severe experimental diabetes at the dosage tested.

  6. Aculeatin, a coumarin derived from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., enhances differentiation and lipolysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Akio, E-mail: watanabea@jfrl.or.jp [Japan Food Research Laboratories, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Food and Biodynamic Chemistry Laboratory, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Miyagi 981-8555 (Japan); Kato, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Yusuke; Yoshida, Izumi; Harada, Teppei; Mishima, Takashi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Watai, Masatoshi [Japan Food Research Laboratories, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo [Food and Biodynamic Chemistry Laboratory, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Miyagi 981-8555 (Japan)

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • Aculeatin promoted adipocyte differentiation. • Aculeatin improved glucose uptake. • Aculeatin enhanced adipocyte lipolysis. - Abstract: Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (T. asiatica) has been utilized traditionally for medicinal purposes such as the treatment of diabetes. Currently, the extract is considered to be a good source of anti-diabetic agents, but the active compounds have yet to be identified. In this study, we investigated the effects of fractionated T. asiatica extracts on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and identified aculeatin as a potential active agent. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with aculeatin isolated from T. asiatica in the presence of insulin, aculeatin increased cellular triglyceride levels and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. This indicated that aculeatin could enhance the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Further analyses using a DNA microarray and real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR showed an increase in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ target genes (Pparg, Ap2, Cd36, Glut4 and Adipoq) by aculeatin, suggesting that aculeatin enhances the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells by modulating the expression of genes critical for adipogenesis. Interestingly, after treatment of differentiated adipocytes with aculeatin, glucose uptake and lipolysis were enhanced. Overall, our results suggested that aculeatin is an active compound in T. asiatica for enhancing both differentiation and lipolysis of adipocytes, which are useful for the treatment of lipid abnormalities as well as diabetes.

  7. Litter Decomposition of Acacia caven (Molina Molina and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems Descomposición de Hojarascas de Acacia caven (Molina Molina y Lolium multiflorum Lam. en Ecosistemas de Clima Mediterráneo

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    Ingrid Martínez G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystems of the Mediterranean interior dryland of Chile, dominated by an espinal agroecosystem of Acacia caven (Molina Molina, show low productivity as a result of soil degradation. The objective of this study was to evaluate litter decomposition of A. caven and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in espinal ecosystems: well preserved (Wp 50 to 80%, typical (Pd 25 to 50%, and degraded (De with 10 to 25% cover. During 420 d and starting in April 2004 until August 2005, weight loss in litter bags and chemical composition (hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, non-structural components, ash, N, C, C/N ratio, and P were determined by using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS and the Van Soest protocol. Weight loss ranged from 31 to 52% in L. multiflorum and 26 to 40% in A. caven after 420 d. During the chemical decomposition process of L. multiflorum, cellulose degradation was relevant in the labile phase while lignin was important in the recalcitrant phase. On the other hand, non-structural components and cellulose were degraded in the labile phase and lignin in the recalcitrant stage for A. caven. Moreover, both litters improved N concentration during the decomposition process. Espinal ecosystems with higher canopy cover (Pd and Wp had a positive influence, and showed early effects during the decomposition process, especially in the De espinal ecosystem, probably because of the microenvironmental conditions it generated. A better knowledge of the dynamics of litter decomposition in ecosystems was achieved by using both techniques: litter bags and NIRS.Los ecosistemas del secano interior mediterráneo de Chile presentan una baja productividad debido a la degradación de los suelos, dominados por un agroecosistema espinal de Acacia caven (Molina Molina. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la descomposición de hojarascas de A. caven y Lolium multiflorum Lam., en ecosistemas espinales: densos (Wp con cobertura de 50-80%, poco densos (Pd 25-50% y

  8. Comportamento ingestivo e desempenho de ovinos em pastagem de azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam. com diferentes massas de forragem Ingestive behaviour and performance of sheep grazing Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. pasture with different herbage masses

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    Juliano Roman

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o comportamento ingestivo e o desempenho de ovinos em pastagem de azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam. sob pastejo contínuo e com diferentes massas de forragem: baixa: 1.000 a 1.200 kg/ha MS; intermediária: 1.400 a 1.600 kg/ha MS; alta = 1.800 a 2.000 kg/ha MS. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e duas repetições de área. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de regressão polinomial em função das massas de forragem observadas nas unidades experimentais: 1.136,8; 1.190,9; 1.359,2; 1.375; 1.556 e 1.739,1 kg/ha MS. Os valores de massa de lâminas foliares e de pseudocolmo, de oferta de forragem e de lâminas foliares, de altura de dossel e de pseudocolmo, de profundidade de lâminas foliares e de ganho médio diário ajustaram-se ao modelo linear de regressão, relacionando-se positivamente com a massa de forragem. Os valores de taxa de lotação e de taxa de bocados diminuíram linearmente com o aumento da massa de forragem. O consumo de forragem, os tempos de pastejo, de ruminação e de ócio, o número diário de bocados, a massa de bocado, o ganho de escore de condição corporal, o ganho de peso vivo por área e a eficiência de conversão de forragem em peso vivo foram similares entre as massas de forragem avaliadas. As amplitudes de massas de forragem avaliadas não promovem diferenças no ganho de peso vivo por hectare, pois proporcionaram similar eficiência de transformação da forragem em produto animal. O principal fator determinante do desempenho individual dos animais é a profundidade da camada de lâminas foliares.The objective of this trial was to evaluate ingestive behaviour and performance of sheep grazing Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. pasture with different herbage mass (HM: low HM: 1,000 - 1,200 kg/ha of DM (LHM; medium HM: 1,400-1,600 kg/ha DM (MHM; high HM 1,800-2,000 kg/ha DM (HHM. A completely randomized design with three treatments and

  9. Essential oil composition of fruit colour varieties of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. Composição dos óleos essenciais de variedades de coloração de frutos de Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.

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    Paulo Roberto H. Moreno

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. is a variable species concerning fruit colour, with three recognized varieties. However, the definition of varieties is not easy for Myrtaceae species and not widely accepted. Two fruit colour varieties (purple and yellow of E. brasiliensis had their essential oil composition analysed in order to give support to the existence of varieties for this species. Although, the major components in the leaf oil are the same monoterpenes for both varieties, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and 1,8-cineol, the purple fruit variety accumulates more oxygenated sesquiterpenes (33.9% than the one with yellow fruits (3.8%. The major differences occurred in purple fruits that present as major components caryophyllene oxide (22.2% and alpha-cadinol (10.4%, not found in the leaf oil, and the yellow fruit oil presented a similar composition as observed for the leaves. These fruit colour varieties of E. brasilensis can be considered as two distinct chemotypes, since the sesquiterpene pathway is more operant in the purple variety than in the yellow one, in which monoterpenes are mainly accumulated.A espécie Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. apresenta a coloração dos frutos variável, sendo reconhecidas três variedades. Entretanto, a definição de variedades não é fácil para espécies de Myrtaceae e também não é amplamente aceita. Duas variedades de Eugenia brasiliensis, baseado na cor dos frutos (roxos e amarelos, tiveram a composição de seus óleos essenciais analisadas com a finalidade de obter indícios de variedade botânica para esta espécie. Embora, os componentes principais nos óleos das folhas fossem os mesmos monoterpenos para ambas as variedades, alfa-pineno, beta-pineno e 1,8-cineol, a variedade com frutos roxos acumulou maior quantidade de sesquiterpenos oxigenados (33,9% do que aquela com frutos amarelos (3,8%. As diferenças principais ocorreram nos frutos roxos que apresentaram como componente principal o óxido de cariofileno

  10. Anti-apoptosis effect of polysaccharide isolated from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam on cardiomyocytes in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shou-Li; Guo, Li; Ren, Ya-Chao; Wang, Bing; Li, Rong-Hui; Qi, Yu-Shan; Yu, Hui; Chang, Nai-Dan; Li, Ming-Hui; Peng, Hai-Sheng

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the mechanism of apoptosis in myocardial cells of aging rats induced by D-galactose and to study the effect of the Polysaccharide isolated from the seeds of Cuscuta chinensis Lam (PCCL) on apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and its corresponding machinasim in aging rat model. Fifty male SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. Normal control group (NC). D-galactose (100 mg · kg(-1)d(-1) for 56 day) indued aging group (MC), D-galactose plus 100 mg kg(-1) d(-1) PCCL group (ML), D-galactose plus 200 mg kg(-1) d(-1) PCCL group (MM), and D-galactose plus 400 mg kg(-1) d(-1) PCCL group (MH). Same volume of solution (water, or PCCL aqueous solution) was given by gavage for 56 days. Then the hearts were collected and apoptosis parameters were evaluated. Caspase-3 and Cyt c were determined by fluorescence spectrometer, the apoptosis rate was assessed by AnnexinV-FITC method by Flow-Cytometry, [Ca(2+)]i and [Ca(2+)]i overloaded by KCL were observed by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM); Bcl-2 and Bax were examined by immunohistochemistry. The content of Cyt C, [Ca(2+)]i of cardiomyocytes, the activity of Caspase-3, Bax expression level in D-galactose induced aging group were higher than NC (p aging group compared to NC. On the other hand, the content of Cyt C, [Ca(2+)]i of cardiomyocytes, the activity of Caspase-3 and apoptosis rate, as well as Bax expression level in all three PCCL groups were decreased compared to galactose induced group (p aging group. PCCL could decrease the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes by the mitochondria apoptosis pathway.

  11. Identification of a Proteinaceous Component in the Leaf of Moringa Oleifera lam. with Effects on High Serum Creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S; Raghavendra, K M; Biswas, S

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above) were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one.

  12. A valued Indian medicinal plant – Begonia malabarica Lam. : Successful plant regeneration through various explants and field performance

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    Sevanan Rajeshkumar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A cost-effective and efficient protocol has been described in the present work for large-scale and rapid in vitro propagation of a valuable medicinal herb Begonia malabarica Lam. (Begoniaceae by shoot auxillary-bud proliferation and organogenesis on MS medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BA; 0.0-8.8 mg/l and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA; 0.0-2.88 mg/l at different concentrations, either alone or in combinations. Initiation of callus formation from the base of the leaf lamina was observed on MS supplemented with BA, IAA and adenine sulphate. Root induction on shoots was achieved on full strength MS with IAA/ indole-3-butyric acid (IBA at different concentrations. MS medium with 4.4 mg/l BA and 1.4 mg/l IAA elicited the maximum number of shoots (10 multiple shoots from nodal explants. Leaf-based callus differentiated into more than 28 shoots on MS with 150 mg/l adenine sulphate. The regenerated shoots were rooted on MS with 1.2 mg/l IBA within ten days. Almost 95% of the rooted shoots survived hardening when transferred to the field. The regenerated plants did not show any morphological change and variation in levels of secondary metabolites when compared with the mother stock. Thus, a reproduction of B. malabarica was established through nodal and leaf explants. This protocol can be exploited for conservation and commercial propagation of this medical plant in the Indian subcontinent and might be useful for genetic improvement programs.

  13. Bioactive endophytic fungi isolated from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood and identification of beauvericin as a trypanocidal metabolite from Fusarium sp.

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    Fernanda Fraga Campos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to identify new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, we isolated 82 endophytic fungi from stems and barks of the native Brazilian tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Fabaceae. We tested their ethyl acetate extracts in several in vitro assays. The organic extracts from three isolates showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC 32-64 μg/mL]. One isolate inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 64 μg/mL and two isolates inhibited the growth of Klebsiella oxytoca (MIC 64 μg/mL, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (MIC 64-128 μg/mL. Fourteen extracts at a concentration of 20 μg/mL showed antitumour activities against human breast cancer and human renal cancer cells, while two isolates showed anti-tumour activities against human melanoma cancer cells. Six extracts were able to reduce the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating some degree of selective toxicity. Four isolates were able to inhibit Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis and one isolate inhibited Trypanosoma cruzi by at least 40% at 20 μg/mL. The trypanocidal extract obtained from Fusarium sp. [KF611679] culture was subjected to bioguided fractionation, which revealed beauvericin as the compound responsible for the observed toxicity of Fusarium sp. to T. cruzi. This depsipeptide showed a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.9 μg/mL (2.43 μM in a T. cruzi cellular culture assay.

  14. Digital gene expression analysis based on integrated de novo transcriptome assembly of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam].

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    Xiang Tao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. [Lam.] ranks among the top six most important food crops in the world. It is widely grown throughout the world with high and stable yield, strong adaptability, rich nutrient content, and multiple uses. However, little is known about the molecular biology of this important non-model organism due to lack of genomic resources. Hence, studies based on high-throughput sequencing technologies are needed to get a comprehensive and integrated genomic resource and better understanding of gene expression patterns in different tissues and at various developmental stages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Illumina paired-end (PE RNA-Sequencing was performed, and generated 48.7 million of 75 bp PE reads. These reads were de novo assembled into 128,052 transcripts (≥ 100 bp, which correspond to 41.1 million base pairs, by using a combined assembly strategy. Transcripts were annotated by Blast2GO and 51,763 transcripts got BLASTX hits, in which 39,677 transcripts have GO terms and 14,117 have ECs that are associated with 147 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, transcriptome differences of seven tissues were analyzed by using Illumina digital gene expression (DGE tag profiling and numerous differentially and specifically expressed transcripts were identified. Moreover, the expression characteristics of genes involved in viral genomes, starch metabolism and potential stress tolerance and insect resistance were also identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The combined de novo transcriptome assembly strategy can be applied to other organisms whose reference genomes are not available. The data provided here represent the most comprehensive and integrated genomic resources for cloning and identifying genes of interest in sweet potato. Characterization of sweet potato transcriptome provides an effective tool for better understanding the molecular mechanisms of cellular processes including development of leaves and storage roots

  15. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats

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    Mohsen Minaiyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE and its chloroform fraction (MCF on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Both MSHE and MCF with three increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg were administered orally to separate groups of male Wistar rats, 2 h before ulcer induction (using acetic acid 4% and continued for 5 days. Prednisolone (4 mg/kg and normal saline (1 ml/kg were used in reference and control groups, respectively. All rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last dose (at day 6 and tissue injuries were assessed macroscopically and pathologically. Results: Extracts with three doses mentioned before were effective to reduce weight of distal colon (8 cm as a marker for inflammation and tissue edema. Three doses of MSHE and two greater doses of MCF (100 and 200 mg/kg were effective to reduce ulcer severity, area, and index as well as mucosal inflammation severity and extent, crypt damage, invasion involvement, total colitis index, and MPO activity compared with controls. MCF (50 mg/kg was not significantly effective in reducing evaluated parameters of colitis compared with controls. Conclusion: It is concluded that MSHE and MCF were both effective to treat experimental colitis and this might be attributed to their similar major components, biophenols and flavonoids. Since the efficacy was evident even in low doses of MSHE, presence of active constituents with high potency in seeds is persuasive.

  16. Novel R-plasmid conjugal transfer inhibitory and antibacterial activities of phenolic compounds from Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Mull. Arg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedemi, Blessing O M; Shinde, Vaibhav; Shinde, Kamlesh; Kakalou, Dionysia; Stapleton, Paul D; Gibbons, Simon

    2016-06-01

    Antimicrobial resistance severely limits the therapeutic options for many clinically important bacteria. In Gram-negative bacteria, multidrug resistance is commonly facilitated by plasmids that have the ability to accumulate and transfer refractory genes amongst bacterial populations. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify bioactive compounds from the medicinal plant Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Mull. Arg. with both direct antibacterial properties and the capacity to inhibit plasmid conjugal transfer. A chloroform-soluble extract of M. philippensis was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation using chromatographic and spectrometric techniques that led to the isolation of the known compounds rottlerin [5,7-dihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-6-(2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-methyl-5-acetylbenzyl)-8-cinnamoyl-1,2-chromene] and the red compound (8-cinnamoyl-5,7-dihydroxy-2,2,6-trimethylchromene). Both compounds were characterised and elucidated using one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Rottlerin and the red compound showed potent activities against a panel of clinically relevant Gram-positive bacteria, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). No significant direct activities were observed against Gram-negative bacteria. However, both rottlerin and the red compound strongly inhibited conjugal transfer of the plasmids pKM101, TP114, pUB307 and R6K amongst Escherichia coli at a subinhibitory concentration of 100mg/L. Interestingly, despite the planar nature of the compounds, binding to plasmid DNA could not be demonstrated by a DNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay. These results show that rottlerin and the red compound are potential candidates for antibacterial drug lead development. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mode of inhibition of the conjugal transfer of plasmids.

  17. Evaluation of a cost effective technique for treating aquaculture water discharge using Lolium perenne Lam as a biofilter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater stabilization ponds generate low cost by-products that are useful for agriculture.The utilization of these by-products for soil amendment and as a source of nutrients for plants requires a high level of sanitation and stabilization of the organic matter,to maintain acceptable levels of soil,water and air quality.In this study,two aquaculture wastewater treatment systems;recirculating system and a floating plant bed system were designed to improve the quality of irrigation Water in local communities with low income.In both systems the grass species Lolium perenne Lam was used as a plant biofilter while vegetable specie Amaranthus viridis was used to evaluate the performance of the system and the suitability of the phyto-treated water for irrigation.It was found that the harmful material removal rate for recirculating system was 88.9% for TAN (total ammonia nitrogen),90% for NO2--N,64.8% for NO3--N while for floating plant bed system 82.7% for TAN,82% for NO2--N and 60.5% for NO3--N.Comparative analysis of the efficiency of waste element removal between the two systems revealed that both systems performed well,however,plant growth was not robust for floating plant bed system while recirculating system is energy consuming.Although both systems did not attain sufficient levels of TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) load reduction,the treatment with L.perenne remarkably improved the irrigation water quality.A.viridis plants irrigated with the phyto-treated discharge water had lesser concentrations of heavy metals in their tissues compared to those irrigated with untreated discharge.The control plants irrigated with untreated discharge were also found to be highly lignified with few stems and small leaves.

  18. Improvement of the coagulation/flocculation process using a combination of Moringa oleifera lam with anionic polymer in water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovani, Milene Carvalho; Camacho, Franciele Pereira; Nishi, Letícia; Coldebella, Priscila Ferri; Valverde, Karina Cardoso; Vieira, Angélica Marquetotti Salcedo; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the impacts of anionic polymer as a flocculant aid on the coagulation/flocculation performance with a saline solution of Moringa oleifera as a coagulant to provide larger flocs and decrease the time sedimentation. For the tests, raw water was used from Pirapó River Basin (Maringá, Paraná, Brazil). Optimization of coagulation/flocculation tests was initially performed in a jar-test with a dosage of M. oleifera Lam (crude extract--MO, oil-extracted with ethanol--MO (et) and hexane--MO (hex) 1% m/v) as the coagulant that ranged from 10 to 60 mg L(-1) and of the anionic polymer 0.1% as a flocculant aid with a dosage that ranged from 0 to 0.4 mg L(-1). The parameters analysed were colour, turbidity and compounds with absorption in UV254nm. In view of the statistical analysis results, MO (hex) with a dosage of 30 mg L(-1) was chosen as a coagulant for the next tests of coagulation/flocculation. When anionic polymer was used alone (0.0 mg L(-1) of MO (hex)), parameters were not removed and there was no generation of heavy flocs as compared with the combination of MO (hex) with the anionic polymer. Statistical analysis showed that MO (hex) obtained the highest removals of the parameters analysed in lower dosages and no significant increase in parameters removal was observed when the polymer dosage was increased. The efficacy of the coagulant +/- anionic polymer was optimal when 30mg L(-1) of MO (hex) was used as a coagulant and 0.1 mg L(-1) of the anionic polymer was used as a flocculant aid, decreasing the time sedimentation from 1 h to 15 min.

  19. Identification of a proteinaceous component in the leaf of moringa oleifera lam. with effects on high serum creatinine

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    S Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one.

  20. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potentiality of Randia dumetorum Lam. Leaf and Bark via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Saikia, Bikas; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Singh, Yogendra P.; Kalita, Kasturi; Dash, Suvakanta; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Randia dumetorum Lam. (RD) (Rubiaceae) is traditionally used by some tribes of Assam and Manipur of North East India for the treatment of liver ailments. In this context, to scientifically validate this indigenous traditional knowledge, we have evaluated the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of RD leaf and bark. The methanol extracts of RD leaf and bark were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity which exhibited good antioxidant activity in terms of reducing power assay, total antioxidant assay and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid content were found to be 112 ± 3.24 mg and 138 ± 2.46 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract and 2.6 ± 0.26 mg and 3.34 ± 0.31 mg rutin equivalents/g extract respectively for RD leaf and bark methanol extracts. The in vivo hepato protective activity of the RD leaf and bark extract was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in male wistar rats. CCl4 administration induced hepatic damage in rats resulted in increased levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, albumin, bilirubin, TNF-α, IL-1β and decreased levels of total protein and antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase. RD leaf and bark methanol extracts pre-treatment exhibited protection against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity by reversing all the abnormal parameters to significant levels. Histopathological results revealed that RD leaf and bark extracts at 400 mg/kg protects the liver from damage induced by CCl4. The results of this study scientifically validate the traditional use of RD leaf and bark for the treatment of liver ailments. PMID:27471465

  1. The Inhibitory Effect of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. on Gastric Acid Output at Basal, Vagotomized and Vagal Stimulated Conditions in Rat

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    Saeed Niazmand

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sZiziphora clinopodioides Lam. is a plant widely used in Iranian traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. Several reports have demonstrated antibacterial (Helicobacteria pylori, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Z. clinopodioides. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous-ethanol extract of Z. clinopodioides on rat’s gastric acid output in basal, vagotomized (VX and vagal stimulated conditions.Materials and MethodsA total of 24 male Wistar rats weighed 200-250 g were randomly divided into two groups: control and test. Tracheostomy and gastroduodenostomy procedures were performed for each rat. In the vagotomized condition the vagus nerve in the cervical region was dissected and in the vagal stimulation condition the distal portion of the vogues nerve stimulated. Gastric content was collected for 15 min by wash out technique. A volume of 1 ml of three doses (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg was introduced into the stomach (i.g. of each rat in the test group and the same volume of saline was used in the control group. Total titratable acid was measured by a titrator.ResultsThe extract inhibited acid secretion significantly at basal condition. At VX condition not only this inhibitory effect on acid secretion disappeared but also a stimulatory effect at the dose of 2 mg/kg was shown. In vagal stimulation condition the extract showed a significant inhibitory effect at 1 mg/kg dose. ConclusionTaking together our data resulted from comparison of three conditions showed that the extract exerted an inhibitory effect on acid secretion in basal and vagal stimulation. Also, according to our results this inhibitory effect of the extract could be exerted via gastric vagal parasympathetic nerve.

  2. Research Progress of Sexual Reproduction Techniques of Moringa oleifera Lam.%辣木有性繁殖技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭梦桥; 王晓飞; 徐海军; 刘淑霞; 关向军

    2016-01-01

    从辣木(Moringa oleifera Lam.)的种子处理、基质筛选、栽培密度和病虫害防治4个方面综述了国内在辣木有性繁殖技术上的研究进展,并在此基础上针对一些问题进行探讨,旨在为辣木的研究与推广应用提供参考.

  3. Aislamiento y caracterización molecular de un fragmento de gen que codifica una polifenol oxidasa en lulo (solanum quitoense lam.) accesión ILS-388

    OpenAIRE

    Pulido Jiménez, Mauricio Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Se presenta el aislamiento y caracterización molecular de un fragmento de DNA genómico de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) junto con evidencias que permiten postularlo como candidato a gen de polifenol oxidasa (ppo). Se diseñaron dos parejas de oligonucleótidos específicos que permitieron amplificar mediante PCR dos fragmentos de 950 y 920 pb correspondientes a las regiones 5´y 3?del gen| los productos de PCR fueron secuenciados y ensamblados para obtener una secuencia final de 1430 pb que pres...

  4. An Applied Local Wisdom to Manage Water for Developing Riverside Community: A Case Study of the Lam Ta Kong River Basin

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    Surapong Kongsat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: An integrated water resource management is accepted technique to solve the water resource problems both water shortage and flood plane in order to improve human life. The combination between local wisdom and modern technology by farmer participation is a main part of integrated management. The mentioned techniques had been being applied for human life in the northeast region of Thailand. Approach: This study investigated the local wisdom of water resource management and an application of the local wisdom to manage water resource for developing the economic, society and culture of Lam Ta Kong’s community, Nakhorn Ratchasima province, Thailand. Information was investigated from relevant document and field survey including questionnaire and interview. Results: The result founded that there were two types of the local wisdoms including an original local wisdom on water management and a combination of original and modern science local wisdom to manage available water. For original wisdom, there were earth dam, rock dam, rocks dyke, wooden weir, waterwheel and shallow well that were found in source and midst of the river basin. They constructed the dams and weirs barrier flow river along the Lam Ta Kong River in order to storage water for using purposes in dry season and to mitigate flood plane during rainy season as an early age of the local wisdom. The waterwheel was used to bail water from river to their community. For the combination of original and modern science, there were concrete dam, Watergate, irrigating tube, irrigation channel, water pump, water pump dynamo and underground water drilling that were found at the source, midst and tide tail of the river basin. These combined local wisdoms are considered as a current apparatus in water resource management of the area. The stored water was managed with annual rainfall for cultivation, industrial, family activity and residences for the necessaries of life. Conclusion

  5. Influência dos processos de secagem sobre o teor de flavonoides e na atividade antioxidante dos extratos de Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers., Asteraceae

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    Jackson Borgo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o teor de quercetina obtido dos extratos de partes aéreas de Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers., Asteraceae, submetidas a diferentes técnicas de secagem, bem como a avaliação de sua atividade antioxidante in vitro. Foi verificada maior concentração deste flavonoide nas amostras secas em estufa, porém não houve diferença significativa na atividade farmacológica das amostras analisadas.

  6. Marcadores funcionales relacionados con la síntesis de pigmentos y su localización en un mapa de ligamiento en Ipomoea batatas L. Lam

    OpenAIRE

    Arizio, Carla Marcela

    2011-01-01

    Ipomoea batatas L. Lam, es una especie de importancia agrícola, que se cultiva en más de 100 países con una producción anual de 120 millones de toneladas. Esta especie presenta una raíz engrosada denominada batata que constituye un alimento básico en muchos países subdesarrollados. En la piel y en la pulpa de la raíz engrosada puede observarse una amplia variedad de colores. Estos colores se deben a la presencia de dos clases de pigmentos: las antocianinas (flavonoides) y los carotenoides. Es...

  7. Temperatura, luz e substrato para germinação de sementes de Pau-Brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Leguminosae - Caesalpinioideae Temperature, light and substrate for germination of seeds of Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Leguminosae - Caesalpinioideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Iura de Oliveira Mello

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Programas de preservação de Caesalpinia echinata, espécie considerada em risco de extinção, incluem a conservação ex situ, que poderia ser ainda mais intensificada pelo armazenamento, no longo prazo, de suas sementes. Embora já se tenha desenvolvido tecnologia suficiente para preservar a germinabilidade dessas sementes por até dois anos, ainda são insuficientes as informações acerca das condições adequadas para a germinação, mormente as referentes a temperatura, luz e substrato. Este trabalho visou avaliar os efeitos de temperaturas constantes de 10 a 45 °C em presença ou ausência de luz e o tipo (papel, areia e vermiculita e umidade do substrato sobre a germinação das sementes de pau-brasil. Concluiu-se que a semeadura deve ser realizada em rolo de papel, umedecido na relação 1:2,5 a 1:3,0 (substrato:água, em massa, e na temperatura de 25 °C, sem necessidade de luz.Preservation of the Brazilian endangered tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. include the ex situ conservation that could be enhanced by the long term storage of its seeds. In despite of having enough technology to preserve brazilwood seed viability for at least two years, there is scarce information on the optimal conditions for germination, mainly concerning temperature, light and substrate. This research aimed to study the effects of the constant temperatures (10 to 45°C, the presence or absence of light and the moisture content of three substrates (paper, sand and vermiculite on the germination of C. echinata seeds. The results suggested that these seeds should be sowed on paper roll moistened at the ratio 1:2.5 or 1:3.0 (substrate:water, w/w at 25°C, no need for light.

  8. Correlations between the anatomical traits of Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. in heartwood and sapwood of early- and latewood zones of growth rings

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    Jokanović Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows correlations between vessel characteristics and differences in growth-ring width in heartwood and sapwood. Analyzed samples were from an iron-wood tree (Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. that grew in the Mužljanski Rit area, of the Srpska Crnja municipality in Serbia. According to previous research, it was deduced that Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. belongs to ring-porous species with big vessel lumen in the earlywood zone and thicker cell walls in the latewood. Vessels were more numerous in the latewood zone, and the same was true for heartwood and sapwood. For both layers, sapwood possessed a few more vessels than heartwood, and a statistically significant difference was confirmed by t-test during the early phase. The greatest negative value of correlation coefficient was between the number of vessels and growth-ring width during the early phase for sapwood. The number of vessels decreased in the wider growth rings. The correlation between growth-ring width and the area of vessels had a statistically significant positive value of correlative coefficient, which means that wider growth rings had larger vessel areas in the early phase for sapwood. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31041

  9. La culture du safoutier (Dacryodes edulis [G.Don] H.J.Lam [Burseraceae] : enjeux et perspectives de valorisation au Gabon (synthèse bibliographique

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    Poligui, RN.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of the African plum (Dacryodes edulis (G.Don H.J.Lam: challenges and prospects for valorization in Gabon. A review. In Gabon, the African plum (Dacryodes edulis [G.Don] H.J.Lam is an important fruit tree because of its nutritional value and its place within both the economy and the socio-cultural context. The fruits of this tree are widely appreciated and are sold regularly in all major urban markets. Local production is limited but is offset by significant imports from border countries. Culture of the African plum is widespread in anthropized areas, mainly in domestic gardens. The market and agronomic potential of this species has not yet been sufficiently studied in Gabon. There is no detailed study of the pests affecting D. edulis, or of their control. Numerous scientific studies carried out in neighboring countries have revealed excellent nutritional qualities of the safou pulp and interesting food properties of the oil extracted from both the safou pulp and the seed kernel. Within the context of sustainable development, the modernization of the culture of the African plum in Gabon, in particular by reducing pest-related losses and through the prudent use of all the products of the tree, may lead to important economic and industrial incomes.

  10. Evaluation sensorielle du couscous de farine de manioc (Manihot esculenta, Crantz substituée par celle de patate douce (Ipomoea batatas, Lam

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    Amadou, NM.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer Acceptance of Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz flour's fufu substituted by Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas, Lam Flour. This study investigated the consumer acceptance of fufu made by substituting cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz flour with sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, Lam flour at the Food Technology and Post-harvest laboratory of IRAD in Bambui, Cameroon. Four samples of Fufu flour samples F0, F1, F2 and F3 obtained by substituting cassava flour with 0%, 20%, 40% and 50% potato flour respectively were compared. A panel of 30 persons (habitual consumers of Cassava fufu flour carried out a sensory evaluation of the four samples and gave their level of appreciation with regards to taste, aroma, colour, and texture. The study showed that, the substitution of cassava flour with sweet potato flour had no effect on the aroma of the fufu. The sample containing 20% of sweet potato flour (F1 showed no significant difference in texture and aroma compared (p>0.05 to the control (F0. It was also considered as having the best taste (p<0.05 and was the sample preferred by the panelists. In conclusion, an increase in the proportion of sweet potato flour in the cassava flour had a negative influence on the colour, texture, taste and on the acceptance of the fufu.

  11. Construction and use of a broad-host-range plasmid expressing the lamB gene for utilization of bacteriophage lambda vectors in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiecki, J; Czy, A; Gabig, M; Wegrzyn, G

    2001-07-01

    The remarkable success of Escherichia coli as a model organism in molecular genetics was dependent, among other things, on its susceptibility to genetic manipulation. Many versatile and sophisticated genetic tools for molecular biology studies are derived from bacteriophage lambda. However, this bacteriophage is specific for E. coli, and thus lambda-based techniques have been restricted to this bacterium. Plasmids expressing the E. coli gene coding for bacteriophage lambda receptor were reported previously, and introduction of such plasmids into cells of some other bacteria made them sensitive to phage lambda infection. However, we found that these systems were not efficient for Vibrio harveyi, one of the most frequently investigated species of marine bacteria. Here we describe construction of a broad-host-range plasmid expressing the lamB gene. Introduction of this plasmid to V. harveyi cells and expression of lamB made this strain susceptible to bacteriophage lambda adsorption and lambda DNA injection. Foreign genetic material could be introduced into cells of this strain using a cosmid vector.

  12. Performance of Late Sown Wheat in Response to Foliar Application of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaf Extract Rendimiento de Trigo Sembrado Tarde en Respuesta a la Aplicación Foliar de Extracto de Hojas de Moringa oleifera Lam.

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    Azra Yasmeen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A rise in temperature during early spring inducing early maturity is a key yield-reducing factor in late sown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves are rich in zeatin, a cytokinin that plays a role in delaying leaf senescence, in addition to other growth-enhancing compounds such as ascorbates, phenolics, and minerals. The objective of this study was to optimize dose and optimum growth stage for foliar-applied moringa leaf extract (MLE and its role in delaying leaf senescence in late sown wheat. The wheat crop was shown on 16 December 2008; MLE (diluted 30 times was applied at different growth stages from tillering to heading and heading alone and distilled water was sprayed as a control. All the MLE treatment results were better than the control. However, an increase of 10.73%, 6.00%, 10.70%, and 4.00% was evident in 1000 grain weight, biological yield, grain yield, and harvest index, respectively, with MLE spray at tillering + jointing + booting + heading. The MLE spray used only at heading gave 6.84%, 3.17%, 6.80%, and 3.51% more than the control 1000 grain weight, biological yield, grain yield, and harvest index, respectively. The MLE extended seasonal leaf area duration (Seasonal LAD by 9.22 and 6.45 d over the control when applied at all growth stages and a single spray at heading, respectively. We conclude that it is possible that the presence of growth-promoting substances in MLE foliar spray can delay crop maturity and extend seasonal LAD and the grain-filling period, thereby leading to greater seed and biological yields in late sown wheat.Aumento en temperatura durante inicios de primavera induciendo madurez temprana es un factor clave en la reducción de rendimiento en siembra tardía de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.. Las hojas de Moringa oleifera Lam. son ricas en zeatina, una citoquinina que tiene rol en retraso de senescencia foliar, además de otros compuestos que mejoran crecimiento como ascorbatos, fenoles, y

  13. EXTRACCIÓN DE ENZIMAS PÉCTICAS DEL EPICARPIO DE LULO (Solanum quitoense Lam INVOLUCRADAS EN EL PROCESO DE ABLANDAMIENTO Exytraction of Pectic Enzymes from of Lulo(Solanum quitoense Lam Involved in Softening

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    JEIMMY MARCELA RODRÍGUEZ NIETO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Durante el periodo de poscosecha el principal problema de deterioro del lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam es el ablandamiento que es generado principalmente por actividad de enzimas pécticas que atacan la red estructural de la pared celular. Esta investigación se basó en la búsqueda de las mejores condiciones de extracción y medida de actividad de las enzimas pectinesterasa, poligalacturonasa y pectato liasa; herramientas necesarias para estudiar posteriormente el rol de estas enzimas en el deterioro por ablandamiento sufrido por el fruto debido a diversos cambios metabólicos. Se encontró que las dos primeras enzimas pueden ser extraídas simultáneamente con buffer fosfatos 20 mM pH 7,0 + NaCl 0,06 M y 60 min de extracción, relación 1:2 (material vegetal: buffer de extracción, a su vez, pectato liasa se extrajo con buffer fosfatos 20 mM pH 7,0 + cisteína 20 mM y 30 min de extracción, relación 1:3. Para la cuantificación de la actividad pectinesterasa es necesario incubar 15 min a 42 °C 2.500 µL de extracto enzimático crudo (EE en buffer fosfatos 20 mM pH 7,0 + NaCl 0,15 M y 1,6% de pectina cítrica como sustrato, con valores de Km aparente de 3,78% de PC y Vmax 17,95 µmolH+/min*mg prot. Para la cuantificación de la actividad poligalacturonasa es necesario incubar 15 min a 37 °C 30 µL (EE en buffer acetatos 200 mM pH 4,5 + NaCl 0,25 M y 1,0% de APG como sustrato, con valores de Km aparente 0,141% de APG y Vmax 28,46 nKat/s*mg prot. Para la cuantificación de la actividad pectato liasa es necesario incubar 2 min a 17 °C 100 µL (EE en buffer TRIS:HCl 50 Mm pH 8,5 + CaCl2 4 mM y 0,1% de APG como sustrato, con valores de Km aparente 0,0865% de APG y Vmax 82,75 µg/s*mg prot.The main problem of post-harvest deterioration of lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam is the softening is the main problem of post-harvest deteriorarion of Lulo, that is generated mainly by the activity of pectic enzymes, which attack the structural network of the cell

  14. Produtividade da marcela [Achyrocline satureioides (lam. DC.]em cultivo solteiro e consorciado com tansagem (Plantago major l. Productivity of "marcela" [Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC.] in a monocrop and intercropped with common plantain (Plantago major L.

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    Ana Cristina Araújo Ajalla

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o crescimento e a produção de biomassa de marcela [Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC.], em cultivo solteiro e consorciado com tansagem (Plantago major L. e determinar a população de plantas dessas espécies medicinais, em consorciação mais eficiente, visando o aumento produtivo e retorno econômico. Foram constituídos seis tratamentos: duas fileiras de marcela espaçadas de 0,40m (M0,40; duas fileiras de marcela espaçadas de 0,25m (M0,25; duas fileiras de tansagem espaçadas de 0,75m (T0,75; três fileiras de tansagem espaçadas de 0,40m (T0,40; duas fileiras de marcela alternadas com três fileiras 0,40 de tansagem (M0,40T0,40 e duas fileiras de marcela alternadas com duas fileiras de tansagem (M0,25T0,75. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Foram efetuadas colheitas de marcela aos 180, 210 e 225 dias após o transplante. Os tratamentos não influenciaram as alturas das plantas da marcela e da tansagem. As produções da marcela foram influenciadas apenas pelas três épocas de colheita sendo significativamente superior nas duas primeiras, apresentando massas de flores frescas de 2,51, 2,63 e 1,28 t ha-1, respectivamente, aos 180, 210 e 225 dias após o transplante. A massa de folhas frescas da tansagem não foi influenciada pelo consórcio mas foi maior sob o espaçamento T0,40(6,13 t ha-1 do que sob o T0,75(3,32 t ha-1. A Razão de Área Equivalente do consórcio M0,40T0,40 foi 1,6 e o de M0,25T0,75foi 2,4. Quanto à renda bruta observaram-se acréscimos de 30% para o tratamento M0,40T0,40e 77% para o tratamento M0,25T0,75comparadas ao tratamento da marcela solteira M0,25e de 70% e 131%, respectivamente, em relação à tansagem solteira T0,40.The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth and the yield of marcela [Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC.] biomass, in a monocrop system and intercropped with common plantain (Plantago major L. as well as

  15. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract on toluene diisocyanate-induced immune-mediated inflammatory responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mali, Ravindra G; Mehta, Anita A

    2007-04-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a small tree cultivated throughout India. We have investigated the effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera (MOEE, an herbal remedy) on the potential prevention of immune-mediated inflammatory responses in toluene diisocyanate (TDI as antigen)-induced asthma in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into five different groups (n = 8/group): Group-I = unsensitized control; Group-II = TDI control/vehicle; Group-III = dexamethasone (DXM) 2.5 mg/kg; and, Groups IV and V = 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight [BW] of MOEE, respectively. All rats (except unsensitized controls) were sensitized by intranasal application of 10% TDI to induce airway hypersensitivity. Animals in Groups II-V were given their respective drug treatment per os from 1 wk prior to initiation of sensitization until the day of final provocation with 5% TDI. After this last challenge, all rats were examined for hyperreactivity symptoms and then sacrificed to determine their total and differential leucocytes in blood and bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid and levels of TNF proportional, variant, IL-4, and IL-6 in their BAL and serum. Homogenates of one lung lobe from each animal were utilized to assess oxidative stress; a separate lobe underwent histologic examination to assess airway inflammatory status. The results suggest that asthmatic symptoms were found in TDI control rats only, while both MOEE- and DXM-treated rats did not manifest any airway abnormality. In MOEE- and DXM-treated rats, neutrophil and eosinophil levels in the blood were decreased significantly; levels of total cells and each different cell in their BAL fluid were markedly decreased as compared to those in TDI controls. TNF alpha, IL-4, and IL-6 were predominant in serum as well as in BAL fluids in TDI controls, but these levels were reduced significantly by MOEE treatment. The antioxidant activity in relation to antiinflammatory activity of the extract and histopathological observations also reflected a

  16. Purification and Trypsin Inhibitor Activity of a Sporamin B from Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam. 55-2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yan-li; SUN Jun-mao; LI Qing-peng

    2009-01-01

    Sporamin is a soluble protein in sweet potato, and falls into two distinct homology groups, subfamilies A and B. In this research, a sporamin B was purified and its amino acid sequences, trypsin inhibitor activity (Ti activity) were analyzed. This sporamin B was isolated from sweet potato tubers [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam cv. 55-2] through extraction of the water-soluble fraction, dialysis, ultrafiltration and ion-exchange chromatography. Homology determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that mainly one bond appeared in gel after being reduced by SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate), or by SDS and 2-mercaptoethanol, or in native situation. By comparing the data of the polypeptide mass Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry with those of the mass of the theoretical amino acid sequences from NCBI protein database, it was revealed that it was Q40091|Q40091_IPOBA, sweet potato sporamin B - Ipomoea Batatas (sweet potato) (Batate). The sequence coverage was 70.6%. N-terminal sequence was SETPV (Ser-Glu-Thr-Pro-Val). There is a linear relationship between trypsin inhibitor activity (Ti activity) and amounts of this sporamin B (3-18 μg mL-1). The equation of linear regression was y=2.5809x+17.049 (r2=0.9966). There was a curvilinear relationship between Ti activity and amounts of this sporamin B (21-150 μg mL-1). The equation of curvilinear regression is y= 14.4171n(x)+23.26 (r2=0.9924). The concentration of sporamin B with Ti activity after heating at 40℃ may induce part denature of this sporamin B, and there was no statistic difference after heating at 40, 50, 60℃ for 20 min. Heat treatment at more than 90℃ leads to a dramatic decrease of trypsin inhibitor efficiency. The results suggested that Q40091|Q40091_IPOBA was the major sporamin B in sweet potato tubers [Ipomoea Batatas (L.) Lain cv. 55-2], which had strong Ti activity, and was stable to both thermal and DTT (DL-dithiothreitol) relatively.

  17. Beyond vegetative propagation of indigenous fruit trees: case of Dacryodes edulis (G. Don H. J. Lam and Allanblackia floribunda Oliv.

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    Asaah, Ebenezar K.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous fruits/nuts of Africa’s humid tropics are increasingly being recognized for their contribution to food security, health (nutrition/medicine, income generation, employment and environmental benefits. However, cultivation of the trees yielding these fruits/nuts is constrained by lack of improved planting materials that are true-to-type and have a short enough juvenile phase to fruit production. In addition, information on both above and belowground growth attributes of these species is scarce. This paper presents an overview of the results of a doctoral research focused on two African indigenous fruit tree species, i.e. Dacryodes edulis (G. Don H. J. Lam (Burseraceae and Allanblackia floribunda Oliv. (Clusiaceae, which are currently under domestication. For D. edulis, the objective was to assess and compare the structural and fine rooting systems together with the above ground growth attributes of fruiting trees propagated either sexually or vegetatively. The research aim for A. floribunda was to shorten the long juvenile phase before first fruiting through grafting techniques. In summary, the results from the studies on D. edulis suggest that vegetative propagation of the species, reduces the long juvenile phase to fruiting and maintains trueness in the transfer of desirable traits over generations, it also results in trees that are apparently less competitive for below ground resources, have more stable root system, and are bigger in stature and higher in carbon sinks compared to trees of seed origin. In parallel, A. floribunda was shown to be amenable to grafting both under nursery and field (in situ conditions. Furthermore, a grafted A. floribunda tree transplanted in the field in 2007, flowered and carried a single fruit to maturity after 4 years, thereby reducing the long juvenile period to first fruit production from about 10-12 years reported in literature to less than 5 years. The findings of this doctoral research are

  18. INDUCCIÓN DE FENILALANINA AMONIO LIASA EN FRUTOS DE LULO (Solanum quitoense Lam INFECTADOS CON Colletotrichum acutatum.

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    Martínez Peralta Sixta Tulia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evaluó la dinámica de la actividad fenilalanina amonio liasa (PAL en corteza de frutos de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam con el fin de determinar su participación en respuestas bioquímicas hacia Colletotrichum acutatum. Se establecieron como mejores condiciones para la extracción de la enzima, amortiguador ácido bórico-borato de sodio 0.1M pH 8.8, 1% SDS, 3% PVPP y para medir la actividad, sustrato L-fenilalanina 5 mM, pH 8,0, 20°C, 30 μL de extracto y 45 min. Se realizó un ensayo in vivo usando frutos en tres estados de madurez, los cuales fueron inoculados con el patógeno o tratados con agua estéril. A cinco tiempos (hpi se determinó la actividad PAL y el contenido total de fenoles, encontrándose que hay una respuesta diferencial de la enzima por efecto del patógeno y por el estado de madurez. Para frutos en el estado pintón se obtuvo el mayor aumento de PAL, el que perduró hasta 48 hpi, al compararlo con los controles y con los otros dos estados de madurez. Este aumento mostró relación con un marcado incremento en el contenido total de fenoles y con el desarrollo más tardío de síntomas característicos de antracnosis, observado para los frutos pintones. Estos resultados permiten postular, una posible relación positiva entre inducción de PAL, aumento de fenólicos y respuesta de tolerancia a C. acutatum. Para lulos en estado verde y maduro se observó aumento de PAL a 12 y 24 hpi que coincidió también con incremento en el contenido de fenoles totales, aunque para estos dos últimos estados dicho contenido disminuyó significativamente a tiempos mayores.

  19. Fast analysis of volatile components of Achillea tenuifolia Lam with microwave distillation followed by headspace single-drop microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piryaei, Marzieh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of microwaves on the amount of volatile compounds Achillea tenuifolia Lam with two methods, headspace single-drop microextraction and microwave-assisted headspace single-drop microextraction (MA-SDME), for the analysis of essential oil. Solvent selection, solvent volume, microwave power, irradiation time and sample mass were optimised by the simplex method.

  20. Probing into Mobile Learning Applications on LAMS in Open Education%基于LAMS的移动学习在开放教育中的应用探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜俊

    2011-01-01

    基于LAMS的移动学习可以作为开放教育面授辅导教学的补充,满足成人学生自主学习的需要。根据移动学习与LAMS的特点,基于LAMS的移动学习能够根据学习时间的长短,实现单一性学习活动和序列性学习活动,从而满足多样化的自主学习需求。随着各类移动设备对LAMS的支持日渐完善,基于LAMS的移动学习将在教学领域拥有更广泛的应用空间。%Mobile learning based on LAMS(Learning Activity Management System) can be used as teaching supplement of face-to-face tutorial in open education,meeting the needs of adult students' autonomous learning.According to the characteristics of m-learning and LAMS,LAMS-based mobile learning enables a single sequence of learning activities and learning activities on sequentiality depending on the time of learning in order to meet the diverse learning needs.With the perfect support of all types of mobile devices to LAMS,LAMS-based mobile learning in the field of instruction will have a wider range of application.

  1. 基于Lamé曲线的Delta并联机器人拾放操作轨迹的优化与试验验证%Optimization and Experimental Verification of Pick-and-place Trajectory for a Delta Parallel Robot Based on Lamé Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解则晓; 商大伟; 任凭

    2015-01-01

    A method of trajectory planning for high-speed Delta parallel robots in pick-and-place operations is presented. The transitions between the vertical and horizontal segments of the operation trajectory are smoothed with Lamé curves, thus determining the overall shape of the trajectory in Cartesian space. High order polynomials are adopted to plan the one-dimensional displacement along the curve and generate the position, velocity, acceleration information necessary for the interpolation points. Trajectory information in Cartesian space is mapped back to the joint space by using the Delta robot’s kinematics and dynamics models. In order to optimize the Lamé curve’s geometric parameters, an energy-like function based on joint torques and angular rates is thus defined. The trajectories planned are finally tested on an experimental platform. The residual vibrations as the robot’s end-effector reaches the terminal are recorded and then compared under different Lamé curve parameters. These results verify that the optimized trajectory has a better performance practically. The planning method discussed could lead to trajectories which satisfy operational requirements.%提出了高速Delta并联机器人拾放操作轨迹的一种实现及优化的方法。在笛卡儿空间中利用Lamé曲线平滑竖直运动与水平运动之间的直角过渡部分,确定运动轨迹形状。用高阶多项式运动特性对一维曲线弧位移进行三维规划,获得运动轨迹插补点的位置、速度和加速度信息。通过Delta机器人运动学模型和动力学模型将笛卡儿空间内的轨迹信息映射到机器人关节空间,以关节电动机的近似输出能量函数为目标优化 Lamé曲线的参数。在试验样机平台上进行测试,测量不同 Lamé曲线参数的运动轨迹在运动停止后机构残余振动的情况,通过比较验证了参数优化后的轨迹具有良好的实际性能,能够获得满足实践要求的轨迹曲线。

  2. 维药唇香草总黄酮微波提取工艺研究%Study on the technology of microwave extraction of total flavonoids content from Uygur medicine Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰卫; 郭玉婷; 吴燕妮; 耿直

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the optimum extraction process of total flavonoids from preferably Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam.Methods Take the extraction rate of total flavonoids from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam as the index,use orthogonal design method to optimize of the microwave extraction technology of total flavonoids of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam.Results The optimum microwave extrac-tion process for total flavonoids from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam is:the extraction power 800 W,ex-traction time 45 min,extraction temperature 80℃.The measured content of total flavonoids was 5.53% in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam under the conditions.Conclusion Microwave technique of extracting total flavonoids from Ziziphora clinopodioides is simple,economical and feasible under these conditions.%目的:优选唇香草总黄酮的最佳提取工艺。方法以唇香草总黄酮的提取率为指标,采用正交设计法优选唇香草总黄酮微波提取工艺。结果唇香草总黄酮微波最佳提取工艺为,提取功率800 W,提取时间45 min,提取温度80℃,测得唇香草中总黄酮的含量为5.53%。结论微波提取唇香草总黄酮工艺经济、合理,工艺条件可行。

  3. Wound healing activity of the leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae on ex-vivo porcine skin wound healing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Periyanayagam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To prescreen the ex- vivo wound healing activity of flavonoid rich fraction of ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Family Moraceae using porcine skin wound healing model (PSWHM along with  phytochemical, XRF, HPTLC analysis. The aim of this present study is to provide pharmacological validation to the traditional claim for wound healing activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus leaves. Method: Total phenolic content by UV spectral methods and ursolic acid content by HPTLC, trace elements by X-ray fluorescence were determined.  The wound healing effect of the ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of A.heterophyllus (EAAH was evaluated using ex- vivo porcine skin wound healing model - a novel organ culture model system for evaluation of drugs in cell-cell junction in the wound healing process. Results: Total phenolic content by UV method, HPTLC determination of ursolic acid content of EAAH was found to be 376.5mg/g GAE, 134mg/g respectively. XRF study showed the presence of calcium (39.4%, potassium (29.6%, magnesium (2.06%, Iron (0.99%, sulphur (1.83%, zinc (0.083%, strontium (0.23%, manganese (0.13% and aluminium (0.005%.   Histopathological evaluation showed all treated wounds were sound with no signs of apoptosis, necrosis or bacterial contamination and no toxicity of the tested concentrations of EAAH of the leaves. Morphology of the wound margins, epidermis and dermis layer were found to be normal. Epidermal migration or keratinocyte migration distances from the edges of each wound were measured, normalized with the PBS control group and expressed as mean%. The result clearly showed EAAH (1.5% promoted statistically significant wound healing effect is comparable to the standard drug Mupirocin. Conclusion: This study indicates that the ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of A.heterophyllus possesses potential wound healing activity on ex-vivo porcine skin wound healing model. Wound healing

  4. Otimização dos tempos de mistura e decantação no processo de coagulação/floculação da água bruta por meio da Moringa oleifera Lam = Otimizing mixture and decantation times in the process of coagulation/flocculation of raw water using Moringa oleifera Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Cordeiro Cardoso

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Diversos coagulantes/floculantes estão sendo estudados ao que se refere à remoção de cor e turbidez da água bruta, entretanto, os coagulantes naturais têm demonstrado vantagens em relação aos químicos. A Moringa oleifera Lam é um polímero natural que vemganhando destaque no tratamento de água, pois atua como agente clarificante pela presença de uma proteína catiônica que desestabiliza as partículas contidas na água em meio líquido. Estetrabalho propõe a otimização dos tempos de coagulação, floculação e decantação, utilizando como coagulante diferentes concentrações da solução extraída da polpa da semente de Moringa oleifera Lam, para verificar a eficiência de remoção da cor e turbidez da água. Os ensaios foram realizados em “Jar Test”, utilizando diferentes tempos de mistura e decantação, com várias concentrações do biopolímero. Verificou-se que o tempo para propiciar a mistura rápida elenta, assim como a concentração do coagulante influenciaram a remoção dos parâmetros durante a coagulação/floculação/sedimentação.Several natural coagulants/flocculants are being studied to remove color and turbidity from raw water; however, natural coagulants have demonstrated advantages over chemical ones. Moringa oleifera Lam is a natural polymer that has become an important alternative in watertreatment, acting as a clarifying agent due to the presence of a cationic protein that destabilizes the particles contained in water in liquid form. This work proposes the optimization of the coagulation, flocculation and decantation times, using differentconcentrations of the solution extracted from the pulp of Moringa oleifera Lam seeds as coagulant, in order to verify its efficiency in removing color and turbidity from water. Jar tests were carried out, using different mixture and decantation times, with varyingconcentrations of the biopolymer. It was verified that the time required to achieve a fast and slow

  5. 辣木营养器官的解剖学特征初探%Study on anatomical characteristics of nutritional organs of Moringa oleifera Lam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘春香; 闫文龙; 任安祥; 江雪媚

    2010-01-01

    关于辣木的栽培、繁殖、开发和利用等方面的研究报道相对较多,而辣木的形态解剖结构却尚无报道.以印度传统辣木品种Moringa oleifera Lam.为材料,采用石蜡包埋和徒手切片法系统观察比较了辣木的根、茎、叶及叶柄的形态解剖结构,指甲油粘片法观察了其叶表面的结构,明确了辣木营养器官的形态解剖结构特征,为辣木的生物学特性及相关研究提供解剖学依据.

  6. Research on Web-based INC Collaborative Learning Based on LAMS%基于LAMS的INC网络协作学习研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颀

    2012-01-01

    This paper first analyzed the characteristics and deficiencies of web-based collaborative learning, constructed a web-based INC collaborative learning model combining incentive mechanisms. At last, the specific implementation was carried out in the LAMS (Learning Activity Management System)platform.%本文通过分析网络协作学习的特性和不足,构建了一个基于网络的Inc(incentive,富激励性的)协作学习模型,并在LAMS(Learning Activity ManagementSystem学习活动管理系统)平台上进行了具体实现。

  7. Análisis comparativo de la ejecución del algoritmo voraz de PRIM en modo lineal y paralelo (LAM-MPI

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    José Márquez Diaz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestra cómo funciona el algoritmo voraz PRlM, tanto en ambientes paralelos como en secuenciales. El objetivo de estas pruebas es ver cómo la herramienta mpi puede trabajar en red y mostrar cómo los algoritmos voraces en lafase de ejecución pueden arrojar resultados satisfactorios al momento de utilizarlos. Para poder ejecutar el algoritmo voraz PRlM se usó un entorno de procesamiento secuencial utilizando un único computador y un entorno de procesamiento paralelo a partir de la implementaci6n dada con la programación de paso de mensajes (MP¡, denominada l.AM (Local Area MuIticomputer sobre el sistema operativo Linux. Los resultados obtenidos permiten concluir que a través del paralelismo virtual se logra disminuir el tiempo de procesamiento de un programa de esta naturaleza.

  8. A new linoleiyl arabinopyranoside from the bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam and a new flavonoidal glycoside from the leaves of Cordia dichotoma Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Azizur; Akhtar, Juber

    2016-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation is very valuable for the ethnomedicinally important plants Bauhinia racemosa Lam (BR) and Cordia dichotoma Linn (CD) used for the cure of variety of ailments. This study was thus designed for phytochemical investigation of BR bark and CD leaves. Phytoconstituents were isolated from the methanolic extracts of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel as stationary phase. The structures had been established on the basis of their physicochemical and spectral data, i.e. IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS. Elution of the columns with different solvents furnished six compounds (1-6) from the methanolic extract of BR bark and three compounds (7-9) from the methanolic extract of CD leaves which were structurally elucidated. The present phytochemical investigation reported several new compounds useful in increasing the existing knowledge of phytoconstituents from BR bark and CD leaves which is very valuable, as these drugs are used in the Indian traditional systems of medicine.

  9. Development Anatomical Structure of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) Pulps%菠萝蜜果肉的发育解剖学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴钿; 叶春海; 丰锋; 叶昌辉

    2015-01-01

    为了解菠萝蜜(Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.)果肉的发育过程,运用石蜡切片和水装片的方法对其进行解剖学观察。结果表明,菠萝蜜果肉由表皮、基本组织和维管束组成,花后8周表皮和基本组织细胞中出现淀粉粒,成熟时完全消失,贮藏作用明显;外表皮细胞形态较规则,而内表皮细胞壁的初生纹孔场相对较多;维管束不发达,发育过程中没有明显变化。菠萝蜜果实发育成熟在花后18~19周。这为菠萝蜜的解剖学基础研究积累了资料。%In order to understand the development of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) pulps, the anatomical structure of its pulps during development was observed under light microscope by using water slice and parafifn section. The results showed that jackfruit pulp consisted of epidermis, basis tissues and vascular bundles. Starch grains appeared in epidermis and basis tissues at 8 weeks after flowering and then degraded at mature stage, showing obvious storage function. The shape of outer epidermis cells are regular, and cell wall of inner epidermis cell has more primary pit ifelds than that of outer epidermis cells. The vascular bundles in pulp are undeveloped, and there is no signiifcant change throughout development process. The mature of jackfruit pulps was at 18 to 19 weeks after lfowering. These accumulate materials for anatomical studies of jackfruits.

  10. Le savoir-faire local dans la valorisation alimentaire des fruits du safoutier (Dacryodes edulis (G. Don H.J. Lam au Cameroun

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    Noumi, GB.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Local Know-how in the Valorisation of (Dacryodes edulis (G. Don H.J. Lam Fruits in Cameroon. Dacryodes edulis (G. Don H.J. Lam (Burseraceae is an oleaginous plant highly appreciated in the forest zone of Cameroon. This tree yields fruits called african pear or safou, highly consumed by local populations and even abroad. African pear is at the centre of a great economic activity in the Central Africa subregion as its trade generates cash for local traders during the production period. However, the valorisation of african pear is hindered by its high perishable nature responsible for important post-harvest losses due to lack of proper post-harvest handling. Some studies addressed the problem, unfortunately, nothing was done on the local know-how which has still to be investigated. The present paper sheds light on african pear local harvesting, handling and marketing practices in Cameroon. Field surveys were carried out in different production zones in Cameroon savannah and humid forest lowlands: Adamawa, centre, east, littoral and west provinces. Results showed that african pear occupies an important place in the population daily life. This multipurpose tree specie appears to be a source of foodstuffs, cash income, drugs and wood. If, on one hand diverse strategies are developed by the population for a proper conservation of fruits, on the other hand there is not a real fruits transformation activity. Results of this study highlight the traditional know-how and bring out prospects for future works on african pear valorisation.

  11. Aquaculture Solids Management Using A Combination of Sand/Gravel or Unwoven Fabric Bed With Lolium perenne Lam as A Plant Biofilter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective This work is an evaluation of the efficiency of a sand-gravel or unwoven fabric bed system and Lolium perenne Lam as plant biofiltter in the reduction of solids and nutrients removal from aquaculture discharge water. Methods The first step consisted of the collection of wastewater in the tank and the distribution at three different hydraulic loading regimes (0.5, 1, 1.5L/hour) to the different experimental systems. The second step was to evaluate the performance of the different systems. The first system consisted of a bucket filled with a substrate of sand/gravel (20 cm in depth), on the bottom of which was a 80 mesh/inch2 of nylon (S1); the second was similar, but was planted with Lolium perenne lam (S2); the third was planted with a grass plate consisting of 7 layers of unwoven fabric planted with L. perenne (S3). Results The second system showed the best performance in reducing solids as well as in nutrients (TN, TP, and COD) reduction. The removal rates for TS, TN, and TP were negatively correlated with the loading regimes, with 0.5 L/hour being the most efficient and thus taken as the reference. Conclusions Solids management using a sand/gravel substrate as bed culture and Lolium perenne L. as plant biofilter has proved to be an efficient technique for solids reduction with low operating cost. This grass plays an important role in wastewater eco-treatment by absorbing dissolved pollutants (TAN) as nutrients for its growth.

  12. Evaluation of the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the ethanolic extract ofPericampylus glaucus (Lam.) Merr. in BALB/c mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Kifayatullah; Mohd. Shahimi Mustafa; Pinaki Senguptha; Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker; Arindam Das; Sreemoy Kanti Das

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety dose range of ethanolic extract from the leaves of Pericampylus glaucus(Lam.) Merr. by acute and sub-acute oral toxicity study on animal model. Methods: The acute and sub-acute toxicity study was carried out as per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines 423 and 407. In acute toxicity study, the oral dose (300, 2 000 and 4 000 mg/kg) of tested plant extract was administered to three groups in single dose and general behavior, adverse effects and mortality were determined up to 72 h and compared to normal group. In sub-acute study, the tested crude plant extract was administered orally at doses of 600 and 1 000 mg/kg for 28 days to the two animals groups and their body weight, hematological, serum hepatic biochemical parameters were evaluated and compared to normal group by sacrificing all group animals. Results: In acute toxicity, all treated groups’ revealed neither mortality nor any significant alteration in behavior only drowsiness, sedation and lethargy were observed in two group, i.e. 2 000 and 4 000 mg/kg of the tested plant extract. In sub-acute toxicity study no change in hematological, biochemical parameter and organ body weight were observed during study compared to the normal group. The kidney function parameters [serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (aspartate transaminase), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (alanine transaminase)] were significantly increased following administration of tested crude plant extract (600, 1 000 mg/kg). Conclusions:The result indicates that the oral administration ofPericampylus glaucus (Lam.) Merr. extract did not produce any significant toxic effect in BALB/c mice. Hence, the extract can be utilized safely for therapeutic use in pharmaceutical formulations.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Bacillus flexus LAM-CO-3, a Methanogenesis Facilitating Bacillus Isolated from Biogas Slurry%沼液中一株促沼气发酵的芽孢杆菌的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超奇; 向廷生; 陈超; 王彦伟; 宋金龙; 庄严; 郝元福; 卢麦田; 吴进

    2013-01-01

    10 strains belong to the genus Bacillus were isolated from biogas slurry of a largescale anaerobic digester on Saibei dairy farm of Mordern Farming Corporation in Hebei,among which 3 strains were proved to be able to facilitate methanogenesis according to the results of simulated anaerobic digestion experiment in laboratory,and strain LAM-CQ-3 was selected for further study.The strain LAM-CQ-3 was identified and characterized based on colony morphological,physio-biochemical characteristic and sequencing of 16S rRNA.The strain had optimum growth temperature of 35℃,optimum growth pH of 7.5 and optimum growth salinity of 5%.The genomic G + C content was 46.6mo1%.The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain LAM-CQ-3 was a member of the Genus Bacillus,and was most closely related to Bacillus flexus,showing 99.58% sequence similarity.The major fatty acids of strain LAM-CQ-3 were anteisoC 15∶0 (30.35%),isoC 15∶0 (22.59%),anteisoC 17∶0 (16.74%),isoC 17∶0 (10.24%),C 16∶0 (5.20%).On the basis of its phenotypic and genotypic properties,strain LAM-CQ-3 was identified as Bacillus flexus LAM-CQ-3.The simulated methanogenesis experiment results showed that strain LAM-CQ-3 may possess potential to be used in anaerobic digestion.%从现代牧业集团塞北牧场的规模化沼气工程沼液中分离得到10株芽孢杆菌,其中3株可以促进沼气产生,通过实验室模拟沼气发酵试验,发现其中LAM-CQ-3菌株可以明显促进沼气的产生,沼气产量比对照提高126.72%.通过形态特征、生理生化特征、(G+C) mol%含量及16S rRNA序列分析等鉴定该菌为弯曲芽孢杆菌(Bacillus flexus).LAM-CQ-3的特征为菌体杆状,革兰氏染色阳性,最适生长温度为35℃,最适生长pH为7.5,最适生长盐浓度为5%,与Bacillus flexus IFO15715T的相似性为99.58%,(G+ C) mol%含量为46.6 mol%,主要脂肪酸组成为anteisoC 15∶0 (30.35%),isoC15∶0 (22.59%),anteisoC 17∶0 (16.74

  14. Spectres infrarouge et Raman de l'acide stéarique et d'une série d'acides gras forme C: modes de squelette, couplage des modes longitudinaux acoustiques (LAM1, LAM3) avec les modes dans le plan de la liaison hydrogène du dimère en dessous de 700 cm -1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel-Weill, C.; Corset, J.

    1995-11-01

    A vibrational study of the skeletal modes of stearic acid ( n = 18) in the C form is interpreted on the basis of the calculated dispersion curves for the aliphatic chain C n H n + 2 . The Raman spectra below 200 cm -1, obtained at 90 K, display one very intense band at 70 cm -1 that is assigned to the longitudinal acoustic mode LAM1. The observed frequencies, together with those of LAM3, follow accurately the selection rules of those expected for a C 36 alkane chain of structure C2h. This led us to consider the overall dimer as a molecular entity located on a Ci, site of the crystal. The result, in agreement with the calculations of Zerbi, can be extended to the entire set of acids studied ( n = 26, 23, 16, 14, 12). The observed coupling between the vibrational skeletal modes of the two chains and the in-plane modes of the hydrogen bonded dimer δ(OH⋯O) and ν(O⋯O) is responsible for the behaviour of the C form. Finally, we present the description of the vibrational modes and their classification in the different symmetry classes for polymethylene and paraffins ( neven) accounting for the conventions used in this work and in the literature.

  15. Atividade antioxidante e captora de radicais livres dos extratos de Achyrocline alata (Kunth. DC. em comparação com extratos de Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects in extracts of the Achyrocline alata (Kunth DC. in comparison with the extracts of the Achyrocline satureioides (LAM. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela F. Grassi-Zampieron

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Achyrocline alata (Kunth. DC. e Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., espécies pertencentes à família Asteraceae, são utilizadas na medicina popular de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, como plantas sucedâneas. O presente trabalho teve com objetivo comparar os extratos obtidos dessas espécies através de ensaios químicos simples destinados a testar as atividades antioxidante e captora de radicais livres, utilizando como modelo β-caroteno e DPPH, respectivamente. Tais ensaios revelaram que os extratos de A. satureioides foram mais ativos como captores de radicais livres do que os extratos obtidos de A. alata. Todos os experimentos foram feitos em triplicata, utilizando quercetina como padrão.Achyrocline alata (Kunth. DC. and Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC. are species belonging to the family Asteraceae widely used in the folk medicine of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, being considered substitute plants. The present work aimed to compare the obtained extracts of these species to simple chemical assays, in order to test the antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging, using β-carotene and DPPH as reference, respectively. With these assays it was observed that the obtained extracts of Achyrocline satureioides were more active, as free radical scavenging, than the same obtained extracts of Achyrocline alata. These chemical assays were compared to a known patterned, quercetin, and and they were dealt under triplicate basis.

  16. Efeito do glutaraldeído na adsorção de extrato proteico da Ipomoea Batatas (L Lam na superficie de uma zeólita analcima Effect of the glutaraldeide on the adsorption of proteic extract of the Ipomoea Batatas (L Lam in analcime zeolite surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. S. Gondim

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A zeólita analcime (Na16Al16Si32O96.nH 2O foi submetida a ataque ácido com HCl 0,25 mol.L-1, seguido da funcionalização com glutaraldeído, foi imersa em extrato protéico obtido da polpa da batata-doce (Ipomoea Batatas (L Lam, que tem em sua composição a enzima polifenol oxidase (PFO. As amostras foram submetidas a procedimentos de caracterização por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, espectroscopia na região do infravermelho com transformada de Fourier e termogravimetria.The analcime zeolite (Na16Al16Si32O96.nH2O was treated with hydrochloric acid 0.25 mol.L-1, followed by the funcionalization with glutaraldehyde and immersed in the proteic extract obtained from gross extract of sweet potato pulp (Ipomoea Batatas (L Lam, which presents in its composition the polyphenol oxidase enzyme (PPO. Other samples were submitted to the same procedure with characterizations by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry.

  17. Evaluation of extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam seeds obtained with NaCl and their effects on water treatment - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.9605

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Jurca Seolin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Several natural coagulants have been studied for use in water treatment. The seed of Moringa oleifera Lam, for example, is a natural coagulant whose extract has been mentioned as effective not only for removing color, turbidity, and compounds with absorption at UV-254 nm, but also for significantly reducing the amount of sludge and bacteria in wastewaters. Therefore, the present study (1 evaluated the molecular weight of the extract of Moringa oleifera seed utilizing electrophoresis, and (2 compared the efficiency of different extracts obtained, using solutions of NaCl (0.01 M, 0.1 M and 1 M, distilled water, and Moringa oleifera Lam seed, acting as a natural coagulant in order to obtain drinking water. The tests were performed in Jar Test, and the effectiveness of the process was assessed regarding the removal of color, turbidity and UV-254 nm. It was observed that the molecular weight found in this study is consistent with literature data. Moreover, the highest removal efficiency of color, turbidity, and UV-254 nm occurred with 1M NaCl solution, with coagulant concentration between 100 and 300 mg L-1. The results obtained evidenced that the seed of Moringa oleifera Lam is a great alternative for use as a coagulant in drinking water treatment systems. 

  18. Heat capacities and thermodynamic functions of new nanosized ferro-chromo-manganites LaM0.5 IIFeCrMnO6.5 (MII-Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasenov, B. K.; Kasenova, Sh. B.; Sagintaeva, Zh. I.; Turtubaeva, M. O.; Kakenov, K. S.; Esenbaeva, G. A.

    2017-03-01

    The heat capacities of nanosized ferro-chromo-manganites LaM0.5 IIFeCrMnO6.5 (MII-Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) are measured via dynamic calorimetry in the temperature range of 298.15-673 K using an IT-S-400 instrument. It is established that the C°p f( T) function of LaM0.5 IIFeCrMnO6.5 (MII-Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) has λ-type effects, due probably to phase transitions of the second order. Considering the temperatures of the phase transitions, equations of the heat capacity of ferro-chromo-manganites LaM0.5 IIFeCrMnO6.5 (MII-Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) as a function of temperature are derived on the basis of experimental data. Thermodynamic functions H°( T)- H°(298.15), S°( T), and V xx( T) are calculated in the temperature range of 298.15-675 K.

  19. Coagulation diagram using the Moringa oleifera Lam and the aluminium sulphate, aiming the removal of color and turbidity of water - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i3.12268

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Cardoso Valverde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work suggests the study of the coagulation diagram as a tool to verify the efficiency in removing color and turbidity of the water, using the Moringa oleifera Lam and the association of this biopolymer with the aluminium sulphate as coagulating agents. The assays were carried out in Jar Test, by varying the concentrations of coagulants and pH of coagulation. After the assays of coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation, samples were collected for the evaluation of the process efficiency. Best results were obtained at dose of 50 ppm of Moringa oleifera Lam. When associating the coagulants, the addition of the aluminium sulphate provided an increase in the efficiency of coagulation/flocculation, whose parameters of control used were color and turbidity. It was verified that the study of the coagulation diagram is useful, since it enables developing the assays in the optimal range, as a function of the raw water characteristics. The use of the Moringa oleifera Lam can be considered as an alternative technique to the conventional treatment.  

  20. High-Q energy trapping of temperature-stable shear waves with Lamé cross-sectional polarization in a single crystal silicon waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizian, R.; Daruwalla, A.; Ayazi, F.

    2016-03-01

    A multi-port electrostatically driven silicon acoustic cavity is implemented that efficiently traps the energy of a temperature-stable eigen-mode with Lamé cross-sectional polarization. Dispersive behavior of propagating and evanescent guided waves in a ⟨100⟩-aligned single crystal silicon waveguide is used to engineer the acoustic energy distribution of a specific shear eigen-mode that is well known for its low temperature sensitivity when implemented in doped single crystal silicon. Such an acoustic energy trapping in the central region of the acoustic cavity geometry and far from substrate obviates the need for narrow tethers that are conventionally used for non-destructive and high quality factor (Q) energy suspension in MEMS resonators; therefore, the acoustically engineered waveguide can simultaneously serve as in-situ self-oven by passing large uniformly distributed DC currents through its body and without any concern about perturbing the mode shape or deforming narrow supports. Such a stable thermo-structural performance besides large turnover temperatures than can be realized in Lamé eigen-modes make this device suitable for implementation of ultra-stable oven-controlled oscillators. 78 MHz prototypes implemented in arsenic-doped single crystal silicon substrates with different resistivity are transduced by in- and out-of-plane narrow-gap capacitive ports, showing high Q of ˜43k. The low resistivity device shows an overall temperature-induced frequency drift of 200 ppm over the range of -20 °C to 80 °C, which is ˜15× smaller compared to overall frequency drift measured for the similar yet high resistivity device in the same temperature range. Furthermore, a frequency tuning of ˜2100 ppm is achieved in high resistivity device by passing 45 mA DC current through its body. Continuous operation of the device under such a self-ovenizing current over 10 days did not induce frequency instability or degradation in Q.

  1. Beneficial effect of Berberis buxifolia Lam, Ziziphus mistol Griseb and Prosopis alba extracts on oxidative stress induced by chloramphenicol Efecto benéfico de extractos de Berberis buxifolia Lam, Zizyphus mistol Griseb y Prosopis alba sobre el estrés oxidativo inducido por cloramfenicol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Albrecht

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemiluminescence of luminol, a measure of oxidative stress, increased immediately as a consequence of reactive oxygen species (ROS stimulated by this antibiotic. The effect of Ch was dose dependent with maximum stimulus at 8 mg/ml (Vmax; above this concentration the cells began to reduce the production of ROS. The oxidative injury of Ch was counteracted by water extracts of Berberis buxifolia lam, Zizyphus mistol Griseb and Prosopis alba, indigenous fruits from Argentina. The relatively light units (RLU emitted decreased immediately as a consequence of a protective effect exerted by the extracts of these fruit extracts on blood cells. The three indigenous fruit extracts reduced to a different extent the oxidative injury caused by Ch. B.buxifolia lam exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity followed by Z.mistol Griseb. Water extracts of both fruit extracts were the most effective against the oxidative stress, while P.alba presented better antioxidant capacity in the ethanolic fraction obtained. Hexane extracts showed low protective action on blood cells, with little reduction of area under curve (AUC of RLU plotted versus time. Leukocytes remained viable in blood samples incubated for 3h with Ch and water extracts of B. buxifolia lam or Z. mistol Griseb (97.1% and 92.5% viability by Trypan blue exclusion, respectively; whereas with Ch only the cells were stressed and viability decreased to 30%. The three fruit extracts protected the viability of leukocytes in parallel with the decrease of ROS. Erythrocytes were not lysed in the presence of Ch.Se estudió el efecto antioxidante de tres extractos de frutas autóctonas, Berberis buxifolia lam (michay, Zizyphus mistol Griseb (mistol and Prosopis alba (algarrobo. Las células sanguíneas humanas sufrieron estrés oxidativo por acción de cloramfenicol (Ch, con un aumento inmediato de especies reactivas del oxígeno (ERO, que fue determinado por quimioluminiscencia con luminol. La respuesta fue

  2. OBTENÇÃO DO BIODIESEL ATRAVÉS DA TRANSESTERIFICAÇÃO DO ÓLEO DE Moringa Oleífera Lam

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    Daniele Silva Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Moringa Oleífera Lam é uma oleaginosa que tem um grande potencial para a produção de bicombustível no semi-árido nordestino, uma vez que se adapta a várias condições climáticas. A semente produz entre 35 % a 40 % de óleo. O objetivo desse trabalho foi obter o biodiesel através do processo de transesterificação e caracterizar as propriedades físico-químicas do óleo e biodiesel de acordo com as normas estabelecidas pela ANP. O biodiesel foi produzido pela rota metílica com o catalisador KOH. Os resultados mostraram que a semente de moringa produz óleo em boa quantidade com características físico-químicas adequadas para ser usado como matéria prima na transesterificação para obtenção de biodiesel. O teor de óleo médio encontrado para as sementes de moringa foi de 40 %, fornecendo rendimento de 83,68% em biodiesel e conversão dos ácidos graxos em ésteres metílicos de 99,9 %.

  3. 辣木的组织培养与快速繁殖%Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马崇坚; 王玉珍; 任安祥; 李海渤; 李绍林

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1植物名称辣木(Moringa oleifera Lam.). 2材料类别3~7 d实生籽苗. 3培养条件以MS为基本培养基.(1)实生籽萌发诱导培养基:MS+NAA 0.5 mg·L-1(单位下同)+6-BA 0.5;(2)愈伤组织诱导培养基:MS+NAA 1.0+6-BA 1.0;(3)芽诱导培养基:MS+NAA 0.5+6-BA1.0;(4)增殖培养基:1/2MS;(5)生根诱导培养基:1/2MS+NAA 1.0.以上培养基均加入4%蔗糖和7 g·L-1琼脂,pH 5.6~6.2,于121℃以0.11 MPa高压灭菌20 min.培养温度为(25±2)℃,光照时间为12 h·d-1,光照强度为40~60 μm0l·m-2·s-1.

  4. The Synergic Anti-inflammatory Impact of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. and Lactobacillus brevis KY21 on Intestinal Epithelial Cells in a DSS-induced Colitis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghoon; Koh, Ji Hoon; Ahn, Young Jun; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Sea Hun

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the synergic anti-inflammatory activity of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. (GS) extract and Lactobacillus brevis KY21 both in vitro and in vivo. Western blot analysis and immunostaining showed that AKT phosphorylation that increased by the exposure of LPS were significantly decreased by the presence of either GS extract or L. brevis KY21. In addition, p65 intracellular transport was critically inhibited by GS extract and L. brevis KY21. We further studied these effects using an in vivo dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model. Body weight, food intake, and clinical scores were dramatically decreased after treatment with DSS, whereas these effects were palliated by the addition of GS extract and L. brevis KY21. Importantly, transcription of genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and the spleen were increased by DSS treatment, whereas they were inhibited by the presence of GS extract and L. brevis KY21.

  5. Evaluation of In Vitro Antimalarial Activity of Different Extracts of Artemisia aucheri Boiss. and A. armeniaca Lam. and Fractions of the Most Potent Extracts

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    Mahdi Mojarrab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten extracts with different polarity from two Iranian Artemisia species, A. armeniaca Lam. and A. aucheri Boiss, were screened for their antimalarial properties by in vitro  β-hematin formation assay. Dichloromethane (DCM extracts of both plants showed significant antimalarial activities with IC50 values of 1.36 ± 0.01 and 1.83 ± 0.03 mg/mL and IC90 values of 2.12 ± 0.04 and 2.62 ± 0.09 mg/mL for A. armeniaca and A. aucheri, respectively. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of DCM extracts of both plants by vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC over silica gel with solvent mixtures of increasing polarities afforded seven fractions. Two fractions from DCM extract of A. armeniaca and four fractions from DCM extract of A. aucheri showed potent antimalarial activity with reducing IC50 and IC90 values compared to extracts. The most potent fraction belonged to DCM extract of A. armeniaca with IC50 and IC90 values of 0.47 ± 0.006 and 0.71 ± 0.006 mg/mL, respectively.

  6. Effect of Glomus mosseae and plant growth promoting rhizomicroorganisms (PGPR's on growth, nutrients and content of secondary metabolites in Begonia malabarica Lam.

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    Thangavel Selvaraj

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Begonia malabarica Lam. (Begoniaceae is one of the important medicinal plants whose main secondary metabolites are luteolin, quercetin and β-sitosterol. The leaves are used for the treatment of respiratory tract infections, diarrhoea, blood cancer and skin diseases. A study was undertaken to determine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus, Glomus mosseae, and some plant growth promoting rhizomicro-organisms (PGPR's on the growth, biomass, nutrients, and content of secondary metabolites of B. malabarica plant under green house conditions. Various plant growth parameters (total plant biomass, mycorrhizal parameter, shoot and root phosphorus, mineral content (potassium, iron, zinc, and copper, and secondary metabolites (total phenols, ortho-dihydroxy phenols, tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids were determined and found to vary with different treatments. Among all the treatments, plants inoculated with 'microbial consortium' consisting of Glomus mosseae + Bacillus coagulans + Trichoderma viride performed better than with other treatments or uninoculated control plants. The results of this experiment clearly indicated that inoculation of B. malabarica with G. mosseae along with PGPR's enhanced its growth, biomass yield, nutrients and secondary metabolites.

  7. Emergência de plântulas de Lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. em função do tempo de armazenamento

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    Uirá do Amaral

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O Lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam pertencente à família Solanaceae é originário de regiões Andinas geralmente produz aproximadamente 1.000 sementes por fruto, sendo a reprodução sexuada a principal forma de propagação desta espécie. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a influência do tempo de armazenamento na emergência de sementes de Lulo, oriundas de três épocas de colheita. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos (3 meses, 6 meses e 12 meses de armazenamento e sete repetições. As sementes foram semeadas em bandejas de poliestireno de 128 células em substrato comercial Bioflora®. Observou-se que a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de Lulo decresceu significativamente quando armazenadas em sacos de papel em temperatura ambiente por período superior a seis meses. No entanto, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos sobre a variável tempo médio de emergência. As variáveis analisadas apresentaram as maiores médias em sementes armazenadas por três meses, com destaque para emergência de aproximadamente 70%.

  8. Inhibitory effect of n-butanol fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in a guinea pig model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Banerjee, Aryamitra; Chauhan, Bhupendrasinh F; Padh, Harish; Nivsarkar, Manish; Mehta, Anita A

    2009-01-01

    Moringaceae, which belongs to the Moringa oleifera Lam. family, is a well-known herb used in Asian medicine as an antiallergic drug. In the present study, the efficacy of the n-butanol extract of the seeds of the plant (MONB) is examined against ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs. The test drugs (MONB or dexamethasone) are administered orally prior to challenge with aerosolized 0.5% ovalbumin. During the experimental period, bronchoconstriction tests are performed, and lung function parameters are measured. The blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are collected to assess cellular content, and serum is used for cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-4, and interleukin-6) assays. Histamine assays of lung tissue are performed using lung tissue homogenate. The results suggest that in ovalbumin-sensitized model control animals, tidal volume is decreased, respiration rate is increased, and both the total and differential cell counts in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are increased significantly compared with nonsensitized controls. MONB treatment shows improvement in all parameters except bronchoalveolar lavage tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-4. Moreover, MONB treatment demonstrates protection against acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction and airway inflammation. These results indicate that MONB has an inhibitory effect on airway inflammation. Thus, MONB possesses an antiasthmatic property through modulation of the relationship between Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalances.

  9. Report of Directly Sowed Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit on Karstic Hills%银合欢石山地直播造林试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄礼勒; 梁一萍; 黄艺超; 蓝蔚; 陈敏

    2008-01-01

    2004年4月~2008年3月在广西崇左市龙峡山西面中坡进行银合欢(Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit)直播造林试验.造林面积3.33hm2,试验分不清林不整地和铲除植被并松土两种整地方法进行造林,造林4年后调查造林的成林情况、生长情况和银合欢的天然林下更新情况.调查结果表明,造林前未经清林整地的地段造林失败,而造林前铲除植被并松土地段造林取得成功,林分郁闭度达0.7,林分平均高6.0m、平均胸径4.1cm,并具有良好的天然林下更新能力,能自然形成复层异龄林.

  10. Curvas de índice de sítio para leucena [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. De Wit] no agreste de Pernambuco

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    Emanuell Florencio Passos Martins

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work was to set and compare site index curves for leucena [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit] variety Hawaii (cv K8 in Agreste of Pernambuco. The data set came from Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária (IPA, Experimental Station of Caruaru, in which 544 trees cultivated with and without organic compound were measured 19 times during the period of 1990 – 2003. The models of Schumacher, Chapman-Richards, Silva-Bailey, Mitscherlich, Weibull and Clutter-Jones were tested and compared. To select the best equations, the Index of Fit (IF, standard error of estimate (S yx %, identity model test and the graphic of residuals distribution were used and results show that the model of Clutter-Jones provided a better IF for both treatments. The graphic of residual distribution did not show tendency among the models. The model identity test showed no differences among the models tested. As Schumacher is model has been used frequently in forestry and presented the smallest number of parameters, it deserves special focus in studies of site index.

  11. Livelihoods and Land Uses in Environmental Policy Approaches: The Case of PES and REDD+ in the Lam Dong Province of Vietnam

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    Leif Tore Trædal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores assumptions about the drivers of forest cover change in a Payments for Environmental Services (PES and Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+ context in the Lam Dong Province in Vietnam. In policy discourses, deforestation is often linked to ‘poor’ and ‘ethnic minority’ households and their unsustainable practices such as the expansion of coffee production (and other agricultural activities into forest areas. This paper applies a livelihood framework to discuss the links between livelihoods and land use amongst small-scale farmers in two communities. The findings of the livelihood survey demonstrate no clear linkages between poverty levels and unsustainable practices. In fact, the poorest segments were found to deforest the least. The ways in which current PES and REDD+ approaches are designed, do not provide appropriate solutions to address the underlying dimensions of issues at stake. The paper criticizes one-dimensional perspectives of the drivers behind deforestation and forest degradation often found in public policies and discourses. We suggest more comprehensive analyses of underlying factors encompassing the entire coffee production and land use system in this region. Addressing issues of land tenure and the scarcity of productive lands, and generating viable off-farm income alternatives seem to be crucial. Sustainable approaches for reducing deforestation and degradation could be possible through engaging with multiple stakeholders, including the business-oriented households in control of the coffee trade and of land transactions.

  12. Respuesta Fisiológica del lulo (Solanun quitoense Lam. a la fertilización orgánica en Tinjacá, Boyacá

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    Pedro Almanza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se orientó hacia la evaluación de la respuesta fisiológicadel lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. var. septentrionale. Para esto se emplearon tres tratamientos con fertilización orgánica (bocashi, mezcla bocashi + biol y biol, y uno con síntesis química (18-18-18, mediante la descripción de variables físicas y fisiológicas, con el fin de establecer el desarrollo y crecimiento óptimo de la planta durante tres intervalos. Se realizaron tres muestreos en diferentes estadios fisiológicosde la planta seleccionando una por cada parcela. Las variables físicas analizadas fueron biomasa seca y área foliar, y las fisiológicas: índice de área foliar, tasa de crecimiento, tasa relativa de crecimiento y tasa de asimilación neta. Se utilizó, al azar, un diseño de bloques completos, con análisis de varianza y prueba de Duncan. Los resultados obtenidos en masa seca fueron altamente significativos; en las variables fisiológicas no se hallaron diferencias. En todos los tratamientos, las mejores respuestas fueron evidentes en la aplicación de abono de síntesis química, seguida por la mezcla de bocashi+ biol, la más eficiente económicamente.

  13. Radiation-induced DNA Double Strand Breaks and Their Modulations by Treatments with Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaf Extracts: A Cancer Cell Culture Model

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    K. Boonsirichai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gamma radiation brings deleterious effects upon human cells by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damages. Antioxidants have been shown to confer protective effects on irradiated normal cells. Moringa oleifera Lam. is a widely used nutritional supplement with antioxidant activities. This report showed that antioxidant-containing supplements, in addition to protecting normal cells, could protect cancer cells against genotoxic effects of gamma radiation. -H2AX immunofluorescent foci were utilized as an indicator of radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks. MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells were irradiated with 2-8 Gy gamma radiation. A linear relationship between the formation of -H2AX foci and radiation dose was observed with an average of 10 foci per cell per Gy. A 30-minute pretreatment of the cells with either the aqueous or the ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves could partially protect the cells from radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks. A pretreatment with 500 µg/mL aqueous extract reduced the number of foci formed by 15% when assayed at 30 minutes post-irradiation. The ethanolic extract was more effective; 500 µg/mL of its concentration reduced the number of foci among irradiated cells by 30%. The results indicated that irradiated cancer cells responded similarly to nutritional supplements containing antioxidants as irradiated normal cells. These natural antioxidants could confer protective effects upon cancer cells against gamma radiation

  14. Når TV-kokken ofrer lam. Maskulinitetsforhandlinger via lammekroppe i "autentiske" miljøer i Jamie's Italian Escape og Le chef en France.

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    Jonathan Leer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Siden årtusindeskiftet har man set en synliggørelse af slagtning i madprogrammer med mandlige værter. Denne artikel kaster et kønsperspektiv på denne fornyede interesse blandt mandlige kendiskokke for at deltage i og vise dyreslagtning. Dette bliver gjort gennem nærlæsninger af Jamie Oliver programmet Jamie’s Italian Escape (Channel 4, 2006 og det franske madprogram Le Chef en France (M6, 2012 med kokken Cyril Lignac. De to analyseeksempler har det til fælles, at det i begge tilfælde er lam, der slås ihjel og tilberedes. I artiklen analyseres, hvordan slagtningerne i disse madprogrammer bliver en del af en kompleks maskulinitetsforhandling omkring lammekroppen, hvori forskellige maskulinitetsdiskurser brydes via en række andre diskurser, ikke mindst en autenticitetsdiskurs, som er tydelig i begge eksempler. Analysen forsøger at komme med et nuanceret billede af, hvordan dyreslagtning – med tilhørende forestillinger om autenticitet – på fragmentariske og modsætningsfyldte måder integreres i aktuelle maskulinitetskonstruktioner.

  15. Activation of Cellular Immunity in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1-Infected Mice by the Oral Administration of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Masahiko; Wadhwani, Ashish; Kai, Hisahiro; Hidaka, Muneaki; Yoshida, Hiroki; Sugita, Chihiro; Watanabe, Wataru; Matsuno, Koji; Hagiwara, Akinori

    2016-05-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is used as a nutritive vegetable and spice. Its ethanol extract has been previously shown to be significantly effective in alleviating herpetic skin lesions in mice. In this study, we evaluated the alleviation by the aqueous extract (AqMOL) and assessed the mode of its anti-herpetic action in a murine cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection model. AqMOL (300 mg/kg) was administered orally to HSV-1-infected mice three times daily on days 0 to 5 after infection. AqMOL significantly limited the development of herpetic skin lesions and reduced virus titers in the brain on day 4 without toxicity. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to inactivated HSV-1 antigen was significantly stronger in infected mice administered AqMOL and AqMOL augmented interferon (IFN)-γ production by HSV-1 antigen from splenocytes of HSV-1-infected mice at 4 days post-infection. AqMOL administration was effective in elevating the ratio of CD11b(+) and CD49b(+) subpopulations of splenocytes in infected mice. As DTH is a major host defense mechanism for intradermal HSV infection, augmentation of the DTH response by AqMOL may contribute to their efficacies against HSV-1 infection. These results provided an important insights into the mechanism by which AqMOL activates cellular immunity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Evaluación de la calidad del trabajo de aperos de labranza en la labor de surcado para el cultivo del boniato (Ipomoea batatas (Lam Poir

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    Alfonso Enrique Ortiz Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación se desarrolló en la Unidad Básica de Producción Cooperativa (UBPC "El Palmar" perteneciente a la Empresa de Cultivos Varios "Paquito Rosales Benítez" de Veguitas, municipio Yara, provincia de Granma, en el período de diciembre de 2005 a enero de 2008 (tres campañas; con el objetivo de evaluar en la labor de surcado aperos de diferentes características constructivas para el cultivo del boniato (Ipomoea batatas (Lam Poir en un Fluvisol, teniendo en cuenta el comportamiento de los índices de calidad de la labor. El Surcador Fertilizador IIMA-BALDAN 4 500 obtuvo el mejor resultado de las dimensiones del cantero con 98,3% y 100% de calidad en los valores del plato, ancho y altura, según las exigencias agrotécnicas del cultivo referidas por el Instituto de Investigaciones de Viandas Tropicales.

  17. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of essential oil from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. used against the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller

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    Kheirkhah Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller, is a major pest of stored grain products, particularly flour. There have been major concerns over the application of conventional insecticides in stored products, which have strongly demonstrated the need for applying such alternative safe compounds as essential oils. The aim of the present study is to investigate the chemical composition and fumigant toxicity of essential oil from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. against the eggs, larvae, and adults of E. kuehniella. All toxicity tests were carried out under laboratory conditions set at 26±1°C and 70% relative humidity (RH. The results of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis indicated that the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Z. clinopodioides, is rich in pulegone (49.4%, piperitenone (10.7%, menthone (8.9%, and 1,8-cineol (6.9%. Based on the bioassay results, the LC50 value of the tested oil was estimated to be 54.61 μl · l−1 air for larvae and 1.39 μl · l−1 air for adults. Also, it is shown that increasing the oil concentration resulted in a significant increase in oviposition deterrency as well as a considerable reduction in the egg hatching percentage. These results suggest that Z. clinopodioides oil could be a potential candidate as a fumigant for managing E. kuehniella in stored products.

  18. L'ylang-ylang [Cananga odorata (Lam. Hook. f. & Thomson] : une plante à huile essentielle méconnue dans une filière en danger

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    Benini, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ylang-ylang [Cananga odorata (Lam. Hook. f. & Thomson]: a barely known essential oil plant in an industry at risk. Cananga odorata is a tropical tree from the Annonaceae family, native of Indonesia. Only the forma genuina can be called ylang-ylang. Nowadays, it is mainly cultivated in the Indian Ocean Islands in order to extract the ylang-ylang essential oil for the cosmetic industry. Ylang-ylang develops on many types of soils, under high temperatures and average precipitations of 1,500 mm per year. The pollarding, the maintenance, the elimination of water sprouts and the weeding must be performed to insure a high flower yield and facilitate harvesting. Flower harvest takes place all year long but flowers and essential oils yields are higher during the dry season. Mature and fresh flowers are then distillated and fractionated to obtain essential oil. Generated incomes are important for the economy of the three main producers: Union of Comoros, Madagascar and Mayotte. However, this plant is still poorly known despite its great economic value. This lack of information is a bottleneck for solving the ylang-ylang industry problems which endanger it. Moreover, there is no improvement program of this plant despite the high added value of its essential oil, probably due to the fact that its reproduction biology is far from being known. A thorough study of the plant and its essential oil could generate information necessary to solve the aforementioned problems, maintain and develop the ylang-ylang industry.

  19. Evaluation of the polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of African variety of Dacryodes edulis (G.Don) H.J Lam fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atawodi, S E; Atawodi, J C; Idakwo, P; Pfundstein, B; Haubner, R; Wurtele, G; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H; Owen, R W

    2009-12-01

    Polyphenols are abundant micronutrients in our diet that have been credited with chemoprevention of diseases associated with oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the whole ripened fruit of Dacryodes edulis (G.Don) H.J Lam, a multipurpose tree growing in West and Central Africa and other countries bordering the Gulf of Guinea, for polyphenol content as well as its antioxidant/radical scavenging capacity. Analysis of the methanol extract of the fruit by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to an ultraviolet dual-array detector and mass-selective detector revealed the presence of catechol (9.27 mg/kg), gallate (10.40 mg/kg), methylgallate (0.88 mg/kg), ellagic acid (3.10 mg/kg), quercetin (0.21 mg/kg), and quercetin rhamnoside (0.76 mg/kg). The extract showed very high antioxidant potential (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] = 14 microL), but a rather weak radical scavenging activity (IC(50) = 357 microL), when tested in vitro with the xanthine oxidase and 2-deoxyguanosine assay model systems, respectively. These results suggest that consumption of D. edulis could contribute to prevention of diseases that are related to oxidative stress.

  20. In-situ trace element analyses and Pb-Pb dating of zircons in granulite from Huangtuling, Dabieshan by LAM-ICP-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴元保; 陈道公; 夏群科; 涂湘林; 程昊; 杨晓志

    2003-01-01

    It is revealed by CL images that there are multi-stage growth internal structures of zircons in the Huangtuling granulite, including the inherited zircons, protolith zircons, sector and planar zone zircons and retrograde zircons. In-situ trace element compositions and Pb-Pb ages have been analyzed by LAM-ICP-MS. The sector and the planar zone domains show typical trace element characteristics of granulite zircon (low Th, U, Th/U, total REEs, clear negative Eu anomalies, relatively depleted HREE and small differential degree between MREE and HREE, etc.), indicating that they formed during granulite-facies metamorphism. The protolith zircons have trace element characteristics of crustal zircon (high Th, U, Th/U, total REEs and enriched HREEs, etc.). 12 analyzed spots on granulite-facies domains give a weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb age of (2154±26) Ma (MSWD = 3.8), which is the best estimated age of granulite-facies metamorphism of this sample. The weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 5 analyzed spots on protolith zircon domains is (2714 ± 22) Ma (MSWD = 1.4), which represents the protolith forming time. The discovery of ca. 3.4 Ga inherited zircon indicates that there are Palaeoarchean continental materials in this area. The interpretation of formation conditions and the ages of zircons can be constrained by simultaneous in-situ analysis of trace elements and ages.

  1. Evaluation of the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atawodi, Sunday E; Atawodi, Joy C; Idakwo, Gabriel A; Pfundstein, Beate; Haubner, Roswitha; Wurtele, Gerd; Bartsch, Helmut; Owen, Robert W

    2010-06-01

    Medicinal plants have been shown to have both chemopreventive and/or therapeutic effects on cancer and other diseases related to oxidative damage. Moringa oleifera Lam., known in the Hausa and Igala languages of Nigeria as "Zogale" and "Gergedi," respectively, and drumstick in English, is a plant that is used both as food and in folkloric medicine in Nigeria and elsewhere. Different parts of the plant were analyzed for polyphenol content as well as in vitro antioxidant potential. The methanol extract of the leaves of M. oleifera contained chlorogenic acid, rutin, quercetin glucoside, and kaempferol rhamnoglucoside, whereas in the root and stem barks, several procyanidin peaks were detected. With the xanthine oxidase model system, all the extracts exhibited strong in vitro antioxidant activity, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 16, 30, and 38 microL for the roots, leaves, and stem bark, respectively. Similarly, potent radical scavenging capacity was observed when extracts were evaluated with the 2-deoxyguanosine assay model system, with IC(50) values of 40, 58, and 72 microL for methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks, respectively. The high antioxidant/radical scavenging effects observed for different parts of M. oleifera appear to provide justification for their widespread therapeutic use in traditional medicine in different continents. The possibility that this high antioxidant/radical scavenging capacity may impact on the cancer chemopreventive potential of the plant must be considered.

  2. Effects of heavy metals on the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity present in gill cell plasma-membrane of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viarengo, A; Mancinelli, G; Pertica, M; Fabbri, R; Orunesu, M

    1993-11-01

    1. Heavy metals (Hg2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Pb2+) at micromolar concentrations strongly inhibit the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity present in the plasma-membrane obtained from the gill cells of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. Heavy metals act through inhibition of the formation of the phosphorylated intermediate. 2. All the heavy metals tested inhibit the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, the effect following the order: Hg2+ > Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+ > Zn2+; the simultaneous addition of different heavy metals causes a summatory inhibition of the enzyme activity; addition to the reaction mixture of GSH at a final concentration of 0.5 mM, reverses inhibitory effects of heavy metals. 3. The inhibitory effects of Cu2+ on Ca(2+)-ATPase are highly enhanced by addition of ascorbate to the reaction mixture. In the presence of ascorbate (100 microM), copper strongly stimulates the lipid peroxidation damage of the gill plasma-membranes, a result that may explain the high copper cytotoxicity.

  3. Cambios en las propiedades fisicoquímicas de frutos de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. cosechados en tres grados de madurez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Isabel González Loaiza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En la investigación se evaluaron los cambios en las propiedades fisicoquímicas de frutos de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam. en tres grados de madurez. Se utilizaron 300 frutos por grado de madurez y se determinaron las características físicas (peso, volumen, densidad, diámetro equivalente, índice de esfericidad, rendimiento de pulpa y cáscara y químicas (pH, acidez, sólidos solubles, índice de madurez (IM y contenido de vitamina C. Los resultados mostraron que la madurez no afecta significativamente las variables físicas, pero sí las propiedades químicas de los frutos (P < 0.01, de la forma siguiente: el pH (2.89 - 2.94, los sólidos solubles (6.58 - 9.04 °brix, el IM (1.83 - 2.84 y el contenido de vitamina C (ascórbico (4.17 - 11.95 mg/100 g de pulpa fresca; por el contrario, la acidez (cítrico disminuyó de 3.78 para 3.21 g/100 g de pulpa fresca (P < 0.01.

  4. Avaliação da qualidade das sementes de Moringa oleifera lam. durante o armazenamento Evaluation of quality of the drumstick seeds during the storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcos Esmeraldo Bezerra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.; Moringaceae, espécie perene originária do noroeste indiano, que se adapta tanto às condições irrigadas quanto às de sequeiro, pouco exigente em solos e fertilizantes, encontra-se disseminada na região nordeste, particularmente no Ceará, graças à sua utilização na clarificação de águas turvas. A despeito do seu reconhecido valor medicinal e como hortaliça não-convencional rica em vitamina A, ainda carece de estudos que focalizem a viabilidade das sementes durante o armazenamento. Baseado nessa premissa, conduziu-se um ensaio com os tratamentos dispostos num arranjo fatorial 2x4, correspondendo à combinação de dois ambientes (natural e câmara fria e quatro tempos de armazenamento (0, 6, 12 e 24 meses, segundo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. As amostras de sementes correspondentes aos tratamentos investigados foram acondicionadas em garrafa plásticas tipo PET de 600 mL. As variáveis de observação foram: teor de água, germinação, comprimento da raiz, massa seca de plântula e condutividade elétrica. Pela análise dos resultados, evidenciou-se que, aos 12 meses de armazenamento em embalagem plástica sob ambiente natural, as sementes perdem a sua viabilidade, enquanto na câmara aos 24 meses, as sementes apresentam redução na qualidade fisiológica.Drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae is a perennial species originating from the indian northwest that adapts to both irrigated and rain fed crop conditions and it is not very demanding on soils and fertilizers. It is grown in the brazilian northeast, specially in Ceará State, due to its use in clarification of cloudy waters. In spite of its recognized medicinal value and as non conventional vegetable rich in vitamin A no studies focalizing the viability of the seeds during the storage have been done. So, an experiment was carried out treatments arranged in a fatorial 2x4 scheme, corresponding the

  5. Temperaturas cardeais e efeito da luz na germinação de sementes de mutamba Cardinal temperatures and effect of light on Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. seed germination

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    João C. de Araújo Neto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Guazuma ulmifolia Lam., conhecida como mutamba, é uma espécie arbórea característica dos estádios iniciais da sucessão secundária, com ampla ocorrência natural no Brasil. Possui grande potencial para recuperação ambiental de áreas degradadas. Neste trabalho, conduziram-se dois experimentos, nos quais as sementes foram extraídas e escarificadas antes da instalação dos testes de germinação. O primeiro experimento foi desenvolvido com sementes colhidas em outubro de 1995 e teve por objetivo definir as temperaturas cardeais para a germinação das sementes. Foram testadas as temperaturas de 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 e 45 ºC, sob fotoperíodo de oito horas. Os resultados mostraram que a temperatura mínima é próxima de 10 ºC, a máxima se situa entre 35 e 40 ºC e as temperaturas de 25 e 30 ºC encontram-se dentro da faixa ótima. No segundo experimento, visou-se avaliar o requerimento fotoblástico de sementes recém-colhidas (colheita de outubro de 1996 e armazenadas em câmara seca por um ano (colheita de outubro de 1995. Os testes de germinação foram conduzidos a 30 ºC e as sementes recém-colhidas tiveram a germinação promovida pelas luzes branca e vermelha, mas inibida pela luz vermelha-extrema e ausência de luz. As sementes armazenadas, entretanto, revelaram-se insensíveis à luz.Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae is a typical tree species of the initial stages of secondary succession in Brazil, with potential for use in restoring degraded areas. Two experiments were carried out in this work, in which seeds were extracted and scarified before conducting the germination tests. The first experiment was conducted with seeds harvested in October 1995 and aimed to determine the cardinal temperatures for seed germination. Constant temperatures of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 ºC were tested under an eight hour photoperiod. The results showed that the minimum temperature is around 10 ºC, the maximum between 35 and

  6. Qualidade de mudas de Moringa oleifera Lam. cultivadas em substratos com fibra de coco verde e compostos orgânicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Aparecida Rodrigues

    Full Text Available RESUMO A Moringa oleifera Lam. (moringa é uma espécie vegetal com grande potencial de uso nos setores alimentício, medicinal e forrageiro, no processo de clareamento e descontaminação de água, produção de biocombustível, dentre outros. Técnicas de produção de mudas com uso de resíduos regionais são apropriadas para a introdução desta espécie em comunidades carentes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as respostas nutricionais e de crescimento de mudas de moringa, cultivadas em substratos com diferentes concentrações de fibra da casca de coco verde (FCV, associadas a composto orgânico (CO. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos casualizados. Foram testados dois compostos orgânicos: o composto de lixo urbano (CLU e o vermicomposto (VC associados a FCV em várias proporções volumétricas (CO:FCV: 0:100; 25:75; 50:50; 75:25 a 100:0%. Após 51 dias de cultivo, foi observado que o aumento da concentração de FCV em relação ao composto orgânico reduziu a altura, a massa da matéria seca, o Índice de Qualidade de Dickson e os conteúdos de N, P, K, Ca e Mg das mudas. Não houve diferença, para essas características comparando-se o uso do composto de lixo urbano e o do vermicomposto. Substratos com 100% de FCV e sem adubação complementar ocasionaram sintomas de deficiência de N nas mudas de moringa.

  7. Understanding yields in alley cropping maize (Zea mays L. ) and Cassia siamea Lam. under semi-arid conditions in Machakos,Eastern Kenya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Six seasons of experiments in Machakos, Kenya, revealed that above about 150 mm of rainfall, maize yields per row in alley cropped “replacement” agroforestry (AF) plots, of Cassia siamea Lam. and maize (Zea mays, cv. Katumani Composite B), may be expected to exceed those in the control (sole maize) plots. Such yields were insufficient to compensate for the area “lost” to the hedgerows. Below about 150 mm the control plots may be expected to perform better. This result was due to competition for water. Greater association of the fine roots of Cassia and maize was observed in the middle of the alleys than near the hedgerows. Photosynthetic consequences of shading were insignificant relative to other factors. In the alleys, reductions of soil temperature due to shade in the western and eastern maize rows were higher than in the middle row. Soil moisture extraction was higher in the AF than in the control plots. In the AF plots, moisture extraction was greater under the central maize rows than under those nearest the Cassia. Yield patterns followed such soil temperature and soil moisture patterns. Maize transpiration and photosynthetic rates were significantly higher in the control than in the AF plots during a below-average rainy season but not during above-average rainy seasons. It is concluded that alley cropping under semi-arid conditions should be approached differently from the system worked on. It must at least provide strong physical protection of crops and/or soils and have a strong economic incentive to be of interest to the farmers.

  8. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., I. series Batatas

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    Colin Kahlil Khoury

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding.

  9. Sosyal Temsil Kuramı Bağlamında Kurumsal Reklamlar: Türk Hava Yolları Örneği

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    Muharrem Çetin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Moscovici tarafından geliştirilen sosyal temsil kuramının, iletişim alanı başta olmak üzere çeşitli çalışma ve araştırmalarda kuramsal çerçeve olarak kullanıldığı görülmektedir. Sosyal temsillerde esas amaç bilinmeyen bir olguyu, önceden bilinen ve tanıdık olan kavramlarla açıklamaktır. Benzer şekilde kurumların vurgulamak istedikleri yönlerinin iletilmesi amacına hizmet eden kurumsal reklamlarda, hedef kitlenin önceden bildiği ve aşina olduğu kavram ve simgeler kullanılmaktadır. Bu noktadan hareketle, çalışmada kurumsal reklamlar sosyal temsil kuramı bağlamında ele alınarak incelenmiştir. Araştırmada bir hava yolu şirketi olan ve dünyanın farklı noktalarına uçuşlar gerçekleştiren Türk Hava Yolları’nın kurumsal reklam örnekleri, sosyal temsil kuramı paradigmaları çerçevesinde ele alınıp değerlendirilmiştir.

  10. Phosphorus status and microbial community of paddy soil with the growth of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) under different phosphorus fertilizer treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haichao GUO; Guang-huo WANG

    2009-01-01

    Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was grown in paddy soil in pots under different phosphorus (P) fertilizer treatments to investigate changes of P fractions and microbial community of the soil. The treatments included Kunyang phosphate rock (KPR) applications at 50 mg P/kg (KPR50) and 250 mg P/kg (KPR250), mono-calcium phosphate (MCP) application at 50 mg P/kg (MCP50), and the control without P application. The results showed that KPR50, KPR250, and MCP50 applications significantly increased the dry weight of the ryegrass by 13%, 38%, and 55%, and increased P uptake by 19%, 135%, and 324%, respectively. Compared with MCP50, the relative effectiveness of KPR50 and KPR250 treatments in ryegrass production was about 23% and 68%, respectively. After one season ofryegrass growth, the KPR50, KPR250, and MCP50 applications increased soil-available P by 13.4%, 26.8%, and 55.2%, respectively. More than 80% of the applied KPR-P remained as HCI-P fraction in the soil. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis showed that the total and bacterial PLFAs were significantly higher in the soils with KPR250 and MCP50 treatments compared with KPR50 and control. The latter had no significant difference in the total or bacterial PLFAs. The KPR50, KPR250, and MCP50 treatments increased fungal PLFA by 69%, 103%, and 69%, respectively. Both the principal component analysis and the cluster analysis of the PLFA data suggest that P treatments altered the microbial community composition of the soils, and that P availability might be an important contributor to the changes in the microbial community structure during the ryegrass growth in the paddy soils.

  11. Systems to establish bioclimatic analogies to predict the area of adaptability of plant species to new environments: The case of Moringa oleifera Lam. in Chile

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    Fernando Santibañez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptability of a species to new territories is generally assessed by costly trial and error in situ experiments distributed throughout different agroclimatic environments. Nowadays climatic data are available to allow the construction of climatic maps based on data provided through world or local networks of climatic weather stations. The objective of this work was to establish a bioclimatic protocol, based on current and available sources of climate information, to make rapid surveys of suitability for plant species in a given environment. Moringa oleifera Lam. species, native from India, was chosen considering its rusticity and the increasing interest on this species due to its multiple uses, nutritional value, and medicinal properties. The first phase of this work was a compilation of data from climatic downscaling (WorldClim, University of East Anglia database (CRU, FAO database, and an historic datasets from Chilean meteorological stations. This information was used to test two different models to compare bioclimatic profiles, considering relevant climatic variables for plant adaptation: maximum and minimum temperatures, accumulated degree days, frost regime, and air humidity. The first approach, based on climatic analogy, was to compare each of these variables between Chilean and foreign localities, and the second, based on bioclimatic suitability, focus on the degree of meeting the minimum bioclimatic requirements by the species in each locality. This paper provides some tools to make this kind of comparisons. Both approaches were tested using M. oleifera as target. Both approaches were complementary and prove to be useful for identifying potential areas where the species could be cultivated. The use of these approaches suggested the existence of some bioclimatic suitability for this species in the coastal areas with mild winters and frosts, from 27° to 37° S lat.

  12. The Research on High Yield Cultivation Technology of the High Starch Ipomoea Batatas Lam Based on Orthogonal Experiment%基于正交实验的高淀粉甘薯高产栽培技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤瑞玲; 李红忠; 史本林

    2012-01-01

    The ipomoea batatas lam is one of world staple food crops, also is the important industrial crop and the feed crops. In recent years, the domestic scholars have conducted the massive research to the high yield cultivation technique of the ipomoea batatas lam. In order to improve the yield of 'Shangshu 19', the article uses the orthogonal experiment method through combining the experiment, basing on the cultivation technology of ipomoea batatas lam in different transplanting time, planting density, ridge width, ridge height four factors. The article conducts the contrast experimental study for the ipomoea batatas lam, in order to select the best comprehensive technique measures and guide the field production. The results showed that, the five combinations got the highest yield. There were significant differences with other groups. The important cultivation and management measures were the timely plug, the proper ridge and the rational application of fertilizer.%甘薯是世界主要粮食作物之一,也是重要的工业原料作物和饲料作物.近年来,中国学者对甘薯高产栽培技术进行了大量研究.为了提高能源型‘商薯19’的产量,采用正交实验方法,通过对甘薯栽培技术中不同移栽时间、种植密度、起垄宽度、起垄高度4个因素进行组合试验,进行甘薯增产对比试验研究,以筛选出最佳综合配套技术措施方案,指导大田生产.结果表明:处理5组合的产量最高,与其他各组存在极显著差异.即适时早插,起垄适当,合理施肥是提高甘薯产量的重要栽培管理措施.

  13. Estudios orientados a la regeneración de plantas de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) a través de la embriogénesis somática

    OpenAIRE

    Criollo Escobar, Hernando Artemio

    2013-01-01

    El lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) es una espécie frutal de origen andino con amplias posibilidades en los mercados internacionales debido a su carácter exótico y a su gran valor nutracéutico. Los grandes problemas de origen fitosanitario, así como la desuniformidad en la productividad y calidad de fruta han provocado grandes pérdidas económicas a los productores y reducción de las áreas sembradas en Colombia. Por estas razones, es necesario robustecer la investigación en temas relacionados con...

  14. Comparação Entre o Uso da Moringa oleifera Lam e de Polímeros Industriais no Tratamento Fisicoquímico do Efluente de Indústria Alimentícia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto José Hussar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural polymers have been used like an alternative to reduce costs and the Moringa oleifera Lam seeds has been considerate attractive fall in prices of the wastewater treatment. Therefore it have been done workbench tests and the COD it have been determined to compare the two product’s efficiency. By this way, it have been possible to evaluated the efficiency and make a comparison between the costs and the usefulness of the change and list the environmental and social benefits. The result of tests showed that the natural polymer is so efficient that the industrial one. It gained a reduction of organic load equivalent to the synthetic product.

  15. Efeitos da inclusão de forragem de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. DeWit na qualidade da silagem de milho (Zea mays L. Effects of the inclusion of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. DeWit forage on corn silage quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Cristina Pereira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio foi realizado no Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Lavras-MG, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da adição de níveis crescentes de forragem de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. DeWit no valor nutritivo da silagem de milho (Zea mays L.. O delineamento experimental usado foi o inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de silagens de milho contendo 0, 10, 20, 30 e 40% de forragem de leucena com base na matéria verde. O material permaneceu ensilado por 30 dias em silos experimentais de canos de PVC. Determinaram-se os valores de pH e poder-tampão (PT e os teores de MS, PB, FDN, FDA e nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3. O aumento na proporção de leucena não alterou o teor de matéria seca das silagens e resultou em efeito linear positivo sobre os valores de pH, PT , PB e N-NH3 e efeito linear negativo sobre os teores de FDN e FDA. A inclusão de forragem de leucena até o nível de 40% é uma alternativa viável para a melhoria do valor nutritivo da silagem de milho.This assay was conducted at the Department of Animal Science of the University Federal of Lavras with the objective to evaluate the effects of the addition of growing levels of leucaena forage (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. DeWit in the nutritive value of the corn silage (Zea mays L.. The experimental design used was the completely randomized with five treatments and three replicates. The treatments consisted of corn silage with 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% of leucaena forage. The material remained ensiled for 30 days in experimental silos of PVC tubes. The values of pH and buffering power (BP and the contents of DM, CP, NDF, ADF and ammonium nitrogen (N-NH3 were determined. The dry matter contend of the silages was not affected by addition of leucaena. The increase in the ratio of leucaena resulted into a positive linear effect on the values of pH, BP, PB and N-NH3, and a negative effect on the contents of

  16. Estudo farmacobotânico comparativo de folhas de Solanum crinitum Lam., Solanum gomphodes Dunal e Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil., Solanaceae The pharmacobotanical comparative study of leaves of Solanum crinitum Lam., Solanum gomphodes Dunal and Solanum lycocarpum A. St-Hil, (Solanaceae

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    Nathalia Diniz Araújo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho realizou-se um estudo farmacobotânico de Solanum crinitum Lam., Solanum gomphodes Dunal e Solanum lycocarpum A. St-Hil, espécies pertencentes à Solanum sect. Crinitum Child, com o objetivo de efetuar morfodiagnoses macroscópicas e microscópicas que possibilitem suas caracterizações. As três espécies são conhecidas popularmente como "jurubeba", fruta-de-lobo" e "lobeira" e usadas na medicina popular contra o diabetes e também para outros fins. Essas espécies compartilham vários caracteres morfológicos, dentre os quais se destacam o hábito arbustivo a arbóreo, o indumento velutino às vezes cerdoso, a corola é pentagonal-estrelada, roxa a púrpura, e o fruto globoso acima de 5 cm de diâmetro. Entretanto, apesar da grande semelhança morfológica entre as espécies estudadas, destacaram-se como parâmetros distintivos: a morfologia do pecíolo, a base do limbo, o indumento da face adaxial, a anatomia do mesofilo, os tipos de estômatos e a morfologia do bordo foliar.In this work, a pharmacobotanical study of Solanum crinitum Lam., S. gomphodes Dunal and S. lycocarpum A. St-Hil., all belonging to the Solanum sect. Crinitum Child. has been realized with the objective of providing a macroscopical and microscopical morphodiagnosis for their characterizations. The three species are commonly named "jurubeba", "fruta-de-lobo" and "lobeira", and they are used in the folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes and others diseases. The three species studied share various morphological characters, like shrub and tree forms, the velutinous abaxial indument, the presence of bristles, the flower with stellate-pentagonal corollas ranging from violet to purple, and the fruit reaching up to 5 cm in diameter. The principal parameters to distinct the three species studied were the morphology of petiole and base of the blade leaf, the indument of adaxial surface, the anatomy of mesophyll, the types of stomata and the leaf margin.

  17. Micro-analysis by U-Pb method using LAM-ICPMS and its applications for the evolution of sedimentary basins: the example from Brasilia Belt; Micro-analise pelo metodo U-Pb usando LAM-CIPMS e suas aplicacoes para a evolucao de bacias sedimentares: o exemplo da faixa Brasilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Matteini, Massimo; Junges, Sergio Luiz; Giustina, Maria Emilia Schutesky Della; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Buhn, Bernhard, E-mail: marcio@unb.br [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias; Rodrigues, Joseneusa Brilhante [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The U-Pb geochronological method using LAM-MC-ICPMS represents an important tool to investigate the geological evolution of sedimentary basins, as well as its geochronology, through the determination of upper limits for the depositional ages of detrital sedimentary rocks. The method has been applied in the Geochronology Laboratory of the Universidade de Brasilia, and in this study, a brief review of the provenance data for the sediments of the Neoproterozoic Brasilia Belt is presented and their significance for the evolution of the orogen is discussed. The results indicate that the Paranoa and Canastra Groups represent passive margin sequences formed along the western margin of the Sao Francisco-Congo continent. The Vazante Group presents similar provenance patterns, although Sm-Nd isotopic results suggest that its upper portions had contributions from younger (Neoproterozoic) sources, possibly from the Neoproterozoic Goias Magmatic Arc. On the other hand, metasediments of the Araxa and Ibia groups contain an important proportion of material derived from Neoproterozoic sources, demonstrating that they represent syn-orogenic basins. The provenance pattern of the Bambui Group is marked by an important Neoproterozoic component, showing that it constitutes a sedimentary sequence which is younger than 600 Ma, representing a foreland basin to the Brasilia Belt. (author)

  18. Avaliação do uso de pomada à base de sementes de jaqueira (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam na terapêutica tópica de feridas

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    R. N.L. Vitorino Filho

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As propriedades cicatrizantes da jaqueira (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam são atribuídas a uma proteína encontrada na semente de sua fruta que, em casos de queimaduras de pele, proporciona a regeneração do tecido danificado em vez da substituição por tecido conjuntivo fibroso. Objetivando avaliar macro e microscopicamente o efeito da pomada formulada com o pó obtido a partir de sementes de jaca na cicatrização, por segunda intenção, de feridas cutâneas em camundongos, limpas e infectadas experimentalmente por Staphylococcus aureus, realizou-se o estudo em 96 camundongos nos quais foram feitas feridas experimentais na região dorso-lateral. Cada grupo, com 12 animais, recebeu um tipo de tratamento. O grupo GI serviu como controle para feridas limpas, o grupo GII foi o controle para feridas infectadas e os demais foram tratados topicamente com pomada à base de semente de jaca em diferentes esquemas de administração. Os animais foram avaliados diariamente e sacrificados cinco, 10 e 13 dias após a cirurgia, sendo removido o tecido cicatricial e circunjacente para avaliação histológica. Os resultados mostraram que não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os tratamentos. Palavras-chave: camundongos; cicatrização; feridas; jaca; Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam; lectina.

  19. Selective cytotoxicity of murine monoclonal antibody LAM2 against human small-cell carcinoma in the presence of human complement: possible use for in vitro elimination of tumor cells from bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahel, R A; Mabry, M; Sabbath, K; Speak, J A; Bernal, S D

    1985-05-15

    LAM2 is a murine IgM monoclonal antibody (MAb) which binds strongly to the cell membrane of human lung small-cell carcinoma (SCC) and squamous-cell carcinoma but not to normal bone-marrow cells. The cytotoxicity of this antibody in the presence of human complement was investigated in vitro by chromium release and clonogenic assays. The optimal treatment conditions included incubation with antibody for 30 min at 37 degrees C followed by 3 additions of human complement 30 min apart. Cell lysis ranged from 94 to 98% in 4 SCC cell lines at antibody dilutions of 1:100: a lower level of lysis (60%) occurred in a lung squamous-cell carcinoma cell line. The cytotoxic effect was strictly complement-dependent. No cytotoxic effect was seen with other human cell lines including lung adenocarcinoma, lung large-cell carcinoma, myeloid leukemia, and lymphoblastic leukemia. No lysis was seen with nucleated marrow cells from healthy volunteers. Normal marrow cells in excess did not inhibit SCC cell lysis. Incubation with antibody and complement resulted in a 100-fold reduction of colony formation of SCC cells, but did not reduce the number of colonies of marrow-cell precursors, including CFU-GEMM, BFU-E, and CFU-C. The selective cytotoxicity of LAM2 antibody to SCC, but not to normal bone-marrow cells, suggests that this antibody may be useful for the in vitro elimination of SCC cells from the bone marrow.

  20. Active Compounds and Functions of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves%辣木叶功效及相关成分研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈逸鹏; 梁建芬

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a kind of perennial tropical deciduous plant with rich nutrients and different functional activities. Ministry of health, China also approved moringa leaves as a new resource food in 2012. Presence of flavonoids, polyphenols and other active compounds makes moringa leaves has gorgeous antioxidant function. Functions of anti-diabetes, anti-hyperlipidemia, hypotensity may contributed by glycosides and sitos-terols in leaves. Moreover, presence of alkaloids, glucosinolates gluconates and polyphenols in moringa leaves supported the activities of anti-cancer, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, etc. The summary of research progress of active compounds and functions of moringa leaves will givea references and guidance of moringa leaves for the further research and application of food resources.%辣木是多年生热带落叶乔木,营养丰富而全面,大量研究也表明辣木具有很好的功能活性,因而引起了全世界的广泛关注。我国卫生部也于2012年批准辣木叶为新资源食品。辣木叶含的类黄酮、多酚等物质使其有很好的抗氧化活性;其降血糖、降血脂、降血压等功能则与其含有的糖苷、谷甾醇有关;此外,辣木叶中的生物碱、硫代葡萄糖酸盐、多酚等物质使其具有消炎、抗癌、抗菌等方面的功效。对辣木叶功效及相关成分的研究进展的总结,将为辣木叶作为食品资源的深入研究与开发提供参考和指导。

  1. High frequency in vitro plantlet regeneration and antioxidant activity ofEnicostema axillare (Lam.)Raynal ssp. littoralis (Blume)Raynal:An important medicinal plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kousalya Loganathan; VNarmatha Bai

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To develop a method for high frequency plantlets regeneration protocol forEnicostema axillare(Lam.)Raynal ssp.littoralis(Blume)Raynal(E. axillare) without intermediate callus phase and to determine the content and correlation of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity of both the plants derived from nature and nodal culture byDPPH assay.Methods:The nodal explants were cultured onMS basal medium fortified with different concentration of various growth regulators such asBAP,KIN,TDZ and2iP(0.5-2 mg/L) individually and in combinations with or withoutGA3 for shoot bud induction and multiplication.Total phenol and flavonoid content was determined in both plants from nature and nodal culture and antioxidant activity was determined byDPPH assay.Results:The highest number of multiple shoot(108.00±3.55 shoots/explants) was obtained onMS medium supplemented withBAP(2 mg/L) in combination withKIN (0.5 mg/L) andGA3(2 mg/L).Rooting was optimized on half-strengthMS medium supplemented withIAA(0.5 mg/L).The rooted plantlets were transferred to paper cups containing vermiculite and hardening was successfully attained with75% survival.Among the four extract of methanol and water extract from both the plantlet from nature and nodal culture, the concentration of flavonoid was found to be higher in methanol extract of the plants from nature(146.57±1.68 mg rutin/g extract) and phenol content was higher in the water extract of plant from nature(52.53±1.67 mgGAE /g extract).The radical scavenging activity of four extracts.Methanol extract of plant grown in nature showed the highest radical scavenging activity(IC50 =87.10 μg/mL) was investigated byDPPH test.Conculsion:The present study not only enables reinforcement of wild plant populations usingex situ growth of individuals, but it also helps for high scale production of plantlets.A high correlation between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that flavonoid compounds were a major

  2. EXTRACCIÓN DE ENZIMAS PÉCTICAS DEL EPICARPIO DE LULO (Solanum quitoense Lam INVOLUCRADAS EN EL PROCESO DE ABLANDAMIENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEIMMY MARCELA RODRÍGUEZ NIETO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el periodo de poscosecha el principal problema de deterioro del lulo ( Solanum quitoense Lam es el ablandamiento que es generado principalmente por actividad de enzimas pécticas que atacan la red estructural de la pared celular. Esta investigación se basó en la búsqueda de las mejores condiciones de extracción y medida de actividad de las enzimas pectinesterasa, poligalacturonasa y pectato liasa; herramientas necesarias para estudiar posteriormente el rol de estas enzimas en el deterioro por ablandamiento sufrido por el fruto debido a diversos cambios metabólicos. Se encontró que las dos primeras enzimas pueden ser extraídas simultáneamente con buffer fosfatos 20 mM pH 7,0 + NaCl 0,06 M y 60 min de extracción, relación 1:2 (material vegetal: buffer de extracción, a su vez, pectato liasa se extrajo con buffer fosfatos 20 mM pH 7,0 + cisteína 20 mM y 30 min de extracción, relación 1:3. Para la cuantificación de la actividad pectinesterasa es necesario incubar 15 min a 42 °C 2.500 μL de extracto enzimático crudo (EE en buffer fosfatos 20 mM pH 7,0 + NaCl 0,15 M y 1,6% de pectina cítrica como sustrato, con valores de K m aparente de 3,78% de PC y V max 17,95 μmolH+/min*mg prot. Para la cuantificación de la actividad poligalacturonasa es necesario incubar 15 min a 37 °C 30 μL (EE en buffer acetatos 200 mM pH 4,5 + NaCl 0,25 M y 1,0% de APG como sustrato, con valores de K m aparente 0,141% de APG y V max 28,46 nKat/s*mg prot. Para la cuantificación de la actividad pectato liasa es necesario incubar 2 min a 17 °C 100 μL (EE en buffer TRIS:HCl 50 Mm pH 8,5 + CaCl 2 4 mM y 0,1% de APG como sustrato, con valores de K m aparente 0,0865% de APG y V max 82,75...

  3. Variation Laws of Anthocyanin Content in Roots and Their Relationships with Major Economic Traits in Purple-Fleshed Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Variation laws of anthocyanin content in root during the development and among the varieties, and their relationships with major economic traits in purple-fleshed sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] were studied in the present article. The dynamics of 20 economic traits in 13 purple-fleshed sweetpotato varieties at 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 d after their transplanting were investigated, and these traits included anthocyanin content in root, length of the longest vine, number of base branches, root number, dry matter contents in stem, foliage and root, fresh/dry weight of root, fresh/dry weight of stem, fresh/dry weight of foliage, fresh/dry weight of stem and foliage, fresh/dry weight of whole plant, and rations of photosynthate to root, stem, and foliage. The correlations between the variations of anthocyanin content and the other 19 economic traits among varieties and during the whole developing stages, and the correlations of daily increase of anthocyanin content with other 10 kinds of yields were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) During the whole development, the anthocyanin content had three variation types, I.e. A slow-increase type, a fluctuating-change type, and a devious- rising type, and had different responses to the growth of length of the longest vine, number of base branches, fresh/dry yield of root, and photosynthate allotments. (2) The anthocyanin contents among 13 varieties began to have significant difference after 20 d, and showed completed differentiation during 40-100 d, which had significantly negative correlationships with the number of base branches, fresh/dry yield of root, photosynthate allotment ratio to root, and had significant positive correlationships with dry matter content of root, length of the longest vine, fresh/dry yield of stem, dry yield of whole plant and photosynthate allotment ratio to foliage. (3) Because of the significantly negative correlation between daily increase of anthocyanin content and dry matter

  4. Study on Gliadin of Leymus racemosus (Lam.) Tzvel of Different Populations%不同居群大赖草醇溶蛋白分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晓东; 代培红; 吾买尔夏提·塔汉; 周桂玲

    2016-01-01

    [目的]研究新疆大赖草[Leymus racemosus(Lam.) Tzvel]不同居群种子醇溶蛋白,探讨大赖草种质在居群间和居群内的差异及遗传多样性.[方法]采用酸性聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(A-PAGE)技术对采集到的5个居群间及居群内大赖草种子醇溶蛋白进行遗传多样性研究.[结果]5份居群间材料共分离出19条带纹,只有2条是共有带,多态率为89.47%.居群内共分离出17条谱带,7条为共同带,多态率为58.82%,小于居群间;材料间的Shannon指数范围是0.346 7 ~0.4000,平均值为0.372 7.Nei-Li遗传相似系数(GS)的变异范围为1.583 7 ~1.738 5,平均值1.659 4.相似系数GS值变异范围是0.429~0.733,平均为0.554.进一步聚类分析表明,在GS值为0.62的水平上供试材料可聚成3个大类,生境相似的居群聚为一类,表现出一定的分布规律.[结论]大赖草种子遗传多样性在居群间差异明显,而居群内不明显.醇溶蛋白凝胶电泳可以作为指纹图谱,用于研究同一物种不同居群间及居群内的差异是可行的.

  5. Potential Environment and Public Health Risk Due to Contamination of Heavy Metals from Industrial Waste Water in Lam Thao, Phu Tho, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen C. Vinh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In Vietnam, rice cultivation plays an important role in national economic development and food security. However, rice production is facing many problems associated with rapid industrialization and urbanization in the country. Resultant emissions of solid and liquid wastes are often untreated and discharged directly to agricultural land. These practices have potential impacts on the environment and human health. Approach: The research was carried out within the frame of the collaborative research project “Towards the mitigation of environment and public health risks due to heavy metal contamination in irrigated rice-based systems of Vietnam” in 2006-2010. The study was implemented in the Lam Thao district, Phu Tho province with the aim to assess the effects of wastewater and other contamination sources on the environment and public health. Results: Surface water and soil in the field showed signs of significant contamination by wastewater from the industrial zones. Bio-indicators (DO, COD, BOD5 in the surface water were also strongly affected by waste. Paddy fields around the industrial zones had an elevated risk of heavy metal contamination (Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb, with concentrations exceeding Vietnamese Maximum Acceptable Concentrations (MACs for Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. Soil contamination with heavy metals was resulting in elevated concentrations in rice grain. Where consumption of locally-produced food was high, exposure of individuals to heavy metals could present a public health risk. The partial Hazard Quotient (HQ; a ratio derived from comparing estimated exposure to heavy metals, i.e., Cd, (with toxicologically-derived„ safe’ daily doses for rice and vegetables (water spinach and the integrated Hazard Quotient of rice and vegetables (HQi was consistently greater in areas with soil contamination than in the reference area using Red River water for irrigation. The HQi for Cd was particularly high for children below the

  6. “Pharmacognostical, SEM and XRF profile of the leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae – A contribution to combat the NTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Periyanayagam

    2013-05-01

    phyto, physico chemical examinations of the leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. can be used as a rapid, inexpensive botanical identification technique and is useful in standardization, hence would be of immense value in authentication of the leaf as it proved to have wide panel of pharmacological and ethno medical use including prevention and treatment of NTD

  7. In vitro analysis on bactericidal screening and antioxidant potentiality of leaf and root extracts of Thottea siliquosa (Lam.) Ding Hou. An ethnobotanical plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saiba Abdul Wahab Nusaiba; Kumaraswamy Murugan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Natural products of plant origin are potential source of novel antimicrobial and antioxidative agents. Thottea siliquosa (Lam.) Ding Hou. (T. siliquosa). A medicinal herb used by local tribals for treating various ailments. The present study aims at the phytochemical screening, GC-MS analysis, in vitro antibacterial activity and antioxidant potentiality of root and leaf extracts of T. siliquosa.Methods:Hot continuous Soxhlet extraction, GC-MS analysis, antibacterial analysis by disc diffusion, microdilution assay and antioxidant potentialities by hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide radical scavenging. The data was statistically analyzed. Results: Phytochemical screening of the ethyl acetate and methanolic extract of leaf and root revealed the presence of phenols, alkaloids, tannins and saponin. The extract revealed a pool of phytochemicals by comparison with authentic standards from spectral library. Both the extracts has shown their broad spectrum of inhibition against the selected bacteria Staphylococcus aureus,Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia compared with standard antibiotic drug streptomycin. The extracts showed antioxidant activity by scavenging of free radicals such as hydroxyl and nitric oxide. The IC50 values of the ethyl acetate extracts leaf and root and standard in this assay were 167.5±0.67, 99.4±1.2, 192±2.5 µg/mL respectively. Similarly those methanolic extracts of leaf and root were 269.5±0.89 and 289.1±2.66 µg/mL respectively. Similarly, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts also caused a moderate dose-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide with an IC50 range 65.5±1.55 to 148 ±3.09 µg/mL. The inhibitory activities were found to be dose dependent.Conclusion:The present study provides evidence that ethyl acetate and methanol extract of leaf and root of T. siliquosa are potential source of natural antioxidants and bactericidal nature. It is essential that research should continue to isolate and purify

  8. Effective Long-Distance Pollen Dispersal in Centaurea jacea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, M.; Duelli, P.; Obrist, M.K.; Müller, C.; Kleijn, D.; Schmid, B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Agri-environment schemes play an increasingly important role for the conservation of rare plants in intensively managed agricultural landscapes. However, little is known about their effects on gene flow via pollen dispersal between populations of these species. Methodology/Principal Findi

  9. Is (-)-Catechin a "Novel Weapon" of Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea stoebe)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The “novel weapons” hypothesis states that some invasive weed species owe part of their success as invaders to allelopathy mediated by allelochemicals that are new to the native species. Presumably, no resistance has evolved among the native species to this new allelochemical (i.e. the novel weapon...

  10. Morfologia foliar de indivíduos jovens e adultos de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. numa floresta semidecídua do Sul da Bahia Leaf morphology of saplings and adult individuals of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. in a semidecidual forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Sanches

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae é uma espécie arbórea que ocorre naturalmente no interior da floresta e atinge os estratos superiores do dossel por meio de pequenas clareiras. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, comparar alguns aspectos da morfologia foliar entre indivíduos adultos, cujas folhas se encontravam em pleno sol e jovens no sub-bosque. O estudo foi realizado numa floresta semidecídua, localizada no Município de Jussari, Bahia. Inicialmente, foram localizados e marcados oito indivíduos adultos e oito jovens para cada adulto. Foram coletadas e analisadas oito folhas para cada adulto e três para cada jovem, em duas épocas (setembro/novembro de 2004 e abril de 2005. Em geral, as áreas das folhas, das ráquis e dos folíolos, o comprimento das ráquis, a largura das folhas, o número de pinas e a massa seca das folhas foram significativamente superiores nos indivíduos jovens, ao passo que as massas específicas das folhas e dos folíolos foram significativamente superiores nos indivíduos adultos. Tanto nos adultos quanto nos jovens, nas duas épocas de coleta foram verificadas relações altamente significativas entre a massa seca e a área das folhas. Os resultados indicaram que folhas de C. echinata apresentam características que maximizam a absorção de luz onde este recurso é limitante e, ao mesmo tempo, direcionam maior alocação de carbono para os tecidos de suporte. Tais resultados estão de acordo com o observado no estádio sucessional da espécie analisada e com a sua estratégia de ocupação dos espaços gerados pela formação de pequenas clareiras, em ambiente de mata semidecídua.Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae is a tree species that naturally regenerates in the forest understory and reaches the upper canopy through small gaps. We conducted a study with the objective of comparing some aspects of leaf morphology of adult individuals, in which the leaves were exposed to full sunlight, and saplings

  11. Thermodynamic properties of water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content Propriedades termodinâmicas de sorção de água da jaca (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. em função do teor de umidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Prette

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Jackfruit tree is one of the most significant trees in tropical home gardens and perhaps the most widespread and useful tree in the important genus Artocarpus. The fruit is susceptible to mechanical and biological damage in the mature state, and some people find the aroma of the fruit objectionable, particularly in confined spaces. The dehydration process could be an alternative for the exploitation of this product, and the relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for its processing and storage. The aim of this study was to determine the thermodynamic properties of the water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content. Desorption isotherms of the different parts of the jackfruit (pulp, peduncle, mesocarp, peel, and seed were determined at four different temperatures (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15 K in a water activity range of 0.02-0.753 using the static gravimetric method. Theoretical and empirical models were used to model the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to calculate the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs' free energy using the Guggenhein-Anderson-de Boer and Oswin models considering the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium.A jaqueira é uma das árvores mais significativas nos quintais tropicais e, talvez, a árvore mais importante e útil do gênero Artocarpus. O fruto é suscetível a danos mecânicos e biológicos no estado maduro, e seu aroma é desagradável para algumas pessoas, quando em espaços fechados. O processo de desidratação pode ser uma alternativa para a exploração deste produto, e a relação entre a umidade e a atividade de água fornece informações úteis para seu processamento e armazenamento. O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar as propriedades termodinâmicas de sorção da água em frutos de jaca (Artocarpus

  12. Dawsonite cement in the Triassic Lam Formation, Shabwa Basin, Yemen: A natural analogue for a potential mineral product of subsurface CO{sub 2} storage for greenhouse gas reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worden, Richard H. [Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool L69 3GP (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-01

    The origin and permeability effects of carbonate cement, blamed for poor reservoir quality in the Upper Triassic turbidite sandstones of the Lam Formation in Yemen, have been investigated using petrography, X-ray diffraction, stable isotopes, fluid inclusions and thermodynamic modelling. In order of growth in the sandstone, the carbonate cements include ferroan calcite, dawsonite (NaAlCO{sub 3}(OH){sub 2}), ferroan dolomite and siderite. Ferroan dolomite is the most abundant cement. There is an inverse correlation between permeability and total carbonate cement volume supporting the earlier assertion that carbonate cements are the main control on reservoir quality in these sandstones. Ferroan calcite replaced, and was sourced by, marine limestone rock fragments that are abundant in the turbidite sandstone. The later cements were probably also at least partly sourced from the marine limestone rock fragments. Stable isotope data from ferroan calcite, ferroan dolomite and siderite show that diagenesis occurred in formation water with oxygen isotopes typical of closed-system diagenesis and that only minor organic-derived carbon dioxide was involved in diagenesis. Dawsonite, while not common as a diagenetic mineral in sandstones, has recently been suspected of being a routine consequence of CO{sub 2} storage in the subsurface for greenhouse gas reduction. In the Lam Formation, dawsonite, found at concentrations of up to 8vol% of the rock, grew at the expense of detrital feldspar minerals under conditions of elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Isotopic data show that dawsonite grew in the presence of carbon dioxide with a {delta}{sup 13}C value of about -4 to -2%%. This is distinctly different from the carbon isotope ratio of the gas phase carbon dioxide now present in the sandstone (-27%%), which had an organic source rock origin. The dawsonite {delta}{sup 13}C data probably represent a mixture between carbonate from detrital marine limestone rock fragments and

  13. Çerçeveleme Kuramı Bağlamında Kamuoyu Oluşturmada Spin: Birinci Körfez Savaşı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem ÇETİN

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ÖzetGünümüzde hükümetler aldıkları kararların benimsenmesini ve uygulanmasını sağlamak amacıyla yönetilenlerin onayına gereksinim duymaktadırlar. Yönetilenlerin onaylamadığı kararların uygulanabilirliği son derece zor olmaktadır. Bunun için yönetimler, yönetilenlerin kanaatlerini öğrenme yolunu tercih ederler. Alacakları kararlara ve yapacakları faaliyetlere halktan destek alamayacaklarını bildikleri zaman, yönetimler halkın desteğini sağlamaya yönelik kanaat oluşturma çalışmaları yaparlar. Başka bir ifadeyle kamuoyu oluşturmaya çalışırlar.  Kamuoyu kavramı özellikle, sanayileşme ve şehirleşmeyle birlikte literatürde yer almaya başlamıştır. Okuryazar oranının artması ve kitle iletişim araçlarının yaygınlaşması ile birlikte demokrasilerde kamuoyunun önemini artırmıştır. Demokratik yönetimler, kararlarında ve faaliyetlerinde her zaman halkın desteğine gereksinim duymaktadır.Demokrasilerde sağlıklı bir kamuoyunun oluşması ve gelişmesi; medyanın halka yönetim ve yürütme ile ilgili sağlıklı ve doğru haber aktarması ile mümkündür. Bunda kitle iletişim araçlarıyla olayların ve haberlerin sunulduğu çerçeveler önemlidir. Amerikan politika belirleyicileri ve medyası Körfez Savaşı boyunca hikaye üreterek uyguladıkları spin faaliyetlerinde epizodik çerçeveler kullanarak kamuoyu oluşturmaya çalışmışlardır. Bu çalışmada Körfez Savaşı’nda Amerikan hükümeti ve medyası tarafından uygulanan spin faaliyetleri üzerinde durulmuştur.

  14. INDUCCIÓN DE FENILALANINA AMONIO LIASA Y VARIACIÓN EN EL CONTENIDO DE COMPUESTOS FENÓLICOS EN FRUTOS DE LULO (Solanum quitoense Lam) INFECTADOS CON Colletotrichum acutatum

    OpenAIRE

    MAIRA ANDREA ARRIETA-GUEVARA; BLANCA LIGIA HIGUERA-MANCIPE; SIXTA TULIA MARTÍNEZ-PERALTA

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluó la dinámica de la actividad fenilalanina amonio liasa (PAL) en corteza de fru- tos de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam) con el fin de determinar su participación en respuestas bioquímicas hacia Colletotrichum acutatum. Se establecieron como mejores condiciones para la extracción de la enzima, buffer ácido bórico-borato de sodio 0,1M pH 8,8, 1% SDS, 3% PVPP y para medir la actividad, sustrato L-fenilalanina 5 mM, pH 8,0, 20 °C, 30 μL de extracto y 45 min. Se realizó un ensayo in vivo usan...

  15. Evaluación de la actividad tóxica y antifúngica del extracto etéreo de la corteza de Celtis trinervia Lam (Ulmaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrenegra R. D.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A la fracción evaluada biológicarnente se encontró actividad toxica sobre Artemia salina mostrando una CL50 de 430 ppm y antifúngicas contra Fusarium oxysporum ssp dianthi en donde mostro CL50 de 0.25 mg/mL. La fracción evaluada del extracto etéreo de la corteza del rallo de Celtis trinervia Lam. Se identificaron sustancias de tipo terpénicas como santaleno, además se identificaron ácidos grasos saturados e insaturados de interés biológico, como el linoleico y oleico. Los compuestos aislados se identificaron can métodos físicos. químicos y espectroscópicos.

  16. Study on the Quick-Freezed Mud Production with the Flavor of Baked Ipomoea batatas Lam%速冻烤紫薯风味泥制品的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁曹雯; 邓后勤

    2016-01-01

    以紫薯为原料,通过设置温度梯度研究了烤制温度对紫薯花色苷的影响,得出最佳烘烤温度,通过正交试验研究了配料比对烤紫薯风味调理制品质量的影响,确定产品的最优配方。结果表明:最佳烘烤温度为200℃;产品最优配方为:100 g紫薯泥,添加糖粉2.0%、吉士粉2.0%、奶粉2.5%、黄油4.0%,该配方生产的速冻烤紫薯风味泥制品紫薯风味浓郁,口感细腻。%UsingIpomoea batatas Lam as material, researched the effect of baking temperature on the anthocyanins by setting the temperature gradient, and obtained the optimum baking temperature; studied the effect of ratio of ingredients on the quantity of conditioning products with the lfavor of baked purple sweet potato by the method of orthogonal experiment, and determined the optimum formula of products. The results showed that the best baking temperature was 200℃; the optimal formula for the products was each 100g purple potato mud, adding 2.0% of powdered sugar, 2.0% of custard powder, 2.5% of milk powder and 4.0% of butter. With this formula, the quick-freezed mud production with the lfavor of bakedIpomoea batatas Lam presented rich lfavor and delicate taste.

  17. Allelopathic effects of aqueous and organic fractions of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. on germination and seedling growth of chickpea and wheat Efectos alelopáticos de fracciones acuosas y orgánicas de Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. sobre la germinación y crecimiento de plántulas de garbanzo y trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Tanveer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of weed species with allelopathic potential and characterization of their adverse effects against associated crops is required for better understanding of weed-crop interactions. Phytotoxic activity of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. on germination and seedling growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was investigated under controlled conditions. Two separate studies were done with each of four organic solvent fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, 1-butanol and crude aqueous (1:10 and 1:20 whole plant fractions of E. dracunculoides using distilled water and 0.05% (v/v dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO as control. Different aqueous and organic fractions of E. dracunculoides had a significant bearing on germination attributes and seedling growth that varied among tested species. The final germination percentage of wheat remained unaffected; nevertheless, root and shoot elongation and biomass accumulation in these parts were significantly retarded. Aqueous fractions appeared more phytotoxic than organic fractions and suppressed chickpea germination by 35-53%. These aqueous fractions also reduced root (64-75% and 33-34% and shoot (18-62% and 21% length and root (32-33% and 42-46% and shoot (7-32% and 80-84% dry weight of wheat and chickpea, respectively. Among organic fractions, n-hexane was more suppressive to test species. Chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of four phytotoxins, furoic, p-coumaric, syringic, and caffeic acids, in aqueous whole plant (1:10 fractions. This study determined the phytotoxic allelopathic activity of E. dracunculoides against wheat and chickpea.Se requiere la identificación de especies de malezas con potencial alelopático y la caracterización de sus efectos adversos en contra de los cultivos asociados para una mejor comprensión de las interacciones cultivos-malezas. Se investigó la actividad fitotóxica de Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. en la germinación y

  18. Ganho de peso e características da carcaça de cordeiros terminados em pastagem natural suplementada, pastagem cultivada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. e confinamento Weight gain and carcass characteristics of lambs finished in a natural supplemented pasture, ryegrass pasture (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber José Tonetto

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desempenho e as características da carcaça de cordeiros, em três sistemas de alimentação. Foram utilizados 16 cordeiros, distribuídos aleatoriamente com suas mães, 24 horas após o nascimento, em três tratamentos: PNS: pastagem natural suplementada; PC: pastagem cultivada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.; e CON: confinamento. O ganho médio diário de 0,404 kg dos cordeiros da PC foi superior aos demais tratamentos, enquanto o ganho de 0,325 kg/dia dos animais da PNS foi superior aos ganhos de 0,213 kg/dia dos animais do CON. O abate ocorreu quando os cordeiros atingiram em torno de 31 kg. O peso da carcaça quente dos animais da PNS (15,7 kg foi semelhante ao dos animais da PC (16,8 kg e superior ao confinamento (14,3 kg. Os animais da PNS, PC e CON apresentaram resultados semelhantes para o índice de quebra ao resfriamento com valores de 2,3, 2,1 e 2,5%, respectivamente. Os rendimentos da carcaça quente dos animais de PNS (50,2% e PC (53,7% foram semelhantes e superiores aos rendimentos dos animais do CON (45,9%. A compacidade das carcaças não mostrou diferença entre PNS e PC, com valores de 0,287 e 0,307, respectivamente, os quais, porém, foram superiores aos animais do CON (0,253. As carcaças dos animais da PNS e CON não diferiram quanto à espessura de gordura com valores de 1,6 e 1,0 mm, respectivamente. Estes valores foram inferiores aos obtidos na PC (3,3 mm. Ganhos médios diários acima de 0,400 kg/dia e rendimento de carcaça quente acima de 52% podem ser obtidos com cordeiros alimentados com suas mães em pastagem cultivada de azevém, com peso de abate em torno dos 31 kg.The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics of lambs under three feeding systems. Sixteen lambs, 24 hours after birth, and their mothers were randomly assigned to three treatments: NSP: natural supplemented pasture; RP: ryegrass pasture (Lolium multiflorum lam

  19. Study on Effect of Different Stocking Rates on Seed Germination of Caragana microphylla Lam.%不同放牧条件下小叶锦鸡儿种子萌发特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张震; 汪诗平

    2011-01-01

    小叶锦鸡儿(Caragana microphylla Lam.)是广泛分布于中国北方草地及农牧交错地区丰富的小灌木,具有很高的生态学和经济价值.通过萌发实验探讨了不同放牧强度下小叶锦鸡儿的种子萌发特性,从而为该种在该地区的植被恢复过程中的作用提供理论数据.研究表明,小叶锦鸡儿的种子萌发不需要光照,在较高温度(20~28℃)时萌发率较高且种子萌发较快,而此时补充光照有利于提高萌发率.采自轻度放牧与重度放牧样地的种子萌发率在相同温度下没有明显的差异,但是放牧强度明显影响了萌发速率.%Caragana microphylla Lam. is a widely distributed shrub species in the northern steppe and agropastoral ecotone of China. It has a great ecological and economic value. Many studies concerning the effects of temperature and light on seed germination had been conducted in many parts of the word, however, the studies about different grazing intensities and Caragana genus plant were rare. The study result showed that seed germination of C. microphylla was not influenced by light or darkness. Under 20 -28 ℃ treatments, the species had a higher final percent germination and germination rate, and could increase the final percent germination if supplying light at the same temperature treatment. There were no significant differences in seed final percent germination between the seeds from the light and heavy grazing paddocks, however, the germination rate was decreasing with the increase of grazing intensities.

  20. INDUCCIÓN DE FENILALANINA AMONIO LIASA Y VARIACIÓN EN EL CONTENIDO DE COMPUESTOS FENÓLICOS EN FRUTOS DE LULO (Solanum quitoense Lam INFECTADOS CON Colletotrichum acutatum. Induction of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and variation in phenolic compounds content in Lulo fruits (Solanum quitoense Lam infected by Colletotrichum acutatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAIRA ANDREA ARRIETA-GUEVARA

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la dinámica de la actividad fenilalanina amonio liasa (PAL en corteza de frutos de lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam con el fin de determinar su participación en respuestas bioquímicas hacia Colletotrichum acutatum. Se establecieron como mejores condiciones para la extracción de la enzima, buffer ácido bórico-borato de sodio 0.1M pH 8.8, 1% SDS, 3% PVPP y para medir la actividad, sustrato L-fenilalanina 5 mM , pH 8,0, 20°C , 30 ΜL de extracto y 45 min. Se realizó un ensayo in vivo usando frutos en tres estados de madurez, los cuales fueron inoculados con el patógeno o tratados con agua estéril. A cinco tiempos (hpi = horas post-infección se determinó la actividad PAL y el contenido total de fenoles, encontrándose que hay una respuesta diferencial de la enzima por efecto del patógeno y por el estado de madurez. Para frutos en el estado pintón se obtuvo el mayor aumento de PAL, el que perduró hasta 48 hpi, al compararlo con los controles y con los otros dos estados de madurez. Este aumento mostró relación con un marcado incremento en el contenido total de fenoles y con el desarrollo más tardío de síntomas característicos de antracnosis, observado para los frutos pintones. Estos resultados permiten postular, una posible relación positiva entre inducción de PAL, aumento de fenólicos y respuesta de tolerancia a C. acutatum. Para lulos en estado verde y maduro se observó aumento de PAL a 12 y 24 hpi que coincidió también con incremento en el contenido de fenoles totales, aunque para estos dos últimos estados dicho contenido disminuyó significativamente a tiempos mayores.Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity induction was evaluated in lulo fruits to determine the role of this enzyme in biochemical responses towards the pathogen Colletotrichum acutatum. We studied the experimental conditions to obtain the enzyme, using lulo peel, and found that the best conditions for extraction were buffer of boric acid

  1. Efeitos da inclusão do farelo de sementes de jaqueira Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. na ração sobre a produção, pigmentação da gema e umidade fecal em codornas Effect of the addition of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. seeds bran in dietary on the egg production, yolk pigmentation and dropping humidity in japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de níveis crescentes do farelo da semente de jaqueira (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. na ração sobre a produção e pigmentação da gema dos ovos e umidade das excretas em 180 codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica. Aos 42 dias de idade, as aves foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e alimentadas com rações contendo níveis de 0; 2; 4; 6; 8 e 10% do farelo de semente de jaqueira (FSJ. Foram avaliados o consumo de ração, produção de ovos, peso dos ovos, massa de ovos, conversão por massa e por dúzia de ovos, além do peso e da porcentagem de gema, clara, casca, pigmentação da gema dos ovos e umidade das excretas. O aumento do FSJ na ração piorou linearmente (PAn experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of increase levels of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. seeds bran in diet of japanese quails on egg production, yolk pigmentation and dropping humidity . A total of 180 japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica with 42 days oold were distributed in a completely randomized design and fed diets with differents levels of 0; 2; 4; 6; 8 and 10% of jackfruit seeds bran (JSB. The variables feed intake, egg production, egg weigh, egg mass, feed egg mass conversion and feed egg dozen conversion as well as the yolk weight and yolk percentage, egg white, egg shell and egg yolk pigmentation. The data shown that increasing JSB in the diets reduced the egg production and higher feed egg dozen conversion lineally (P<0,05. Therefore the egg yolk pigmentation improved up to 7.44% of JSB in the diet and the dropping humidity was higher up to 4.9% of JSB.The presence of antitrypsin factor is a possible explanation for lower performance on the japanese quails fed diets with increase of JSB fresh. In order to solve this problem e, it is recommended to expose the seeds to a thermal treatment, otherwise the jackfruit seed fresh should not be

  2. 紫色甘薯营养成分和药用价值研究进展%Research Progress on Nutritive Component and Medicinal Value of Purple Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温桃勇; 刘小强

    2009-01-01

    紫色甘薯[Ipomoea batatas(L.)Lam]是一种富含天然食用色素的独特甘薯.从20世纪90年代初在日本农林水产省九州农业试验场选育出的"川山紫"开始,紫色甘薯由于富含多种营养成分,具有清除自由基抗氧化、预防和治疗心血管疾病等多种药用功能而在日本等发达国家得到广泛推广.就国内外对紫色甘薯各方面的研究,对其营养成分和药用价值进行论述,为在国内广泛推广种植紫色甘薯新品种提供重要依据.

  3. 辣木叶挥发性成分GC-MS的分析及生物活性%GC-MS Analysis and Bioactivity of Volatile Constituents from the Leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡彩虹; 梅文莉; 董文化; 盖翠娟; 戴好富

    2016-01-01

    为研究辣木(Moringa oleifera Lam.)叶的挥发性成分及生物活性,笔者采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取辣木叶的挥发性成分,气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC-MS)对其化学成分进行分析;分别利用2倍稀释法、Ellman 比色法及MTT法对所得挥发性成分进行了抗菌活性、抗乙酰胆碱酯酶活性和细胞毒活性测试.从辣木叶子的挥发性成分中共检测到34个化学成分,鉴定了其中33个化学成分,在挥发油总量中相对含量为85.94%,主要为棕榈酸(38.63%)、叶绿醇(6.09%)、棕榈酸乙酯(4.87%)和二十七烷(4.31%).生物活性测试结果表明,该挥发性成分对金黄色葡萄球菌和乙酰胆碱酯酶均具有抑制作用.

  4. Modelos de crescimento resultantes da combinação e variações dos modelos de Chapman-Richards e Silva-Bailey aplicados em Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit.

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    Cícero Carlos Ramos de Brito

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver novos modelos de crescimento para recursos florestais aplicados à leucena [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit], tendo como base as hipóteses biológicas propostas por Chapman-Richards e Silva-Bailey. O experimento de leucena foi conduzido na Estação Experimental da Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária - IPA, Caruaru, PE. Foram utilizadas 544 árvores de leucena de um experimento com vinte remedições realizadas ao longo de 12 anos. Compararam-se novos modelos de crescimento resultantes da combinação e variações dos modelos de Chapman-Richards e Silva-Bailey, bem como outros comumente usados em recursos florestais. Para a seleção das equações, utilizaram-se o Índice de Ajuste (IA, o erro-padrão da estimativa e a distribuição gráfica dos resíduos. Os resultados indicaram que todos os modelos testados se ajustaram de maneira satisfatória aos dados, podendo ser utilizados para se estimar o crescimento em altura da leucena.

  5. Analysis of SSR Information in EST Resource of Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.and Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth%甘薯与牵牛EST资源的SSR信息分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰孟焦; 吴问胜; 王瑞珍; 赵朝森; 赵现伟

    2013-01-01

    为挖掘番薯(Ipomoea)属EST-SSR资源,从NCBI数据库下载23406条甘薯(Ipomoea batatas(L.)Lam.) EST和62282条牵牛(Ipomoea nil(L.)Roth) EST,利用生物信息学软件预处理、去冗余、拼接后得到12812条无冗余的甘薯EST(6.70Mb)和28422条牵牛唯一序列(17.19 Mb).对这些序列进行SSR搜索,在甘薯上获得328个SSR位点,出现频率为2.56%;牵牛上筛选到962个SSR位点,出现频率为3.38%.甘薯和牵牛EST-SSR具有多个共同特征:在SSR位点中,主要是二核苷酸重复类型,其次是三核苷酸重复;在二核苷酸重复中,出现最多的重复基序为AG/CT,其次是AT/AT;在三核苷酸重复中,主要基序是AAG/CCT; SSR位点的长度主要集中在20~22 bp.结果表明,搜索出的EST-SSR重复基序类型丰富、多态性潜能高,具有较高的开发和利用价值.%To excavate the EST-SSR resourses of lpomoea,12812 non-redundant ESTs with the total length about 6.70 Mb were obtained by assembling 23406 ESTs from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.in NCBI.With the same way,28422 unique sequences covering 17.19 Mb were generated from Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth.A total of 328 SSR loci for Ipomoea batatas with the the frequency of 2.56% and 962 SSR loci for Ipomoea nil with the frequency of 3.38% were identified by MISA.The EST-SSRs from Ipomoea batatas and Ipomoea nil had many common features.Among all the identified SSRs,dinucleotide repeats were dominant motifs and then were trinucleotide repeats.For dinucleotide repeats,AG/CT was the major motif,followed by AT/AT.And AAG/CCT was the most frequent motif among the trinucleotide repeats.The length of EST-SSRs was mainly distributed among 20-22 bp.The results indicated that these EST-SSRs with abundant repeat motif types and high potential polymorphism had high value for exploitation and utilization.

  6. Produção da batata-doce adubada com esterco bovino e biofertilizante Yield of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. fertilized with cattle manure and biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Pereira de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a produção da batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. adubada com esterco bovino e biofertilizante, conduziu-se um experimento no período de Janeiro a Junho de 2004, em NEOSSOLO REGOLÍTICO, psamítico típico, na Universidade Federal da Paraíba, em Areia-PB. O delineamento experimental empregado foi de blocos casualisados, com quatro repetições com os tratamentos distribuídos em arranjo fatorial 6 x 2, sendo seis doses de esterco bovino (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 t ha-1 e ausência e presença de biofertilizante. As parcelas foram constituídas por 80 plantas, espaçadas de 80 x 30 cm. O número de raízes comerciais por planta atingiu valores máximos estimados de 2,0 e 1,7 raízes, respectivamente, nas doses de 26 e 25 t ha-1 de esterco bovino na presença e ausência de biofertilizante. O peso médio de raízes comerciais da batata-doce aumentou com elevação das doses de esterco bovino, atingindo na maior dose 360 e 224 g na presença e ausência de biofertilizante. As doses de 25,6 e 24,4 t ha-1 de esterco bovino foram responsáveis pela máxima produção total de raízes de 21,4 e 21,2 t ha-1, respectivamente, na presença e ausência de biofertilizante. As máximas produções de raízes comerciais, 15,2 e 12,9 t ha-1 foram alcançadas com 25,5 e 21,3 t ha-1 de esterco bovino, na presença e ausência de biofertilizante, respectivamente.Aiming to evaluate the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. yield fertilization with bovine manure and biofertilizer, an experiment was carried out from January to July, 2004, on ustipsamment soil, at Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Areia-PB. The Experimental outline used was randomized blocks, with four replications and, treatments distributed in factorial arrangement 6 x 2, being six levels of bovine manure (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 t ha-1 and absence and presence of biofertilizer. Plots were constituted by 80 plants, spaced 80 x 30 cm. Commercial roots number per plant reached

  7. Antihypertensive effect of nuatigenin-3-O-β-chacotriose from Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Solanaceae) (ñuatî pytâ) in experimentally hypertensive (ARH+DOCA) rats under chronic administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrola, D A; Hellión-Ibarrola, M C; Montalbetti, Y; Heinichen, O; Campuzano, M A; Kennedy, M L; Alvarenga, N; Ferro, E A; Dölz-Vargas, J H; Momose, Y

    2011-06-15

    The aim of the study is to assess the hypotensive properties of the hydro-ethanolic crude root extract (CRE), the n-butanol fraction (F(BtOH)) and nuatigenin-3-O-β-chacotriose, from Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam., in adrenal regeneration hypertension+deoxycorticosterone acetate (ARH+DOCA) rats, following a chronic administration. The roots of S. sisymbriifolium Lam. (Solanaceae) were extracted by reflux with ethanol-water 7:3 and the active extract was fractionated by bioassay-guided liquid-liquid separation. Nuatigenin-3-O-β-chacotriose (B(3-1)) was identified as the main hypotensive compound from the crude drug by spectroscopic methods. Immature Wistar rats of both sexes were submitted to both surgery and deoxycorticosterone acetate treatment to obtain adrenal regeneration hypertensive rats (ARH+DOCA). Different groups of experimentally induced hypertensive rats were randomly allotted and received during 16 weeks a daily oral administration of 1% saline solution (0.1 mL/100g body weigh), 100.0 mg/kg of CRE, 10.0, 30.0 and 50.0 mg/kg of F(BtOH), and 1.0 mg/kg of B(3-1), respectively. In addition, two groups of ARH+DOCA rats were randomly assigned to receive either B(3-1) (1.0 mg/kg/day) or 1% of saline solution (0.1 mL/100g body weight/day) for 7 weeks and then a cross over procedure was performed in order to complete the 16th-week treatment. After 16 weeks of oral administration of crude root extract (CRE), butanolic fraction (F(BtOH)) and nuatigenin-3-O-β-chacotriose (B(3-1)) a significant reduction of blood pressure value was induced in hypertensive animals (ARH+DOCA) in comparison to the control group receiving 1% saline solution, at the end of experiment. Administration of B(3-1) (1.0 mg/kg/day p.o.) to ARH+DOCA rats provoked a significant reduction of blood pressure, observed gradually from 5th week (p<0.05) to the end of the 16th week period of treatment (p<0.01). Moreover, in a cross over design it was observed that the reduction of blood pressure to

  8. Partial replacement of dried Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit leaves for noug (Guizotia abyssinica) (L.f.) Cass. seed cake in the diet of highland sheep fed on wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfay, Temesgen; Tesfay, Yayneshet

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of replacing noug (Guizotia abyssinica) (L.f.) Cass. seed cake by dried Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit leaves on feed intake, live weight gain, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen balance of highland sheep in Tigray Region in northern Ethiopia. Twenty intact yearling male highland sheep weighing 16.9 ± 1.62 kg were used in a randomized complete block design and included the following four treatments: T1 (control, wheat straw ad libitum + 200 g noug seed cake (NSC) + 150 g wheat bran (WB)); T2 (wheat straw ad libitum + 170 g NSC + 44.3 g dried L. leucocephala (DLL) + 150 g WB); T3 (wheat straw ad libitum + 140 g NSC + 87.3 g DLL + 150 g WB); and T4 (wheat straw ad libitum + 110 g NSC + 130.2 g DLL + 150 g WB). Sheep fed on T4 diet consumed higher total dry matter (658 g/head/day) and recorded the highest average daily weight gain (59 g/head/day). Sheep fed on T4 diet had higher dry matter (61 %), organic matter (63 %), and crude protein (75 %) digestibility values than the other treatments. Sheep fed on T3 diet demonstrated higher feed conversion ratio (11.93) than sheep kept on the other treatments. All sheep exhibited positive nitrogen balance, with the highest nitrogen retention being measured in T4 (12 g/head/day). It is concluded that partially replacing NSC by DLL can improve total dry matter intake, digestibility of nutrients, and body weight gain in highland sheep fed on wheat straw as the basal diet.

  9. Cryogenic Refractive Indices of S-LAH55, S-LAH55V, S-LAH59, S-LAM3, S-NBM51, S-NPH2, S-PHM52, and S-TIH14 Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kevin H.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Leviton, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is an explorer-class planet finder, whose principal goal is to detect small planets with bright host starts in the solar neighborhood. The TESS payload consists of four identical cameras and a Data Handling Unit (DHU) fitted with CCD detectors and associated electronics. Each camera consist of a lens assembly with seven optical elements that include various types of Ohara glass substrates. The successful implementation of a panchromatic and a thermal lens assembly design for these cameras requires a fairly accurate (up to 0.000001 (1e-6)) knowledge of the temperature- and wavelength-dependent of the refractive index in the wavelength and temperature range of operation. Hence, this paper is devoted to report on measurements of the refractive index over the wavelength range of 0.42-1.15 micrometers and temperature range of 110-300 K for the following Ohara glasses: S-LAH55, S-LAH55V, S-LAH59, S-LAM3, S-NBM51, S-NPH2, S-PHM52, and S-TIH14. The measurements were performed utilizing the Cryogenic High Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) facility at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. A dense coverage of the absolute refractive index for all these substrates in the aforementioned wavelength and temperature ranges was used to determine the thermo-optic coefficient (dndT) and dispersion relation (dnd) as a function of wavelength and temperature. A comparison of the measured indices with literature values, specifically the temperature-dependent refractive indices of S-PHM52 and S-TIH14 reported by Yamamuro et al. [Yamamuro et al., Opt. Eng. 45(8), 083401 (2006)], will be presented.

  10. Phylogenetic diversity of rhizobia associated with horsegram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.] grown in South India based on glnII, recA and 16S-23S intergenic sequence analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appunu, Chinnaswamy; Ganesan, Govindan; Kalita, Michał; Kaushik, Raghavan; Saranya, Balamurugan; Prabavathy, Vaiyapuri Ramalingam; Sudha, Nair

    2011-04-01

    Horsegram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.) is an important grain legume and fodder crop in India. Information on root nodule endosymbionts of this legume in India is limited. In the present study, 69 isolates from naturally occurring root nodules of horsegram collected from two agro-eco-climatic regions of South India was analyzed by generation rate, acid/alkali reaction on YMA medium, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (IGS), and sequence analyses of IGS and housekeeping genes glnII and recA. Based on the rDNA IGS RFLP by means of three restriction enzymes rhizobia were grouped in five clusters (I-V). By sequence analysis of 16S-23S rDNA IGS identified genotypes of horsegram rhizobia were distributed into five divergent lineages of Bradyrhizobium genus which comprised (I) the IGS type IV rhizobia and valid species B. yuanmingense, (II) the strains of IGS type I and Bradyrhizobium sp. ORS 3257 isolated from Vigna sp., (III) the strains of the IGS type II and Bradyrhizobium sp. CIRADAc12 from Acacia sp., (IV) the IGS type V strains and Bradyrhizobium sp. genospecies IV, and (V) comprising genetically distinct IGS type III strains which probably represent an uncharacterized new genomic species. Nearly, 87% of indigenous horsegram isolates (IGS types I, II, III, and V) could not be related to any other species within the genus Bradyrhizobium. Phylogeny based on housekeeping glnII and recA genes confirmed those results found by the analysis of the IGS sequence. All the isolated rhizobia nodulated Macrotyloma sp. and Vigna spp., and only some of them formed nodules on Arachis hypogeae. The isolates within each IGS type varied in their ability to fix nitrogen. Selection for high symbiotic effective strains could reward horsegram production in poor soils of South India where this legume is largely cultivated.

  11. Immunosuppressive cytokine Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is up-regulated in high-grade CIN but not associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) at baseline, outcomes of HR-HPV infections or incident CIN in the LAMS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrjänen, Stina; Naud, Paulo; Sarian, Luis; Derchain, Sophie; Roteli-Martins, Cecilia; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Tatti, Silvio; Branca, Margherita; Erzen, Mojca; Hammes, L S; Costa, S; Syrjänen, Kari

    2009-12-01

    Bypassing the local immunological defense reactions in the cervix is one of the prerequisites for human papillomaviruses (HPV) infections to progress to intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The role of potent immunosuppressive cytokines, e.g., interleukin-10 (IL-10), depressing these local virus-specific immunological responses is incompletely studied. To assess, whether IL-10 expression in cervical HPV lesions has any implications in the outcome of HPV infections or disease progression to CIN. Baseline cervical biopsies from 225 women of the LAMS study sub-cohort were analyzed for IL-10 expression using immunohistochemistry, to assess its associations with CIN grade, and high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) at baseline, as well as in predicting outcomes of HR-HPV infections, and development of incident CIN1+ and CIN2+ in this longitudinal setting. Expression of IL-10 in cervical lesions was up-regulated most often in high-grade CIN, and IL-10 over-expression retained its value as independent predictor of CIN2+ (odds ratio (OR) = 4.92) and CIN3+ (OR = 7.51) also in multivariate model, including HR-HPV and several known covariates of IL-10 expression. Up-regulation was not related to HR-HPV detection, and showed no relationship to HR-HPV viral loads. Using longitudinal predictive indicators (SE, SP, PPV, NPV), IL-10 expression was of no value in predicting (1) the outcomes of HR-HPV infections, or (2) the surrogate endpoints (incident CIN1+, CIN2+) of progressive disease. IL-10 over-expression (along with HR-HPV) was one of the independent covariates of CIN2/3. This immunosuppressive cytokine might play an important role in creating a microenvironment that favors progressive cervical disease and immune evasion by HR-HPV.

  12. INFLUENŢA ADMINISTRĂRII UNOR AMENDAMENTE ŞI ÎNGRĂŞĂMINTE CHIMICE ASUPRA CONŢINUTULUI DE APĂ LA LOLIUM MULTIFLORUM LAM. CULTIVATĂ PE CÂMPUL EXPERIMENTAL HIDROAMELIORAT DE LA SOCODOR (JUD. ARAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Faur

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The variations of the total water content and of the free and bound fractions in Lolium multiflorum Lam. were studied in a structural solonetz having moderate depth columns and sodium sulfate salinization. The plants were cultivated in conditions of an experimental field at the Experimental Center for the saline and alkalinous soil melioration from Socodor (Arad district. Before the experiment in the field was installed an underground drainage system consisting in ceramics tubes. After this installations followed a salts washing with a rate of 2500 m³ water/hectare. Three years after these hydromeliorated complex measures was set up an experiment of application of some different types and doses of chemical fertilizers in amendmented and unamendmented conditions three times administered in the next variants: V1 - N0P0K0; V2 - N120; V3 - K50; V4 - P80; V5 - N120K50; V6 - N120P80K50. The application of the amendments as 50 tons phosphogypsum/hectare determined water content increase in the leaf cells. The same effect had the chemical fertilizer applications but this effect was different according with the type of the fertilization. The highest action of the growth of the total water content and of bound water fraction had the nitrogen fertilization especially when this fertilization was made by the balance with phosphorous and potassium. It is notice a lower effect of potassium fertilization on the water keeping in the cells due probably of high content of sodium in the halomorphous soils suggesting an unspecific involving in the maintain of the cell turgor. The phosphogypsum application diminish the supplementary fertilization efficiency with phosphorous in the plants cultivated on halomorphous soils.

  13. 多胺及其合成抑制剂对干旱胁迫下杏苗生理指标的影响%Effects of polyamine and its synthetic inhibitors on physiological indexes of Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. seedlings under drought stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王尚堃; 杜红阳

    2016-01-01

    [Objective]The present experiment was conducted to study effects of polyamine and its synthetic inhibitor methylglyoxal bis-guanylhydrazone(MGBG) on physiological indexes of Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. Jintaiyang seedlings un-der drought stress, in order to provide reference basis for anti-drought cultivation. [Method]One-year grafted seedlings of A. vulgaris Lam. Jintaiyang were taken as experimental materials. Six treatments including treatment 1(CK),treatment 2(D.), treatment 3[CK+spermine(Spd)],treatment 4(D.+Spd),treatment 5(D.+MGBG) and treatment 6(D.+MGBG+Spd) were applied. The seedlings were sprayed one time every two days. Contents of malondialdehyde(MDA),soluble sugar and pro-line(Pro) and chlorophyll, photosynthetic parameters in leaves of A. vulgaris Lam. Jintaiyang seedlings were measured af-ter being treated for 30 days. [Result]Under drought stress, contents of MDA,soluble sugar and Pro in A. vulgaris Lam. Jintaiyang seedling leaves increased, and total content of chlorophyll and photosynthetic parameters decreased. Spd (1.0 mmol/L) treatment improved contents of MDA,soluble sugar and Pro, total content of chlorophyll and most photosynthetic parameters in A. vulgaris Lam. Jintaiyang seedling leaves. Spd(1.0 mmol/L) treatment under drought stress increased sig-nificantly contents of MDA, soluble sugar and Pro, total content of chlorophyll and most photosynthetic parameters in A. vulgaris Lam. Jintaiyang seedling leaves(P<0.05). MGBG(1.0 mmol/L) treatment under drought stress decreased contents of MDA,soluble sugar and proline,total content of chlorophyll and most photosynthetic parameters in A. vulgaris Lam. Jin-taiyang seedling leaves. [Conclusion]Spd(1.0 mmol/L) treatment can improve A. vulgaris Lam. Jintaiyang seedlings adap-tation capacity to drought stress, which can be applied in large-scale cultivation.%【目的】探讨喷施多胺及其合成抑制剂甲基乙二醛双脒基腙(MGBG)对干旱胁迫杏苗生理指标的影响,为杏抗旱

  14. Potencial productivo de esquejes de boniato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. procedentes de una nueva tecnología de producción de semilla agámica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Díaz Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El trabajo se realizó en el Instituto de Investigaciones en Viandas Tropicales durante el periodo de septiembre del 2008 a abril 2009, con los objetivos de determinar la cantidad de esquejes que proporciona el vivero y la frecuencia de corte, así como comparar el potencial productivo de cada corte. El Experimento consistió en el montaje de cámaras de aproximadamente 1m de ancho y 15m de largo, se utilizaron raíces tuberosas del clon comercial INIVIT B2-2005 como material de plantación. Se comprobó que durante la fase del vivero este proporcionó un total de nueve cortes tanto en la época frío como en primavera con un total de 764 y 1390 esquejes respectivamente. Después de cortados los esquejes fueron llevados al campo donde se realizó un estudio para determinar los rendimientos correspondientes a cada tratamiento (número de cortes. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatros réplicas. Los resultados mostraron que en pequeñas áreas de viveros se puede obtener un número significativo de esquejes y de muy buena calidad productiva además de que los esquejes procedentes de diferentes momentos de cortes presentan igual comportamiento en cuanto al rendimiento. Productive potential of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam cuttings from a new technology for agamic seed production. ABSTRACT The work was conducted at the Research Institute of Tropical Root and Tuber Crops from September 2008 to April 2009 with the objectives of determining the amount of cuts provided by the nursery and cut frequency, as well as, to compare the productive potential of each cut. The experiment consisted of mounting chambers about 1m wide and 15m long. Tuberous roots from the commercial clone INIVIT B2-2005 were used as planting seeds. During the nursery stage, nine cuts were provided in the winter and rainy seasons with a total of 764 and 1390 cuttings respectively. Cuttings were transferred to field conditions to determine corresponding

  15. Avaliação da atividade antioxidante e alelopática do extrato etanólico e frações das cascas do caule de Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam., Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle de Melo Turnes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo das atividades antioxidante e alelopática das cascas do caule de Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam., Rutaceae, de modo a conduzir à descoberta de substâncias biologicamente ativas. O material vegetal foi submetido à extração etanólica e este extrato foi fracionado obtendo as frações (hexano, clorofórmio, acetato de etila e hidroalcoólica. Para a avaliação da atividade antioxidante, empregaramse os métodos de redução do complexo fosfomolibdênio, de redução do radical DPPH e das substâncias reativas ao acido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS. Quanto à alelopatia, as amostras foram testadas em quatro concentrações sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento de radícula e hipocótilo das sementes de Lactuca sativa. As amostras evidenciaram atividade antioxidante significativa frente ao método de redução do complexo fosfomolibdênio quando comparada à rutina, e do TBARS quando comparado ao BHT, assim como a atividade alelopática, uma vez que estimularam tanto a germinação como o crescimento das sementes. A fração clorofórmica e acetato de etila demonstraram melhor potencial antioxidante com 204,17% e 127,11% em relação à rutina no método de formação do complexo fosfomolibdênio, e o extrato bruto e a fração hexano com 64,2% e 60,9%, em relação ao BHT, no método TBARS. No ensaio alelopático, destaca-se a fração clorofórmica, pois foi a única amostra que estimulou o crescimento do hipocótilo e radícula na maioria das concentrações, variando de 41 a 144%, e a fração acetato de etila que apresentou a maior porcentagem de estímulo nesse bioensaio, demonstrando estímulo de 274% do crescimento do hipocótilo. Este é o primeiro trabalho que demonstra a atividade antioxidante e alelopática de Z. rhoifolium.

  16. Mobbing in primary schools in the context of gender perspectiveİlköğretim okullarındaki yıldırmaya (mobbing toplumsal cinsiyet bağlamında bir bakış

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Karabacak Aşır

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the degree of mobbing (psychological violence that primary schools teachers face with in the context of the gender variable. The study is carried out by using a Likert-type scale questionnaire answered by the participants. A 33-item questionnaire, consisting of 2 parts, is applied to 230 teachers, 115 females and 115 males, who work in public primary schools of Ministry of Education. The first part of the questionnaire consists of a form prepared by the scale of mobbing while the second part consists of a form in which the ideas of the participants about the effectiveness of in-service training for adults in the prevention of mobbing are asked. The study sample is composed of teachers who work in 4 primary schools in Mamak district of Ankara. The research is limited with variables such as gender, age, marital status, seniority and tenure. The obtained data are analyzed by considering gender context. According to the findings of research, mobbing is applied to female teachers more than male teachers in primary schools. Married female teachers working in primary schools who are between the ages of 21 to 30 are more exposed to mobbing. Female teachers who are experienced between 1 and 3 years are more exposed to mobbing compared to their colleagues. Besides, the mobbing rate decreases as the tenure increases. Participants think that administrators they work with should attend trainings on adult psychology and behaviors, yet they are not sure whether this training can change the behaviors of their administrators.  ÖzetBu araştırma, ilköğretim okullarında çalışan öğretmenlerin yıldırmaya uğrama düzeylerini toplumsal cinsiyet değişkeni bağlamında belirlemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Araştırma, likert tipi ölçek kullanılarak hazırlanan anketin katılımcılar tarafından cevaplanması ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. 33 maddelik 2 bölümden oluşan bu anket, Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı’na ba

  17. Phytochemical studies on Ruta chalepensis (Lam.) Lamarck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günaydin, Keriman; Savci, Sezer

    2005-04-01

    Ruta chalepensis is a rich source of important secondary metabolites such as furanocoumarins and alkaloids. Besides, it is a medicinal plant and still used in traditional medicine. For that reason, its chemical composition, medicinal properties, and uses were reviewed in this article.

  18. Radioecology of Picea excelsa (L. Lam

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    Jan Sarosiek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the area of the radiation anomaly near Kowary (Sudeten Mountains the spruce (Picea excelsa occurs in habitats with natural soil gamma radiation within 0.05-1.48 mR/h. By way of detailed ecological analysis 5 stenotopic habitats of spruce development were selected differing in radiation intensity. In these habitats the intrapopulation variability, radioactivity and ecological properties of the Picea excelsa populations were investigated. It was demonstrated that radiation within the above mentioned range is an essential ecological limiting factor, conditioning ecotypic differences in Picea excelsa. The limiting influence of radiation is manifested in a high frequency of development anomalies in the spruce population.

  19. Doa daLam Tradisi Islam Jawa

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    Abdul Wahab Rosyidi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Doa etymologically means request something to God in certain ways. while some ulama define doa is a self statement presence to Allah the Almighty about our weakness, shortages, inabilities, and disgraces, then we ask Allah the Almighty in order the weaknesses, shortages, inabilities, and humiliations are removed and replaced with the strengths, capabilities and a high degree both in human sight and in Allah sight. In the theory needs said, that basically human beings need to feel safe (safety need, and the safety need leads to the two forms, namely: safety needs of life and safety needs of the property. Safety needs emerged as the most important requirement if psychology needs have been fullfilled. this behavior as reflected in the lives of Javanese who always do doa  in the form of slametan ceremony. Slametan aims to achieve slamet (safety, namely a condition in which the events will move smoothly to follow a predetermined path and will not happen misfortunes to just anyone.   Doa Secara etimologi artinya memohon sesuatu kepada Allah SWT dengan cara- cara tertentu. Sedangkan beberapa ulama mendefinisikan doa berarti pernyataan diri ke hadirat Allah SWT tentang kelemahan, kekurangan, ketidakmampuan serta kehinaan kita, kemudian kita memohon sesuatu kepada Allah SWT agar kelemahan, kekurangan, ketidakmampuan serta kehinaan ini diangkat dan digantikan dengan kelebihan, kemampuan serta derajat yang tinggi baik di sisi manusia maupun di sisi-Nya. Dalam teori kebutuhan dikatakan; bahwa pada dasarnya manusia membutuhkan rasa aman (safety need, dan rasa aman itu mengarah pada dua bentuk yakni kebutuhan keamanan jiwa dan keamanan harta. Kebutuhan rasa aman muncul sebagai kebutuhan yang paling penting kalau kebutuhan psikologis telah terpenuhi. Hal tersebut sebagaimana tercermin dalam perilaku hidup orang Jawa yang selalu melakukan Doa dalam bentuk upacara slametan. Slametan bertujuan untuk mencapai keadaan slamet, yaitu suatu keadaan dimana peristiwa-peristiwa akan bergerak mengikuti jalan yang telah ditetapkan dengan lancar dan tak akan terjadi kemalangan-kemalangan kepada sembarang orang.

  20. Din, Müzik ve Kimlik Bağlamında Türkiye'de İslami Popüler Müzik / Islamic Popular Music in Turkey within the Context of Religion, Music and Identity

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    İbrahim Yenen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Islamic Popular Music in Turkey within the Context of Religion, Music and Identity Abstract This article, by examining the culture of Islamic Popular Music in Turkey, examines the role of this culture in forming and expressing of Islamic identity. The aim of this article is to point out how Islamic identity is expressed and transferred by means of popular music and what kind of changes this identity formed by means of Islamic music has experienced from 1990s to 2000s. This study has made analysis in the light of the following hypothesis “Islamic Popular Music is one of the important cultural components in comprehending the Islamic understanding of the period.” The samples of the style of Islamic Popular Music between 1990-­2000 were named as “Islamic Protest Music”. The most significant characteristic of Islamic Protest Music in 1990s is that the message contents rely on the distinction of “we and others”. In 2000s, Islamic Popular Music has turned into Islamic popular music which is away from giving a message through its melody, rhytm and instruments but carries commercial worries in accordance with the concerns of music industry.   Din, Müzik ve Kimlik Bağlamında Türkiye'de İslami Popüler Müzik Öz Bu makale, Türkiye’de İslami Popüler Müzik kültürünü inceleyerek bu kültürün İslami kimliğin oluşması ve ifade edilmesi üzerinde nasıl bir etkisi olduğunu incelemektedir. Makalenin amacı, İslami kimliğin popüler müzik aracılığıyla nasıl ifade edildiği, aktarıldığı,ve ayrıca İslami müzik aracılığıyla oluşturulan bu kimliğin 90’lı yıllardan 2000’li yıllara nasıl bir değişim geçirdiğini göstermektir. Çalışmada “Dönemin İslami anlayışının kavranabilmesinde İslami popüler müzikler önemli kültürel öğelerden birisidir” varsayımından hareketle çözümlemeler yapılmıştır. İslami popüler müzik tarzının 1990-2000 yılları arasındaki örnekleri,

  1. Inhibition of Cuscuta Chinenssis Lam on Human Gastric Cancer SGC7901 Cell%菟丝子醇提物对胃癌SGC7901细胞的生长抑制作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金松; 辛国荣; 孟繁石; 范东旭; 董智强

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of Cuscuta chinenssis Lam ( CCL ) on inhibiting human gastric cancer SGC7901 cell. Methods Human gastric cancer SGC7901 cell line was affected by CCL with different concentration ( 10, 50, 100 mg/L ), meanwhile, the DMSO and RPMI1640 culture liquid was taken as the control group. The inhibition of CCL on SGC7901 cells was detected by MTT method. By testing the cell cycle of SGC7901, the effect of CCL on cell proliferation was studied. Results CCL inhibited significantly the growth of SGC7901 cells, and the inhibition increased when the dosage was raised ( 10 ~100 mg/L ) and the time was extended ( P <0. 01 ). When SGC7901 cells in stage G0/G1 and stage S were affected by 100 mg/L CCL, the differences were significant when the time changed (12, 24, 36 h ) ( P <0. 01 ). Conclusion CCL could inhibit human gastric cancer SGC7901 cell. CCL could inhibit tumor cell replication and DNA synthesis, inhibit normal cell division, and stop cell enter S phase, so that cells are accumulated in Gl period with G2/M block to prevented cell mitosis, thereby cell proliferation is inhibited, which lead to tumor cell apoptosis.%目的 探讨菟丝子(CCL)醇提物对人胃癌SGC7901细胞生长的抑制作用.方法 以不同浓度(10、50、100 mg/L)的菟丝子作用于人胃癌SGC7901细胞,同时设二甲基亚砜(DMSO)和RPMI1640培养液作为对照组.采用噻唑蓝(MTT)法检测菟丝子对人胃癌SGC7901细胞的生长抑制情况,通过对SGC7901细胞周期测定,探讨菟丝子对细胞增殖作用的影响.结果 菟丝子对SGC7901细胞生长有明显抑制作用,且随着剂量的增高(10~100 mg/L)及作用时间的延长,细胞增殖抑制率亦增高(P<0.01).100 mg/L的菟丝子作用不同时间(12、24、36 h),处于G0/G1期、S期的细胞所占百分率比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 菟丝子醇提取物能够抑制人胃癌SGC7901细胞的生长.可能是通过影响人胃癌SGC7901细胞内DNA复制

  2. 两种源多油辣木苗期生长量比较%Comparison of Mass Growth during Seedling Stage between Two Provenances of Moringa oleifera Lam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏静; 吴疆种; 郑益兴; 张燕平

    2013-01-01

    通过对云南省元江县红河流域干热河谷地区相同立地条件下的印度和缅甸两种源多油辣木苗期生长量的连续观测,比较实生苗株高、地径、枝下高、冠幅、开花数和结实量等指标,研究多油辣木苗期生长规律的变化.结果表明,从播种到1年生期间两种源多油辣木的株高、地径、枝下高和开花数在种源间无显著差异,各个时期的生长速率略微不同.两种源多油辣木的冠幅和结实量有较大的差别,印度种源1年生实生苗的冠幅东西向、南北向分别比缅甸种源高12.5%、16.9%,结实量是缅甸种源的5倍,t检验结果显示,两种源多油辣木的冠幅和结实量差异显著(P<0.05).%Seedling mass growth from two provenances (India and Myanmar) of Moringa oleifera Lam.under the same site and culturing condition was observated.Seedlings were planted in Yuanjiang county,Yunnan province,which was basically in dry-hot valley of Red River basin.By comparing the plant height,ground diameter,under branch height,crown breadth,the number of flowers and fruit yield,the results showed that:From sowing to annual period,there were no significant differences in plant height,ground diameter,under branch height and flowering numbers between two provenances.For the two provenances,growth rate of each period was slightly different,but between provenances,crown breadth and fruit yield were significantly different.After plantation for a year,for the crown breadth of south to north direction and east to west direction,India provenance produced 12.5 % and 16.9 % respectively more than Burma provenance.For fruit yield,India provenance produced four times more than Burma provenance.Variance analysis showed that a significant difference (P < 0.05) was between the two provenances of crown breadth and fruit yield.

  3. Traditional phytotherapy in Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the more significant results of extensive ethnopharmacobotanical research carried out by the author in the years 1977-2000 in 175 localities of three regions of Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium) have been reported and compared. The usages of 80 species belonging to 36 families are described, of which 71 were used in human therapy and 29 in veterinary medicine. Uses are suited with the number of localities in which they have been mentioned. Among the wild plant mainly still used, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, and Sambucus nigra are particularly highly considered, while major uses of plants concern these plants in addition to Allium sativum, Rubus ulmifolius, Parietaria diffusa, Cynodon dactylon, and Ficus carica. Unusual phytotherapic uses concern Brassica oleracea, Taraxacum officinale (warts), Ruscus aculeatus, S. nigra (chilblains), Allium cepa (chilblains; to remove thorns and splinters), Juglans regia, R. ulmifolius (burns), and Euphorbia paralias (bites of weevers). Among new uses with only one quotation, we remember Cirsium arvense (intestinal disturbances), Centaurea bracteata (cough), Lupinus albus (calluses), Melittis melissophyllum (eye inflammations, antispasmodic), and Artemisia absinthium (tendon inflammations), while among plants employed in various regions with interesting less-known properties, there are C. arvense (emergency haemostatic), P. diffusa (insect bites), and Scrophularia canina (antiseptic and cicatrizing agent for wounds in bovines and sheep).

  4. Phenolics and plant allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Qiang; Ruan, Xiao; Pan, Cun-De; Jiang, De-An

    2010-12-07

    Phenolic compounds arise from the shikimic and acetic acid (polyketide) metabolic pathways in plants. They are but one category of the many secondary metabolites implicated in plant allelopathy. Phenolic allelochemicals have been observed in both natural and managed ecosystems, where they cause a number of ecological and economic problems, such as declines in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure of natural forests, and replanting problems in orchards. Phenolic allelochemical structures and modes of action are diverse and may offer potential lead compounds for the development of future herbicides or pesticides. This article reviews allelopathic effects, analysis methods, and allelopathic mechanisms underlying the activity of plant phenolic compounds. Additionally, the currently debated topic in plant allelopathy of whether catechin and 8-hydroxyquinoline play an important role in Centaurea maculata and Centaurea diffusa invasion success is discussed. Overall, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the allelopacthic potential of phenolic compounds to provide us with methods to solve various ecology problems, especially in regard to the sustainable development of agriculture, forestry, nature resources and environment conservation.

  5. Phenolics and Plant Allelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-An Jiang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds arise from the shikimic and acetic acid (polyketide metabolic pathways in plants. They are but one category of the many secondary metabolites implicated in plant allelopathy. Phenolic allelochemicals have been observed in both natural and managed ecosystems, where they cause a number of ecological and economic problems, such as declines in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure of natural forests, and replanting problems in orchards. Phenolic allelochemical structures and modes of action are diverse and may offer potential lead compounds for the development of future herbicides or pesticides. This article reviews allelopathic effects, analysis methods, and allelopathic mechanisms underlying the activity of plant phenolic compounds. Additionally, the currently debated topic in plant allelopathy of whether catechin and 8-hydroxyquinoline play an important role in Centaurea maculata and Centaurea diffusa invasion success is discussed. Overall, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the allelopacthic potential of phenolic compounds to provide us with methods to solve various ecology problems, especially in regard to the sustainable development of agriculture, forestry, nature resources and environment conservation.

  6. Optimization of Polyphenols from Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves by Ultrasound-assisted Extraction Using Response Surface Methodology and Their Antioxidant Activities%响应面试验优化辣木叶多酚超声辅助提取工艺及其抗氧化活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴斐; 陶虹伶; 蔡丽娟; 魏琛琛; 袁一鸣; 杨文建; 胡秋辉

    2016-01-01

    为研究辣木叶多酚超声辅助提取工艺,明确辣木叶多酚体外抗氧化活性,选取超声功率、超声时间、超声温度和料液比为考察指标,研究不同工艺参数对辣木叶多酚提取量的影响,并采用响应面法优化辣木叶多酚提取工艺。此外,研究辣木叶多酚还原力及其对DPPH自由基、超氧阴离子自由基清除能力。结果表明,超声辅助提取辣木叶多酚最优工艺为:超声时间19.5 min、料液比1∶30(g/mL)、超声温度20.2℃、超声功率250 W。在此条件下,辣木叶多酚提取量为(25.14±0.46)mg/g。辣木叶多酚具有较强的体外抗氧化活性,其还原力、DPPH自由基和超氧阴离子自由基清除能力分别达到同等质量浓度VC的81.25%、94.15%和75.05%。该研究为辣木叶多酚等生物活性成分高效制备与抗氧化剂的深度开发提供理论依据。%In order to obtain the best ultrasound-assistedextracting conditions for polyphenols fromMoringa oleifera Lam. leaves, and clarified their antioxidant activities. Response surface methodology was used to explore the effects of ultrasonic power, extraction time, extraction temperature, and solid to liquid ratio on extraction rate. Moreover, the reducing power, the DPPH radical scavenging activities and the O2-· scavenging effect of polyphenols fromMoringa oleifera Lam. leaves were also investigated. The results showed that the best extraction condition were as follows: the extraction time of 19.5 min, the solid to liquid ratio of 1:30 (g/mL), the extraction temperature of 20.2℃, and the ultrasonic power of 250 W. Under the optimal extractions, the extraction rate of phycoerythrin was (25.14 ± 0.46) mg/g. In addition, the polyphenols fromMoringa oleifera Lam. leaves. have strong anti-oxidative, and the reducing power, the DPPH radical scavenging activities and the O2-· scavenging effect were 81.25%, 94.15% and 75.05% ofL-ascorbic acid, respectively. This

  7. 不同硫取代度昆布多糖硫酸酯的合成及理化性质初步研究%Synthesis of Different Degree of Substitution of LAMS and Preliminary Study on Physical and Chemical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟德友; 汲晨峰; 季宇彬

    2012-01-01

    目的:对昆布多糖进行不同硫取代度的硫酸酯化修饰,并对其产物的硫酸基含量、糖含量与分子量进行检测,为研究不同硫取代度昆布多糖硫酸酯的生物活性奠定物质基础.方法:采用氯磺酸-吡啶法对昆布多糖进行硫酸化修饰,通过改变硫酸化修饰条件,来制取不同硫酸基取代度的昆布多糖硫酸酯;利用盐酸水解-硫酸钡比浊法测定昆布多糖硫酸酯的硫酸基含量,并通过公式求得其硫取代度;用苯酚-硫酸法测定昆布多糖硫酸酯的多糖含量,并使用HPGPC法测定其分子量.结果:两种不同硫取代度昆布多糖硫酸酯的硫酸基含量分别为37.8%、45.92%,取代度分别为1.07、1.51,糖含量分别为44.52%、37.19%,分子量分别为13000、16000.结论:利用氯磺酸-吡啶法对昆布多糖进行硫酸酯化修饰,该方法可以获取不同取代度产物,酯化率高.%Objective: To sulfate the laminarin for different degree of substitution. And its sulfate content, sugar content and molecular testing for the study of different degree of substitution of LAMS Iay the material foundation of biological activity. Methods: Using chlorosulfonic acid - pyridine method for sulfation of laminarin, sulfated by changing conditions, preparation of different degree of substitution of sulfate laminarin sulfate; the use of barium sulfate turbidimetric method LAMS of sulfate content, and calculate the degree of substitution; phenol - sulfuric acid method for the determination of laminarin sulfate polysaccharide content and its molecular weight determined using HPGPC. Results: LAMS of two different sulfur degree of substitution'of sulfate contents were 37.8%, 45.92%, the degree of substitution were 1.07,1.51, sugar contents were 44.52%, 37.19%, and molecular weight were 13000, 16000. Conclusion: LAMS was prepared from laminarin by chlorsulfonic acid-pyridine method. The rate of esterification are high and preparation of a different

  8. Otimização dos tempos de mistura e decantação no processo de coagulação/floculação da água bruta por meio da Moringa oleifera Lam - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v30i2.5493

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Cordeiro Cardoso

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Diversos coagulantes/floculantes estão sendo estudados ao que se refere à remoção de cor e turbidez da água bruta, entretanto, os coagulantes naturais têm demonstrado vantagens em relação aos químicos. A Moringa oleifera Lam é um polímero natural que vem ganhando destaque no tratamento de água, pois atua como agente clarificante pela presença de uma proteína catiônica que desestabiliza as partículas contidas na água em meio líquido. Este trabalho propõe a otimização dos tempos de coagulação, floculação e decantação, utilizando como coagulante diferentes concentrações da solução extraída da polpa da semente de Moringa oleifera Lam, para verificar a eficiência de remoção da cor e turbidez da água. Os ensaios foram realizados em “Jar Test”, utilizando diferentes tempos de mistura e decantação, com várias concentrações do biopolímero. Verificou-se que o tempo para propiciar a mistura rápida e lenta, assim como a concentração do coagulante influenciaram a remoção dos parâmetros durante a coagulação/floculação/sedimentação.

  9. Response and Bioaccumulation Potential of Boerhavia diffusa L. Towards Different Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdussalam A.K.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of different concentrations of heavy metals such as Cadmium, Chromium, Mercury and Leadwas studied by cultivating rooted propagules of Boerhavia diffusafor a period of twenty days in Hoagland nutrient medium artificially contaminated with known concentration of those heavy metal ions. Concentrations of the metals selected to impart visible symptoms of growth retardation and to permit survival for prolonged period are 30µM cadmium chloride (CdCl2, 400 µM potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7, 10 µM mercuric chloride (HgCl2, and 600 µM lead acetate (CH3-COO2Pb. More or less uniform growth performance was shown by the plants irrespective of the differences of concentration of the heavy metals. However, parameters such as root - and stem length, stomatal - and tolerance index varied among the treatments. Significant differences were observed in the heavy metal accumulation potential among metals and between plant parts such as root, stem and leaf and the pattern was dependent on growth period.

  10. Cultura dell’accoglienza e ospitalità diffusa. Conversazione con Giancarlo Dall'Ara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mantovani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The conversation highlights the features of a new and original Italian model of hospitality: the Albergo Diffuso (Widespread Hotel. Giancarlo Dall'Ara, professor of Tourism Marketing and founder of the National Association of Widespread Hotels, illustrates this new “reception culture”, grounded on some basic assumptions: no new buildings, integration with place identity, genuine experience, presence of a hosting community living in the place, preserved environment.

  11. Ziya Osman Saba’nın Şiirlerinin Kronotop Bağlamında İncelenmesi Study Of The Chronotope Context Of Ziya Osman Saba's Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep TEK

    2013-03-01

    bağlamından yola çıkılarak yapılan bu okuma çalışması, Ziya Osman Saba’nın şiirlerinde zamana ve mekâna dair duygu değerlerinin sıkça kullanılmış olması nedeniyle yapıldı. Bugüne kadar Saba’nın şiirleri üzerine yapılan incelemelere ilave olarak bu makale ile yeni bir yaklaşım getirilmeye çalışılmıştır. 1910-1957 yılları arasında yaşamış olan Ziya Osman Saba, modern Türk şiirinde ev ve aile konularına duyarlı ve istikrarlı yaklaşımı ile dikkat çeker. Saba’nın “Sebil ve Güvercinler” (1943, “Geçen Zaman” (1947 ve “Nefes Almak” (1957 adlı üç şiir kitabı ve “Mesut İnsanlar Fotoğrafhanesi”(1952 ve “Değişen İstanbul” (1959 adlı iki hikâye kitabı vardır. Anı, hikâye, mektup gibi çeşitli türlerde eser veren Saba, ilk şiirini yayımladığı on yedi yaşından, ömrünün sonuna kadar şiir sanatıyla meşgul olarak ‘şairlik’ vasfını korumuş tek ‘Yedi Meşaleci’dir. Bu nedenle onun şiir sanatı üzerinde düşündüğü ve şiirlerinde kullandığı bütün sözcükleri büyük bir özenle seçtiği bilinmelidir. Dolayısıyla Saba’nın şiirlerinin kronotop kavramı üzerinden okunması şiirleri anlamlandırmada büyük bir fayda sağlayacaktır. Böylece Saba’nın şiirlerinde geçen ev, oda, dolap, çekmece, bahçe, kapı, eşik gibi birçok kronotopta zaman, mekân ve duygu değerlerinin iç içe geçtiği ve farklı temsil değerleri olduğu görülecektir.

  12. The Case Against (-)-Catechin Involvement in Allelopathy in Centaurea stoebe (spotted knapweed)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proving allelopathic chemical interference is a daunting endeavor, in that production and movement of a phytotoxin from a donor plant to a receiving plant must be demonstrated in the substrate in which the plants grow, which is usually a complex soil matrix. The soil levels or soil flux levels of th...

  13. Chemical constituents of Vernonia scorpioides (Lam) Pers. (Asteraceae); Constituintes quimicos de Vernonia scorpioides (Lam) Pers. (Asteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Adalva Lopes; Aragao, Fabiana Martins; Bandeira, Paulo N.; Santos, Helcio Silva dos; Albuquerque, Maria Rose Jane R., E-mail: rjane_7@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual Vale do Acarau, Sobral, CE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia. Coordenaco de Quimica; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L.; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), Fortaleza (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias. Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Nunes, Edson Paula [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), Fortaleza (Brazil). Departamento de Biologia; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2013-09-01

    The chemical investigation of hexane and ethanol extracts from the aerial parts of Vernonia scorpioides resulted in the isolation and characterization of a new polyacetylene lactone, rel-4-dihydro-4{beta}-hydroxy-5{alpha}-octa-2,4,6-triynyl-furan-2-(5H)-one, along with the new ethyl 3,4-dihydroxy-6,8,10-triynyldodecanoate, and seven known compounds: taraxasteryl acetate, lupeyl acetate, lupeol, lupenone, {beta}-sitosterol, stigmasterol and luteolin. The structure of all compounds was determined by spectrometric techniques (HR-ESI-MS, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR and IV) and comparison with published spectral data. (author)

  14. Simultaneous determination of quercetin, rutin and kaempferol in the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam.and Raphinus sativus Linn.by liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry%液相色谱-串联质谱法测定辣木及萝卜叶的提取物中所含的槲皮素、芦丁及山柰酚

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Venkatapura C. Devaraj; Burdipad G. Krishna; Gollapalle L. Viswanatha

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To develop a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to analyze quercetin (QU),rutin (RU) and kaempferol (KA) simultaneously in the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam.and Raphinus sativus Linn.Methods:Samples were prepared by extracting the leaves of the M.oleifera and R.sativus by cold-maceration technique using 90% ethanol.Chromatographic separation was operated with a mixture of 0.2% formic acid in water and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min on a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column with a total run time of 5.01 min.Results:The MS/MS ion transitions monitored were 303.03 to 153.1 for QU,611.1 to 303.1 for RU,287.1 to 153.2 for KA and 180.1 to 110.1 for internal standard.The lower limit of quantitation achieved for QU,RU and KA was 5 ng/mL and the linearity was observed from 5 to 2 000 ng/mL.The correlation coefficients of linear regression analysis were 0.994 6,0.9951 and 0.9969 for QU,RU and KA,respectively.Conclusion:The results indicate that the LC-MS/MS method is fast and sensitive and may provide excellent specificity for simultaneous determination of QU,RU and KA in leaf extracts of M.oleifera and R.sativus.%目的:通过一种快速、敏感的液相色谱-串联质谱法测定辣木(Moringa olei fera Lam.)及萝卜(Raphinus sativus Linn.)叶的提取物中所含的槲皮素、芦丁及山柰酚.方法:使用冷浸法(90%乙醇)对辣木及萝卜叶进行提取.提取物与0.2%甲酸和氰化甲烷混合后以0.4 mL/min的速度通过Phenomenex Gemini C18色谱层析柱,通过时间为5.01 min.结果:串联质谱法测定的离子转换分别为槲皮素303.03~153.1,芦丁611.1~303.1,山柰酚287.1~153.2,内参180.1~110.1.对槲皮素、芦丁及山柰酚定量测量的最低浓度为5 ng/mL,线性分布为5~2000 ng/mL.槲皮素、芦丁及山柰酚的线性回归系数分别为0.994 6、0.995 1及0.996 9.结论:本研究的结果证明了液相色谱-串联质谱法具有快速

  15. 高效液相色谱法测定莲雾中有机酸的条件优化%Research on the Optimal Condition in the Determination of Organic Acid in Eugenia javanica Lam with High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚; 王珠娜

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The best testing condition of four organic acids( tartaric acid, citric acid, L-malic acid and succinic acid) in tropical fruit-Eugenia javanica Lam was selected through the research on the influence of the different testing conditions on chromatographic separation of four organic acids. [ Method] The testing condition was optimized based on the orthogonal experiment with four factors at 3 level( including wavelength, buffer, rate of buffer to methanol in volume ratio, flowing rate of mobile phase and the temperature of column. [ Result] In the column(4.6 mn × 250.0 mm ,5 μm) of Zorbax Eclipse XDB C18, the four organic acids in Eugenia javanica Lam could be better tested and isolated while the detection wavelength was 210 nm, 10% CH3 OH - 0. Ol mol/L NaH2 PO4 ( pH 2.28 was used as the mobile phase, the flowing rate was 0.8 ml/min and the temperature of column was used at 40℃. [ Conclusion]Tbe results mentioned above indicated that the method was simple,rapid and accurate, which was significant in the control of fruit quality.%[目的]研究不同检测条件对热带水果莲雾中4种有机酸(酒石酸、柠檬酸、L-苹果酸、琥珀酸)色谱分离的影响,以确定最佳的试验条件.[方法]通过波长扫描确定检测波长,3种不同pH值的缓冲溶液、缓冲溶液与甲醇的体积比、4种流动相流速及5种条件柱温,按照4因素3水平的正交试验对分离条件进行优化.[结果]在Zorbax Eclipse XDB C(4.6 mm×250.0 mm,5 μm)色谱柱上,当紫外检测波长为210 nm,10%CHOH-0.01 mol/L NaHPO(pH值2.28)混合溶液作流动相,流速为0.8 ml/min,柱温40℃时,可以较好地分离和测定热带水果莲雾中4种常见有机酸.[结论]该方法具有前处理简单、灵敏度高、测试组分多、速度快等优点,对于控制果品质量具有重要的意义.

  16. Componentes morfológicos e produção de forragem de pastagem de aveia e azevém manejada em diferentes alturas Morphological components and forage production of oat (Avena strigosa, Schreb and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture managed at different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Queirolo Aguinaga

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a dinâmica de produção de forragem em pastagem de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam manejada em diversas alturas de manejo com o objetivo de evidenciar as potencialidades dessa mistura em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro alturas de manejo da pastagem (10; 20; 30 e 40 cm, medidas com bastão graduado e avaliadas em blocos casualizados com três repetições. O método de pastejo foi contínuo, com taxa de lotação variável. Utilizaram-se bezerros de corte mestiços com 10 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 210 kg, respectivamente. As características da pastagem estudadas foram: massa de forragem (MF; taxa de acúmulo de forragem (TAC; produção total de forragem (PTMS; e quantificação dos componentes morfológicos da pastagem (colmo, lâmina e material morto. A massa de forragem aumentou de forma linear de acordo com a altura do pasto, uma vez que, para cada cm de aumento na altura superior a 10 cm, a matéria seca aumentou aproximadamente 90 kg/ha. Não houve efeito das alturas da pastagem sobre a TAC ou sobre a PTMS, cujos valores médios foram de 66,8 kg/ha/dia de MS e 10.721 kg/ha de MS, respectivamente. A porcentagem de folhas de azevém foi maior que a de folhas de aveia nos três períodos de avaliação e, na altura de 10 cm, foi superior à obtida nas demais alturas na última avaliação (em torno de 20% da participação total da massa de forragem. A aveia apresenta rápido desenvolvimento inicial e diminuição na produção nos períodos posteriores de desenvolvimento.Forage growth dynamic in an Oat (Avena strigosa, Schreb + Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture managed at different grazing heights was evaluated in order to access the mixed-sward potential in a crop-livestock integrated system. Treatments were four sward grazing heights (10, 20, 30, and 40 cm, measured with a sward-stick. The experimental design was a

  17. Efeito da suplementação com feno de Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit durante a estação seca sobre o desenvolvimento ponderal de ovinos Effect of supplementation with Leucaena leucocephala hay during the dry season on the ponderal development sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Alves de Souza

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi estudar o desempenho de borregos suplementados com dois níveis de feno de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit, durante a estação seca, em comparação com animais mantidos em pastagem exclusiva de capim-buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris, L ou em pastagem consorciada de capim-buffel com guandu (Cajanus cajan. Durante a estação das águas, foi determinado ainda o desempenho dos animais que foram mantidos em pastagem comum de capim-buffel, sem suplementação. Os seguintes tratamentos foram testados durante a estação seca: A - pasto de capim-buffel; B - pasto de capim-buffel consorciado com guandu; C - pasto de capim-buffel suplementado com feno de leucena (250 g/animal•d; e D - pasto de capim-buffel suplementado com feno de leucena (500 g/animal•d. Durante a estação seca, somente os borregos suplementados com o nível mais alto de feno de leucena (tratamento D apresentaram ganho diário de peso mais elevado que os animais mantidos em dieta exclusiva de pasto (tratamentos A e B. Na estação das águas, os animais que apresentaram melhor desempenho durante a estação seca passaram a apresentar ganho diário de peso inferior em relação aos dos demais tratamentos. Quando as duas estações foram consideradas em conjunto, a vantagem com a suplementação desapareceu e não houve diferenças entre tratamentos. O uso de feno de leucena para suplementação de borregos mantidos a pasto, durante a estação seca, é eficiente, desde que os animais estejam terminados e sejam abatidos ao final da estação.

  18. Influência da poluição aérea gerada pelo tráfego veicular na produção do óleo essencial e das atividades antifúngica e citotóxica in vitro de Cyrtocymura scorpioides (Lam. H.Rob. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.O. LEITE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Cyrtocymura scorpioides (sin. Vernonia scorpioides (Lam. Pers., Piracá é utilizada popularmente para tratamento de úlceras, traumatismos, candidíase, processos inflamatórios e dores musculares. Objetivou-se verificar nas plantas cultivadas na Vila Nair, Jardim São Dimas e Urbanova em São José dos Campos - SP, a influência da poluição veicular nos rendimentos da matéria seca (folhas, no óleo essencial, e no extrato bruto, bem como a ação citotóxica em células HEP-2 e L929, e identificar os componentes do óleo essencial e ação fungicida em Candida albicans. As estacas (54 foram cultivadas durante 6 meses em solo + adubo (2:1 na Universidade do Vale do Paraíba - UNIVAP, e distribuídas nas estações Dutra (E1 - tráfego intenso, Teotônio (E2 - tráfego médio e Urbanova (E3 - tráfego baixo, onde 18 mudas foram cultivadas durante 6 meses, sendo 3 repetições de 6 plantas. O óleo essencial foi extraído por hidrodestilação e seus componentes identificados por cromatografia gasosa acoplado a espectrômetro de massas (CG-MS, através de indice de similaridade com a base de espectros Wiley L. O extrato bruto foi concentrado por rotavapor. A ação fúngica foi avaliada pelo teste de difusão em disco e a citotoxicidade pelo teste MTT. Em Urbanova (E3 verificouse maior rendimento da matéria seca, do extrato bruto e do óleo essencial. Identificou-se no óleo essencial: ß-cariofileno, α-cariofileno, germacreno D, delta-cadineno e cariofileno. O Óleo Essencial possui possui baixa ação fungicida em C. albicans, enquanto o extrato hidroalcóolico se mostrou citotóxico para L929 e HEp-2.

  19. Toplumsal Cinsiyet Bağlamında Türkiye’de Kadınların Bestecilik Eğitimine Erişimi ve Bestecilik Kariyeri Women’s Access to Composition Education and Career of Composition in Turkey in the Context in Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Gülçin ÖZKİŞİ

    2012-09-01

    ının sosyal, kültürel ve ekonomik birçok nedeni mevcuttur. Bu nedenler arasında, 20. yüzyılın ilk yarısına dek kadınlara atfedilen müzikal yaratıcılık yetersizliği miti ve kadınların bestecilik eğitimine erişimlerinin kısıtlanmış olması yer almaktadır. Eğitim ve mesleki yönlendirmelerde, toplumsal cinsiyet ve cinsiyete dayalı fırsat eşitsizliği azalarak da olsa günümüzde de sürmektedir. Çalışmada, kadınların bestecilik eğitimine erişim durumları ile toplumsal cinsiyet ve cinsiyet rollerinin kariyer seçimine bestecilik özelindeki etkisi; Türkiye’de, Avrupa Akademik Müziği alanında genel müzik ve bestecilik lisans devresi öğrenimi veren kurumlardaki öğrencilerin profili, toplumsal cinsiyet bağlamında incelendi. Araştırmanın verileri, ilgili müzik öğretim kurumlarından edinilen, bu kurumlardan mezun olan kız ve erkek öğrencilerin listeleri temel alınarak toplandı. Söz konusu öğretim kurumlarından toplanan veriler, kız ve erkek öğrenci sayılarının birbirlerine oranları bakımından karşılaştırıldı. Bestecilik öğrenimine başlama yaşının ve üniversitelerin bestecilik öğretimi veren birimlerindeki öğretim elemanlarının cinsiyet bağlamındaki profili ise, lisans devresinde bestecilik öğrenimi görmüş olan 1960-1977 doğumlu kadın ve erkek besteciler özelinde ele alındı.

  20. İçsel Pazarlama Anlayışı Bağlamında Kamu Sektörü Çalışanlarının Kurumsal Algılamalarının Değerlendirilmesi: Niğde Örneği/An Evaluation of the Institutional Perceptions of the Public Sector Workers Within the Context of Internal Marketing Approach: A Cas

    OpenAIRE

    İnal, Emin; Çiçek, Recep; Akın, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Günümüzde örgütler, yoğun bir rekabet ortamında faaliyetlerini sürdürmektedir. Çalışanlar, örgütlerin faaliyetlerini rekabet avantajı yaratacak biçimde sürdürebilmelerinde çok önemli bir rol oynamaktadır. Kamu kurum ve kuruluşları da, müşteri odaklı anlayış doğrultusunda faaliyetlerini sürdürerek rekabet avantajı sağlayabilmeyi kendilerine hedef olarak seçmektedir. Bu anlayış doğrultusunda, kendi çalışanlarını da müşteri –iç müşteri- olarak kabul etmeye başlamışlardır. Dış müşterilerin istek,...