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Sample records for cenozoic tectonic evolution

  1. Cenozoic structures and the tectonic evolution of the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.; Egholm, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    Abundant seismic sections and well data from the Cenozoic succession in the eastern North Sea area generally reveal normal faulting, salt tectonics and localized tectonic inversion. However, inferences on the Cenozoic dynamic evolution of the region require thorough analysis of interactions between...... or cover tectonism took place. Our objectives are thus 1) to analyze the interaction between basement and cover structures, and if possible 2) to relate the structures to the regional tectonic evolution. The Zechstein evaporites pinch out onto the Ringkøbing-Fyn High, which in the eastern North Sea...... influencede.g. Miocene deposition and controlled the generation of second order faults. The latter detached along the top Chalk Group due to the topography generated during faulting, i.e. they are second order detachment surfaces. We conclude that the regional tectonic significance of the Cenozoic structures...

  2. Meso-Cenozoic tectonic evolution and uranium potential evaluations of basins in Beishan-Gansu corridor region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Qingyin; Chen Zuyi; Liu Hongxu; Yu Jinshui

    2006-01-01

    Beishan-Gansu Corridor region is located at the intersection of the plates of Tarim, North China, Kazakhstan, Siberia and Qaidam. During the Meso-Cenozoic, the region experienced movements of Indo-sinian, Yanshanian, Sichuanian, North China, Himalayan and Neotectonic, and over 20 medium-small size superimposed continental basins were formed. On the basis of analyzing the tectonic stress field, sediment-filling and structure-deformation; the general trending of tectonic evolution in the Meso-Cenozoic is summarized as three-time compressional uplifting and two-time extensional down-faulting. The different evolution of basins under the above mentioned setting can be divided into six stages according to characteristics of filled sediment. The sand bodies developed in down-faulted basins are favorable for uranium ore-formation as they are formed under humid paleoclimates, and rich in reducing matter. Therefore, the Lower-Middle Jurassic is selected as the main target horizon for sandstone-hosted uranium deposit, and the Lower Cretaceous as the minor one. Although the tectonic reactivation of the target horizon after its deposition was generally strong, the slopes formed in some basins could be favorable for the infiltration of uranium-and oxygen-bearing groundwater into sand bodies and form uranium deposits. According to the favorable sand bodies and tectonic reactivation, the northern parts of Chaoshui and Bayingobi basins are regarded as potential regions which are worthy of further exploration. (authors)

  3. Cenozoic sedimentation in the Mumbai Offshore Basin: Implications for tectonic evolution of the western continental margin of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Nisha; Pandey, Dhananjai K.

    2018-02-01

    Interpretation of multichannel seismic reflection data along the Mumbai Offshore Basin (MOB) revealed the tectonic processes that led to the development of sedimentary basins during Cenozoic evolution. Structural interpretation along three selected MCS profiles from MOB revealed seven major sedimentary sequences (∼3.0 s TWT, thick) and the associated complex fault patterns. These stratigraphic sequences are interpreted to host detritus of syn- to post rift events during rift-drift process. The acoustic basement appeared to be faulted with interspaced intrusive bodies. The sections also depicted the presence of slumping of sediments, subsidence, marginal basins, rollover anticlines, mud diapirs etc accompanied by normal to thrust faults related to recent tectonics. Presence of upthrusts in the slope region marks the locations of local compression during collision. Forward gravity modeling constrained with results from seismic and drill results, revealed that the crustal structure beneath the MOB has undergone an extensional type tectonics intruded with intrusive bodies. Results from the seismo-gravity modeling in association with litholog data from drilled wells from the western continental margin of India (WCMI) are presented here.

  4. Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution and its relation to sandstone-type uranium mineralization in northern Tarim area--Evidence from apatite fission track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongxu; Dong Wenming; Liu Zhangyue; Chen Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    The apatite fission track dating and inversion result of geological thermal history of four rock specimens from Sawafuqi area and Talike area in northern Tarim Basin show that two areas uplifted at different ages. The apatite fission track ages of Sawafuqi range from 3.5 to 3.9 Ma, while the ages of Talike range from 53 to 59 Ma. The thermal history recorded by rock samples reveals that there are at least three prominent cooling phases since Late Cretaceous epoch. Detailed study was made on the division of uplifting stages during Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic evolution with the existing data in northern Tarim area. And new ideas on tectonic evolution and sandstone-type uranium mineralization have been put forward by combining with the sandstone-type uranium mineralization ages in this area.(authors)

  5. Meso-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the SE Brazilian continental margin: Petrographic, kinematic and dynamic analysis of the onshore Araruama Lagoon Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Pricilla Camões Martins de; Schmitt, Renata da Silva; Stanton, Natasha

    2017-09-01

    The Ararauama Lagoon Fault System composes one of the most prominent set of lineaments of the SE Brazilian continental margin. It is located onshore in a key tectonic domain, where the basement inheritance rule is not followed. This fault system is characterized by ENE-WSW silicified tectonic breccias and cataclasites showing evidences of recurrent tectonic reactivations. Based on field work, microtectonic, kinematic and dynamic analysis, we reconstructed the paleostresses in the region and propose a sequence of three brittle deformational phases accountable for these reactivations: 1) NE-SW dextral transcurrence; 2) NNW-SSE dextral oblique extension that evolved to NNW-SSE "pure" extension; 3) ENE-WSW dextral oblique extension. These phases are reasonably correlated with the tectonic events responsible for the onset and evolution of the SE onshore rift basins, between the Neocretaceous and Holocene. However, based on petrographic studies and supported by regional geological correlations, we assume that the origin of this fault system is older, related to the Early Cretaceous South Atlantic rifting. This study provides significant information about one of the main structural trends of the SE Brazilian continental margin and the tectonic events that controlled its segmentation, since the Gondwana rifting, and compartmentalization of its onshore sedimentary deposits during the Cenozoic.

  6. Role of pre-existing structures in controlling the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the eastern Tibetan plateau: New insights from analogue experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming; Yin, An; Yan, Danping; Ren, Hongyu; Mu, Hongxu; Zhu, Lutao; Qiu, Liang

    2018-06-01

    Pre-existing weakness due to repeated tectonic, metamorphic, and magmatic events is a fundamental feature of the continental lithosphere on Earth. Because of this, continental deformation results from a combined effect of boundary conditions imposed by plate tectonic processes and heterogeneous and anisotropic mechanical strength inherited from protracted continental evolution. In this study, we assess how this interaction may have controlled the Cenozoic evolution of the eastern Tibetan plateau during the India-Asia collision. Specifically, we use analogue models to evaluate how the pre-Cenozoic structures may have controlled the location, orientation, and kinematics of the northwest-striking Xianshuihe and northeast-striking Longmen Shan fault zones, the two most dominant Cenozoic structures in eastern Tibet. Our best model indicates that the correct location, trend, and kinematics of the two fault systems can only be generated and maintained if the following conditions are met: (1) the northern part of the Songpan-Ganzi terrane in eastern Tibet has a strong basement whereas its southern part has a weak basement, (2) the northern strong basement consists of two pieces bounded by a crustal-scale weak zone that is expressed by the Triassic development of a northwest-trending antiform exposing middle and lower crustal rocks, and (3) the region was under persistent northeast-southwest compression since ∼35 Ma. Our model makes correct prediction on the sequence of deformation in eastern Tibet; the Longmen Shan right-slip transpressional zone was initiated first as an instantaneous response to the northeast-southwest compression, which is followed by the formation of the Xianshuihe fault about a half way after the exertion of northeast-southwest shortening in the model. The success of our model highlights the importance of pre-existing weakness, a key factor that has been largely neglected in the current geodynamic models of continental deformation.

  7. Cenozoic exhumation and tectonic evolution of the Qimen Tagh Range, northern Tibetan Plateau: Insights from the heavy mineral compositions, detrital zircon U-Pb ages and seismic interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Wu, C.; Wang, J.; Zhou, T.; Zhang, C.; Li, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Qaidam Basin is the largest intermountain basin within the Tibetan Plateau. The Cenozoic sedimentary flling characteristics of the basin was significantly influenced by the surrounding tectonic belt, such as the Altyn Tagh Range to the north-west and Qimen Tagh Range to the south. The tectonic evolution of the Qimen Tagh Range and the structural relationship between the Qaidam Basin and Qimen Tagh Range remain controversial. To address these issues, we analyzed thousands of heavy mineral data, 720 detrital zircon ages and seismic data of the Qaidam Basin. Based on the regional geological framework and our kinematic analyses, the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Qimen Tagh Range can be divided into two stages. From the Early Eocene to the Middle Miocene, the Devonian (400-360 Ma) and Permian to Triassic (300-200 Ma) zircons which were sourced from the Qimen Tagh Range and the heavy mineral assemblage of zircon-leucoxene-garnet-sphene on the north flank of the Qimen Tagh Range indicated that the Qimen Tagh Range has been exhumed before the Eocene and acted as the primary provenance of the Qaidam Basin. The Kunbei fault system (i.e. the Kunbei, Arlar and Hongliuquan faults) in the southwest of the Qaidam Basin, which can be seen as a natural study window of the Qimen Tagh Range, was characterized by left-lateral strike-slip faults and weak south-dipping thrust faults based on the seismic sections. This strike-slip motion was generated by the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau caused by the onset of the Indian-Eurasian collision. Since the Middle Miocene, the primary mineral assemblages along the northern flank of the Qimen Tagh Range changed from the zircon-leucoxene-garnet-sphene assemblage to the epidote-hornblende-garnet-leucoxene assemblage. Simultaneously, the Kunbei fault system underwent intense south-dipping thrusting, and a nearly 2.2-km uplift can be observed in the hanging wall of the Arlar fault. We attributed these variations to the rapid uplift event of

  8. Cenozoic landforms and post-orogenic landscape evolution of the Balkanide orogen: Evidence for alternatives to the tectonic denudation narrative in southern Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnell, Y.; Calvet, M.; Meyer, B.; Pinna-Jamme, R.; Bour, I.; Gautheron, C.; Carter, A.; Dimitrov, D.

    2017-01-01

    Continental denudation is the mass transfer of rock from source areas to sedimentary depocentres, and is typically the result of Earth surface processes. However, a process known as tectonic denudation is also understood to expose deep-seated rocks in short periods of geological time by displacing large masses of continental crust along shallow-angle faults, and without requiring major contributions from surface erosion. Some parts of the world, such as the Basin and Range in the USA or the Aegean province in Europe, have been showcased for their Cenozoic tectonic denudation features, commonly described as metamorphic core-complexes or as supradetachment faults. Based on 22 new apatite fission-track (AFT) and 21 helium (AHe) cooling ages among rock samples collected widely from plateau summits and their adjacent valley floors, and elaborating on inconsistencies between the regional stratigraphic, topographic and denudational records, this study frames a revised perspective on the prevailing tectonic denudation narrative for southern Bulgaria. We conclude that conspicuous landforms in this region, such as erosion surfaces on basement-cored mountain ranges, are not primarily the result of Paleogene to Neogene core-complex formation. They result instead from "ordinary" erosion-driven, subaerial denudation. Rock cooling, each time suggesting at least 2 km of crustal denudation, has exposed shallow Paleogene granitic plutons and documents a 3-stage wave of erosional denudation which progressed from north to south during the Middle Eocene, Oligocene, Early to Middle Miocene, and Late Miocene. Denudation initially prevailed during the Paleogene under a syn-orogenic compressional regime involving piggyback extensional basins (Phase 1), but subsequently migrated southward in response to post-orogenic upper-plate extension driven by trench rollback of the Hellenic subduction slab (Phase 2). Rare insight given by the denudation pattern indicates that trench rollback

  9. Geochemical evolution of Cenozoic-Cretaceous magmatism and its relation to tectonic setting, southwestern Idaho, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, M.D.; Leeman, W.P.

    1989-01-01

    Magmatism in the western United States spanned a change in tectonic setting from Mesozoic and early Tertiary plate convergence to middle and late Tertiary crustal extension. This paper presents new major element, trace element, and isotopic (Sr, Nd, Pb) data on a diverse suite of Cretaceous to Neogene igneous rocks from the Owyhee area of southwestern Idaho to evaluate possible relationships between the evolving tectonic regime and temporal changes in igneous activity. The oldest studied rocks are Cretaceous granitic intrusives that probably formed by large-scale mixing of Precambrian crust with subduction-related magmas. Silicic Eocene tuffs are also rich in crustal components, but have isotopic compositions unlike the Cretaceous intrusives. These data require at least two crustal sources that may correspond to domains of significantly different age (Archean vs. Proterozoic). The oldest mafic lavas in the study area are Oligocene andesites and basalts compositionally similar to subduction-related magmas derived from asthenospheric mantle and erupted through thick continental crust. Direct crustal involvement during oligocene time was limited to minor interaction with the mafic magmas. Miocene activity produced bimodal basalt-rhyolite suites and minor volumes of hybrid lavas. Compositions of Miocene basalts demonstrate the decline of subduction-related processes, and increased involvement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle as a magma source. Crustally-derived Miocene rhyolites have isotopic compositions similar to those of the Cretaceous granitic rocks but trace element abundances more typical of within-plate magmas. (orig./WB)

  10. Late cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the Patagonian Andes between 42oS and 52oS, southern Chile assessed using fission-track thermochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, S.N; Herve, F; Stockhert, B.; Brix, M.R.; Adriasola, A

    2001-01-01

    Fission-track (FT) analysis has been applied in the Patagonian Andes of southern Chile to assess the late Cenozoic geomorphic and tectonic response of the overriding plate to subduction of the Chile rise active oceanic spreading centre (Thomson et al., 2001). The timing and nature of tectonic uplift and denudation along the southern parts of the major transpression intra-arc Liquine-Ofqui fault (LOF) system have also been investigated (Thomson, 2001, submitted). Results from 130 FT ages (72 zircon and 58 apatite ages) and 39 apatite track length measurements reveal initiation of rapid cooling and denudation at ca. 30 Ma at the western margin of southern continental South America. This was followed by a ca. 200km eastward migration of the locus of maximum denudation to the position of the present day topographic divide between ca. 30 Ma and ca. 12 to 10 Ma. East of the Andean divide less than 3 km of denudation has occurred since the Late Cretaceous. Enhanced denudation is interpreted to be the result of increased tectonic uplift driven by a large increase in convergence rates at ca. 28 to 26 Ma that triggered orographically enhanced precipitation on the west-side of the Patagonian Andes allowing increased erosion by fluvial incision and mass transport processes. The eastward migration of the locus of maximum denudation can be related to either coeval eastward migration of the retro-arc deformation front, the effects of subduction erosion in the overriding plate at the Peru-Chile trench or shallowing of the angle of subduction. Away from the influence of the LOF the process of spreading centre subduction and collision itself coincides with an overall slow-down in denudation rates in the overriding plate most likely caused by a major reduction in the main tectonic force driving tectonic uplift in the upper plate to subduction. In contrast to the Andes south of ca. 46 o S, increased cooling and denudation related to transpression induced rock uplift and erosion along

  11. Cenozoic tectonic jumping and implications for hydrocarbon accumulation in basins in the East Asia Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Yanhui; Li, Sanzhong; Yu, Shan; Somerville, Ian D.; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Shujuan; Dai, Liming

    2014-07-01

    Tectonic migration is a common geological process of basin formation and evolution. However, little is known about tectonic migration in the western Pacific margins. This paper focuses on the representative Cenozoic basins of East China and its surrounding seas in the western Pacific domain to discuss the phenomenon of tectonic jumping in Cenozoic basins, based on structural data from the Bohai Bay Basin, the South Yellow Sea Basin, the East China Sea Shelf Basin, and the South China Sea Continental Shelf Basin. The western Pacific active continental margin is the eastern margin of a global convergent system involving the Eurasian Plate, the Pacific Plate, and the Indian Plate. Under the combined effects of the India-Eurasia collision and retrogressive or roll-back subduction of the Pacific Plate, the western Pacific active continental margin had a wide basin-arc-trench system which migrated or ‘jumped’ eastward and further oceanward. This migration and jumping is characterized by progressive eastward younging of faulting, sedimentation, and subsidence within the basins. Owing to the tectonic migration, the geological conditions associated with hydrocarbon and gashydrate accumulation in the Cenozoic basins of East China and its adjacent seas also become progressively younger from west to east, showing eastward younging in the generation time of reservoirs, seals, traps, accumulations and preservation of hydrocarbon and gashydrate. Such a spatio-temporal distribution of Cenozoic hydrocarbon and gashydrate is significant for the oil, gas and gashydrate exploration in the East Asian Continental Margin. Finally, this study discusses the mechanism of Cenozoic intrabasinal and interbasinal tectonic migration in terms of interplate, intraplate and underplating processes. The migration or jumping regimes of three separate or interrelated events: (1) tectonism-magmatism, (2) basin formation, and (3) hydrocarbon-gashydrate accumulation are the combined effects of the

  12. Late Cenozoic Magmatic and Tectonic Evolution of the Ancestral Cascade Arc in the Bodie Hills, California and Nevada: Insights from Integrated Geologic, Geophysical, Geochemical and Geochronologic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, D. A.; du Bray, E. A.; Box, S. E.; Blakely, R. J.; Fleck, R. J.; Vikre, P. G.; Cousens, B.; Moring, B. C.

    2012-12-01

    Geologic mapping integrated with new geophysical, geochemical, and geochronologic data characterize the evolution of Bodie Hills volcanic field (BHVF), a long-lived eruptive center in the southern part of the ancestral Cascade arc. The ~700 km2 field was a locus of magmatic activity from ~15 to 8 Ma. It includes >25 basaltic andesite to trachyandesite stratovolcanoes and silicic trachyandesite to rhyolite dome complexes. The southeastern part of the BHVF is overlain by the ~3.9 to 0.1 Ma, post-arc Aurora Volcanic Field. Long-lived BHVF magmatism was localized by crustal-scale tectonic features, including the Precambrian continental margin, the Walker Lane, the Basin and Range Province, and the Mina deflection. BHVF eruptive activity occurred primarily during 3 stages: 1) dominantly trachyandesite stratovolcanoes (~15.0 to 12.9 Ma), 2) coalesced trachydacite and rhyolite lava domes and trachyandesite stratovolcanoes (~11.6 to 9.7 Ma), and 3) dominantly silicic trachyandesite to dacite lava dome complexes (~9.2 to 8.0 Ma). Small rhyolite domes were emplaced at ~6 Ma. Relatively mafic stratovolcanoes surrounded by debris flow aprons lie on the margins of the BHVF, whereas more silicic dome fields occupy its center. Detailed gravity and aeromagnetic data suggest the presence of unexposed cogenetic granitic plutons beneath the center of the BHVF. Isotopic compositions of BHVF rocks are generally more radiogenic with decreasing age (e.g., initial Sr isotope values increase from ~0.7049 to 0.7061), which suggests progressively greater magma contamination by crustal components during evolution of the BHVF. Approximately circular, polygenetic volcanoes and scarcity of dikes suggest a low differential horizontal stress field during BHVF formation. Extensive alluvial gravel deposits that grade laterally into fluvial gravels and finer grained lacustrine sediments and the westerly sourced Eureka Valley Tuff (EVT; ~9.4 Ma) blanket large parts of the BHVF. The earliest sediments

  13. Climate vs. tectonic induced variations in Cenozoic sediment supply from western Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gołędowski, Bartosz; Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.

    Eocene times tectonic activity related to the final stage of opening of the North Atlantic was apparently controlling the sediment input in the North Sea as sediment pulses correlate well with tectonic events. Although there is no signs of Cenozoic tectonic activity onshore Scandinavia (igneous bodies......, faulting), tectonic disturbance related to ocean opening could be responsible for deposition of thick Paleocene wedges along the western coast of Norway. During subsequent Cenozoic periods domal structures in the Norwegian shelf are a proof for mild and protracted compression. However, depositional...... patterns from offshore Scandinavia have been interpreted as a result of significant tectonic movements. In the absence of proofs for active tectonic agents we attempt to explain these sediment input variations as a result of climate fluctuations. The Eocene-Oligocene greenhouse-icehouse climate transition...

  14. Cenozoic extensional tectonics of the Western Anatolia Extended Terrane, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cemen, I; Catlos, E J; Gogus, O; Diniz, E; Hancer, M

    2008-01-01

    The Western Anatolia Extended Terrane in Turkey is located on the eastern side of the Aegean Extended Terrane and contains one of the largest metamorphic core complexes in the world, the Menderes massif. It has experienced a series of continental collisions from the Late Cretaceous to the Eocene during the formation of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone. Based our field work and monazite ages, we suggest that the north-directed postcollisional Cenozoic extension in the region is the product of three consecutive stages, triggered by three different mechanisms. The first stage was initiated about 30 Ma ago, in the Oligocene by the Orogenic Collapse the thermally weakened continental crust along the north-dipping Southwest Anatolian shear zone. The shear zone was formed as an extensional simple-shear zone with listric geometry at depth and exhibits predominantly normal-slip along its southwestern end. But, it becomes a high-angle oblique-slip shear zone along its northeastern termination. Evidence for the presence of the shear zone includes (1) the dominant top to the north-northeast shear sense indicators throughout the Menderes massif, such as stretching lineations trending N10E to N30E; and (2) a series of Oligocene extensional basins located adjacent to the shear zone that contain only carbonate and ophiolitic rock fragments, but no high grade metamorphic rock fragments. During this stage, erosion and extensional unroofing brought high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Central Menderes massif to the surface by the early Miocene. The second stage of the extension was triggered by subduction roll-back and associated back-arc extension in the early Miocene and produced the north-dipping Alasehir and the south-dipping Bueyuek Menderes detachments of the central Menderes massif and the north-dipping Simav detachment of the northern Menderes massif. The detachments control the Miocene sedimentation in the Alasehir, Bueyuek Menderes, and Simav grabens, containing high

  15. Meso-cenozoic extensional tectonics and uranium metallogenesis in southeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuehui; Chen Zuyi; Cai Yuqi; Fu Jin; Feng Quanhong; Shi Zuhai

    1998-12-01

    Through a systematic study on Meso-Cenozoic extensional tectonics in Southeast China, the authors point out that there are three major types of extensional tectonics such as taphrogenic thermo-upwelling, and gravitational extensional tectonics. The characteristics of structural forms, combination patterns, movement style and syn-tectonic magmatism of different extensional tectonics are studied. Then according to the known isotope age data of uranium mineralizations in the area, the relations between the process of extensional tectonics and regional uranium metallogenesis, as well as the corresponding relations in space and time between extensional tectonics and uranium deposits of different types are analyzed. In conclusion, the authors suggest that the uranium mineralizations of different types in Southeast China are characterized by an united ore-forming mechanism due to the apparent control of extensional tectonics to the regional uranium metallogenesis

  16. Tectonic evolution of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, D.U.; Golombek, M.P.; McGill, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Any model for the tectonic evolution of Mars must account for two major crustal elements: the Tharsis bulge and the topographically low and lightly crated northern third of the planet. Ages determined by crater density indicate that both of these elements came into existence very early in Martian history, a conclusion that holds no matter which of the current crater density versus age curves is used. The size of these two major crustal elements and their sequential development suggest that both may be related to a global-scale internal process. It is proposed that the resurfacing of the northern third of Mars is related to subcrustal erosion and isostatic foundering during the life of a first-order convection cell. With the demise of the cell, denser segregations of metallic materials began to coalesce as a gravitatively unstable layer which finally overturned to form the core. In the overturn, lighter crustal materials was shifted laterally and underplated beneath Tharsis to cause rapid and permanent isostatic rise. This was followed by a long-lived thermal phase produced by the hot underplate and by the gravitative energy of core formation slowly making its way to the surface to produce the Tharsis volcanics

  17. A low-angle normal fault and basement structures within the Enping Sag, Pearl River Mouth Basin: Insights into late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the South China Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qing; Mei, Lianfu; Shi, Hesheng; Shu, Yu; Camanni, Giovanni; Wu, Jing

    2018-04-01

    The basement structure of the Cenozoic Enping Sag, within the Pearl River Mouth Basin on the northern margin of South China Sea, is revealed by borehole-constrained high-quality 3D seismic reflection data. Such data suggest that the Enping Sag is bounded in the north by a low-angle normal fault. We interpret this low-angle normal fault to have developed as the result of the reactivation of a pre-existing thrust fault part of a pre-Cenozoic thrust system. This is demonstrated by the selective reactivation of the pre-existing thrust and by diffuse contractional deformation recognized from the accurate analysis of basement reflections. Another significant result of this study is the finding of some residual rift basins within the basement of the Enping Sag. Both the thrust system and the residual basins are interpreted to have developed after the emplacement of continental margin arc-related granitoids (J3-K1) that define the basement within the study area. Furthermore, seismic sections show that the pre-existing residual rift basins are offset by the main thrust fault and they are both truncated by the Tg unconformity. These structural relationships, interpreted in the frame of previous studies, help us to reconstruct a six-event structural evolution model for the Enping Sag from the late Mesozoic to the early Cenozoic. In particular, we interpret the residual rift basins to have formed as the result of back-arc extension due to the slab roll-back of the Paleo-Pacific Plate subduction in the early K2. The thrust system has recorded a compressional event in the late K2 that followed the back-arc extension in the SCS area. The mechanism of this compressional event is still to be clarified, and might be related to continuous subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate or to the continent-continent collision between a micro-continental block and the South China margin.

  18. Mesozoic to Cenozoic tectonic transition process in Zhanhua Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanjun; Wu, Zhiping; Lu, Shunan; Li, Xu; Lin, Chengyan; Huang, Zheng; Su, Wen; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Shouye

    2018-04-01

    The Zhanhua sag is part of the Bohai Bay intracontinental basin system that has developed since the Mesozoic in East China. The timing of this basin system coincides with the final assembly of East Asia and the development of Western Pacific-type plate margin. Here we use 3-D seismic and core log data to investigate the evolution of this basin and discuss its broad tectonic settings. Our new structural study of Zhanhua sag suggests that there are four major tectonic transitions occurred in the Bohai Bay Basin during Mesozoic and Cenozoic: (1) The first tectonic transition was from stable Craton to thrusting during the Triassic, mainly caused by the South China Block's subduction northward beneath the North China Block, which induced the formation of the NW-striking thrust faults. (2) The second tectonic transition was mainly characterized by a change from compression to extension, which can be further divided into two-stages. At the first stage, two episodes of NW-SE shortening occurred in East Asia during Early-Middle Jurassic and Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous, respectively. At the second stage, the extension and left-lateral shearing took place during Early Cretaceous while compression occurred during Late Cretaceous. The NW-striking thrust faults changed to normal faults and the NNE-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults started to influence the eastern part of the basin. (3) The third transition occurred when the NW-SE extension and NNE-striking right-lateral shearing started to form during Paleogene, and the peak deformation happen around 40 Ma due to the change of the subduction direction of Pacific Plate relative to Eurasia Plate. The NE-striking normal faults are the main structure, and the pre-existing NNE-striking strike-slip faults changed from left-lateral to right-lateral. (4) The fourth transition saw the regional subsidence during Neogene, which was probably caused by the India-Asia "Hard collision" between 25 and 20 Ma.

  19. Cenozoic intraplate tectonics in Central Patagonia: Record of main Andean phases in a weak upper plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianni, G. M.; Echaurren, A.; Folguera, A.; Likerman, J.; Encinas, A.; García, H. P. A.; Dal Molin, C.; Valencia, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    Contraction in intraplate areas is still poorly understood relative to similar deformation at plate margins. In order to contribute to its comprehension, we study the Patagonian broken foreland (PBF) in South America whose evolution remains controversial. Time constraints of tectonic events and structural characterization of this belt are limited. Also, major causes of strain location in this orogen far from the plate margin are enigmatic. To unravel tectonic events, we studied the Cenozoic sedimentary record of the central sector of the Patagonian broken foreland (San Bernardo fold and thrust belt, 44°30‧S-46°S) and the Andes (Meseta de Chalia, 46°S) following an approach involving growth-strata detection, U-Pb geochronology and structural modeling. Additionally, we elaborate a high resolution analysis of the effective elastic thickness (Te) to examine the relation between intraplate contraction location and variations in lithospheric strength. The occurrence of Eocene growth-strata ( 44-40 Ma) suggests that contraction in the Andes and the Patagonian broken foreland was linked to the Incaic phase. Detection of synextensional deposits suggests that the broken foreland collapsed partially during Oligocene to early Miocene. During middle Miocene times, the Quechua contractional phase produced folding of Neogene volcanic rocks and olistostrome deposition at 17 Ma. Finally, the presented Te map shows that intraplate contraction related to Andean phases localized preferentially along weak lithospheric zones (Te < 15 km). Hence, the observed strain distribution in the PBF appears to be controlled by lateral variations in the lithospheric strength. Variations in this parameter could be related to thermo-mechanical weakening produced by intraplate rifting in Paleozoic-Mesozoic times.

  20. Climate vs. tectonic induced variations in Cenozoic sediment supply from western Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gołędowski, Bartosz; Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.

    The scope of this work is the causality of sediment flux variations from western Scandinavia during the Cenozoic. Over the decades of exploration in the North Sea and in the Norwegian shelf most of these variations were given tectonic causes. During the final period of North Atlantic break......-up (Paleocene-Early Eocene) this link is quite striking, especially in the northern British Isles and in the Faeroe-Shetland Platform where sediment production pulses can be correlated with well documented periods of tectonic activity (e.g. magmatism). However, during the subsequent Cenozoic epochs this link...... is much less constrained. For this period we therefore search for an alternative explanation in terms of climate and climate change [1-3] Methods The extensive seismic and well data set allow investigation of inland erosion rates via the offshore distribution of sediments. However, varying marine...

  1. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  2. Cenozoic uplift of the Tibetan Plateau: Evidence from the tectonic–sedimentary evolution of the western Qaidam Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Geologists agree that the collision of the Indian and Asian plates caused uplift of the Tibet Plateau. However, controversy still exists regarding the modes and mechanisms of the Tibetan Plateau uplift. Geology has recorded this uplift well in the Qaidam Basin. This paper analyzes the tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the western Qaidam Basin using sub-surface seismic and drill data. The Cenozoic intensity and history of deformation in the Qaidam Basin have been reconstructed based on the tectonic developments, faults growth index, sedimentary facies variations, and the migration of the depositional depressions. The changes in the sedimentary facies show that lakes in the western Qaidam Basin had gone from inflow to still water deposition to withdrawal. Tectonic movements controlled deposition in various depressions, and the depressions gradually shifted southeastward. In addition, the morphology of the surface structures in the western Qaidam Basin shows that the Cenozoic tectonic movements controlled the evolution of the Basin and divided it into (a the southern fault terrace zone, (b a central Yingxiongling orogenic belt, and (c the northern fold-thrust belt; divided by the XI fault (Youshi fault and Youbei fault, respectively. The field data indicate that the western Qaidam Basin formed in a Cenozoic compressive tectonic environment caused by the India–Asia plate collision. Further, the Basin experienced two phases of intensive tectonic deformation. The first phase occurred during the Middle Eocene–Early Miocene (Xia Ganchaigou Fm. and Shang Ganchaigou Fm., 43.8–22 Ma, and peaked in the Early Oligocene (Upper Xia Ganchaigou Fm., 31.5 Ma. The second phase occurred between the Middle Miocene and the Present (Shang Youshashan Fm. and Qigequan Fm., 14.9–0 Ma, and was stronger than the first phase. The tectonic–sedimentary evolution and the orientation of surface structures in the western Qaidam Basin resulted from the Tibetan

  3. The Cenozoic geological evolution of the Central and Northern North Sea based on seismic sequence stratigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordt, Henrik

    1996-03-01

    This thesis represents scientific results from seismic sequence stratigraphic investigations. These investigations and results are integrated into an ongoing mineralogical study of the Cenozoic deposits. the main results from this mineralogical study are presented and discussed. The seismic investigations have provided boundary conditions for a forward modelling study of the Cenozoic depositional history. Results from the forward modelling are presented as they emphasise the influence of tectonics on sequence development. The tectonic motions described were important for the formation of the large oil and gas fields in the North Sea.

  4. Age relationships and tectonic implications of late Cenozoic basaltic volcanism in Northland, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, I E.M. [Department of Geology, Auckland University, Auckland (New Zealand); Okada, T [Okayama University of Science, Hiruzen Research Institute, Okayama (Japan); Itaya, T [Okayama University of Science, Hiruzen Research Institute, Okayama (Japan); Black, P M [Department of Geology, Auckland University, Auckland (New Zealand)

    1993-07-01

    An episode of late Miocene-Recent essentially basaltic volcanism is the latest in a sequence of magmatic events recognised in the tectonically complex geological development of the Northland Peninsula. New K-Ar dates together with an extensive collection of new major and trace element chemical analyses prompt a reassessment of the significance of these late Cenozoic basalts. The main time/space groupings recognised are Tertiary volcanics in the Kaikohe-Bay of Islands, Puhipuhi, Ti Point, and Stony Batter areas and Quaternary basalts in the Kaikohe-Bay of Islands and Whangarei areas and at Tara. Basalts in the Kaikohe-Bay of Islands area are transitional to alkalic in character, while those in the south are transitional to tholeiitic, with the Ti Point and Stony Batter rocks being geochemically distinct. A consistent model for these observations is that the magmas originate from different levels of a layered mantle source in which the upper part carries a geochemical signature inherited from an earlier subduction event. (author). 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Age relationships and tectonic implications of late Cenozoic basaltic volcanism in Northland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, I.E.M.; Okada, T.; Itaya, T.; Black, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    An episode of late Miocene-Recent essentially basaltic volcanism is the latest in a sequence of magmatic events recognised in the tectonically complex geological development of the Northland Peninsula. New K-Ar dates together with an extensive collection of new major and trace element chemical analyses prompt a reassessment of the significance of these late Cenozoic basalts. The main time/space groupings recognised are Tertiary volcanics in the Kaikohe-Bay of Islands, Puhipuhi, Ti Point, and Stony Batter areas and Quaternary basalts in the Kaikohe-Bay of Islands and Whangarei areas and at Tara. Basalts in the Kaikohe-Bay of Islands area are transitional to alkalic in character, while those in the south are transitional to tholeiitic, with the Ti Point and Stony Batter rocks being geochemically distinct. A consistent model for these observations is that the magmas originate from different levels of a layered mantle source in which the upper part carries a geochemical signature inherited from an earlier subduction event. (author). 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  6. Stratigraphy and Mesozoic–Cenozoic tectonic history of northern Sierra Los Ajos and adjacent areas, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Gray, Floyd; Iriondo, Alexander; Miggins, Daniel P.; Blodgett, Robert B.; Maldonado, Florian; Miller, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Geologic mapping in the northern Sierra Los Ajos reveals new stratigraphic and structural data relevant to deciphering the Mesozoic–Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the range. The northern Sierra Los Ajos is cored by Proterozoic, Cambrian, Devonian, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian strata, equivalent respectively to the Pinal Schist, Bolsa Quartzite and Abrigo Limestone, Martin Formation, Escabrosa Limestone, and Horquilla Limestone. The Proterozoic–Paleozoic sequence is mantled by Upper Cretaceous rocks partly equivalent to the Fort Crittenden and Salero Formations in Arizona, and the Cabullona Group in Sonora, Mexico.Absence of the Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous Bisbee Group below the Upper Cretaceous rocks and above the Proterozoic–Paleozoic rocks indicates that the Sierra Los Ajos was part of the Cananea high, a topographic highland during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Deposition of Upper Cretaceous rocks directly on Paleozoic and Proterozoic rocks indicates that the Sierra Los Ajos area had subsided as part of the Laramide Cabullona basin during Late Cretaceous time. Basal beds of the Upper Cretaceous sequence are clast-supported conglomerate composed locally of basement (Paleozoic) clasts. The conglomerate represents erosion of Paleozoic basement in the Sierra Los Ajos area coincident with development of the Cabullona basin.The present-day Sierra Los Ajos reaches elevations of greater than 2600 m, and was uplifted during Tertiary basin-and-range extension. Upper Cretaceous rocks are exposed at higher elevations in the northern Sierra Los Ajos and represent an uplifted part of the inverted Cabullona basin. Tertiary uplift of the Sierra Los Ajos was largely accommodated by vertical movement along the north-to-northwest-striking Sierra Los Ajos fault zone flanking the west side of the range. This fault zone structurally controls the configuration of the headwaters of the San Pedro River basin, an important bi-national water resource in the US

  7. The Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Greater Caucasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saintot, A.N.; Brunet, M.F.; Yakovlev, F.; Sébrier, M.; Stephenson, R.A.; Ershov, A.V.; Chalot-Prat, F.; McCann, T.

    2006-01-01

    The Greater Caucasus (GC) fold-and-thrust belt lies on the southern deformed edge of the Scythian Platform (SP) and results from the Cenoozoic structural inversion of a deep marine Mesozoic basin in response to the northward displacement of the Transcaucasus (lying south of the GC subsequent to the

  8. Study on the relationships between the structural evolution and sandstone-type uranium mineralization in mesozoic era and cenozoic era in the northern of Chaidam basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lin; Song Zhe; Song Xiansheng; Feng Wei

    2008-01-01

    By detailed expounding the characteristics of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic structural evolution in northern of Chaidam basin, the author inquires into its relationships with the sandstone-type uranium mineralization, analyzes the prospect of forming uranium deposit, and thinks that the Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata are mainly controlled by the tectonic role of the later Yanshan movement and the later Cenozoic era. The north-west palaeo-structural slope belt is formed in the later Cretacous Epoch that is favorable for developing palaeo-interlayer oxidized zone. After the slightly extensional role of the oldest Tertiary and the early Plioeene, the middle and lower Jurassic were buried, and the block-imbricated slope belts are formed in the tectonic movement of the later Cenozoic, which are favorable for developing recent interlayer oxidized zone. According to drilling, it has the conditions for forming palaeo-recent interlayer oxidized zone sandstone-type uranium deposit at the northern of Chaidam basin. Finally, the author lays his finger on the prospecting of uranium. (authors)

  9. Phanerozoic tectonic evolution of the Circum-North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Monger, James W.H.; Norton, Ian O.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Stone, David B.; Scotese, Christopher R.; Scholl, David W.; Fujita, Kazuya

    2000-01-01

    The Phanerozoic tectonic evolution of the Circum-North Pacific is recorded mainly in the orogenic collages of the Circum-North Pacific mountain belts that separate the North Pacific from the eastern part of the North Asian Craton and the western part of the North American Craton. These collages consist of tectonostratigraphic terranes that are composed of fragments of igneous arcs, accretionary-wedge and subduction-zone complexes, passive continental margins, and cratons; they are overlapped by continental-margin-arc and sedimentary-basin assemblages. The geologic history of the terranes and overlap assemblages is highly complex because of postaccretionary dismemberment and translation during strike-slip faulting that occurred subparallel to continental margins.We analyze the complex tectonics of this region by the following steps. (1) We assign tectonic environments for the orogenic collages from regional compilation and synthesis of stratigraphic and faunal data. The types of tectonic environments include cratonal, passive continental margin, metamorphosed continental margin, continental-margin arc, island arc, oceanic crust, seamount, ophiolite, accretionary wedge, subduction zone, turbidite basin, and metamorphic. (2) We make correlations between terranes. (3) We group coeval terranes into a single tectonic origin, for example, a single island arc or subduction zone. (4) We group igneous-arc and subduction- zone terranes, which are interpreted as being tectonically linked, into coeval, curvilinear arc/subduction-zone complexes. (5) We interpret the original positions of terranes, using geologic, faunal, and paleomagnetic data. (6) We construct the paths of tectonic migration. Six processes overlapping in time were responsible for most of the complexities of the collage of terranes and overlap assemblages around the Circum-North Pacific, as follows. (1) During the Late Proterozoic, Late Devonian, and Early Carboniferous, major periods of rifting occurred along

  10. Late-Cenozoic relief evolution under evolving climate: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Champagnac Jean Daniel; Valla Pierre G.; Herman Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The present review paper is an attempt to summarize quantitative evidence of Late Cenozoic changes in topographic relief. Different meanings of the word "relief" as it is commonly used and detail the metrics used to quantify it. We then specify methodological tools used to quantify relief change (primarily low temperature thermochronometry and terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides) and analyze published evidence for different regions.Our review first shows that relief changes and rates of changes a...

  11. Tectonic evolution of Lavinia Planitia, Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squyres, Steven W.; Frank, Sharon L.; Mcgill, George E.; Solomon, Sean C.

    1991-01-01

    High resolution radar images from the Magellan spacecraft have revealed the first details of the morphology of the Lavinia Planitia region of Venus. Lavinia is a broad lowland over 2000 km across, centered at about 45 deg S latitude, 345 deg E longitude. Herein, the tectonic evolution of Lavinia is discussed, and its possible relationship to processes operating in the planet's interior. The discussion is restricted to the region from 37.3 to 52.6 deg S latitude and from about 340 to 0 deg E longitude. One of the most interesting characteristics of Lavinia is that the entire region possesses a regional tectonic framework of striking regularity. Lavinia is also transected by a complex pattern of belts of intense tectonic deformation known as ridge belts. Despite the gross topographic similarity of all of the ridge belts in Lavinia, they exhibit two rather distinct styles of near surface deformation. One is composed of sets of broad, arch-like ridges rising above the surrounding plains. In the other type, obvious fold-like ridges are rare to absent in the radar images. Both type show evidence for small amounts of shear distributed across the belts.

  12. Cenozoic North American Drainage Basin Evolution, Sediment Yield, and Accumulation in the Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, W.; Ganey-Curry, P. E.

    2010-12-01

    The Cenozoic fill of the Gulf of Mexico basin contains a continuous record of sediment supply from the North American continental interior for the past 65 million years. Regional mapping of unit thickness and paleogeography for 18 depositional episodes defines patterns of shifting entry points of continental fluvial systems and quantifies the total volume of sediment supplied during each episode. Eight fluvio-deltaic depocenters, named for geographic similarities to entry points and drainage basins of modern rivers, are present. From southwest to northeast, they are the Rio Bravo, Rio Grande, Guadalupe, Colorado, Houston-Brazos, Red, Mississippi, and Tennessee axes. Sediment volume was calculated from hand-contoured unit thickness maps compiled from basin-wide well and seismic control. Using a GIS algorithm to sum volumes within polygons bounding interpreted North American river contribution, the total extant volume was then calculated. General compaction factors were used to convert modern volume to quantitative approximations of total grain volume. Grain volume rate of supply for each depositional episode was then calculated. Values vary by more than an order of magnitude. Supply rate has commonly varied by two-fold or more between successive depositional episodes. Sediment supply is a significant, independent variable in development of stratigraphic sequences within the Gulf basin. Paleogeographic maps of the continental interior for eleven Cenozoic time intervals display the evolving and complex interplay of intracontinental tectonism, climate change, and drainage basin evolution. Five tectono-climatic eras are differentiated: Paleocene late Laramide era; early to middle Eocene terminal Laramide era; middle Cenozoic (Late Eocene—Early Miocene) dry, volcanogenic era; middle Neogene (Middle—Late Miocene) arid, extensional era; and late Neogene (Plio—Pleistocene) monsoonal, epeirogenic uplift era. Sediment supply to the GOM reflects the interplay of (1

  13. Continental deformation accommodated by non-rigid passive bookshelf faulting: An example from the Cenozoic tectonic development of northern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuza, Andrew V.; Yin, An

    2016-05-01

    Collision-induced continental deformation commonly involves complex interactions between strike-slip faulting and off-fault deformation, yet this relationship has rarely been quantified. In northern Tibet, Cenozoic deformation is expressed by the development of the > 1000-km-long east-striking left-slip Kunlun, Qinling, and Haiyuan faults. Each have a maximum slip in the central fault segment exceeding 10s to ~ 100 km but a much smaller slip magnitude (~bookshelf-fault model for the Cenozoic tectonic development of northern Tibet. Our model, quantitatively relating discrete left-slip faulting to distributed off-fault deformation during regional clockwise rotation, explains several puzzling features, including the: (1) clockwise rotation of east-striking left-slip faults against the northeast-striking left-slip Altyn Tagh fault along the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, (2) alternating fault-parallel extension and shortening in the off-fault regions, and (3) eastward-tapering map-view geometries of the Qimen Tagh, Qaidam, and Qilian Shan thrust belts that link with the three major left-slip faults in northern Tibet. We refer to this specific non-rigid bookshelf-fault system as a passive bookshelf-fault system because the rotating bookshelf panels are detached from the rigid bounding domains. As a consequence, the wallrock of the strike-slip faults deforms to accommodate both the clockwise rotation of the left-slip faults and off-fault strain that arises at the fault ends. An important implication of our model is that the style and magnitude of Cenozoic deformation in northern Tibet vary considerably in the east-west direction. Thus, any single north-south cross section and its kinematic reconstruction through the region do not properly quantify the complex deformational processes of plateau formation.

  14. U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Paleogene - Neogene volcanism in the NW Anatolia: Its implications for the Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the Aegean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, E. Yalçın; Akal, Cüneyt; Genç, Ş. Can; Candan, Osman; Palmer, Martin R.; Prelević, Dejan; Uysal, İbrahim; Mertz-Kraus, Regina

    2017-10-01

    The northern Aegean region was shaped by subduction, obduction, collision, and post-collisional extension processes. Two areas in this region, the Rhodope-Thrace-Biga Peninsula to the west and Armutlu-Almacık-Nallıhan (the Central Sakarya) to the east, are characterized by extensive Eocene to Miocene post-collisional magmatic associations. We suggest that comparison of the Cenozoic magmatic events of these two regions may provide insights into the Late Mesozoic to Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Aegean. With this aim, we present an improved Cenozoic stratigraphy of the Biga Peninsula derived from a new comprehensive set of U-Pb zircon age data obtained from the Eocene to Miocene volcanic units in the region. The compiled radiometric age data show that calc-alkaline volcanic activity occurred at 43-15 Ma in the Biga Peninsula, 43-17 Ma in the Rhodope and Thrace regions, and 53-38 Ma in the Armutlu-Almacık-Nallıhan region, which are slightly overlapping. We discuss the possible cause for the distinct Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the eastern and western parts of the region, and propose that the Rhodope, Thrace and Biga regions in the north Aegean share the same Late Mesozoic to Cenozoic geodynamic evolution, which is consistent with continuous subduction, crustal accretion, southwestward trench migration and accompanying extension; all preceded by the Late Cretaceous - Paleocene collision along the Vardar suture zone. In contrast, the Armutlu-Almacık-Nallıhan region was shaped by slab break-off and related processes following the Late Cretaceous - Paleocene collision along the İzmir-Ankara suture zone. The eastern and western parts of the region are presently separated by a northeast-southwest trending transfer zone that was likely originally present as a transform fault in the subducted Tethys oceanic crust, and demonstrates that the regional geodynamic evolution can be strongly influenced by the geographical distribution of geologic features on the

  15. The initiation and tectonic regimes of the Cenozoic extension in the Bohai Bay Basin, North China revealed by numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Qiu, Nansheng

    2017-06-01

    In this study the dynamic aspects of the Cenozoic extension in the Bohai Bay Basin are considered in the context of initial thickness of the crust and lithosphere, tectonic force, strain rate and thermal rheology, which are directly or indirectly estimated from a pure shear extensional model. It is accordingly reasonable to expect that, in the Bohai Bay Basin, the thickness variation could be present prior to the initiation of extension. The extensional deformation is localized by a thickness variation of the crust and lithosphere and the heterogeneity of the initial thickness plays an important role in rifting dynamics. The onset of rifting requires a critical tectonic force (initial tectonic force) to be applied, which then immediately begins to decay gradually. Rifting will only occur when the total effective buoyancy force of the subducting slab reaches a critical level, after a certain amount of subduction taking place. The magnitude of the tectonic force decreases with time in the early phase of rifting, which indicates the weakening due to the increase in geothermal gradient. In order to deform the continental lithosphere within the currently accepted maximum magnitude of the force derived from subducted slab roll-back, the following conditions should be satisfied: (1) the thickness of the continental lithosphere is significantly thin and less than 125 km and (2) the lithosphere has a wet and hot rheology, which provides implications for rheological layering in continental lithosphere. Our results are strongly supported by the ;crème brûlée; model, in which the lower crust and mantle are relatively ductile.

  16. The ICE hypothesis stands: How the dogma of late Cenozoic tectonic uplift can no longer be sustained in the light of data and physical laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S. B.; Clausen, O. R.; Jacobsen, B. H.; Thomsen, E.; Huuse, M.; Gallagher, K.; Balling, N.; Egholm, D.

    2010-08-01

    In this reply, we address the issues raised by the comment of Chalmers et al. (2010) regarding our ICE hypothesis for the evolution of western Scandinavia. We reject their conjectures as based, uncritically and without consideration of physical mechanisms, on the long-standing dogma of late Cenozoic tectonic uplift. Our hypothesis, in contrast, honours well-documented physical laws and the present wealth of actual data constraints (as opposed to dogma-biased inferences). After careful consideration of the points raised by Chalmers et al. (2010) we maintain our simple explanation for the evolution of Scandinavian topography, as it honours well-documented actual data constraints, such as crustal structure (including its spatio-temporal variability), thermal history in the eastern North Sea, global and regional climatic change (including eustacy) and sedimentation in the adjacent basins. The inevitable conclusion is that, although more data constraints are desirable, the current best fit hypothesis, is that the Scandinavian topography is of Caledonide origin, and has been shaped by fluvial and glacial buzzsaw and periglacial processes, and most recently (last few Myr) been re-invigorated by extensive glacial erosion in the fjords and on the shelf.

  17. Cenozoic Tectonic Characteristics in the Adare Basin, West Ross Sea: Evidence From Seismic Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Gao, J.; Ding, W.

    2017-12-01

    Based on the geophysical data obtained from the Adare Basin and its adjacent areas, West Ross Sea, the authors employed the frequency wave-number filtering technique to recover the newly processed dataset with high signal noise ratio and complete seismic event which highly contributes to reveal more detailed deep-seated geological structures than previously thought. The structural features and magmatism of the study area in Cenozoic were classified and analyzed. Combined with glaciation, the associated sedimentary facies were summarized systematically. The authors' analysis revealed that, at 16 Ma, under the influence of the thermal effect caused by residual magmatism and asymmetric spreading of Adare Basin in the initial period, surrounding areas of two flanks of the Adare trough were characterized by uplift folds and tilted uplift zone, respectively. The small-scale uplift fold zone was characterized by nearly upright faults and folds and was located in the southern part of the eastern flank, whereas the tilted uplift zone dominated in the corresponding district of western flank that reached the continental margin. By utilizing the contact relationship between igneous rocks and surrounding rocks, igneous rocks can be divided into two periods: early-stage and late Cenozoic igneous rocks. The early-stage rocks are generally located dispersedly in the tilted uplift zone and the age is poorly known. It is suggested that they were related to the residual magmatism. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of Late Cenozoic igneous rocks, formed not earlier 5.5 Ma, was extensive and scattered, almost covering the whole study area, which indicates that they might be unrelated to the rifting in space and time, instead they were affected by decompression melting of the mantle because of the large-scale deglaciation since Pliocene.

  18. New insights into the distribution and evolution of the Cenozoic Tan-Lu Fault Zone in the Liaohe sub-basin of the Bohai Bay Basin, eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Liu, Chi-yang; Xu, Chang-gui; Wu, Kui; Wang, Guang-yuan; Jia, Nan

    2018-01-01

    As the largest strike-slip fault system in eastern China, the northeast-trending Tan-Lu Fault Zone (TLFZ) is a significant tectonic element contributing to the Mesozoic-Cenozoic regional geologic evolution of eastern Asia, as well as to the formation of ore deposits and oilfields. Because of the paucity of data, its distribution and evolutionary history in the offshore Liaohe sub-basin of the northern Bohai Bay Basin (BBB) are still poorly understood. Investigations of the strike-slip fault system in the western portion of the offshore Liaohe sub-basin via new seismic data provide us with new insights into the characteristics of the Cenozoic TLFZ. Results of this study show that Cenozoic dextral strike-slip faults occurred near the center of the Liaoxi graben in the offshore Liaohe sub-basin; these strike-slip faults connect with their counterparts to the north, the western part of the onshore Liaohe sub-basin, and have similar characteristics to those in other areas of the BBB in terms of kinematics, evolutionary history, and distribution; consequently, these faults are considered as the western branch of the TLFZ. All strike-slip faults within the Liaoxi graben merge at depth with a central subvertical basement fault induced by the reactivation of a pre-existing strike-slip basement fault, the pre-Cenozoic TLFZ. Data suggest that the TLFZ across the whole Liaohe sub-basin comprises two branches and that the Cenozoic distribution of this system was inherited from the pre-Cenozoic TLFZ. This characteristic distribution might be possessed by the whole TLFZ, thus the new understandings about the distribution and evolutionary model of the TLFZ in this study can be inferred in many research fields along the whole fault zone, such as regional geology, ore deposits, petroleum exploration and earthquake hazard.

  19. Tectonic implications of Mesozoic magmatism to initiation of Cenozoic basin development within the passive South China Sea margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Hue Anh; Chan, Yu Lu; Yeh, Meng Wan; Lee, Tung Yi

    2018-04-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the classical example of a non-volcanic passive margin situated within three tectonic plates of the Eurasian, Indo-Australian and Philippine Sea plate. The development of SCS resulted from interaction of various types of plate boundaries, and complex tectonic assemblage of micro blocks and accretionary prisms. Numerous models were proposed for the formation of SCS, yet none can fully satisfy different aspects of tectonic forces. Temporal and geographical reconstruction of Cretaceous and Cenozoic magmatism with the isochrones of major basins was conducted. Our reconstruction indicated the SE margin of Asia had gone through two crustal thinning events. The sites for rifting development are controlled by localized thermal weakening of magmatism. NW-SE extension setting during Late Cretaceous revealed by magmatism distribution and sedimentary basins allow us to allocate the retreated subduction of Pacific plate to the cause of first crustal thinning event. A magmatic gap between 75 and 65 Ma prior to the initiation of first basin rifting suggested a significant modification of geodynamic setting occurred. The Tainan basin, Pearl River Mouth basin, and Liyue basins started to develop since 65 Ma where the youngest Late Cretaceous magmatism concentrated. Sporadic bimodal volcanism between 65 and 40 Ma indicates further continental extension prior to the opening of SCS. The E-W extension of Malay basin and West Natuna began since late Eocene followed by N-S rifting of SCS as Neotethys subducted. The SCS ridge developed between Pearl River Mouth basin and Liyue basin where 40 Ma volcanic activities concentrated. The interaction of two continental stretching events by Pacific followed by Neotethys subduction with localized magmatic thermal weakening is the cause for the non-volcanic nature of SCS.

  20. Evidence for Cenozoic extensional basin development and tectonic inversion south of the flat-slab segment, southern Central Andes, Chile (33° 36°S.L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, R.; Baeza, O.; Elgueta, S.; Flynn, J. J.; Gans, P.; Kay, S. M.; Muñoz, N.; Wyss, A. R.; Zurita, E.

    2002-04-01

    The mainly volcanic Cenozoic deposits that make up much of the western part of the Principal Cordillera in Central Chile are generally subdivided into two major units: an older Abanico or Coya-Machalí Formation and a younger Farellones Formation. Difficulty in differentiating these units has led to considerable debate. On the basis of the wide distribution, great thickness, and presence of sedimentary intercalations, it has been postulated that these arc volcanics were deposited in an intermontane basin; more recently, it has been proposed that this basin developed under extensional conditions and underwent subsequent tectonic inversion. We present field, geochronologic, geochemical, and thermal maturity data that support the latter interpretation. Collectively, this new information clarifies the stratigraphic, tectonic, and paleogeographic evolution of these deposits. The vast geographic extent of the Abanico Formation and lateral equivalents, which reach from at least 32°30' to 44°S along the Principal Cordillera, its great thickness, and the presence of repeated thick fluvial and lacustrine intercalations all indicate deposition in a large, strongly subsident, and probably north-south oriented basin, developed between middle to late Eocene and Oligocene. The unconformable contact with underlying Mesozoic units observed at several localities indicates that deposition followed a substantial erosional episode during late Cretaceous and/or early Cenozoic time. Basal deposits of the Abanico Formation near Termas del Flaco increase rapidly in thickness to the west. Still further to the west, a thick Abanico section contains, in its upper part, mammal fossils older than those found in the basal deposits near Termas. This evidence indicates a major space of deposition west of this locality, which had been filled before deposition took place at Termas. The east-vergent, high-angle El Fierro thrust fault on the east side of the westward-growing deposits is interpreted

  1. Long-term evolution of the Campine area in Northern Belgium: past and expected future evolution of tectonics and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Craen, M.; Beerten, K.; Brassinnes, S.; Wouters, L.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Disposal of radioactive waste in a geological repository involves the reliance, now and in the long-term future, on the geological and hydrogeological environment. In preparation of the safety and feasibility case 1 (SFC1), the long-term geodynamic evolution of Boom Clay and its geological environment in the Campine area in northern Belgium is studied. Time frames considered are the geological past and the future 1 million year. The idea is that the past long-term evolution can be extended to predict what might happen in the future. In this paper, we first focusses on the past long-term tectonic evolution of the Campine area, and make an extrapolation for the future 1 Ma. We then focus on past climate evolution, and similarly, an assessment of possible future climate conditions is made for the Campine area within the next 1 Ma. Another paper focusses on the combined effect of tectonics and climate on the evolution of the surface environment in the Campine area for the next 1 Ma, with respect to geomorphological, pedological and hydrological processes. During the Palaeozoic, the geodynamic evolution of the Campine area was mainly determined by tectonics. A large intermittently subsiding sedimentary basin existed in which large amounts of sediments were deposited, and which was protected by the Brabant Massif from major oro-genetic compressive processes. Palaeozoic sediments in the Campine Basin reach a maximum thickness of 4000 m. During Mesozoic and Cenozoic, its geodynamic evolution was the interactive result of plate tectonics, sea level changes and climate evolution. Further subsidence resulted in a thick sequence of sedimentary deposits. Mesozoic sediments are found throughout the Campine area while remains of Jurassic-Triassic sediments are found only in the central Roer Valley Graben in the east. The Cenozoic is characterised by a succession of sub-horizontal layers of Tertiary clays and sands and covered by

  2. Estimates of late Cenozoic climate change relevant to Earth surface processes in tectonically active orogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutz, Sebastian G.; Ehlers, Todd A.; Werner, Martin; Lohmann, Gerrit; Stepanek, Christian; Li, Jingmin

    2018-04-01

    The denudation history of active orogens is often interpreted in the context of modern climate gradients. Here we address the validity of this approach and ask what are the spatial and temporal variations in palaeoclimate for a latitudinally diverse range of active orogens? We do this using high-resolution (T159, ca. 80 × 80 km at the Equator) palaeoclimate simulations from the ECHAM5 global atmospheric general circulation model and a statistical cluster analysis of climate over different orogens (Andes, Himalayas, SE Alaska, Pacific NW USA). Time periods and boundary conditions considered include the Pliocene (PLIO, ˜ 3 Ma), the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ˜ 21 ka), mid-Holocene (MH, ˜ 6 ka), and pre-industrial (PI, reference year 1850). The regional simulated climates of each orogen are described by means of cluster analyses based on the variability in precipitation, 2 m air temperature, the intra-annual amplitude of these values, and monsoonal wind speeds where appropriate. Results indicate the largest differences in the PI climate existed for the LGM and PLIO climates in the form of widespread cooling and reduced precipitation in the LGM and warming and enhanced precipitation during the PLIO. The LGM climate shows the largest deviation in annual precipitation from the PI climate and shows enhanced precipitation in the temperate Andes and coastal regions for both SE Alaska and the US Pacific Northwest. Furthermore, LGM precipitation is reduced in the western Himalayas and enhanced in the eastern Himalayas, resulting in a shift of the wettest regional climates eastward along the orogen. The cluster-analysis results also suggest more climatic variability across latitudes east of the Andes in the PLIO climate than in other time slice experiments conducted here. Taken together, these results highlight significant changes in late Cenozoic regional climatology over the last ˜ 3 Myr. Comparison of simulated climate with proxy-based reconstructions for the MH and

  3. MEVTV Workshop on Early Tectonic and Volcanic Evolution of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, H.

    1988-01-01

    Although not ignored, the problems of the early tectonic and volcanic evolution of Mars have generally received less attention than those later in the evolution of the planet. Specifically, much attention was devoted to the evolution of the Tharsis region of Mars and to the planet itself at the time following the establishment of this major tectonic and volcanic province. By contrast, little attention was directed at fundamental questions, such as the conditions that led to the development of Tharsis and the cause of the basic fundamental dichotomy of the Martian crust. It was to address these and related questions of the earliest evolution of Mars that a workshop was organized under the auspices of the Mars: Evolution of Volcanism, Tectonism, and Volatiles (MEVTV) Program. Four sessions were held: crustal dichotomy; crustal differentiation/volcanism; Tharsis, Elysium, and Valles Marineris; and ridges and fault tectonics

  4. The pre-Cenozoic evolution of the Apuseni Mountains (Romania) in the light of new (thermo)geochronological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Martin; Schuster, Ralf; Spikings, Richard; Tropper, Peter; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    , although a possible minor influence of later normal faulting on the age distribution cannot be fully excluded and needs further evaluation. In contrast, fission track data show only minor differences between these two units (see Kounov and Schmid, 2012) and point to their mutual evolution since the late Upper Cretaceous. The known and exclusively brittle Cenozoic tectonic evolution did not substantially modify the pre-Cenozoic age (and thermal) pattern of the Tisza and Dacia units. References: Dallmeyer, R.D., Paná, D.I., Neubauer, F., & Erdmer, P. (1999): Tectonothermal Evolution of the Apuseni Mountains, Romania: Resolution of Variscan versus Alpine Events with 40Ar/39Ar Ages. Journal of Geology, 107: 329-352. Kounov, A and Schmid, S.M. (2012): Fission-track constraints on the thermal and tectonic evolution of the Apuseni Mountains (Romania). International Journal of Earth Sciences, DOI: 10.1007/s00531-012-0800-5. Schmid, S. M., D. Bernoulli, B. Fügenschuh, L. Matenco, S. Schaefer, R. Schuster, M. Tischler and K. Ustaszewski (2008): The Alps-Carpathians-Dinaridic orogenic system: correlation and evolution of tectonic units. Swiss Journal of Geosciences, 101, 139-18.

  5. Magmatism and cenozoic tectonism in the Cabo Frio region, RJ, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohriak, W.U.; Barros, A.Z.N. de; Fujita, A.

    1990-01-01

    The western portion of the Campos Basin is limited by a hinge line that bounds the deposition of pre-Aptian sediments in the offshore region. The Cabo Frio arch corresponds to a platform with smaller relative subsidence, where Tertiary sediments are deposited directly on shallow basement rocks. Towards the continental slope of the Cabo Frio region, tectonic activity is also observed in the post-Aptian sequence, particularly in the region between the Santos and Campos basins, where a very large graben trends parallel to the pre-Aptian limit of the basin, and is controlled by faults that-affect Upper Miocene rocks. Eastwards of this region, an array of antithetic faults trends in a NE direction. These faults, apparently detaching an the Aptian salt, show unique geometric patterns. The rupturing of Pangea in the Lower Cretaceous is marked by widespread outpouring of mafic magmas in Campos and Santos basins. Radiometric age determinations for this volcanism show a mean of about 139 M.a. After the rift phase, another volcanic episode is observed in the Cabo Frio region, with K/Ar radiometric dating of about 50 M.a. Volcanic mounds are observed within the Eocene sedimentary sequence. An Eocene volcanic episode is characterized by the presence of volcaniclassic rocks, including autoclastic, hydroclastic, epiclastic and pyroclastic sediments. This tectonic episode is also identified within other stratigraphic intervals in the sedimentary column. (author)

  6. Gneiss Macuira: tectonic evolution of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks of the Alta Guajira, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez I; A Julian; Zuluaga C; A, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The Macuira Gneiss is a Paleozoic metamorphic unit that outcrops in the Simarua, Jarara and Macuira ranges, Alta Guajira. It is composed by a lithologies metamorphosed under amphibolite facies P-T conditions and consist of amphibolitic and quartz feldspathic gneisses, amphibolites, schists, pegmatites, calc-silicated rocks and marbles, with migmatization evidences in gneisses and amphibolites. Five foliations (S1-5) and three folding events (F1-3) were identified and interpreted as product of two metamorphic events, developed in a progressive barrovian metamorphic gradient of intermediate pressure with intermediate P-T ratio, interpreted as product of continental collision tectonics. This unit is important in understanding of the tectonic evolution of the Alta Guajira and Caribbean because it records different deformational phases pre-, syn- and post-migmatitic, that could be related with different tectonic episodes: the first associated with the collision between Laurasia and Gondwana (Alleghanian Orogeny - Late Paleozoic), and the second related with the Caribbean Plate evolution (Andean Orogeny - Meso-Cenozoic).

  7. Geometry and kinematics of Majiatan Fold-and-thrust Belt, Western Ordos Basin: implication for Tectonic Evolution of North-South Tectonic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Helan-Chuandian North-South Tectonic Belt crossed the central Chinese mainland. It is a boundary of geological, geophysical, and geographic system of Chinese continent tectonics from shallow to deep, and a key zone for tectonic and geomorphologic inversion during Mesozoic to Cenozoic. It is superimposed by the southeastward and northeastward propagation of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in late Cenozoic. It is thus the critical division for West and East China since Mesozoic. The Majiatan fold-and-thrust belt (MFTB), locating at the central part of HCNSTB and the western margin of Ordos Basin, is formed by the tectonic evolution of the Helan-Liupanshan Mountains. Based on the newly-acquired high-resolution seismic profiles, deep boreholes, and surface geology, the paper discusses the geometry, kinematics, and geodynamic evolution of MFTB. With the Upper Carboniferous coal measures and the pre-Sinian ductile zone as the detachments, MFTB is a multi-level detached thrust system. The thrusting was mainly during latest Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, breaking-forward in the foreland, and resulting in a shortening rate of 25-29%. By structural restoration, this area underwent extension in Middle Proterozoic to Paleozoic, which can be divided into three phases of rifting such as Middle to Late Proterozoic, Cambiran to Ordovician, and Caboniferous to early Permian. It underwent compression since Late Triassic, including such periods as Latest Triassic, Late Jurassic to early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous to early Paleogene, and Pliocene to Quaternary, with the largest shortening around Late Jurassic to early Cretaceous period (i.e. the mid-Yanshanian movement by the local name). However, trans-extension since Eocene around the Ordos Basin got rise to the formation the Yingchuan, Hetao, and Weihe grabens. It is concluded that MFTB is the leading edge of the intra-continental Helan orogenic belt, and formed by multi-phase breaking-forward thrusting during Late Jurassic to Cretaceous

  8. Tectonic evolution of mercury; comparison with the moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.G.; Masson, P.

    1983-01-01

    With regard to the Earth or to Mars, the Moon and Mercury look like tectonicless planetary bodies, and the prominent morphologies of these two planets are due to impact and volcanic processes. Despite these morphologies, several types of tectonic activities may be shown. Statistical studies of lineaments direction indicate that Mercury, as well as the Moon, have a planet wide lineament pattern, known as a ''grid''. Statistical studies of Mercury scarps and the Moon grabens indicate an interaction between planetary lithospheric evolution and large impact basins. Detailed studies of the largest basins indicate specific tectonic motions directly or indirectly related to impacts. These three tectonic types have been compared on each planet. The first tectonic type seems to be identical for Mercury and the Moon. But the two other types seem to be different, and are consistent with the planets' thermal evolution

  9. Numerical modeling of the late Cenozoic geomorphic evolution of Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    The late Cenozoic geomorphic evolution of Grand Canyon has been influenced by three primary tectonic and drainage adjustment events. First, incision into the Paleozoic strata of the southwestern margin of the Colorado Plateau began at 16 Ma in response to relief production along the Grand Wash Fault. Second, the ancestral Upper Colorado River reversed drainage and became integrated with the Lower Colorado River basin through Grand Canyon between 5.5 and 6 Ma. Third, the Colorado River was influenced by Plio- Quaternary normal faulting along the Hurricane and Toroweap Faults. Despite the relatively firm constraints available on the timing of these events, the geomorphic evolution of Grand Canyon is still not well constrained and many questions remain. For example, was there a deeply-incised gorge in western Grand Canyon before Colorado River integration? How and where was the Colorado River integrated? How have incision rates varied in space and time? In this paper, I describe the results of a numerical modeling study designed to address these questions. The model integrates the stream power model for bedrock channel erosion with cliff retreat and the flexural-isostatic response to erosion. The model honors the structural geology of the Grand Canyon region, including the variable erodibility of rocks in the Colorado Plateau and the occurrence of Plio-Quaternary normal faulting along the Hurricane-Toroweap Fault system. We present the results of two models designed to bracket the possible drainage architectures of the southwestern margin of the Colorado Plateau in Miocene time. In the first model, we assume a 13,000 km2 drainage basin primarily sourced from the Hualapai and Coconino Plateaux. The results of this model indicate that relief production along the Grand Wash fault initiated the formation of a large (700 m) knickpoint that migrated headward at a rate of 15 km/Myr prior to drainage integration at 6 Ma to form a deep gorge in western Grand Canyon. This model

  10. History and Evolution of Precambrian plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ria; Gerya, Taras

    2014-05-01

    Plate tectonics is a global self-organising process driven by negative buoyancy at thermal boundary layers. Phanerozoic plate tectonics with its typical subduction and orogeny is relatively well understood and can be traced back in the geological records of the continents. Interpretations of geological, petrological and geochemical observations from Proterozoic and Archean orogenic belts however (e.g., Brown, 2006), suggest a different tectonic regime in the Precambrian. Due to higher radioactive heat production the Precambrian lithosphere shows lower internal strength and is strongly weakened by percolating melts. The fundamental difference between Precambrian and Phanerozoic tectonics is therefore the upper-mantle temperature, which determines the strength of the upper mantle (Brun, 2002) and the further tectonic history. 3D petrological-thermomechanical numerical modelling experiments of oceanic subduction at an active plate at different upper-mantle temperatures show these different subduction regimes. For upper-mantle temperatures 250 K above the present day value no subduction occurs any more. The whole lithosphere is delaminating and due to strong volcanism and formation of a thicker crust subduction is inhibited. This stage of 200-250 K higher upper mantle temperature which corresponds roughly to the early Archean (Abbott, 1994) is marked by strong volcanism due to sublithospheric decompression melting which leads to an equal thickness for both oceanic and continental plates. As a consequence subduction is inhibited, but a compressional setup instead will lead to orogeny between a continental or felsic terrain and an oceanic or mafic terrain as well as internal crustal convection. Small-scale convection with plume shaped cold downwellings also in the upper mantle is of increased importance compared to the large-scale subduction cycle observed for present temperature conditions. It is also observed that lithospheric downwellings may initiate subduction by

  11. Geomorphology, active tectonics, and landscape evolution in the Mid-Atlantic region: Chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzaglia, Frank J.; Carter, Mark W.; Berti, Claudio; Counts, Ronald C.; Hancock, Gregory S.; Harbor, David; Harrison, Richard W.; Heller, Matthew J.; Mahan, Shannon; Malenda, Helen; McKeon, Ryan; Nelson, Michelle S.; Prince, Phillip; Rittenour, Tammy M.; Spotilla, James; Whittecar, G. Richard

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the geomorphology community marked the 125th birthday of one of its most influential papers, “The Rivers and Valleys of Pennsylvania” by William Morris Davis. Inspired by Davis’s work, the Appalachian landscape rapidly became fertile ground for the development and testing of several grand landscape evolution paradigms, culminating with John Hack’s dynamic equilibrium in 1960. As part of the 2015 GSA Annual Meeting, the Geomorphology, Active Tectonics, and Landscape Evolution field trip offers an excellent venue for exploring Appalachian geomorphology through the lens of the Appalachian landscape, leveraging exciting research by a new generation of process-oriented geomorphologists and geologic field mapping. Important geomorphologic scholarship has recently used the Appalachian landscape as the testing ground for ideas on long- and short-term erosion, dynamic topography, glacial-isostatic adjustments, active tectonics in an intraplate setting, river incision, periglacial processes, and soil-saprolite formation. This field trip explores a geologic and geomorphic transect of the mid-Atlantic margin, starting in the Blue Ridge of Virginia and proceeding to the east across the Piedmont to the Coastal Plain. The emphasis here will not only be on the geomorphology, but also the underlying geology that establishes the template and foundation upon which surface processes have etched out the familiar Appalachian landscape. The first day focuses on new and published work that highlights Cenozoic sedimentary deposits, soils, paleosols, and geomorphic markers (terraces and knickpoints) that are being used to reconstruct a late Cenozoic history of erosion, deposition, climate change, and active tectonics. The second day is similarly devoted to new and published work documenting the fluvial geomorphic response to active tectonics in the Central Virginia seismic zone (CVSZ), site of the 2011 M 5.8 Mineral earthquake and the integrated record of Appalachian

  12. Tectonic evolution of the continental crust of South America and its importance in the characterization of uraniferous provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordani, U.G.

    1981-01-01

    The tectonic evolution of the South American Continent and its relationship with uranium mineralization is discussed. During the Phanerozoic at least three phases are identified as related to the Andean chain, namely, in the lower Palaeozoic, in the upper Palaeozoic and in the Meso-Cenozoic. Recent systematic age dating of the Precambrian indicates the period of 450-700 million years (m.y.) (Brazilian Cycle) as one of the most important tectonic events in South America. Another age-dating cluster corresponds to the 1700-2100 m.y. interval (Transamazonic Cycle). An even older event within the Archean is identified with datings older than 2600 m.y. in Venezuela (Estado Bolivar), Surinam and Brazil (Bahia, Santa Catarina, Goias). All the Brazilian uranium deposits related to the Brazilian platform, such as Amorinopolis, are located on the eastern border of the platform where the Brazilian tectonic cycle is dominant. The uranium source rocks are of alkaline granitic nature. Other deposits (Itataia, Campos Belos) are associated with polycyclic rocks belonging to the basement of the Brazilian Cycle but were affected by the 450-700 m.y. tectonic event; these amphibolitic facies rocks show alkaline metamorphism and magmatization processes which indicate large geochemical mobility during which important uranium mobilization has taken place. Finally, the Pocos de Caldas deposit is excellent evidence of the important relationship of tectonic reactivations and uranium enrichments within the Brazilian platform. (author)

  13. N2-fixing tropical legume evolution: a contributor to enhanced weathering through the Cenozoic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epihov, Dimitar Z; Batterman, Sarah A; Hedin, Lars O; Leake, Jonathan R; Smith, Lisa M; Beerling, David J

    2017-08-16

    Fossil and phylogenetic evidence indicates legume-rich modern tropical forests replaced Late Cretaceous palm-dominated tropical forests across four continents during the early Cenozoic (58-42 Ma). Tropical legume trees can transform ecosystems via their ability to fix dinitrogen (N 2 ) and higher leaf N compared with non-legumes (35-65%), but it is unclear how their evolutionary rise contributed to silicate weathering, the long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Here we hypothesize that the increasing abundance of N 2 -fixing legumes in tropical forests amplified silicate weathering rates by increased input of fixed nitrogen (N) to terrestrial ecosystems via interrelated mechanisms including increasing microbial respiration and soil acidification, and stimulating forest net primary productivity. We suggest the high CO 2 early Cenozoic atmosphere further amplified legume weathering. Evolution of legumes with high weathering rates was probably driven by their high demand for phosphorus and micronutrients required for N 2 -fixation and nodule formation. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Tectonic regime and evolution of exogenous uranium ore formation in sedimentary rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchev, V.I.; Shumlyanskij, V.A.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Geokhimii i Fiziki Mineralov)

    1981-01-01

    Regularities of the formation and location of exogenous uranium deposits are studied depending on the tectonics regime. It is shown that the successive alternation of sedimentogenous deposits by diagenetic and, subsequently, catogene ones takes place from early Proterozoic to Cenozoic, i.e. exogenous ore formation in the history of the Earth proceeds from early to late stages of lithogenesis [ru

  15. Structural evolution of Cenozoic basins in northeastern Tunisia, in response to sinistral strike-slip movement on the El Alia-Teboursouk Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejaoui, Hamida; Aïfa, Tahar; Melki, Fetheddine; Zargouni, Fouad

    2017-10-01

    This paper resolves the structural complexity of Cenozoic sedimentary basins in northeastern Tunisia. These basins trend NE-SW to ∼ E-W, and are bordered by old fracture networks. Detailed descriptions of the structural features in outcrop and in subsurface data suggest that the El Alia-Teboursouk Fault zone in the Bizerte area evolved through a series of tectonic events. Cross sections, lithostratigraphic correlations, and interpretation of seismic profiles through the basins show evidence for: (i) a Triassic until Jurassic-Early Cretaceous rifting phase that induced lateral variations of facies and strata thicknesses; (ii) a set of faults oriented NE-SW, NW-SE, N-S, and E-W that guided sediment accumulation in pull-apart basins, which were subject to compressive and transpressive deformation during Eocene (Lutetian-Priabonian), Miocene (Tortonian), and Pliocene-Quaternary; and (iii) NNW-SSE to NS contractional events that occurred during the Late Pliocene. Part of the latest phase has been the formation of different synsedimentary folded structures with significant subsidence inversion. Such events have been responsible for the reactivation of inherited faults, and the intrusion of Triassic evaporites, ensuring the role of a slip layer. The combined effects of the different paleoconstraints and halokinetic movements are at the origin of the evolution of these pull-apart basins. The subsurface data suggest that an important fault displacement occurred during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. The patterns of sediment accumulation in the different basins reflect a high activity of deep ancient faults.

  16. Tectono-sedimentary events and geodynamic evolution of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins of the Alpine Margin, Gulf of Tunis, north-eastern Tunisia offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Fetheddine; Zouaghi, Taher; Chelbi, Mohamed Ben; Bédir, Mourad; Zargouni, Fouad

    2010-09-01

    The structural pattern, tectono-sedimentary framework and geodynamic evolution for Mesozoic and Cenozoic deep structures of the Gulf of Tunis (north-eastern Tunisia) are proposed using petroleum well data and a 2-D seismic interpretation. The structural system of the study area is marked by two sets of faults that control the Mesozoic subsidence and inversions during the Paleogene and Neogene times: (i) a NE-SW striking set associated with folds and faults, which have a reverse component; and (ii) a NW-SE striking set active during the Tertiary extension episodes and delineating grabens and subsiding synclines. In order to better characterize the tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Gulf of Tunis structures, seismic data interpretations are compared to stratigraphic and structural data from wells and neighbouring outcrops. The Atlas and external Tell belonged to the southernmost Tethyan margin record a geodynamic evolution including: (i) rifting periods of subsidence and Tethyan oceanic accretions from Triassic until Early Cretaceous: we recognized high subsiding zones (Raja and Carthage domains), less subsiding zones (Gamart domain) and a completely emerged area (Raouad domain); (ii) compressive events during the Cenozoic with relaxation periods of the Oligocene-Aquitanian and Messinian-Early Pliocene. The NW-SE Late Eocene and Tortonian compressive events caused local inversions with sealed and eroded folded structures. During Middle to Late Miocene and Early Pliocene, we have identified depocentre structures corresponding to half-grabens and synclines in the Carthage and Karkouane domains. The north-south contractional events at the end of Early Pliocene and Late Pliocene periods are associated with significant inversion of subsidence and synsedimentary folded structures. Structuring and major tectonic events, recognized in the Gulf of Tunis, are linked to the common geodynamic evolution of the north African and western Mediterranean basins.

  17. Continental Transform Boundaries: Tectonic Evolution and Geohazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Steckler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Continental transform boundaries cross heavily populated regions, and they are associated with destructive earthquakes,for example, the North Anatolian Fault (NAFacross Turkey, the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault in Haiti,the San Andreas Fault in California, and the El Pilar fault in Venezuela. Transform basins are important because they are typically associated with 3-D fault geometries controlling segmentation—thus, the size and timing of damaging earthquakes—and because sediments record both deformation and earthquakes. Even though transform basins have been extensively studied, their evolution remains controversial because we don’t understand the specifics about coupling of vertical and horizontal motions and about the basins’long-term kinematics. Seismic and tsunami hazard assessments require knowing architecture and kinematics of faultsas well as how the faults are segmented.

  18. Tectonic evolution of the Anadyr Basin, northeastern Eurasia, and its petroleum resource potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, M. P.; Bondarenko, G. E.; Bordovskaya, T. O.; Shipilov, E. V.

    2009-09-01

    The published data on the sedimentation conditions, structure, and tectonic evolution of the Anadyr Basin in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic are reviewed. These data are re-examined in the context of modern tectonic concepts concerning the evolution of the northwestern Circum-Pacific Belt. The re-examination allows us not only to specify the regional geology and tectonic history, but also to forecast of the petroleum resource potential of the sedimentary cover based on a new concept. The sedimentary cover formation in the Anadyr Basin is inseparably linked with the regional tectonic evolution. The considered portion of the Chukchi Peninsula developed in the Late Mesozoic at the junction of the ocean-type South Anyui Basin, the Asian continental margin, and convergent zones of various ages extending along the Asia-Pacific interface. Strike-slip faulting and pulses of extension dominated in the Cenozoic largely in connection with oroclinal bending of structural elements pertaining to northeastern Eurasia and northwestern North America against the background of accretion of terranes along the zone of convergence with the Pacific oceanic plates. Three main stages are recognized in the formation of the sedimentary cover in the Anadyr Basin. (1) The lower portion of the cover was formed in the Late Cretaceous-Early Eocene under conditions of alternating settings of passive and active continental margins. The Cenomanian-lower Eocene transitional sedimentary complex is located largely in the southern Anadyr Basin (Main River and Lagoonal troughs). (2) In the middle Eocene and Oligocene, sedimentation proceeded against the background of extension and rifting in the northern part of the paleobasin and compression in its southern part. The compression was caused by northward migration of the foredeep in front of the accretionary Koryak Orogen. The maximum thickness of the Eocene-Oligocene sedimentary complex is noted mainly in the southern part of the basin and in the Central and

  19. Discovery of Miocene adakitic dacite from the Eastern Pontides Belt (NE Turkey) and a revised geodynamic model for the late Cenozoic evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyuboglu, Yener; Santosh, M.; Yi, Keewook; Bektaş, Osman; Kwon, Sanghoon

    2012-08-01

    The Cenozoic magmatic record within the ca. 500 km long eastern Pontides orogen, located within the Alpine metallogenic belt, is critical to evaluate the tectonic history and geodynamic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean region. In this paper we report for the first time late Miocene adakitic rocks from the southeastern part of the eastern Pontides belt and present results from geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic studies as well as zircon U-Pb geochronology. The Tavdagi dacite that we investigate in this study is exposed as round or ellipsoidal shaped bodies, sills, and dikes in the southeastern part of the belt. Zircons in the dacite show euhedral crystal morphology with oscillatory zoning and high Th/U values (up to 1.69) typical of magmatic origin. Zircon LA-ICPMS analysis yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 7.86 ± 0.15 Ma. SHRIMP analyses of zircons with typical magmatic zoning from another sample yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 8.79 ± 0.19 Ma. Both ages are identical and constrain the timing of dacitic magmatism as late Miocene. The Miocene Tavdagi dacite shows adakitic affinity with high SiO2 (68.95-71.41 wt.%), Al2O3 (14.88-16.02 wt.%), Na2O (3.27-4.12 wt.%), Sr (331.4-462.1 ppm), Sr/Y (85-103.7), LaN/YbN (34.3-50.9) and low Y (3.2-5 ppm) values. Their initial 143Nd/144Nd (0.512723-0.512736) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.70484-0.70494) ratios are, respectively, lower and higher than those of normal oceanic crust. The geological, geochemical and isotopic data suggest that the adakitic magmatism was generated by partial melting of the mafic lower crust in the southeastern part of the eastern Pontide belt during the late Miocene. Based on the results presented in this study and a synthesis of the geological and tectonic information on the region, we propose that the entire northern edge of the eastern Pontides-Lesser Caucasus-Elbruz magmatic arc was an active continental margin during the Cenozoic. We identify a migration of the Cenozoic magmatism towards

  20. The Nysa-Morava Zone: an active tectonic domain with Late Cenozoic sedimentary grabens in the Western Carpathians' foreland (NE Bohemian Massif)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špaček, P.; Bábek, O.; Štěpančíková, Petra; Švancara, J.; Pazdírková, J.; Sedláček, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 4 (2015), s. 963-990 ISSN 1437-3254 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/0573; GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * Upper Morava Basin * tectonic evolution * seismicity * sedimentary grabens Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.133, year: 2015

  1. Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events in southern Iberian Peninsula: Implications for the evolutionary history of freshwater fish of the genus Squalius (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Silvia; Cobo-Simon, Marta; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    Southern Iberian freshwater ecosystems located at the border between the European and African plates represent a tectonically complex region spanning several geological ages, from the uplifting of the Betic Mountains in the Serravalian-Tortonian periods to the present. This area has also been subjected to the influence of changing climate conditions since the Middle-Upper Pliocene when seasonal weather patterns were established. Consequently, the ichthyofauna of southern Iberia is an interesting model system for analyzing the influence of Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events on its evolutionary history. The cyprinids Squalius malacitanus and Squalius pyrenaicus are allopatrically distributed in southern Iberia and their evolutionary history may have been defined by Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events. We analyzed MT-CYB (510 specimens) and RAG1 (140 specimens) genes of both species to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and to estimate divergence times and ancestral distribution ranges of the species and their populations. We also assessed their levels of genetic structure and diversity as well as the amount of gene flow between populations. To investigate recent paleogeographical and climatic factors in southern Iberia, we modeled changes-through-time in sea level from the LGM to the present. Phylogenetic, geographic and population structure analyses revealed two well-supported species (S. malacitanus and S. pyrenaicus) in southern Iberia and two subclades (Atlantic and Mediterranean) within S. malacitanus. The origin of S. malacitanus and the separation of its Atlantic and Mediterranean populations occurred during the Serravalian-Tortonian and Miocene-Pliocene periods, respectively. These divergence events occurred in the Middle Pliocene and Pleistocene in S. pyrenaicus. In both species, Atlantic basins possessed populations with higher genetic diversity than Mediterranean, which may be explained by the Janda Lagoon. The isolation of S. malacitanus was

  2. Plate flexure and volcanism: Late Cenozoic tectonics of the Tabar-Lihir-Tanga-Feni alkalic province, New Ireland Basin, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, I. D.

    2016-05-01

    Late Cenozoic Tabar-Lihir-Tanga-Feni (TLTF) alkaline volcanism, New Ireland Basin, PNG, is associated with extensional cracks along the crests of flexed ridges developed on the New Ireland Microplate (New name). The tectonic alignment of the TLTF volcanic arc is essentially perpendicular to the flexed ridges, suggesting that fractures parallel to the direction of maximum horizontal compression facilitated the rapid ascent of alkaline magmas from the mantle region, perhaps 60-70 km depth. The mainly Pliocene to Pleistocene volcanoes were localized at the intersection of ridge-parallel Kabang structures and arc-parallel Niffin structures, suggesting that the Kabang-Niffin structural intersections underlying each of the TLTF island groups provided a well developed, clustered network of open conduits which tapped the mantle source region. Periodic post-Miocene locking and unlocking along the strike-slip Kilinailau Fault (New name) are thought to have functioned as a valve, turning on (Pliocene) and then turning off (Pleistocene) volcanic activity, respectively. Partial locking of the Kilinailau Fault during the Pliocene resulted in the accumulation of intraplate stresses within the New Ireland Microplate, and caused plate flexure and ridge development, plate-cracking along ridge crests and the development of arc-parallel regional fractures parallel to the direction of maximum compression. Unlocking of the Kilinailau Fault in the Pleistocene resulted in the release of intraplate stresses in the New Ireland Microplate and a cessation of volcanic activity across most of the TLTF arc. The style and scale of plate flexure and cracking, accompanied by within-plate alkaline volcanism from equally spaced ridge-top eruptive centers confined to a narrow, linear volcanic arc are unknown from any other tectonic province.

  3. Constraints on the evolution of the Naga Hills: from disparate origins to tectonic amalgamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitchison, J. C.; Clarke, G. L.; Ireland, T. R.; Ao, A.; Bhowmik, S. K.; Kapesa, L.; Roeder, T.; Stojanovic, D.; Kachovich, S.

    2016-12-01

    Recent field expeditions supported by the Australia-India Strategic Research Fund (AISRF07021) have allowed a collaborative team of Australian and Indian geologists to examine, in detail, regions along the border between Nagaland and Manipur in India and Myanmar. This area has previously been little explored and we present new field and laboratory observations. The Myanmar microplate has been dextrally translated over 480 km northwards along Sagaing Fault system during the Miocene. Clearly it did not originate where it presently lies but how far it has travelled remains uncertain. The Indo-Myanmar ranges include the Naga Hills that are dominated by Cenozoic sediments, which have been thrust westwards (in present-day coordinates). They structurally overlie an Indian passive-margin sequence that includes the Gondwana break-up rift-drift counterpart to parts of the NW Shelf of Australia. Near the Indo-Myanmar border this giant imbricate thrust stack also contains sheets of ophiolitic mélange. The ophiolite is heavily disrupted and subsequent to this dismemberment it has been overlain by a succession of Eocene shallow marine shelf sediments; the Phokphur Formation. Further east a succession of high-grade metamorphic units is also thrust westwards over the ophiolite. Well-preserved radiolarian microfossils and U/PB SHRIMP data provide important new age constraints. While superficially it appears that rocks in this area can be correlated with units known from the Himalaya in fact this is problematic. As oceans to the north and west of Australia have opened, grown and been recycled through subduction various continental fragments that originated as part of Gondwana have departed and, with time, transferred to Asia. They have not necessarily all followed the same tectonic pathways. The area lies to the east of the Namche Barwa syntaxis and tectonic reconstructions indicate it has not directly participated in continent-continent collision. Indeed, stratigraphic and

  4. Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonics of the eastern and central Alaska Range: Progressive basin development and deformation in a suture zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridgway, K.D.; Trop, J.M.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Davidson, C.M.; Eastham, K.R. [Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Earth & Atmospheric Science

    2002-07-01

    Analysis of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary basins, metamorphic rocks, and major faults in the eastern and central Alaska Range documents the progressive development of a suture zone that formed as a result of collision of an island-arc assemblage (the Wrangellia composite terrane) with the former North American continental margin. New basin-analysis, structural, and geochronologic data indicate the following stages in the development of the suture zone: (1) Deposition of 3-5 km of Upper Jurassic-Upper Cretaceous marine strata (the Kahiltna assemblage) recorded the initial collision of the island-arc assemblage with the continental margin. (2) Metamorphism of submarine-fan deposits of the Kahiltna basin, located near the leading edge of the island-arc assemblage, occurred at ca. 74 Ma, as determined from a new U-Pb zircon age for a synkinematic sill. (3) Shortening and exhumation of the suture zone peaked from 65 to 60 Ma on the basis of metamorphic and geochronologic data. (4) From 60 to 54 Ma, about 3 km of volcanic strata were deposited over deformed sedimentary strata of the Cantwell basin, and several granitic plutons (the McKinley sequence) were emplaced along the suture zone. (5) Following igneous activity, strike-slip displacement occurred from ca. 54 to 24 Ma along the Denali fault system, which had developed in the existing suture zone. (6) Regional transpressive shortening characterized the suture zone from ca. 24 Ma to the present. Regional subsidence resulted in Miocene coal seams up to 20 m thick and well-developed lacustrine deposits. Overlying the Miocene deposits are about 1.2 km of Pliocene and Holocene conglomeratic deposits. These mapping relationships provide evidence that regional shortening continues to the present in the eastern and central Alaska Range.

  5. U-Pb Detrital Zircon Ages from Sarawak: Changes in Provenance Reflecting the Tectonic Evolution of Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitfeld, H. T.; Galin, T.; Hall, R.

    2014-12-01

    Sarawak is located on the northern edge of Sundaland in NW Borneo. Five sedimentary basins are distinguished with ages from Triassic to Cenozoic. New light mineral, heavy mineral and U-Pb detrital zircon ages show differences in provenance reflecting the tectonic evolution of the region. The oldest clastic sediments are Triassic of the Sadong-Kuching Basin and were sourced by a Carnian to Norian volcanic arc and erosion of Cathaysian rocks containing zircons of Paleoproterozoic age. Sandstones of the Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous Bau-Pedawan Basin have distinctive zircon populations indicating a major change of tectonic setting, including initiation of subduction below present-day West Sarawak in the Late Jurassic. A wide range of inherited zircon ages indicates various Cathaysian fragments as major source areas and the arrival of the SW Borneo Block following subduction beneath the Schwaner Mountains in the early Late Cretaceous. After collision of the SW Borneo Block and the microcontinental fragments with Sundaland in the early Late Cretaceous, deep marine sedimentation (Pedawan Formation) ceased, and there was uplift forming the regional Pedawan-Kayan unconformity. Two episodes of extension were responsible for basin development on land from the latest Cretaceous onwards, probably in a strike-slip setting. The first episode formed the Kayan Basin in the Latest Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Early Paleocene, and the second formed the Ketungau Basin and the Penrissen Sandstone in the Middle to Late Eocene. Zircons indicate nearby volcanic activity throughout the Early Cenozoic in NW Borneo. Inherited zircon ages indicate an alternation between Borneo and Tin Belt source rocks. A large deep marine basin, the Rajang Basin, formed north of the Lupar Line fault. Zircons from sediments of the Rajang Basin indicate they are of similar age and provenance as the contemporaneous terrestrial sediments to the south suggesting a narrow steep continental Sundaland margin at the

  6. Metallogenic relationships to tectonic evolution - the Lachlan Orogen, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierlein, Frank P.; Gray, David R.; Foster, David A.

    2002-08-01

    Placing ore formation within the overall tectonic framework of an evolving orogenic system provides important constraints for the development of plate tectonic models. Distinct metallogenic associations across the Palaeozoic Lachlan Orogen in SE Australia are interpreted to be the manifestation of interactions between several microplates and three accretionary complexes in an oceanic back-arc setting. In the Ordovician, significant orogenic gold deposits formed within a developing accretionary wedge along the Pacific margin of Gondwana. At the same time, major porphyry Cu-Au systems formed in an oceanic island arc outboard of an evolved magmatic arc that, in turn, gave rise to granite-related Sn-W deposits in the Early Silurian. During the ongoing evolution of the orogen in the Late Silurian to Early Devonian, sediment-hosted Cu-Au and Pb-Zn deposits formed in short-lived intra-arc basins, whereas a developing fore-arc system provided the conditions for the formation of several volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits. Inversion of these basins and accretion to the Australian continental margin triggered another pulse of orogenic gold mineralisation during the final consolidation of the orogenic belt in the Middle to Late Devonian.

  7. The evolution of Tharsis: Implications of gravity, topography, and tectonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerdt, W.B.; Golombek, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Dominating the Western Hemisphere of Mars, the Tharsis rise is an elongate area centered on Syria Planum that ascends as much as 8 to 10 km above the datum. It is intensely fractured by long, narrow grabens that extend radially hundreds of kilometers beyond the rise and is ringed by mostly concentric wrinkle ridges that formed over 2,000 km from the center of the rise. Its size, involving a full hemisphere of Mars, gives it a central role in the thermo-tectonic evolution of the planet and has stimulated a number of studies attempting to determine the sequence of events responsible for this feature. The constraints that gravity and topography data place on the current structure of Tharsis, along with insights into its development derived from comparisons of detailed regional mapping of faulting with theoretical deformation models are reviewed. Finally, a self-consistent model for the structure of Tharsis is proposed

  8. A synthesis of Cenozoic sedimentation in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Rasmussen, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    study provides a regional synthesis of sedimentation based on a comprehensive interpretation of a regionally covering reflection seismic data set. We relate observations of sediment characteristics and unconformities to the geological evolution. The timing, regional expression and stratigraphic...... characteristics of many unconformities indicate that they were generated by eustatic sea-level fall, often in conjunction with other processes. Early Cenozoic unconformities, however, relate to tectonism associated with the opening of the North Atlantic. From observation on a regional scale, we infer...

  9. Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonics of the eastern and central Alaska Range: Progressive basin development and deformation in a suture zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, K.D.; Trop, J.M.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Davidson, C.M.; Eastham, K.R.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary basins, metamorphic rocks, and major faults in the eastern and central Alaska Range documents the progressive development of a suture zone that formed as a result of collision of an island-arc assemblage (the Wrangellia composite terrane) with the former North American continental margin. New basin-analysis, structural, and geochronologic data indicate the following stages in the development of the suture zone: (1) Deposition of 3-5 km of Upper Jurassic-Upper Cretaceous marine strata (the Kahiltna assemblage) recorded the initial collision of the island-arc assemblage with the continental margin. The Kahiltna assemblage exposed in the northern Talkeetna Mountains represents a Kimmeridgian-Valanginian backarc basin that was filled by northwestward-flowing submarine-fan systems that were transporting sediment derived from Mesozoic strata of the island-arc assemblage. The Kahiltna assemblage exposed in the southern Alaska Range represents a Valanginian-Cenomanian remnant ocean basin filled by west-southwestward-flowing submarine-fan systems that were transporting sediment derived from Paleozoic continental-margin strata uplifted in the along-strike suture zone. A belt of retrograde metamorphism and a regional anticlinorium developed along the continental margin from 115 to 106 Ma, roughly coeval with the end of widespread deposition in the Kahiltna sedimentary basins. (2) Metamorphism of submarine-fan deposits of the Kahiltna basin, located near the leading edge of the island-arc assemblage, occurred at ca. 74 Ma, as determined from a new U-Pb zircon age for a synkinematic sill. Coeval with metamorphism of deposits of the Kahiltna basin in the southern part of the suture zone was development of a thrust-top basin, the Cantwell basin, in the northern part of the suture zone. Geologic mapping and compositional data suggest that the 4 km of Upper Cretaceous nonmarine and marginal marine sedimentary strata in this basin

  10. Tectonics, orbital forcing, global climate change, and human evolution in Africa: introduction to the African paleoclimate special volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, Mark A; Christensen, Beth

    2007-11-01

    The late Cenozoic climate of Africa is a critical component for understanding human evolution. African climate is controlled by major tectonic changes, global climate transitions, and local variations in orbital forcing. We introduce the special African Paleoclimate Issue of the Journal of Human Evolution by providing a background for and synthesis of the latest work relating to the environmental context for human evolution. Records presented in this special issue suggest that the regional tectonics, appearance of C(4) plants in East Africa, and late Cenozoic global cooling combined to produce a long-term drying trend in East Africa. Of particular importance is the uplift associated with the East African Rift Valley formation, which altered wind flow patterns from a more zonal to more meridinal direction. Results in this volume suggest a marked difference in the climate history of southern and eastern Africa, though both are clearly influenced by the major global climate thresholds crossed in the last 3 million years. Papers in this volume present lake, speleothem, and marine paleoclimate records showing that the East African long-term drying trend is punctuated by episodes of short, alternating periods of extreme wetness and aridity. These periods of extreme climate variability are characterized by the precession-forced appearance and disappearance of large, deep lakes in the East African Rift Valley and paralleled by low and high wind-driven dust loads reaching the adjacent ocean basins. Dating of these records show that over the last 3 million years such periods only occur at the times of major global climatic transitions, such as the intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (2.7-2.5 Ma), intensification of the Walker Circulation (1.9-1.7 Ma), and the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution (1-0.7 Ma). Authors in this volume suggest this onset occurs as high latitude forcing in both Hemispheres compresses the Intertropical Convergence Zone so that East Africa

  11. Post-Pan-African tectonic evolution of South Malawi in relation to the Karroo and recent East African rift systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaing, C.

    1991-05-01

    Structural studies conducted in the Lengwe and Mwabvi Karroo basins and in the basement in South Malawi, using regional maps and published data extended to cover Southeast Africa, serve to propose a series of geodynamic reconstructions which reveal the persistence of an extensional tectonic regime, the minimum stress σ3 of which has varied through time. The period of Karroo rifting and the tholeiitic and alkaline magmatism which terminated it, were controlled by NW-SE extension, which resulted in the creation of roughly NE-SW troughs articulated by the Tanganyika-Malawi and Zambesi pre-transform systems. These were NW-SE sinistral-slip systems with directions of movement dipping slightly to the Southeast, which enabled the Mwanza fault to play an important role in the evolution of the Karroo basins of the Shire Valley. The Cretaceous was a transition period between the Karroo rifting and the formation of the Recent East African Rift System. Extension was NE-SW, with some evidence for a local compressional episode in the Lengwe basin. Beginning in the Cenozoic, the extension once more became NW-SE and controlled the evolution in transtension of the Recent East African Rift System. This history highlights the major role of transverse faults systems dominated by strike-slip motion in the evolution and perpetuation of the continental rift systems. These faults are of a greater geological persistence than the normal faults bounding the grabens, especially when they are located on major basement anisotropies.

  12. Structure and tectonic evolution of the southwestern Trinidad dome, Escambray complex, Central Cuba: Insights into deformation in an accretionary wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despaigne-Díaz, Ana Ibis; García Casco, Antonio; Cáceres Govea, Dámaso; Wilde, Simon A.; Millán Trujillo, Guillermo

    2017-10-01

    The Trinidad dome, Escambray complex, Cuba, forms part of an accretionary wedge built during intra-oceanic subduction in the Caribbean from the Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic. The structure reflects syn-subduction exhumation during thickening of the wedge, followed by extension. Field mapping, metamorphic and structural analysis constrain the tectonic evolution into five stages. Three ductile deformation events (D1, D2 and D3) are related to metamorphism in a compressional setting and formation of several nappes. D1 subduction fabrics are only preserved as relict S1 foliation and rootless isoclinal folds strongly overprinted by the main S2 foliation. The S2 foliation is parallel to sheared serpentinised lenses that define tectonic contacts, suggesting thrust stacks and underthrusting at mantle depths. Thrusting caused an inverted metamorphic structure with higher-grade on top of lower-grade nappes. Exhumation started during D2 when the units were incorporated into the growing accretionary wedge along NNE-directed thrust faults and was accompanied by substantial decompression and cooling. Folding and thrusting continued during D3 and marks the transition from ductile to brittle-ductile conditions at shallower crustal levels. The D4-5 events are related to extension and contributed to the final exhumation (likely as a core complex). D4 is associated with a regional spaced S4 cleavage, late open folds, and numerous extension veins, whereas D5 is recorded by normal and strike-slip faults affecting all nappes. The P-t path shows rapid exhumation during D2 and slower rates during D3 when the units were progressively incorporated into the accretionary prism. The domal shape formed in response to tectonic denudation assisted by normal faulting and erosion at the surface during the final stages of structural development. These results support tectonic models of SW subduction of the Proto-Caribbean crust under the Caribbean plate during the latest Cretaceous and provide

  13. Precise U-Pb dating of Cenozoic tropical reef carbonates: Linking the evolution of Cenozoic Caribbean reef carbonates to climatic and environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Tamayo, J. C.; Ducea, M.; Cardona, A.; Montes, C.; Rincon, D.; Machado, A.; Flores, A.; Sial, A.; Pardo, A.; Niño, H.; Ramirez, V.; Jaramillo, C.; Zapata, P.; Barrios, L.; Rosero, S.; Bayona, G.; Zapata, V.

    2012-04-01

    Coral reefs are very diverse and productive ecosystems; and have long been the base of the economic activity of several countries along the tropics. Because coral reefs are very sensitive to environmental changes and their adaptation to changing stressing conditions is very slow, the combination of current rapid environmental changes and the additional stresses created by growing human populations (i.e. rapid anthropogenic CO2 additions to the atmosphere),plus the economic and coastal development may become a lethal synergy. The ongoing acidification of modern oceans is a major issue of concern because it may have serious consequences for the survival of shelly marine invertebrates as the 21st century progresses. Ocean Acidification (OA) is now being driven by rapid CO2 release to the atmosphere. Although evidences of the devastating effects of oceanic acidification in the marine biota are provided by the decreased rate of coral skeleton production and the reduced ability of algae and free-swimming zooplankton to maintain protective shells, among others, predicting the effects of oceanic acidification on the future oceans (2050-2100) has remained rather difficult because the atmospheric CO2 sequestration by the global oceans occurs in geologic time scales. Important changes in the atmospheric pCO2 and major climatic/environmental events seem to have controlled the evolution of the Cenozoic equatorial-tropical carbonates r1-10. Rapid additions of green house gases to the atmosphere occurred during the Paleocene-Eocene transition and would have promoted several other events of global warming until the early Oligocene (i.e. the Eocene thermal maximum). These periods of high greenhouse gases concentrations would have also resulted on OA, affecting the reef carbonate ecology and tropical carbonate budgets. Relating temporal variations in the Cenozoic reef carbonate structure, ecology and factory is vital to help understanding and predicting the future effects of the

  14. Dynamic evolution of shear - extensional tectonics in South China and uranium resource exploration strategic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Shiyi; Tao Zhijun; Han Qiming

    2012-01-01

    A variety of multi- types, multi-level, multi-era shear - extensional tectonics in south China is developed, the main form of shear-extensional tectonics, and developmental characteristics and metallogenic geodynamic evolution is discovered, and thus uranium resource exploration strategic analysis is conducted

  15. Geodynamics of kimberlites on a cooling Earth: Clues to plate tectonic evolution and deep volatile cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappe, Sebastian; Smart, Katie; Torsvik, Trond; Massuyeau, Malcolm; de Wit, Mike

    2018-02-01

    Kimberlite magmatism has occurred in cratonic regions on every continent. The global age distribution suggests that this form of mantle melting has been more prominent after 1.2 Ga, and notably between 250-50 Ma, than during early Earth history before 2 Ga (i.e., the Paleoproterozoic and Archean). Although preservation bias has been discussed as a possible reason for the skewed kimberlite age distribution, new treatment of an updated global database suggests that the apparent secular evolution of kimberlite and related CO2-rich ultramafic magmatism is genuine and probably coupled to lowering temperatures of Earth's upper mantle through time. Incipient melting near the CO2- and H2O-bearing peridotite solidus at >200 km depth (1100-1400 °C) is the petrologically most feasible process that can produce high-MgO carbonated silicate melts with enriched trace element concentrations akin to kimberlites. These conditions occur within the convecting asthenospheric mantle directly beneath thick continental lithosphere. In this transient upper mantle source region, variable CHO volatile mixtures control melting of peridotite in the absence of heat anomalies so that low-degree carbonated silicate melts may be permanently present at ambient mantle temperatures below 1400 °C. However, extraction of low-volume melts to Earth's surface requires tectonic triggers. Abrupt changes in the speed and direction of plate motions, such as typified by the dynamics of supercontinent cycles, can be effective in the creation of lithospheric pathways aiding kimberlite magma ascent. Provided that CO2- and H2O-fluxed deep cratonic keels, which formed parts of larger drifting tectonic plates, existed by 3 Ga or even before, kimberlite volcanism could have been frequent during the Archean. However, we argue that frequent kimberlite magmatism had to await establishment of an incipient melting regime beneath the maturing continents, which only became significant after secular mantle cooling to below

  16. Post-Jurassic tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahirovic, Sabin; Seton, Maria; Dietmar Müller, R.; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    The accretionary growth of Asia, linked to long-term convergence between Eurasia, Gondwana-derived blocks and the Pacific, resulted in a mosaic of terranes for which conflicting tectonic interpretations exist. Here, we propose solutions to a number of controversies related to the evolution of Sundaland through a synthesis of published geological data and plate reconstructions that reconcile both geological and geophysical constraints with plate driving forces. We propose that West Sulawesi, East Java and easternmost Borneo rifted from northern Gondwana in the latest Jurassic, collided with an intra-oceanic arc at ~115 Ma and subsequently sutured to Sundaland by 80 Ma. Although recent models argue that the Southwest Borneo core accreted to Sundaland at this time, we use volcanic and biogeographic constraints to show that the core of Borneo was on the Asian margin since at least the mid Jurassic. This northward transfer of Gondwana-derived continental fragments required a convergent plate boundary in the easternmost Tethys that we propose gave rise to the Philippine Archipelago based on the formation of latest Jurassic-Early Cretaceous supra-subduction zone ophiolites on Halmahera, Obi Island and Luzon. The Late Cretaceous marks the shift from Andean-style subduction to back-arc opening on the east Asian margin. Arc volcanism along South China ceased by ~60 Ma due to the rollback of the Izanagi slab, leading to the oceanward migration of the volcanic arc and the opening of the Proto South China Sea (PSCS). We use the Apennines-Tyrrhenian system in the Mediterranean as an analogue to model this back-arc. Continued rollback detaches South Palawan, Mindoro and the Semitau continental blocks from the stable east Asian margin and transfers them onto Sundaland in the Eocene to produce the Sarawak Orogeny. The extrusion of Indochina and subduction polarity reversal along northern Borneo opens the South China Sea and transfers the Dangerous Grounds-Reed Bank southward to

  17. Interaction of tectonic and depositional processes that control the evolution of the Iberian Gulf of Cadiz margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, A.; Nelson, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    This study provides an integrated view of the growth patterns and factors that controlled the evolution of the Gulf of Cadiz continental margin based on studies of the tectonic, sedimentologic and oceanographic history of the area. Seven sedimentary regimes are identified, but there are more extensive descriptions of the late Cenozoic regimes because of the larger data base. The regimes of the Mesozoic passive margin include carbonate platforms, which become mixed calcareous-terrigenous deposits during the Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary. The Oligocene and Early Miocene terrigenous regimes developed, in contrast, over the active and transcurrent margins near the African-Iberian plate boundary. The top of the Gulf of Cadiz olistostrome, emplaced in the Late Miocene, is used as a key horizon to define the 'post-orogenic' depositional regimes. The Late Miocene progradational margin regime is characterized by a large terrigenous sediment supply to the margin and coincides with the closing of the Miocene Atlantic-Mediterranean gateways. The terrigenous drift depositional regime of the Early Pliocene resulted from the occurrence of high eustatic sea level and the characteristics of the Mediterranean outflow currents that developed after the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar. The Late Pliocene and Quaternary regimes are dominated by sequences of deposits related to cycles of high and low sea levels. Deposition of shelf-margin deltas and slope wedges correlate with regressive and low sea level regimes caused by eustasy and subsidence. During the highstand regimes of the Holocene, inner shelf prograding deltas and deep-water sediment drifts were developed under the influence of the Atlantic inflow and Mediterranean outflow currents, respectively. A modern human cultural regime began 2000 years ago with the Roman occupation of Iberia; human cultural effects on sedimentary regimes may have equalled natural factors such as climate change. Interplay of tectonic and

  18. Seismic facies and stratigraphy of the Cenozoic succession in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica: Implications for tectonic, climatic and glacial history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, C.R.; Whittaker, J.; Henrys, S.A.; Wilson, T.J.; Nash, T.R.

    2007-01-01

    A new stratigraphic model is presented for the evolution of the Cenozoic Victoria Land Basin of the West Antarctic Rift, based on integration of seismic reflection and drilling data. The Early Rift phase (?latest Eocene to Early Oligocene) comprises wedges of strata confined by early extensional faults, and which contain seismic facies consistent with drainage via coarse-grained fans and deltas into discrete, actively subsiding grabens and half-grabens. The Main Rift phase (Early Oligocene to Early Miocene) comprises a lens of strata that thickens symmetrically from the basin margins into a central depocenter, and in which stratal events pass continuously over the top of the Early Rift extensional topography. Internal seismic facies and lithofacies indicate a more organized, cyclical shallow marine succession, influenced increasingly upward by cycles of glacial advance and retreat into the basin. The Passive Thermal Subsidence phase (Early Miocene to ?) comprises an evenly distributed sheet of strata that does not thicken appreciably into the depocentre, with more evidence for clinoform sets and large channels. These patterns are interpreted to record accumulation under similar environmental conditions but in a regime of slower subsidence. The Renewed Rifting phase (? to Recent, largely unsampled by coring thus far) has been further divided into 1, a lower interval, in which the section thickens passively towards a central depocentre, and 2. an upper interval, in which more dramatic thickening patterns are complicated by magmatic activity. The youngest part of the stratigraphy was accumulated under the influence of flexural loading imposed by the construction of large volcanic edifices, and involved minimal sediment supply from the western basin margin, suggesting a change in environmental (glacial) conditions at possibly c. 2 Ma.

  19. Consequences of Chixculub Impact for the Tectonic and Geodynamic Evolution of the Gulf of Mexico North Carribean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangin, C.; Crespy, A.; Martinez-Reyes, J.

    2013-05-01

    The debate for Pacific exotic origin versus in situ inter American plate Atlantic origin of the Caribbean plate is active in the scientific community since decades. Independently of the origin of this plate, its fast motion towards the east at a present rate of 2cm/yr is accepted to have been initiated during the early-most Cenozoic. The Paleocene is a key period in the global evolution of Central America mainly marked also by the Chicxulub multiring meteor impact in Yucatan. We question here the genetic relationship between this impact event and the incipient tectonic escape of the Caribbean plate. The mostly recent published models suggest this impact has affected the whole crust down to the Moho, the upper mantle being rapidly and considerably uplifted. The crust was then fragmented 600km at least from the point of impact, and large circular depressions were rapidly filled by clastic sediments from Cantarell to Western Cuba via Chiapas and Belize. North of the impact, the whole Gulf of Mexico was affected by mass gravity sliding, initiated also during the Paleocene in Texas, remaining active in this basin up to present time. South of the impact, in the Caribbean plate, the Yucatan basin was rapidly opened, indicating a fast escape of the crustal material towards the unique free boundary, the paleo-Antilles subduction zone. Shear waves velocity data below the Caribbean plate suggest this crustal tectonic escape was enhanced by the fast eastward flowing mantle supporting a fragmented and stretched crust. The proposed model suggests Chicxulub impact (but also the hypothetic Beata impact) have fragmented brittle crust, then easily drifted towards the east. This could explain the Paleogene evolution of the Caribbean plate largely stretched during its early evolution. Geologically, this evolution could explain the absence of evident Paleogene oblique subduction along the Caribbean plate northern and southern margins, marked only by Mid Cretaceous dragged volcanic

  20. Formation and evolution of mesozoic volcanic basins in Gan-Hang tectonic belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xingpu

    1999-01-01

    The author mainly discusses the principle model for the formation and the evolution of Mesozoic volcanic basins in the Gan-Hang Tectonic Belt, and describes the distinct evolution features between the internal and external sites of volcanic basins, the natural relation between the down-warped, down-faulted, collapse volcanic basins and volcanic domes, the relationship between the formation of inter layered fractured zones of the volcanic cover and the evolution of volcanic basins

  1. Geologic framework and Cenozoic evolution of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K.F. Jr.; Spengler, R.W.; Myers, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been proposed as the site of a high-level nuclear waste repository. The purpose of this paper is to outline aspects of the geology and tectonics of the area which bear on its suitability as a waste repository. The repository is to be excavated from a non-lithophysal zone within the lower part of the Paintbrush Tuff. Revised estimates of the thickness of this zone indicate that the lower, down-dip extremity of the planned repository could be raised by as much as 130 m, thus reducing the grade within the repository and increasing the distance to the water table below. We note that because of the closely spaced fracturing and low in-situ stresses within the repository block, lateral support of fractured rock is likely to be poor. 30 refs., 5 figs

  2. The evolution and ascent paths of mantle xenolith-bearing magma: Observations and insights from Cenozoic basalts in Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pu; Niu, Yaoling; Guo, Pengyuan; Cui, Huixia; Ye, Lei; Liu, Jinju

    2018-06-01

    Studies have shown that mantle xenolith-bearing magmas must ascend rapidly to carry mantle xenoliths to the surface. It has thus been inferred inadvertently that such rapid ascending melt must have undergone little crystallization or evolution. However, this inference is apparently inconsistent with the widespread observation that xenolith-bearing alkali basalts are variably evolved with Mg# ≤72. In this paper, we discuss this important, yet overlooked, petrological problem and offer new perspectives with evidence. We analyzed the Cenozoic mantle xenolith-bearing alkali basalts from several locations in Southeast China that have experienced varying degrees of fractional crystallization (Mg# = 48-67). The variably evolved composition of host alkali basalts is not in contradiction with rapid ascent, but rather reflects inevitability of crystallization during ascent. Thermometry calculations for clinopyroxene (Cpx) megacrysts give equilibrium temperatures of 1238-1390 °C, which is consistent with the effect of conductive cooling and melt crystallization during ascent because TMelt > TLithosphere. The equilibrium pressure (18-27 kbar) of these Cpx megacrysts suggests that the crystallization takes place under lithospheric mantle conditions. The host melt must have experienced limited low-pressure residence in the shallower levels of lithospheric mantle and crust. This is in fact consistent with the rapid ascent of the host melt to bring mantle xenoliths to the surface.

  3. Three-phase tectonic evolution of the Andaman backarc basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    KameshRaju, K.A.

    , very smooth t o- po graphic plane on either side characterizes segment C. Si n- gle - channel seismic reflection data over this segment depict a thick pile of sediments, with expressions of e x- tensional tectonics. Seismic eviden ce indicates... that there is more than 2 km thick sediment overburden over this spreading segment 2,8 . The axial trough along the entire length of segment C is well maintained in spite of high sediment influx in the region. Flanks of the spreading segment A, define a fan...

  4. Tectonic and environmental factors controlling on the evolution of Oligo-Miocene shallow marine carbonate factories along a tropical SE Circum-Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Tamayo, J. C.; Lara, M. E.; Nana Yobo, L.; Erdal, Y. D.; Sanchez, J.; Zapata-Ramirez, P. A.

    2017-10-01

    The evolution of the Cenozoic Circum-Caribbean shallow marine carbonate factories and ecosystems has been for long attributed to major global climatic and environmental changes. Although temporal variations in the Cenozoic shallow marine carbonate factories in this region seem to follow global trends, the potential effects of regional processes, such tectonic activity and local environmental change, on the evolution of the shallow marine carbonate factories are not well established. Here we present detailed sedimentologic and stratigraphic information from Middle Oligocene - Middle Miocene (Chattian-Burdigalian) shallow marine carbonate successions of the Siamana Formation in the Cocinetas sub-basin, Alta Guajira Basin, Guajira Peninsula, northern Colombia. We document the potential effects of regional tectonics and local environmental deterioration on the evolution of the Oligocene-Miocene tropical shallow marine carbonate factories along the SE Circum-Caribbean. Our results show that mixed heterozoan-photozoan biotic associations dominated the shallow marine carbonate factories during the Chattian, while purely photozoan biotic associations constituted the primary carbonate factory during the Aquitanian-Burdigalian transition. The Chattian mixed heterozoan/photozoan biotic association is associated with the development of mixed carbonate/siliciclastic shelves along which detached patchy reef areas occur. The onset of the Aquitanian-Burdigalian purely photozoan biotic associations parallels the increase in coral diversity as well as the occurence of rimmed/detached carbonate platforms in the northern part of the basin. The development of the rimmed/detached platforms coincides with a time of increased basin subsidence and increased silicilcastic input along the southernmost part of the basin. A significant change in the carbonate factory occurs in the Late Burdigalian, when purely heterozoan (rodalgal) biotic associations constituted the main shallow marine

  5. Paleomagnetic constraints on the Cenozoic kinematic evolution of the Pamir plateau from the Western Kunlun Shan foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenyu; Ding, Lin; Lippert, Peter C.; Wei, Honghong

    2013-09-01

    Thick Cenozoic marine and terrestrial sediments are widely distributed along the perimeter of the Pamir plateau and provide valuable information on the kinematic evolution of the region. Here, we report new biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic results from the piedmont of the Western Kunlun Shan to constrain the magnitude and timing of vertical-axis rotations along the eastern margin of the Pamir. Sampling sites were selected by rock formations and ages, which are based on previous field mapping and on litholostratigraphic and biostratigraphic work presented here. Thermomagnetic analysis, step-wise thermal demagnetization behavior, and positive field tests all suggest that the characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) directions most probably have a primary detrital and chemical origin. Our results indicate variable, minor, but in some intervals significant vertical axis rotations with respect to a stable Asian reference frame. This pattern of rotations is similar to paleomagnetic data reported in previously published studies from the Eastern Pamir foreland. In contrast, published paleomagnetic data from the Western Pamir foreland consistently indicate significant CCW rotations within that region. Collectively, these results challenge simple oroclinal bending models for the origin of the Pamir salient, and instead are more consistent with an asymmetric "half-orocline" kinematic model in which the curvature of the Western Pamir is the product of a combination of lithospheric bending of an originally quasi-linear mountain belt and radial thrusting, and the subdued curvature of the eastern edge of the plateau is the result of lateral translation of the Pamir plateau northward past Tibet and Tarim along the Kashgar-Yecheng transfer system. Our results are consistent with activity on the Kashgar-Yecheng transfer system in the Early Miocene.

  6. Cenozoic structural evolution, thermal history, and erosion of the Ukrainian Carpathians fold-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakapelyukh, Mykhaylo; Bubniak, Ihor; Bubniak, Andriy; Jonckheere, Raymond; Ratschbacher, Lothar

    2018-01-01

    The Carpathians are part of the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic orogen surrounding the Pannonian basin. Their Ukrainian part constitutes an ancient subduction-accretion complex that evolved into a foreland fold-thrust belt with a shortening history that was perpendicular to the orogenic strike. Herein, we constrain the evolution of the Ukrainian part of the Carpathian fold-thrust belt by apatite fission-track dating of sedimentary and volcanic samples and cross-section balancing and restoration. The apatite fission-track ages are uniform in the inner―southwestern part of the fold-thrust belt, implying post-shortening erosion since 12-10 Ma. The ages in the leading and trailing edges record provenance, i.e., sources in the Trans-European suture zone and the Inner Carpathians, respectively, and show that these parts of the fold-thrust were not heated to more than 100 °C. Syn-orogenic strata show sediment recycling: in the interior of the fold-thrust belt―the most thickened and most deeply eroded nappes―the apatite ages were reset, eroded, and redeposited in the syn-orogenic strata closer to the fore- and hinterland; the lag times are only a few million years. Two balanced cross sections, one constructed for this study and based on field and subsurface data, reveal an architecture characterized by nappe stacks separated by high-displacement thrusts; they record 340-390 km shortening. A kinematic forward model highlights the fold-thrust belt evolution from the pre-contractional configuration over the intermediate geometries during folding and thrusting and the post-shortening, erosional-unloading configuration at 12-10 Ma to the present-day geometry. Average shortening rates between 32-20 Ma and 20-12 Ma amounted to 13 and 21 km/Ma, respectively, implying a two-phased deformation of the Ukrainian fold-thrust belt.

  7. Balanced Cross Section for Restoration of Tectonic Evolution in the Southwest Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Shiguo; Ni Xianglong; Guo Junhua

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the multi-channel seismic data and the other data, using 2DMove software,the tectonic evolution in three seismic profiles was restored since Pliocene. The tectonic restoration results show that: (1) the initial active center lay in the west slope and then was transferred to east and south via trough center during the evolution process; (2) several main normal faults controlled the evolution of the southern Okinawa Trough; (3) since Late Pliocene, the southern Okinawa Trough has experienced two spreading stages. The early is depression in Early-Middle Pleistocene and the late is back-arc spreading in Late Pleistocene and Holocene, which is in primary oceanic crust spreading stage.

  8. Tectonic Evolution of the Çayirhan Neogene Basin (Ankara), Central Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Bezhan; Koral, Hayrettin; İşb&idot; l, Duygu; Karaaǧa; ç, Serdal

    2016-04-01

    Çayırhan (Ankara) is located at crossroads of the Western Anatolian extensional region, analogous to the Basin and Range Province, and suture zone of the Neotethys-Ocean, which is locus of the North Anatolian Transform since the Late Miocene. To the north of Çayırhan (Ankara), a Neogene sedimentary basin comprises Lower-Middle Miocene and Upper Miocene age formations, characterized by swamp, fluvial and lacustrine settings respectively. This sequence is folded and transected by neotectonic faults. The Sekli thrust fault is older than the Lower-Middle Miocene age formations. The Davutoǧlan fault is younger than the Lower-Middle Miocene formations and is contemporaneous to the Upper Miocene formation. The Çatalkaya fault is younger than the Upper Miocene formation. The sedimentary and tectonic features provide information on mode, timing and evolution of this Neogene age sedimentary basin in Central Turkey. It is concluded that the region underwent a period of uplift and erosion under the influence of contractional tectonics prior to the Early-Middle Miocene, before becoming a semi-closed basin under influence of transtensional tectonics during the Early-Middle Miocene and under influence of predominantly extensional tectonics during the post-Late Miocene times. Keywords: Tectonics, Extension, Transtension, Stratigraphy, Neotectonic features.

  9. Seafloor Tectonic Fault Fabric and the Evolution of the Walvis Ridge-Rio Grande Rise Hot Spot Twins in the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, W. W.; Engfer, D.; Thoram, S.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Class, C.

    2015-12-01

    Walvis Ridge (WR) and Rio Grande Rise (RGR) are Cretaceous-Cenozoic large igneous provinces (LIPs) formed by the Tristan-Gough hot spot interacting with the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Although hot spot-ridge interaction has long been considered a primary factor controlling WR-RGR morphology, details are fuzzy owing to sparse geophysical data. We examined tectonic fabric revealed in satellite altimetry-derived gravity data to infer details about RGR-WR evolution. Plate tectonic reconstructions indicate that the main RGR plateau and large N-S plateau in the eastern WR erupted at the same point at ~90 Ma. Over the next ~8 Myr, these conjunct LIPs formed a "V" shape with a basin in between. Curved fracture zones within the basin imply the two LIPs formed around a microplate. The prominent rift in the middle of RGR formed nearly perpendicular to the RGR-WR intersection, suggesting an extensional microplate boundary. Hot spot eruptions continued at the MAR, emplacing the eastern WR and two main RGR plateaus until ~60 Ma. During this period, the N-S trending Eastern Rio Grande Rise (ERGR) was erupted along the MAR. Both the ERGR and WR formed bathymetric lineaments parallel to seafloor fault fabric and were likely connected. This resulted in WR seamounts with a "tadpole" shape, the head being small to medium seamounts on the WR track and the tails being low, spreading-fabric-parallel ridges extending up to ~150 km northward. Similar, small seamounts are found in the contemporaneous ERGR. Another critical observation is that the WR-RGR formed at a large crustal discontinuity (~700 km at anomaly C33, ~84 Ma) at one or more fracture zone offsets. By late Cenozoic time (anomaly C5, ~10 Ma), the offset was reduced by half while several new fracture zones formed at the junction between RGR and WR. This implies a connection between ridge reorganization and RGR-WR volcanism that may have resulted from the fracture zones becoming oblique to the spreading direction as Euler poles

  10. Overview of geology and tectonic evolution of the Baikal-Tuva area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkochub, Dmitry; Donskaya, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    This chapter provides the results of geological investigations of the main tectonic units of the Baikal-Tuva region (southwestern part of Siberia) during the last decades: the ancient Siberian craton and adjacent areas of the Central Asian Orogenic belt. In the framework of these main units we describe small-scale blocks (terranes) with focus on details of their inner structure and evolution through time. As well as describing the geology and tectonics of the area studied, we give an overview of underwater sediments, neotectonics, and some phenomena of history and development of the Baikal, Khubsugul, Chargytai, and Tore-Chol Lakes basins of the Baikal-Tuva region. It is suggested that these lakes' evolution was controlled by neotectonic processes, modern seismic activity, and global climate changes.

  11. Tectonic activity and the evolution of submarine canyons: The Cook Strait Canyon system, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Aaron; Mountjoy, Joshu; Barnes, Philip; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic

    2016-04-01

    Submarine canyons are Earth's most dramatic erosional features, comprising steep-walled valleys that originate in the continental shelf and slope. They play a key role in the evolution of continental margins by transferring sediments into deep water settings and are considered important biodiversity hotspots, pathways for nutrients and pollutants, and analogues of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Although comprising only one third of continental margins worldwide, active margins host more than half of global submarine canyons. We still lack of thorough understanding of the coupling between active tectonics and submarine canyon processes, which is necessary to improve the modelling of canyon evolution in active margins and derive tectonic information from canyon morphology. The objectives of this study are to: (i) understand how tectonic activity influences submarine canyon morphology, processes, and evolution in an active margin, and (2) formulate a generalised model of canyon development in response to tectonic forcing based on morphometric parameters. We fulfil these objectives by analysing high resolution geophysical data and imagery from Cook Strait Canyon system, offshore New Zealand. Using these data, we demonstrate that tectonic activity, in the form of major faults and structurally-generated tectonic ridges, leaves a clear topographic signature on submarine canyon location and morphology, in particular their dendritic and sinuous planform shapes, steep and linear longitudinal profiles, and cross-sectional asymmetry and width. We also report breaks/changes in canyon longitudinal slope gradient, relief and slope-area regression models at the intersection with faults. Tectonic activity gives rise to two types of knickpoints in the Cook Strait Canyon. The first type consists of low slope gradient, rounded and diffusive knickpoints forming as a result of short wavelength folds or fault break outs and being restored to an equilibrium profile by upstream erosion and

  12. Distinct phases of eustatic and tectonic forcing for late Quaternary landscape evolution in southwest Crete, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mouslopoulou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which climate, eustasy and tectonics interact to shape the late Quaternary landscape is poorly known. Alluvial fans often provide useful indexes that allow the decoding of information recorded on complex coastal landscapes, such as those of the eastern Mediterranean. In this paper we analyse and date (using infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL dating a double alluvial fan system on southwest Crete, an island straddling the forearc of the Hellenic subduction margin, in order to constrain the timing and magnitude of its vertical deformation and discuss the factors contributing to its landscape evolution. The studied alluvial system is exceptional because each of its two juxtaposed fans records individual phases of alluvial and marine incision, thus providing unprecedented resolution in the formation and evolution of its landscape. Specifically, our analysis shows that the fan sequence at Domata developed during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 3 due to five distinct stages of marine transgressions and regressions and associated river incision, in response to sea-level fluctuations and tectonic uplift at averaged rates of  ∼ 2.2 mm yr−1. Interestingly, comparison of our results with published tectonic uplift rates from western Crete shows that uplift during 20–50 kyr BP was minimal (or even negative. Thus, most of the uplift recorded at Domata must have occurred in the last 20 kyr. This implies that eustasy and tectonism impacted the landscape at Domata over mainly distinct time intervals (e.g. sequentially and not synchronously, with eustasy forming and tectonism preserving the coastal landforms.

  13. A review of the paleomagnetic data from Cretaceous to lower Tertiary rocks from Vietnam, Indochina and South China, and their implications for Cenozoic tectonism in Vietnam and adjacent areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cung, Thu'ọ'ng Chí; Geissman, John W.

    2013-09-01

    Available paleomagnetic data from rock formations of Cretaceous age from Vietnam, Indochina and South China are compiled and reviewed in the context of their tectonic importance in a common reference frame with respect to Eurasia's coeval paleopoles. Key factors that play an important role in determining the reliability of a paleomagnetic result for utilization in tectonic studies have been taken into consideration and include the absence of evidence of remagnetization, which is a feature common to many rocks in this region. Overall, the Cretaceous paleomagnetic data from the South China Block show that the present geographic position of the South China Block has been relatively stable with respect to Eurasia since the mid-Cretaceous and that the paleomagnetically detected motion of a coherent lithospheric block must be based on the representative data obtained from different specific localities across the block in order to separate more localized, smaller scale deformation from true lithosphere scale motion (translation and/or rotation) of a tectonic block. Cretaceous to early Tertiary paleomagnetic data from the Indochina-Shan Thai Block reveal complex patterns of intra-plate deformation in response to the India-Eurasia collision. Paleomagnetically detected motions from the margins of tectonic blocks are interpreted to mainly reflect displacement of upper crustal blocks due to folding and faulting processes. Rigid, lithosphere scale block rotation is not necessarily supported by the paleomagnetic data. The paleomagnetic results from areas east and south of the Red River fault system suggest that this major transcurrent fault system has had a complicated slip history through much of the Cenozoic and that it does not demarcate completely non-rotated and significantly rotated parts of the crust in this area. However, most paleomagnetic results from areas east and south of the Red River fault system at the latitude of Yunnan Province are consistent with a very modest

  14. The relationship between tectonic-thermal evolution and sandstone-type uranium ore-formation in Ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Honggang

    2005-01-01

    The comprehensive study of the volcanic activities, the geothermal field, the thermal flow field, the paleogeo-thermal activity and the tectonic evolution of the Ordos basin indicates that the tectonic-thermal evolution of the Ordos basin has offered the basis for the fluid-fluid and fluid-rock mutual reactions, and has created favourable conditions for the formation of organic mineral resources and sandstone-type uranium deposits. Especially, the tectonic-thermal event during middle-Late Jurassic to Cretaceous played an important role in providing uranium source material, and assisting the migration, the concentration and precipitation of uranium and uranium ore-formation. (authors)

  15. Evolution of basin architecture in an incipient continental rift: the Cenozoic Most Basin, Eger Graben (Central Europe)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rajchl, M.; Uličný, David; Grygar, R.; Mach, K.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2009), s. 269-294 ISSN 0950-091X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012705; GA ČR GA205/01/0629; GA ČR(CZ) GA205/06/1823 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : Cenozoic Most Basin * continental rift * Eger Graben Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.161, year: 2009

  16. Post-Palaeozoic evolution of weathered landsurfaces in Uganda by tectonically controlled deep weathering and stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R. G.; Howard, K. W. F.

    1998-11-01

    A model for the evolution of weathered landsurfaces in Uganda is developed using available geotectonic, climatic, sedimentological and chronological data. The model demonstrates the pivotal role of tectonic uplift in inducing cycles of stripping, and tectonic quiescence for cycles of deep weathering. It is able to account for the development of key landforms, such as inselbergs and duricrust-capped plateaux, which previous hypotheses of landscape evolution that are based on climatic or eustatic controls are unable to explain. Development of the Ugandan landscape is traced back to the Permian. Following late Palaeozoic glaciation, a trend towards warmer and more humid climates through the Mesozoic enabled deep weathering of the Jurassic/mid-Cretaceous surface in Uganda during a period of prolonged tectonic quiescence. Uplift associated with the opening South Atlantic Ocean terminated this cycle and instigated a cycle of stripping between the mid-Cretaceous and early Miocene. Deep weathering on the succeeding Miocene to recent (African) surface has occurred from Miocene to present but has been interrupted in the areas adjacent to the western rift where development of a new drainage base level has prompted cycles of stripping in the Miocene and Pleistocene.

  17. The evolution of volcanism, tectonics, and volatiles on Mars - An overview of recent progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbelman, James R.; Solomon, Sean C.; Sharpton, Virgil L.

    1991-01-01

    Significant results of the 'Mars: Evolution of Volcanism, Tectonics, and Volatiles' (MEVTV) project are presented. The data for the project are based on geological mapping from the Viking images, petrologic and chemical analyses of SNC meteorites, and both mapping and temporal grouping of major fault systems. The origin of the planet's crustal dichotomy is examined in detail, the kinematics and formation of wrinkle ridges are discussed, and some new theories are set forth. Because the SNC meteorites vary petrologically and isotopically, the sources of the parental Martian magma are heterogeneous. Transcurrent faulting coupled with the extensional strains that form Valles Marineris suggest early horizontal movement of lithospheric blocks. A theory which connects the formation of the crustal dichotomy to the Tharsis region associates the horizontal motions with plate tectonics that generated a new lithosphere.

  18. The tectonic evolution of the southeastern Terceira Rift/São Miguel region (Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, B. J.; Hübscher, C.; Lüdmann, T.

    2015-07-01

    The eastern Azores Archipelago with São Miguel being the dominant subaerial structure is located at the intersection of an oceanic rift (Terceira Rift) with a major transform fault (Gloria Fault) representing the westernmost part of the Nubian-Eurasian plate boundary. The evolution of islands, bathymetric highs and basin margins involves strong volcanism, but the controlling geodynamic and tectonic processes are currently under debate. In order to study this evolution, multibeam bathymetry and marine seismic reflection data were collected to image faults and stratigraphy. The basins of the southeastern Terceira Rift are rift valleys whose southwestern and northeastern margins are defined by few major normal faults and several minor normal faults, respectively. Since São Miguel in between the rift valleys shows an unusual W-E orientation, it is supposed to be located on a leaky transform. South of the island and separated by a N120° trending graben system, the Monacco Bank represents a N160° oriented flat topped volcanic ridge dominated by tilted fault blocks. Up to six seismic units are interpreted for each basin. Although volcanic ridges hamper a direct linking of depositional strata between the rift and adjacent basins, the individual seismic stratigraphic units have distinct characteristics. Using these units to provide a consistent relative chrono-stratigraphic scheme for the entire study area, we suggest that the evolution of the southeastern Terceira Rift occurred in two stages. Considering age constrains from previous studies, we conclude that N140° structures developed orthogonal to the SW-NE direction of plate-tectonic extension before ~ 10 Ma. The N160° trending volcanic ridges and faults developed later as the plate tectonic spreading direction changed to WSW-ENE. Hence, the evolution of the southeastern Terceira Rift domain is predominantly controlled by plate kinematics and lithospheric stress forming a kind of a re-organized rift system.

  19. Structural evolution and tectonic style of the Tunisian central Atlas; role of inherited faults in compressive tectonics (Ghoualguia anticline)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briki, Haithem; Ahmadi, Riadh; Smida, Rabiaa; Rekhiss, Farhat

    2018-04-01

    Geological mapping, field cross sections, structural analyses and new subsurface data were used to characterize the geometry and tectonic setting of the Ghoualguia structure, which is an E-W-trending anticline located between the Kalaa Khasba and Rouhia troughs of the central Tunisian Atlas. The results show an important NE-SW extensional phase during the Mesozoic, as demonstrated by synsedimentary normal faults (NW-SE and E-W) and thickness variations. In the Aouled Mdoua area, the absence of Paleocene-Eocene rocks indicates that the eastern and western parts of the Ghoualguia structure were separated by high topography. In addition, the angular unconformity observed between the Upper Cretaceous unit (Abiod Fm.) and the upper Eocene series (Souar Fm.) provide evidence of a tilted-block structure delineated by North-South faults. A major compressional phase during the middle to late Miocene created various detachment levels that originated mainly in the Triassic and Cretaceous deposits. Faults were reactivated as thrust and strike-slip faults, creating fault-related fold structures. In the core of the Ghoualguia fold, an original S-dipping normal fault underwent reverse movement as a back thrust. Fault-slip data indicate that the area records a major NE-SW extensional phase that took place during the late Miocene and Pliocene. A balanced cross section provides insight into the existence of two main detachment levels rooted in the Triassic (depth ± 6 km) and the lower Cretaceous (depth ± 2.5 km). The balanced cross section highlights a shortening of about 2.5 km along cross section and 1.5 km in the central part of the Ghoualguia anticline. This work underlines the predominant role of the inherited Mesozoic structures during the evolution of the Atlassic range and their influence on the geometry of the central Tunisian atlas.

  20. Late Cenozoic basin evolution and fold-thrust deformation in the southern Central Andes: Initial constraints from synorogenic deposits of the Precordillera, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, M.; Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.; Stockli, D. F.

    2012-12-01

    In the Precordillera region of the Argentine Andes, Cenozoic shortening associated with flattening of the Pampean segment of the subducting Nazca plate has resulted in a series of thin skinned fold-thrust systems that partitioned and uplifted Cenozoic foreland basin deposits. The kinematic and temporal evolution of the Andean Precordillera can be approached through detailed analyses of the sedimentary fill now preserved in intermontane regions and the bedrock low-temperature thermochronology of the fold-thrust belt. In this project, we focus on Neogene foreland basin fill exposed in the central and eastern Precordillera along the San Juan River (Quebrada Albarracín and Pachaco regions), on the western flank of the Sierra Talacasto, and in the Loma de las Tapias area near the Ullum dam. The sedimentary successions exposed in these regions record the hinterland development of the Frontal Cordillera (detrital zircon provenance and composition of sandstone and conglomeratic units), regional volcanism (pyroclastic flows and tuffaceous sandstone units), and initial construction of the Precordillera (fault cutoff relationships, growth strata, and paleocurrent changes). We investigate the development and subsequent partitioning and deformation of these synorogenic sections using sediment provenance (detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, conglomerate clast counts, sandstone petrography, and paleocurrent measurements), facies analysis of measured stratigraphic successions, and initial apatite (U-Th)/He cooling histories to constrain the age of uplift-induced exhumation of successive thrust sheets in the Andean Precordillera.

  1. Tectonic Evolution of Chinese Petroleum Basins Évolution tectonique des bassins pétroliers chinois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu X.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum basins in China are closely related to the tectonic regimes in different stages of geological evolution. The Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins were controlled by the deformation of the lithosphere of the Chinese plate in the course of subductions y neighboring plates situated in opposite directions. The crustal position may be a decisive factor for the different styles of basin development. Paleozoic (including Sinian and parts of Triassic basins, on the other hand, might have been related to the fragmentation and reunification as well as the accretion of the ancient platform. The superposition of basins of different regimes or different generations brought about a complex set of depositional and structural characteristics influencing both constructively and destructivelythe mode of distribution of oil and gas. Les bassins pétroliers de la Chine ont une liaison étroite avec les régimes tectoniques des différents étages de l'évolution géologique. Les bassins mésozoiques et cénozoïques ont été affectés par la déformation de la lithosphère de la plaque chinoise au cours de subduction des plaques voisines situées en directions opposées. La position de la croûte est peut-être un facteur déterminant pour les styles différents du développement du bassin. Les bassins paléozoïques (y compris le Sinien et une partie du Trias sont d'autre part liés à la fragmentation et la réunification, de même que l'accrétion des plates-formes anciennes. La superposition des bassins à régimes différents ou à générations différentes a créé une série sédimentaire et influence constructivement et destructivement le mode de distribution et de redistribution du pétrole et du gaz.

  2. Fission-track constraints on the thermal and tectonic evolution of the Apuseni Mountains (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounov, Alexandre; Schmid, Stefan M.

    2013-01-01

    New zircon and apatite fission-track (FT) data, including apatite thermal modelling, are combined with an extensive literature survey and reconnaissance-type structural fieldwork in the Eastern Apuseni Mountains. This leads to a better understanding of the complex structural and thermal history of a key area at the boundary between two megatectonic units in the Balkan peninsula, namely the Tisza and Dacia Mega-Units. Following Late Jurassic obduction of the Transylvanian ophiolites onto a part of the Dacia Mega-Unit, that is, the Biharia nappe system, both units were buried to a minimum of 8 km during late Early Cretaceous times when these units were underthrust below the Tisza Mega-Unit consisting of the present-day Codru and Bihor nappe systems. Tisza formed the upper plate during Early Cretaceous (`Austrian') east-facing orogeny. Turonian to Campanian zircon FT cooling ages (95-71 Ma) from the Bihor and Codru nappe systems and the Biharia and Baia de Arieş nappes (at present the structurally lowest part of the Dacia Mega-Unit) record exhumation that immediately followed a second Cretaceous-age (i.e. Turonian) orogenic event. Thrusting during this overprinting event was NW-facing and led to the overall geometry of the present-day nappe stack in the Apuseni Mountains. Zircon FT ages, combined with thermal modelling of the apatite FT data, show relatively rapid post-tectonic cooling induced by a third shortening pulse during the latest Cretaceous (`Laramian' phase), followed by slower cooling across the 120°-60 °C temperature interval during latest Cretaceous to earliest Paleogene times (75-60 Ma). Cenozoic-age slow cooling (60-40 Ma) was probably related to erosional denudation postdating `Laramian' large-scale updoming.

  3. Simulating the Evolution of Fluid Underpressures in the Great Plains, by Incorporation of Tectonic Uplift and Tilting, with a Groundwater Flow Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad M. J. Umari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Underpressures (subhydrostatic heads in the Paleozoic units underlying the Great Plains of North America are a consequence of Cenozoic uplift of the area. Based on tectonostratigraphic data, we have developed a cumulative uplift history with superimposed periods of deposition and erosion for the Great Plains for the period from 40 Ma to the present. Uplift, deposition, and erosion on an 800 km geologic cross-section extending from northeast Colorado to eastern Kansas is represented in nine time-stepped geohydrologic models. Sequential solution of the two-dimensional diffusion equation reveals the evolution of hydraulic head and underpressure in a changing structural environment after 40 Ma, culminating in an approximate match with the measured present-day values. The modeled and measured hydraulic head values indicate that underpressures increase to the west. The 2 to 0 Ma model indicates that the present-day hydraulic head values of the Paleozoic units have not reached steady state. This result is significant because it indicates that present-day hydraulic heads are not at equilibrium, and underpressures will increase in the future. The pattern uncovered by the series of nine MODFLOW models is of increased underpressures with time. Overall, the models indicate that tectonic uplift explains the development of underpressures in the Great Plains.

  4. Extensional tectonics on continents and the transport of heat and matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    Intracontinental zones of extensional tectonic style are commonly of finite width and length. Associated sedimentary troughs are fault-controlled. The evolution of those structures is accompanied by volcanic activity of variable intensity. The characteristic surface structures are usually underlaid by a lower crust of the transitional type while deeper subcustal areas show delayed travel times of seismic waves especially at young tectonic provinces. A correspondence between deep-seated processes and zones of continental extension appears obvious. A sequential order of mechanisms and their importance are discussed in the light of modern data compilations and quantitative kinematic and dynamic approaches. The Cenozoic exensional tectonics related with the Rhine River are discussed.

  5. New aero-gravity results from the Arctic: Linking the latest Cretaceous-early Cenozoic plate kinematics of the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Arne; Hopper, J.R.; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard

    2013-01-01

    The tectonic history of the Arctic Ocean remains poorly resolved and highly controversial. Details regarding break up of the Lomonosov Ridge from the Barents-Kara shelf margins and the establishment of seafloor spreading in the Cenozoic Eurasia Basin are unresolved. Significantly, the plate...... tectonic evolution of the Mesozoic Amerasia Basin is essentially unknown. The Arctic Ocean north of Greenland is at a critical juncture that formed at the locus of a Mesozoic three-plate setting between the Lomonosov Ridge, Greenland, and North America. In addition, the area is close to the European plate...... plateau against an important fault zone north of Greenland. Our results provide new constraints for Cretaceous-Cenozoic plate reconstructions of the Arctic. Key Points Presentation of the largest aero-gravity survey acquired over the Arctic Ocean Plate tectonic link between Atlantic and Arctic spreading...

  6. Landscapes of human evolution: models and methods of tectonic geomorphology and the reconstruction of hominin landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Geoffrey N; Reynolds, Sally C; King, Geoffrey C P

    2011-03-01

    This paper examines the relationship between complex and tectonically active landscapes and patterns of human evolution. We show how active tectonics can produce dynamic landscapes with geomorphological and topographic features that may be critical to long-term patterns of hominin land use, but which are not typically addressed in landscape reconstructions based on existing geological and paleoenvironmental principles. We describe methods of representing topography at a range of scales using measures of roughness based on digital elevation data, and combine the resulting maps with satellite imagery and ground observations to reconstruct features of the wider landscape as they existed at the time of hominin occupation and activity. We apply these methods to sites in South Africa, where relatively stable topography facilitates reconstruction. We demonstrate the presence of previously unrecognized tectonic effects and their implications for the interpretation of hominin habitats and land use. In parts of the East African Rift, reconstruction is more difficult because of dramatic changes since the time of hominin occupation, while fossils are often found in places where activity has now almost ceased. However, we show that original, dynamic landscape features can be assessed by analogy with parts of the Rift that are currently active and indicate how this approach can complement other sources of information to add new insights and pose new questions for future investigation of hominin land use and habitats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Miocene to recent tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Anaximander Seamounts; eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranshaw, Jennifer

    This thesis is focused on the Messinian to Recent tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Anaximander Mountains and surrounding environs in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. It is based on processing of high-resolution seismic reflection data and the interpretation and mapping of seismic reflection profiles collected from this area during the 2001 and 2007 research cruises. The data show that the greater Anaximander Mountains region experienced a short interval of tectonic quiescence during the Messinian when a thin evaporite unit was deposited across a major erosional surface. This phase of limited tectonic activity ended in the latest Miocene and was replaced by an erosional phase. Major unconformities in the area are interpreted to develop during the desiccation of the eastern Mediterranean associated with the so-called Messinian salinity crisis. During the early Pliocene, the region experienced an increase in tectonic activity, dominated by transpression. Small amounts of growth observed in Pliocene-Quaternary sediments suggested that the tectonic activity remained low during the early Pliocene-Quaternary. However, the extensive growth strata wedges developed in older sediments indicate a period of accelerated tectonic activity during the mid-late Pliocene-Quaternary. This study suggests that the Anaximander Mountain (sensu stricto ) and the Anaximenes Mountain developed during the Pliocene-Quaternary as the result of a crustal-scale thick-skinned linked imbricate thrust fan. The development of back thrusts in both mountains heightened the seafloor morphology of these submarine mountains and brought Eocene-Oligocene sediments into the core of these mountains. The Sim Erinc Plateau represents a 30-40 km wide transpressional fault zone developed during the Pliocene-Quaternary. In this region the corrugated seafloor morphology observed in the multibeam bathymetry map is the reflection of high-angle faults. It is speculated that this transpressional fault zone

  8. New constraints on the tectonic and thermal evolution of the Central-Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelluccio, Ada; Andreucci, Benedetta; Grigo, Domenico; Jankowski, Leszek; Ketcham, Richard A.; Mazzoli, Stefano; Szaniawski, Rafal; Zattin, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    The Central-Western Carpathians have been studied for long time but they are a still matter of discussion. In addition, they are one of the principal East European targets for oil and gas exploration. Understanding the tectonic evolution and the spatial and temporal variation of the thermal regime is crucial for this purpose. This orogene formed after the collision between the European Platform and the ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia microplates from the Upper Jurassic to the Neogene. The widely accepted interpretation suggests the occurrence of the oceanic lithosphere subducting under the two microplates and the development of the oceanic suture in the Pieniny Klippen Belt area during the Paleocene. The subduction ends when the accretionary wedge reaches its present-day position on top of the southern border of the European Platform. The Carpathian arc can be subdivided into three tectonic domains: • Outer Carpathians made up of Upper Jurassic to Lower Miocene siliciclastic deposits intercalated with shales and sandstones; • Pieniny Klippen Belt formed by Mesozoic olistoliths and olistostromes in a sandy-clay Cretaceous sheared matrix; • Inner Carpathians consisting in Variscan allochthonous crystalline basement with its Mesozoic cover involved in the late Cretaceous folding and thrusting These deposits are unconformably overlain by the undeformed Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin successions. Cross-section balancing and sequential restoration integrated with low-temperature thermochronometry (apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He analysis) can better constrain the tectonic evolution of this area and, in particular, its exhumation history. Seven balanced sections have been constructed across the Polish and Ukrainian Carpathians. The sequential restoration shows a thick-skinned tectonics during the Upper Cretaceous, involving the Inner Carpathian basin. The erosion of the Mesozoic basement cover and the sedimentation of these deposits in the foreland basin

  9. Stagnant lids and mantle overturns: Implications for Archaean tectonics, magmagenesis, crustal growth, mantle evolution, and the start of plate tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean H. Bédard

    2018-01-01

    probability that oceanic crustal segments could founder in an organized way, producing a gradual evolution of pre-subduction convergent margins into modern-style active subduction systems around 2.5 Ga. Plate tectonics today is constituted of: (1 a continental drift system that started in the Early Archaean, driven by deep mantle currents pressing against the Archaean-age sub-continental lithospheric mantle keels that underlie Archaean cratons; (2 a subduction-driven system that started near the end of the Archaean.

  10. Cenozoic Structural and Stratigraphic Evolution of the Ulukışla and Sivas Basins (Central and Eastern Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürer, Derya; Darin, Michael H.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Umhoefer, Paul J.

    2017-04-01

    Because subduction is a destructive process, the surface record of subduction-dominated systems is naturally incomplete. Sedimentary basins may hold the most complete record of processes related to subduction, accretion, collision, and ocean closure, and thus provide key information for understanding the kinematic evolution of orogens. In central and eastern Anatolia, the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene stratigraphic record of the Ulukışla and Sivas basins supports the hypothesis that these once formed a contiguous basin. Importantly, their age and geographic positions relative to their very similar basement units and ahead of the Arabian indenter provide a critical record of pre-, syn- and post-collisional processes in the Anatolian Orogen. The Ulukışla-Sivas basin was dissected and translated along the major left-lateral Ecemiş fault zone. Since then, the basins on either side of the fault evolved independently, with considerably more plate convergence accommodated to the east in the Sivas region (eastern Anatolia) than in the Ulukışla region (central Anatolia). This led to the deformation of marine sediments and underlying ophiolites and structural growth of the Sivas Fold-and-Thrust Belt (SSFTB) since latest Eocene time, which played a major role in marine basin isolation and disconnection, along with a regionally important transition to continental conditions with evaporite deposition starting in the early Oligocene. We use geologic mapping, fault kinematic analysis, paleomagnetism, apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology to characterize the architecture, deformation style, and structural evolution of the region. In the Ulukışla basin, dominantly E-W trending normal faults became folded or inverted due to N-S contraction since the Lutetian (middle Eocene). This was accompanied by significant counter-clockwise rotations, and post-Lutetian burial of the Niǧde Massif along the transpressional Ecemiş fault zone. Since Miocene

  11. Sedimentologic indicators of the Miocene tectonic evolution in the Nunchia syncline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Arias, Juan Carlos; Mora, Andres; Parra, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    The study area corresponds to the Nunchia syncline, which is located in the eastern foothills of the eastern cordillera of Colombia. This structure is bounded by the Yopal thrust to the east, and Guaicaramo thrust to the west. This syncline has mostly outcrops of Miocene units, which belong to the Carbonera (C1-C5), Leon and Guayabo formations. Here we use sedimentologic data, especially in the Guayabo Formation, in order to determine the influence of active tectonics during its deposition. Petrographic analyses of sandstones indicate the presence of components associated with upper Cretaceous - Paleocene formations in the eastern cordillera. Paleocurrent orientation shows a preferential trend towards the se during the deposition of most of the studied formations, with a reversal in flow direction towards the W-NW during the deposition of the middle Guayabo Formation preserved in the Nunchia syncline. The collected data allows establishing a structural evolution in the Nunchia syncline which was therefore active during most of the Miocene. This evolution appears to be continuous, although fragmentation of the geological record shows more specific periods of tectonic activity.

  12. Tectonic-thermal evolution from the northeast region of Minas Gerais and South of Bahia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litwinski, N.

    1985-01-01

    The northeast region of Minas Gerais and South Bahia are centered to the east of 42 0 00 ' WGr, between parallels 15 0 and 18 0 . Its tectonic-thermal evolution is presented here with the support of stratigraphy/lithology, structural analysis, petrography, petrochemistry, regional metamorphism/retro metamorphism and radio chronology. It is pointed out that the evolution occurred in a mobile belt initiating its history in the terminal Archean up to Inferior Proterozoic. The northeast of the region attained crustal stability during 1700 My up to 1800 My (Sao Francisco Craton) meanwhile the rest of the zone kept mobilized till upper proterozoic times. Radio chronological studies suggest for the post tectonic granitic rocks, ages from the brasiliano cycle as well as for those pre-existing rocks which suffered isotopic regeneration and metamorphose in that same cycle an original age from Archean to inferior proterozoic times, except for those which are situated in the northeast part of the region. Petrochemical data point to an origin from sedimentary processes for the majority of the metamorphosed rocks in this region. (author)

  13. Cenozoic Deformation of the Tarim Basin (Xinjiang, China): a Record of the Deformation Propagation through the Asian Orogenic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde, A.; Barrier, L.; Simoes, M.; Li, H.

    2016-12-01

    During the Cenozoic, the ongoing India-Eurasia collision resulted in the formation of the Himalayan-Tibetan plateau and reactivated the Tian Shan and Altai ranges located thousands of kilometers further north. Despite numerous studies carried out on the geology and tectonics of this large convergent orogenic system, several mechanisms remain controversial such as the stress propagation through the Asia Continent or the strain partitioning between crustal thickening and lateral extruding of its lithosphere. Located between the Tibetan Plateau and the Tian Shan Range, the Tarim Basin and its several kilometres thick Cenozoic sediments derived from the surrounding mountain belts are key recorders to reconstruct the evolution of the latters. Moreover, this basin is often considered as a relatively rigid block, which behaved as a secondary ``indenter'' transmitting collisional stresses to the Tian Shan. However, due to the size of the Tarim and its thick Cenozoic sedimentary series hiding most of its structures, the constraints on the spatial distribution and timing of the its Cenozoic deformation remain fragmentary. Therefore, the main objective of our study was to produce a synthetic view of this deformation at the scale of the whole basin. Based on numerous surface and subsurface data (satellite images, field surveys, seismic profiles, and well data), we established a tectonic map of the Cenozoic structures in the region and built balanced geological cross-sections across the basin. Our surface and subsurface observations confirm that, contrary to what had been proposed, the Tarim block has also undergone a major deformation during the Cenozoic. The quantification and history of this deformation provide useful insights into the modalities of the crustal shortening in the area and the problems of stress propagation and strain partitioning following the Indo-Asian collision.

  14. Evolution of Meso-Cenozoic lithospheric thermal-rheological structure in the Jiyang sub-basin, Bohai Bay Basin, eastern North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Qiu, Nansheng; Wang, Ye; Chang, Jian

    2018-01-01

    The Meso-Cenozoic lithospheric thermal-rheological structure and lithospheric strength evolution of the Jiyang sub-basin were modeled using thermal history, crustal structure, and rheological parameter data. Results indicate that the thermal-rheological structure of the Jiyang sub-basin has exhibited obvious rheological stratification and changes over time. During the Early Mesozoic, the uppermost portion of the upper crust, middle crust, and the top part of the upper mantle had a thick brittle layer. During the early Early Cretaceous, the top of the middle crust's brittle layer thinned because of lithosphere thinning and temperature increase, and the uppermost portion of the upper mantle was almost occupied by a ductile layer. During the late Early Cretaceous, the brittle layer of the middle crust and the upper mantle changed to a ductile one. Then, the uppermost portion of the middle crust changed to a thin brittle layer in the late Cretaceous. During the early Paleogene, the thin brittle layer of the middle crust became even thinner and shallower under the condition of crustal extension. Currently, with the decrease in lithospheric temperature, the top of the upper crust, middle crust, and the uppermost portion of the upper mantle are of a brittle layer. The total lithospheric strength and the effective elastic thickness ( T e) in Meso-Cenozoic indicate that the Jiyang sub-basin experienced two weakened stages: during the late Early Cretaceous and the early Paleogene. The total lithospheric strength (approximately 4-5 × 1013 N m-1) and T e (approximately 50-60 km) during the Early Mesozoic was larger than that after the Late Jurassic (2-7 × 1012 N m-1 and 19-39 km, respectively). The results also reflect the subduction, and rollback of Pacific plate is the geodynamic mechanism of the destruction of the eastern North China Craton.

  15. The role of Mesozoic sedimentary basin tapers on the formation of Cenozoic crustal shortening structures and foredeep in the western Sichuan Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.

    2017-12-01

    The foreland basin records important clues of tectonic and sedimentary process of mountain-building, thus to explore its dynamic mechanism on the formation is an important issue of the mountain-basin interaction. The Longmen Shan fold-and-thrust belt and its adjacent Sichuan basin located in the eastern margin of Tibetan Plateau, are one of the most-concerned regions of studying modern mountain-building and seismic process, and are also a natural laboratory of studying the dynamics of the formation and development of foreland basin. However, it still need further explore on the mechanics of the development of the Cenozoic foreland basin and thrust-belts in the western Sichuan Basin. The Longmen Shan thrust belt has experienced multi-stages of tectonics evolution, foreland basin formation and topography growth since Late Triassic, and whether the early formed basin architecture and large Mesozoic sedimentary basin taper can influence the formation and development of the Cenozoic foreland basin and thrust belts? To solve these issues, this project aim to focus on the Cenozoic foreland basin and internal crustal shortening structures in the western Sichuan basin, on the basis of growth critical wedge taper theory. We will reconstruct the shape of multi-phases of sedimentary basin tapers, the temporal-spatial distribution of crustal shortening and thrusting sequences, and analyze the control mechanism of Mesozoic sedimentary basin taper on the formation of Cenozoic foreland basins, and final explore the interaction between the tectonics geomorphology, stress field and dynamic propagation of foreland basin.

  16. Plate tectonic model for the oligo-miocene evolution of the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Curtis R.

    1980-10-01

    This paper outlines a plate tectonic model for the Oligo-Miocene evolution of the western Mediterranean which incorporates recent data from several tectonic domains (Corsica, Sardinia, the Kabylies, Balearic promontory, Iberia, Algero-Provençal Basin and Tunisian Atlas). Following late Mesozoic anticlockwise rotation of the Iberian peninsula (including the Balearic promontory and Sardinia), late Eocene collision occurred between the Kabylies and Balearic promontory forming a NE-trending suture with NW-tectonic polarity. As a result of continued convergence between the African and European plates, a polarity flip occurred and a southward-facing trench formed south of the Kabylie—Balearic promontory suture. During late Oligocene time an E-W-trending arc and marginal basin developed behind the southward-facing trench in the area of the present-day Gulf of Lion. Opening of this basin moved the Corsica—Sardinia—Calabria—Petit Kabylie—Menorca plate southward, relative to the African plate. Early Miocene back-arc spreading in the area between the Balearic promontory and Grand Kabylie emplaced the latter in northern Algeria and formed the South Balearic Basin. Coeval with early Miocene back-arc basin development, the N-S-extension in the Gulf of Lion marginal basin changed to a more NW-SE direction causing short-lived extension in the area of the present-day Valencia trough and a 30° anticlockwise rotation of the Corsica-Sardinia-Calabria—Petit Kabylie plate away from the European plate. Early—middle Miocene deformation along the western Italian and northeastern African continental margins resulted from this rotation. During the early late Miocene (Tortonian), spreading within a sphenochasm to the southwest of Sardinia resulted in the emplacement of Petit Kabylie in northeastern Algeria.

  17. Tectonic Evolution of Jabal Tays Ophiolite Complex, Eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHumidan, Saad; Kassem, Osama; Almutairi, Majed; Al-Faifi, Hussain; Kahal, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Microstructural analysis is important for investigation of tectonic evaluation of Jable Tays area. Furthermore, the Jable Tays ophiolite complex is effected by Al Amar -Idsas fault. The nature of the Al Amar-Idsas fault is a part of the Eastern Arabian Shield, which was subjected to multiple interpretations. Through fieldwork investigation, microscopic examination, and microstructural analysis, we aim to understand the evolution and tectonic setting of the Jable Tays area. Finite-strain data displays that the Abt schist, the metavolcanics and the metagranites are highly to moderately deformed. The axial ratios in the XZ section range from 1.40 to 2.20. The long axes of the finite-strain ellipsoids trend NW- SE and W-E in the Jable Tays area while, their short axes are subvertical to subhorizontal foliations. The strain magnitude does not increase towards the tectonic contacts between the Abt schist and metavolcano-sedimentary. While majority of the obtained data indicate a dominant oblate with minor prolate strain symmetries in the Abt schist, metavolcano-sedimentary and metagranites. The strain data also indicate flattening with some constriction. We assume that the Abt schist and the metavolcano-sedimentry rocks have similar deformation behavior. The finite strain in the studied rocks accumulated during the metamorphism that effected by thrusting activity. Based on these results, we finally concluded that the contact between Abt schist and metavolcano-sedimentary rocks were formed during the progressive thrusting under brittle to semi-ductile deformation conditions by simple shear that also involved a component of vertical shortening, causing subhorizontal foliation in Jable Tays area.

  18. Leucogranites in Lhozag, southern Tibet: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the eastern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chunmei; Zhao, Zhidan; Li, Guangming; Zhu, Di-Cheng; Liu, Dong; Shi, Qingshang

    2017-12-01

    Petrogenesis of the Himalayan leucogranite is strongly influenced by conditions which are associated with the tectonic evolution of Himalayan orogen. In this article, we present petrological, geochronological and geochemical results of the Lhozag leucogranites that crop out alongside the South Tibetan Detachment System (STDS) in the east of Himalaya. Zircon U-Pb dating revealed three episodes of leucogranitic magmatism in Lhozag at 17.8 ± 0.1 Ma, 15.1 ± 0.1 Ma, and 12.0 ± 0.1 Ma, respectively. The Lhozag leucogranites show relatively low εNd(t), low zircon εHf(t) and high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios, which are similar to the High Himalayan Crystalline Series (HHCS), indicating that they were derived from the HHCS. The characteristics of relatively high Na2O and Rb contents, high Rb/Sr ratios and low CaO, MgO, TFe2O3, TiO2, and Sr contents indicate that both the ca. 18 Ma Lhozag tourmaline leucogranites and the ca. 15 Ma Lhozag two-mica granites were derived from fluid-absent muscovite-dehydration melting of metasediments. The opposite geochemistry characteristics of the ca. 12 Ma Khula Kangri two-mica granites imply that these granites are derived from fluid-present melting of metasediments. Four Khula Kangri two-mica granite samples with relatively lower TiO2, TFe2O3, MgO, and CaO contents, higher Rb concentrations and Rb/Sr ratios could be evolved from the Khula Kangri two-mica granites with relatively lower Rb/Sr ratios. The melting behaviors of the Lhozag leucogranites varied from fluid-absent melting to fluid-present melting, implying that there were P-T-XH2O variations in the deep crust. The tectonic evolution would give rise to variation of P-T-XH2O variation, and subsequent transformation of melting behavior. Our new results display the transformation of melting behavior of the Lhozag leucogranites, which implies the tectonic evolution from earlier N-S extension to later E-W extension in the eastern Himalaya at ca. 12 Ma.

  19. Seismic Interpretation of the Nam Con Son Basin and its Implication for the Tectonic Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quang Tuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.3.2.127-137The Nam Con Son Basin covering an area of circa 110,000 km2 is characterized by complex tectonic settings of the basin which has not fully been understood. Multiple faults allowed favourable migration passageways for hydrocarbons to go in and out of traps. Despite a large amount of newly acquired seismic and well data there is no significant update on the tectonic evolution and history of the basin development. In this study, the vast amount of seismic and well data were integrated and reinterpreted to define the key structural events in the Nam Con Son Basin. The results show that the basin has undergone two extentional phases. The first N - S extensional phase terminated at around 30 M.a. forming E - W trending grabens which are complicated by multiple half grabens filled by Lower Oligocene sediments. These grabens were reactivated during the second NW - SE extension (Middle Miocene, that resulted from the progressive propagation of NE-SW listric fault from the middle part of the grabens to the margins, and the large scale building up of roll-over structure. Further to the SW, the faults of the second extentional phase turn to NNE-SSW and ultimately N - S in the SW edge of the basin. Most of the fault systems were inactive by Upper Miocene except for the N - S fault system which is still active until recent time.

  20. Multi-phase structural and tectonic evolution of the Andaman Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterton, Sheona; Hill, Catherine; Sagi, David Adam; Webb, Peter; Sevastjanova, Inga

    2017-04-01

    opening of the South China Sea to the east. Consequently, the obliquity of plate convergence along this margin increased, ultimately resulting in a change from minor strain partitioning to hyper oblique convergence and full strain partitioning by the mid-Miocene. Investigation into the effects of slab-steepening and dynamic subsidence in the Indochina region could be used as further tests of our proposed tectonic evolution of the Andaman Sea.

  1. A combined rigid/deformable plate tectonic model for the evolution of the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. G.; Glover, C. T.; Adriasola Munoz, A. C.; Harris, J. P.; Goodrich, M.

    2012-04-01

    Plate tectonic reconstructions are essential for placing geological information in its correct spatial context, understanding depositional environments, defining basin dimensions and evolution, and serve as a basis for palaeogeographic mapping and for palaeo-climate modelling. Traditional 'rigid' plate reconstructions often result in misfits (overlaps and underfits) in the geometries of juxtaposed plate margins when restored to their pre-rift positions. This has been attributed to internal deformation pre- and/or syn- continental break-up. Poorly defined continent-ocean boundaries add to these problems. To date, few studies have integrated continental extension within a global model. Recent plate tectonic reconstructions based on the relative motions of Africa, Madagascar, India and Antarctica during the break-up of eastern Gondwana have not taken into account the effects of deformation; particularly between India and Madagascar, and India and the Seychelles. A deformable plate model is in development that builds on the current rigid plate model to describe the complex multiphase break-up history between Africa, Madagascar, Seychelles and India, the associated magmatic activity and subsequent India/Eurasia collision. The break-up of eastern Gondwana occurred in the mid Jurassic by rifting between Africa and the India-Madagascar-Australian-Antarctica plates, followed by the Late Jurassic drift of India away from Australia and the Cretaceous break-up of Australia and Antarctica. The northwards drift of the Seychelles-India block in the Tertiary was accommodated by the opening of the Laxmi Basin. This was followed by the eruption of the extensive Deccan flood basalts and the separation of India and the Seychelles. Crustal domains on volcanic margins can be very difficult to define due to the accretion of magmatic material. On these margins, there is much speculation on the position of the continent-ocean boundary and the timing of rifting and sea-floor spreading. The

  2. Miocene transgression in the central and eastern parts of the Sivas Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey) and the Cenozoic palaeogeographical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, André; Vrielynck, Bruno; Wernli, Roland; Negri, Alessandra; Bassetti, Maria-Angela; Büyükmeriç, Yesim; Özer, Sacit; Guillou, Hervé; Kavak, Kaan S.; Temiz, Haluk; Orszag-Sperber, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    We present here a reappraisal of the tectonic setting, stratigraphy and palaeogeography of the central part of the Sivas Basin from Palaeocene to late Miocene. The Sivas Basin is located in the collision zone between the Pontides (southern Eurasia) and Anatolia (a continental block rifted from Gondwana). The basin overlies ophiolites that were obducted onto Anatolia from Tethys to the north. The Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex (CACC) experienced similar ophiolite obduction during Campanian time, followed by exhumation and thrusting onto previously emplaced units during Maastrichtian time. To the east, crustal extension related to exhumation of the CACC created grabens during the early Tertiary, including the Sivas Basin. The Sivas Basin underwent several tectonic events during Paleogene-Neogene. The basin fill varies, with several sub-basins, each being characterised by a distinctive sequence, especially during Oligocene and Miocene. Evaporite deposition in the central part of the basin during early Oligocene was followed by mid-late Oligocene fluvio-lacustrine deposition. The weight of overlying fluvial sediments triggered salt tectonics and salt diapir formation. Lacustrine layers that are interbedded within the fluviatile sediments have locally yielded charophytes of late Oligocene age. Emergent areas including the pre-existing Sivas Basin and neighbouring areas were then flooded from the east by a shallow sea, giving rise to a range of open-marine sub-basins, coralgal reef barriers and subsiding, restricted-marine sub-basins. Utilising new data from foraminifera, molluscs, corals and nannoplankton, the age of the marine transgression is reassessed as Aquitanian. Specifically, age-diagnostic nannoplankton assemblages of classical type occur at the base of the transgressive sequence. However, classical stratigraphic markers have not been found within the planktic foraminiferal assemblages, even in the open-marine settings. In the restricted-marine sediments

  3. Mantle constraints on the plate tectonic evolution of the Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi subduction zone and the South Fiji Basin region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.; Spakman, W.

    The Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi subduction zone is a major plate boundary in the Southwest Pacific region, where the Pacific plate subducts westward underneath the Australian plate. Considerable controversy exists regarding the Cenozoic evolution of this subduction zone, its connection with the

  4. Mantle constraints on the plate tectonic evolution of the Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi subduction zone and the South Fiji Basin region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W.P.; Spakman, W.

    2012-01-01

    The Tonga–Kermadec–Hikurangi subduction zone is a major plate boundary in the Southwest Pacific region, where the Pacific plate subducts westward underneath the Australian plate. Considerable controversy exists regarding the Cenozoic evolution of this subduction zone, its connection with

  5. Late cenozoic evolution of Fortymile Wash: Major change in drainage pattern in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada region during late miocene volcanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstrom, S.C.; Warren, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The site characterization of Yucca Mountain, NV as a potential high level nuclear waste repository includes study of the surficial deposits as a record of the paleoenvironmental history of the Yucca Mountain region. An important aspect of this history is an understanding of the evolution of paleogeography leading to establishment of the present drainage pattern. Establishment of drainage basin evolution is needed before geomorphic response to paleoclimate and tectonics can be assessed, because a major change in drainage basin geometry can predominantly affect the sedimentary record. Because alluvial aquifers are significant to regional hydrology, a major change in surface drainage resulting in buried alluvium could have hydrogeologic significance. In this paper, we report on geologic evidence for a major modification in surface drainage pattern in the Yucca Mountain region, resulting in the probable establishment of the Fortymile Wash drainage basin by latest Miocene time

  6. Cenozoic mantle composition evolution of southern Tibet indicated by Paleocene ( 64 Ma) pseudoleucite phonolitic rocks in central Lhasa terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yue; Gou, Guo-Ning; Wang, Qiang; Wyman, Derek A.; Jiang, Zi-Qi; Li, Qiu-Li; Zhang, Le

    2018-03-01

    The question of whether continental subduction processes in collisional orogenic belts can trigger wide-spread mantle metesomatism and crustal material recycling remains unresolved. Miocene (25-8 Ma) ultrapotassic rocks in southern Tibet are the only mantle-derived magmatic rocks emplaced after the collision between India and Asia and they have been linked to the onset of east-west extensional stresses as the surface uplift of the Tibetan Plateau reached near-maximum elevation. However, their petrogenesis remains highly controversial, particularly the issue of whether their extremely enriched Sr-Nd isotopic characteristics were related to metasomatism derived from subducted Indian continental materials during the Cenozoic. Here we report on a Paleocene silicate-unsaturated, pseudoleucite phonolitic dike, in the Rongniduo area of central Lhasa terrane. In-situ SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry) apatite U-Pb age indicates the dike was generated at 64.1 ± 4.2 Ma, which slightly predates the age of initial India and Asia collision (about 55-50 Ma). This is the oldest age yet reported for ultrapotassic rocks in southern Tibet. Samples from this dike have distinctly more depleted Sr-Nd (whole rock: (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7064 to 0.7062, εNd(t) = - 1.5 to 0.4; in situ apitite: (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7059 to 0.7060, εNd(t) = - 2.0 to 0.4) isotopic compositions, than those of Miocene (25-8 Ma) ultrapotassic rocks in the central Lhasa terrane ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7106 to 0.7399, εNd(t) = - 10.6 to - 18.5). Our new data provides important constraints on pre-collisional mantle characteristics beneath the Lhasa terrane. We suggest that these 64 Ma pseudoleucite phonolitic rocks were derived from the enriched lithospheric mantle metasomatized by subducted Tethyan oceanic materials in response to Neo-Tethyan slab roll-back. As a consequence, the younger Miocene ultrapotassic rocks, which display different geochemical compositions from the pre-collisional ultrapotassic rocks, were most

  7. Tectonically controlled relief evolution in the Northern Tien Shan and Junggar Alatau from the Eocene to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, N.; Kley, J.; Voigt, T.; Kober, M.

    2012-04-01

    across them. This first phase of deformation was followed by erosional leveling. Well-consolidated caliche layers indicate an extended period of stable soil formation in a (semi-)arid climate. Renewed shoting and uplift led to river incision and the formation of terraces and gave rise to new active faults, but their displacements are still low due to their short lifespans. These faults are presently expressed at the surface as fold scarps. The scarps are underlain by flexures affected in places by small thrust faults. Some of them, judging by their directions, are probably reactivating Miocene faults. The differences in the timing of range uplift, the progression of Cenozoic folding and the location of the young flexures all indicate migration of thrusting and folding from the borders of the Ili basin toward its center. A similar pattern of tectonic activity shifting from the flanking ridges toward the basin center was also observed in the Issyk-Kul basin (Korzhenkov, et al., 2007).

  8. Tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the late Miocene-Pleistocene Dali Basin in the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau : Evidences from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and rock magnetic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Shihu; Deng, Chenglong; Paterson, Greig A.; Yao, Haitao; Huang, Sheng; Liu, Chengying; He, Huaiyu; Pan, Yongxin; Zhu, Rixiang

    2014-01-01

    The Cenozoic Dali Basin, located at the northeast of Diancang Shan and south of the first bend of Yangtze River, is tectonically controlled by the Dali fault system in the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The basin is filled with late Miocene to Pleistocene fluviolacustrine sediments, which

  9. Mesozoic and Cenozoic structural evolution of North Oman: New insights from high-quality 3D seismic from the Lekhwair area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazalgette, Loïc; Salem, Hisham

    2018-06-01

    This paper highlights the role of Triassic-Jurassic extension and late Cretaceous compression in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic (Alpine) structuring of North Oman. The syn/post-Mesozoic regional structural evolution is usually documented as a succession of two stages of deformation. The Alpine 1 phase, late Cretaceous in age, occurred in association with two ophiolite obduction stages (Semail and Masirah ophiolites). It was characterised by strike slip to extensional deformation in the North Oman foreland basin sub-surface. The Alpine 2 phase, Miocene in age, was related to the continental collision responsible for both the Zagros orogen and the uplift of the Oman Mountains. The Alpine 2 deformation was transpressional to compressional. Observation and interpretation of good quality 3D seismic in the Lekhwair High area enabled the distinction of two earlier phases. Early Mesozoic extension occurred concomitantly with the regional Triassic to Jurassic rifting, developing Jurassic-age normal faults. Late Cretaceous compression occurred prior to the main Alpine 1 phase and triggered the inversion of Jurassic-seated normal faults as well as the initiation of compressional folds in the Cretaceous overburden. These early phases have been ignored or overlooked as part of the North Oman history although they are at the origin of structures hosting major local and regional hydrocarbon accumulations.

  10. Tectonic evolution of a part of the Tethyside orogenic collage: The Kargi Massif, northern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüysüz, Okan

    1990-02-01

    The central part of the Rhodope-Pontide fragment, one of the major tectonic units in Turkey, provides critical data for evaluating the Cimmeride and Alpide evolution of the Mediterranean Tethysides. Tectonic events that affected the central part of the Rhodope-Pontide fragment since the end of the Paleozoic, generated east-west trending belts with the event of every episode redeforming and partly obliterating the structures of previous episodes. This evolution may be conveniently described in terms of three major episodes: (1) Two different realms of pre-Dogger oceanic rocks are present in the area. The northern realm coincided with main branch of Paleo-Tethys that was being actively destroyed by south dipping subduction. The southern realm, the Karakaya ocean, a back arc basin related to this subduction, began opening by rifting of a retroarc carbonate platform during the Permo-Triassic. To the west a continental domain with sparse magmatism seperated the two oceanic areas. Toward the east the two oceans become united by the wedging out of the continental domain. These two pre-Dogger oceans closed during the Lias, and their remnants were emplaced between the southern margin of Laurasia and the fragments of the Cimmerian continent. (2) The second episode partly overlapped the first with rifting south of the Cimmerian continent fragment during the Lias. This rifting was followed by a transgression which covered the ruins of the Cimmeride orogenic belt by the Malm. This rifting concurrently led to the development of the northern branch of the Neo-Tethys and a south facing Atlantic-type continental margin. A southerly thickening sedimentary prism developed on this margin during the Lias to early Cretaceous interval. (3) The floor of the northern branch of Neo-Tethys began to be consumed along the north dipping subduction zone beneath the previosly constructed continental margin. This convergent margin generated a magmatic arc to the north and to the south a subduction

  11. Evolution of Golpazari-Huyuk karst system (Bilecik-Turkey: indications of morpho-tectonic controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekmekci Mehmet

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Golpazari-Huyuk karst system is located in the Central Sakarya Basin whose geomorphologic evolution is mainly controlled by the Post-Miocene epirogenic continental rise. Drastic change in the drainage pattern and dissection of the carbonate platform were the major consequences of this tectonic movement. Rapid incision of the Sakarya river changed the position of the erosion base which consequently distorted the direction of surface and subsurface flow. The Golpazari and Huyuk plains are two topographically distinct, flat bottomed geomorphic features separated by a carbonate rock relief. The difference in elevation between these 10 km distant plains is 350 m. Morphological, geological and hydrological behavior of the plains suggests that the both have functioned as closed basins connected to each other through subsurface flow paths. Drainage has changed from subsurface to surface after the emplacement of the Sakarya river into its modern course. In this study, the authors suggest a conceptual model to reconstruct the hydrological-geomorphological processes that have been effective in the evolution of this karst area. The methodology is based on the records preserved in the morphological and sedimentological archives as well as the hydrogeological setting in the study area. According to the suggested model, the present landscape which exhibits a late stage of karstification has evolved in three main phases, after an initial stage attributed to Lower Miocene. The first phase represents karstification of carbonate rocks of Jurassic age at the Huyuk area and the limestone of Paleocene age at the Golpazari area. This region must have been significantly elevated from the karstification (erosion base. The geomorphologic and drainage setting reveal that the karstification was controlled mainly by major drainage elements in Late Miocene-Early Pliocene.The second phase is characterized by the uplift of the region and the subsequent rapid incision of

  12. Formation of Cretaceous Cordilleran and post-orogenic granites and their microgranular enclaves from the Dalat zone, southern Vietnam: Tectonic implications for the evolution of Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellnutt, J. Gregory; Lan, Ching-Ying; Van Long, Trinh; Usuki, Tadashi; Yang, Huai-Jen; Mertzman, Stanley A.; Iizuka, Yoshi; Chung, Sun-Lin; Wang, Kuo-Lung; Hsu, Wen-Yu

    2013-12-01

    Cordilleran-type batholiths are useful in understanding the duration, cyclicity and tectonic evolution of continental margins. The Dalat zone of southern Vietnam preserves evidence of Late Mesozoic convergent zone magmatism superimposed on Precambrian rocks of the Indochina Block. The Dinhquan, Deoca and Ankroet plutons and their enclaves indicate that the Dalat zone transitioned from an active continental margin producing Cordilleran-type batholiths to highly extended crust producing within-plate plutons. The Deoca and Dinhquan plutons are compositionally similar to Cordilleran I-type granitic rocks and yield mean zircon U/Pb ages between 118 ± 1.4 Ma and 115 ± 1.2 Ma. Their Sr-Nd whole rock isotopes (ISr = 0.7044 to 0.7062; εNd(T) = - 2.4 to + 0.2) and zircon Hf isotopes (εHf(T) = + 8.2 ± 1.2 and + 6.4 ± 0.9) indicate that they were derived by mixing between a mantle component and an enriched component (i.e. GLOSS). The Ankroet pluton is chemically similar to post-orogenic/within-plate granitic rocks and has a zircon U/Pb age of 87 ± 1.6 Ma. Geobarometric calculations indicate that amphibole within the Ankroet pluton crystallized at a depth of ~ 6 kbar which is consistent with the somewhat more depleted Sr-Nd isotope (ISr = 0.7017 to 0.7111; εNd(T) = - 2.8 to + 0.6) and variable εHf(T) compositions suggesting a stronger influence of crustal material in the parental magma. The compositional change of the Dalat zone granitic rocks during the middle to late Cretaceous indicates that the tectonic regime evolved from a continental arc environment to one of post-orogenic extension. The appearance of sporadic post-90 Ma magmatism in the Dalat zone and along the eastern margin of Eurasian indicates that there was no subsequent orogenic event and the region was likely one of highly extended crust that facilitated the opening of the South China Sea during the latter half of the Cenozoic.

  13. Heterogeneous Cenozoic cooling of central Britain: insights into the complex evolution of the North Atlantic passive margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuszczak, Katarzyna; Persano, Cristina; Stuart, Finlay

    2015-04-01

    The western flank of the North Atlantic passive margin has experienced multiple episodes of rock uplift and denudation during the Cenozoic that have been locally variable in scale. Two regional scale exhumation events have been identified: early Palaeogene and Neogene [see 1 for review]. The former has been identified both onshore and offshore and it appears to be temporally coincident with basaltic magmatism related to the arrival of the proto-Iceland mantle plume beneath thinned continental lithosphere, which may have cause long wavelength, low amplitude dynamic uplift. Quantifying the amount of early Palaeogene exhumation using mineral thermochronometers may be complicated by elevated heat flow. The magnitude and timing of exhumation during the Neogene is even less clear, as is the driving mechanism. Quantifying the amount of early Palaeogene exhumation, determining the precise timing as well as the amount of uplift and erosion in the Neogene, require detailed application of low temperature thermochronometers. Here we present the first multiple low temperature thermochronometer study from S Scotland, N England and N Wales. New apatite fission track (AFT) data are integrated with apatite and zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe and ZHe, respectively) ages to establish regional rock cooling history from 200°C to 30°C. To precisely constrain the early Palaeogene cooling history, and to better define the possible Neogene cooling event, >20 single grain AHe ages have been produced on key samples and modelled using the newly codified HelFrag technique. The new AFT and AHe ages confirm earlier studies that show the Lake District and North Pennines experienced rapid cooling from >120°C in the Palaeogene. The amount of cooling/exhumation gradually decreases northwards into S Scotland and southwards in N Wales; there is no evidence for the rapid Palaeogene event in areas ~70 km from the Lake District centre. Inverse modelling of the AHe and AFT data suggest that the rapid cooling

  14. Cenozoic structural evolution of the southwestern Bükk Mts. and the southern part of the Darnó Deformation Belt (NE Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrik Attila

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Extensive structural field observations and seismic interpretation allowed us to delineate 7 deformation phases in the study area for the Cenozoic period. Phase D1 indicates NW–SE compression and perpendicular extension in the Late Oligocene–early Eggenburgian and it was responsible for the development of a wedge-shaped Paleogene sequence in front of north-westward propagating blind reverse faults. D2 is represented by E–W compression and perpendicular extension in the middle Eggenburgian–early Ottnangian. The D1 and D2 phases resulted in the erosion of Paleogene suites on elevated highs. Phase D2 was followed by a counterclockwise rotation, described in earlier publications. When considering the age of sediments deformed by the syn-sedimentary D3 deformation and preliminary geochronological ages of deformed volcanites the time of the first CCW rotation can be shifted slightly younger (~17–16.5 Ma than previously thought (18.5–17.5 Ma. Another consequence of our new timing is that the extrusional tectonics of the ALCAPA unit, the D2 local phase, could also terminate somewhat later by 1 Myr. D4 shows NE–SW extension in the late Karpatian–Early Badenian creating NW–SE trending normal faults which connected the major NNE–SSW trending sinistral faults. The D5 and D6 phases are late syn-rift deformations indicating E–W extension and NW–SE extension, respectively. D5 indicates syn-sedimentary deformation in the Middle Badenian–early Sarmatian and caused the synsedimentary thickening of mid-Miocene suites along NNE–SSW trending transtensional faults. D5 postdates the second CCW rotation which can be bracketed between ~16–15 Ma. This timing is somewhat older than previously considered and is based on new geochronological dates of pyroclastite rocks which were not deformed by this phase. D6 was responsible for further deepening of half-grabens during the Sarmatian. D7 is post-tilt NNW–SSE extension and induced the

  15. Study on dynamics of tectonic evolution in the Fushun Basin, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Chonglong(吴冲龙); WANG; Xinqing(汪新庆); LIU; Gang(刘刚); LI; Shaohu(李绍虎); MAO; Xiaoping(毛小平); LI; Xing(李星)

    2002-01-01

    The updated study shows that the taphrogenesis of basement of the Fushun Basin is not a kind of instantaneous process. It intensified gradually and went to extreme in the sedimentary stage of the Guchengzi formation, and then, it weakened rapidly and stopped soon afterwards; the depression did not take place after the taphrogenesis. On the contrary, it almost happened simultaneously with the taphrogenesis. The depression went at a high speed from the beginning of the sedimentary period of the Xilutian formation, and then weakened gradually in the sedimentary period of the Gengjiajie formation. The evolution course of the synsedimentary structure of the Fushun Basin can be summarized as the following six stages: slow taphrogenesis and high speed depression to accelerated taphrogenesis and high speed depression to high speed taphrogenesis and high speed depression to retarded taphrogenesis and high speed depression to gradual halt of taphrogenesis and reduced depression to slow depression and gradual halt of depression. The tectonic evolution resulted in the formation of the "lower taphrogenesis and upper depression" structure. The formation of the binary structure might be due to the suspension of taphrogenesis and the change of the regional structure stress field, but the depression kept going. The result of calculation combining the analysis of the synsedimentary structural frame, the back-stripping method of the subsidence history of the basin basement and the simulation of thermo-settlement history indicates that the great sedimentary space required by the "upper depression part" consists of two parts, namely, 40% from compaction of sediments and 60% from slow depression of the basin basement during a long period of time. Gradual halt of the depression in the Fushun Basin may be attributed to the reversal of the lithosphere hot-recession and gravity isostasy adjustment which may be the result of new hot-events in the depths and accompanied invasion of extremely

  16. Tectonic evolution of the Paranoá basin: New evidence from gravimetric and stratigraphic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Ferreira, Marco Antonio Caçador; Campos, José Eloi Guimarães; Von Huelsen, Monica Giannoccaro

    2018-06-01

    Field gravimetric and stratigraphic surveys were conducted with the aim to constraint the mechanisms responsible for the initiation of the Stenian-Tonian Paranoá basin, central Brazil, a subject not yet studied in detail. The Paranoá Group crops out in the external zone of the Brasília Belt, a Neoproterozoic orogen in the western margin of the São Francisco Craton. Detailed geological mapping confirmed the existence of a regional scale fault that controlled sedimentation of the Paranoá Group during the deposition of its basal formations, revealing important details about basin initiation and early evolution. Gravimetric modeling indicates the existence of paleorift structures beneath the Paranoá sequence in the study area. Results from both stratigraphic and gravimetric surveys show strong evidence of mechanical subsidence by faulting during basin initiation. Unsorted, angular, clasts cut by quartz veins and brecciated boulders present in the basal conglomerate, support this hypothesis. Basin initiation faults coincide with deeper paleorift faults and are thus interpreted as reactivations of the older Statherian Araí Rift. The reactivations favored an initial regime of mechanical subsidence, dominated by the development of epirogenic arches subsiding at different rates. Apart from faulting activity, the post-basal sequence presents no evidence of rift environment in the strict sense. Besides, the great lateral continuity and relatively constant thickness of facies, indicate that an initial mechanic subsidence rapidly gave way to flexural subsidence during subsequent stages of basin evolution. The Paranoá Group do not present reliable characteristics that would allow its strict classification as a passive margin. Its main stratigraphic characteristics, tectonic location and basement architecture, indicate that the Paranoá Group was deposited in a cratonic margin basin, and may have been either connected to a passive margin basin at times of sea level rise

  17. Seismic studies of crustal structure and tectonic evolution across the central California margin and the Colorado Plateau margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, John Mark

    This thesis presents results from two integrated deep-crustal seismic-reflection and wide-angle-reflection/refraction studies that improve our understanding of crustal structure and tectonic evolution in two tectonically active areas of the western United States. A multi-faceted approach to the study of crustal structure includes the use of compressional and shear wave seismic data. Supplementing the controlled source seismic observations with seismicity, gravity, heat flow, laboratory measurements and available geologic information allows a much improved understanding of crustal structure and tectonic evolution than would be available from the seismic data alone. Chapter 1 introduces the data integration strategy applied to the studies completed. In Chapter 2, an integrated crustal-velocity model across the south-central California margin west of the San Adreas fault is presented. The crustal structure defines tectonostratigraphic terranes 15 to 20 km thick underlain by a 6-km-thick high-velocity layer (6.8-7.0 km/s) interpreted as tectonically underplated oceanic crust. Structures defined in the oceanic crust indicate significant compressional and strike-slip deformation within the oceanic crust that probably formed during the final stages of subduction from 24-16 Ma. In Chapter 3, the crustal model from Chapter 2 is used as a constraint for models of the tectonic evolution of the Pacific-North American transform plate boundary. By combining the crustal structure with thermal models for asthenospheric upwelling associated with a slab-free window, I find that the mantle lithosphere east of the coast beneath south-central California probably delaminated from the oceanic crust, stranding the oceanic crust beneath the margin. In Chapter 4, results from a high-resolution reflection experiment in central Arizona across the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau address the relationship between strength of the crust and localization of extensional tectonism. A low

  18. Evidence for subduction-related magmatism during the Cretaceous and Cenozoic in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevastjanova, Inga; Sagi, David Adam; Webb, Peter; Masterton, Sheona; Hill, Catherine; Davies, Clare

    2017-04-01

    Myanmar's complex geological history, numerous controversies around its tectonic evolution and the presence of prospective hydrocarbon basins make it a key area of interest for geologists. Understanding whether a passive or an active margin existed in the region during the Cenozoic is particularly important for the production of accurate basin models; active Cenozoic subduction would imply that hydrocarbon basins in the forearc experienced extension due to slab rollback. The geology of Myanmar was influenced by the regional tectonics associated with the Cretaceous and Cenozoic closure of the Neotethys Ocean. During this time, India travelled rapidly from Gondwana to Asia at speeds up to 20 cm/yr. To accommodate the north-eastward motion of India, the Neotethys Ocean was consumed at the subduction zone along the southern margin of Eurasia. Based on our Global Plate Model, this subduction zone can reasonably be expected to extend for the entire width of the Neotethys Ocean as far as Myanmar and Southeast Asia at their eastern extent. Moreover, a) Cretaceous volcanism onshore Myanmar, b) the middle Cenozoic arc-related extension in the Present Day eastern Andaman Sea and c) the late Cenozoic uplift of the Indo-Burman Ranges are all contemporaneous with the subduction ages predicted by the global plate motions. However, because of the geological complexity of the area, additional evidence would augment interpretations that are based on structural data. In an attempt to reduce the uncertainty in the existing interpretations, we have compiled published zircon geochronological data from detrital and igneous rocks in the region. We have used published zircon U-Pb ages and, where available, published Hf isotope data and CL images (core/rim) in order to distinguish 'juvenile' mantle-derived zircons from those of reworked crustal origin. The compilation shows that Upper Cretaceous and Cenozoic zircons, which are interpreted to have a volcanic provenance, are common across the

  19. Feedbacks of lithosphere dynamics and environmental change of the Cenozoic West Antarctic Rift System.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wateren, F.M.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.

    1999-01-01

    This special issue of Global and Planetary Change contains 11 contributions dealing with various aspects of the Cenozoic West Antarctic Rift System. During the last two decades, investigations of the interplay of tectonics and climate greatly improved understanding of Cenozoic global change. Major

  20. The Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic orogenic system: correlation and evolution of tectonic units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, S.M.; Bernoulli, D.; Fügenschuh, B.; Matenco, L.C.; Schefer, S.; Schuster, R.; Tischler, M.; Ustaszewski, K.

    2008-01-01

    A correlation of tectonic units of the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic system of orogens, including the substrate of the Pannonian and Transylvanian basins, is presented in the form of a map. Combined with a series of crustal-scale cross sections this correlation of tectonic units yields a clearer

  1. New interpretations based on seismic and modelled well data and their implications for the tectonic evolution of the west Greenland continental margin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcgregor, E.D.; Nielsen, S.B.; Stephenson, R.A.

    Davis Strait is situated between Baffin Island and Greenland and forms part of a sedimentary basin system, linking Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay, developed during Cretaceous and Palaeocene rifting that culminated in a brief period of sea-floor spreading in the late Palaeocene and Eocene. Seismic...... reflection profiles and exploration wells along the Greenland margin of Davis Strait have been analysed in order to elucidate uplift events affecting sedimentary basin development during the Cenozoic with a focus on postulated Neogene (tectonic) uplift affecting the west Greenland continental margin...... tectonic event. An interpretation in which the inferred onshore cooling is related to erosion of pre-existing topography is more consistent with our new results from the offshore region. These results will have important implications for other continental margins developed throughout the Atlantic...

  2. Analytically based forward and inverse models of fluvial landscape evolution during temporally continuous climatic and tectonic variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Liran; Petit, Carole

    2017-04-01

    Fluvial channels respond to changing tectonic and climatic conditions by adjusting their patterns of erosion and relief. It is therefore expected that by examining these patterns, we can infer the tectonic and climatic conditions that shaped the channels. However, the potential interference between climatic and tectonic signals complicates this inference. Within the framework of the stream power model that describes incision rate of mountainous bedrock rivers, climate variability has two effects: it influences the erosive power of the river, causing local slope change, and it changes the fluvial response time that controls the rate at which tectonically and climatically induced slope breaks are communicated upstream. Because of this dual role, the fluvial response time during continuous climate change has so far been elusive, which hinders our understanding of environmental signal propagation and preservation in the fluvial topography. An analytic solution of the stream power model during general tectonic and climatic histories gives rise to a new definition of the fluvial response time. The analytic solution offers accurate predictions for landscape evolution that are hard to achieve with classical numerical schemes and thus can be used to validate and evaluate the accuracy of numerical landscape evolution models. The analytic solution together with the new definition of the fluvial response time allow inferring either the tectonic history or the climatic history from river long profiles by using simple linear inversion schemes. Analytic study of landscape evolution during periodic climate change reveals that high frequency (10-100 kyr) climatic oscillations with respect to the response time, such as Milankovitch cycles, are not expected to leave significant fingerprints in the upstream reaches of fluvial channels. Linear inversion schemes are applied to the Tinee river tributaries in the southern French Alps, where tributary long profiles are used to recover the

  3. SHRIMP zircon dating of granitoids from Myanmar: constraints on the tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barley, M.E.; Pickard, A.L.; Zaw, K.; University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Situated south of the eastern syntaxis of the Himalayas, Myanmar occupies a key position in the tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia. However, there is almost no modern geochronology for this region. In this contribution we present new SHRIMP zircon dates for granitoids from the Shan Scarp (Mogok Metamorphic Belt), Taninthayi (Tenasserim) Region in the Myeik (Mergui) Archipelago and Central Valley (Western Myanmar) regions of Myanmar. The oldest ages obtained were from Jurassic granitoids, gneisses and amphibolites interlayered with marbles that were metamorphosed and deformed during the Eocene-Oligiocene and Miocene in the Mogok Metamorphic Belt. The occurrence of mid-Jurassic metamorphosed igneous rocks in the Mogok Metamorphic Belt is similar to that in the Hunza Karakoram and confirms interpretations that the southern margin of Asia became an Andean-type convergent margin at that time. Ages between 120 and 80 Ma for l-type granitoids intruding the Mogok Metamorphic Belt, Myeik Archipelago and Western Myanmar confirm that an up to 200km wide mid Cretaceous magmatic belt extended along the Eurasian margin from Tibet to Sumatra. Fractionated l-Type granitoids, that locally host Sn-W mineralisation, were emplaced in the Myeik Archipelago (and adjacent Thailand) in the latest Cretaceous to Early Eocene (80 to 50 Ma). These granitoids formed a wide convergent margin magmatic belt as the Indian plate rapidly approached Eurasia. Deformation and high-grade metamorphism occurred in the Mogok Metamorphic Belt during the Eocene-Oligiocene as the collision between India and Eurasia initiated crustal thickening prior to extrusion, or rotation, of Indochina and northward movement of Western Myanmar. Arc magmatism continued in Western Myanmar with emplacement of granitoids in the Central Valley. Deformation, extensional uplift and further granitoid magmatism occurred in the Mogok Metamorphic Belt during the Early Miocene northward movement of Western Myanmar

  4. 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology of Supergene K-bearing Sulfate Minerals: Cenozoic Continental Weathering, Landscape Evolution and Paleoclimates in the Tu-Ha Basin, Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Zheng, D.; Chen, W.; Hough, B.; Qiu, H.; Wang, W.; Wu, Y.; Yang, L.

    2017-12-01

    40Ar/39Ar incremental-heating analyses of supergene jarosite and yavapaiite from three weathering profiles at the Hongshan, Liuhuangshan, and Caihuagou deposits in the Tu-Ha Basin, China, were carried out to provide numerical constraints on the timing and duration of weathering and derive insights into local paleoclimatic and landscape evolution. Well-constrained plateau ages and best-fitting inverse isochrons have been obtained for 11 samples, yield 40Ar/39Ar ages ranging from 33.3±0.5 Ma to 3.3±0.4 Ma (1σ). Our 40Ar/39Ar ages, combined with the published ages, indicate that the high elevations sites hosting the most complete and complex weathering profiles present. The presence of ancient weathering ages in current outcrop in the Tu-Ha Basin suggests that denudation was not homogeneous, and the landscape evolution follow a scarp retreat model. These geochronological results suggest that a protracted history of weathering and supergene enrichment and, by inference, arid-semiarid climate (with at least a moderate amount of precipitation (>10 cm/y)) favorable to intense chemical weathering emerged at 33.3 Ma, 27.7-23.3 Ma, and 16.4-14.7 Ma, and prevailed from 11-7.8 Ma. Then, a progressive change from arid-semiarid towards hyperarid conditions and predominantly hyperarid conditions may have persisted since at least ca. 3.3 Ma. The climatic implications inferred from the weathering geochronology are in agreement with the chemical parameters and isotopic compositions of the Cenozoic sedimentary sequence from the Lianmuqin section in the Tu-Ha Basin, attesting to the reliability of weathering geochronology by the 40Ar/39Ar method as an indicator of paleoclimate in arid areas. Our results suggest that the retreat of the Paratethys Sea, which would have reduced eastward water vapor transport by the westerlies to the Tu-Ha Basin, led to its aridification in the Oligocene and that increased rain shadow effects, resulting from uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and Tian Shan

  5. Tectonic controls on the geomorphic evolution of alluvial fans in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hierarchy and chronological scheme for these surfaces. The oldest .... calculated in. GIS. The tectonic tilt of the fan was calculated following the methodology proposed Pinter and ... except for landslides and talus deposits, which are convex in ...

  6. Tectonic evolution of the outer Izu-Bonin-Mariana fore arc system: initial results from IODP Expedition 352

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, W.; Ferre, E. C.; Robertson, A. H. F.; Avery, A. J.; Kutterolf, S.

    2015-12-01

    During International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 352, a section through the volcanic stratigraphy of the outer fore arc of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) system was drilled to trace magmatism, tectonics, and crustal accretion associated with subduction initiation. Structures within drill cores, borehole and site survey seismic data indicate that tectonic deformation in the outer IBM fore arc is mainly post-magmatic. Extension generated asymmetric sediment basins such as half-grabens at sites 352-U1439 and 352-U1442 on the upper trench slope. Along their eastern margins the basins are bounded by west-dipping normal faults. Deformation was localized along multiple sets of faults, accompanied by syn-tectonic pelagic and volcaniclastic sedimentation. The lowermost sedimentary units were tilted eastward by ~20°. Tilted beds were covered by sub-horizontal beds. Biostratigraphic constraints reveal a minimum age of the oldest sediments at ~ 35 Ma; timing of the sedimentary unconformities is between ~ 27 and 32 Ma. At sites 352-U1440 and 352-U1441 on the outer fore arc strike-slip faults are bounding sediment basins. Sediments were not significantly affected by tectonic tilting. Biostratigraphy gives a minimum age of the basement-cover contact between ~29.5 and 32 Ma. The post-magmatic structures reveal a multiphase tectonic evolution of the outer IBM fore arc. At sites 352-U1439 and 352-U1442, shear with dominant reverse to oblique reverse displacement was localized along subhorizontal fault zones, steep slickensides and shear fractures. These were either re-activated as or cut by normal-faults and strike-slip faults. Extension was also accommodated by steep to subvertical mineralized veins and extensional fractures. Faults at sites 352-U1440 and 352-U1441 show mainly strike-slip kinematics. Sediments overlying the igneous basement(maximum Late Eocene to Recent age), document ash and aeolian input, together with mass wasting of the fault-bounded sediment ponds.

  7. The role of the Anaxagoras Mountain in the Miocene to Recent tectonic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbourne, Mark; Hall, Jeremy; Aksu, Ali; Çifçi, Günay

    2014-05-01

    The Anaximander Mountains are one of the many enigmatic structures situated along the morphologically and structurally complicated junction between the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs, in the eastern Mediterranean. Interpretation of ~750 km of marine multi-channel seismic reflection data show that the present day Anaximander Mountains underwent several distinct phases of tectonic activity since Miocene. During the mid-late Miocene, a protracted, contractional tectonic regime produced the east-west trending, south-verging fold-thrust belt observed in the area. The Messinian was a period of relatively low tectonic activity, and is marked by the deposition of an evaporite layer. This phase lasted until the latest Miocene - earliest Pliocene, when a major erosional event associated with the Messinian salinity crisis occurred. Beginning in the early-mid Pliocene-Quaternary a transpressional and rotational tectonic regime prevailed over the area. The Anaximander Mountain (sensu stricto) and Anaximenes Mountain developed in the Pliocene-Quaternary associated with the reactivation, uplift and rotation of a linked, thick skinned pre-Messinian imbricate thrust fan. Back thrusting in the region accentuated the morphology of these mountains. The Anaxagoras Mountain differs both lithologically and morphologically from the Anaximander Mountain (sensu stricto) and the Anaximenes Mountain. It is probably developed associated with the emplacement of the ophiolitic Antalya Nappe Complex. Faulting in the Anaxagoras region is characterized by southwest striking thrust and/or oblique thrust faults. Due to the similarities in morphology between the Isparta Angle of southwestern Turkey and the Anaximander Mountains (sensu lato), it is hypothesized that the tectonic evolution of the two regions are similar in nature. The Anaximander Mountains (sensu lato) can thus be considered the offshore replication of the Isparta Angle, produced by similar mechanisms, but being of a younger age.

  8. Geologic-tectonic evolutional characteristics and prospecting potential for ISL-amenable sandstone-type uranium deposits; in Sichuan basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianhua; Zhu Xiyang; Wang Sili; Wei Jisheng

    2005-01-01

    Through the analysis on geologic-tectonic evolution of Sichuan basin, authors of this paper suggest: because of the heterogeneity of the basin basement and cover structures resulting from the lateral dividing, those segments in the basin that experienced only weak tectonic activation, and those that were uplifted and eroded earlier have not been intensely deformed, and have not experienced long-period burying. Rocks in those segments are poorly consolidated and there exist conditions for the formation of large-area artesian slope at the transitional sites between uplifted and subsided areas, possessing favourable hydrogeologic conditions for long-term infiltration of groundwater. These areas must be the targets for prospecting for ISL-amenable sandstone-type uranium deposits. Correspondingly, the Triassic and Jurassic where loose sand bodies are hosted are prospecting target horizons for uranium. (authors)

  9. Metamorphic and tectonic evolution of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex in Nyalam region, south Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Rubatto, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies evoke dispute whether the Himalayan metamorphic core - Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (GHC) - was exhumed as a lateral crustal flow or a critical taper wedge during the India-Asia collision. This contribution investigated the evolution of the GHC in the Nyalam region, south Tibet, with comprehensive studies on structural kinematics, metamorphic petrology and geochronology. The GHC in the Nyalam region can be divided into the lower and upper GHC. Phase equilibria modelling and conventional thermobarometric results show that peak temperature conditions are lower in the lower GHC (~660-700°C) and higher in the upper GHC (~740-780°C), whereas corresponding pressure conditions at peak-T decrease from ~9-13 kbar to ~4 kbar northward. Monazite, zircon and rutile U-Pb dating results reveal two distinct blocks within the GHC of the Nyalam region. The upper GHC underwent higher degree of partial melting (15-25%, via muscovite dehydration melting) that initiated at ~32 Ma, peaked at ~29 Ma to 25 Ma, possibly ended at ~20 Ma. The lower GHC underwent lower degree of melting (0-10%) that lasted from 19 to 16 Ma, which was produced mainly via H2O-saturated melting. At different times, both the upper and lower blocks underwent initial slow cooling (35 ± 8 and 10 ± 5°C/Myr, respectively) and subsequent rapid cooling (120 ± 40°C/Myr). The established timescale of metamorphism suggests that high-temperature metamorphism within the GHC lasted a long duration (~15 Myr), whereas duration of partial melting lasted for ~3 Myr in the lower GHC and lasted for 7-12 Myr in the upper GHC. The documented diachronous metamorphism and discontinuity of peak P-T conditions implies the presence of the Nyalam Thrust in the study area. This thrust is probably connected to the other thrusts in Nepal and Sikkim Himalaya, which extends over ~800 km and is named the "High Himalayan Thrust". Timing of activity along this thrust is at ~25-16 Ma, which is coeval with active

  10. Rift architecture and evolution: The Sirt Basin, Libya: The influence of basement fabrics and oblique tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdunaser, K. M.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.

    2014-12-01

    zones and adjoining highs. Late Eocene rocks exposed in the western part of the basin exhibit a complex network of branching segmented normal and strike-slip faults, generally with a NNW-SSE structural orientations. Many surface structural features have been interpreted from satellite images which confirm sinistral strike-slip kinematics. Relay ramp structures, numerous elongate asymmetric synclines associated with shallow west limbs and steeper dipping east limbs are developed in the hangingwalls adjacent to west downthrowing normal faults. These structural patterns reflect Cretaceous/Tertiary extensional tectonics with additional control by underlying pre-existing Pan-African basement fabrics and ENE-WSW trending Hercynian structures. We relate the Sirt Basin rift development as exemplified in our study area to the break-up of Gondwana represented by the structural evolution of the West-Central African rift system, and the South and Central Atlantic, the Tethys and the Indian Oceans.

  11. Plate tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    's continental drift theory was later disproved, it was one of the first times that the idea of crustal movement had been introduced to the scientific community; and it has laid the groundwork for the development of modern plate tectonics. In the early... of the structure of the atom was to physical sciences and the theory of evolution was to the life sciences. Tectonics is the study of the forces within the Earth that give rise to continents, ocean basins, mountain ranges, earthquake belts and other large-scale...

  12. Early to Middle Jurassic tectonic evolution of the Bogda Mountains, Northwest China: Evidence from sedimentology and detrital zircon geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hongjie; Tao, Huifei; Wang, Qi; Qiu, Zhen; Ma, Dongxu; Qiu, Junli; Liao, Peng

    2018-03-01

    The Bogda Mountains, as an important intracontinental orogenic belt, are situated in the southern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and are a key area for understanding the Mesozoic evolution of the CAOB. However, the tectonic evolution of the Bogda Mountains remains controversial during the Mesozoic Era, especially the Early to Middle Jurassic Periods. The successive Lower to Middle Jurassic strata are well preserved and exposed along the northern flank of the Western Bogda Mountains and record the uplift processes of the Bogda Mountains. In this study, we analysed sedimentary facies combined with detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology at five sections of Lower to Middle Jurassic strata to detect the tectonic evolution and changes of provenance in the Bogda area. During Early to Middle Jurassic times, the fluvial, deltaic and lacustrine environments dominated in the western section of the Bogda area. The existence of Early Triassic peak age indicates that the Bogda Mountains did not experience uplift during the period of early Badaowan Formation deposition. The Early Triassic to Late Permian granitoid plutons and Carboniferous volcanic rocks from the Barkol and Santanghu areas were the main provenances. The significant change in the U-Pb age spectrum implies that the Eastern Bogda Mountains initiated uplift in the period of late Badaowan Formation deposition, and the Eastern Junggar Basin and the Turpan-Hami Basin were partially partitioned. The Eastern Bogda Mountains gradually became the major provenance. From the period of early Sangonghe to early Toutunhe Formations deposition, the provenance of the sediments and basin-range frame were similar to that of late Badaowan. However, the Eastern Bogda Mountains suffered intermittent uplift three times, and successive denudation. The uplifts respectively happened in early Sangonghe, late Sangonghe to early Xishanyao, and late Xishanyao to early Toutunhe. During the deposition stage of Toutunhe Formation, a

  13. Lithospheric stresses due to radiogenic heating of an ice-silicate planetary body - Implications for Ganymede's tectonic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, M. T.; Parmentier, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    Thermal evolution models of differentiated and undifferentiated ice-silicate bodies containing long-lived radiogenic heat sources are examined. Lithospheric sresses arise due to volume change of the interior and temperature change in the lithosphere. For an undifferentiated body, the surface stress peaks early in the evolution, while in the differentiated case, stresses peak later and continue to accumulate for longer periods of time. The variation of near-surface stress with depth shows that stresses for the undifferentiated body initially penetrate to great depths, but rapidly concentrate within a few kilometers of the surface. For the differentiated body, elastic stresses never accumulate at a depth greater than a few kilometers. These models are applied to consider long-term rdioactive heating as a possible mechanism of tectonic activity and bright terrain formation on Ganymede.

  14. Strain partitioning in the footwall of the Somiedo Nappe: structural evolution of the Narcea Tectonic Window, NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Alonso, Gabriel

    1996-10-01

    The Somiedo Nappe is a major thrust unit in the Cantabrian Zone, the external foreland fold and thrust belt of the North Iberian Variscan orogen. Exposed at the Narcea Tectonic Window are Precambrian rocks below the basal decollement of the Somiedo Nappe, which exhibit a different deformation style than the overlying Paleozoic rocks above the basal decollement. During Variscan deformation, folding and widespread subhorizontal, bedding-parallel decollements were produced in the hanging wall within the Paleozoic rocks. Vertical folding, with related axial-planar cleavage at a high angle to the decollement planes, developed simultaneously in the upper Proterozoic Narcea Slates of the footwall, below the detachment. The relative magnitude of finite strain, measured in the footwall rocks, diminishes towards the foreland. These observations indicate that (1) significant deformation may occur in the footwall of foreland fold and thrust belts, (2) the shortening mechanism in the footwall may be different from that of the hanging wall, and (3) in this particular case, the partitioning of the deformation implies the existence of a deeper, blind decollement surface contemporaneous with the first stages of the foreland development, that does not crop out in the region. This implies a significant shortening in the footwall, which must be taken into account when restoration and balancing of cross-sections is attempted. A sequential diagram of the evolution of the Narcea Tectonic Window with a minimum shortening of 85 km is proposed, explaining the complete Variscan evolution of the foreland to hinterland transition in the North Iberian Variscan orogen.

  15. Triple junction orogeny: tectonic evolution of the Pan-African Northern Damara Belt, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jérémie; Saalmann, Kerstin; Naydenov, Kalin V.; Milani, Lorenzo; Charlesworth, Eugene G.; Kinnaird, Judith A.; Frei, Dirk; Kramers, Jan D.; Zwingmann, Horst

    2014-05-01

    Trench-trench-trench triple junctions are generally geometrically and kinematically unstable and therefore can result at the latest stages in complicated collisional orogenic belts. In such geodynamic sites, mechanism and timescale of deformations that accommodate convergence and final assembly of the three colliding continental plates are poorly studied. In western Namibia, Pan-African convergence of three cratonic blocks led to pene-contemporaneous closure of two highly oblique oceanic domains and formation of the triple junction Damara Orogen where the NE-striking Damara Belt abuts to the west against the NNW-striking Kaoko-Gariep Belt. Detailed description of structures and microstructures associated with remote sensing analysis, and dating of individual deformation events by means of K-Ar, Ar-Ar (micas) and U-Pb (zircon) isotopic studies from the Northern Damara Belt provide robust constraints on the tectonic evolution of this palaeo-triple junction orogeny. There, passive margin sequences of the Neoproterozoic ocean were polydeformed and polymetamorphosed to the biotite zone of the greenschist facies to up to granulite facies and anatexis towards the southern migmatitic core of the Central Damara Belt. Subtle relict structures and fold pattern analyses reveal the existence of an early D1 N-S shortening event, tentatively dated between ~635 Ma and ~580 Ma using published data. D1 structures were almost obliterated by pervasive and major D2 E-W coaxial shortening, related to the closure of the Kaoko-Gariep oceanic domain and subsequent formation of the NNW-striking Kaoko-Gariep Belt to the west of the study area. Early, km-scale D1 E-W trending steep folds were refolded during this D2 event, producing either Type I or Type II fold interference patterns visible from space. The D2 E-W convergence could have lasted until ~533 Ma based on published and new U-Pb ages. The final D3 NW-SE convergence in the northernmost Damara Belt produced a NE-striking deformation

  16. Jointing patterns and tectonic evolution of the Maciço Calcário Estremenho, Lusitanian Basin, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Jorge M. F.

    2018-05-01

    The Maciço Calcário Estremenho (MCE) is an uplifted Jurassic limestone massif unit of the Lusitanian Basin, Portugal, where five main joint sets trending NNE-SSW, WSW-ENE, WNW-ESE, NW-SE, and NNW-SSE are recognized. Except for the NNW-SSE set, all the other sets host calcite veins and barren joints, evidencing a multistage development by several deformation episodes, including shear reactivation. Orthogonal patterns defined by the NNE-SSW/WNW-ESE and NNW-SSE/WSW-ENE systems are characteristic of some tectonostratigraphic units of the MCE, but the sets of each one of the systems are genetically independent. They result from specific deformation episodes undergone by the studied area in the course of its Meso-Cenozoic evolution. NNE-SSW calcite veins were the first to form during Middle Jurassic fault-controlled subsidence. A renewal of this set as barren joints took place during the Eocene Pyrenean compressive phase. The WSW-ENE and WNW-ESE sets have a restricted spatial distribution and relate to transient compressive episodes of the Middle - Late Jurassic and Jurassic - Cretaceous transitions, respectively. The NW-SE set, also characteristic of a specific region, formed during the Late Jurassic rifting and is related to local NE-SW tension dependent on block tilting towards a major NW-SE fault. The Miocene Betic compressive phase is responsible for the formation of the NNW-SSE set, which is widespread throughout the MCE.

  17. Evolution of the Altaid tectonic collage and Palaeozoic crustal growth in Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şengör, A. M. C.; Natal'in, B. A.; Burtman, V. S.

    1993-07-01

    A new tectonic model, postulating the growth of giant subduction-accretion complexes along a single magmatic arc now found contorted between Siberia and Baltica, shows that Asia grew by 5.3 million square kilometres during the Palaeozoic era. Half of this growth may have occurred by the addition of juvenile crust newly extracted from the mantle, supporting models of considerable continental growth continuing throughout the Phanerozoic eon.

  18. Fission track thermochronology : reconstructing the thermal and tectonic evolution of the crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleadow, A.J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The basis and current status of fission track analysis is reviewed showing the kinds of patterns of fission track parameters which result from a variety of thermal and tectonic histories. Fission track thermochronology is a well established method for reconstructing the thermal histories of rocks with particularly important applications in tectonic studies. Quantitative modelling of the thermal annealing of tracks in apatite shows that distinctive profiles of apparent fission track age can be related to a number of simple thermal history styles. The main types of profiles observed tend to be either an essentially linear decrease of apparent age with increasing depth, which relates to continuous uplift and denudation, or a concave-upwards profile produced by partial annealing in environments of tectonic stability or burial. More complex thermal histories produce compound profiles which are essentially just combinations of these two elements. Track length information allows the apparent age profiles to be interpreted in much greater detail. Examples of the major profile types have been identified in various geological environments and can be analysed to give information about, for example, uplift and denudation rates, the timing of uplift or low-grade thermal events and maximum palaeotemperatures experienced during burial. 25 refs., 8 figs

  19. The asymmetric evolution of the Colombian Eastern Cordillera. Tectonic inheritance or climatic forcing? New evidence from thermochronology and sedimentology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Arias, Juan Carlos; Mora, Andrés; Rubiano, Jorge; Duddy, Ian; Parra, Mauricio; Moreno, Nestor; Stockli, Daniel; Casallas, Wilson

    2012-11-01

    New thermochronological data, facies, paleocurrents and provenance allow us to refine the chronology of deformation in the central segment of the Colombian Eastern Cordillera. Based on a new extensive AFT dataset, we document the spatial evolution of active deformation, from the axial zone of the Eastern Cordillera at about 50 Ma in to active growth of the frontal thin skinned structures in Late Miocene time. Paleocurrents allow us to push backwards into the Middle to Early Late-Miocene the emergence of the easternmost frontal thrust; whereas careful assessment of exposure gates tied to AFT data enable to refine the unroofing history for Eocene to Miocene times. Based on that, we produced a kinematically restored cross section with higher resolution than previous assessments. Using these datasets, we compare the evolution of the central segment of the Eastern Cordillera in this region with the evolution of adjacent areas in the context of climatic forcing of orogenic evolution. We find that in this region and, in the Eastern Cordillera in general, tectonic inheritance and transpression exert an initial dominant control on the initial orogen asymmetry, which is later enhanced due to an orographically-focused erosion. We therefore suggest that it is not climate alone the factor controlling orogenic asymmetry in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia.

  20. Active tectonics and drainage evolution in the Tunisian Atlas driven by interaction between crustal shortening and slab pull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camafort, Miquel; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Pérez-Peña, Jose Vicente; Melki, Fetheddine; Gracia, Eulalia; Azañón, Jose Miguel; Ranero, César R.

    2017-04-01

    Active tectonics in North Africa is fundamentally driven by NW-SE directed slow convergence between the Nubia and Eurasia plates, leading to a region of thrust and strike-slip faulting. In this paper we analyze the morphometric characteristics of the little-studied northern Tunisia sector. The study aimed at identifying previously unknown active tectonic structures, and to further understand the mechanisms that drive the drainage evolution in this region of slow convergence. The interpretation of morphometric data was supported with a field campaign of a selection of structures. The analysis indicates that recent fluvial captures have been the main factor rejuvenating drainage catchments. The Medjerda River, which is the main catchment in northern Tunisia, has increased its drainage area during the Quaternary by capturing adjacent axial valleys to the north and south of its drainage divide. These captures are probably driven by gradual uplift of adjacent axial valleys by reverse/oblique faults or associated folds like El Alia-Teboursouk and Dkhila faults. Our fieldwork found that these faults cut Holocene colluvial fans containing seismites like clastic dikes and sand volcanoes, indicating recent seismogenic faulting. The growth and stabilization of the axial Medjerda River against the natural tendency of transverse drainages might be caused by a combination of dynamic topography and transpressive tectonics. The orientation of the large axial Medjerda drainage that runs from eastern Algeria towards northeastern Tunisia into the Gulf of Tunis, might be the associated to negative buoyancy caused by the underlying Nubia slab at its mouth, together with uplift of the Medjerda headwaters along the South Atlassic dextral transfer zone.

  1. Magnetostratigraphy and 230Th dating of a drill core from the southeastern Qaidam Basin: Salt lake evolution and tectonic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Dong Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Qarhan Salt Lake area is the Quaternary depocenter of the Qaidam Basin, and carries thick lacustrine sediments, as well as rich potassium and magnesium salt deposits. The abundant resources and thick sediments in this lake provide an ideal place for the study of biogas formation and preservation, salt lake evolution, and the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we attempt to construct a paleomagnetic and 230Th age model and to obtain information on tectonic activity and salt lake evolution through detailed studies on a 1300-m-long drill core (15DZK01 from the northwestern margin of the Qarhan Salt Lake area (Dongling Lake. Based on gypsum 230Th dating, the age of the uppermost clastic deposit was calculated to be around 0.052 Ma. The polarity sequence consist of 13 pairs of normal and reversed zones, which can be correlated with subchrons C2r.1r-C1n of the geomagnetic polarity timescale (GPTS 2012 (from ∼2.070 Ma to ∼0.052 Ma. Sedimentary characteristics indicate that Dongling Lake witnessed freshwater environment between ∼2.070 Ma and 1.546 Ma. During this period, the sedimentary record reflects primarily lakeshore, shallow-water and swamp environments, representing favourable conditions for the formation of hydrocarbon source rocks. Between 1.546 Ma and ∼0.052 Ma, the Dongling Lake was in sulphate deposition stage, which contrasts with the central Qarhan Salt Lake area, where this stage did not occur in the meantime. During this stage, Dongling Lake was in a shallow saltwater lake environment, but several periods of reduced salinity occurred during this stage. During the late Pleistocene at ∼0.052 Ma, the Dongling Lake experienced uplift due to tectonic activity, and saltwater migrated through the Sanhu Fault to the central Qarhan Salt Lake area, resulting in the absence of halite deposition stage. The residual saline water was concentrated into magnesium-rich brine due to the lack of freshwater, and few

  2. Geomorphology and Neogene tectonic evolution of the Palomares continental margin (Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez de la Peña, Laura; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Muñoz, Araceli; Acosta, Juan; Gómez-Ballesteros, María; R. Ranero, César; Uchupi, Elazar

    2016-10-01

    The Palomares continental margin is located in the southeastern part of Spain. The margin main structure was formed during Miocene times, and it is currently part of the wide deformation zone characterizing the region between the Iberian and African plates, where no well-defined plate boundary occurs. The convergence between these two plates is here accommodated by several structures, including the left lateral strike-slip Palomares Fault. The region is characterized by sparse, low to moderate magnitude (Mw shallow instrumental earthquakes, although large historical events have also occurred. To understand the recent tectonic history of the margin we analyze new high-resolution multibeam bathymetry data and re-processed three multichannel seismic reflection profiles crossing the main structures. The analysis of seafloor morphology and associated subsurface structure provides new insights of the active tectonic features of the area. In contrast to other segments of the southeastern Iberian margin, the Palomares margin contains numerous large and comparatively closely spaced canyons with heads that reach near the coast. The margin relief is also characterized by the presence of three prominent igneous submarine ridges that include the Aguilas, Abubacer and Maimonides highs. Erosive processes evidenced by a number of scars, slope failures, gullies and canyon incisions shape the present-day relief of the Palomares margin. Seismic images reveal the deep structure distinguishing between Miocene structures related to the formation of the margin and currently active features, some of which may reactivate inherited structures. The structure of the margin started with an extensional phase accompanied by volcanic accretion during the Serravallian, followed by a compressional pulse that started during the Latemost Tortonian. Nowadays, tectonic activity offshore is subdued and limited to few, minor faults, in comparison with the activity recorded onshore. The deep Algero

  3. Links between CO2, glaciation and water flow: reconciling the Cenozoic history of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladant, J.B.; Donnadieu, Y.; Dumas, C.

    2014-01-01

    The timing of the onset of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is a crucial event of the Cenozoic because of its cooling and isolating effect over Antarctica. It is intimately related to the glaciations occurring throughout the Cenozoic from the Eocene - Oligocene (EO) transition (∼ 34 Ma) to the middle Miocene glaciations (∼ 13.9 Ma). However, the exact timing of the onset remains debated, with evidence for a late Eocene setup contradicting other data pointing to an occurrence closer to the Oligocene - Miocene (OM) boundary. In this study, we show the potential impact of the Antarctic ice sheet on the initiation of a strong proto- ACC at the EO boundary. Our results reveal that the regional cooling effect of the ice sheet increases sea ice formation, which disrupts the meridional density gradient in the Southern Ocean and leads to the onset of a circumpolar current and its progressive strengthening. We also suggest that subsequent variations in atmospheric CO 2 , ice sheet volumes and tectonic reorganizations may have affected the ACC intensity after the Eocene - Oligocene transition. This allows us to build a hypothesis for the Cenozoic evolution of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current that may provide an explanation for the second initiation of the ACC at the Oligocene - Miocene boundary while reconciling evidence supporting both early Oligocene and early Miocene onset of the ACC. (authors)

  4. Preliminary sequence stratigraphy and tectonic evolution of the Tokar Delta, (Southern Sudanese Red Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Yagoub, Abbas Musa

    2007-01-01

    The study area comprises about 2500sq.Kms. From the seismic data acquired by the Oil Companies (Chevron 1975-76 Total 1980 and IPC 1992), thirty two seismic lines were selected Fig (2). Also synthetic seismograms of Suakin-1, Bashayer-1 A and Bashayer-2A wells are used. The stratigraphy and sedimentation of the Sudanese Red Sea can be placed into four major tectonic phases, Pre-rifting stratigraphy, Syn-Rift Pre-Salt Stratigarphy, Salt Phase and Syn-Rift Post Salt Stratigraphy. Basic conce...

  5. Pan-African tectonic evolution in central and southern Cameroon: transpression and transtension during sinistral shear movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngako, V.; Affaton, P.; Nnange, J. M.; Njanko, Th.

    2003-04-01

    Kinematic analysis of the central Cameroon shear zone (CCSZ) and its Sanaga fault relay, indicate early sinistral shear movement (phase D 2) that was later followed by a dextral shear movement (phase D 3) during the Pan-African orogeny. The correlation of tectonic events among the CCSZs, thrusting of the Yaounde Group and the deformation in the Lom Group indicate a diachronous deposition history of these groups, where the Yaounde Group is pre-kinematic while the sedimentary and magmatic rocks of the Lom basin are syn-kinematic. Sinistral shear movements along the CCSZ and Sanaga faults are correlated with metamorphism and thrusting of the Yaounde granulites onto the Congo craton, on one hand, and to the opening of the Lom pull-apart basin, oblique to the shear zone, on the other. Kinematic interactions between shear and thrust movements characterize transpression, whereas interactions between shear and oblique normal fault movements characterize transtension. Resulting kinematic indicators show that the Lom basin represents a sinistral transtensional relay of the Sanaga fault. Greenschist-facies metamorphism in the Lom Group rocks dominantly affected by a monophase tectonic evolution were achieved during the late dextral shear movements along the Sanaga fault.

  6. Thermochronological Evidence for Cenozoic Segmentation of Transantarctic Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zattin, M.; Pace, D.; Andreucci, B.; Rossetti, F.; Talarico, F.

    2013-12-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) represent the boundary between the cratonic East Antarctica and the West Antarctica and are thus related to formation of the Western Antarctic Rift system (WARS). However, temporal relationships between timing of TAM uplift and evolution of the WARS are not clear. The large amount of existing thermochronological data indicate that exhumation of the TAM occurred at different times and extents, with main cooling events in the Early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous, and early Cenozoic. Uplift of the different segments of the TAM was not recorded according to regular trends along the mountain chain, but instead appears diachronous and without a recognizable spatial pattern. Here we present apatite fission-track (AFT) data from 20 samples, collected from metamorphic and intrusive rocks from the region comprised between the Blue Glacier and the Byrd Glacier. AFT data show a large variety of ages, ranging from 28.0 to 88.8 Ma and without a clear correlation between age and elevation. As a whole, spatial variations suggest a decrease of ages from S to the region of the Koettlitz Glacier, where ages suddenly raise up to Cretaceous values. A marked increase of ages has been detected also south of Darwin Glacier, that is in correspondence of the Britannia Range. Thermal modelling shows that cooling paths are usually composite, with a main cooling event followed by slower cooling to present day temperatures. Time of main cooling event is late Cretaceous for samples from the Britannia Range whereas it is Eocene-Oligocene for samples from Koettlitz and Mulock areas. In any case, cooling rates are always quite low also during periods of enhanced uplift, with values not exceeding 5°C/Ma. These data support the idea of tectonic block segmentation of the TAM during the last phases of exhumation. Most of vertical displacements occurred during the Oligocene across transverse fault zones such as the Discovery Accommodation Zone to the north and the

  7. Aerogeophysical survey over Sør Rondane Mountains and its implications for revealing the tectonic evolution of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieth, Matthias; Steinhage, Daniel; Ruppel, Antonia; Damaske, Detlef; Jokat, Wilfried

    2013-04-01

    We are presenting new magnetic and gravity data of a high-resolution aerogephysical survey over the area of the Sør Rondane Mountains in the eastern Dronning Maud Land (DML). The aircraft survey is part of the joint geological and geophysical GEA campaign (Geodynamic Evolution of East Antarctica) of the Federal Agency for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) and Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), in cooperation with the Universities of Ghent, Bremen and Bergen. It was completed during the Antarctic summer season 2012/13, covering an area of more than 100000 square kilometer with a line spacing of 5 km. The data will be correlated with geological structures exposed in the mountain range as well as matched and merged with the data sets of the eastern and southern DML (acquired by AWI during the last decade) for comparison and discussion in the greater context of the tectonic evolution of East Antarctica. Preliminary results show that the magnetic anomaly pattern over the Sør Rondane Mountains differs from the pattern found over the central DML mountains as well as from the low amplitude pattern in between both regions, indicating a significant difference in the evolution of this region, which is in accordance with latest geological findings in this region.

  8. Tectonic Constraints on the Evolution of Geothermal Systems in the Central Andean Volcanic Zone (CAVZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, E. E.; Tardani, D.; Aron, F.; Elizalde, J. D.; Sanchez-Alfaro, P.; Godoy, B.

    2017-12-01

    South of 19°S, geothermal fields and Pliocene-to-Holocene volcanic centers of the Central Andean Volcanic Zone are spatially associated with distinct, large-scale fault systems disrupting the volcanic arc, which control the architecture and dynamics of the fluids reservoirs at shallow crustal levels. Based on an extensive compilation of structural, lithological and isotopic data, and satellite imagery band-ratio analyses, we produced detailed maps of 13 areas comprising 19 identified and/or potential geothermal fields, to examine if particular local-scale tectonic configurations are associated to fluids migrating from different crustal levels. We defined three main tectonic environments according to the specific, kilometer-scale structural arrangement and its spatial relation to the geothermal surface manifestations. T1, dominated by left-lateral, pure strike-slip motion on a NW-trending duplex-like geometry with geothermal fields located along the faults - in turn distributed into five major subparallel zones cutting across the orogenic belt between ca. 20° and 27°S. T2, dominated by shortening on a series of N-trending thrust faults and fault-propagated folds, cut and displaced by the above mentioned NW-trending faults, with geothermal fields hosted at fault intersections and at fold hinges. And T3, characterized by transtension accommodated by NW-to-WNW-trending left-lateral/normal faults, with hot-springs lying along the fault traces. Interestingly, each of the independently defined tectonic environments has distinctive helium (in fluids) and strontium (in lavas) isotopic signatures and estimated geothermal reservoir temperatures. T1 shows a large 4He contribution, low 87Sr/86Sr ratio and temperatures varying between ca. 220°-310°C; T3 low 4He and high 87Sr/86Sr ratio and temperature (260°-320°C); T2 isotopic values fall between T1 and T3, yet showing the lowest (130°-250°C) temperatures. We suggest that these particular isotopic signatures are due to

  9. The Geomorphological Evolution of a Landscape in a Tectonically Active Region: the Sennwald Landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksay, Selçuk; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Hippe, Kristina; Graemiger, Lorenz; Vockenhuber, Christof

    2016-04-01

    The Säntis nappe is a fold-and-thrust structure in eastern Switzerland consisting of numerous tectonic discontinuities that make rocks vulnerable to rock failure. The Sennwald landslide is one of those events that occurred due to the failure of Lower Cretaceous Helvetic limestones. This study reveals the surface exposure age of the event in relation to geological and tectonic setting, earthquake frequency of the Central Alps, and regional scale climate/weather influence. Our study comprises detailed mapping of landform features, thin section analysis of landslide boulder lithologies, landslide volume estimation, numerical DAN-3D run-out modelling, and the spatial and temporal relationship of the event. In the Sennwald landslide, 92 million m3 of limestones detached from the south-eastern wall of the Säntis nappe and slid with a maximum travel distance of ~4'500 m and a "fahrboeschung" angle of 15° along the SE-dipping sliding plane almost parallel to the orientation of the bedding plane. Numerical run-out modelling results match the extent and the thickness of landslide deposits as observed in the field. The original bedrock stratigraphy was preserved as geologically the top layer in the bedrock package travelled the farthest and the bottom layer came to rest closest to the release bedrock wall during the landslide. Velocities of maximum 90 m/s were obtained from the numerical run-out modelling. Total Cl and 36Cl were determined at ETH AMS facility with isotope dilution methods defined in the literature (Ivy-Ochs et al., 2004). Surface exposure ages of landslide deposits in the accumulation area are revealed from twelve boulders. The distribution of limestone boulders in the accumulation area, the exposure ages, and the numerical run-out modelling support the hypothesis that the Sennwald landslide was a single catastrophic event. The event is likely to have been triggered by at least light to moderate earthquakes (Mw=4.0-6.0). The historical and the last 40-year

  10. Paleomagnetism and tectonic evolution of the Pan-African Damara Belt, southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, M. O.; KröNer, A.

    1981-06-01

    Paleomagnetic results are reported from the Nosib, Otavi, and Mulden groups of the Damara Supergroup, a late Precambrian shelf sequence on the southern margin of the Congo craton in Namibia. Three magnetizations were isolated in the Nosib group samples. In order of decreasing blocking temperature they are NQ1 (n = 6 sites, λ = 28°N, ϕ = 323°E, α95 = 15°), NQ2 (n = 7 sites, λ = 51°S, ϕ = 213°E, α95 = 12°), and NQ3 (n = 13 samples, λ = 09°N, ϕ = 295°E, α95 = 13°). Overall precision of all three magnetizations upon tectonic correction suggests that they predate Pan-African (650-450 Ma) folding. Two magnetizations were isolated in the Otavi group samples, above the Nosib in stratigraphic sequence. The DC1 component of possible prefolding age (n = 4 sites, λ = 52°S, ϕ = 186°E, α95 = 35°) has been over-printed by the DC2 magnetization (n = 10 sites, λ = 55°S, ϕ = 044°E, α95 = 15°) of probable postfolding age. A single magnetization of probable pre-folding age was isolated in the overlying Mulden Group samples (n = 6 sites, λ = 12°S, ϕ = 090°E, α95 = 16°). Together with previously published paleomagnetic data from Africa, the new data showed that no great relative movements have occurred between the Congo and Kalahari cratons during the interval of Pan-African tectonism in the Damara belt (McElhinny and McWilliams, 1977). Continental collision preceded by large relative displacements and closure of a wide ocean (e.g., a Himalayan analog) is effectively ruled out for the Damara belt. We develop an alternative model consistent with the available paleomagnetic and geologic data, which invokes rifting, heating, and stretching of the lithosphere underneath the Damara belt, followed by delamination of the subcrustal lithosphere. Hot asthenospheric material rises to take the place of the detached and sinking lithospheric base, inducing subduction and interstacking of continental crust. The much thickened continental crust is partially melted

  11. Hydrothermal Evolution of the Giant Cenozoic Kadjaran porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Tethyan metallogenic belt, Armenia, Lesser Caucasus: mineral paragenetic, cathodoluminescence and fluid inclusion constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovakimyan, Samvel; Moritz, Robert; Tayan, Rodrik; Rezeau, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    The Lesser Caucasus belongs to the Central segment of the Tethyan metallogenic belt and it is a key area to understand the metallogenic evolution between the Western & Central parts of the Tethyan belt and its extension into Iran. Zangezur is the most important mineral district in the southernmost Lesser Caucasus. It is a component of the South Armenian block, and it was generated during the convergence and collision of the southern margin of the Eurasian plate and the northern margin of the Arabian plate, and terranes of Gondwana origin (Moritz et al., in press). The Zangezur ore district consists of the Tertiary Meghri-Ordubad composite pluton, which is characterized by a long-lasting Eocene to Pliocene magmatic, tectonic and metallogenic evolution. It hosts major porphyries Cu-Mo and epithermal Au - polymetallic deposits and occurrences, including the giant world class Kadjaran porphyry Cu-Mo deposit (2244 Mt reserves, 0.3% Cu, 0.05% Mo and 0.02 g/t Au). The Kadjaran deposit is hosted by a monzonite intrusion (31.83±0.02Ma; Moritz et al., in press). Detailed field studies of the porphyry stockwork and veins of the different mineralization stages, their crosscutting and displacement relationships and the age relationship between different paragenetic mineral associations were the criteria for distinction of the main stages of porphyry mineralization at the Kadjaran deposit. The economic stages being: quartz- molybdenite, quartz-molybdenite-chalcopyrite, and quartz-chalcopyrite. The main paragenetic association of the Kadjaran porphyry deposit includes pyrite, molybdenite, chalcopyrite, bornite, chalcocite, pyrrhotite, covellite, sphalerite, and galena. Recent field observations in the Kadjaran open pit revealed the presence of epithermal veins with late vuggy silica and advanced argillic alteration in the north-eastern and eastern parts of the deposit. They are distributed as separate veins and have also been recognized in re-opened porphyry veins and in

  12. Determination of Cenozoic sedimentary structures using integrated geophysical surveys: A case study in the Barkol Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Chen, Chao; Du, Jinsong; Wang, Limin; Lei, Binhua

    2018-01-01

    Thickness estimation of sedimentary basin is a complex geological problem, especially in an orogenic environment. Intense and multiple tectonic movements and climate changes result in inhomogeneity of sedimentary layers and basement configurations, which making sedimentary structure modelling difficult. In this study, integrated geophysical methods, including gravity, magnetotelluric (MT) sounding and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), were used to estimate basement relief to understand the geological structure and evolution of the eastern Barkol Basin in China. This basin formed with the uplift of the eastern Tianshan during the Cenozoic. Gravity anomaly map revealed the framework of the entire area, and ERT as well as MT sections reflected the geoelectric features of the Cenozoic two-layer distribution. Therefore, gravity data, constrained by MT, ERT and boreholes, were utilized to estimate the spatial distribution of the Quaternary layer. The gravity effect of the Quaternary layer related to the Tertiary layer was later subtracted to obtain the residual anomaly for inversion. For the Tertiary layer, the study area was divided into several parts because of lateral difference of density contrasts. Gravity data were interpreted to determine the density contrast constrained by the MT results. The basement relief can be verified by geological investigation, including the uplift process and regional tectonic setting. The agreement between geophysical survey and prior information from geology emphasizes the importance of integrated geophysical survey as a complementary means of geological studies in this region.

  13. Geometry and evolution of low-angle normal faults (LANF) within a Cenozoic high-angle rift system, Thailand: Implications for sedimentology and the mechanisms of LANF development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Chris K.

    2009-10-01

    At least eight examples of large (5-35 km heave), low-angle normal faults (LANFs, 20°-30° dip) occur in the Cenozoic rift basins of Thailand and laterally pass into high-angle extensional fault systems. Three large-displacement LANFs are found in late Oligocene-Miocene onshore rift basins (Suphan Buri, Phitsanulok, and Chiang Mai basins), they have (1) developed contemporaneous with, or after the onset of, high-angle extension, (2) acted as paths for magma and associated fluids, and (3) impacted sedimentation patterns. Displacement on low-angle faults appears to be episodic, marked by onset of lacustrine conditions followed by axial progradation of deltaic systems that infilled the lakes during periods of low or no displacement. The Chiang Mai LANF is a low-angle (15°-25°), high-displacement (15-35 km heave), ESE dipping LANF immediately east of the late early Miocene Doi Inthanon and Doi Suthep metamorphic core complexes. Early Cenozoic transpressional crustal thickening followed by the northward motion of India coupled with Burma relative to east Burma and Thailand (˜40-30 Ma) caused migmatization and gneiss dome uplift in the late Oligocene of the core complex region, followed by LANF activity. LANF displacement lasted 4-6 Ma during the early Miocene and possibly transported a late Oligocene-early Miocene high-angle rift system 35 km east. Other LANFs in Thailand have lower displacements and no associated metamorphic core complexes. The three LANFs were initiated as low-angle faults, not by isostatic rotation of high-angle faults. The low-angle dips appear to follow preexisting low-angle fabrics (thrusts, shear zones, and other low-angle ductile foliations) predominantly developed during Late Paleozoic and early Paleogene episodes of thrusting and folding.

  14. Northeastern Brazilian margin: Regional tectonic evolution based on integrated analysis of seismic reflection and potential field data and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaich, Olav A.; Tsikalas, Filippos; Faleide, Jan Inge

    2008-10-01

    Integration of regional seismic reflection and potential field data along the northeastern Brazilian margin, complemented by crustal-scale gravity modelling, is used to reveal and illustrate onshore-offshore crustal structure correlation, the character of the continent-ocean boundary, and the relationship of crustal structure to regional variation of potential field anomalies. The study reveals distinct along-margin structural and magmatic changes that are spatially related to a number of conjugate Brazil-West Africa transfer systems, governing the margin segmentation and evolution. Several conceptual tectonic models are invoked to explain the structural evolution of the different margin segments in a conjugate margin context. Furthermore, the constructed transects, the observed and modelled Moho relief, and the potential field anomalies indicate that the Recôncavo, Tucano and Jatobá rift system may reflect a polyphase deformation rifting-mode associated with a complex time-dependent thermal structure of the lithosphere. The constructed transects and available seismic reflection profiles, indicate that the northern part of the study area lacks major breakup-related magmatic activity, suggesting a rifted non-volcanic margin affinity. In contrast, the southern part of the study area is characterized by abrupt crustal thinning and evidence for breakup magmatic activity, suggesting that this region evolved, partially, with a rifted volcanic margin affinity and character.

  15. Gravitational spreading, bookshelf faulting, and tectonic evolution of the South Polar Terrain of Saturn's moon Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, An; Pappalardo, Robert T.

    2015-11-01

    Despite a decade of intense research the mechanical origin of the tiger-stripe fractures (TSF) and their geologic relationship to the hosting South Polar Terrain (SPT) of Enceladus remain poorly understood. Here we show via systematic photo-geological mapping that the semi-squared SPT is bounded by right-slip, left-slip, extensional, and contractional zones on its four edges. Discrete deformation along the edges in turn accommodates translation of the SPT as a single sheet with its transport direction parallel to the regional topographic gradient. This parallel relationship implies that the gradient of gravitational potential energy drove the SPT motion. In map view, internal deformation of the SPT is expressed by distributed right-slip shear parallel to the SPT transport direction. The broad right-slip shear across the whole SPT was facilitated by left-slip bookshelf faulting along the parallel TSF. We suggest that the flow-like tectonics, to the first approximation across the SPT on Enceladus, is best explained by the occurrence of a transient thermal event, which allowed the release of gravitational potential energy via lateral viscous flow within the thermally weakened ice shell.

  16. Preliminary Depositional and Provenance Records of Mesozoic Basin Evolution and Cenozoic Shortening in the High Andes, La Ramada Fold-Thrust Belt, Southern-Central Andes (32-33°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackaman-Lofland, C.; Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.; Constenius, K. N.; McKenzie, R.; Alvarado, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Argentinian Andes define key examples of retroarc shortening and basin evolution above a zone of active subduction. The La Ramada fold-thrust belt (RFTB) in the High Andes provides insights into the relative influence and temporal records of diverse convergent margin processes (e.g. flat-slab subduction, convergent wedge dynamics, structural inversion). The RFTB contains Mesozoic extensional basin strata deformed by later Andean shortening. New detrital zircon U-Pb analyses of Mesozoic rift sediments reveal: (1) a dominant Permo-Triassic age signature (220-280 Ma) associated with proximal sources of effective basement (Choiyoi Group) during Triassic synrift deposition; (2) upsection younging of maximum depositional ages from Late Triassic through Early Cretaceous (230 to 100 Ma) with the increasing influence of western Andean arc sources; and (3) a significant Late Cretaceous influx of Paleozoic (~350-550 Ma) and Proterozoic (~650-1300 Ma) populations during the earliest shift from back-arc post-extensional subsidence to upper-plate shortening. The Cenozoic detrital record of the Manantiales foreland basin (between the Frontal Cordillera and Precordillera) records RFTB deformation prior to flat-slab subduction. A Permo-Triassic Choiyoi age signature dominates the Miocene succession, consistent with sources in the proximal Espinacito range. Subordinate Mesozoic (~80-250 Ma) to Proterozoic (~850-1800 Ma) U-Pb populations record exhumation of the Andean magmatic arc and recycling of different structural levels in the RFTB during thrusting/inversion of Mesozoic rift basin strata and subjacent Paleozoic units. Whereas maximum depositional ages of sampled Manantiales units cluster at 18-20 Ma, the Estancia Uspallata basin (~50 km to the south) shows consistent upsection younging of Cenozoic populations attributed to proximal volcanic centers. Ongoing work will apply low-temperature thermochronology to pinpoint basin accumulation histories and thrust timing.

  17. Middle to Late Jurassic Tectonic Evolution of the Klamath Mountains, California-Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Gregory D.; Wright, James E.

    1984-12-01

    The geochronology, stratigraphy, and spatial relationships of Middle and Late Jurassic terranes of the Klamath Mountains strongly suggest that they were formed in a single west-facing magmatic arc built upon older accreted terranes. A Middle Jurassic arc complex is represented by the volcanic rocks of the western Hayfork terrane and consanguineous dioritic to peridotitic plutons. New U/Pb zircon dates indicate that the Middle Jurassic plutonic belt was active from 159 to 174 Ma and is much more extensive than previously thought. This plutonic belt became inactive just as the 157 Ma Josephine ophiolite, which lies west and structurally below the Middle Jurassic arc, was generated. Late Jurassic volcanic and plutonic arc rocks (Rogue Formation and Chetco intrusive complex) lie outboard and structurally beneath the Josephine ophiolite; U/Pb and K/Ar age data indicate that this arc complex is coeval with the Josephine ophiolite. Both the Late Jurassic arc complex and the Josephine ophiolite are overlain by the "Galice Formation," a Late Jurassic flysch sequence, and are intruded by 150 Ma dikes and sills. The following tectonic model is presented that accounts for the age and distribution of these terranes: a Middle Jurassic arc built on older accreted terranes undergoes rifting at 160 Ma, resulting in formation of a remnant arc/back-arc basin/island arc triad. This system collapsed during the Late Jurassic Nevadan Orogeny (150 Ma) and was strongly deformed and stacked into a series of east-dipping thrust sheets. Arc magmatism was active both before and after the Nevadan Orogeny, but virtually ceased at 140 Ma.

  18. Driving Forces of Plate Tectonics and Evolution of the Oceanic Lithosphere and Asthenosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    As plate tectonics became established as an excellent kinematic description of the relative motions of different blocks of the Earth's lithosphere, many investigators also began exploring the forces involved in driving the plate motions. Because the plates move at nearly constant velocities over long periods of time and inertial terms are unimportant, driving forces must always be balanced by resisting forces in a way that regulates the velocities. Forsyth and Uyeda (1975) incorporated the balancing of torques on the individual plates to help constrain the relative importance of the driving and resisting forces, as parameterized in a way based on prior model investigations of individual parts of the convecting system. We found that the primary driving force was sinking of subducting lithosphere at trenches, balanced largely by viscous resisting forces in the sub-asthenospheric mantle; that viscous drag beneath the oceanic plates was negligible; and that mid-ocean ridges provided a relatively small push. One of the early questions was whether there was buoyant upwelling on a large scale beneath mid-ocean ridges as part of a whole mantle convection system with subduction of the plates representing the downwelling limb. If so, then it would be likely that the plates were just riding on top of large convection cells. Seismic tomography has demonstrated that, on average, there are no deep roots beneath mid-ocean ridges, so that active, buoyant upwelling from the deep mantle does not exist beneath spreading centers. However, more recent tomographic studies have found asymmetry of the shear velocity structure beneath ridges in some areas, pointing to a smaller scale of active convection in the shallow mantle perhaps induced by melt retention buoyancy or the local effects of ridge/hotspot interaction.

  19. Current deformation in the Tibetan Plateau: a stress gauge in the large-scale India-Asia collision tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, F. A.

    2017-12-01

    The quantification of the exact tectonic forces budget on Earth has remained thus far elusive. Geodetic velocities provide relevant constraints on the current dynamics of the coupling between collision and continental tectonics, however in the Tibetan plateau these support contrasting, non-unique models. Here, we compare numerical models of coupled India-Asia plate convergence, collision and continent interiors tectonics to the geodetically-constrained motions in the Tibetan Plateau to provide a quantitative assessment of the driving forces of plate tectonics in the area. The models develop a range of long-term evolutions remarkably similar to the Asian tectonics in the Cenozoic, reproducing the current large-scale motions pattern under a range of conditions. Balancing the convergent margin forces, following subduction, and the far-field forcing along the trail of the subducting continent, the geodetic rates in the Tibetan Plateau can be matched. The comparisons support the discussion on the likely processes at work, allowing inferences on the drivers of plateau formation and its role on the plate margin-interiors tectonics. More in general, the outcomes highlight the unique role of the Tibetan Plateau as a pressure gauge for the tectonic forces on Earth.

  20. Geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic evolution of the Western and Central cordilleras of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagómez, Diego; Spikings, Richard; Magna, Tomas; Kammer, Andreas; Winkler, Wilfried; Beltrán, Alejandro

    2011-08-01

    Autochthonous rocks of the pre-Cretaceous continental margin of NW South America (the Tahami Terrane) are juxtaposed against a series of para-autochthonous rock units that assembled during the Early Cretaceous. Allochthonous, oceanic crust of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province collided with and accreted onto the margin during the Late Cretaceous. We present the first regional-scale dataset of zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS ages for intrusive and metamorphic rocks of the autochthonous Tahami Terrane, Early Cretaceous igneous para-autochthonous rocks and accreted oceanic crust. The U-Pb zircon data are complemented by multiphase 40Ar/ 39Ar crystallization and cooling ages. The geochronological data are combined with whole rock major oxide, trace element and REE data acquired from the same units to constrain the tectonic origin of the rock units and terranes exposed in the Western Cordillera, Cauca-Patía Valley and the Central Cordillera of Colombia. The Tahami Terrane includes lower Paleozoic orthogneisses (~ 440 Ma) that may have erupted during the active margin stage of the Rheic Ocean. Basement gneisses were intruded by Permian, continental arc granites during the final assembly of Pangea. Triassic sedimentary rocks were subsequently deposited in rift basins and partially melted during high-T metamorphism associated with rifting of western Pangea during 240-220 Ma. Continental arc magmatism during 180-145 Ma is preserved along the whole length of the Central Cordillera and was followed by an Early Cretaceous out-board step of the arc axis and the inception of the Quebradagrande Arc that fringed the continental margin. Back-stepping of the arc axis may have been caused by the collision of buoyant seamounts, which were coeval with plateau rocks exposed in the Nicoya Peninsular of Costa Rica. Rapid westward drift of South America closed the Quebradagrande basin in the late Aptian and caused medium-high P-T metamorphic rocks of the Arquía Complex to exhume and obduct onto

  1. Magmatic evolution of Panama Canal volcanic rocks: A record of arc processes and tectonic change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Farris

    Full Text Available Volcanic rocks along the Panama Canal present a world-class opportunity to examine the relationship between arc magmatism, tectonic forcing, wet and dry magmas, and volcanic structures. Major and trace element geochemistry of Canal volcanic rocks indicate a significant petrologic transition at 21-25 Ma. Oligocene Bas Obispo Fm. rocks have large negative Nb-Ta anomalies, low HREE, fluid mobile element enrichments, a THI of 0.88, and a H2Ocalc of >3 wt. %. In contrast, the Miocene Pedro Miguel and Late Basalt Fm. exhibit reduced Nb-Ta anomalies, flattened REE curves, depleted fluid mobile elements, a THI of 1.45, a H2Ocalc of <1 wt. %, and plot in mid-ocean ridge/back-arc basin fields. Geochemical modeling of Miocene rocks indicates 0.5-0.1 kbar crystallization depths of hot (1100-1190°C magmas in which most compositional diversity can be explained by fractional crystallization (F = 0.5. However, the most silicic lavas (Las Cascadas Fm. require an additional mechanism, and assimilation-fractional-crystallization can reproduce observed compositions at reasonable melt fractions. The Canal volcanic rocks, therefore, change from hydrous basaltic pyroclastic deposits typical of mantle-wedge-derived magmas, to hot, dry bi-modal magmatism at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. We suggest the primary reason for the change is onset of arc perpendicular extension localized to central Panama. High-resolution mapping along the Panama Canal has revealed a sequence of inward dipping maar-diatreme pyroclastic pipes, large basaltic sills, and bedded silicic ignimbrites and tuff deposits. These volcanic bodies intrude into the sedimentary Canal Basin and are cut by normal and subsequently strike-slip faults. Such pyroclastic pipes and basaltic sills are most common in extensional arc and large igneous province environments. Overall, the change in volcanic edifice form and geochemistry are related to onset of arc perpendicular extension, and are consistent with the

  2. The structure and stratigraphy of deepwater Sarawak, Malaysia: Implications for tectonic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madon, Mazlan; Kim, Cheng Ly; Wong, Robert

    2013-10-01

    The structural-stratigraphic history of the North Luconia Province, Sarawak deepwater area, is related to the tectonic history of the South China Sea. The Sarawak Basin initiated as a foreland basin as a result of the collision of the Luconia continental block with Sarawak (Sarawak Orogeny). The foreland basin was later overridden by and buried under the prograding Oligocene-Recent shelf-slope system. The basin had evolved through a deep foreland basin ('flysch') phase during late Eocene-Oligocene times, followed by post-Oligocene ('molasse') phase of shallow marine shelf progradation to present day. Seismic interpretation reveals a regional Early Miocene Unconformity (EMU) separating pre-Oligocene to Miocene rifted basement from overlying undeformed Upper Miocene-Pliocene bathyal sediments. Seismic, well data and subsidence analysis indicate that the EMU was caused by relative uplift and predominantly submarine erosion between ˜19 and 17 Ma ago. The subsidence history suggests a rift-like subsidence pattern, probably with a foreland basin overprint during the last 10 Ma. Modelling results indicate that the EMU represents a major hiatus in the sedimentation history, with an estimated 500-2600 m of missing section, equivalent to a time gap of 8-10 Ma. The EMU is known to extend over the entire NW Borneo margin and is probably related to the Sabah Orogeny which marks the cessation of sea-floor spreading in the South China Sea and collision of Dangerous Grounds block with Sabah. Gravity modelling indicates a thinned continental crust underneath the Sarawak shelf and slope and supports the seismic and well data interpretation. There is a probable presence of an overthrust wedge beneath the Sarawak shelf, which could be interpreted as a sliver of the Rajang Group accretionary prism. Alternatively, magmatic underplating beneath the Sarawak shelf could equally explain the free-air gravity anomaly. The Sarawak basin was part of a remnant ocean basin that was closed by

  3. Plio-Quaternary tectonic evolution off Al Hoceima, Moroccan Margin of the Alboran Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafosse, Manfred; d'Acremont, Elia; Rabaute, Alain; Mercier de Lépinay, Bernard; Gorini, Christian; Ammar, Abdellah; Tahayt, Abdelilah

    2015-04-01

    We use data from a compilation of industrial and academic 2D surveys and recent data from MARLBORO-1 (2011), MARLBORO-2 (2012), and SARAS (2012) surveys, which provide high resolution bathymetry and 2D seismic reflexion data. We focus on the key area located south of the Alboran Ridge and the Tofiño Bank, and encompassing the Nekor and Boudinar onshore-offshore basins on the Moroccan side of the Alboran Sea. The Nekor basin is a present pull-apart basin in relay between inherited N050° sinistral strike-slip faults. We consider that these faults define the Principal Displacement Zones (PDZ). The northern PDZ marks the position of the crustal Bokkoya fault, which is connected to the Al-Idrisi Fault Zone en relais with the Adra and Carboneras Fault Zones. On the seabed, right-stepping non-coalescent faults characterize the sinistral kinematics of the northern PDZ and give a general N050° azimuth for the crustal discontinuity. The southern PDZ corresponds to the Nekor fault Zone, a Miocene sinistral strike-slip fault acting as the structural limit of the External Rif. On its eastern edge, the Nekor basin is bounded by the N-S onshore-offshore Trougout fault, connecting the northern and the southern PDZ. The western boundary of the Nekor basin is marked by the Rouadi and El-Hammam Quaternary active N-S normal faults. In the offshore Nekor basin, recent N155° conjugated normal faults affect the seabed. Further east, the Boudinar basin is a Plio-Quaternary uplifted Neogene basin. The northeastern segment of the Nekor fault bounds this basin to the south but is inactive in the Quaternary. Normal east-dipping N150° faults are visible offshore in the continuity of the Boudinar fault. From our perspective, the orientation of major tectonic structures (Bokkoya, Nekor and Carboneras faults and the Alboran ridge) under the present compressive regime due to the Europe/Africa convergence is not compatible with a strike-slip motion. The orientation of the most recent Plio

  4. Magmatic evolution of Panama Canal volcanic rocks: A record of arc processes and tectonic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Agustin; Montes, Camilo; Foster, David; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Volcanic rocks along the Panama Canal present a world-class opportunity to examine the relationship between arc magmatism, tectonic forcing, wet and dry magmas, and volcanic structures. Major and trace element geochemistry of Canal volcanic rocks indicate a significant petrologic transition at 21–25 Ma. Oligocene Bas Obispo Fm. rocks have large negative Nb-Ta anomalies, low HREE, fluid mobile element enrichments, a THI of 0.88, and a H2Ocalc of >3 wt. %. In contrast, the Miocene Pedro Miguel and Late Basalt Fm. exhibit reduced Nb-Ta anomalies, flattened REE curves, depleted fluid mobile elements, a THI of 1.45, a H2Ocalc of arc basin fields. Geochemical modeling of Miocene rocks indicates 0.5–0.1 kbar crystallization depths of hot (1100–1190°C) magmas in which most compositional diversity can be explained by fractional crystallization (F = 0.5). However, the most silicic lavas (Las Cascadas Fm.) require an additional mechanism, and assimilation-fractional-crystallization can reproduce observed compositions at reasonable melt fractions. The Canal volcanic rocks, therefore, change from hydrous basaltic pyroclastic deposits typical of mantle-wedge-derived magmas, to hot, dry bi-modal magmatism at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. We suggest the primary reason for the change is onset of arc perpendicular extension localized to central Panama. High-resolution mapping along the Panama Canal has revealed a sequence of inward dipping maar-diatreme pyroclastic pipes, large basaltic sills, and bedded silicic ignimbrites and tuff deposits. These volcanic bodies intrude into the sedimentary Canal Basin and are cut by normal and subsequently strike-slip faults. Such pyroclastic pipes and basaltic sills are most common in extensional arc and large igneous province environments. Overall, the change in volcanic edifice form and geochemistry are related to onset of arc perpendicular extension, and are consistent with the idea that Panama arc crust fractured during collision

  5. Post-tectonic landscape evolution in NE Iberia using staircase terraces: Combined effects of uplift and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Claudia J.; Sancho, Carlos; McDonald, Eric V.; Peña-Monné, José Luis; Pueyo, Emilio L.; Rhodes, Edward; Calle, Mikel; Soto, Ruth

    2017-09-01

    River incision into bedrock resulting from the combined effects of tectonic uplift and climate governs long-term regional landscape evolution. We determined spatial and temporal patterns of post-orogenic stream incision from a sequence of well-preserved staircase terraces developed over the last 1 Ma in the Central Pyrenees and its southern foreland Ebro basin (NE Spain). Extensive remnants of ten vertically separated terraces (Qt1 to Qt10, from oldest to youngest) were mapped along 170 km of the Cinca River valley, transverse to the Pyrenean mountain belt. Multiple outcrops appear in the upper reach of the valley (Ainsa sector, 50 km from headwaters) as well as in the lower reach (Albalate sector, 125 km from headwaters). Fluvial incision into bedrock was calculated using (i) differentially corrected GPS measurements of the altitude of straths and (ii) numerical dating of alluvial sediments from the lower terraces (Qt5 to Qt9) by Optically Stimulated Luminescence, previously reported by Lewis et al. (2009), and supplemented with new dates for the upper terraces (Qt1, Qt2 and Qt3) based on paleomagnetism and supported by soil development. Considering altitude differences and the elapsed time between successive well preserved terrace couples (Qt3-Qt7, Qt7-Qt9 and Qt9-Active channel), mean bedrock incision rates ranged from 0.76 to 0.38 m ka- 1, at the upper reach of the valley (Ainsa section), and from 0.61 to 0.20 m ka- 1, at the lower reach (Albalate section). River incision along the valley produced vertically separated, near-parallel longitudinal terrace profiles evidencing a rapid near-uniform regional uplift as response to (i) the tectonic lithospheric thickening in NE Iberia and (ii) the erosional download rebound related to the Ebro basin exorheism. Moreover, a subtle upstream divergence of strath profiles may have been a consequence of an increase in uplift rate toward the head of the valley. Additionally, incision rates changed over time as indicate

  6. Southern Brasilia Belt (SE Brazil): tectonic discontinuities, K-Ar data and evolution during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano orogeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeriano, Claudio Morrison de; Teixeira, Wilson; Simoes, Luiz Sergio Amarante; Heilbron, Monica

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses the tectonic evolution of the southern brasilia belt, with emphasis on the Furnas segment, along the 21 deg C S parallel. The uppermost structural unit (Passos Nappe - PN) comprises a highly deformed metasedimentary succession interpreted as a fragment of the Neoproterozoic passive margin of western Sao francisco craton. An inverted metamorphic gradient ranging from greensvhits to lower granulite facies of medium to high-pressure regime characterizes the PN as relict of a subduction zone. The External Domain display a complex imbrication of basement rocks (Archean Piumhi greenstones, a turbiditic gaywacke succession and a calc-alkaline granitoid suite) with undated siliciclast low-grade metasedimentary rocks. The Sao Francisco Craton (SFC) comprises pre-1.8 Ga basement rocks covered by anchimetamorphic Neoproterozoic carbonatic shallow marine platform deposits of the Bambui group. The Brasiliano thrust stacking generated a coarse clastic influx of molassic character on the foreland zone of Sao Francisco Craton, coeval with the exhumation of the External Domain thrust sheets. New K-Ar determinations on mineral separates are presented an interpreted among previous data. The SFC basement rocks display Paleo-to Meesoproterozoic cooling ages. The allochthonous units, in contrast, display K-Ar ages within the 560-675 Ma range. Brasiliano thrust stacking is therefore interpreted to have taken place onto a cold Sao Francisco craton foreland, in a thin-skinned style, as basement rocks were not heated enough to have their-K-ar systems reset during the allochthony. (author)

  7. Origin and tectonic evolution of early Paleozoic arc terranes abutting the northern margin of North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Pei, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Zhong-Biao; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Hua-Hua; Yang, Chuan

    2017-12-01

    The origin and tectonic evolution of the early Paleozoic arc terranes abutting the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC) are widely debated. This paper presents detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data of early Paleozoic strata in the Zhangjiatun arc terrane of central Jilin Province, northeast (NE) China, and compares them with the Bainaimiao and Jiangyu arc terranes abutting the northern margin of the NCC. Detrital zircons from early Paleozoic strata in three arc terranes exhibit comparable age groupings of 539-430, 1250-577, and 2800-1600 Ma. The Paleoproterozoic to Neoarchean ages and Hf isotopic composition of the detrital zircons imply the existence of the Precambrian fragments beneath the arc terranes. Given the evidences from geology, igneous rocks, and detrital zircons, we proposed that the early Paleozoic arc terranes abutting the northern margin of the NCC are a united arc terrane including the exotic Precambrian fragments, and these fragments shared a common evolutionary history from Neoproterozoic to early-middle Paleozoic.

  8. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of Espirito Santo Basin - Brazil; Evolucao tectono-estratigrafica da Bacia do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Eric Zagotto; Fernandes, Flavio L.; Lobato, Gustavo; Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem de Bacias (LAB2M); Petersohn, Eliane [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper documents the analysis of seismic data of the Espirito Santo basin obtained during the project realized through partnership between COPPE/UFRJ/Lab2M with the Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP) during 2006 and 2007. The major objective of the seismic data interpretation in the project was to define the main structural and stratigraphic features in order to build a sedimentation model and a tectonic-stratigraphic evolution model of the Espirito Santo basin. Thus, the sedimentary package has been divided into eight genetic units (UN), grouped into five third order stratigraphic sequences, namely: UN-B, represented by siliciclastics rocks of the rift stage and evaporitic sag-rift stage, deposited during the Aptian; UN-C, which represents the carbonatic rocks deposited in a marine environment, and siliciclastics rocks located in the proximal portions during the Albian; and UN-D, represented by sediments, composed mainly by pelites, deposited in between the Cenomanian and Recent, and includes the Eocene volcanic event, which one changed the sedimentation pattern of the basin. (author)

  9. Quaternary Tectonic Tilting Governed by Rupture Segments Controls Surface Morphology and Drainage Evolution along the South-Central Coast of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echtler, H. P.; Bookhagen, B.; Melnick, D.; Strecker, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Chilean coast represents one of the most active convergent margins in the Pacific rim, where major earthquakes (M>8) have repeatedly ruptured the surface, involving vertical offsets of several meters. Deformation along this coast takes place in large-scale, semi-independent seismotectonic segments with partially overlapping transient boundaries. They are possibly related to reactivated inherited crustal anisotropies; internal seismogenic deformation may be accommodated by structures that have developed during accretionary wedge evolution. Seismotectonic segmentation and the identification of large-scale rupture zones, however, are based on limited seismologic und geodetic observations over short timespans. In order to better define the long-term behavior and deformation rates of these segments and to survey the tectonic impact on the landscape on various temporal and spatial scales, we investigated the south-central coast of Chile (37-38S). There, two highly active, competing seismotectonic compartments influence the coastal and fluvial morphology. A rigorous analysis of the geomorphic features is a key for an assessment of the tectonic evolution during the Quaternary and beyond. We studied the N-S oriented Santa María Island (SMI), 20 km off the coast and only ~70km off the trench, in the transition between the two major Valdivia (46-37S) and Concepción (38-35S) rupture segments. The SMI has been tectonically deformed throughout the Quaternary and comprises two tilt domains with two topographic highs in the north and south that are being tilted eastward. The low-lying and flat eastern part of the island is characterized by a set of emergent Holocene strandlines related to coseismic uplift. We measured detailed surface morphology of these strandlines and E-W traversing ephemeral stream channels with a laser-total station and used these data to calibrate and validate high-resolution, digital imagery. In addition, crucial geomorphic markers were dated by the

  10. The evolution of a Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic intraplate basin (Duaringa Basin), eastern Australia: evidence for the negative inversion of a pre-existing fold-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaahmadi, Abbas; Sliwa, Renate; Esterle, Joan; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2017-12-01

    The Duaringa Basin in eastern Australia is a Late Cretaceous?-early Cenozoic sedimentary basin that developed simultaneously with the opening of the Tasman and Coral Seas. The basin occurs on the top of an earlier (Permian-Triassic) fold-thrust belt, but the negative inversion of this fold-thrust belt, and its contribution to the development of the Duaringa Basin, are not well understood. Here, we present geophysical datasets, including recently surveyed 2D seismic reflection lines, aeromagnetic and Bouguer gravity data. These data provide new insights into the structural style in the Duaringa Basin, showing that the NNW-striking, NE-dipping, deep-seated Duaringa Fault is the main boundary fault that controlled sedimentation in the Duaringa Basin. The major activity of the Duaringa Fault is observed in the southern part of the basin, where it has undergone the highest amount of displacement, resulting in the deepest and oldest depocentre. The results reveal that the Duaringa Basin developed in response to the partial negative inversion of the pre-existing Permian-Triassic fold-thrust belt, which has similar orientation to the extensional faults. The Duaringa Fault is the negative inverted part of a single Triassic thrust, known as the Banana Thrust. Furthermore, small syn-depositional normal faults at the base of the basin likely developed due to the reactivation of pre-existing foliations, accommodation faults, and joints associated with Permian-Triassic folds. In contrast to equivalent offshore basins, the Duaringa Basin lacks a complex structural style and thick syn-rift sediments, possibly because of the weakening of extensional stresses away from the developing Tasman Sea.

  11. Source-to-sink constraints on tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the western Central Range and Cenderawasih Bay (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babault, Julien; Viaplana-Muzas, Marc; Legrand, Xavier; Van Den Driessche, Jean; González-Quijano, Manuel; Mudd, Simon M.

    2018-05-01

    The island of New Guinea is the result of continent-arc collision that began building the island's Central Range during the late Miocene. Recent studies have shown that rapid subduction, uplift and exhumation events took place in response to rapid, oblique convergence between the Pacific and the Australian plates. The tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Cenderawasih Bay, in the northwestern part of the New Guinea Island is still poorly understood: this bay links a major structural block, the Kepala Burung block, to the island's Central Ranges. Previous studies have shown that Cenderawasih Bay contains a thick (>8 km) sequence of undated sediments. One hypothesis claims that the embayment resulted from a 3 Ma opening created by anticlockwise rotation of the Kepala Burung block with respect to the northern rim of the Australian plate. Alternatively, the current configuration of Cenderawasih Bay could have resulted from the southwest drift of a slice of volcanics and oceanic crust between 8 and 6 Ma. We test these hypotheses using (i) a geomorphologic analysis of the drainage network dynamics, (ii) a reassessment of available thermochronological data, and (iii) seismic lines interpretation. We suggest that sediments started to accumulate in Cenderawasih Bay and onshore in the Waipoga Basin in the late Miocene since the inception of growth of the Central Range, beginning at 12 Ma, resulting in sediment accumulation of up to 12,200 m. This evidence is more consistent with the second hypothesis, and the volume of sediment accumulated means it is unlikely that the embayment was the result of recent (2-3 Ma) rotation of structural blocks. At first order, we predict that infilling is mainly composed of siliciclastics sourced in the graphite-bearing Ruffaer Metamorphic Belt and its equivalent in the Weyland Overthrust. Ophiolites, volcanic arc rocks and diorites contribute minor proportions. From the unroofing paths in the Central Range we deduce two rates of solid phase

  12. 3-D Simulation of Tectonic Evolution in Mariana with a Coupled Model of Plate Subduction and Back-Arc Spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashima, A.; Matsu'Ura, M.

    2006-12-01

    We obtained the expressions for internal deformation fields due to a moment tensor in an elastic-viscoelastic layered holf-space. This unified formulation of internal deformation fields for shear faulting and crack opening enabled us to deal with the problem of tectonic deformation at a composite type of plate boundary zones. The tectonic deformation can be ascribed to mechanical interaction at plate boundaries, which make a closed circuit with the mode of relative plate motion changing from divergence to convergence through transcurrent motion. One of the rational ways to represent mechanical interaction at plate boundaries is specifying the increase rates of normal or tangential displacement discontinuity across plate interfaces. On the basis of such a basic idea we developed a 3-D simulation model for the nonlinear, coupled system of plate subduction and back-arc spreading in Mariana. Through numerical simulations we revealed the evolution process of back-arc spreading. At the first stage, steady plate subduction (shear faulting at a plate interface) gradually forms tensile stress fields in the back-arc region of the overriding plate. When the accumulated tensile stress reaches a critical level, back-arc spreading (crack opening) starts at a structurally weak portion of the overriding plate. The horizontal motion of the frontal part of the overriding plate due to back-arc spreading pushes out the plate boundary toward the oceanic plate. In steady-state plate subduction the shear stress acting on a plate interface must balance with the maximum frictional resistance (shear strength) of the plate interface. Therefore, the increase of shear stress at the plate interface leads to the increase of slip rate at the plate interface. The local increase of slip rate at the plate interface produces the additional tensile stress in the back-arc region. The increased tensile stress must be canceled out by the additional crack opening. Such a feedback mechanism between plate

  13. Tectonic evolution of the Salton Sea inferred from seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, D.S.; Driscoll, N.W.; Kent, G.M.; Harding, A.J.; Babcock, J.M.; Baskin, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Oblique extension across strike-slip faults causes subsidence and leads to the formation of pull-apart basins such as the Salton Sea in southern California. The formation of these basins has generally been studied using laboratory experiments or numerical models. Here we combine seismic reflection data and geological observations from the Salton Sea to understand the evolution of this nascent pull-apart basin. Our data reveal the presence of a northeast-trending hinge zone that separates the sea into northern and southern sub-basins. Differential subsidence (10 mm yr 1) in the southern sub-basin suggests the existence of northwest-dipping basin-bounding faults near the southern shoreline, which may control the spatial distribution of young volcanism. Rotated and truncated strata north of the hinge zone suggest that the onset of extension associated with this pull-apart basin began after 0.5 million years ago. We suggest that slip is partitioned spatially and temporally into vertical and horizontal domains in the Salton Sea. In contrast to previous models based on historical seismicity patterns, the rapid subsidence and fault architecture that we document in the southern part of the sea are consistent with experimental models for pull-apart basins. ?? 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  14. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of Cumuruxatiba Basin - Brazil; Evolucao tectono-estratigrafica da Bacia de Cumuruxatiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, Gustavo; Fernandes, Flavio L.; Silva, Eric Zagotto; Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem Multidisciplinar de Bacias Sedimentares; Ribeiro, Juliana [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In recent years, the exploratory interest on Cumuruxatiba Basin has been inconstant, with modest discoveries of oil. Aiming to deepen the geological knowledge of the basin and in order to attract the interest of oil companies, the ANP (National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels) signed contract with COPPE/UFRJ for carrying out an analysis basin project. The project was developed by the Basin Analysis Multidisciplinary Modeling Laboratory (Lab2M/UFRJ) in the period 2006/2007, and was with the main objective outline the main structural and seismo-stratigraphic features of the basin, and in an integrated and multidisciplinary way, build a model of its sedimentation and tectono-stratigraphic evolution. This paper presents the results of the regional seismic mapping, aided by well and potential methods data. The stratigraphic succession the basin has been divided into genetic units (UN-B, UN-C e UN-D) corresponding to second order depositional sequences, they are: UN-B, corresponding by a rift and sag-rift siliciclastic deposits, plus the Aptian evaporitic deposits; UN-C, characterized by carbonatic deposits, and shelf related sediments; and UN-D, corresponding by a final transgressive (siliciclastic) - regressive (mix) cycle, between Cenomanian and actual days. (author)

  15. Miocene tectonic history of the Central Tauride intramontane basins, and the paleogeographic evolution of the Central Anatolian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Ayten; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Kuiper, Klaudia F.

    2017-11-01

    suggest that the extension we documented in the Central Tauride intramontane basins are in part responsible for the major topography that characterizes the Central Taurides today. The causes of extension remain engmatic, but we suggest that the tomographically imaged Antalya Slab may have caused the contemporaneous formation of NE-SW trending syn-contractional basins in the west and NW-SE trending Central Tauride intramontane basins in the east by slab retreat. Our study highlights that the Neogene deformation history, and perhabs even active tectonics, may be strongly affected by complex slab geometry in SW Turkey, and that crustal deformation plays an important role in generating the Miocene Tauride topography. The role of this crustal deformation needs to be taken into account in attempts to explain the ride of the Taurides and the evolution of the Anatolian Plateau.

  16. The effect of tectonic evolution on lacustrine syn-rift sediment patters in Qikou Sag, Bohaiwan Basin, eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Y.; Wang, H.; Xu, W.

    2013-12-01

    Normal fault arrays and associated relay ramps between two overlapping en-echelon normal faults are well known to control the deposition and distribution of sediments in alluvial, fluvial and deltaic systems in rift settings. The influence of transfer zones or relay ramps on sediment routes and dispersal patterns in subaqueous (deeper marine/lacustrine), however, is barely studied and hence less clear. Previous experimental studies indicate that subaqueous relay ramps may act as sediment transportation pathways if certain conditions are available. In this study, we integrate detailed structural and stratigraphic analysis with three-dimensional seismic data and limited well log data from the Qikou Sag to examine the tectonic evolution and the syn-rift sediment patterns response to fault growth and linkage in an active rift setting. Qikou Sag is located at the center of Huanghua Depression, Bohaiwan Basin of eastern China. Structurally, it is a typical continental rift basin characterized by a linked system of two NEE-SWW-striking half-grabens and one E-W-striking graben. Qikou sag is filled with Eocene-Oligocene syn-rift sediments and Miocene to Quaternary post-rift sediments. The Eocene-Oligocene rifting stage can be divided into early rifting period (43-36.5 Ma, the third member and second member of Shahejie Formation, Es3 and Es2), stable rifting period (36.5-29Ma, the first member of Shaehejie Formation, Es1) and fault-depressed diversionary period (29-24.6Ma, the Dongying Formation, Ed). This study focus on the early syn-rift, the third and second member of Shehejie Formation, which is mostly dark-grey mudstone interbedded with fine to coarse-grained sandstone deposited by large-scale turbidity currents in deep-lake. In particular, we use a combination of thickness variability and facies distributions, onlap patterns within a high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework, integrated with structural geometry, fault activity and subsidence history analysis to

  17. Origin and structural evolution of the Cenozoic Rift System of Southeastern Brazil; Origem e evolucao estrutural do Sistema de Riftes Cenozoicos do Sudeste do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalan, Pedro Victor [PETROBRAS S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil). E e P. Gerencia de Gestao de Projetos Exploratorios], E-mail: zalan@petrobras.com.br; Oliveira, Joao Alberto Bach de

    2005-05-15

    The southeastern region of Brazil did not constitute a typical passive margin as one would expect from the premises of Plate Tectonics. After 25 m.y. that rifting (134-114 Ma) ceased an uplift of epeirogenic nature of the continental crust started in response to the drifting of the South American Plate over a thermal anomaly (Trindade hot spot). This Late Cretaceous (89-65 Ma) uplift was accompanied by intense alkaline (over non-extended crust) and basaltic (over thinned crust) magmatism. A marked absence of tectonism, however, also characterized this event. The resulting highlands extended over 300 000 km{sup 2} (Cretaceous Serra do Mar), and they were the main source area for coniacian-maastrichtian sediments of the Santos, Campos and Parana Basins. By the end of the rising (exactly at the K/T boundary) a widespread erosional surface had developed (Japi Surface) and leveled the top of the highlands at around 2 000 m (in relation to present-day sea level). This mega-plateau was adjacent to the subsiding Santos and Campos Basins and created an isostatically unstable situation. Gravitational collapse began around 7 m.y. after K/T, towards the depocenters of the basins. From Late Paleocene to Early Miocene (58-20 Ma) the continental crust broke and collapsed into a series of grabens, thus forming corridors (rifts) parallel to the current coastline. The ancient eastern edge of the Cretaceous Serra do Mar coincided with the current cretaceous hinge line of the Santos and Campos Basins. The topographic remnants of the mega-plateau nowadays form the highest parts of the Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar Ranges, modified by elastic rebound and tilting of the fault blocks. (author)

  18. Depositional Record of the Bagua Basin, Northern Peru: Implications for Climate and Tectonic Evolution of Tropical South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, F.; George, S. W. M.; Williams, L. A.; Horton, B. K.; Garzione, C. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Andes Mountains exert critical controls on the climate, hydrology, and biodiversity of South America. The Bagua Basin, a low elevation (400-600 m) intermontane basin in northern Peru, offers a unique opportunity to study the ecological, climatic, and structural evolution of the western topographic boundary of the Amazonian foreland. Situated between the Marañon fold-thrust belt of the Western Cordillera and basement block uplifts of the Eastern Cordillera, the Bagua region contains a protracted, semi-continuous record of Triassic through Pleistocene sedimentation. Whereas Triassic-Cretaceous marine deposits were potentially related to extension and regional thermal subsidence, a Paleocene-Eocene shift to shallow marine and fluvial systems marks the onset of foreland basin conditions. Oligocene-Miocene sedimentation corresponds to a braided-meandering fluvial system with exceptional development of paleosols. In this study, we use new detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic and oxygen stable isotopic datasets to establish a chronology of pre-Andean and Andean processes within the Bagua Basin. Detrital zircon geochronology provides constraints on when the Western and Eastern cordilleras shed sediments into the basin. Syndepositional zircons within Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene strata provide key age control for a previously poorly constrained depositional chronology. Preliminary results suggest a dramatic provenance shift in which Paleocene deposits contain almost exclusively cratonic populations (500-1600 Ma) whereas Eocene deposits show a mix of syndepositional zircons from the magmatic arc, recycled Mesozoic zircons, and cratonic zircon populations. Oxygen stable isotopes (δ18O) of carbonate nodules from Neogene paleosols will help elucidate when the Eastern Cordillera became an orographic barrier intercepting moisture from the Amazon basin to the east. Together, these records will help uncover the history of tectonics and climate interaction in tropical South

  19. Exploring the Tectonic Evolution of the Seafloor using Roughness, Covariance, and Anisotropy in Bathymetry and Marine Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnins, L. M.; Simons, F.

    2017-12-01

    Between the vastness of the oceans and the technological challenges water poses, data scarcity is frequently a limiting factor in studying the tectonic and morphological evolution of the seafloor. It is therefore essential to extract maximum information from the available gravity and bathymetry data, whilst also retaining realistic estimates of uncertainties. Here, we use a frequency-domain maximum-likelihood procedure to map the roughness structure and the nature of the topographic covariance of the seafloor. Rather than requiring us to assume the covariance is Gaussian or exponential, the flexibility of the Matérn form's parameterisation (variance, range, and differentiability) lets us solve for the shape of the covariance and map out its changes without a priori assumptions.We also examine the relationship between gravity and bathymetry through their coherence and admittance, particularly the anisotropy in the relationship. We extend the robust analysis developed to map anisotropy in lithospheric strength in the continents (Kalnins et al., 2015) to the oceanic domain. This method lets us separate out measurements of anisotropy likely to be linked to anisotropy in the long-term mechanical strength of the lithosphere itself; those aligned with anisotropies in the input gravity and bathymetry data; and those that are mathematically significant, but unexplained. Ultimately, we aim to use the statistical analyses to infer geophysical parameters of interest, such as oceanic spreading rate, level of volcanic activity, and potential for energy dissipation in ocean circulation. Our first results show a general alignment of strong directions ridge-parallel and weak directions ridge-perpendicular, suggesting widespread mechanical anisotropy derived from the lithosphere's highly anisotropic formation at mid-ocean ridges. However, this pattern changes markedly near sites of significant intraplate volcanism, where little to no robust anisotropy in strength is recovered. This

  20. Sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the southern Qiangtang basin: Implications for the Lhasa-Qiangtang collision timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Anlin; Hu, Xiumian; Garzanti, Eduardo; Han, Zhong; Lai, Wen

    2017-07-01

    The Mesozoic stratigraphic record of the southern Qiangtang basin in central Tibet records the evolution and closure of the Bangong-Nujiang ocean to the south. The Jurassic succession includes Toarcian-Aalenian shallow-marine limestones (Quse Formation), Aalenian-Bajocian feldspatho-litho-quartzose to feldspatho-quartzo-lithic sandstones (shallow-marine Sewa Formation and deep-sea Gaaco Formation), and Bathonian outer platform to shoal limestones (Buqu Formation). This succession is truncated by an angular unconformity, overlain by upper Bathonian to lower Callovian fan-delta conglomerates and litho-quartzose to quartzo-lithic sandstones (Biluoco Formation) and Callovian shoal to outer platform limestones (Suowa Formation). Sandstone petrography coupled with detrital-zircon U-Pb and Hf isotope analysis indicate that the Sewa and Gaaco formations contain intermediate to felsic volcanic detritus and youngest detrital zircons (183-170 Ma) with ɛHf(t) ranging widely from +13 to -25, pointing to continental-arc provenance from igneous rocks with mixed mantle and continental-crust contributions. An arc-trench system thus developed toward the end of the Early Jurassic, with the southern Qiangtang basin representing the fore-arc basin. Above the angular unconformity, the Biluoco Formation documents a change to dominant sedimentary detritus including old detrital zircons (mainly >500 Ma ages in the lower part of the unit) with age spectra similar to those from Paleozoic strata in the central Qiangtang area. A major tectonic event with intense folding and thrusting thus took place in late Bathonian time (166 ± 1 Ma), when the Qiangtang block collided with another microcontinental block possibly the Lhasa block.

  1. Cenozoic planktonic marine diatom diversity and correlation to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, David; Barron, John; Renaudie, Johan; Diver, Patrick; Türke, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Marine planktonic diatoms export carbon to the deep ocean, playing a key role in the global carbon cycle. Although commonly thought to have diversified over the Cenozoic as global oceans cooled, only two conflicting quantitative reconstructions exist, both from the Neptune deep-sea microfossil occurrences database. Total diversity shows Cenozoic increase but is sample size biased; conventional subsampling shows little net change. We calculate diversity from a separately compiled new diatom species range catalog, and recalculate Neptune subsampled-in-bin diversity using new methods to correct for increasing Cenozoic geographic endemism and decreasing Cenozoic evenness. We find coherent, substantial Cenozoic diversification in both datasets. Many living cold water species, including species important for export productivity, originate only in the latest Miocene or younger. We make a first quantitative comparison of diatom diversity to the global Cenozoic benthic ∂18O (climate) and carbon cycle records (∂13C, and 20-0 Ma pCO2). Warmer climates are strongly correlated with lower diatom diversity (raw: rho = .92, p2 were only moderately higher than today. Diversity is strongly correlated to both ∂13C and pCO2 over the last 15 my (for both: r>.9, detrended r>.6, all p<.001), but only weakly over the earlier Cenozoic, suggesting increasingly strong linkage of diatom and climate evolution in the Neogene. Our results suggest that many living marine planktonic diatom species may be at risk of extinction in future warm oceans, with an unknown but potentially substantial negative impact on the ocean biologic pump and oceanic carbon sequestration. We cannot however extrapolate our my-scale correlations with generic climate proxies to anthropogenic time-scales of warming without additional species-specific information on proximate ecologic controls.

  2. Cenozoic planktonic marine diatom diversity and correlation to climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lazarus

    Full Text Available Marine planktonic diatoms export carbon to the deep ocean, playing a key role in the global carbon cycle. Although commonly thought to have diversified over the Cenozoic as global oceans cooled, only two conflicting quantitative reconstructions exist, both from the Neptune deep-sea microfossil occurrences database. Total diversity shows Cenozoic increase but is sample size biased; conventional subsampling shows little net change. We calculate diversity from a separately compiled new diatom species range catalog, and recalculate Neptune subsampled-in-bin diversity using new methods to correct for increasing Cenozoic geographic endemism and decreasing Cenozoic evenness. We find coherent, substantial Cenozoic diversification in both datasets. Many living cold water species, including species important for export productivity, originate only in the latest Miocene or younger. We make a first quantitative comparison of diatom diversity to the global Cenozoic benthic ∂(18O (climate and carbon cycle records (∂(13C, and 20-0 Ma pCO2. Warmer climates are strongly correlated with lower diatom diversity (raw: rho = .92, p.9, detrended r>.6, all p<.001, but only weakly over the earlier Cenozoic, suggesting increasingly strong linkage of diatom and climate evolution in the Neogene. Our results suggest that many living marine planktonic diatom species may be at risk of extinction in future warm oceans, with an unknown but potentially substantial negative impact on the ocean biologic pump and oceanic carbon sequestration. We cannot however extrapolate our my-scale correlations with generic climate proxies to anthropogenic time-scales of warming without additional species-specific information on proximate ecologic controls.

  3. Petrologic perspectives on tectonic evolution of a nascent basin (Okinawa Trough) behind Ryukyu Arc:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Quanshu; SHI Xuefa

    2014-01-01

    Okinawa Trough is a back-arc, initial marginal sea basin, located behind the Ryukyu Arc-Trench System. The formation and evolution of the Okinawa Trough is intimately related to the subduction process of the Philippine Sea Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate since the late Miocene. The tectonic evolution of the trough is similar to other active back-arcs, such as the Mariana Trough and southern Lau Basin, all of which are experiencing the initial rifting and subsequent spreading process. This study reviews all petrologic and geochemical data of mafic volcanic lavas from the Okinawa Trough, Ryukyu Arc, and Philippine Sea Plate, combined with geophysical data to indicate the relationship between the subduction sources (input) and arc or back-arc magmas (output) in the Philippine Sea Plate-Ryukyu Arc-Okinawa Trough system (PROS). The results obtained showed that several components were variably involved in the petrogenesis of the Oki-nawa Trough lavas:sub-continental lithospheric mantle underlying the Eurasian Plate, Indian mid-oceanic ridge basalt (MORB)-type mantle, and Pacific MORB-type mantle. The addition of shallow aqueous fluids and deep hydrous melts from subducted components with the characteristics of Indian MORB-type mantle into the mantle source of lavas variably modifies the primitive mantle wedge beneath the Ryukyu and sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath the Okinawa Trough. In the northeastern end of the trough and arc, instead of Indian MORB-type mantle, Pacific MORB-type mantle dominates the magma source. Along the strike of the Ryukyu Arc and Okinawa Trough, the systematic variations in trace element ratios and isotopic compositions reflect the first-order effect of variable subduction input on the magma source. In general, petrologic data, combined with geophysical data, imply that the Okinawa Trough is experiencing the“seafloor spreading”process in the southwest segment,“rift propagation”process in the middle seg-ment, and

  4. Analysis of the influence of tectonics on the evolution of valley networks based on SRTM DEM, Jemma River basin, Ethiopia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kusák, Michal; Kropáček, J.; Vilímek, V.; Schillaci, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2016), 37-50 ISSN 1724-4757 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : valley network * tectonic lineaments * Jemma River basin * Ethiopian Highlands Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  5. Late Cenozoic structure and stratigraphy of south-central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidel, S.P.; Fecht, K.R.; Lindsey, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    The structural framework of the Columbia Basin began developing before Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) volcanism. Prior to 17.5 Ma, the eastern part of the basin was a relatively stable area, with a basement of Paleozoic and older crystalline rock. The western part was an area of subsidence in which large volumes of sediment and volcanic rocks accumulated. Concurrent with eruption of the CRBG, anticlinal ridges of the Yakima Fold Belt (YFB) were growing under north-south compression. Topographic expression of these features was later masked by the large volume of CRBG basalt flowing west from fissures in the eastern Columbia Basin. The folds continued to develop after cessation of volcanism, leading to as much as 1,000 m of structural relief in the past 10 million years. Post-CRBG evolution of the Columbia Basin is recorded principally in folding and faulting in the YFB and sediments deposited in the basins. The accompanying tectonism resulted in lateral migration of major depositional systems into subsiding structural lows. Although known late Cenozoic faults are on anticlinal ridges, earthquake focal mechanisms and contemporary strain measurements indicate most stress release is occurring in the synclinal areas under north-south compression. There is no obvious correlation between focal mechanisms for earthquakes whose foci are in the CRBG and the location of known faults. High in situ stress values help to explain the occurrence of microseismicity in the Columbia Basin but not the pattern. Microseismicity appears to occur in unaltered fresh basalt. Faulted basalt associated with the YFB is highly brecciated and commonly altered to clay. The high stress, abundance of ground water in confined aquifers of the CRBG, and altered basalt in fault zones suggest that the frontal faults on the anticlinal ridges probably have some aseismic deformation. 85 refs

  6. Late Carboniferous to early Permian sedimentary–tectonic evolution of the north of Alxa, Inner Mongolia, China: Evidence from the Amushan Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiquan Yin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The late Paleozoic evolution of the Wulijishanhen (WSH-Shangdan (SD area near to the Chaganchulu Ophiolite belt is reinterpreted. Analysis of the upper Carboniferous to lower Permian sedimentary sequence, biological associations, detrital materials, sandstone geochemistry and volcanic rocks indicates that the SD area was an epicontinental sea and rift during the late Paleozoic rather than a large-scale ocean undergoing spreading and closure. This study reveals that the actual evolution of the study area is from the late Carboniferous to the early Permian. The fusulinids Triticites sp. and Pseudoschwagerina sp. in the limestones demonstrate that the Amushan Formation develops during the late Carboniferous to the early Permian. The limestones at the base of the SD section indicate that it is a stable carbonate platform environment, the volcanic rocks in the middle of the sequence support a rift tectonic background, and the overlying conglomerates and sandstones are characteristic of an epicontinental sea or marine molasse setting. The rift volcanism made the differences in the fossil content of the SD and WSH sections and led to two sections expose different levels within the Amushan Formation and different process of tectonic evolution. Moreover, the geochemical characteristics and detrital materials of the sandstones show that the provenance and formation of the sandstones were related to the setting of active continental margin. The quartz-feldspar-lithic fragments distribution diagram indicates that the material source for the sandstones was a recycled orogenic belt. Thus, the source area of the sandstones may have been an active continental margin before the late Carboniferous–early Permian. The characteristics of the regional tectonic evolution of the area indicate that the region may form a small part of the Gobi–Tianshan rift of southern Mongolia.

  7. East African Cenozoic vegetation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Hans Peter

    2017-11-01

    The modern vegetation of East Africa is a complex mosaic of rainforest patches; small islands of tropic-alpine vegetation; extensive savannas, ranging from almost pure grassland to wooded savannas; thickets; and montane grassland and forest. Here I trace the evolution of these vegetation types through the Cenozoic. Paleogene East Africa was most likely geomorphologically subdued and, as the few Eocene fossil sites suggest, a woodland in a seasonal climate. Woodland rather than rainforest may well have been the regional vegetation. Mountain building started with the Oligocene trap lava flows in Ethiopia, on which rainforest developed, with little evidence of grass and none of montane forests. The uplift of the East African Plateau took place during the middle Miocene. Fossil sites indicate the presence of rainforest, montane forest and thicket, and wooded grassland, often in close juxtaposition, from 17 to 10 Ma. By 10 Ma, marine deposits indicate extensive grassland in the region and isotope analysis indicates that this was a C 3 grassland. In the later Miocene rifting, first of the western Albertine Rift and then of the eastern Gregory Rift, added to the complexity of the environment. The building of the high strato-volcanos during the later Mio-Pliocene added environments suitable for tropic-alpine vegetation. During this time, the C 3 grassland was replaced by C 4 savannas, although overall the extent of grassland was reduced from the mid-Miocene high to the current low level. Lake-level fluctuations during the Quaternary indicate substantial variation in rainfall, presumably as a result of movements in the intertropical convergence zone and the Congo air boundary, but the impact of these fluctuations on the vegetation is still speculative. I argue that, overall, there was an increase in the complexity of East African vegetation complexity during the Neogene, largely as a result of orogeny. The impact of Quaternary climatic fluctuation is still poorly understood

  8. Late Cenozoic tephrochronology, stratigraphy, geomorphology, and neotectonics of the Western Black Mountains Piedmont, Death Valley, California: Implications for the spatial and temporal evolution of the Death Valley fault zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Jeffrey Rayburn

    This study presents the first detailed tephrochronologic study of the central Death Valley area by correlation of a Nomlaki-like tuff (>3.35 Ma), tuffs of the Mesquite Spring family (3.1 -- 3.35 Ma), a tuff of the lower Glass Mountain family (1.86 -- 2.06 Ma), and tephra layers from the upper Glass Mountain family (0.8 -- 1.2 Ma), the Bishop ash bed (0.76 Ma), the Lava Creek B ash bed (~0.66 Ma), and the Dibekulewe ash bed (~0.51 Ma). Correlation of these tuffs and tephra layers provides the first reliable numeric-age stratigraphy for late Cenozoic alluvial fan and lacustrine deposits for Death Valley and resulted in the naming of the informal early to middle Pleistocene Mormon Ploint formation. Using the numeric-age stratigraphy, the Death Valley fault zone (DVFZ) is interpreted to have progressively stepped basinward since the late Pliocene at Mormon Point and Copper Canyon. The Mormon Point turtleback or low-angle normal fault is shown to have unequivocal late Quaternary slip at its present low angle dip. Tectonic geomorphic analysis indicates that the (DVFZ) is composed of five geomorphic segments with the most persistent segment boundaries being the en-echelon step at Mormon Point and the bedrock salient at Artists Drive. Subsequent geomorphic studies resulting from the numeric-age stratigraphy and structural relations include application of Gilberts field criteria to the benches at Mormon Point indicating that the upper bench is a lacustrine strandline and the remaining topographically-lower benches are fault scarps across the 160--185 ka lake abrasion platform. In addition, the first known application of cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al exposure dating to a rock avalanche complex south of Badwater yielded an age of 29.5 +/- 1.9 ka for the younger avalanche. The 28 meter offset of the older avalanche may be interpreted as post-160--185 ka yielding a 0.1 mm/year slip rate, or post-29.5 +/- 1.9 ka yielding a maximum slip rate of 0.9 nun/year for the DVFZ. A consequence

  9. Neoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the Jebel Saghro and Bou Azzer - El Graara inliers, eastern and central Anti-Atlas, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gregory J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Harrison, Richard W.; Burton, William C.; Quick, James E.; Benziane, Foudad; Yazidi, Abdelaziz; Saadane, Abderrahim

    2012-01-01

    New mapping, geochemistry, and 17 U–Pb SHRIMP zircon ages from rocks of the Sirwa, Bou Azzer–El Graara, and Jebel Saghro inliers constrain the Neoproterozoic evolution of the eastern Anti-Atlas during Pan-African orogenesis. In the Sirwa inlier, Tonian quartzite from the pre Pan-African passive margin deposits of the Mimount Formation contains detrital zircon derived entirely from the West African Craton (WAC), with most grains yielding Eburnean Paleoproterozoic ages of about 2050 Ma. Cryogenian Pan-African orogenic activity (PA1) from about 760 to 660 Ma included northward-dipping subduction to produce a volcanic arc, followed by ophiolite obduction onto the WAC. In the Bou Azzer–El Graara inlier, calc-alkaline granodiorite and quartz diorite, dated at 650–646 Ma, are syn- to post-tectonic with respect to the second period of Pan-African orogenesis (PA2), arc-continent accretion, and related greenschist facies metamorphism. Slab break-off and lithospheric delimination may have provided the source for the supra-subduction calc-alkaline plutons. At about 646 Ma, quartz diorite intruded the Tiddiline formation placing an upper limit on molassic deposition. Widespread Ediacaran high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic plutonism and volcanism during the final stage of Pan-African orogenesis (PA3) occurred in a setting related to either modification of the margin of the WAC or formation of a continental volcanic arc above a short-lived southward-dipping subduction zone. In the Saghro inlier, eight plutonic rocks yield ages ranging from about 588 to 556 Ma. Sampled plutonic rocks previously considered to be Cryogenian yielded Ediacaran ages. Peraluminous rhyolitic volcanic rocks in the lower part of the Ouarzazate Supergroup, including ash-flow tuffs of the Oued Dar’a caldera, yield ages between about 574 and 571 Ma. The Oued Dar’a caldera developed in a pull-apart graben produced by a left-step in a northeast-trending, left-lateral strike-slip fault zone, and

  10. River history and tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita-Finzi, C

    2012-05-13

    The analysis of crustal deformation by tectonic processes has gained much from the clues offered by drainage geometry and river behaviour, while the interpretation of channel patterns and sequences benefits from information on Earth movements before or during their development. The interplay between the two strands operates at many scales: themes which have already benefited from it include the possible role of mantle plumes in the breakup of Gondwana, the Cenozoic development of drainage systems in Africa and Australia, Himalayan uplift in response to erosion, alternating episodes of uplift and subsidence in the Mississippi delta, buckling of the Indian lithospheric plate, and changes in stream pattern and sinuosity along individual alluvial channels subject to localized deformation. Developments in remote sensing, isotopic dating and numerical modelling are starting to yield quantitative analyses of such effects, to the benefit of geodymamics as well as fluvial hydrology. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society

  11. Structural Framework of the Sub-Himalaya and its tectonic evolution along Kameng river section: Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, T.; Bezbaruah, D.; Sarmah, R. K.

    2012-04-01

    The structural style or architecture of the Neogene-Quaternary foreland basin is studied in the Kameng River section of Arunachal Pradesh. The Kimi, Dafla-Subansiri, and Kimin formations correspond to Lower, Middle and Upper Siwaliks. The outcrop scale structures from the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) towards S shows an overall ramp and flat geometry. The intervening strata between two parallel thrust faults (roof thrust and floor thrust) are sub-parallel. The individual subsidiary faults in imbricate fashion (horses) occur as planar units with straight sides. These duplex structures are significant manifestation of the processes involved in the internal domain of the Siwalik rocks and they represent the mechanism of the slip transfer processes from one glide horizon at depth to another at shallower depth. This process of slip transfer and formation of horses are responsible for the formation of structural thickening, duplex growth and mass addition to the moving thrust complex. In the present area the Siwalik strata showing duplex structures have undergone structural thickness in their internal domain mainly in Dafla formation. The lithology in the foreland basin dominantly composed of the sandstones (Greywacke and lithic -arenite), siltstone, claystone, carbonaceous shale, boulder beds in the upper part. In the microscopic scale, the lithological response in the structural development is well documented as pressure solution seams, elongated quartz and feldspar grains, bent micas, kinked biotites, strained quartz grains, healed grains, and micro-fractures. The basement asperities play a significant role as the moving thrust front produced a major lateral ramp. The differential movement of the mountain front on both sides of the ramp is visible in the field as the mountain front of the western part of the Kameng River move more southeastward compared to the eastern part. The tectonic evolution of the area initiated with the development of the MBT, which resulted in

  12. Sedimentary tectonic evolution and reservoir-forming conditions of the Dazhou–Kaijiang paleo-uplift, Sichuan Basin

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    Yueming Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Great breakthrough recently achieved in the Sinian–Lower Paleozoic gas exploration in the Leshan–Longnüsi paleo-uplift, Sichuan Basin, has also made a common view reached, i.e., large-scale paleo-uplifts will be the most potential gas exploration target in the deep strata of this basin. Apart from the above-mentioned one, the other huge paleo-uplifts are all considered to be the ones formed in the post-Caledonian period, the impact of which, however, has rarely ever been discussed on the Sinian–Lower Paleozoic oil and gas reservoir formation. In view of this, based on outcrops, drilling and geophysical data, we analyzed the Sinian–Lower Paleozoic tectonic setting and sedimentary background in the East Sichuan Basin, studied the distribution rules of reservoirs and source rocks under the control of paleo-uplifts, and finally discussed, on the basis of structural evolution analysis, the conditions for the formation of Sinian–Lower Paleozoic gas reservoirs in this study area. The following findings were achieved. (1 The Dazhou–Kaijiang inherited uplift in NE Sichuan Basin which was developed before the Middle Cambrian controlled a large area of Sinian and Cambrian beach-facies development. (2 Beach-facies reservoirs were developed in the upper part of the paleo-uplift, while in the peripheral depression belts thick source rocks were developed like the Upper Sinian Doushantuo Fm and Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Fm, so there is a good source–reservoir assemblage. (3 Since the Permian epoch, the Dazhou–Kaijiang paleo-uplift had gradually become elevated from the slope zone, where the Permian oil generation peak occurred in the slope or lower and gentle uplift belts, while the Triassic gas generation peak occurred in the higher uplift belts, both with a favorable condition for hydrocarbon accumulation. (4 The lower structural layers, including the Lower Cambrian and its underlying strata, in the East Sichuan Basin, are now equipped with a

  13. Elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic geochemistry of Cretaceous to Early Paleogene granites and volcanic rocks in the Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt (Russian Far East): implications for the regional tectonic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pan; Jahn, Bor-ming; Xu, Bei

    2017-09-01

    The Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt in Russian Far East is an important Late Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic accretionary orogen related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate. This belt was generated by successive accretion of terranes made of accretionary prisms, turbidite basins and island arcs to the continental margin of northeastern Asia (represented by the Bureya-Jiamusi-Khanka Block) from Jurassic to Late Cretaceous. In order to study the tectonic and crustal evolution of this orogenic belt, we carried out zircon U-Pb dating, and whole-rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic analyses on granites and volcanic rocks from the Primorye region of southern Sikhote-Alin. Zircon dating revealed three episodes of granitoid emplacement: Permian, Early Cretaceous and Late Cretaceous to Early Paleogene. Felsic volcanic rocks (mainly rhyolite, dacite and ignimbrite) that overlay all tectonostratigraphic terranes were erupted during 80-57 Ma, postdating the accretionary process in the Sikhote-Alin belt. The Cretaceous-Paleogene magmatism represents the most intense tectonothermal event in the Sikhote-Alin belt. Whole-rock major and trace elemental data show arc-like affinity for granitoids and volcanic rocks, indicating that they were likely generated in a supra-subduction setting. Their initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7048 to 0.7114, and εNd(t) values vary from +1.7 to -3.8 (mostly < 0). Thus, the elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic data suggest that the felsic magmas were generated by partial melting of source rocks comprising mantle-derived juvenile component and recycled crustal component. In addition to the occurrence in the Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt, Cretaceous to Early Paleogene magmatic rocks are also widespread in NE China, southern Korean peninsula, Japanese islands and other areas of Russian Far East, particularly along the coastal regions of the Okhotsk and Bering Seas. These rocks constitute an extended magmatic belt along the continental margin of NE Asia. The

  14. Segmentation of the eastern North Greenland oblique-shear margin – regional plate tectonic implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Arne Døssing; Stemmerik, Lars; Dahl-Jensen, T.

    2010-01-01

    a highly complex, Paleozoic–early Cenozoic pre-opening setting. However, due to extreme ice conditions, very little is known about the offshore areas seawards of – and between – the peninsulas. Consequently, prevailing structural-tectonic models of the margin tend to be significantly oversimplified...... anticipated. In particular, we interpret strong margin segmentation along N/NE-striking fault structures. The structures are likely to have formed by Late Mesozoic–early Cenozoic strike-slip tectonics and have continued to be active during the late Cenozoic. A more than 8 km deep sedimentary basin...

  15. Early Cretaceous I-type granites in the Tengchong terrane: New constraints on the late Mesozoic tectonic evolution of southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Fang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Early Cretaceous granitoids that are widespread in the Tengchong terrane of Southwest China play a critical role in understanding the tectonic framework associated with the Tethyan oceans. In this study, we present a detailed description of zircon U–Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry and Hf isotopes for the Laoxiangkeng pluton in the eastern Tengchong terrane and elucidate their petrogenesis and geodynamic implications. Zircon U–Pb dating of the Laoxiangkeng pluton yields ages of 114 ± 1 Ma and 115 ± 1 Ma, which imply an Early Cretaceous magmatic event. The Laoxiangkeng pluton enriched in Si and Na, is calc-alkaline and metaluminous, and has the characteristics of highly fractionated I-type granites. Zircons from the pluton have calculated εHf(t values of −12.7 to −3.7 and two-stage model ages of 1327–1974 Ma, respectively, indicating a mixed source of partial melting of Paleo-Neoproterozoic crust-derived compositions with some inputs of mantle-derived magmas. By integrating all available data for the regional tectonic evolution of the eastern Tethys tectonic domain, we conclude that the Early Cretaceous magmatism in the Tengchong terrane was produced by the northeastward subduction of the Meso-Tethyan Bangong–Nujiang Ocean.

  16. Extensional vs contractional Cenozoic deformation in Ibiza (Balearic Promontory, Spain): Integration in the West Mediterranean back-arc setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheve, Nathalie; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Mohn, Geoffroy; Martos, Raquel; Roca, Eduard; Blanpied, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Based on field work and seismic reflection data, we investigate the Cenozoic tectono-sedimentary evolution offshore and onshore Ibiza allowing the proposal of a new tectonic agenda for the region and its integration in the geodynamic history of the West Mediterranean. The late Oligocene-early Miocene rifting event, which characterizes the Valencia Trough and the Algerian Basin, located north and south of the study area respectively, is also present in Ibiza and particularly well-expressed in the northern part of the island. Among these two rifted basins initiated in the frame of the European Cenozoic Rift System, the Valencia Trough failed rapidly while the Algerian Basin evolved after as a back-arc basin related to the subduction of the Alpine-Maghrebian Tethys. The subsequent middle Miocene compressional deformation was localized by the previous extensional faults, which were either inverted or passively translated depending on their initial orientation. Despite the lateral continuity between the External Betics and the Balearic Promontory, it appears from restored maps that this tectonic event cannot be directly related to the Betic orogen, but results from compressive stresses transmitted through the Algerian Basin. A still active back-arc asthenospheric rise likely explains the stiff behavior of this basin, which has remained poorly deformed up to recent time. During the late Miocene a new extensional episode reworked the southern part of the Balearic Promontory. It is suggested that this extensional deformation developed in a trans-tensional context related to the westward translation of the Alboran Domain and the coeval right-lateral strike-slip movement along the Emile Baudot Escarpment bounding the Algerian Basin to the north.

  17. Geochronology of the basement rocks, Amazonas Territory, Venezuela and the tectonic evolution of the western Guiana Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudette, H E; Olszewski, Jr, W J

    1985-01-01

    The Amazonas Territory of Venezuela is a large area of Precambrian basement rocks overlain in some locales by the supracrustal sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Roraima Formation. The basement rocks are medium to high grade gneisses with both igneous and sedimentary protoliths, plutonic rocks ranging in composition from granite to tonalite, and meta-volcanic rocks. Rb-Sr whole rock, and U-Pb isotopic analyses of zircons indicate a period of medium to high grade metamorphism and intrusion from 1860 to 1760 Ma. Post-tectonic plutonic activity continued to 1550 Ma. The volcanic rocks of the Roraima Formation in Venezuela give an age of 1746 Ma comparable to volcanic rocks of the Roraima Formation in other parts of the Guiana Shield. The ages and distribution of the basement rocks suggest the presence of a tectonic zone, approximately coincident with the Venezuelan-Colombian border, representing an active orogenic boundary between distinct tectonic provinces. The rocks to the northeast of this zone are part of the Trans-Amazonian of the Guiana Shield, while to the southwest and in adjacent Brazil and Colombia, new younger continental crust has been developed and cratonized. We suggest a model of collision and subduction followed by a chan0140n tectonic style to extensional-vertical to produce the basement rocks of the western Guiana Shield in the Amazonas Territory. (Auth.). 20 refs.; 13 figs.; 2 tabs.

  18. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological and sedimentological study of the Simao Basin, Yunnan: Implications for the Early Cenozoic evolution of the Red River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Yan, Maodu; Fang, Xiaomin; Song, Chunhui; Zhang, Weilin; Zan, Jinbo; Zhang, Zhiguo; Li, Bingshuai; Yang, Yongpeng; Zhang, Dawen

    2017-10-01

    The paleo-Red River is suggested to have been a continental-scale drainage system connecting the Tibetan Plateau to the South China Sea. However, the evolution of the paleo-Red River is still under debate. This study presents new results from sedimentological analyses and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic data from fluvial sedimentary rocks of Paleocene to Oligocene age of the Simao Basin to constrain the nature of the paleo-drainage system of the Red River. The detrital zircon U-Pb results reveal multiple age groups at 190-240 Ma, 260-280 Ma, 450-540 Ma, 1700-1900 Ma and 2400-2600 Ma for the Paleocene to late Eocene Denghei Formation (Fm.), but only one conspicuous peak at 220-240 Ma for the late Eocene-Oligocene Mengla Fm. Provenance analyses illustrate that the former likely had source areas that included the Hoh-Xil, Songpan-Ganzi, northern Qiangtang, Yidun and western Yangtze Terranes, which are consistent with the catchments of the Upper and Lower Jinshajiang Segments, whereas the latter mainly transported material from a limited number of sources, such as the Lincang granitic intrusions west of the Simao Basin. Integrated with available detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic and paleogeographic data, our study suggests the existence of a paleo-Red River during the Paleocene to late Eocene that was truncated and lost its northern sources after approximately 35 Ma, due to left-lateral strike-slip faulting of the Ailao Shan-Red River and clockwise rotation of the Lanping-Simao Terrane.

  19. Fracture patterns of the drainage basin of Wadi Dahab in relation to tectonic-landscape evolution of the Gulf of Aqaba - Dead Sea transform fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Crustal rifting of the Arabian-Nubian Shield and formation of the Afro-Arabian rifts since the Miocene resulted in uplifting and subsequent terrain evolution of Sinai landscapes; including drainage systems and fault scarps. Geomorphic evolution of these landscapes in relation to tectonic evolution of the Afro-Arabian rifts is the prime target of this study. The fracture patterns and landscape evolution of the Wadi Dahab drainage basin (WDDB), in which its landscape is modeled by the tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform fault, are investigated as a case study of landscape modifications of tectonically-controlled drainage systems. The early developed drainage system of the WDDB was achieved when the Sinai terrain subaerially emerged in post Eocene and initiation of the Afro-Arabian rifts in the Oligo-Miocene. Conjugate shear fractures, parallel to trends of the Afro-Arabian rifts, are synthesized with tensional fracture arrays to adapt some of inland basins, which represent the early destination of the Sinai drainage systems as paleolakes trapping alluvial sediments. Once the Gulf of Aqaba rift basin attains its deeps through sinistral movements on the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform fault in the Pleistocene and the consequent rise of the Southern Sinai mountainous peaks, relief potential energy is significantly maintained through time so that it forced the Pleistocene runoffs to flow via drainage systems externally into the Gulf of Aqaba. Hence the older alluvial sediments are (1) carved within the paleolakes by a new generation of drainage systems; followed up through an erosional surface by sandy- to silty-based younger alluvium; and (2) brought on footslopes of fault scarps reviving the early developed scarps and inselbergs. These features argue for crustal uplifting of Sinai landscapes syn-rifting of the Gulf of Aqaba rift basin. Oblique orientation of the Red Sea-Gulf of Suez rift relative to the WNW-trending Precambrian Najd faults; and

  20. Architecture and evolution of an Early Permian carbonate complex on a tectonically active island in east-central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Magginetti, Robert T.; Stone, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The newly named Upland Valley Limestone represents a carbonate complex that developed on and adjacent to a tectonically active island in east-central California during a brief interval of Early Permian (late Artinskian) time. This lithologically unique, relatively thin limestone unit lies within a thick sequence of predominantly siliciclastic rocks and is characterized by its high concentration of crinoidal debris, pronounced lateral changes in thickness and lithofacies, and a largely endemic fusulinid fauna. Most outcrops represent a carbonate platform and debris derived from it and shed downslope, but another group of outcrops represents one or possibly more isolated carbonate buildups that developed offshore from the platform. Tectonic activity in the area occurred before, probably during, and after deposition of this short-lived carbonate complex.

  1. Age and provenance of Triassic to Cenozoic sediments of West and Central Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitfeld, H. Tim; Galin, Thomson; Hall, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Sarawak is located on the northern edge of Sundaland in NW Borneo. West and Central Sarawak include parts of the Kuching and Sibu Zones. These contain remnants of several sedimentary basins with ages from Triassic to Cenozoic. New light mineral, heavy mineral and U-Pb detrital zircon ages show differences in provenance reflecting the tectonic evolution of the region. The oldest clastic sediments are Triassic (Sadong Formation and its deep marine equivalent Kuching Formation). They were sourced by a Triassic (Carnian to Norian) volcanic arc and reworked Paleoproterozoic detritus derived from Cathaysialand. The Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous Pedawan Formation is interpreted as forearc basin fill with distinctive zircon populations indicating subduction beneath present-day West Sarawak which initiated in the Late Jurassic. Subsequent subduction until the early Late Cretaceous formed the Schwaner Mountains magmatic arc. After collision of SW Borneo and other microcontinental fragments with Sundaland in the early Late Cretaceous, deep marine sedimentation (Pedawan Formation) ceased, and there was uplift forming the regional Pedawan-Kayan unconformity. Two episodes of extension followed and were responsible for basin development on land in West Sarawak from the latest Cretaceous onwards, probably in a pull-apart setting. The first episode is associated with sediments of the Kayan Group, deposited in the Latest Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Eocene, and the second episode with Upper Eocene sediments of the Ketungau Basin. Zircon ages indicate volcanic activity throughout the Early Cenozoic in NW Borneo, and inherited zircon ages indicate reworking of Triassic and Cretaceous rocks. A large deep marine basin, the Rajang Basin, was north of the Lupar Line Fault in Central Sarawak (Sibu Zone) from the Late Cretaceous to the Late Eocene. Zircons from sediments of the Rajang Basin indicate they have similar ages and provenance to contemporaneous terrestrial sediments of the Kayan

  2. Tectonic evolution of the Sicilian Maghrebian Chain inferred from stratigraphic and petrographic evidences of Lower Cretaceous and Oligocene flysch

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    Puglisi Diego

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of a Lower Cretaceous flysch group, cropping out from the Gibraltar Arc to the Balkans with a very similar structural setting and sedimentary provenance always linked to the dismantling of internal areas, suggests the existence of only one sedimentary basin (Alpine Tethys s.s., subdivided into many other minor oceanic areas. The Maghrebian Basin, mainly developed on thinned continental crust, was probably located in the westernmost sector of the Alpine Tethys. Cretaceous re-organization of the plates triggered one (or more tectonic phases, well recorded in almost all the sectors of the Alpine Tethys. However, the Maghrebian Basin seems to have been deformed by Late- or post-Cretaceous tectonics, connected with a “meso-Alpine” phase (pre-Oligocene, already hypothesized since the beginning of the nineties. Field geological evidence and recent biostratigraphic data also support this important meso- Alpine tectonic phase in the Sicilian segment of the Maghrebian Chain, indicated by the deformations of a Lower Cretaceous flysch sealed by Lower Oligocene turbidite deposits. This tectonic development is emphasized here because it was probably connected with the onset of rifting in the southern paleomargin of the European plate, the detaching of the so-called AlKaPeCa block (Auct.; i.e. Alboran + Kabylian + Calabria and Peloritani terranes and its fragmentation into several microplates. The subsequent early Oligocene drifting of these microplates led to the progressive closure of the Maghrebian Basin and the opening of new back-arc oceanic basins, strongly controlled by extensional processes, in the western Mediterranean (i.e. Gulf of Lion, Valencia Trough, Provençal Basin and Alboran Sea.

  3. The Cenozoic fold-and-thrust belt of Eastern Sardinia: Evidences from the integration of field data with numerically balanced geological cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arragoni, S.; Maggi, M.; Cianfarra, P.; Salvini, F.

    2016-06-01

    Newly collected structural data in Eastern Sardinia (Italy) integrated with numerical techniques led to the reconstruction of a 2-D admissible and balanced model revealing the presence of a widespread Cenozoic fold-and-thrust belt. The model was achieved with the FORC software, obtaining a 3-D (2-D + time) numerical reconstruction of the continuous evolution of the structure through time. The Mesozoic carbonate units of Eastern Sardinia and their basement present a fold-and-thrust tectonic setting, with a westward direction of tectonic transport (referred to the present-day coordinates). The tectonic style of the upper levels is thin skinned, with flat sectors prevailing over ramps and younger-on-older thrusts. Three regional tectonic units are present, bounded by two regional thrusts. Strike-slip faults overprint the fold-and-thrust belt and developed during the Sardinia-Corsica Block rotation along the strike of the preexisting fault ramps, not affecting the numerical section balancing. This fold-and-thrust belt represents the southward prosecution of the Alpine Corsica collisional chain and the missing link between the Alpine Chain and the Calabria-Peloritani Block. Relative ages relate its evolution to the meso-Alpine event (Eocene-Oligocene times), prior to the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea (Tortonian). Results fill a gap of information about the geodynamic evolution of the European margin in Central Mediterranean, between Corsica and the Calabria-Peloritani Block, and imply the presence of remnants of this double-verging belt, missing in the Southern Tyrrhenian basin, within the Southern Apennine chain. The used methodology proved effective for constraining balanced cross sections also for areas lacking exposures of the large-scale structures, as the case of Eastern Sardinia.

  4. Tectonic Geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, William B.

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes representative quantitative tectonic-geomorphology studies made during the last century, focusing on fault-bounded mountain-front escarpments, marine terraces, and alluvial geomorphic surfaces (considering stream terraces, piedmont fault scarps, and soils chronosequences). Also suggests where tectonic-geomorphology courses may best fit…

  5. Textile Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossé, Aurélie

    2008-01-01

    of the discipline. Inspiring time gathering some of the most exciting architects of the moment, Lars Spuybroeck, Mark Burry, Evan Douglis, Michael Hensel and Cecil Balmond were invited to discuss their understanding of tectonics. Full text available at http://textilefutures.co.uk/exchange/bin/view/TextileFutures/TextileTectonics...

  6. Mesozoic-Cenozoic evolution of the Zoige depression in the Songpan-Ganzi flysch basin, eastern Tibetan Plateau: Constraints from detrital zircon U-Pb ages and fission-track ages of the Triassic sedimentary sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan; Zhang, Yunpeng; Tong, Lili

    2018-01-01

    The Zoige depression is an important depocenter within the northeast Songpan-Ganzi flysch basin, which is bounded by the South China, North China and Qiangtang Blocks and forms the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. This paper discusses the sediment provenance and Mesozoic-Cenozoic evolution of the Zoige depression in the Songpan-Ganzi flysch basin, eastern Tibetan Plateau, using the detrital zircon U-Pb ages and apatite fission-track data from the Middle to Late Triassic sedimentary rocks in the area. The U-Pb ages of the Middle to Late Triassic zircons range from 260-280 Ma, 429-480 Ma, 792-974 Ma and 1800-2500 Ma and represent distinct source region. Our new results demonstrate that the detritus deposited during the Middle Triassic (Ladinian, T2zg) primarily originated from the Eastern Kunlun and North Qinling Orogens, with lesser contributions from the North China Block. By the Late Triassic (early Carnian, T3z), the materials at the southern margin of the North China Block were generally transported westward to the basin along a river network that flowed through the Qinling region between the North China and South China Blocks: this interpretation is supported by the predominance of the bimodal distribution of 1.8 Ga and 2.5 Ga age peaks and a lack of significant Neoproterozoic zircon. Since the Late Triassic (middle Carnian, T3zh), considerable changes have occurred in the source terranes, such as the cessation of the Eastern Kunlun Orogen and North China Block sources and the rise of the northwestern margin of the Yangtze Block and South Qinling Orogen. These drastic changes are compatible with a model of a sustained westward collision between the South China and North China Blocks during the late Triassic and the clockwise rotation of the South China Block progressively closed the basin. Subsequently, orogeny-associated folds have formed in the basin since the Late Triassic (late Carnian), and the study area was generally subjected to uplifting and

  7. The role of post-collisional strike-slip tectonics in the geological evolution of the late Neoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary Guaratubinha Basin, southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barão, Leonardo M.; Trzaskos, Barbara; Vesely, Fernando F.; de Castro, Luís Gustavo; Ferreira, Francisco J. F.; Vasconcellos, Eleonora M. G.; Barbosa, Tiago C.

    2017-12-01

    The Guaratubinha Basin is a late Neoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary basin included in the transitional-stage basins of the South American Platform. The aim of this study is to investigate its tectonic evolution through a detailed structural analysis based on remote sensing and field data. The structural and aerogeophysics data indicate that at least three major deformational events affected the basin. Event E1 caused the activation of the two main basin-bounding fault zones, the Guaratubinha Master Fault and the Guaricana Shear Zone. These structures, oriented N20-45E, are associated with well-defined right-lateral to oblique vertical faults, conjugate normal faults and vertical flow structures. Progressive transtensional deformation along the two main fault systems was the main mechanism for basin formation and the deposition of thick coarse-grained deposits close to basin-borders. The continuous opening of the basin provided intense intermediate and acid magmatism as well as deposition of volcaniclastic sediments. Event E2 characterizes generalized compression, recorded as minor thrust faults with tectonic transport toward the northwest and left-lateral activation of the NNE-SSW Palmital Shear Zone. Event E3 is related to the Mesozoic tectonism associated with the South Atlantic opening, which generated diabase dykes and predominantly right-lateral strike-slip faults oriented N10-50W. Its rhomboidal geometry with long axis parallel to major Precambrian shear zones, the main presence of high-angle, strike-slip or oblique faults, the asymmetric distribution of geological units and field evidence for concomitant Neoproterozoic magmatism and strike-slip movements are consistent with pull-apart basins reported in the literature.

  8. Cenozoic evolution of the Vietnamese coastal margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fyhn, M.B.W.; Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Boldreel, L.O. (Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (DK))

    2007-10-15

    One of the main risk factors regarding petroleum exploration in the Vietnamese offshore basins is the presence of adequate source rock intervals. Onshore data from the ENRECA-1 core through the Song Ba Trough in central Vietnam show, however, that thick intervals of excellent oil- and gas-prone lacustrine mudstone and humic coals may develop even in small basins characterised by high sediment input. Although the Song Ba Trough is an order of magnitude smaller than the Vietnamese offshore basins, seismic data in the latter show apparent depositional similarities suggesting the presence of similar high-quality source rocks in the offshore basins. In addition, seismic facies analysis as well as oil and gas compositions indicate that other source rock types, such as Neogene fluvio-deltaic coals, carbonaceous shales and fore-reef marls are present in some of the basins and thus testify to the great petroleum potential of the Vietnamese margin. (LN)

  9. Stress state reconstruction and tectonic evolution of the northern slope of the Baikit anteclise, Siberian Craton, based on 3D seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, A. N.; Khudoley, A. K.; Khusnitdinov, R. R.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we consider application of an original method for determining the indicators of the tectonic stress fields in the northern Baikit anteclise based on 3D seismic data for further reconstruction of the stress state parameters when analyzing structural maps of seismic horizons and corresponded faults. The stress state parameters are determined by the orientations of the main stress axes and shape of the stress ellipsoid. To calculate the stress state parameters from data on the spatial orientations of faults and slip vectors, we used the algorithms from quasiprimary stress computation methods and cataclastic analysis, implemented in the software products FaultKinWin and StressGeol, respectively. The results of this work show that kinematic characteristics of faults regularly change toward the top of succession and that the stress state parameters are characterized by different values of the Lode-Nadai coefficient. Faults are presented as strike-slip faults with normal or reverse component of displacement. Three stages of formation of the faults are revealed: (1) partial inversion of ancient normal faults, (2) the most intense stage with the predominance of thrust and strike-slip faults at north-northeast orientation of an axis of the main compression, and (3) strike-slip faults at the west-northwest orientation of an axis of the main compression. The second and third stages are pre-Vendian in age and correlate to tectonic events that took place during the evolution of the active southwestern margin of the Siberian Craton.

  10. Volcano-tectonic evolution of a linear volcanic ridge (Pico-Faial Ridge, Azores Triple Junction) assessed by paleomagnetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro F.; Henry, Bernard; Marques, Fernando O.; Hildenbrand, Anthony; Lopes, Ana; Madureira, Pedro; Madeira, José; Nunes, João C.; Roxerová, Zuzana

    2018-02-01

    The morphology of volcanic oceanic islands results from the interplay between constructive and destructive processes, and tectonics. In this study, the analysis of the paleomagnetic directions obtained on well-dated volcanic rocks is used as a tool to assess tilting related to tectonics and large-scale volcano instability along the Pico-Faial linear volcanic ridge (Azores Triple Junction, Central-North Atlantic). For this purpose, 530 specimens from 46 lava flows and one dyke from Pico and Faial islands were submitted to thermal and alternating magnetic fields demagnetizations. Detailed rock magnetic analyses, including thermomagnetic analyses and classical high magnetic field experiments revealed titanomagnetites with different Ti-content as the primary magnetic carrier, capable of recording stable remanent magnetizations. In both islands, the paleomagnetic analysis yields a Characteristic Remanent Magnetization, which presents island mean direction with normal and reversed polarities in agreement with the islands location and the age of the studied lava flows, indicating a primary thermo-remanent magnetization. Field observations and paleomagnetic data show that lava flows were emplaced on pre-existing slopes and were later affected by significant tilting. In Faial Island, magmatic inflation and normal faults making up an island-scale graben, can be responsible for the tilting. In Pico Island, inflation related to magma intrusion during flow emplacement can be at the origin of the inferred tilting, whereas gradual downward movement of the SE flank by slumping processes appears mostly translational.

  11. LATE CREATACEOUS-CENOZOIC SEDIMENTS OF THE BAIKAL RIFT BASIN AND CHANGING NATURAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor D. Mats

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The late Cretaceous-Cenozoic sediments of fossil soils and weathering crusts of the Baikal rift have been subject to long-term studies. Based on our research results, it is possible to distinguish the following litho-stratigraphic complexes which are related to particular stages of the rift development: the late Cretaceous–early Oligocene (crypto-rift Arheo-baikalian, the late Oligocene–early Pliocene (ecto-rift early orogenic Pra-baikalian, and the late Pliocene-Quaternary (ecto-rift late orogenic Pra-baikalian – Baikalian complexes. Changes of weathering modes (Cretaceous-quarter, soil formation (Miocene-quarter and differences of precipitation by vertical and lateral stratigraphy are analysed with regard to specific features of climate, tectonics and facial conditions of sedimentation. Tectonic phases are defined in the Cenozoic period of the Pribaikalie.

  12. Chronology of Miocene-Pliocene deposits at Split Mountain Gorge, Southern California: A record of regional tectonics and Colorado River evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, R.J.; Fluette, A.; McDougall, K.; Housen, B.A.; Janecke, S.U.; Axen, G.J.; Shirvell, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    Late Miocene to early Pliocene deposit at Split Mountain Gorge, California, preserve a record of basinal response to changes in regional tectonics, paleogeography, and evolution of the Colorado River. The base of the Elephant Trees Formation, magnetostratigraphically dated as 8.1 ?? 0.4 Ma, provides the earliest well-dated record of extension in the southwestern Salton Trough. The oldest marine sediments are ca. 6.3 Ma. The nearly synchronous timing of marine incursion in the Salton Trough and northern Gulf of California region supports a model for localization of Pacific-North America plate motion in the Gulf ca. 6 Ma. The first appearance of Colorado River sand at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary (5.33 Ma) suggests rapid propagation of the river to the Salton Trough, and supports a lake-spillover hypothesis for initiation of the lower Colorado River. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  13. Digital Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karl; Borup, Ruben; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    Digital Tectonics treats the architectonical possibilities in digital generation of form and production. The publication is the first volume of a series, in which aspects of the strategic focus areas of the Aarhus School of Architecture will be disseminated.......Digital Tectonics treats the architectonical possibilities in digital generation of form and production. The publication is the first volume of a series, in which aspects of the strategic focus areas of the Aarhus School of Architecture will be disseminated....

  14. The gap in the Arctic Cenozoic Record: Expect the Unexpected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangiorgi, F.; Brumsack, H.; Schouten, S.; Brinkhuis, H.; Kaminski, M. A.; Reichart, G.; Stickley, C. E.; Willard, D. A.; Sinninghe Damste', J. S.

    2006-12-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 302, a.k.a. the Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX), drilled more than 400 meters below the seafloor at the central Lomonosov Ridge, ca 250 km from the modern North Pole in water depths of about 1300 m. The partially recovered sediments provide a unique record of the geological and paleoceanographical evolution of the Arctic Ocean during the Cenozoic. The record indicates a transition from a "greenhouse world", characterized by a relative shallow marine setting, with organic-rich sediment and frequent brackish or even fresh surface waters during the latest Palaeocene and the early Eocene, to an "icehouse world" of hemipelagic sedimentation affected by the occurrence of sea ice from the middle Miocene to present. Much to our surprise, these two states are separated by a major hiatus, not obvious from the seismic record and the lithology of the cores, spanning at least 25 Ma as derived from dinocyst and benthic foraminifer stratigraphies. These testify that deposits of probable late early Miocene age directly overlie early middle Eocene sediments. To unravel the nature of the hiatus, we performed a multiproxy micropaleontological and geochemical study on the surrounding record, i.e. lithological units 1/6, 1/5 and 1/4, where the sediment changes from homogeneous dark into a cm-scaled alternation ("zebra-like") black and grey bands to light grey, blue and reddish-brown. Paleoenvironmental reconstructions based on organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts, pollen and spores, benthic foraminifera, inorganic and organic geochemistry and siliceous remains reveal conspicuous changes, suggesting a transition from brackish-freshwater to shallow-lagoonal and to open marine environments. These environmental turnovers, coupled with the occurrence of such a large hiatus, cannot be due to climatic shifts alone, but suggest that major tectonic rearrangements likely changed the depositional setting. On-going organic geochemical analysis will be

  15. Dynamic response to strike-slip tectonic control on the deposition and evolution of the Baranof Fan, Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Maureen A. L.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Reece, Robert S.; Barth, Ginger A.; Christeson, Gail L.; VanAvendonk, Harm J.

    2014-01-01

    The Baranof Fan is one of three large deep-sea fans in the Gulf of Alaska, and is a key component in understanding large-scale erosion and sedimentation patterns for southeast Alaska and western Canada. We integrate new and existing seismic reflection profiles to provide new constraints on the Baranof Fan area, geometry, volume, and channel development. We estimate the fan’s area and total sediment volume to be ∼323,000 km2 and ∼301,000 km3, respectively, making it among the largest deep-sea fans in the world. We show that the Baranof Fan consists of channel-levee deposits from at least three distinct aggradational channel systems: the currently active Horizon and Mukluk channels, and the waning system we call the Baranof channel. The oldest sedimentary deposits are in the northern fan, and the youngest deposits at the fan’s southern extent; in addition, the channels seem to avulse southward consistently through time. We suggest that Baranof Fan sediment is sourced from the Coast Mountains in southeastern Alaska, transported offshore most recently via fjord to glacial sea valley conduits. Because of the translation of the Pacific plate northwest past sediment sources on the North American plate along the Queen Charlotte strike-slip fault, we suggest that new channel formation, channel beheadings, and southward-migrating channel avulsions have been influenced by regional tectonics. Using a simplified tectonic reconstruction assuming a constant Pacific plate motion of 4.4 cm/yr, we estimate that Baranof Fan deposition initiated ca. 7 Ma.

  16. Mio-Pliocene to Pleistocene paleotopographic evolution of Brittany (France) from a sequence stratigraphic analysis: relative influence of tectonics and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, N.; Bourquin, S.; Guillocheau, F.; Dabard, M.-P.; Bonnet, S.; Courville, P.; Estéoule-Choux, J.; Stepanoff, F.

    2004-01-01

    The Mio-Pliocene in Western Europe is a period of major climatic and tectonic change with important topographic consequences. The aim of this paper is to reconstruct these topographic changes (based on sedimentological analysis and sequence stratigraphy) for the Armorican Massif (western France) and to discuss their significance. The Mio-Pliocene sands of the Armorican Massif (Red Sands) are mainly preserved in paleovalleys and are characterized by extensive fluvial sheetflood deposits with low-preservation and by-pass facies. This sedimentological study shows that the Red Sands correspond to three main sedimentary environments: fluvial (alluvial fan, low-sinuosity rivers and braided rivers), estuarine and some rare open marine deposits (marine bioclastic sands: "faluns" of French authors). Two orders of sequences have been correlated across Brittany with one or two minor A/ S cycles comprised within the retrogradational trend of a major cycle. The unconformity at the base of the lower cycle is more marked than the unconformity observed at the top, which corresponds to a re-incision of the paleovalley network. A comparison of the results of the sequence stratigraphy analysis with eustatic variations and tectonic events during the Mio-Pliocene allows (1) to discuss their influence on the evolution of the Armorican Massif and (2) to compare the stratigraphic record with other west-European basins. The unconformity observed at the base of the first minor cycle may be attributed to Serravallian-Tortonian tectonic activity and/or eustatic fall, and the unconformity of the second minor cycle may be attributed to Late Tortonian-Early Messinian tectonic activity. The earlier unconformity is coeval with the development of a "smooth" paleovalley network compared to the jagged present-day relief. A single episode of Mio-Pliocene deformation recorded in Brittany may be dated as Zanclean, thus explaining the lack of the maximum flooding surface except in isolated areas. From

  17. Dinosaur tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Ole; Milàn, Jesper; B. Loope, David

    2007-01-01

    A dinosaur trackway in the Middle Jurassic eolian Entrada Sandstone of southern Utah, USA, exposes three undertracks that we have modeled as isolated tectonic regimes showing the development of fold-thrust ramp systems induced by the dinosaur's feet. The faulted and folded sequence is comparable...... to crustal scale tectonics associated with plate tectonics and foreland fold-thrust belts. A structural analysis of the dinosaur tracks shows the timing and direction of the forces exercised on the substrate by the animal's foot during the stride. Based on the structural analysis, we establish a scenario...... the back. As the body accelerated, the foot was forced backward. The rotated disc was forced backward along a detachment fault that was bounded by lateral ramps. The interramp segment matches the width of the dinosaur's foot which created an imbricate fan thrust system that extended to the far end...

  18. Crustal structure and evolution of the NW Zagros Mountains (Iran): Insights from numerical modeling of the interplay between surface and tectonic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura, Eduard; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel; Casciello, Emilio; Vergés, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    Protracted Arabia-Eurasia convergence resulted in the closure of the >2000 km wide Neo-Tethys Ocean from early Late Cretaceous to Recent. This process was controlled by the structure of the NE margin of the Arabian plate, the NE-dipping oceanic subduction beneath Eurasia, the obduction of oceanic lithosphere and the collision of small continental and volcanic arc domains of the SW margin of Eurasia. The evolution of the Zagros Amiran and Mesopotamian foreland basins is studied in this work along a ~700 km long transect in NW Zagros constrained by field, seismic and published data. We use the well-defined geometries and ages of the Amiran and Mesopotamian foreland basins to estimate the elastic thickness of the lithosphere and model the evolution of the deformation to quantitatively link the topographic, tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the system. Modelling results show two major stages of emplacement. The obduction (pre-collision) stage involves the thin thrust sheets of the Kermanshah complex together with the Bisotun basement. The collision stage corresponds to the emplacement of the basement duplex and associated crustal thickening, coeval to the out of sequence emplacement of Gaveh Rud and Imbricated Zone in the hinterland. The geodynamic model is consistent with the history of the foreland basins, with the regional isostasy model, and with a simple scenario for the surface process efficiency. The emplacement of Bisotun basement during obduction tectonically loaded and flexed the Arabian plate triggering deposition in the Amiran foreland basin. The basement units emplaced during the last 10 My, flexed the Arabian plate below the Mesopotamian basin. During this stage, material eroded from the Simply Folded belt and the Imbricated zone was not enough to fill the Mesopotamian basin, which, according to our numerical model results, required a maximum additional sediment supply of 80 m/Myr. This additional supply had to be provided by an axial drainage system

  19. PALEOMAGNETISM OF SILURIAN AND DEVONIAN VOLCANICS FROM THE CHINGIZ ISLAND ARC, KAZAKHSTAN, AND ITS BEARING ON TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE URAL-MONGOL BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M. Levashova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tectonic and paleogeographic evolution of the Ural-Mongol belt between the cratons of Baltica, Siberia, and Tarim is the key to the formation of the Eurasian supercontinent during Paleozoic time, but the views on this complicated process remain very disparate and sometimes controversial. Three volcanic formations of the Middle Silurian, LowertoMiddle Devonian and Middle Devonian age from the southwestern boundary of the Chingiz Range (NE Kazakhstan yields what are interpreted as primary paleomagnetic directions that help clarify the evolution of the belt. A singlepolarity characteristic component in midSilurian andesites yields a positive intraformational conglomerate test, whereas dualpolarity prefolding components are isolated from the two Devonian collections. These new data were evaluated together with previously published paleomagnetic results from Paleozoic rocks in the Chingiz Range, and allow us to establish with confidence the hemisphere in which the area was located at a given time. We conclude that NE Kazakhstan was steadily moving northward crossing the equator in Silurian time. These new paleomagnetic data from the Chingiz range also agree with and reinforce the hypothesis that the strongly curved volcanic belts of Kazakhstan underwent oroclinal bending between Middle Devonian and Late Carboniferous time. A comparison of the Chingiz paleolatitudes with those of Siberia shows similarities between the northward motion and rotational history of the Chingiz unit and those of Siberia, which imposes important constraints on the evolving paleogeography of the Ural-Mongol belt.

  20. Mesozoic to Cenozoic magmatic history of the Pamir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, James B.; Scoggin, Shane H.; Kapp, Paul; Carrapa, Barbara; Ducea, Mihai N.; Worthington, James; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon; Gadoev, Mustafo

    2018-01-01

    New geochronologic, geochemical, and isotopic data for Mesozoic to Cenozoic igneous rocks and detrital minerals from the Pamir Mountains help to distinguish major regional magmatic episodes and constrain the tectonic evolution of the Pamir orogenic system. After final accretion of the Central and South Pamir terranes during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, the Pamir was largely amagmatic until the emplacement of the intermediate (SiO2 > 60 wt.%), calc-alkaline, and isotopically evolved (-13 to -5 zircon εHf(t)) South Pamir batholith between 120-100 Ma, which is the most volumetrically significant magmatic complex in the Pamir and includes a high flux magmatic event at ∼105 Ma. The South Pamir batholith is interpreted as the northern (inboard) equivalent of the Cretaceous Karakoram batholith and the along-strike equivalent of an Early Cretaceous magmatic belt in the northern Lhasa terrane in Tibet. The northern Lhasa terrane is characterized by a similar high-flux event at ∼110 Ma. Migration of continental arc magmatism into the South Pamir terrane during the mid-Cretaceous is interpreted to reflect northward directed, low-angle to flat-slab subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. Late Cretaceous magmatism (80-70 Ma) in the Pamir is scarce, but concentrated in the Central and northern South Pamir terranes where it is comparatively more mafic (SiO2 roll-back of the Neotethyan oceanic slab, which is consistent with similarly aged extension-related magmatism in the Karakoram terrane and Kohistan. There is an additional pulse of magmatism in the Pamir at 42-36 Ma that is geographically restricted (∼150 km diameter ellipsoidal area) and referred to as the Vanj magmatic complex. The Vanj complex comprises metaluminous, high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic monzonite, syenite, and granite that is adakitic (La/YbN = 13 to 57) with low Mg# (35-41). The Vanj complex displays a range of SiO2 (54-75 wt.%) and isotopic compositions (-7 to -3 εNd(i), 0.706 to

  1. History of oceanic front development in the New Zealand sector of the Southern Ocean during the Cenozoic: a synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C.S.; Cooke, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    subantarctic belt. In the Early-early Middle Miocene (25-15 Ma), warm subtropical waters expanded southwards into the northern NZSSO, possibly associated with reduced ice volume on East Antarctica but particularly with restriction of the Indonesian gateway and redirection of intensified warm surface flows southwards into the Tasman Sea, as well as complete opening of the Drake gateway by 23 Ma allowing more complete decoupling of cool circum-Antarctic flow from the subtropical waters. During the late Middle-Late Miocene (15-5 Ma), both the STF and SAF proper were established in their present relative positions across and about the Campbell Plateau, respectively, accompanying renewed ice buildup on East Antarctica and formation of a permanent ice sheet on West Antarctica, as well as generally more expansive and intensified circum-Antarctic flow. The ultimate control on the history of oceanic front development in the NZSSO has been plate tectonics through its influence on the paleogeographic changes of the Australian-New Zealand-Antarctic continents and their intervening oceanic basins, the timing of opening and closing of critical seaways, the potential for submarine ridges and plateaus to exert some bathymetric control on the location of fronts, and the evolving ice budget on the Antarctic continent. The broad trends of the Cenozoic climate curve for New Zealand deduced from fossil evidence in the uplifted marine sedimentary record correspond well to the principal paleoceanographic events controlling the evolution and migration of the oceanic fronts in the NZSSO. (author). 104 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Everyday Tectonics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    2016-01-01

    Frascari and Kenneth Frampton (Harris & Berke 1997, Read 2000, Frascari 1984, Frampton 1995kilder). Whereas the focus upon everyday architecture seems to have lost its momentum too quickly, tectonic theory in architecture has been steadily growing as a field of research in architecture, especially related...

  3. The western submerged sector of the Ischia volcanic island (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy): new insights into its volcano-tectonic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaro, Salvatore; de Alteriis, Giovanni; Milano, Girolamo; Fedi, Maurizio; Florio, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    The Island of Ischia is a volcanic complex located in the northern boundary of the Gulf of Naples (south-eastern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). The island represents only the 30% of a larger, E-W trending, volcanic ridge and likely controlled by a regional tectonic lineament. Despite the many geo-volcanological and geophysical investigations conducted on the island since long time, still little is the knowledge of its offshore. Several marine surveys have been carried out over the past 10 years from IAMC - CNR research institute (Naples, Italy) mostly in the frame of INGV and GNV projects, funded by Italy Civil Protection Department. Such surveys have largely improved the knowledge of the entire volcanic complex. Multibeam bathymetry surveys has revealed several, previously unexpected, morphological and morphostructural features. Moreover some structural patterns and volcano alignments offshore show similarities with those occurring at a regional scale in the Campania region and, locally, between the island of Procida and Phlegrean Fields. Here we report the joint interpretation of geophysical data focused on the western underwater sector of the island. Interpretation was chiefly based on processing/inversion of magnetic data in turn constrained by bathymetry and seismic reflection profiles. Magnetic data, acquired by the IAMC during two different cruises in 2000 and 2002 onboard of the Urania R/V oceanographic vessel, put in evidence that the western seafloor of Ischia is characterized by the presence of a strong residual magnetic anomaly field of complex behaviour, somewhere correlated to local bathymetry. These two last methods allowed to define and distinguish between undersea and subsurface magnetic (i.e. magmatic) basement. Interpretation was also constrained by seismological data.

  4. Tectonic evolution of the North Patagonian Andes (41°-44° S) through recognition of syntectonic strata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echaurren, A.; Folguera, A.; Gianni, G.; Orts, D.; Tassara, A.; Encinas, A.; Giménez, M.; Valencia, V.

    2016-05-01

    The North Patagonian fold-thrust belt (41°-44° S) is characterized by a low topography, reduced crustal thickness and a broad lateral development determined by a broken foreland system in the retroarc zone. This particular structural system has not been fully addressed in terms of the age and mechanisms that built this orogenic segment. Here, new field and seismic evidence of syntectonic strata constrain the timing of the main deformational stages, evaluating the prevailing crustal regime for the different mountain domains through time. Growth strata and progressive unconformities, controlled by extensional or compressive structures, were recognized in volcanic and sedimentary rocks from the cordilleran to the extra-Andean domain. These data were used to construct a balanced cross section, whose deep structure was investigated through a thermomechanical model that characterizes the upper plate rheology. Our results indicate two main compressive stages, interrupted by an extensional relaxation period. The first contractional stage in the mid-Cretaceous inverted Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous half graben systems, reactivating the western Cañadón Asfalto rift border ~ 500 km away from the trench, at a time of arc foreland expansion. For this stage, available thermochronological data reveal forearc cooling episodes, and global tectonic reconstructions indicate mid-ocean ridge collisions against the western edge of an upper plate with rapid trenchward displacement. Widespread synextensional volcanism is recognized throughout the Paleogene during plate reorganization; retroarc Paleocene--Eocene flare up activity is interpreted as product of a slab rollback, and fore-to-retroarc Oligocene slab/asthenospheric derived products as an expression of enhanced extension. The second stage of mountain growth occurred in Miocene time associated with Nazca Plate subduction, reaching nearly the same amplitude than the first compressive stage. Extensional weakening of the upper plate

  5. Tectonic evolution of part of the Southern Metamorphic Belt of the Armorican Massif including the Ile de Groix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lawrence Edward

    The Southern Metamorphic Belt (SMB) of the Armorican Massifextends 400km along the south coast of Brittany and into Vendee. It is separated from the Central Armorican Domain by a major, late-Hercynian shear belt, known as the South Armorican Shear Zone. In the area studied, belts of metasedimentary and metavolcanic schist of uncertain age are separated by belts of granitic gneiss; areas of migmatite and Hercynian granite plutons cross-cut these belts. Three distinctive lithologic assemblages have been identified in the schist belts, characteristic of different depositional environments: the Le Pouldu Group, Kerleven and Gouesnach formations probably originated as abyssal black shales deposited on oceanic crust; the St. Laurent Formation and Melgven Schists probably formed as distal greywacke deposits on a deep continental shelf; the Nerly and Beg-Meil formations probably formed in a proximal marine or fluviatile environment. These disparate assemblages were tectonically juxtaposed by overthrusting (obduction) before an amphibolite facies metamorphism and deformation during the Cadomian Orogeny. The Moelan Gneiss, a Lower Ordovician alkali-granite intrusion, postdates M1/D1 and probably formed in a rifting environment at the onset of ocean-floor spreading along an axis south of the present Armorican Massif. The famous blueschists of the Ile de Groix probably formed in a subduction zone on the south side of the ocean and were obducted onto the passive southern margin of the Armorican Massif following closure of the ocean and continental collision. A second phase of regional deformation, producing a cataclastic foliation in the Moelan Gneiss, probably resulted from the collision. Large-scale overthrusting of the southern continent onto the Armorican Massif took place, causing metamorphism with partial melting at depth generating migmatites. A third phase of pervasive deformation may correlate with oroclinal bending of the Ibero-Armorican Arc during the Hercynian

  6. Tectonometamorphic evolution of the gneissic Kidal assemblage related to the Pan-African thrust tectonics (Adrar des Iforas, Mali)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champenois, M.; Boullier, A. M.; Sautter, V.; Wright, L. I.; Barbey, P.

    In the central part of the Adrar des Iforas (Mali), the 2 Ba Eburnean granulatic unit has been thrust above a high-grade gneissic unit, the so-called 'Kidal assemblage', during an early event of the Pan-African orogeny. The Kidal assemblage can be defined as a tectonic mixing of an Eburnean granulitic basement, its sedimentary cover of Middle to Upper Proterozoic age (quartzites, marbles, basalts and metavolcanics) and various pretectonic rocks: ultrabasic to basic rocks, diorites, tonalites. All these rocks have been deformed during at least four main events and metamorphosed together. Thrusting of the Iforas Granulitic Unit above the Kidal assemblage happened during the first event D1. The movement direction was roughly N-S, as shown by the stretching lineation. Some field criteria indicate a sense of displacement towards the north. The lattice preferred orientation of quartz c- and axes indicate that the slip was dominantly on prismatic and probably pyramidal planes along an direction; consequently D1 deformation was achieved at high temperature or low-strain rate. The quartz c- and axes do not show any constant asymmetry, so they do not indicate a sense of shear. Two metamorphic stages have been found in the Kidal assemblage: the first one is characterized by kyanite in aluminous metasediments and by the occurrence of garnet-clinopyroxene-bearing boundis of basic rocks. The P-T range of this event is located at 700 ± 50°C and around 10 Kb. The second event is a syntectonic high temperature (600-650°C) low pressure (3.5 Kb) stage accompanied by migmatization. Such a tangential deformation in barrowian-type metamorphic conditions and with N-S transport direction is known along the entire Trans-Saharan belt and cannot be related in a simple way to the collision between West African Craton and the mobile belt.

  7. Tectonic evolution of the central-eastern sector of Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt and its influence on the eruptive history of the Nevado de Toluca volcano (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellotti, F.; Capra, L.; Groppelli, G.; Norini, G.

    2006-11-01

    The Nevado de Toluca is an andesitic to dacitic stratovolcano of Late Pliocene-Holocene age located within the central and eastern sectors of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. Morphostructural analysis, aerial photograph and satellite image interpretation, structural analysis and geological fieldwork were methods used to investigate the relationship between the evolution of the volcano and the tectonic framework of its basement. The study revealed that the area of Nevado de Toluca is affected by three main fault systems that intersect close to the volcanic edifice. These are from oldest to youngest, the Taxco-Querétaro, San Antonio and Tenango fault systems. The NNW-SSE Taxco-Querétaro fault system was active in the area since Early Miocene, and is characterized by right-lateral transtensive movement. Its reactivation during Early to Middle Pleistocene was responsible for the emplacement of andesitic to dacitic lava flows and domes of La Cieneguilla Supersynthem. The NE-SW San Antonio fault system was active during Late Pliocene, before the reactivation of the Taxco-Querétaro fault system, and is characterized by extensional left-lateral oblique-slip kinematics. The youngest is the E-W Tenango fault system that has been active since Late Pleistocene. This fault system is characterized by transtensive left-lateral strike-slip movement, and partly coeval with the youngest eruptive phase, the Nevado Supersynthem, which formed the present summit cone of the Nevado de Toluca volcano. The stress re-orientation from the Taxco-Querétaro to the Tenango fault system during Late Pleistocene is responsible for the ˜ 1 Ma hiatus in the magmatic activity between 1.15 Ma and 42 ka. After this period of repose, the eruptive style drastically changed from effusive to explosive with the emission of dacitic products. The methodology presented here furnish new data that can be used to better assess the complex structural evolution of this sector of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt

  8. Theory of denudation tectonics and practice in prospecting. Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Hangshou

    1994-01-01

    The theory of denudation tectonics--earth science frontiers--upsurged in the 1980's of the century and a great mass fervor of its research has spread to the uranium geology. For the studying and applying the theory of denudation tectonics and on the invitation of the Editorial Department of 'Uranium Geology', this paper has been written and will be published in several issues with the following contents accordingly: (1) New progress in the research on denudation tectonics in China; (2) The evolution of denudation tectonics' concept and layer zoning of the Earth; (3) The fundamental implication of the denudation tectonics and relevant tectonic terminology; (4) Discussion on dynamics of the formation of denudation tectonics; (5) Definition and discrimination of denudation tectonics; (6) Research method of denudation tectonics; (7) Ore control theory of denudation tectonics and prospecting; (8) Outlook on the research of denudation tectonics

  9. Analysing the Cenozoic depositional record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goledowski, Bartosz; Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that sediment deposition in the North Sea and on the Norwegian Shelf varied significantly during the Cenozoic as a consequence of varying erosion rate mainly in Western Scandinavia, in Scotland and in the Alps. Recent results have demonstrated that a causal relationship exists...... of variations in erosion rates. Here we present the rationale behind the project, the data available and some preliminary results. The dense seismic and well coverage in the area makes it possible to estimate the rate of deposition of matrix mass. Assuming that sediment storage is not important, this provides...... models. The matrix mass deposition history will be compared with the paleoclimate record (e.g. oxygen isotope curves) to see if the previously observed correlation in the eastern North Sea can be extended to other ages and locations.  ...

  10. Metallogenesis of Precambrian gold deposits in the Wutai greenstone belt: Constrains on the tectonic evolution of the North China Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Quan Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Wutai greenstone belt in central North China Craton (NCC hosts a number of Precambrian gold deposits and ore occurrences. Based on the host rock association, these can be divided into Banded Iron Formation (BIF, meta-volcano-sedimentary and meta-conglomerate types. The two former types formed during ∼2.5–2.3 Ga and the third one at ∼1.85 Ga. The characteristics of these Precambrian gold deposits are broadly similar with those of the orogenic gold deposits. Based on available geochronological data, here we reconstruct the major tectonic events and their relationship with gold mineralization in the Wutai-Hengshan-Fuping region during Neoarchean to Paleoproterozoic as follows. (1 ∼2.6–2.5 Ga: widespread intrusion of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG magmas in the Hengshan terrane and Fuping continental arc, formation of the Wutai volcanic arc in the southern margin of Hengshan terrane with granitoids emplacement, and the Hengshan-Wutai intra-oceanic arc accretion to the Fuping arc at the end of Neoarchean. (2 ∼2.5–2.3 Ga: the subduction of Hengshan arc from north leading to persistent magmatism and orogenic gold mineralization. (3 ∼2.2–2.1 Ga: extension leading to the formation of graben structure in the Wutai and Fuping region, deposition of the Hutuo and Wanzi Group sediments, formation of placer gold through erosion of the orogenic gold deposits. (4 ∼2.2–2.0 Ga: widespread magmatism in the Wutai-Hengshan-Fuping region. (5 ∼1.95–1.8 Ga: regional metamorphism associated with collision of the Western and Eastern Blocks of the NCC and associated orogenic gold deposits. The multiple subduction-accretion-collision history and subsequent deep erosion has significantly affected most of the Precambrian gold deposits in the Wutai greenstone belt.

  11. Structural characteristics and implication on tectonic evolution of the Daerbute strike-slip fault in West Junggar area, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kongyou; Pei, Yangwen; Li, Tianran; Wang, Xulong; Liu, Yin; Liu, Bo; Ma, Chao; Hong, Mei

    2018-03-01

    migration and initiation of the splay faults (e.g., the Great Jurassic Trough fault and the 973-pluton fault). These results indicate that there were probably two periods of faulting deformation for the Daerbute fault. By integrating our study with previous studies, we speculate that the Daerbute fault experienced a two-phase strike-slip faulting deformation, commencing with the initial dextral strike-slip faulting in mid-late Permian, and then being inversed to sinistral strike-slip faulting since the Triassic. The results of this study can provide useful insights for the regional tectonics and local hydrocarbon exploration.

  12. Neogene tectonic evolution and exhumation of the southern Ecuadorian Andes: a combined stratigraphy and fission-track approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Michael; Hungerbühler, Dominik; Seward, Diane; Winkler, Wilfried

    1999-06-01

    Coastal marine and continental sedimentary facies of Middle to Late Miocene age are exposed in the Andes of southern Ecuador (Cuenca, Girón-Santa Isabel, Loja, Malacatos-Vilcabamba and Catamayo-Gonzanamá Basins). The chronostratigraphy of the basin series was established by zircon fission-track dating on a total of 120 tephra layers. Subsequently, the timing of tectonic events was estimated through the well-dated stratigraphic sequences and intervening unconformities. Sedimentation from ≈15 to 9 Ma (termed Pacific Coastal Stage) was dominantly of coastal marine type, extending over an area far greater than the present basin perimeters. It ended when a period of east-west-oriented compression at ≈9.5-8 Ma exhumed the region, and sedimentation was then restricted to smaller basins (termed Intermontane Stage). These Late Miocene continental sediments were for the first time sourced from the west in the rising Western Cordillera. Apatite fission-track analysis was applied to some of the tephras in the Cuenca Basin and also to the older (Eocene, 42-35 Ma) Quingeo Basin series in order to quantify the basin histories with respect to timing and amount of burial and later exhumation. In the Quingeo Basin burial of the oldest sediments reached temperatures of ˜100°C at 18 Ma, when they started to cool down during a period of exhumation. This process preceded the Pacific Coastal Stage development of the other basins. In the Cuenca Basin, the oldest sediments were buried to temperatures of ca. 120°C by 9 Ma, when a period of inversion began and a phase of erosion was dominant. This timing correlates well with that estimated from structural evidence. At ca. 6 Ma the cooling rate slowed down and maybe even reverted to a small increase in temperature until 3 Ma, when the final stages of exhumation took place. Assuming a geothermal gradient of 35°C/km, total uplift for this part for Ecuador is about 6100 m over the last 9 million years. Assuming a steady state

  13. Cenozoic Uplift and Climate Change of the Northeast Tibetan Plateau: Evidence from Leaf Wax Stable Isotopic Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, M.; Zhuang, G.; Wu, M.

    2017-12-01

    Topics about the deformation history and uplift mechanism of Tibetan Plateau have been largely debated in the past few decades. Different geodynamic models present different predictions on the mountain building processes and hence the surface uplift history. For example, one tectonic model suggests a rapid uplift (>1.0 to 2.0 km) of the Tibetan Plateau in the period of ca. 10 to 8 Ma as result of isostatic rebound due to the removal of over-thickened mental lithosphere beneath. Whilst the stepwise uplift model infers that the high topography was growing progressively from south to north with the Northeast Tibetan Plateau being built in the Pliocene to present. In this case, the timing of Cenozoic uplift of Northeast Tibetan Plateau would provide information for distinguishing competing geodynamic processes. The stable isotope based paleoaltimetry holds the key to answering when the high topography was built. Additionally, the evolution of Cenozoic Asian climate was argued to be closely related to the high topography built up on the Tibetan Plateau since the India-Asian collision and/or impacted by the global change. To understand when the high topography was built and how the growth of Tibetan Plateau impacted the climate, we reconstructed the long-term histories of paleohydrology from hinterland and foreland basins in the Northeast Tibetan Plateau. We applied the compound-specific isotope hydrogen analysis to leaf wax n-alkanes (δ2Hn-alk) that are preserved in well-dated stratigraphic series (ca. 24 Ma to the present) in the Northeast Tibetan Plateau. The newly reconstructed δ2Hn-alk supports the inference of high topography on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau was built during the middle to late Miocene. Our inference is consistent with sedimentary and basement rock studies that show fundamental changes in facies and provenance and exhumation history. The new δ2Hn-alk record also reveals that the regional climate became drier since the middle Miocene following the

  14. New insights into the stratigraphic, paleogeographic and tectonic evolution and petroleum potential of Kerkennah Islands, Eastern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfessi, Maroua

    2017-01-01

    This work presents general insights into the stratigraphic and paleogeographic evolution as well as the structural architecture and the petroleum potential of Kerkennah Islands, located in the Eastern Tunisia Foreland, from Cenomanian to Pliocene times. Available data from twenty wells mostly drilled in Cercina and Chergui fields are used to establish three lithostratigraphic correlations as well as isopach and isobath maps in order to point out thickness and depth variations of different geological formations present within our study area; in addition to a synthetic log and isoporosity map of the main carbonate reservoir (the nummulites enriched Reineche Member). The integrated geological study reveals relatively condensed but generally continuous sedimentation and a rugged substrate with horsts, grabens and tilted blocks due to the initiation and the individualization of Kerkennah arch throughout the studied geological times. Furthermore, a relationship was highlighted between the evolution of our study zone and those of Sirt basin, Western Mediterranean Sea and Pelagian troughs; this relationship is due to the outstanding location of Kerkennah Islands. The main Bou Dabbous source rock is thicker and more mature within the central-east of the Gulf of Gabes indicating therefore the southeast charge of Reineche reservoir which shows NW-SE trending tilted block system surrounded by normal faults representing the hydrocarbon migration pathways. Besides, the thick Oligo-Miocene formations deposited during the collapse of the Pelagian block caused the maturation of the Ypresian source rock, while the Pliocene unconformity allowed basin inversion and hydrocarbon migration.

  15. Formwork tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manelius, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    På engelsk: Based on the concept of techné and framed in architectural studies of tectonics and an experimental practice of making, this paper investigates the multiple technological roles of textiles in fabric formwork for concrete in four analytical studies of experimental data of the author......’s doctoral dissertation Fabric Formwork for Concrete – Investigations into Formwork Tectonics and Stereogeneity in Architectural Constructions. In the paper only textile roles are discussed but it is suggested that a study of multiple technological roles of key formwork elements will emphasize...... their potential as ‘common denominators’ between architects, engineers and builders. Findings include textile used for the ‘textilization’ of concrete and the ‘concretization’ of textiles as two opposite starting points in fabric-forming. Recent research into thin-shell construction using fabric formwork is shown...

  16. Tectonic tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Tectonic, non-volcanic tremor is a weak vibration of ground, which cannot be felt by humans but can be detected by sensitive seismometers. It is defined empirically as a low-amplitude, extended duration seismic signal associated with the deep portion (∼20–40 km depth) of some major faults. It is typically observed most clearly in the frequency range of 2–8 Hz and is depleted in energy at higher frequencies relative to regular earthquakes.

  17. Tectonic evolution of the Pan-African arc assemblage in Southern Sinai An example from the Sa'al-Zaghra belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M.; Fowler, A.; Hassan, I.; Abu-Alam, T.; Stüwe, K.

    2012-04-01

    The southern Sinai basement is part of the broader Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian Shield, which occupies parts of northeastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The Sinai exposures of the shield are uniquely located as they form a bridge between the two halves of the shield that are elsewhere separated by the Red Sea rift. For shield terrain fragments are exposed in Sinai: the Feiran-Solaf, Kid, Taba-Elat and Sa'al-Zaghra metamorphic belts. Of these, the Sa'al Zaghra terrain has received the least attention. The four terrains are separated from each other by vast areas of syn- and post tectonic granitoids that complicate the correlation and have led to numerous controversies with respect to their interpretation. In this project structural, petrological and age dating will be carried out to clarify the evolution of the Sa'al Zaghra terrain in order to establish the relationship between it and the other terrains. Preliminary work already undertaken during this research suggests that the Sa'al-Zaghra and Kid terrains have much in common with respect to their lithological assemblages, as well as their structural and metamorphic histories. The same may be said of the Feiran-Solaf and Taba-Elat terrains. Juxtaposition of these paired terrains presents an enigma in that the Sa'al-Zaghra and Kid terrains appear to separate the Feiran-Solaf and Taba-Elat terrains from each other. There are possibilities of ancient transform systems that may explain this configuration.

  18. The distribution, geochronology and geochemistry of early Paleozoic granitoid plutons in the North Altun orogenic belt, NW China: Implications for the petrogenesis and tectonic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ling-Tong; Chen, Bai-Lin; Zhao, Ni-Na; Wu, Yu; Zhang, Wen-Gao; He, Jiang-Tao; Wang, Bin; Han, Mei-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Abundant early Paleozoic granitoid plutons are widely distributed in the North Altun orogenic belt. These rocks provide clues to the tectonic evolution of the North Altun orogenic belt and adjacent areas. In this paper, we report an integrated study of petrological features, U-Pb zircon dating, in situ zircon Hf isotope and whole-rock geochemical compositions for the Abei, 4337 Highland and Kaladawan Plutons from north to south in the North Altun orogenic belt. The dating yielded magma crystallization ages of 514 Ma for the Abei Pluton, 494 Ma for the 4337 Highland Pluton and 480-460 Ma for the Kaladawan Pluton, suggesting that they are all products of oceanic slab subduction because of the age constraint. The Abei monzogranites derived from the recycle of Paleoproterozoic continental crust under low-pressure and high-temperature conditions are products of subduction initiation. The 4337 Highland granodiorites have some adakitic geochemical signatures and are sourced from partial melting of thickened mafic lower continental crust. The Kaladawan quartz diorites are produced by partial melting of mantle wedge according to the positive εHf(t) values, and the Kaladawan monzogranite-syenogranite are derived from partial melting of Neoproterozoic continental crust mixing the juvenile underplated mafic material from the depleted mantle. These results, together with existing data, provide significant information about the evolution history of oceanic crust subduction during the 520-460 Ma. The initiation of subduction occurred during 520-500 Ma with formation of Abei Pluton; subsequent transition from steep-angle to flat-slab subduction at ca.500 Ma due to the arrival of buoyant oceanic plateaus, which induces the formation of 4337 Highland Pluton. With ongoing subduction, the steep-angle subduction system is reestablished to cause the formation of 480-460 Ma Kaladawan Pluton. Meanwhile, it is this model that account for the temporal-spatial distribution of these early

  19. THE TECTONICS STRESS AND STRAIN FIELD MODELING ADJUSTED FOR EVOLUTION OF GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES (SAILAG INTRUSION, EASTERN SAYAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Voytenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a tectonophysical model showing evolution of structures in the Sailag granodiorite massif in relation to its gold-bearing capacity. The model takes into account the load patterns according to geological data, accumulated deformation, and gravity stresses. This model provides for updating the structural-geological model showing development of the intrusion body and the ore field. Forecasted are destruction patterns in the apical and above-dome parts of the massif  in the intrusion and contraction phase, formation of the long-term shear zone at the steeply dipping slope of the intrusion body, and subvertical fractures associated with the long-term shear zone and vertical mechanical ‘layering’ of the intrusive body.  

  20. Construction of the seawater 87Sr/86Sr curve for the Cenozoic and Cretaceous: supporting data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koepnick, R.B.; Burke, W.H.; Denison, R.E.; Hetherington, E.A.; Nelson, H.F.; Otto, J.B.; Waite, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    We present the data used to construct the Cenozoic and Cretaceous portion of the Phanerozoic curve of seawater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr that had been given in summary form by W.H. Burke and coworkers. All Cenozoic samples (128) and 22 Cretaceous samples are foram-nannofossil oozes and limestones from DSDP cores distributed among 13 sites in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, and the Caribbean Sea. Non-DSDP Cretaceous samples (126) include limestone, anhydrite and phosphate samples from North America, Europe and Asia. Determination of the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr value of seawater at particular times in the past is based on comparison of ratios derived from coeval marine samples from widely separated geographic areas. The general configuration of the Cenozoic and Cretaceous curve appears to be strongly influenced by the history of plate interactions and sea-floor spreading. Specific rises and falls in the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr of seawater, however, may be caused by a variety of factors such as variation in lithologic composition of the crust exposed to weathering, configuration and topographic relief of continents, volcanic activity, rate of sea-floor spreading, extent of continental inundation by epeiric seas, and variations in both climate and paleo-oceanographic conditions. Many or all of these factors are probably related to global tectonic processes, yet their combined effect on the temporal variation of seawater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr can complicate a direct plate-tectonic interpretation for portions of the seawater curve. (Auth.)

  1. Source-to-Sink constraints on tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Central Range, Cenderawasih Bay (Indonesia) and Gulf of Papua (Papua New Guinea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babault, J.; Viaplana-Muzas, M.; Legrand, X.; Van Den Driessche, J.; González-Quijano, M.; Mudd, S. M.; Kergaravat, C.; Ringenbach, J. C.; Callot, J. P.; Vetel, W.; Dhont, D.

    2017-12-01

    The island of Papua New Guinea is the result of continent-arc collision that began building the island's Central Range during the late Miocene. The tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Cenderawasih Bay, in the northwestern part of the island of Papua New Guinea (Indonesia), which links the Kepala Burung block to the Central Range is still poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that this bay contains a thick (> 8 km) sequence of undated sediments. Hypothesis claim that the embayment resulted from a 3 Ma aperture created by anticlockwise rotation of the Kepala Burung block with respect to the northern rim of the Australian plate, or from the southwest drift of a slice of volcanics/oceanic crust between 8 and 6 Ma. Using a source-to-sink approach, based on i) a geomorphologic analysis of the drainage network dynamics, ii) a reassessment of available thermochronological data, and iii) seismic lines interpretation, we suggest that sediments started to accumulate in the Cenderawasih Bay and onshore in the Waipoga Basin in the late Miocene since the beginning of the Central Range building at 12 Ma, resulting in sediment accumulation of up to 12200 m. At first order, we predict that infilling is mainly composed of siliciclastics sourced in the graphite-bearing Ruffaer Metamorphic Belt and its equivalent in the Weyland Overthrust. From the unroofing paths in the Central Range we deduce two rates of solid phase accumulation (SPAR) since 12 Ma, the first one at a mean SPAR ranging between 0.12-0.25 mm/a with a maximum SPAR of 0.23-0.58 mm/a, and the second during the last 3 Ma, at a mean SPAR ranging between 0.93-1.62 mm/a and with a maximum SPAR between 2.13-3.17 mm/a, i.e., 6700-10000 m of Plio-Pleistocene sediment accumulation. Local transtensional tectonics may explain these unusually high rates of sedimentation in an overall sinistral oblique convergence setting. We further extended this approach to the Gulf of Papua (Papua New Guinea), a foreland basin developed

  2. A suture delta: the co-evolution of tectonics and sedimentology as a remnant ocean basin closes; the Indo Burman ranges, northeast India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincavage, R.; Betka, P. M.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.; Zoramthara, C.

    2017-12-01

    The closure of an ocean basin involves the interplay of tectonics and sedimentology, whereby thick successions of fluvio-deltaic and shallow marine sediment accumulate in the closing gap between the subduction zone and passive margin. The transition from subduction to collision involves processes that are inherently time-transgressive and co-evolve to influence the nature of the developing tectonic wedge. The Indo-Burman Ranges (IBR) of eastern India present a unique opportunity to examine this scenario on a variety of spatial (10-2­­­-105 m2) and temporal (1 a-10 Ma) scales. Recent field mapping campaigns in the IBR have illuminated analogous depositional environments expressed in the Neogene outcrops of the IBR and the Holocene sediment archive of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta (GBMD). Six distinct lithofacies are present in shallow-marine to fluvial strata of the IBR, containing sedimentary structures that reflect depositional environments correlative with the modern delta. Cyclical alternations of fine sands and silts in packages on the order of 15-20 cm thick define part of the shallow-marine section (M2 facies) that we interpret to represent the foreset beds of the ancient subaqueous delta. The overall scale and sedimentary structures of M2 compare favorably with modern foreset deposits in the Bay of Bengal. Tan-orange medium-grained, well sorted fluvial sandstone that contain large scale (1-10 m) tabular and trough cross bedding represent large-river channel deposits (F2 facies) that overlie the shallow marine strata. F2 deposits bear a striking resemblance in scale and character to bar deposits along the modern Jamuna River. Preliminary grain size analyses on the F2 facies yield grain size distributions that are remarkably consistent with Brahmaputra-sourced mid-Holocene sediments from Sylhet basin within the GBMD. Current research on the GBMD has revealed quantifiable trends in bed thicknesses, downstream fining, and grain size within fluvial

  3. Analysis of topography and relief as a function of the tectonic - geomorphologic evolution of the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungies, Nadin; Rosenberg, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    Alpine topography and relief vary regionally (Frisch et al., 1997), even on the scale of tens of kilometers. The causes of these differences are the aim of this work that is based on a geomorphological study of the eastern Alps. Earlier investigations on the topography of the Central Alps (Rosenberg & Garcia, 2013) show, by using 50 km, 75 km, and 100 km swath profiles, that the relief northward of the Insubric Line increases westward, whereas the relief southwards of the Insubric Line decreases eastward. This trend reflects collisional shortening trends recently observed in the Central Alps (Rosenberg & Kissling, 2013). In this work, we analyse the topography of the eastern Alps from the Brenner Area in the west to the Steiermark Area in the east, based on satellite images and digital terrain models, that cover an area of 36 000 km2 in the Austrian and Italian Alps. Based on these data, new GIS-aided datasets containing selected relief factors have been derived. These data are set in relationship to the eastward decrease in collisional shortening to test whether the latter trend has a geomorphic expression. In order to assess such a relationship north-south striking profiles, subparallel to the shortening direction and in addition to an E-W profile are investigated. It can be shown that the total relief of 3100 m (500-3600 m asl.) in the west of the working area is more pronounced than the total relief of 2300 m (700-3000 m asl) in the east of the working area. Furthermore slopes have higher amplitudes in the west when compared to the east. In the west approximately 65% of the slope profile show slopes larger than 50° while in the east approximately 40% of slopes are larger than 50° (based on 30 m topographic data). The evaluation of potential influencing factors will be achieved by conducting spatial and statistical data analysis and interpretation and is complemented by local studies investigating the evolution of relief for selected geologic units. Here

  4. Spiral tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Asadiyan, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Spiral Tectonics (ST) is a new window to global tectonics introduced as alternative model for Plate Tectonics (PT). ST based upon Dahw(rolling) and Tahw(spreading) dynamics. Analogues to electric and magnetic components in the electromagnetic theory we could consider Dahw and Tahw as components of geodynamics, when one component increases the other decreases and vice versa. They are changed to each other during geological history. D-component represents continental crust and T-component represents oceanic crust. D and T are two arm of spiral-cell. T-arm 180 degree lags behind D-arm so named Retard-arm with respect to D or Forward-arm. It seems primary cell injected several billions years ago from Earth's center therefore the Earth's core was built up first then mantel and finally the crust was build up. Crust building initiate from Arabia (Mecca). As the universe extended gravitation wave swirled the earth fractaly along cycloid path from big to small scale. In global scale (order-0) ST collect continents in one side and abandoned Pacific Ocean in the other side. Recent researches also show two mantels upwelling in opposite side of the Earth: one under Africa (tectonic pose) and the other under Pacific Ocean (tectonic tail). In higher order (order-1) ST build up Africa in one side and S.America in the other side therefore left Atlantic Ocean meandered in between. In order-n e.g. Khoor Musa and Bandar-Deylam bay are seen meandered easterly in the Iranian part but Khoor Abdullah and Kuwait bay meandered westerly in the Arabian part, they are distributed symmetrically with respect to axis of Persian Gulf(PG), these two are fractal components of easterly Caspian-wing and westerly Black Sea-wing which split up from Anatoly. Caspian Sea and Black Sea make two legs of Y-like structure, this shape completely fitted with GPS-velocity map which start from PG and split up in the Catastrophic Point(Anatoly). We could consider PG as remnants of Ancient Ocean which spent up

  5. Mineral parageneses, regional architecture, and tectonic evolution of Franciscan metagraywackes, Cape Mendocino-Garberville-Covelo 30' x 60' quadrangles, northwest California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W.G.; McLaughlin, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The Franciscan Complex is a classic subduction-zone assemblage. In northwest California, it comprises a stack of west vergent thrust sheets: westernmost Eastern Belt outliers; Central Belt mélange; Coastal Belt Yager terrane; Coastal Belt Coastal terrane; Coastal Belt King Range/False Cape terranes. We collected samples and determined P-T conditions of recrystallization for 88 medium-fine-grained metasandstones to assess their subduction-exhumation histories and assembly of the host allochthons. Feebly recrystallized Yager, Coastal, and King Range strata retain clear detrital features. Scattered neoblastic prehnite occurs in several Coastal terrane metasandstones; traces of possible pumpellyite are present in three Yager metaclastic rocks. Pumpellyite ± lawsonite ± aragonite-bearing Central Belt metasandstones are moderately deformed and reconstituted. Intensely contorted, thoroughly recrystallized Eastern Belt affinity quartzose metagraywackes contain lawsonite + jadeitic pyroxene ± aragonite ± glaucophane. We microprobed neoblastic phases in 23 rocks, documenting mineral parageneses that constrain the tectonic accretion and metamorphic P-T evolution of these sheets. Quasi-stable mineral assemblages typify Eastern Belt metasandstones, but mm-sized domains in the Central and Coastal belt rocks failed to achieve chemical equilibrium. Eastern Belt slabs rose from subduction depths approaching 25–30 km, whereas structurally lower Central Belt mélanges returned from ∼15–18 km. Coastal Belt assemblages suggest burial depths less than 5–8 km. Eastern and Central belt allochthons sequentially decoupled from the downgoing oceanic lithosphere and ascended into the accretionary margin; K-feldspar-rich Coastal Belt rocks were stranded along the continental edge without undergoing appreciable subduction, probably during Paleogene unroofing of the older, deeply subducted units of the Franciscan Complex in east-vergent crustal wedges.

  6. Besshi-type mineral systems in the Palaeoproterozoic Bryah Rift-Basin, Capricorn Orogen, Western Australia: Implications for tectonic setting and geodynamic evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Pirajno

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we use VMS mineral systems in the Bryah rift-basin to constrain the tectonic setting of the widespread mafic and ultramafic magmatism that characterises the rift-basin in question. Two distinct, but temporally closely associated, lithostratigraphic sequences, Narracoota and Karalundi Formations, are discussed. The Karalundi Formation is the main host of VMS mineral systems in the region. The Karalundi Formation consists of turbiditic and immature clastic sediments, which are locally intercalated with basaltic hyaloclastites, dolerites and banded jaspilites. We propose that the basaltic hyaloclastites, dolerites and clastics and jaspilites rocks, form a distinct unit of the Karalundi Formation, named Noonyereena Member. The VMS mineral systems occur near the north-east trending Jenkin Fault and comprise the giant and world-class DeGrussa and the Red Bore deposits. The nature of these deposits and their intimate association with terrigenous clastic rocks and dominantly marine mafic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks, as well as the common development of peperitic margins, are considered indicative of a Besshi-type environment, similar to that of present-day Gulf of California. Our Re-Os age data from a primary pyrite yielded a mean model age of 2012 ± 48 Ma, which coincides (within error with recent published Re-Os data (Hawke et al., 2015 and confirms the timing of the proposed geodynamic evolution. We propose a geodynamic model that attempts to explain the presence of the Narracoota and Karalundi Formations as the result of mantle plume activity, which began with early uplift of continental crust with intraplate volcanism, followed by early stages of rifting with the deposition of the Karalundi Formation (and Noonyereena Member, which led to the formation of Besshi-type VMS deposits. With on-going mantle plume activity and early stages of continental separation, an oceanic plateau was formed and is now represented by mafic

  7. Carboniferous - Early Permian magmatic evolution of the Bogda Range (Xinjiang, NW China): Implications for the Late Paleozoic accretionary tectonics of the SW Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Guzalnur; Wang, Bo; Cluzel, Dominique; Zhong, Linglin

    2018-03-01

    The Late Paleozoic magmatic evolution of the Bogda Range (Chinese North Tianshan) is important for understanding the accretionary history of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. We investigated the Carboniferous and Lower Permian volcanic and sedimentary sequences of the Daheyan section, southern Bogda Range, and present new zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock geochemical data for the volcanic rocks. One Carboniferous rhyolite is dated at 298 ± 8 Ma; a Permian basalt yielded many Proterozoic zircon xenocrysts, and its maximum age (∼297 Ma) is constrained by the detrital zircon ages of the sandstone that stratigraphically underlies it. These volcanic rocks belong to calc-alkaline series. We further synthesize previous geochronological, geochemical and isotopic data of magmatic and sedimentary rocks in the Bogda Range. The available data indicate that the magmatism occurred continuously from 350 Ma to 280 Ma. A comprehensive analysis allows us to propose that: (1) the Carboniferous to Early Permian magmatic rocks of the Bogda Range generally show consistent arc-type features; (2) increasing mantle input through time suggests intra-arc extension in a supra-subduction zone; (3) the localized occurrence of Early Permian alkaline pillow basalts and deep water sediments close to the major shear zone advocate a transtensional crustal thinning during the transition from Carboniferous convergence to Early Permian transcurrent tectonics; (4) occurrence of a large number of Proterozoic zircon xenocrysts in the Late Paleozoic magmatic rocks, and Proterozoic detrital zircons in the coeval clastic sediments suggest a continental or transitional basement of the Bogda Arc; (5) subduction in the Bogda area terminated prior to the deposition of Middle Permian terrestrial sediments.

  8. Geoprospective study of a nuclear waste repository. Prospective tectonics: convergent and divergent episodes, evolution of stress during the next 100,000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gros, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Within the frame of a contract with the CEC, dealing with storage and disposal of radioactive wastes in geological formations, the B.R.G.M. has been involved in a research on prospective tectonics. Within the Western European continental plate, since Mesozoic times, one sees the alternation or succession of convergent and divergent tectonic episodes. These tectonic episodes, although representing geologically discontinuous phenomena, still have time periods of between 4 to 40 millions years. These tectonic phenomena are the cause of the formation or reactivation, at all scales in the continental plate, of brittle, fault-like structures. Tectonic analysis and the in situ measures of stress and the earthquake focal phenomena show that, from the lower Quaternary to the present, the Western European continental plate has been subjected to NNW to SSE convergent stress. A study of the arrangement of European and African plates in the Western Mediterranean shows that the entire region, is undergoing a period of continental collision. The change in the process implies a westerly continental drift of the Spanish plate, a movement which would take several million years. On the Western European scale, the most likely hypothesis during the next 100,000 years is the persistance of the present stress trending approximately N-5. On the other hand, on a local scale, reorganisations of this stress are possible, owing to the presence of tectonic or lithological heterogeneities

  9. Stratigraphic and structural relationships between Meso-Cenozoic Lagonegro basin and coeval carbonate platforms in southern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescatore, Tullio; Renda, Pietro; Schiattarella, Marcello; Tramutoli, Mariano

    1999-12-01

    Stratigraphic studies and facies analysis integrated with a new geological and structural survey of the Meso-Cenozoic units outcropping in the Campania-Lucania Apennines, southern Italy, allowed us to restore the palaeogeographic pattern and the tectonic evolution of the chain during Oligo-Miocene times. The southern Apennines are a N150°-striking and NE-verging fold-and-thrust belt mainly derived from the deformation of the African-Apulian passive margin. Four wide belts with different features have been recognized in the chain area. From east to west the following units outcrop: (a) successions characterized by basinal to marginal facies, ranging in age from Cretaceous to Miocene, tectonically lying on Plio-Pleistocene foredeep deposits; (b) successions characterized by shallow-water, basinal and shelf-margin facies, ranging in age from middle Triassic to Miocene ('Lagonegro units'), overthrust on the previous ones; (c) Triassic to Miocene carbonate platform successions ('Apenninic platform units'), overthrust on the Lagonegro units; (d) Jurassic-Cretaceous to Miocene deep-water successions (ophiolite-bearing or 'internal' units and associated siliciclastic wedges), outcropping along the Tyrrhenian belt and the Calabria-Lucania boundary, overthrust on the Apenninic platform units. All these units tectonically lie on the buried Apulian platform which is covered, at least in the eastern sector of the chain, by Pliocene to Pleistocene foredeep deposits. Stratigraphic patterns of the Cretaceous to lower Miocene Lagonegro successions are coherent with the platform margin ones. Calcareous clastics of the Lagonegro basin are in fact supplied by an adjacent western platform, as inferred by several sedimentological evidences (slump and palaeocurrent directions and decreasing grain size towards the depocentre of the basin). Tectonic relationships among the different units of the chain — with particular emphasis on the Lagonegro and Apenninic platform units of the

  10. Cenozoic basin thermal history reconstruction and petroleum systems in the eastern Colombian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Mauricio; Mora, Andres; Ketcham, Richard A.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Almendral, Ariel

    2017-04-01

    Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic retro-arc foreland basins along the eastern margin of the Andes in South America host the world's best detrital record for the study of subduction orogenesis. There, the world's most prolific petroleum system occur in the northernmost of these foreland basin systems, in Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela, yet over 90% of the discovered hydrocarbons there occur in one single province in norteastern Venezuela. A successful industry-academy collaboration applied a multidisciplinary approach to the study of the north Andes with the aim of investigating both, the driving mechanisms of orogenesis, and its impact on hydrocarbon accumulation in eastern Colombia. The Eastern Cordillera is an inversion orogen located at the leading edge of the northern Andes. Syn-rift subsidence favored the accumulation of km-thick organic matter rich shales in a back-arc basin in the early Cretaceous. Subsequent late Cretaceous thermal subsidence prompted the accumulation of shallow marine sandstones and shales, the latter including the Turonian-Cenomanian main hydrocarbon source-rock. Early Andean uplift since the Paleocene led to development of a flexural basin, filled with mainly non-marine strata. We have studied the Meso-Cenozoic thermal evolution of these basins through modeling of a large thermochronometric database including hundreds of apatite and zircon fission-track and (U-Th)/He data, as well as paleothermometric information based on vitrinite reflectance and present-day temperatures measured in boreholes. The detrital record of Andean construction was also investigated through detrital zircon U-Pb geochronometry in outcrop and borehole samples. A comprehensive burial/exhumation history has been accomplished through three main modeling strategies. First, one-dimensional subsidence was used to invert the pre-extensional lithospheric thicknesses, the magnitude of stretching, and the resulting heat flow associated to extension. The amount of eroded section and

  11. Review of cenozoic ooidal ironstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houten, Franklyn B.

    1992-06-01

    Cenozoic (Tertiary) ooidal ironstones (COI) in 20 districts (39 deposits) developed between the equatorial zone and 60° N, except for one Eocene district in mid-southern latitude. Stratigraphic distribution. Paleocene OI occur in northern Pakistan, western Siberia, southern Germany, northwestern Venezuela, and northeastern Colombia: Eocene OI in western Siberia, southern Germany, northwestern Romania, central North Africa, central-west Saudi Arabia, southwestern Central Africa, northwestern Venezuela, northeastern Colombia, south-central USA, and northwestern Australia; Oligocene OI in northwest and west-central Kazakhstan, central Denmark, and north-central Iran?; Miocene OI in northwestern Venezuela, northeastern Colombia, and southeastern Malaysia; Pliocene OI in southeastern Ukraine. Geotectonic framework. Ten districts developed in an interior or fractured craton: five along the south-trending Uralian Seaway, and one along the east-trending Northern European Seaway, the south-trending Trans-Saharan Seaway, in or near an early Red Sea embayment, in southeastern Malaysia, and in northwestern Australia. Ten districts lay near a eratonic margin: one along divergent margin and nine along the broad east-trending Caribbean and Tethyan seaways. Almost all COI accumulated during the Paleogene relatively high stand of sea level, especially in Early and Middle Eocene time. As sea level fell gradually in Neogene time COI developed in only three marginal districts (including the giant Pliocene Kerch-Taman deposit in southeastern Ukraine). Sedimentary environment. Almost all of the COI developed in deltaic to shallow marine facies. These are commonly associated with shoaling-upward siliciclastic sequences; a few are in mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sequences. A few COI apparently occurred in fluvial and lacustrine facies; some of these may have been reworked from laterite or from marine ironstones. Sedimentary petrology. Many COI are less than a few tens of centimeters

  12. Cenozoic stratigraphy and structure of the Chesapeake Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powars, David S.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Kidwell, Susan M.; Schindler, J. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The Salisbury embayment is a broad tectonic downwarp that is filled by generally seaward-thickening, wedge-shaped deposits of the central Atlantic Coastal Plain. Our two-day field trip will take us to the western side of this embayment from the Fall Zone in Washington, D.C., to some of the bluffs along Aquia Creek and the Potomac River in Virginia, and then to the Calvert Cliffs on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay. We will see fluvial-deltaic Cretaceous deposits of the Potomac Formation. We will then focus on Cenozoic marine deposits. Transgressive and highstand deposits are stacked upon each other with unconformities separating them; rarely are regressive or lowstand deposits preserved. The Paleocene and Eocene shallow shelf deposits consist of glauconitic, silty sands that contain varying amounts of marine shells. The Miocene shallow shelf deposits consist of diatomaceous silts and silty and shelly sands. The lithology, thickness, dip, preservation, and distribution of the succession of coastal plain sediments that were deposited in our field-trip area are, to a great extent, structurally controlled. Surficial and subsurface mapping using numerous continuous cores, auger holes, water-well data, and seismic surveys has documented some folds and numerous high-angle reverse and normal faults that offset Cretaceous and Cenozoic deposits. Many of these structures are rooted in early Mesozoic and/or Paleozoic NE-trending regional tectonic fault systems that underlie the Atlantic Coastal Plain. On Day 1, we will focus on two fault systems (stops 1–2; Stafford fault system and the Skinkers Neck–Brandywine fault system and their constituent fault zones and faults). We will then see (stops 3–5) a few of the remaining exposures of largely unlithified marine Paleocene and Eocene strata along the Virginia side of the Potomac River including the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum boundary clay. These exposures are capped by fluvial-estuarine Pleistocene terrace

  13. Crustal-scale alpine tectonic evolution of the western Pyrenees - eastern Cantabrian Mountains (N Spain) from integration of structural data, low-T thermochronology and seismic constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFelipe, I.; Pedreira, D.; Pulgar, J. A.; Van der Beek, P.; Bernet, M.; Pik, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Pyrenean-Cantabrian Mountain belt extends in an E-W direction along the northern border of Spain and resulted from the convergence between the Iberian and European plates from the Late Cretaceous to the Miocene, in the context of the Alpine orogeny. The main aim of this work is to characterize the tectonic evolution at a crustal-scale of the transition zone from the Pyrenees to the Cantabrian Mountains, in the eastern Basque-Cantabrian Basin (BCB). We integrate structural work, thermochronology (apatite fission track and zircon (U-Th)/He) and geophysical information (shallow seismic reflection profiles, deep seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles and seismicity distribution) to propose an evolutionary model since the Jurassic to the present. During the Albian, hyperextension related to the opening of the Bay of Biscay yielded to mantle unroofing to the base of the BCB. This process was favored by a detachment fault that connected the mantle in its footwall with the base of a deep basin in its hanging wall. During this process, the basin experienced HT metamorphism and fluid circulation caused the serpentinization of the upper part of the mantle. There is no evidence of seafloor mantle exhumation before the onset of the Alpine orogeny. The thermochronological study points to a N-vergent phase of contractional deformation in the late Eocene represented by the thin-skinned Leiza fault system followed in the early Oligocene by the S-vergent, thick-skinned, Ollín thrust. Exhumation rates for the late Eocene-early Oligocene are of 0.2-0.7 km/Myr. After that period, deformation continues southwards until the Miocene. The crustal-scale structure resultant of the Alpine orogeny consists of an Iberian plate that subducts below the European plate. The crust is segmented into four blocks separated by three S-vergent crustal faults inherited from the Cretaceous extensional period. The P-wave velocities in this transect show anomalous values (7.4 km/s) in the

  14. Provenance and tectonic setting of siliciclastic rocks associated with the Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF: Implications for the Precambrian crustal evolution of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Wang, He; Wang, Min

    2017-10-01

    The Late Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF is associated with siliciclastic rocks in the Tianshuihai terrane of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt (WKO), NW China. The sedimentary rocks have various weathering indices (e.g., CIA = 57-87, PIA = 61-96 and Th/U = 4.85-12.45), indicative of varying degrees of weathering in the source area. The rocks have trace element ratios, such as Th/Sc = 0.60-1.21 and Co/Th = 0.29-1.67, and light rare earth element (LREE) enriched chondrite-normalized REE patterns, suggesting that they were mainly sourced from intermediate and felsic rocks. Available U-Pb ages of detrital zircon from these rocks reveal that the detrital sources may have been igneous and metamorphic rocks from the WKO and the Tarim Block. Our study suggests that the Dahongliutan BIF and hosting siliciclastic rocks may have deposited in a setting transitional from a passive to active continental margin, probably related to the Late Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian seafloor spreading and subduction of the Proto-Tethys Ocean. U-Pb dating of 163 detrital zircons defines five major age populations at 2561-2329 Ma, 2076-1644 Ma, 1164-899 Ma, 869-722 Ma and 696-593 Ma. These age groups broadly correspond to the major stages of supercontinent assembly and breakup events widely accepted for Columbia, Rodinia and Gondwana. Some zircons have TDM2 model ages of 3.9-1.8 Ga and negative εHf(t) values, suggesting that the Archean to Paleoproterozoic (as old as Eoarchean) crustal materials were episodically reworked and incorporated into the late magmatic process in the WKO. Some Neoproterozoic zircons have TDM2 model ages of 1.47-1.07 Ga and 1.81-1.53 Ga and positive εHf(t) values, indicating juvenile crustal growth during the Mesoproterozoic. Our new results, combined with published data, imply that both the Tianshuihai terrane in the WKO and the Tarim Block share the same Precambrian tectonic evolution history.

  15. Kinematics and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology of the Gaoligong and Chongshan shear systems, western Yunnan, China: Implications for early Oligocene tectonic extrusion of SE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuejun; Fan, Weiming; Zhang, Yanhua; Peng, Touping; Chen, Xinyue; Xu, Yigang

    2006-06-01

    The Gaoligong and Chongshan shear systems (GLSS and CSSS) in western Yunnan, China, have similar tectonic significance to the Ailaoshan-Red River shear system (ASRRSS) during the Cenozoic tectonic development of the southeastern Tibetan syntaxis. To better understand their kinematics and the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of SE Asia, this paper presents new kinematic and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronological data for these shear systems. All the structural and microstructural evidence indicate that the GLSS is a dextral strike-slip shear system while the CSSS is a sinistral strike-slip shear system, and both were developed under amphibolite- to greenschist-grade conditions. The 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of synkinematic minerals revealed that the strike-slip shearing on the GLSS and CSSS at least began at ˜ 32 Ma, possibly coeval with the onset of other major shear systems in SE Asia. The late-stage shearing on the GLSS and CSSS is dated at ˜ 27-29 Ma by the biotite 40Ar/ 39Ar ages, consistent with that of the Wang Chao shear zone (WCSZ), but ˜ 10 Ma earlier than that of the ASRRSS. The dextral Gaoligong shear zone within the GLSS may have separated the India plate from the Indochina Block during early Oligocene. Combined with other data in western Yunnan, we propose that the Baoshan/Southern Indochina Block escaped faster southeastward along the CSSS to the east and the GLSS to the west than the Northern Indochina Block along the ASRRSS, accompanying with the obliquely northward motion of the India plate during early Oligocene (28-36 Ma). During 28-17 Ma, the Northern Indochina Block was rotationally extruded along the ASRRSS relative to the South China Block as a result of continuously impinging of the India plate.

  16. Late Cenozoic Paleoceanography of the Central Arctic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Regan, Matt

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and perhaps least accessible of the worlds oceans. It occupies only 26% of the global ocean area, and less than 10% of its volume. However, it exerts a disproportionately large influence on the global climate system through a complex set of positive and negative feedback mechanisms directly or indirectly related to terrestrial ice and snow cover and sea ice. Increasingly, the northern high latitude cryosphere is seen as an exceptionally fragile part of the global climate system, a fact exemplified by observed reductions in sea ice extent during the past decades [2]. The paleoceanographic evolution of the Arctic Ocean can provide important insights into the physical forcing mechanisms that affect the form, intensity and permanence of ice in the high Arctic, and its sensitivity to these mechanisms in vastly different climate states of the past. However, marine records capturing the late Cenozoic paleoceanography of the Arctic are limited - most notably because only a single deep borehole exists from the central parts of this Ocean. This paper reviews the principal late Cenozoic (Neogene/Quaternary) results from the Arctic Coring Expedition to the Lomonosov Ridge and in light of recent data and observations on modern sea ice, outlines emerging questions related to three main themes: 1) the establishment of the 'modern' Arctic Ocean and the opening of the Fram Strait 2) the inception of perennial sea ice 3) The Quaternary intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciations.

  17. A coccolithophore concept for constraining the Cenozoic carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderiks, J.; Rickaby, R. E. M.

    2007-06-01

    An urgent question for future climate, in light of increased burning of fossil fuels, is the temperature sensitivity of the climate system to atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO>sub>2). To date, no direct proxy for past levels of pCO2 exists beyond the reach of the polar ice core records. We propose a new methodology for placing a constraint on pCO2 over the Cenozoic based on the physiological plasticity of extant coccolithophores. Specifically, our premise is that the contrasting calcification tolerance of various extant species of coccolithophore to raised pCO2 reflects an "evolutionary memory" of past atmospheric composition. The different times of evolution of certain morphospecies allows an upper constraint of past pCO2 to be placed on Cenozoic timeslices. Further, our hypothesis has implications for the response of marine calcifiers to ocean acidification. Geologically "ancient" species, which have survived large changes in ocean chemistry, are likely more resilient to predicted acidification.

  18. Contraints on the cenozoic position of Sundaland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C. McA.; Johnson, B. D.

    1980-03-01

    The Cenozoic ocean-floor path of the continental fragment, Greater India, is overlapped by the present western part of Malaysia and Sumatra which are now part of a coherent continental block, Sundaland. This part of Southeast Asia must consequently have lain further east during the Cenozoic. The past positions of Greater India, combined with published paleomagnetic data indicating that Sundaland has lain near the Equator since the Permian and rotated anticlockwise since the mid-Cretaceous, are used to reconstruct constraints on the relative motions of Sundaland and the Indian—Australian plate in 10 m.y. intervals. We show that the northern part of Sundaland has rotated a minimum of 550 km westward with respect to India in the last 50 m.y. (since Early Eocene) with most of the rotation occurring in the latter half of the Cenozoic. Accepting geological evidence for an even larger Cenozoic sinistral shear between Sundaland and Australia, we construct a model consistent with ocean-floor and paleomagnetic constraints in which Australia and Sundaland made their closest approach between 10 and 20 m.y. ago (Miocene). The S-shape of the Banda Arcs may have formed since mid-Miocene from an initially linear, E-W trending pair of arcs by the interaction of the large sinistral shear between Sundaland and Australia and the collision of the leading edge of Australia with these paired arcs commencing approximately 15 m.y. ago.

  19. Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 km2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic.

  20. The Opening of the Arctic-Atlantic Gateway: Tectonic, Oceanographic and Climatic Dynamics - an IODP Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Wolfram; Knies, Jochen

    2016-04-01

    The modern polar cryosphere reflects an extreme climate state with profound temperature gradients towards high-latitudes. It developed in association with stepwise Cenozoic cooling, beginning with ephemeral glaciations and the appearance of sea ice in the late middle Eocene. The polar ocean gateways played a pivotal role in changing the polar and global climate, along with declining greenhouse gas levels. The opening of the Drake Passage finalized the oceanographic isolation of Antarctica, some 40 Ma ago. The Arctic Ocean was an isolated basin until the early Miocene when rifting and subsequent sea-floor spreading started between Greenland and Svalbard, initiating the opening of the Fram Strait / Arctic-Atlantic Gateway (AAG). Although this gateway is known to be important in Earth's past and modern climate, little is known about its Cenozoic development. However, the opening history and AAG's consecutive widening and deepening must have had a strong impact on circulation and water mass exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic. To study the AAG's complete history, ocean drilling at two primary sites and one alternate site located between 73°N and 78°N in the Boreas Basin and along the East Greenland continental margin are proposed. These sites will provide unprecedented sedimentary records that will unveil (1) the history of shallow-water exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic, and (2) the development of the AAG to a deep-water connection and its influence on the global climate system. The specific overarching goals of our proposal are to study: (1) the influence of distinct tectonic events in the development of the AAG and the formation of deep water passage on the North Atlantic and Arctic paleoceanography, and (2) the role of the AAG in the climate transition from the Paleogene greenhouse to the Neogene icehouse for the long-term (~50 Ma) climate history of the northern North Atlantic. Getting a continuous record of the

  1. The Crustal Magnetization Mapping in the Ocean Basin of the South China Sea and its Tectonic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L.; Meng, X.

    2015-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS), surrounded by the Eurasia, Pacific and India-Australia plates, was formed by the interaction of the three plates and the Cenozoic seafloor spreading. Magnetic data is the crucial data for understanding tectonic evolution and seafloor spreading model in the SCS. Magnetization intensity is related closely to rock type and tectonics. Through magnetization mapping, the distribution of apparent magnetization in the subsurface will be obtained, benefiting in lithologic classification and geological mapping. Due to strong remanence presented in the oceanic crust, magma and seamounts in the SCS, the magnetization directions are complex and heterogeneous, quite different from the modern geomagnetic field directions. However, the routine techniques for magnetization mapping are based on negligence of remanence. The normalized source strength (NSS), one quantity transformed from the magnetic anomalies, is insensitive to remanence and responds well to the true locations of magnetic sources. The magnetization mapping based on the NSS will effectively reduce effects of remanence, benefitting in better geological interpretation. Here, we assembled high-resolution total magnetic intensity (TMI) data around the ocean basin of the SCS, and then transformed them into the NSS. Then we did magnetization mapping based on the NSS to obtain the crustal magnetization distribution in the studied area. The results show that the magnetization distribution inside of each subbasin is relatively homogeneous, but that of eastern subbasin is mostly strong with amplitude of 0.2A/m~4.2A/m, while that of southwestern subbasin is weak with amplitude of 0.2A/m~1.1A/m. It implies that magnetic structure and tectonic features in the crust are discriminative between both subbasins, and the tectonic boundary between both subbasins is roughly ranges from the northeastern edge of the Zhongsha Islands running in the southeast direction to the northeastern edge of the Reed Bank.

  2. Cenozoic mountain building on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lease, Richard O.

    2014-01-01

    Northeastern Tibetan Plateau growth illuminates the kinematics, geodynamics, and climatic consequences of large-scale orogenesis, yet only recently have data become available to outline the spatiotemporal pattern and rates of this growth. I review the tectonic history of range growth across the plateau margin north of the Kunlun fault (35°–40°N) and east of the Qaidam basin (98°–107°E), synthesizing records from fault-bounded mountain ranges and adjacent sedimentary basins. Deformation began in Eocene time shortly after India-Asia collision, but the northeastern orogen boundary has largely remained stationary since this time. Widespread middle Miocene–Holocene range growth is portrayed by accelerated deformation, uplift, erosion, and deposition across northeastern Tibet. The extent of deformation, however, only expanded ~150 km outward to the north and east and ~150 km laterally to the west. A middle Miocene reorganization of deformation characterized by shortening at various orientations heralds the onset of the modern kinematic regime where shortening is coupled to strike slip. This regime is responsible for the majority of Cenozoic crustal shortening and thickening and the development of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau.

  3. Cenozoic lithospheric deformation in Northeast Asia and the rapidly-aging Pacific Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Moresi, Louis; Zhao, Dapeng; Sandiford, Dan; Whittaker, Joanne

    2018-06-01

    Northeast Asia underwent widespread rifting and magmatic events during the Cenozoic. The geodynamic origins of these tectonic events are often linked to Pacific plate subduction beneath Northeast Asia. However, the Japan Sea did not open until the late Oligocene, tens of millions of years after Pacific Plate subduction initiation in the Paleocene. Moreover, it is still not clear why the Baikal Rift Zone extension rate increased significantly after the late Miocene, while the Japan Sea opening ceased at the same time. Geodynamic models suggest these enigmatic events are related to the rapidly-aging Pacific Plate at the trench after Izanagi-Pacific spreading ridge subduction. Subduction of the young Pacific Plate delayed the Japan Sea opening during the Eocene while advection of the old Pacific Plate towards the trench increases seafloor age rapidly, allowing the Japan Sea to open after the early Miocene. The Japan Sea opening promotes fast trench retreat and slab stagnation, with subduction-induced wedge zone convection gradually increasing its extent during this process. The active rifting center associated with wedge zone convection upwelling also shifts inland-ward during slab stagnation, preventing further Japan Sea spreading while promoting the Baikal Rift Zone extension. Our geodynamic model provides a good explanation for the temporal-spatial patterns of the Cenozoic tectonic and magmatic events in Northeast Asia.

  4. Crustal structure and tectonic model of the Arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrov, Oleg; Morozov, Andrey; Shokalsky, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    We present a new model of the crustal and tectonic structure of the Arctic region north of 60° N latitude, constrained as a part of the international Atlas of Geological Maps of the Circumpolar Arctic under the aegis of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World. The region is largely...... formed by (i) Archean-Paleoproterozoic shields and platforms, (ii) orogenic belts of the Neoproterozoic to the Late Mesozoic ages overlain by platform and basin sediments, (iii) Cenozoic rift structures formed in part as a consequence of seafloor spreading in the North East Atlantic Ocean...... and thickness of the sedimentary cover and presents tectonic regionalization based on 18 major crustal types (oceanic, transitional, and continental) recognized in the Arctic. A 7600. km-long crustal geotransect across the region illustrates the details of its crustal and tectonic structure. We discuss...

  5. Paleomagnetic Results of Permo-Carboniferous Volcanic-sedimentary Strata in Mid-eastern Inner Mongolia, China: Implications for Tectonic Evolution of the Eastern CAOB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Huang, B.; Zhao, J.; Bai, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, T.

    2015-12-01

    There has been hotly debating over the closure time of the eastern Paleo-Asian Ocean and the tectonic evolution of the eastern CAOB (Central Asian Orogenic Belt) for decades. To better puzzle out this controversy, we carried out a detailed paleomagnetic study on the Permo-Carboniferous volcanic-sedimentary strata in mid-eastern Inner Mongolia, northeast of China. More than 820 samples were collected from 81 sites and titanium-poor magnetite and hematite are proved as the principal magnetic carriers. (1)In Kingan Block, 9 sites of volcanic rocks from Dashizhai Formation (P1) were calculated to get a mean magnetic direction Dg/Ig = 285.5°/77.4°, kg = 68.2, α95 = 6.8° before and Ds/Is = 206.5°/48.2°, ks = 100.8, α95 = 5.5°, N = 9 after bedding correction, which suggests a paleolatitude of 34.5°±5°N. Both the positive fold test and reversal test suggest a pre-folding magnetization and thus may indicate a primary remanence. (2)Three volcanic sections of Baoligaomiao Formation (C3-P1) from Uliastai Passive Margin were sampled and a mean magnetic direction derived from 16 sites is Dg/Ig = 30.1°/31.8°, kg = 16.3, α95 = 9.8° before and Ds/Is = 65.6°/58.1°, ks = 39.8, α95 = 6.1°, N = 16 after bedding correction. The corresponding paleomagnetic pole Plat. /Plong = 43.1° N/186.7°E, A95=8° suggests a paleolatitude of 38.7°±6.3°N. A primary remanence is confirmed by positive fold test. (3) In the northern margin of NCB (North China Block), a ChRM is successfully isolated from 6 sites of basaltic rocks in Elitu Formation (P2) as Dg/Ig = 351.1°/67.2°, kg = 2.1, α95 = 71.8° before and Ds/Is = 351.1°/29.1°, ks = 32.7, α95 = 71.8°, N = 16 after bedding correction, and thus yielded a paleomagnetic pole as Plat. /Plong = 63.1° N/313.5°E, A95=9.5°, which suggests a paleolatitude of 17.2°±7.2°N. A positive fold test and reversal test indicate that the remanence should be primary. The paleomagetic pole of Kingan Block and Uliastai Passive Margin are

  6. Investigating the landscape of Arroyo Seco—Decoding the past—A teaching guide to climate-controlled landscape evolution in a tectonically active region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Emily M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Havens, Jeremy C.

    2017-05-19

    IntroductionArroyo Seco is a river that flows eastward out of the Santa Lucia Range in Monterey County, California. The Santa Lucia Range is considered part of the central California Coast Range. Arroyo Seco flows out of the Santa Lucia Range into the Salinas River valley, near the town of Greenfield, where it joins the Salinas River. The Salinas River flows north into Monterey Bay about 40 miles from where it merges with Arroyo Seco. In the mountain range, Arroyo Seco has cut or eroded a broad and deep valley. This valley preserves a geologic story in the landscape that is influenced by both fault-controlled mountain building (tectonics) and sea level fluctuations (regional climate).Broad flat surfaces called river terraces, once eroded by Arroyo Seco, can be observed along the modern drainage. In the valley, terraces are also preserved like climbing stairs up to 1,800 feet above Arroyo Seco today. These terraces mark where Arroyo Seco once flowed.The terraces were formed by the river because no matter how high they are, the terraces are covered by gravel deposits exactly like those that can be observed in the river today. The Santa Lucia Range, Arroyo Seco, and the Salinas River valley must have looked very different when the highest and oldest terraces were forming. The Santa Lucia Range may have been lower, the Arroyo Seco may have been steeper and wider, and the Salinas River valley may have been much smaller.Arroyo Seco, like all rivers, is always changing. Some-times rivers flow very straight, and sometimes they are curvy. Sometimes rivers are cutting down or eroding the landscape, and sometimes they are not eroding but depositing material. Sometimes rivers are neither eroding nor transporting material. The influences that change the behavior of Arroyo Seco are mountain uplift caused by fault moment and sea level changes driven by regional climate change. When a stream is affected by one or both of these influences, the stream accommodates the change by

  7. Provenance and detrital zircon geochronologic evolution of lower Brookian foreland basin deposits of the western Brooks Range, Alaska, and implications for early Brookian tectonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Potter, Christopher J.; Donelick, Raymond A.

    2015-01-01

    The Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous part of the Brookian sequence of northern Alaska consists of syntectonic deposits shed from the north-directed, early Brookian orogenic belt. We employ sandstone petrography, detrital zircon U-Pb age analysis, and zircon fission-track double-dating methods to investigate these deposits in a succession of thin regional thrust sheets in the western Brooks Range and in the adjacent Colville foreland basin to determine sediment provenance, sedimentary dispersal patterns, and to reconstruct the evolution of the Brookian orogen. The oldest and structurally highest deposits are allochthonous Upper Jurassic volcanic arc–derived sandstones that rest on accreted ophiolitic and/or subduction assemblage mafic igneous rocks. These strata contain a nearly unimodal Late Jurassic zircon population and are interpreted to be a fragment of a forearc basin that was emplaced onto the Brooks Range during arc-continent collision. Synorogenic deposits found at structurally lower levels contain decreasing amounts of ophiolite and arc debris, Jurassic zircons, and increasing amounts of continentally derived sedimentary detritus accompanied by broadly distributed late Paleozoic and Triassic (359–200 Ma), early Paleozoic (542–359 Ma), and Paleoproterozoic (2000–1750 Ma) zircon populations. The zircon populations display fission-track evidence of cooling during the Brookian event and evidence of an earlier episode of cooling in the late Paleozoic and Triassic. Surprisingly, there is little evidence for erosion of the continental basement of Arctic Alaska, its Paleozoic sedimentary cover, or its hinterland metamorphic rocks in early foreland basin strata at any structural and/or stratigraphic level in the western Brooks Range. Detritus from exhumation of these sources did not arrive in the foreland basin until the middle or late Albian in the central part of the Colville Basin.These observations indicate that two primary provenance areas provided

  8. Evolution and relationships between volcanism and tectonics in the central-eastern part of the Oligocene Borovitsa caldera (Eastern Rhodopes, Bulgaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, Damien; Yanev, Yotzo; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Chorowicz, Jean

    2008-04-01

    The nested Borovitsa caldera emplaced during the collision-related Paleogene volcanism in the Eastern Rhodopes. The pre-caldera succession consists in Priabonian to Early Oligocene sediments and lavas (absarokites, shoshonites, latites). The caldera filling corresponds to an acid volcanism Early Oligocene in age. The tectono-magmatic evolution of the caldera can be divided into six main stages. (1) Ignimbritic units (more than 1.5 km thick) with a trachydacitic to trachytic composition deposited. The K-Ar method yields an age of 34-33.5 Ma. The volcanic products are either strongly or not welded in the western and eastern parts of the caldera, respectively. (2) An initial Murga caldera, 7-10 km in diameter, collapsed. This event was accompanied by the intrusion of a circular body consisting of lenses-bearing rocks of trachyrhyodacitic to rhyolitic composition within the border faults. (3) The emission of pyroclastic rocks continued and a large sub-volcanic body (33 Ma) of trachydacitic to trachyrhyolitic composition intruded in the western part of the circular body. (4) The Borovitsa caldera (15 km × 34 km) collapsed. Rhyolitic and trachydacitic dykes dated at 32.5 Ma intruded along its border faults. (5) High-Si trachyrhyolitic-perlitic domes intruded in the eastern part of the Borovitsa caldera at 30-32 Ma and the Dushka caldera collapsed within the Borovitsa structure. (6) Dykes of various compositions (from shoshonite to rhyolite) and trachydacitic to rhyolitic sub-volcanic stocks finally intruded within the caldera and along its rims at 27.5-29.5 Ma. Observations on radar and optical satellite imagery allowed both a new mapping of the structural pattern in the Borovitsa caldera and the understanding of the relationships between faulting and volcanism in this area. Horse-tail features accommodating the right-lateral throw component at the termination of NW-SE and N-S right-lateral strike-slip faults are superimposed upon the Murga caldera and the eastern part

  9. Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the Dananhu-Tousuquan island arc belt, Eastern Tianshan: Constraints from the magmatism of the Yuhai porphyry Cu deposit, Xinjiang, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunfeng; Chen, Huayong; Han, Jinsheng; Chen, Shoubo; Huang, Baoqiang; Li, Chen; Tian, Qinglei; Wang, Chao; Wu, Jianxin; Chen, Mingxia

    2018-03-01

    pyroxene diorite shows slight enrichments in LREEs ((La/Yb)N = 2.04-2.55), Ba, U, K and Pb, weak depletions in Nb, Ta and Ti, elevated Th/U ratios, and low Ni contents and Ce/Pb ratios. Integrating with the regional tectonic evolution, we suggest that the pyroxene diorite was likely originated from the partial melting of depleted mantle metasomatized by subducted slab-derived fluids. In addition, crustal contamination likely occurred when the pyroxene diorite magma traversed the continental crust. Integrating our new results with published works on the early Paleozoic Dananhu-Tousuquan and Bogeda-Haerlike island arc belts, we propose that the Yuhai quartz diorite may have formed in a subduction setting related to the N-dipping subduction of the North Tianshan oceanic plate. The younger Yuhai granite was likely generated by the bipolar subduction of the North Tianshan oceanic plate, which formed both of the Dananhu-Tousuquan belt to the north and the Aqishan-Yamansu belt to the south. The youngest Yuhai pyroxene diorite was likely formed under a post-collisional extension setting after the Dananhu-Tousuquan and Aqishan-Yamansu belts had collided.

  10. Regionwide Geodynamic Analyses of the Cenozoic Carbonate Burial in Sri Lanka Related to Climate and Atmospheric CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Sandaruwan Ratnayake

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Asian tectonism and exhumation are critical components to develop modern icehouse climate. In this study, stratigraphic sections of eight wells in the Mannar and Cauvery basins were considered. The author demonstrated that this local system records a wealth of information to understated regional and global paleoclimatic trends over the Cenozoic era. The lithostratigraphic framework has been generally characterized by deposition of carbonate-rich sediments since the Middle Cenozoic. Geological provenance of carbonate sediments had probably related to local sources from Sri Lankan and Indian land masses. The main controlling factor of carbonate burial is rather questionable. However, this carbonate burial has indicated the possible link to the Middle to Late Cenozoic global climatic transition. This major climatic shift was characterized by long-term reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration over the Cenozoic era. Consequently, this geological trend (carbonate burial has a straightforward teleconnection to the global cooling towards the glaciated earth followed by the development of polar ice sheets that persist today.

  11. Tectonically controlled sedimentation: impact on sediment supply and basin evolution of the Kashafrud Formation (Middle Jurassic, Kopeh-Dagh Basin, northeast Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar Abadi, Mehrdad; Da Silva, Anne-Christine; Amini, Abdolhossein; Aliabadi, Ali Akbar; Boulvain, Frédéric; Sardar Abadi, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-11-01

    The Kashafrud Formation was deposited in the extensional Kopeh-Dagh Basin during the Late Bajocian to Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) and is potentially the most important siliciclastic unit from NE Iran for petroleum geology. This extensional setting allowed the accumulation of about 1,700 m of siliciclastic sediments during a limited period of time (Upper Bajocian-Bathonian). Here, we present a detailed facies analysis combined with magnetic susceptibility (MS) results focusing on the exceptional record of the Pol-e-Gazi section in the southeastern part of the basin. MS is classically interpreted as related to the amount of detrital input. The amount of these detrital inputs and then the MS being classically influenced by sea-level changes, climate changes and tectonic activity. Facies analysis reveals that the studied rocks were deposited in shallow marine, slope to pro-delta settings. A major transgressive-regressive cycle is recorded in this formation, including fluvial-dominated delta to turbiditic pro-delta settings (transgressive phase), followed by siliciclastic to mixed siliciclastic and carbonate shoreface rocks (regressive phase). During the transgressive phase, hyperpycnal currents were feeding the basin. These hyperpycnal currents are interpreted as related to important tectonic variations, in relation to significant uplift of the hinterland during opening of the basin. This tectonic activity was responsible for stronger erosion, providing a higher amount of siliciclastic input into the basin, leading to a high MS signal. During the regressive phase, the tectonic activity strongly decreased. Furthermore, the depositional setting changed to a wave- to tide-dominated, mixed carbonate-siliciclastic setting. Because of the absence of strong tectonic variations, bulk MS was controlled by other factors such as sea-level and climatic changes. Fluctuations in carbonate production, possibly related to sea-level variations, influenced the MS of the siliciclastic

  12. Structural analysis and Miocene-to-Present tectonic evolution of a lithospheric-scale, transcurrent lineament: The Sciacca Fault (Sicilian Channel, Central Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorik, Jakub; Toscani, Giovanni; Lodolo, Emanuele; Civile, Dario; Bonini, Lorenzo; Seno, Silvio

    2018-01-01

    Seismo-stratigraphic and structural analysis of a large number of multichannel seismic reflection profiles acquired in the northern part of the Sicilian Channel allowed a 3-D reconstruction of a regional NS-trending transfer zone which displays a transcurrent tectonic regime, and that is of broad relevance for its seismotectonic and geodynamic implications. It is constituted of two major transcurrent faults delimiting a 30-km-wide, mostly undeformed basin. The western fault (Capo Granitola) does not show clear evidence of present-day tectonic activity, and toward the south it is connected with the volcanic area of the Graham Bank. The eastern fault (Sciacca) is structurally more complex, showing active deformation at the sea-floor, particularly evident along the Nerita Bank. The Sciacca Fault is constituted of a master and splay faults compatible with a right-lateral kinematics. Sciacca Fault is superimposed on an inherited weakness zone (a Mesozoic carbonate ramp), which borders to the east a 2.5-km-thick Plio-Quaternary basin, and that was reactivated during the Pliocene. A set of scaled claybox analogue models was carried out in order to better understand the tectonic processes that led to the structural setting displayed by seismic data. Tectonic structures and uplift/subsidence patterns generated by the models are compatible with the 3-D model obtained from seismic reflection profiles. The best fit between the tectonic setting deriving from the interpretation of seismic profiles and the analogue models was obtained considering a right-lateral movement for the Sciacca Fault. Nevertheless, the stress field in the study area derived from GPS measurements does not support the present-day modelled right-lateral kinematics along the Sciacca Fault. Moreover, seismic events along this fault show focal mechanisms with a left-lateral component. We ascribe the slip change along the Sciacca Fault, from a right-lateral transcurrent regime to the present-day left

  13. Investigating the ancient landscape and Cenozoic drainage development of southern Yukon (Canada), through restoration modeling of the Cordilleran-scale Tintina Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, N.; Jackson, L. E.; Ryan, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    This study of southern Yukon (Canada) challenges the notion that the landscape in the long-lived, tectonically active, northern Canadian Cordillera is implicitly young. The impact of Cenozoic displacement along the continental- scale Tintina Fault on the development of the Yukon River and drainage basins of central Yukon is investigated through geophysical and hydrological modeling of digital terrain model data. Regional geological evidence suggests that the age of the planation of the Yukon plateaus is at least Late Cretaceous, rather than Neogene as previously concluded, and that there has been little penetrative deformation or net incision in the region since the late Mesozoic. The Tintina Fault has been interpreted as having experienced 430 km of dextral displacement, primarily during the Eocene. However, the alignment of river channels across the fault at specific displacements, coupled with recent seismic events and related fault activity, indicate that the fault may have moved in stages over a longer time span. Topographic restoration and hydrological models show that the drainage of the Yukon River northwestward into Alaska via the ancestral Kwikhpak River was only possible at restored displacements of up to 50-55 km on the Tintina Fault. We interpret the published drainage reversals convincingly attributed to the effects of Pliocene glaciation as an overprint on earlier Yukon River reversals or diversions attributed to tectonic displacements along the Tintina Fault. At restored fault displacements of between 230 and 430 km, our models illustrate that paleo Yukon River drainage conceivably may have flowed eastward into the Atlantic Ocean via an ancestral Liard River, which was a tributary of the paleo Bell River system. The revised drainage evolution if correct requires wide-reaching reconsideration of surficial geology deposits, the flow direction and channel geometries of the region's ancient rivers, and importantly, exploration strategies of placer gold

  14. Earth's glacial record and its tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, N.

    1993-09-01

    clearly established glacial parentage. The same remarks apply to many successions of laminated and thin-bedded facies interpreted as "varvites". Despite suggestions of much lower values of solar luminosity (the weak young sun hypothesis), the stratigraphic record of Archean glaciations is not extensive and may be the result of non-preservation. However, the effects of very different Archean global tectonic regimes and much higher geothermal heat flows, combined with a Venus-like atmosphere warmed by elevated levels of CO 2, cannot be ruled out. The oldest unambiguous glacial succession in Earth history appears to be the Early Proterozoic Gowganda Formation of the Huronian Supergroup in Ontario; the age of this event is not well-constrained but glaciation coincided with regional rifting, and may be causally related to, oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere just after 2300 Ma. New evidence that oxygenation is tectonically, not biologically driven, stresses the intimate relationship between plate tectonics, evolution of the atmosphere and glaciation. Global geochemical controls, such as elevated atmospheric CO 2 levels, may be responsible for a long mid-Proterozoic non-glacial interval after 2000 Ma that was terminated by the Late Proterozoic glaciations just after 800 Ma. A persistent theme in both Late Proterozoic and Phanerozoic glaciations is the adiabatic effect of tectonic uplift, either along collisional margins or as a result of passive margin uplifts in areas of extended crust, as the trigger for glaciation; the process is reinforced by global geochemical feedback, principally the drawdown of atmospheric CO 2 and Milankovitch "astronomical" forcing but these are unlikely, by themselves, to inititiate glaciation. The same remarks apply to late Cenozoic glaciations. Late Proterozoic glacially-influenced strata occur on all seven continents and fall into two tectonostratigraphic types. In the first category are thick sucessions of turbidites and mass flows deposited along

  15. ON TECTONIC PROBLEMS OF THE OKINAWA TROUGH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a very active tectonic zone at the margin of the Northwest Pacific and is typical of back-arc rifting at the young stage of tectonic evolution. Many scientists from Japan, China, Germany, France, the U.S.A. and Russia have done a lot of geologic and geophysical investigations there. It is well known that the Okinawa Trough is an active back-arc rift with extremely high heat flow, very strong hydrothermal circulation, strong volcanic and magmatic activity, frequent earthquakes, rapid subsidence and rifting, well-developed fault and central graben. But up to now, there are still some important tectonic problems about the Okinawa Trough that require clarification on some aspects such as the type of its crust, its forming time, its tectonic evolution, the distribution of its central grabens, the relationship between its high heat flow and tectonic activity. Based on the data obtained from seismic survey, geomagnetic and gravity measurements, submarine sampling and heat flow measurements in the last 15 years, the author discusses the following tectonic problems about the Okinawa Trough: (1) If the Okinawa Trough develops oceanic crust or not. (2) Is the South Okinawa Trough tectonically more active than the North Okinawa Trough with shallower water and few investigation data on it. (3) The formation time of the Okinawa Trough and its tectonic evolution. The Okinawa Trough has a very thin continental crust. Up to now, there is no evidence of oceanic crust in the Okinawa Trough. The North, Middle and South Okinawa Trough are all very strongly active areas. From 6 Ma B.P., the Okinawa Trough began to form. Since 2 Ma, the Okinawa Trough has been very active.

  16. ON TECTONIC PROBLEMS OF THE OKINAWA TROUGH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李乃胜

    2001-01-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a very active tectonic zone at the margin of the Northwest Pacific and is typical of back-arc rifting at the young stage of tectonic evolution. Many scientists from Japan,China, Germany, France, the U. S.A. and Russia have done a lot of geologic and geophysical investigations there. It is well known that the Okinawa Trough is an active back-arc rift with extremely high heat flow, very strong hydrothermal circulation, strong volcanic and magmatic activity, frequent earthquakes,rapid subsidence and rifting, well-developed fault and central graben. But up to now, there are still some important tectonic problems about the Okinawa Trough that require clarification on some aspects such as the type of its crust, its forming time, its tectonic evolution, the distribution of its central grabens, the relationship between its high heat flow and tectonic activity. Based on the data obtained from seismic sur-vey, geomagnetic and gravity measurements, submarine sampling and heat flow measurements in the last 15 years, the author discusses the following tectonic problems about the Okinawa Trough: (1) If the Okinawa Trough develops oceanic crust or not. (2) Is the South Okinawa Trough tectonically more active than the North Okinawa Trough with shallower water and few investigation data on it. (3) The formation time of the Okinawa Trough and its tectonic evolution. The Okinawa Trough has a very thin continental crust. Up to now, there is no evidence of oceanic crust in the Okinawa Trough. The North, Middle and South Okinawa Trough are all very strongly active areas. From 6 Ma B.P. , the Okinawa Trough began to form. Since 2 Ma, the Okinawa Trough has been very active.

  17. Geochronology and geochemistry of Mesozoic intrusive rocks in the Xing'an Massif of NE China: Implications for the evolution and spatial extent of the Mongol-Okhotsk tectonic regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Xu, Wen-Liang; Tang, Jie; Pei, Fu-Ping; Wang, Feng; Sun, Chen-Yang

    2018-04-01

    This study presents new zircon U-Pb-Hf and whole-rock geochemical data for intrusive rocks in the Xing'an Massif of NE China, with the aim of furthering our understanding of the evolution and spatial influence of the Mongol-Okhotsk tectonic regime. Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that five stages of Mesozoic magmatism are recorded in the Xing'an Massif, namely during the Middle Triassic ( 237 Ma), the Late Triassic ( 225 Ma), the Early Jurassic ( 178 Ma), the Middle Jurassic ( 168 Ma), and the late Early Cretaceous ( 130 Ma). The Middle Triassic-Early Jurassic intrusive rocks in the Xing'an Massif are dominantly granodiorites, monzogranites, and syenogranites that formed from magma generated by partial melting of newly accreted continental crust. Geochemistry of the Middle Triassic-Early Jurassic granitoid suites of the Xing'an Massif indicates their formation at an active continental margin setting, related to the southwards subduction of the Mongol-Okhotsk oceanic plate. The Middle Jurassic monzogranites in the Xing'an Massif are geochemically similar to adakites and have εHf(t) values (+3.8 to +5.8) and Hf two-stage model ages (TDM2; 979-850 Ma) that are indicative of derivation from magma generated by partial melting of thickened juvenile lower crust. The Middle Jurassic monzogranites formed in a compressional setting related to the closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean. The late Early Cretaceous intrusive rocks in the Xing'an Massif are dominated by A-type granitoids that are associated with bimodal volcanic rocks, suggesting their formation in an extensional environment related to either (i) delamination of a previously thickened region of the crust, associated with the Mongol-Okhotsk tectonic regime; (ii) the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate; or (iii) the combined influence of these two tectonic regimes.

  18. The Aegean/Cycladic and the Basin and Range Extensional Provinces - A Tectonic and Geochronologic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockli, D. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Aegean/Cycladic region (AC) and the Basin and Range Province (B&R) are two of the most famous Cenozoic extensional provinces and have greatly influenced our thinking about syn-convergent back-arc extension, core complex formation, syn-extensional magmatism, and kinematic transitions. They share numerous tectonic and structural similarities, such as a syn-convergent setting, previous contractional deformation, and core complex formation, but fundamental geological ambiguities remain, mainly centering around timing. The B&R affected a previously contractional belt (Sevier) and voluminous continental magmatic arc that created a pre-extensional orogenic highland. Extension was long-lived and complex, driven by both gravitational collapse and temporally distinct kinematic boundary condition changes. The B&R was also affected by massive, largely pre-extensional regional magmatic flare-ups that modified both the thermal and crustal composition. As the B&R occupies an elevated interior plateau, syn-extensional basin deposits are exclusively continental in character. In contrast, the AC is a classic marine back-arc extensional province that affected an active subduction margin with numerous accreted oceanic and continental ribbons, exhuming an early Cenozoic HP-LT subduction complex. Exhumation of the HP-LT complex, however, was accommodated both by vertical extrusion and crustal extension. Late Cenozoic extensional faulting was contemporaneous with S-ward sweeping arc magmatism and affected by little to no kinematic changes. As both the AC and B&R experienced contractional deformation during K-Cz subduction and J-K shortening, respectively, it is critical to differentiate between contractional and extensional structures and fabrics. The lack of temporal constraints hampers the reconstructions of pre-extensional structural anatomies and extensional strain magnitudes or even the attribution of structures to specific geodynamic settings. Novel methodologies in

  19. New insight on the recent tectonic evolution and uplift of the southern Ecuadorian Andes from gravity and structural analysis of the Neogene-Quaternary intramontane basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamay, J.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Ruano, P.; Soto, J.; Lamas, F.; Azañón, J. M.

    2016-10-01

    The sedimentary basins of Loja, Malacatos-Vilcabamba and Catamayo belong to the Neogene-Quaternary synorogenic intramontane basins of South Ecuador. They were formed during uplift of the Andes since Middle-Late Miocene as a result of the Nazca plate subduction beneath the South American continental margin. This E-W compressional tectonic event allowed for the development of NNE-SSW oriented folds and faults, determining the pattern and thickness of sedimentary infill. New gravity measurements in the sedimentary basins indicate negative Bouguer anomalies reaching up to -292 mGal related to thick continental crust and sedimentary infill. 2D gravity models along profiles orthogonal to N-S elongated basins determine their deep structure. Loja Basin is asymmetrical, with a thickness of sedimentary infill reaching more than 1200 m in the eastern part, which coincides with a zone of most intense compressive deformation. The tectonic structures include N-S, NW-SE and NE-SW oriented folds and associated east-facing reverse faults. The presence of liquefaction structures strongly suggests the occurrence of large earthquakes just after the sedimentation. The basin of Malacatos-Vilcabamba has some folds with N-S orientation. However, both Catamayo and Malacatos-Vilcabamba basins are essentially dominated by N-S to NW-SE normal faults, producing a strong asymmetry in the Catamayo Basin area. The initial stages of compression developed folds, reverse faults and the relief uplift determining the high altitude of the Loja Basin. As a consequence of the crustal thickening and in association with the dismantling of the top of the Andes Cordillera, extensional events favored the development of normal faults that mainly affect the basins of Catamayo and Malacatos-Vilcabamba. Gravity research helps to constrain the geometry of the Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary infill, shedding some light on its relationship with tectonic events and geodynamic processes during intramontane basin

  20. The revised tectonic history of Tharsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouley, Sylvain; Baratoux, David; Paulien, Nicolas; Missenard, Yves; Saint-Bézar, Bertrand

    2018-04-01

    Constraining the timing of the emplacement of the volcano-tectonic province of Tharsis is critical to understanding the evolution of mantle, surface environment and climate of Mars. The growth of Tharsis had exerted stresses on the lithosphere, which were responsible for tectonic deformation, previously mapped as radial or concentric faults. Insights into the emplacement history of Tharsis may be gained from an analysis of the characteristics and ages of these tectonic features. The number, total length, linear density of extensional or compressional faults in the Tharsis region and deformation rates are reported for each of the following 6 stages: Early and Middle Noachian (stage 1); Late Noachian (stage 2); Early Hesperian (stage 3); Late Hesperian (stage 4), Early Amazonian (stage 5) and Middle Amazonian to Late Amazonian (stage 6). 8571 Tharsis-related tectonic features (radial or concentric to the center of Tharsis) were assigned to one of these periods of time based on their relationship with stratigraphic units defined in the most recent geological map. Intense faulting at Tempe Terra, Claritas and Coracis Fossae and Thaumasia Planum confirms that tectonic deformation started during the Noachian. However, we report a peak in both compressive and extensive rates of deformation during the Early Hesperian whereas the quantitative indicators for compressional and extensional tectonics vary within less than one order of magnitude from the Late Noachian to the Late Hesperian. These observations indicate a protracted growth of Tharsis during the first quarter of Mars evolution and declining from 3 Gyrs ago.

  1. Applying the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility technique to the study of the tectonic evolution of the West Spitsbergen Fold-and-Thrust Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Dudzisz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the use of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS method to determine the orientation of the principal tectonic strain directions developed during the formation of the West Spitsbergen Fold-and-Thrust Belt (WSFTB. The AMS measurements and extensive rock-magnetic studies of the Lower Triassic rocks reported here were focused on the recognition of the magnetic fabric, the identification of ferromagnetic minerals and an estimation of the influence of ferro- and paramagnetic minerals on magnetic susceptibility. At most sites, the paramagnetic minerals controlled the magnetic susceptibility, and at only one site the impact of ferromagnetic minerals was higher. The AMS technique documented the presence of different types of magnetic fabrics within the sampled sites. At two sites, a normal (Kmin perpendicular to the bedding magnetic fabric of sedimentary origin was detected. This was associated with a good clustering of the maximum AMS axes imposed by tectonic strain. The Kmax magnetic lineation directions obtained here parallel the general NNW–SSE trend of the WSFTB fold axial traces and thrust fronts. The two other investigated sites possessed mixed and inverted fabrics, the latter of which appear to reflect the presence of iron-bearing carbonates.

  2. Continental tectonics and continental kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegre, C.J.; Jaupart, C.; Paris-7 Univ., 75

    1985-01-01

    We present a model of continental growth which combines the results of geochemical studies and tectonic ideas about the evolution of continents through geological time. The process of continental growth is mainly controlled by surface phenomena. Continental material is extracted from the mantle along subduction zones at the periphery of oceans, and is destroyed in collision zones where it is remobilized and made available for subduction. We derive an equation for S, the portion of the Earth's surface occupied by continents, which reads as follows: dS/dt=a . √(1-S)-b . S. Coefficients a and b depend on the geometry of plates, on their number and on their velocities. We assume that they decrease exponentially with time with the same time-scale α. This model satisfies both geochemical and tectonic constraints, and allows the integration of several current observations in a single framework. (orig.)

  3. Early cenozoic differentiation of polar marine faunas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Alistair Crame

    Full Text Available The widespread assumption that the origin of polar marine faunas is linked to the onset of major global cooling in the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene is being increasingly challenged. The Antarctic fossil record in particular is suggesting that some modern Southern Ocean taxa may have Early Eocene or even Paleocene origins, i.e. well within the Early Cenozoic greenhouse world. A global analysis of one of the largest marine clades at the present day, the Neogastropoda, indicates that not only is there a decrease in the number of species from the tropics to the poles but also a decrease in the evenness of their distribution. A small number of neogastropod families with predominantly generalist trophic strategies at both poles points to the key role of seasonality in structuring the highest latitude marine assemblages. A distinct latitudinal gradient in seasonality is temperature-invariant and would have operated through periods of global warmth such as the Early Cenozoic. To test this concept a second global analysis was undertaken of earliest Cenozoic (Paleocene neogastropods and this does indeed show a certain degree of faunal differentiation at both poles. The Buccinidae, s.l. is especially well developed at this time, and this is a major generalist taxon at the present day. There is an element of asymmetry associated with this development of Paleocene polar faunas in that those in the south are more strongly differentiated than their northern counterparts; this can in turn be linked to the already substantial isolation of the southern high latitudes. The key role of seasonality in the formation of polar marine faunas has implications for contemporary ecosystem structure and stability.

  4. Plate tectonics and planetary habitability: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Plate tectonics is one of the major factors affecting the potential habitability of a terrestrial planet. The physics of plate tectonics is, however, still far from being complete, leading to considerable uncertainty when discussing planetary habitability. Here, I summarize recent developments on the evolution of plate tectonics on Earth, which suggest a radically new view on Earth dynamics: convection in the mantle has been speeding up despite its secular cooling, and the operation of plate tectonics has been facilitated throughout Earth's history by the gradual subduction of water into an initially dry mantle. The role of plate tectonics in planetary habitability through its influence on atmospheric evolution is still difficult to quantify, and, to this end, it will be vital to better understand a coupled core-mantle-atmosphere system in the context of solar system evolution. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Unraveling the tectonic evolution of a Neoproterozoic-Cambrian active margin in the Ribeira Orogen (Se Brazil): U-Pb and Lu-Hf provenance data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Gabriel Lamounier de F. [Servico Geologico do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (DRM-RJ), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Schmitt, Renata; Bongiolo, Everton M.; Mendes, Julio [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Basei, Miguel S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Full text: The Neoproterozoic-Ordovician Central Ribeira Orogen, in SE Brazil, presents two contrasting tectonic domains in its southern portion: (a) The Arc Domain constituted of Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic magmatic rocks and low P-high T metamorphic para (Sao Fidelis Group) - and ortho- derived units (in Oriental Terrane); and (b) The Basement Domain, constituted of a Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic medium P-high T metamorphic para (Palmital-Buzios Succession)- and ortho-derived units (in Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain). Our work focuses on paraderived rocks sequences from both domains. The provenance analysis using U-Pb and Lu-Hf in zircon grains is presented here as an effective tool to unravel the paleogeography and nature of the pre-collisional sedimentary basins. We performed 505 analyses (U-Pb) on detrital zircon grains and some metamorphic overgrowths from six paragneiss samples. Besides, 141 analyses (Lu-Hf) in six samples only on the detrital zircon grains domains. All samples present a main peak from Neoproterozoic sources (750-570 Ma) and the other minor peak in the Stenian/Tonian periods (1200-850Ma), this indicate an orogenic contribution for this basin. Scarce register from the Mesoproterozoic and two peaks in the Archean/Paleoproterozoic (2.6 and 1.9 Ga) are recognized as a contribution from an ancient continent. The Lu-Hf data reveals a juvenile source for the detrital zircon grains from Buzios Succession while Palmital and Sao Fidelis Group units show a main crustal signature for their detrital zircon population. Based on the U-Pb and Lu-Hf data presented here, plus petrological data, geological correlations, and compilation of data from literature, we propose a tectonic model for the origin of para-derived rocks from the eastern part of the Ribeira Orogen. Starting with an extensional environment of ca. 600 Ma in a back-arc basin (Buzios succession deposition) and continuing as an active margin between 570 and 550 Ma in the fore-arc and prism

  6. Lakes, Lagerstaetten, and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, E. G.; Park, L. E.

    2001-12-01

    The diversity of terrestrial systems is estimated to be greater than in the marine realm. However no hard data yet exists to substantiate this claim. Ancient lacustrine deposits may preserve an exceptionally diverse fossil fauna and aid in determining continental faunal diversities. Fossils preserved in lake deposits, especially those with exceptional preservation (i.e. Konservat Lagerstaetten), may represent a dependable method for determining species diversity changes in the terrestrial environment because of their faunal completeness. Important Konservat Lagerstaetten, such as the Green River Formation (US) and Messel (Germany), both Eocene in age, are found in lake sediments and show a remarkable faunal diversity for both vertebrates and invertebrates. To date information from nearly 25 lake lagerstaetten derived from different types of lake basins from the Carboniferous to the Miocene have been collected and described. Carboniferous sites derive from the cyclothems of Midcontinent of the US while many Cenozoic sites have been described from North and South America as well as Europe and Australia. Asian sites contain fossils from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. With this data, insight into the evolutionary processes associated with lake systems can be examined. Do lakes act as unique evolutionary crucibles in contrast to marine systems? The speciation of cichlid fishes in present-day African lakes appears to be very high and is attributed to the diversity of environments found in large rift lakes. Is this true of all ancient lakes or just large rift lakes? The longevity of a lake system may be an important factor in allowing speciation and evolutionary processes to occur; marine systems are limited only in the existence of environments as controlled by tectonics and sea level changes, on the order of tens of millions of years. Rift lakes are normally the longest lived in the millions of years. Perhaps there are only certain types of lakes in which speciation of

  7. Seismic structure and tectonics of the Alasehir--Gediz Graben, Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Sezer

    The Aegean Extensional Province (AEP) in Western Anatolia includes three major graben systems that have formed as a result of N-S tectonic extension in the latest Cenozoic. The 6 to 30-km-wide Alasehir--Gediz Graben (AGG) in the north contains ˜3-km-thick Miocene and Plio-Quaternary, alluvial--fluvial and lacustrine sedimentary rocks. I have used seismic profiles, well-log data and the regional stratigraphy to identify the key stratigraphic units, their bounding surfaces and vertical thicknesses, and to document the subsurface structural architecture of the AGG. A north-dipping detachment fault exposed in the southern shoulder of the AGG basin occurs at 2--2.5 km at depth beneath the graben fill, and is dissected by ˜E--W--striking, synthetic to antithetic, high-angle normal faults. The graben system is crosscut by NNE-oriented cross faults, showing several km of recurrence interval and 10s of meters of vertical displacement. These faults divide the graben into several sub-basins and display positive and negative flower structures. The structural architecture in the sub-basins shows important variations in stratigraphic thicknesses, fault geometry-displacement and deformation patterns, indicating that cross faulting played a critical role in the evolution of the AAG.

  8. The tectonics of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melosh, H.J.; Mckinnon, W.B.

    1988-01-01

    The probable tectonic history of Mercury and the relative sequence of events are discussed on the basis of data collected by the Mariner-10 spacecraft. Results indicate that Mercury's tectonic activity was confined to its early history; its endogenic activity was principally due to a small change in the shape of its lithosphere, caused by tidal despinning, and a small change in area caused by shrinkage due to cooling. Exogenic processes, in particular the impact activity, have produced more abundant tectonic features. Many features associated with the Caloris basin are due to loading of Mercury's thick lithosphere by extrusive lavas or subsidence due to magma withdrawal. It is emphasized that tectonic features observed on Mercury yield insight into the earliest tectonic events on planets like Mars and, perhaps, the earth, where subsequent events obscured or erased the most ancient tectonic records

  9. The Tectonic Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due

    has the consequence that it is difficult to create architecture where the technical concerns are an inherent part of the architectural expression. The aim of the thesis is to discuss the role of digital tools in overcoming the distance between the professional specializations and thereby support...... a tectonic practice. The project develops a framework to understand the role of digital tools in the tectonic practice from and discusses how and in which areas the tectonic practice could become supported by digital tools....

  10. Geomorphology, tectonics, and exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabins, F. F., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Explorationists interpret satellite images for tectonic features and patterns that may be clues to mineral and energy deposits. The tectonic features of interest range in scale from regional (sedimentary basins, fold belts) to local (faults, fractures) and are generally expressed as geomorphic features in remote sensing images. Explorationists typically employ classic concepts of geomorphology and landform analysis for their interpretations, which leads to the question - Are there new and evolving concepts in geomorphology that may be applicable to tectonic analyses of images?

  11. Is plate tectonics needed to evolve technological species on exoplanets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Stern

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As we continue searching for exoplanets, we wonder if life and technological species capable of communicating with us exists on any of them. As geoscientists, we can also wonder how important is the presence or absence of plate tectonics for the evolution of technological species. This essay considers this question, focusing on tectonically active rocky (silicate planets, like Earth, Venus, and Mars. The development of technological species on Earth provides key insights for understanding evolution on exoplanets, including the likely role that plate tectonics may play. An Earth-sized silicate planet is likely to experience several tectonic styles over its lifetime, as it cools and its lithosphere thickens, strengthens, and becomes denser. These include magma ocean, various styles of stagnant lid, and perhaps plate tectonics. Abundant liquid water favors both life and plate tectonics. Ocean is required for early evolution of diverse single-celled organisms, then colonies of cells which specialized further to form guts, appendages, and sensory organisms up to the complexity of fish (central nervous system, appendages, eyes. Large expanses of dry land also begin in the ocean, today produced above subduction zones in juvenile arcs and by their coalescence to form continents, although it is not clear that plate tectonics was required to create continental crust on Earth. Dry land of continents is required for further evolution of technological species, where modification of appendages for grasping and manipulating, and improvement of eyes and central nervous system could be perfected. These bioassets allowed intelligent creatures to examine the night sky and wonder, the beginning of abstract thinking, including religion and science. Technology arises from the exigencies of daily living such as tool-making, agriculture, clothing, and weapons, but the pace of innovation accelerates once it is allied with science. Finally, the importance of plate

  12. The III working days of the Cenozoic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    The third working days in geology were organized by the Uruguayan Society of geology and took place in DINAMIGE in June - 2012. The lectures were given by national and foreign professionals and included important topics such as mineral raw materials used in the archaeological artifacts in Guayacas - Dayman - Paysandu . The Holocene in the coastal zone of Uruguay. Aspect of the early human occupation in Uruguay. Change effects in the land use about the mineral clay (eucalyptus forestation, illite). Paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental reconstruction for middle and late holocene (Rocha). Gas hydrate resource quantification in Uruguay. Application of the geophysical techniques in the environmental pollution in Montevideo - Piriapolis. Environmental evolution and builders of small hills in India Muerta zone. Human or natural forcing in the geomorphological processes in Pocitos and Ramirez beaches (80 years of aerophotographic records).Tipology and nomenclature proposal for technological soil. Quarries reconditioning methodology. Hydraulic conductivity in sugar cane cultivated in soils previous vinaza application. Paleosoils and pedogenic calcretes formations in Fray Bentos (Oligocene - early miocene) Raigon (late pliocene and Middle pleistocene) and Libertad (early - middle pleistocene). Tectonics and sedimentary process in the continental talud in Uruguay. Rio de la Plata as paleoenvironmental focus using diatomos as proxies. Oleistocene mammals in the late-early Holocene in Santa Lucia river basin (Uruguay southern). Anthropization in Montevideo Bay during the Holocene. Paleocene stratigraphic plays in Uruguay offshore. Continental Influence versus marine transition in Rio de la Plata zone - internal continental shelf of the South Atlantic - a multiproxy study. Macrofossils vegetable in Palmar formation (later pleistocene) in Entre Rios - Argentina. Phytolith analysis in quaternary fluvial sediment (plio-pleistocene) in San Salvador and Palmar formation - Uruguay

  13. Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic exhumation history of the Malay Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Thomas; Daanen, Twan; Matenco, Liviu; Willingshofer, Ernst; van der Wal, Jorien

    2015-04-01

    The evolution of Peninsular Malaysia up to the collisional period in the Triassic is well described but the evolution since the collision between Indochina and the Sukhothai Arc in Triassic times is less well described in the literature. The processes affecting Peninsular Malaysia during the Jurassic up to current day times have to explain the emplacement multiple intrusions (the Stong Complex, and the Kemahang granite), the Jurassic/Cretaceous onland basins, the Cenozoic offshore basins, and the asymmetric extension, which caused the exhumation of Taku Schists dome. The orogenic period in Permo-Triassic times, which also formed the Bentong-Raub suture zone, resulted in thickening of the continental crust of current day Peninsular Malaysia due to the collision of the Indochina continental block and the Sukhothai Arc, and is related to the subduction of oceanic crust once present between these continental blocks. The Jurassic/Cretaceous is a period of extension, resulting in the onland Jurassic/Cretaceous basins, synchronous melting of the crust, resulting in the emplacement Stong Complex and the Kemahang granite and thinning of the continental crust on the scale of the Peninsular, followed by uplift of the Peninsular. Different models can explain these observations: continental root removal, oceanic slab detachment, or slab delamination. These models all describe the melting of the lower crust due to asthenospheric upwelling, resulting in uplift and subsequent extension either due to mantle convective movements or gravitational instabilities related to uplift. The Cenozoic period is dominated by extension and rapid exhumation in the area as documented by low temperature thermocrological ages The extension in this period is most likely related to the subduction, which resumed at 45 Ma, of the Australian plate beneath the Eurasian plate after it terminated in Cretaceous times due to the collision of an Australian microcontinental fragment with the Sunda margin in the

  14. Effect of basement structure and salt tectonics on deformation styles along strike: An example from the Kuqa fold-thrust belt, West China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neng, Yuan; Xie, Huiwen; Yin, Hongwei; Li, Yong; Wang, Wei

    2018-04-01

    The Kuqa fold-thrust belt (KFTB) has a complex thrust-system geometry and comprises basement-involved thrusts, décollement thrusts, triangle zones, strike-slip faults, transpressional faults, and pop-up structures. These structures, combined with the effects of Paleogene salt tectonics and Paleozoic basement uplift form a complex structural zone trending E-W. Interpretation and comprehensive analysis of recent high-quality seismic data, field observations, boreholes, and gravity data covering the KFTB has been performed to understand the characteristics and mechanisms of the deformation styles along strike. Regional sections, fold-thrust system maps of the surface and the sub-salt layer, salt and basement structure distribution maps have been created, and a comprehensive analysis of thrust systems performed. The results indicate that the thrust-fold system in Paleogene salt range can be divided into five segments from east to west: the Kela-3, Keshen, Dabei, Bozi, and Awate segments. In the easternmost and westernmost parts of the Paleogene salt range, strike-slip faulting and basement-involved thrusting are the dominant deformation styles, as basement uplift and the limits of the Cenozoic evaporite deposit are the main controls on deformation. Salt-core detachment fold-thrust systems coincide with areas of salt tectonics, and pop-up, imbricate, and duplex structures are associated with the main thrust faults in the sub-salt layer. Distribution maps of thrust systems, basement structures, and salt tectonics show that Paleozoic basement uplift controlled the Paleozoic foreland basin morphology and the distribution of Cenozoic salt in the KFTB, and thus had a strong influence on the segmented structural deformation and evolution of the fold-thrust belt. Three types of transfer zone are identified, based on the characteristics of the salt layer and basement uplift, and the effects of these zones on the fault systems are evaluated. Basement uplift and the boundary of

  15. Tectonic and metallogenic model for northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, Leonid M.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Berzin, Nikolai A.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Dril, Sergy I.; Gerel, Ochir; Goryachev, Nikolai A.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Kuz'min, Mikhail I.; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Ratkin, Vladimir V.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Scotese, Christopher R.; Shpikerman, Vladimir I.; Timofeev, Vladimir F.; Tomurtogoo, Onongin; Yan, Hongquan; Nokleberg, Warren J.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the digital files in this report that contains a tectonic and metallogenic model for Northeast Asia. The report also contains background materials. This tectonic and metallogenic model and other materials on this report are derived from (1) an extensive USGS Professional Paper, 1765, on the metallogenesis and tectonics of Northeast Asia that is available on the Internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1765/; and (2) the Russian Far East parts of an extensive USGS Professional Paper, 1697, on the metallogenesis and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera that is available on the Internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/pp1697/. The major purpose of the tectonic and metallogenic model is to provide, in movie format, a colorful summary of the complex geology, tectonics, and metallogenesis of the region. To accomplish this goal four steps were taken: (1) 13 time-stage diagrams, from the late Neoproterozoic (850 Ma) through the present (0 Ma), were adapted, generalized, and transformed into color static time-stage diagrams; (2) the 13 time-stage diagrams were placed in a computer morphing program to produce the model; (3) the model was examined and each diagram was successively adapted to preceding and subsequent diagrams to match the size and surface expression of major geologic units; and (4) the final version of the model was produced in successive iterations of steps 2 and 3. The tectonic and metallogenic model and associated materials in this report are derived from a project on the major mineral deposits, metallogenesis, and tectonics of the Northeast Asia and from a preceding project on the metallogenesis and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera. Both projects provide critical information on bedrock geology and geophysics, tectonics, major metalliferous mineral resources, metallogenic patterns, and crustal origin and evolution of mineralizing systems for this region. The major

  16. Tectonic evolution of the Qumran Basin from high-resolution 3.5-kHz seismic profiles and its implication for the evolution of the northern Dead Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubberts, Ronald K.; Ben-Avraham, Zvi

    2002-02-01

    The Dead Sea Basin is a morphotectonic depression along the Dead Sea Transform. Its structure can be described as a deep rhomb-graben (pull-apart) flanked by two block-faulted marginal zones. We have studied the recent tectonic structure of the northwestern margin of the Dead Sea Basin in the area where the northern strike-slip master fault enters the basin and approaches the western marginal zone (Western Boundary Fault). For this purpose, we have analyzed 3.5-kHz seismic reflection profiles obtained from the northwestern corner of the Dead Sea. The seismic profiles give insight into the recent tectonic deformation of the northwestern margin of the Dead Sea Basin. A series of 11 seismic profiles are presented and described. Although several deformation features can be explained in terms of gravity tectonics, it is suggested that the occurrence of strike-slip in this part of the Dead Sea Basin is most likely. Seismic sections reveal a narrow zone of intensely deformed strata. This zone gradually merges into a zone marked by a newly discovered tectonic depression, the Qumran Basin. It is speculated that both structural zones originate from strike-slip along right-bending faults that splay-off from the Jordan Fault, the strike-slip master fault that delimits the active Dead Sea rhomb-graben on the west. Fault interaction between the strike-slip master fault and the normal faults bounding the transform valley seems the most plausible explanation for the origin of the right-bending splays. We suggest that the observed southward widening of the Dead Sea Basin possibly results from the successive formation of secondary right-bending splays to the north, as the active depocenter of the Dead Sea Basin migrates northward with time.

  17. Crustal thickness controlled by plate tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina M.; Meissner, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    /gabbro–eclogite phase transition in crustal evolution and the links between lithosphere recycling, mafic magmatism, and crustal underplating. We advocate that plate tectonics processes, togetherwith basalt/gabbro–eclogite transition, limit crustal thickness worldwide by providing effective mechanisms of crustal...

  18. Linking the tectonic evolution with fluid history in magma-poor rifted margins: tracking mantle- and continental crust-related fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, V. H. G.; Manatschal, G.; Karpoff, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The thinning of the crust and the exhumation of subcontinental mantle is accompanied by a series of extensional detachment faults. Exhumation of mantle and crustal rocks is intimately related to percolation of fluids along detachment faults leading to changes in mineralogy and chemistry of the mantle, crustal and sedimentary rocks. Field observation, analytical methods, refraction/reflection and well-core data, allowed us to investigate the role of fluids in the Iberian margin and former Alpine Tethys distal margins and the Pyrenees rifted system. In the continental crust, fluid-rock interaction leads to saussuritization that produces Si and Ca enriched fluids found in forms of veins along the fault zone. In the zone of exhumed mantle, large amounts of water are absorbed in the first 5-6 km of serpentinized mantle, which has the counter-effect of depleting the mantle of elements (e.g., Si, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Ni and Cr) forming mantle-related fluids. Using Cr-Ni-V and Fe-Mn as tracers, we show that in the distal margin, mantle-related fluids used detachment faults as pathways and interacted with the overlying crust, the sedimentary basin and the seawater, while further inward parts of the margin, continental crust-related fluids enriched in Si and Ca impregnated the fault zone and may have affected the sedimentary basin. The overall observations and results enable us to show when, where and how these interactions occurred during the formation of the rifted margin. In a first stage, continental crust-related fluids dominated the rifted systems. During the second stage, mantle-related fluids affected the overlying syn-tectonic sediments through direct migration along detachment faults at the future distal margin. In a third stage, these fluids reached the seafloor, "polluted" the seawater and were absorbed by post-tectonic sediments. We conclude that a significant amount of serpentinization occurred underneath the thinned continental crust, that the mantle-related fluids

  19. Quaternary volcanism, tectonics, and sedimentation in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, W.R.; Smith, R.P.

    1992-09-01

    In this article, we discuss the regional context and describe localities for a two-day field excursion in the vicinity of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). We address several geologic themes: (1) Late Cenozoic, bimodal volcanism of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), (2) the regional tectonics and structural geology of the Basin and Range province to the northwest of the ESRP, (3) fluvial, lacustrine, and aeolian sedimentation in the INEL area, and (4) the influence of Quaternary volcanism and tectonics on sedimentation near the INEL.

  20. Quaternary volcanism, tectonics, and sedimentation in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, W.R.; Smith, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the regional context and describe localities for a two-day field excursion in the vicinity of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). We address several geologic themes: (1) Late Cenozoic, bimodal volcanism of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), (2) the regional tectonics and structural geology of the Basin and Range province to the northwest of the ESRP, (3) fluvial, lacustrine, and aeolian sedimentation in the INEL area, and (4) the influence of Quaternary volcanism and tectonics on sedimentation near the INEL.

  1. Tectonic-stratigraphic evolution of mini-basins and salt provinces of Espirito Santo Basin-Brazil; Analise da evolucao tectono sedimentar de mini-bacias e provincias de sal da Bacia do Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Neto, Walter Dias; Fernandes, Flavio Luis [Petroleum Geoscience Technology Ltda. (PGT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mohriak, Webster [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Espirito Santo Basin integrates the group of basins along the eastern Brazilian continental margin. It is located between 18 deg and 21 deg S, encompassing an area of approximately 220,000 km{sup 2}, onshore and offshore the Espirito Santo State. Its geological limit with the Campos Basin to the south is defined by a Precambrian basement high (Vitoria Arch), and its northern limit with the Mucuri Basin is defined by a geopolitical limit. The study of salt tectonics processes in the Espirito Santo Basin allowed the deformational analysis and interpretation of the chronological evolution of the mini-basins developed between salt diapirs. We observe an intrinsic relationship between halokinesis and creation of subsidence troughs that may be important for trapping hydrocarbon reservoirs, and consequently form oil and gas accumulations in this portion of the basin. This geodynamics evolution of these structures is marked by a strong linkage between salt movement and coeval sedimentation in the interdomal basins, forming structures and stratigraphic traps that may constitute important aspects for the petroleum geology. (author)

  2. Biological modulation of tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, N. H.; Bird, D. K.

    2008-12-01

    Photosynthesis has had geologic consequences over the Earth's history. In addition to modifying Earth's atmosphere and ocean chemistry, it has also modulated tectonic processes through enhanced weathering and modification of the nature and composition of sedimentary rocks within fold mountain belts and convergent margins. Molecular biological studies indicate that bacterial photosynthesis evolved just once and that most bacterial clades descend from this photosynthetic common ancestor. Iron-based photosynthesis (ideally 4FeO + CO2 + H2O = 2Fe2O3 + CH2O) was the most bountiful anoxygenic niche on land. The back reaction provided energy to heterotrophic microbes and returned FeO to the photosynthetic microbes. Bacterial land colonists evolved into ecosystems that effectively weathered FeO-bearing minerals and volcanic glass. Clays, sands, and dissolved cations from the weathering process entered the ocean and formed our familiar classes sedimentary rocks: shales, sandstones, and carbonates. Marine photosynthesis caused organic carbon to accumulate in black shales. In contrast, non-photosynthetic ecosystems do not cause organic carbon to accumulate in shale. These evolutionary events occurred before 3.8 Ga as black shales are among the oldest rock types (Rosing and Frei, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 217, 237-244, 2004). Thick sedimentary sequences deformed into fold mountain belts. They remelted at depth to form granitic rocks (Rosing et al., Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 232, 99-11, 2006). Regions of outcropping low-FeO rocks including granites, quartzites, and some shales were a direct result. This dearth of FeO favored the evolution of oxic photosynthesis of cyanobacteria from photosynthetic soil bacteria. Black shales have an additional modulation effect on tectonics as they concentrate radioactive elements, particularly uranium (e.g. so that the surface heat flow varies by a factor of ca. 2). Thick sequences of black shales at continental rises of passive margins are

  3. Towards a Tectonic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Mortensen, Sophie Bondgaard

    2015-01-01

    through this transformation is inevitably a tectonic question. By analyzing three historical examples, Adolf Loos’ Villa Moller, Le Corbusier’s Unité d’Habitation, and Frank Lloyd Wright’s Johnson Wax Administration Building, chosen for their tectonic ability to exploit the technical ‘principle’ defining...

  4. Cenozoic plant diversity of Yunnan: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjiang Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yunnan in southwestern China is renowned for its high plant diversity. To understand how this modern botanical richness formed, it is critical to investigate the past biodiversity throughout the geological time. In this review, we present a summary on plant diversity, floristics and climates in the Cenozoic of Yunnan and document their changes, by compiling published palaeobotanical sources. Our review demonstrates that thus far a total of 386 fossil species of ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms belonging to 170 genera within 66 families have been reported from the Cenozoic, particularly the Neogene, of Yunnan. Angiosperms display the highest richness represented by 353 species grouped into 155 genera within 60 families, with Fagaceae, Fabaceae, Lauraceae and Juglandaceae being the most diversified. Most of the families and genera recorded as fossils still occur in Yunnan, but seven genera have disappeared, including Berryophyllum, Cedrelospermum, Cedrus, Palaeocarya, Podocarpium, Sequoia and Wataria. The regional extinction of these genera is commonly referred to an aridification of the dry season associated with Asian monsoon development. Floristic analyses indicate that in the late Miocene, Yunnan had three floristic regions: a northern subtropical floristic region in the northeast, a subtropical floristic region in the east, and a tropical floristic region in the southwest. In the late Pliocene, Yunnan saw two kinds of floristic regions: a subalpine floristic region in the northwest, and two subtropical floristic regions separately in the southwest and the eastern center. These floristic concepts are verified by results from our areal type analyses which suggest that in the Miocene southwestern Yunnan supported the most Pantropic elements, while in the Pliocene southwestern Yunnan had abundant Tropical Asia (Indo–Malaysia type and East Asia and North America disjunct type that were absent from northwestern Yunnan. From the late Miocene to

  5. Applications of quaternary stratigraphic, soil-geomorphic, and quantitative geomorphic analyses to the evaluation of tectonic activity and landscape evolution in the Upper Coastal Plain, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, K.L.; Bullard, T.F.; Wit, M.W. de; Stieve, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Geomorphic analyses combined with mapping of fluvial terraces and upland geomorphic surfaces provide new approaches and data for evaluating the Quaternary activity of post-Cretaceous faults that are recognized in subsurface data at the Savannah River Site in the Upper Coastal Plain of southwestern South Carolina. Analyses of longitudinal stream and terrace profiles, regional slope maps, and drainage basin morphometry indicate long-term uplift and southeast tilt of the site region. Preliminary results of drainage basin characterization suggests an apparent rejuvenation of drainages along the trace of the Pen Branch fault (a Tertiary reactivated reverse fault that initiated as a basin-margin normal fault along the northern boundary of the Triassic Dunbarton Basin). This apparent rejuvenation of drainages may be the result of nontectonic geomorphic processes or local tectonic uplift and tilting within a framework of regional uplift. Longitudinal profiles of fluvial terrace surfaces that are laterally continuous across the projected surface trace of the Pen Branch fault show no obvious evidence of warping or faulting within a resolution of ∼3 m. This combined with the estimated age of the terrace surfaces (350 ka to 1 Ma) indicates that if the Pen Branch fault is active, the Pleistocene rate of slip is very low (0.002 to 0.009 mm/yr)

  6. Tectono-thermal evolution in a region with thin-skinned tectonics: the western nappes in the Cantabrian Zone (Variscan belt of NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, F.; Brime, C.; García-López, S.; Sarmiento, G. N.

    The palaeotemperature distribution in the transition from diagenesis to metamorphism in the western nappes of the Cantabrian Zone (Somiedo, La Sobia and Aramo Units) are analysed by conodont colour alteration index (CAI) and illite crystallinity (IC). Structural and stratigraphic control in distribution of CAI and IC values is observed. Both CAI and IC value distributions show that anchizonal conditions are reached in the lower part of the Somiedo Unit. A disruption of the thermal trend by basal thrusts is evidenced by CAI and IC values. There is an apparent discrepancy between the IC and CAI values in Carboniferous rocks of the Aramo Unit; the IC has mainly anchizonal values, whereas the CAI has diagenetic values. Discrepant IC values are explained as a feature inherited from the source area. In the Carboniferous rocks of the La Sobia Unit, both IC and CAI indicate diagenetic conditions. The anchimetamorphism predated completion of emplacement of the major nappes; it probably developed previously and/or during the early stages of motion of the units. Temperature probably decreased when the metamorphosed zones of the sheets rose along ramps and were intensely eroded. In the context of the Iberian Variscan belt, influence of tectonic factors on the metamorphism is greater in the internal parts, where the strain and cleavage are always present, than in the external parts (Cantabrian Zone), where brittle deformation and rock translation are dominant, with an increasing role of the burial on the metamorphism.

  7. U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology from the basement of the Central Qilian Terrane: implications for tectonic evolution of northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changfeng; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Zhiguang; Yan, Zhu; Jiang, Tian; Song, Zhijie; Liu, Wencan; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Hongyuan

    2018-03-01

    The Tuolai Group dominates the Central Qilian Terrane, and there are different opinions on the age and tectonic attribute of the Tuolai Group. Based on large-scale geologic mapping and zircon dating, the Tuolai Group is divided into four parts: metamorphic supracrustal rocks, Neoproterozoic acid intrusive rocks, early-middle Ordovician acid intrusive rocks and middle Ordovician basic intrusive rocks. The metamorphic supracrustal rocks are the redefined Tuolai complex-group and include gneiss and schist assemblage by faulting contact. Zircon U-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS dating was conducted on these samples of gneiss and migmatite from the gneiss assemblage, quartzite, two-mica schist and slate from the schist assemblage. The five detrital samples possess similar age spectra; have detrital zircon U-Pb main peak ages of 1.7 Ga with youngest U-Pb ages of 1150 Ma. They are intruded by Neoproterozoic acid intrusive rocks. Therefore, the Tuolai Group belonging to late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic. With this caveat in mind, we believe that U-Pb detrital zircon dating, together with the geologic constraints obtained from this study and early work in the neighboring regions. We suggest that the formation age of the entire crystalline basement rocks of metasedimentary sequence from the Central Qilian Terrane should be constrained between the Late Mesoproterozoic and the Late Neoproterozoic, but not the previous Paleoproterozoic. The basement of the Central Qilian Terrane contains the typical Grenville ages, which indicates the Centre Qilian Terrane have been experienced the Grenville orogeny event.

  8. Geochemistry and geochronology of ore-bearing and barren intrusions in the Luanchuan ore fields of East Qinling metallogenic belt, China: Diverse tectonic evolution and implications for mineral exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fei; Wang, Gongwen; Santosh, M.; Yang, Fan; Shen, Zhiwei; Kong, Liang; Guo, Nana; Zhang, Xuhuang; Jia, Wenjuan

    2018-05-01

    The Luanchuan ore fields form part of the East Qinling metallogenic belt in central China. In this study, we compare two ore-bearing intrusions, the Shibaogou granitic pluton (SBG) and the Zhongyuku granitic pluton (ZYK), with the ore-barren Laojunshan intrusion (LJS) from the Luanchuan ore field. Geochemically, all the three intrusions are characterized by high-Si, high-K, and alkalis, together with moderate-ASI, exhibiting I-type granite features. The rocks, especially the ore-related plutons also show enrichment in LREEs. Mineral chemistry of biotite from the intrusions exhibits similar features of high Si and Mg, and low Al and Fe. Zircon grains from the ZYK intrusion yielded a U-Pb age of 149.6 ± 2.4 Ma. The zircon grains show εHf (t) values and two stage model ages (TDM2) in the range of -16.8 to -19.7 and 1998-2156 Ma respectively. The biotite composition and Hf isotopic data indicate that the magma was derived by re-melting of deep crustal material with minor input of mantle components. We evaluate the results to understand the physico-chemical conditions, petrogenesis, and tectonic setting, and their implications for mineral exploration. The ore-bearing plutons show wide ranges of temperature and oxygen fugacity, favoring Mo-W mineralization. In addition, estimates on pressure and depth of emplacement suggest that lower solidification pressure in a decompressional setting contributed to the evolution of magmatic hydrothermal deposits. Our data suggest that the ZYK has the highest potential for Mo-W mineralization. The ore-bearing plutons of ZYK and SBG were formed in a transitional tectonic setting from compression to extension, with the large-scale metallogeny triggered by slab melts at ca. 145 Ma. However, the ore-barren LJS batholith formed in an extension-related geodynamic setting at ∼115 Ma. Our study shows that different tectonic settings and consequent physico-chemical conditions dictated the ore potential of the intrusions in the Luanchuan ore

  9. Paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric studies of Lower Triassic red sandstones from the autochthonous cover of the Central Western Carpathians: new insights into paleogeographic setting and tectonic evolution of the area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaniawski, R.; Jankowski, L.; Ludwiniak, M.; Mazzoli, S.; Szczygieł, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Carpathian Mountains were formed through progressive collision and amalgamation of the Alcapa and Tisza-Dacia microplates with the European Platform. The Central Western Carpathians (CWC) tectonic unit analyzed in this study constitutes a fragment of the Alcapa microplate - research in this area is therefore of great importance in the context of the geotectonic evolution of the Carpathian orogen. Our paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric studies were focused on Lower Triassic red sandstones from the autochthonous cover of the crystalline basement. We present new results from three mountain massifs: Low Tatra, Velka Fatra and Strazovske Vrchy, comparing them with our earlier works performed in the Tatra Mts. Rockmagnetic studies reveal similar results in all four studied regions - the dominant ferromagnetic carrier in red sandstones is hematite, while the magnetic fabric is mostly controlled by paramagnetic minerals. AMS results outline a bedding parallel foliation and a tectonic lineation. This lineation lies in the bedding plane but is somewhat oblique to the present horizontal plane. The fact that the lineation is not exactly parallel to the strike of the beds is most likely due to multistage deformation: the lineation is related to bedding parallel shortening associated with the folding and thrusting stage, while present-day bedding attitude results at least partially from rotations associated with subsequent uplift and/or faulting. Paleomagnetic analysis indicate that hematite carrier records characteristic remanent component of high unblocking temperatures (680°C) and both normal (dominant) and reversed polarity. Paleomagnetic inclinations are similar to those expected from reference paleomagnetic data from the European Platform. Declination values are rather similar in all four studied areas and imply moderate counterclockwise rotations of the CWC. These results are incompatible with some of the previous paleomagnetic studies of younger rocks from the CWC

  10. Digital Tectonic Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due

    2005-01-01

    Tectonics has been an inherent part of the architectural field since the Greek temples while the digital media is new to the field. This paper is built on the assumption that in the intermediate zone between the two there is a lot to be learned about architecture in general and the digital media...... in particular. A model of the aspects in the term tectonics – epresentation, ontology and culture – will be presented and used to discuss the current digital tools’ ability in tectonics. Furthermore it will be discussed what a digital tectonic tool is and could be and how a connection between the digital...... and tectonic could become a part of the architectural education....

  11. Magnetostratigraphy of the Fenghuoshan Group in the Hoh Xil Basin and its tectonic implications for India-Eurasia collision and Tibetan Plateau deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chunsheng; Liu, Qingsong; Liang, Wentian; Roberts, Andrew P.; Sun, Jimin; Hu, Pengxiang; Zhao, Xiangyu; Su, Youliang; Jiang, Zhaoxia; Liu, Zhifeng; Duan, Zongqi; Yang, Huihui; Yuan, Sihua

    2018-03-01

    Early Cenozoic plate collision of India and Eurasia was a significant geological event, which resulted in Tibetan Plateau (TP) uplift and altered regional and global atmospheric circulations. However, the timing of initial collision is debated. It also remains unclear whether the TP was deformed either progressively northward, or synchronously as a whole. As the largest basin in the hinterland of the TP, evolution of the Hoh Xil Basin (HXB) and its structural relationship with development of the Tanggula Thrust System (TTS) have important implications for unraveling the formation mechanism and deformation history of the TP. In this study, we present results from a long sedimentary sequence from the HXB that dates the Fenghuoshan Group to ∼72-51 Ma based on magnetostratigraphy and radiometric ages of a volcanic tuff layer within the group. Three depositional phases reflect different stages of tectonic movement on the TTS, which was initialized at 71.9 Ma prior to the India-Eurasia collision. An abrupt sediment accumulation rate increase from 53.9 Ma is a likely response to tectonic deformation in the plateau hinterland, and indicates that initial India-Eurasia collision occurred at no later than that time. This remote HXB tectonosedimentary response implies that compressional deformation caused by India-Eurasia collision likely propagated to the central TP shortly after the collision, which supports the synchronous deformation model for TP.

  12. NEW LATE JURASSIC PALEOMAGNETIC RESULTS FROM SHARILYN FORMATION, SOUTHERN MONGOLIA, AMURIA BLOCK, AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE MONGOL–OKHOTSK SUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Ren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Amuria block occupies the eastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt between the Siberia craton and the North China block (NCB and bears important information to understand the evolution of the MongolOkhotsk suture and the amalgamation of East Asia. However, the paleomagnetic database of Amuria remains very poor.

  13. Middle cretaceous geomagnetic field anomalies in the eastern Indian Ocean and their implication to the tectonic evolution of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, M.; Ramana, M.V.

    anomalies Q1 (92 Ma) and Q2 (108 Ma) have been identified globally and proposed as internal time markers useful to trace the evolution of the world oceans. While the evolutionary history of the Indian Ocean from Late Cretaceous to present is well...

  14. Changing provenance of late Cenozoic sediments in the Jianghan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Yangtze River is one of the most important components of the East Asia river system. In this study, sediments in the Jianghan Basin, middle Yangtze River, were selected for trace element and rare earth element (REE measurements, in order to decipher information on the change of sediment provenance and evolution of the Yangtze River. According to the elemental variations, the late Cenozoic sediments of the Jianghan Basin could be divided into four parts. During 2.68–2.28 Ma and 1.25–0 Ma, provenance of the sediments was consistent, whereas sediments were derived from variable sources during 2.28–1.25 Ma. Comparison of the elemental compositions between the Pliocene and Quaternary sediments revealed a change in sediment source from a more felsic source area to a more basic source area around the Pliocene–Quaternary boundary. Input from the Emeishan LIP should account for this provenance change. Based on the provenance analysis of sediments in the Jianghan Basin, we infer that the Yangtze River developed into a large river with its drainage basin extended to the Emeishan LIP no later than the Pliocene–Quaternary boundary.

  15. WAVE TECTONICS OF THE EARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yu. Tveretinova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Earth's lithosphere, wavy alternation of positive and negative heterochronous structures is revealed; such structures are variable in ranks and separated by vergence zones of fractures and folds. In the vertical profile of the lithosphere, alternating are layers characterized by relatively plastic or fragile rheological properties and distinguished by different states of stress. During the Earth’s evolution, epochs of compression and extension are cyclically repeated, including planetary-scale phenomena which are manifested by fluctuating changes of the planet’s volume. Migration of geological and geophysical (geodynamic processes takes place at the Earth's surface and in its interior. The concept of the wave structure and evolution of the Earth's lithosphere provides explanations to the abovementioned regularities. Wavy nature of tectonic structures of the lithosphere, the cyclic recurrence of migration and geological processes in space and time can be described in terms of the multiple-order wave geodynamics of the Earth's lithosphere that refers to periodical variations of the state of stress. Effects of structure-forming tectonic forces are determined by «interference» of tangential and radial stresses of the Earth. The tangential stresses, which occur primarily due to the rotational regime of the planet, cause transformations of the Earth’s shape, redistributions of its substance in depths, the westward drift of the rock mass in its upper levels, and changes of structural deformation plans. The radial stresses, which are largely impacted by gravity, determine the gravitational differentiation of the substance, vertical flattening and sub-horizontal flow of the rock masses, and associated fold-rupture deformation. Under the uniform momentum geodynamic concept proposed by [Vikulin, Tveritinova, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008], it is possible to provide consistent descriptions of seismic and volcanic, tectonic and geological processes

  16. The Palos Verdes Fault offshore southern California: late Pleistocene to present tectonic geomorphology, seascape evolution and slip rate estimate based on AUV and ROV surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel S.; Conrad, James E.; Maier, Katherine L.; Paull, Charles K.; McGann, Mary L.; Caress, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The Palos Verdes Fault (PVF) is one of few active faults in Southern California that crosses the shoreline and can be studied using both terrestrial and subaqueous methodologies. To characterize the near-seafloor fault morphology, tectonic influences on continental slope sedimentary processes and late Pleistocene to present slip rate, a grid of high-resolution multibeam bathymetric data, and chirp subbottom profiles were acquired with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) along the main trace of PVF in water depths between 250 and 600 m. Radiocarbon dates were obtained from vibracores collected using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and ship-based gravity cores. The PVF is expressed as a well-defined seafloor lineation marked by subtle along-strike bends. Right-stepping transtensional bends exert first-order control on sediment flow dynamics and the spatial distribution of Holocene depocenters; deformed strata within a small pull-apart basin record punctuated growth faulting associated with at least three Holocene surface ruptures. An upper (shallower) landslide scarp, a buried sedimentary mound, and a deeper scarp have been right-laterally offset across the PVF by 55 ± 5, 52 ± 4 , and 39 ± 8 m, respectively. The ages of the upper scarp and buried mound are approximately 31 ka; the age of the deeper scarp is bracketed to 17–24 ka. These three piercing points bracket the late Pleistocene to present slip rate to 1.3–2.8 mm/yr and provide a best estimate of 1.6–1.9 mm/yr. The deformation observed along the PVF is characteristic of strike-slip faulting and accounts for 20–30% of the total right-lateral slip budget accommodated offshore Southern California.

  17. The Dom Feliciano belt (Brazil-Uruguay)and its fore land (Rio de la Plata Craton): framework, tectonic evolution and correlations with similar terranes of southwestern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.; Siga, O.; Masquelin, H.; Harara, O.; Reis Neto, J.; Preciozzi, F.

    2000-01-01

    The Dom Feliciano Belt (DFB) stretches for ca. 1,200 km along southeastern Brazil and eastern Uruguay, with an average width of 150 km. From its northern limit in Santa Catarina to its termination m Uruguay, DFB is internally organized according three crustal segments characterized, from southeast to northwest, by a Granitoid belt (calci-alkaline to alkaline granitoid rocks deformed to different degrees); a Schist belt (volcano-sedimentary rocks metamorphosed from green schist to amphibolite facies), and a Fore land belt (sedimentary and anchimetamorphic volcanic rocks), the latter situated between the Schist belt and the old western terranes. Despite discontinuously covered by younger sediments, the continuity of these three segments is suggested by the similar lithotypes and structural characteristics, as well as by the gravimetric geophysical signature.In this work, DBF is interpreted as the product of successive subduction s and collisions related to the agglutination of different terranes generated or intensely reworked from the Neoproterozoic to the Cambrian, during the Brasiliano and Rio Doce orogenesis, with maximum time starting at 900 Ma (opening of the Adamastor Ocean) and ending at 530 Ma (deformation of the fore land basins) related to the tecto no-magmatic events associated with the formation of the Western Gondwana.Besides the Neoproterozoic DFB and its fore land, the Rio de la Plata Craton and the Luis Alves Microplate, constituted by Paleoproterozoic gneissic-migmatitic rocks, two other tectonic units can be recognized in southeastern Brazil and eastern Uruguay: the Sao Gabriel Block (RS) where Neoproterozoic juvenile material can be characterized in regional scale (in great part associated with an island are), and the Punta del Este Terrane, which presents, in southern Uruguay, an ortho gneiss basement with ages around 1,000 Ma and a meta sedimentary cover (Rocha Group), which can correspond in the South-American portion, to the Namaqua and Gariep

  18. Early middle Miocene tectonic uplift of the northwestern part of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau evidenced by geochemical and mineralogical records in the western Tarim Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Chaowen; Hong, Hanlie; Abels, Hemmo A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304848018; Li, Zhaohui; Cao, Kai; Yin, Ke; Song, Bowen; Xu, Yadong; Ji, Junliang; Zhang, Kexin

    The Tarim Basin in western China has been receiving continuous marine to lacustrine deposits during the Cenozoic as a foreland basin of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Clay mineralogy and geochemical proxy data from these sedimentary archives can shed light on climate and tectonic trends. Here we

  19. High-pressure granulites in the Fuping Complex of the central North China Craton: Metamorphic P-T-t evolution and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jiahui; Yin, Changqing; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Li; Wang, Luojuan

    2018-04-01

    Mafic granulites in the Fuping Complex occur as lenses or boudins within high-grade TTG (Trondhjemite-Tonalite-Granodiorite) gneisses. Petrographic observations reveal four generations of mineral assemblage in the granulites: an inclusion assemblage of hornblende + plagioclase + ilmenite + quartz within garnet core; an inferred peak assemblage composed of garnet ± hornblende + plagioclase + clinopyroxene + rutile/ilmenite + quartz; a decompression assemblage characterized by symplectites of clinopyroxene ± orthopyroxene + plagioclase, coronae of plagioclase ± clinopyroxene ± hornblende around embayed garnet porphyroblasts or a two-pyroxene association; and a late amphibolite-facies retrogressive assemblage. Two representative samples were used for pseudosection modeling in NCFMASHTO model system to determine their metamorphic evolution. The results show that these granulites experienced a high-pressure stage of metamorphism with peak P-T conditions of 12-13 kbar and 760-800 °C (Pmax) and a post-peak history under P-T conditions of ∼9.0 kbar and 805-835 °C (Tmax), indicating a nearly isothermal decompression process (ITD) with a slight heating. Metamorphic evolution from the Pmax to the Tmax is predicted to be dominated by garnet breakdown through continuous metamorphic reactions of garnet + quartz ± diopside = hornblende + plagioclase + liquid and garnet + quartz + hornblende = plagioclase + diopside + liquid + orthopyroxene. Further metamorphic evolution after the Tmax is dominated by cooling, suggesting that high-pressure (HP) granulites may also exist in the Fuping Complex. Metamorphic zircons in the Fuping HP mafic granulites have left inclined REE patterns, Ti contents of 1.68-6.88 ppm and crystallization temperatures of 602-712 °C. SIMS zircon U-Pb dating on these zircons yields 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1891 ± 14 Ma and 1849 ± 6 Ma, interpreted to represent the cooling stage of metamorphism. The P-T-t evolution of the Fuping HP mafic granulites records

  20. Cenozoic deformation from the Yakutat-North American collision to the eastern margin of the Northern Canadian Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkelmann, E.

    2017-12-01

    The western margin of the Northern Cordillera of North America is dominated by transform motion of the Yakutat microplate along the Fairweather fault system. In southeast Alaska the transform boundary changes to convergence and the oblique collision of the buoyant Yakutat microplate formed the St. Elias Mountains. One of the outstanding questions in understanding the St. Elias orogeny is how stress from the plate boundary has been transferred inboard and distributed strain in the North American plate. The timing, amount, and spatial pattern of deformation and rock exhumation have been studied using multiple thermochronology methods. Together the data reveal that Late Cenozoic deformation inboard of the Fairweather Fault and the colliding Yakutat plate corner at the St. Elias syntaxis was spatially very limited, resulting in rock exhumation within a cooling associated with Cordilleran deformation, and Paleocene-Eocene cooling due to spreading-ridge subduction. In contrast, the region west of the St. Elias syntaxis is dominated by convergence, which resulted in significant Cenozoic deformation in southeastern and southern Alaska. In the St. Elias orogen itself, most of the Late Cenozoic deformation and exhumation occurs within the Yakutat microplate and its Cenozoic sedimentary cover that composes the fold-thrust belt. The efficient interaction between tectonic uplift and glacial erosion resulted in rapid exhumation (>1 km/Myr) and extreme rates (4 km/Myr) that are localized at the syntaxis region and have shifted southward over the past 10 Myr. Far-field deformation reaches more than 500 km to the northwest of the convergent margin and caused mountain building in south-central Alaska. Deformation to the northeast is unclear. New thermochronology data from the eastern margin of the Northern Canadian Cordillera (Northwest Territory) reveal exhumation during the Oligocene to early Miocene. At this time, transform motion was already dominating the plate margin in the

  1. The Thermal Evolution of the Southeast Baffin Island Continental Margin: An Integrated Apatite Fission Track and Apatite (U-Th)/He Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jess, S.; Stephenson, R.; Brown, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    The elevated continental margins of the North Atlantic continue to be a focus of considerable geological and geomorphological debate, as the timing of major tectonic events and the age of topographic relief remain controversial. The West Greenland margin, on the eastern flank of Baffin Bay, is believed by some authors to have experienced tectonic rejuvenation and uplift during the Neogene. However, the opposing flank, Baffin Island, is considered to have experienced a protracted erosional regime with little tectonic activity since the Cretaceous. This work examines the thermal evolution of the Cumberland Peninsula, SE Baffin Island, using published apatite fission track (AFT) data with the addition of 103 apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) ages. This expansion of available thermochronological data introduces a higher resolution of thermal modelling, whilst the application of the newly developed `Broken Crystals' technique provides a greater number of thermal constraints for an area dominated by AHe age dispersion. Results of joint thermal modelling of the AFT and AHe data exhibit two significant periods of cooling across the Cumberland Peninsula: Devonian/Carboniferous to the Triassic and Late Cretaceous to present. The earliest phase of cooling is interpreted as the result of major fluvial systems present throughout the Paleozoic that flowed across the Canadian Shield to basins in the north and south. The later stage of cooling is believed to result from rift controlled fluvial systems that flowed into Baffin Bay during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic during the early stages and culmination of rifting along the Labrador-Baffin margins. Glaciation in the Late Cenozoic has likely overprinted these later river systems creating a complex fjordal distribution that has shaped the modern elevated topography. This work demonstrates how surface processes, and not tectonism, can explain the formation of elevated continental margins and that recent methodological developments in the field of

  2. Plate tectonics, habitability and life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Tilman; Breuer, Doris

    2016-04-01

    The role of plate tectonics in defining habitability of terrestrial planets is being increasingly discussed (e.g., Elkins-Tanton, 2015). Plate tectonics is a significantly evolved concept with a large variety of aspects. In the present context, cycling of material between near surface and mantle reservoirs is most important. But increased heat transport through mixing of cold lithosphere with the deep interior and formation of continental crust may also matter. An alternative mechanism of material cycling between these reservoirs is hot-spot volcanism combined with crust delamination. Hot-spot volcanism will transport volatiles to the atmosphere while delamination will mix crust, possibly altered by sedimentation and chemical reactions, with the mantle. The mechanism works as long as the stagnant lithosphere plate has not grown thicker than the crust and as long as volcanic material is added onto the crust. Thermal evolution studies suggest that the mechanism could work for the first 1-2 Ga of planetary evolution. The efficiency of the mechanism is limited by the ratio of extrusive to intrusive volcanism, which is thought to be less than 0.25. Plate tectonics would certainly have an advantage by working even for more evolved planets. A simple, most-used concept of habitability requires the thermodynamic stability of liquid water on the surface of a planet. Cycling of CO2between the atmosphere, oceans and interior through subduction and surface volcanism is an important element of the carbonate-silicate cycle, a thermostat feedback cycle that will keep the atmosphere from entering into a runaway greenhouse. Calculations for a model Earth lacking plate tectonics but degassing CO2, N, and H2O to form a surface ocean and a secondary atmosphere (Tosi et al, 2016) suggest that liquid water can be maintained on the surface for 4.5Ga. The model planet would then qualify as habitable. It is conceivable that the CO2 buffering capability of its ocean together with silicate

  3. Geochronology and geochemistry of the Borohoro pluton in the northern Yili Block, NW China: Implication for the tectonic evolution of the northern West Tianshan orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Jinjiang; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Kai; Chen, Youxin; Zheng, Yanrong

    2018-03-01

    The closure of the North Tianshan Ocean between the Junggar Terrane and the Yili Block is a longtime debated issue in literature, because of the different understanding of the Carboniferous volcanic rocks in the northern margin of the Yili Block. This study presents new geochronological and whole-rock geochemical data for the granitic rocks from the Borohoro pluton to provide constraints on the tectonic regime for the northern West Tianshan during the Carboniferous. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating results reveal two magmatic phases for the Borohoro pluton. The former magmatic activity in the Early Carboniferous formed the fine-grained granodiorite (332 Ma). The later magmatic activity occurred during the Late Carboniferous (305-300 Ma), forming a diversity of granitic rocks, involving quartz diorite, granodiorite and granite. Geochemical and mineralogical studies reveal that the studied granitic rocks from the Borohoro pluton all belong to metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, calc-alkaline I-type granites. They are characterized by enrichment in LILEs relative to HFSEs, and depletion of Nb, Ti and P, typical of continental arc-type granites. The intermediate SiO2, high Al2O3, and relatively low Fe2O3T, MgO and TiO2 contents reflect that these granitic rocks are mainly crust-derived. But the high Mg# values for most samples and the occurrence of microgranular mafic enclaves indicate that their magma sources were mixed by mantle-derived components. Especially, the Late Carboniferous rocks define an elegant mixing trend in both the Rb-Rb/V and the 1/V-Rb/V diagrams, consistent with mixing between magmas from subcontinental lithospheric mantle and mafic lower crust. Taking into consideration of the facts that all the Devonian to Carboniferous granitoids belong to calc-alkaline I-type granites, and granitoids of A-type didn't appear until the Early Permian, we suggest that the subduction of the North Tianshan Ocean continued to the Late Carboniferous, generating the granitic

  4. Rapid tectonic and paleogeographic evolution associated with the development of the Chucal anticline and the Chucal-Lauca Basin in the Altiplano of Arica, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Reynaldo; Chávez, Alvaro N.; Elgueta, Sara; Hérail, Gérard; Flynn, John J.; Croft, Darin A.; Wyss, André R.; Riquelme, Rodrigo; García, Marcelo

    2005-05-01

    is intercalated within its middle part). We interpret the contractional deformation to be associated with tectonic activity that led to the uplift of the Altiplano; however, paleobotanical evidence does not indicate any major altitude changes during the time period considered here but rather suggests that rapid uplift took place after the deposition of the Quebrada Macusa Formation.

  5. Tectonic history and the biogeography of the freshwater fishes from the coastal drainages of eastern Brazil: an example of faunal evolution associated with a divergent continental margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Cunha Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The eastern Brazilian coastal drainages are of great biogeographical significance, because of their highly endemic fish faunas. Phylogenetic patterns suggest a close biotic relationship between the rivers that flow into the Atlantic and those on the adjacent upland crystalline shield. However, little has been said on the dynamics of the geological processes causally related to the cladogenetic events between these areas. Distributional and phylogenetic patterns suggest a close association with the geological history of the passive continental margin of South America, from the Cretaceous to the present day. In this area megadome uplifts, rifting, vertical movements between rifted blocks and the erosive retreat of the South American eastern continental margin are hypothesized as the main geological forces controlling the distribution of freshwater fishes. The tectonic activity associated with the break-up of Gondwana and separation of South America and Africa formed six megadomes that control most of the current courses of the main crystalline shield river basins. Except for basins located at the edges of such megadomes, these river systems developed long, circuitous routes over the ancient Brazilian crystalline shield before emptying into the recently opened Atlantic Ocean. Initial cladogenetic events between upland crystalline drainages and Atlantic tributaries were probably associated with vicariant processes, and some ancient basal sister-groups of widespread inclusive taxa are found in these coastal hydrographic systems. Later, generalized erosive denudation resulted in an isostatic adjustment of the eastern margin of the platform. These, along with reactivations of ancient rifts led to vertical movements between rifted blocks and gave rise, in southeastern Brazil, to taphrogenic (rift related basins. These basins, such as the Taubaté, São Paulo, Curitiba and Volta Redonda basins, among others, captured adjacent upland drainages and fauna

  6. Evolution of magmatism from the uppermost cretaceous to Oligocene, and its relationship to changing tectonic regime, in the Inca de Oro-El Salvador area (Northern Chile)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo, Paula; Matthews, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    We present geochronological and petrological data for extrusive and intrusive rocks in the Inca de Oro and El Salvador sheets (in prep.), and the Potrerillos (Tomlinson et al., 1999) and Salar de Maricunga sheets (Cornejo et al., 1998), III Region, Chile (26 o -27 o S). Most of these data were collected as part of the SERNAGEOMIN regional mapping programme. Additionally, we include published data for El Salvador and Potrerillos districts (Cornejo et al., 1997; Marsh et al., 1997; Gustafson et al., 2001). The dataset includes K/Ar, Ar/Ar and U-Pb mineral ages, which have been carefully selected for quality. The area is underlain by Carboniferous-Permian granitic basement rocks, which are covered by Triassic to Early Upper Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary successions, including both marine and continental sequences (Cornejo et al., 1993). The period studied in this paper includes extrusive and intrusive rocks of Maastrichtian to Oligocene age, which are of particular interest since they record the 'preparation' of the lithosphere prior to, during, and after the mid-Eocene Incaic deformation and associated porphyry copper event. Shortening in the early-upper Cretaceous (95-85Ma; e.g. Mpodozis and Ramos, 1989; Arevalo and Grocott, 2000) deformed large areas of northen Chile, and marked the transition from the dominance of intra-arc extension to that of shortening punctuated by periods of extension. We recognise seven tectono-magmatic periods from the uppermost Cretaceous to Oligocene, comprising a volcanic sedimentary event contemporaneous with an extensional tectonic regime in the Upper Cretaceous, associated with graben formation, followed by an important compressive event at the beginning of the Tertiary. The middle Paleocene was again dominated by voluminous volcanic activity (collapse calderas) in an extensional regime. During the lowest Eocene the magmatic activity in the area shows a gradual transition from pyroxene-bearing to amphibole-bearing lithologies

  7. Landslides control the spatial and temporal variation of channel width in southern Taiwan: implications for landscape evolution and cascading hazards in steep, tectonically active landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanites, B.; Bregy, J. C.; Carlson, G.; Cataldo, K.; Holahan, M.; Johnston, G.; Mitchell, N. A.; Nelson, A.; Valenza, J.; Wanker, M.

    2017-12-01

    Intense precipitation or seismic events can generate clustered mass movement processes across a landscape. These rare events have significant impacts on the landscape, however, the rarity of such events leads to uncertainty in how these events impact the entire geomorphic system over a range of timescales. Taiwan is a steep, seismically active region and is highly prone to landslide and debris flows, especially when exposed to heavy rainfall events. Typhoon Morakot made landfall in Taiwan in August of 2009, delivering record-breaking rainfall and inducing more than 22,000 landslides in southern Taiwan. The topographic gradient in southern Taiwan leads to spatial variability in landslide susceptibility providing an opportunity to infer the long-term impact of landslides on channel morphology. The availability of pre and post typhoon imagery allows a quantitative reconstruction on the propagating impact of this event on channel width. The pre and post typhoon patterns of channel width to river and hillslope gradients in 20 basins in the study area reveal the importance of cascading hazards from landslides on landscape evolution. Prior to Typhoon Morakot, the river channels in the central part of the study area were about 3-10 times wider than the channels in the south. Aggradation and widening was also a maximum in these basins where hillslope gradients and channel steepness is high. The results further show that the narrowest channels are located where channel steepness is the lowest, an observation inconsistent with a detachment-limited model for river evolution. We infer this pattern is indicative of a strong role of sediment supply, and associated landslide events, on long-term channel evolution. These findings have implications across a range of spatial and temporal scales including understanding the cascade of hazards in steep landscapes and geomorphic interpretation of channel morphology.

  8. Late Pleistocene acceleration of deformation across the northern Tianshan piedmont (China) evidenced from the morpho-tectonic evolution of the Dushanzi anticline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charreau, Julien; Saint-Carlier, Dimitri; Lavé, Jérôme; Dominguez, Stéphane; Blard, Pierre-Henri; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Brown, Nathan D.; Malatesta, Luca Claude; Wang, Shengli; Rhodes, Edward J.

    2018-04-01

    We document the temporal evolution of deformation in the northern Tianshan piedmont where the deformation is partitioned across several thrusts and folds. We focus on the Dushanzi anticline, where abandoned terraces and growth strata allow us to constrain the history of folding since the Miocene. Based on subsurface seismic imaging, structural measurements and morphological analysis, we show that this anticline is associated with two decollement levels. We use kink band migration in growth strata dated by paleomagnetism to constrain the shortening from the Mio-Pliocene to the Holocene. Our results show that the Dushanzi anticline has been active since at least 8 Ma and that the fold grew at a steady shortening rate of 0.6 ± 0.1 mm/yr from 8 to 1.5 Ma with possible variations from 2.5 to 1.5 Ma. Then it accelerated rapidly to a rate of 4.3 ± 1.0 mm/yr over at least the last 100 ka. These results, together with similar temporal shortening evolutions across other structures, suggest that the deformation rate across the eastern Tianshan piedmont increased relatively recently. This may reflect either a redistribution of the deformation from the internal structures toward the borders or a general acceleration of the deformation across the entire range.

  9. Geology of the Río de la Plata and the surrounding areas of Argentina and Uruguay related to the evolution of the Atlantic margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossello, Eduardo A.; Veroslavsky, Gerardo; de Santa Ana, Héctor; Rodríguez, Pablo

    2018-04-01

    An integrated study of geological and geophysical data of the Río de la Plata region and its relation to the evolution of the Atlantic passive margin is herein described. This characterization is based on the available geological and geophysical information and on the correlation of the southern end of the best-known Santa Lucía Basin in Uruguay to the Salado Basin in Argentina, and their connection through the Quilmes Trough. Furthermore, a new Meso-Cenozoic depocenter is characterized and identified as Recalada Trough, subparallely aligned to the Quilmes Trough and separated from it by the Magdalena-Montevideo High. Both sedimentary fillings present ENE-WSW trending main axes and reach an average thickness of almost 2000 m. This suggests an evolution from a triple junction where interconnected extensional arms developed, which have had common Mesozoic tectosedimentary histories related to the early opening of the Atlantic Ocean. Based on the geophysical and geological evidence, the previously accepted existence in the Río de la Plata of a first-order structural feature along the international border between Argentina and Uruguay, associated to an ENE-WSW trending tectonic high, identified as Martín García, is unjustified. The tectonic evolution of the Atlantic margin in front of the Río de la Plata estuary is the consequence of a long deformation history starting in the Precambrian up to recent times. Each Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic scenario adds different weak trends on the continental crust, which control the evolution of the sedimentary depocenters. The presence of these tectosedimentary records influence the bathymetric control of the Río de la Plata and the dynamics of the recent estuarine deposits. The Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary infill is estimated to comprise considerable ranges of sandstones and conglomerates associated with faulted blocks of the crystalline basement, with expected petrophysical conditions oscillating in

  10. Dynamic of an intra-continental orogenic prism: thermo-chronologic (apatite fission tracks) and tectonic evolution of the axial zone and the piedmont of the west-central Pyrenees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meresse, F.

    2013-02-01

    This work illustrates the application of thermo chronology to the study of the following geologic issue: the tectonic evolution of the Pyrenean oncologic prism. Thermo-chronology gives information on the vertical movements at the scale of geological eras. Thermo-chronology is based on the following principle: the decay of a nucleus gives birth to a daughter nucleus. Above a specific temperature named closure temperature, the daughter element can diffuse outside the system while below the closure temperature, diffusion is not possible. Consequently thermo-chronology can be considered to date the moment when a mineral goes below a a specific closure temperature. Minerals have different closure temperatures and so by using a suite of thermo-chronometers on a single sample, its cooling path through the crust can be reconstructed. This work focuses on apatite fission track (AFT)analysis which is a low temperature thermo-chronometer. In apatites the temperature range between 60 and 120 Celsius degrees corresponds to the partial annealing zone. The spontaneous fission of one U 238 nucleus entails the formation of one fission track. The determination of the initial quantity of U 238 is based on the natural steady ratio U 238 /U 235 which equals 137.88. The initial quantity of U 235 is determined through the neutron irradiation of the sample. The knowledge of the initial quantity of U 238 and the number of tracks in the sample allows the dating of the sample. In this work we combine AFT thermo- chronology with a detailed structural analysis to describe vertical movements related to the thrusting system evolution, and to determine the influence of the latter on the sedimentation/burial/exhumation cycle of the syn-orogenic deposits of the southern fore-land basin

  11. Strain transformation between tectonic extrusion and crustal thickening in the growth of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Li, Y.; Sun, Y.; Shen, X.

    2017-12-01

    The Indo-Eurasian continental collision since 50 Ma has thickened the crust to raise the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau and driven lateral extrusion of Asian lithospheric blocks to affect Cenozoic tectonics in central and east Asia. The relative roles of crustal thickening and tectonic extrusion, and the strain partitioning between them over time and space, remain controversial. We have analyzed the strain rates using GPS velocities, and correlated the results with vertical motion derived from precise leveling. We found that tectonic extrusion largely transforms to crustal thickening near the margins of the Tibetan Plateau. Near the NW margin of the Tibetan Plateau, the shear stain transforms to compressive strain, consistent with neotectonic studies that indicate crustal shortening and uplift. Around the SE margin, shear stain largely terminates in the southern Yunnan province of China. The present-day crustal motion in SE Tibetan Plateau can be well explained by gravitational spreading without invoking plate-edge push as envisioned in the tectonic extrusion model. Using data collected from local seismic arrays, we derived receiver functions to image the lithospheric structures across the Tibetan Plateau and the Alashan block to its north and the Ordos block to its east. Our results indicate that the mantle lithosphere of these bounding Asian blocks has not been reworked by Tibetan tectonics; instead they have acted as restrictive walls to the growing Tibetan Plateau. Our finite element modeling shows that crustal deformation along the margins of the Tibetan Plateau are consistent with the notion that the east- and southeastward extrusion of the Tibetan lithosphere is largely confined to the Tibetan Plateau because of the restrictive bounding blocks of the Asian lithosphere. Thus the tectonic impact of the Indo-Eurasian collision on the Cenozoic Asian tectonics may not be as extensive as previously thought.

  12. The impacts of Cenozoic climate and habitat changes on small mammal diversity of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Joshua X.; Hopkins, Samantha S. B.

    2017-02-01

    Through the Cenozoic, paleoclimate records show general trends of global cooling and increased aridity, and environments in North America shifted from predominantly forests to more open habitats. Paleobotanical records indicate grasses were present on the continent in the Eocene; however, paleosol and phytolith studies indicate that open habitats did not arise until the late Eocene or even later in the Oligocene. Studies of large mammalian herbivores have documented changes in ecomorphology and community structure through time, revealing that shifts in mammalian morphology occurred millions of years after the environmental changes thought to have triggered them. Smaller mammals, like rodents and lagomorphs, should more closely track climate and habitat changes due to their shorter generation times and smaller ranges, but these animals have received much less study. To examine changes in smaller mammals through time, we have assembled and analyzed an ecomorphological database of all North American rodent and lagomorph species. Analyses of these data found that rodent and lagomorph community structure changed dramatically through the Cenozoic, and shifts in diversity and ecology correspond closely with the timing of habitat changes. Cenozoic rodent and lagomorph species diversity is strongly biased by sampling of localities, but sampling-corrected diversity reveals diversity dynamics that, after an initial density-dependent diversification in the Eocene, track habitat changes and the appearance of new ecological adaptations. As habitats became more open and arid through time, rodent and lagomorph crown heights increased while burrowing, jumping, and cursorial adaptations became more prevalent. Through time, open-habitat specialists were added during periods of diversification, while closed-habitat taxa were disproportionately lost in subsequent diversity declines. While shifts among rodents and lagomorphs parallel changes in ungulate communities, they started

  13. Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP): origins and evolution of the forests, climate, and hydrology of the South American tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P. A.; Fritz, S. C.; Silva, C. G.; Rigsby, C. A.; Absy, M. L.; Almeida, R. P.; Caputo, M.; Chiessi, C. M.; Cruz, F. W.; Dick, C. W.; Feakins, S. J.; Figueiredo, J.; Freeman, K. H.; Hoorn, C.; Jaramillo, C.; Kern, A. K.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Ledru, M. P.; Marzoli, A.; Myrbo, A.; Noren, A.; Piller, W. E.; Ramos, M. I. F.; Ribas, C. C.; Trnadade, R.; West, A. J.; Wahnfried, I.; Willard, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the scientific rationale for an ambitious ICDP drilling project to continuously sample Late Cretaceous to modern sediment in four different sedimentary basins that transect the equatorial Amazon of Brazil, from the Andean foreland to the Atlantic Ocean. The goals of this project are to document the evolution of plant biodiversity in the Amazon forests and to relate biotic diversification to changes in the physical environment, including climate, tectonism, and the surface landscape. These goals require long sedimentary records from each of the major sedimentary basins across the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, which can only be obtained by drilling because of the scarcity of Cenozoic outcrops. The proposed drilling will provide the first long, nearly continuous regional records of the Cenozoic history of the forests, their plant diversity, and the associated changes in climate and environment. It also will address fundamental questions about landscape evolution, including the history of Andean uplift and erosion as recorded in Andean foreland basins and the development of west-to-east hydrologic continuity between the Andes, the Amazon lowlands, and the equatorial Atlantic. Because many modern rivers of the Amazon basin flow along the major axes of the old sedimentary basins, we plan to locate drill sites on the margin of large rivers and to access the targeted drill sites by navigation along these rivers.

  14. Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP): origins and evolution of the forests, climate, and hydrology of the South American tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P.A.; Fritz, S.C.; Silva, C.G.; Rigsby, C.A.; Absy, M.L.; Almeida, R.P.; Caputo, Maria C.; Chiessi, C.M.; Cruz, F.W.; Dick, C.W.; Feakins, S.J.; Figueiredo, J.; Freeman, K.H.; Hoorn, C.; Jaramillo, C.A.; Kern, A.; Latrubesse, E.M.; Ledru, M.P.; Marzoli, A.; Myrbo, A.; Noren, A.; Piller, W.E.; Ramos, M.I.F.; Ribas, C.C.; Trinadade, R.; West, A.J.; Wahnfried, I.; Willard, Debra A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the scientific rationale for an ambitious ICDP drilling project to continuously sample Late Cretaceous to modern sediment in four different sedimentary basins that transect the equatorial Amazon of Brazil, from the Andean foreland to the Atlantic Ocean. The goals of this project are to document the evolution of plant biodiversity in the Amazon forests and to relate biotic diversification to changes in the physical environment, including climate, tectonism, and the surface landscape. These goals require long sedimentary records from each of the major sedimentary basins across the heart of the Brazilian Amazon, which can only be obtained by drilling because of the scarcity of Cenozoic outcrops. The proposed drilling will provide the first long, nearly continuous regional records of the Cenozoic history of the forests, their plant diversity, and the associated changes in climate and environment. It also will address fundamental questions about landscape evolution, including the history of Andean uplift and erosion as recorded in Andean foreland basins and the development of west-to-east hydrologic continuity between the Andes, the Amazon lowlands, and the equatorial Atlantic. Because many modern rivers of the Amazon basin flow along the major axes of the old sedimentary basins, we plan to locate drill sites on the margin of large rivers and to access the targeted drill sites by navigation along these rivers.

  15. Tectonic/climatic control on sediment provenance in the Cape Roberts Project core record (southern Victoria Land, Antarctica): A pulsing late Oligocene/early Miocene signal from south revealed by detrital thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivetti, V.; Balestrieri, M. L.; Rossetti, F.; Talarico, F. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Mesozoic-Cenozoic West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) is one of the largest intracontinental rift on Earth. The Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) form its western shoulder, marking the boundary between the East and West Antarctica. The rifting evolution is commonly considered polyphase and involves an Early Cretaceous phase linked to the Gondwana break-up followed by a major Cenozoic one, starting at c. 50-40 Ma. This Cenozoic episode corresponds to the major uplift/denudation phase of the TAM, which occurred concurrently with transition from orthogonal to oblique rifting. The Cenozoic rift reorganization occurred concurrently with a major change in the global climate system and a global reorganization of plate motions. This area thus provide an outstanding natural laboratory for studying a range of geological problems that involve feedback relationships between tectonics and climate. A key to address the tectonic/climate feedback relations is to look on apparent synchronicity in erosion signal between different segments, and to compare these with well-dated regional and global climatic events. However, due to the paucity of Cenozoic rock sequences exposed along the TAM front, a few information is available about the neotectonics of the rift and rift-flank uplift system. The direct physical record of the tectonic/climate history of the WARS recovered by core drillings along the western margin of the Ross sea (DSDP, CIROS, Cape Roberts and ANDRILL projects) provides an invaluable tool to address this issue. Twenty-three samples distributed throughout the entire composite drill-cored stratigraphic succession of Cape Roberts were analyzed. Age probability plots of eighteen detrital samples with depositional ages between 34 Ma and the Pliocene were decomposed into statistically significant age populations or peaks using binomial peak-fitting. Moreover, three granitic pebbles, one dolerite clast and one sample of Beacon sandstones have been dated. From detrital samples

  16. Modelling "reality" in tectonics: Simulation of the mechanical evolution of the Jura Mountains-Molasse Basin system, and routes to forward-inverse modelling of fold thrust belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, David; Kley, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    The ultimate validation of any numerical model of any geological process comes when it can accurately forward model a case study from the geological record. However, as the example of the Jura-Molasse fold thrust belt demonstrates, geological information on even the most basic aspects of the present day state of such systems is highly incomplete and usually known only with large uncertainties. Fold thrust-belts are studied and understood by geologists in an iterative process of constructing their subsurface geometries and structures (folds, faults, bedding etc) based on limited subsurface information from boreholes, tunnels or seismic data where available, and surface information on outcrops of different layers and their dips. This data is usually processed through geometric models which involve conservation of line length of different beds over the length of an entire cross section. Constructing such sections is the art of cross section balancing. A balanced cross section can be easily restored to its pre-deformation state, assuming (usually) originally horizontal bedding to remove the effects of folding and faulting. Such a pre-deformation state can then form an initial condition for a forward mechanical model of the section. A mechanical model introduces new parameters into the system such as rock elasticity, cohesion, and frictional properties. However, a forward mechanical model can also potentially show the continuous evolution of a fold thrust belt, including dynamic quantities like stress. Moreover, a forward mechanical model, if correct in most aspects, should match in its final state, the present day geological cross section it is simulating. However, when attempting to achieve a match between geometric and mechanical models, it becomes clear that many more aspects of the geodynamic history of a fold thrust belt have to be taken into account. Erosion of the uppermost layers of an evolving thrust belt is the most obvious one of these. This can potentially

  17. Thermochronology of Cretaceous batholithic rocks in the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith, southern California: Implications for the Late Cretaceous tectonic evolution of southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miggins, Daniel P.; Premo, Wayne R.; Snee, Lawrence W; Yeoman, Ross; Naeaer, Nancy D.; Naeser, Charles W.; Morton, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    The thermochronology for several suites of Mesozoic metamorphic and plutonic rocks collected throughout the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith (PRB) was studied as part of a collaborative isotopic study to further our understanding of the magmatic and tectonic history of southern California. These sample suites include: a traverse through the plutonic rocks across the northern PRB (N = 29), a traverse across a central structural and metamorphic transition zone of mainly metasedimentary rocks at Searl ridge (N = 20), plutonic samples from several drill cores (N = 7) and surface samples (N = 2) from the Los Angeles Basin, a traverse across the Eastern Peninsular Ranges mylonite zone (N = 6), and a suite of plutonic samples collected across the northern PRB (N = 13) from which only biotite 40Ar/39Ar ages were obtained. These geochronologic data help to characterize five major petrologic, geochemical, and isotopic zonations of the PRB (western zone, WZ; western transition zone, WTZ; eastern transition zone, ETZ; eastern zone, EZ; and upper-plate zone, UPZ).Apparent cooling rates were calculated using U-Pb zircon (zr) and titanite (sphene) ages; 40Ar/39Ar ages from hornblende (hbl), biotite (bi), and K-feldspar (Kf); and apatite fission-track (AFT) ages from the same samples. The apparent cooling rates across the northern PRB vary from relatively rapid in the west (zr-hbl ~210 °C/m.y.; zr-bio ~160 °C/m.y.; zr-Kf ~80 °C/m.y.) to less rapid in the central (zr-hb ~280 °C/m.y.; zr-bio ~90 °C/m.y.; zr-Kf ~60 °C/m.y.) and eastern (zr-hbl ~185 °C/m.y.; zr-bio ~180 °C/m.y.; zr-Kf ~60 °C/m.y.) zones. An exception in the eastern zone, the massive San Jacinto pluton, appears to have cooled very rapidly (zr-bio ~385 °C/m.y.). Apparent cooling rates for the UPZ samples are consistently slower in comparison (~25–45 °C/m.y.), regardless of which geochronometers are used.Notable characteristics of the various ages from different dating methods include: (1) Zircon

  18. Tectonic evolution of the NE section of the Pamir Plateau: New evidence from field observations and zircon U-Pb geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuan-Lin; Zou, Hai-Bo; Ye, Xian-Tao; Chen, Xiang-Yan

    2018-01-01

    The Pamir Plateau at the western end of the India-Asia collision zone underwent long-term terrane drifting, accretion and collision between early Paleozoic and Mesozoic. However, the detailed evolution of this plateau, in particular, the timing of the Proto- and Palaeo-Tethys ocean subduction and closure, remains enigmatic. Here we report new field observations and zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions of the representative rocks from the so-called Precambrian basement in the northeastern Pamir, i.e., the Bulunkuole Group. The rock associations of the Bulunkuole Group indicate volcano-sedimentary sequences with arc affinities. Geochronological data demonstrate that the deposition age of the Bulunkuole Group in the NE section of the Pamir was Middle to Late Cambrian (530-508 Ma) rather than Paleoproterozoic. The deposition age became progressively younger from south to north. The amphibolite- to granulite facies metamorphism of the Bulunkuole Group took place at ca. 200-180 Ma. Unlike the scenario in the Southern Kunlun terrane (SKT) in the eastern section of the West Kunlun Orogenic Belt (WKOB), early Paleozoic metamorphism (ca. 440 Ma) was absent in this area. Two phases of magmatic intrusions, composed of granites and minor gabbros with arc geochemical signatures, emplaced at 510-480 Ma and 240-200 Ma. The amphibolite (meta mafic sheet? 519 Ma) and the meta-rhyolite (508 Ma) have zircon εHf(t) values of 1.6 to 5.9 and - 1.5 to 1.4, respectively. The 511 Ma gneissic granite sheet and the 486 Ma gabbro have zircon εHf(t) values of - 0.1 to 2.4 and 1.3 to 3.6, respectively. Zircon εHf(t) of the 245 Ma augen gneissic granite sheet varies from - 2.2 to 2.0 whereas the metamorphic zircons from the amphibolite (193 Ma) and high-pressure mafic granulite sample (187 Ma) have negative εHf(t) values of - 5.3 to - 2 and - 15 to - 12, respectively. In line with rock association and the deposition age of the Bulunkuole Group and the Saitula Group in the eastern

  19. Advances in understanding the tectonic evolution of the Santa Rosalia Basin and its stratiform ore deposits: Results of the Baja Basins Research Experience for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, T. M.; Busby, C.; Murowchick, J. B.; Martinez Gutierrez, G.; Antinao Rojas, J. L.; Graettinger, A.; Dorsey, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Studies conducted during the three years of the Baja Basins REU program made progress toward solving a number of geologic questions in the Santa Rosalía Basin (SRB) of central Baja California. Geochemistry and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology on volcanic rocks within the SRB record the transition from subduction (13.32-9.95 Ma) to rifting (younger than 9.42 Ma) prior to deposition of the upper Miocene Boleo Formation. In contrast, magnesian andesite lavas and intrusions on the south margin of the SRB are dated at 6.1 +/- 0.3 Ma, and may have provided the heat engine for Boleo basin mineralization, which occurs in stratabound layers called "mantos". Mineralizing fluids in the Boleo Fm had near-neutral pH, evolved from a low Eh to more oxidizing conditions, were relatively low-temperature (near ambient T during manto ore deposition), and likely derived the Cu, Zn, Co, and Mn by leaching of mafic minerals in the volcanic rocks underlying the basin. Deposition of the ores was driven by oxidation as warm spring fluids vented to subaerial or near-shore marine environments, producing blankets of precipitated oxides interlayered with detrital fine to very coarse clastic beds. Integration of geologic map and fault data with detailed sedimentology and stratigraphic analysis provides evidence for syn-basinal tilting in two orthogonal directions during deposition of the Boleo Formation and Plio-Quaternary Tirabuzón, Infierno, and Santa Rosalia formations. Pronounced tilting toward the SE is revealed by southeastward thickening and coarsening of deposits in the Boleo Formation, and was synchronous with northeastward tilting and thickening due to slip on a network of NW-striking oblique normal faults. We hypothesize that the basin formed, subsided, and deformed as a pull-apart basin in a releasing step-over between two propagating transform faults that opened the late Miocene Gulf of California. The neotectonic evolution and uplift history of the SRB is documented through mapping of

  20. Metamorphism of the northern Liaoning Complex: Implications for the tectonic evolution of Neoarchean basement of the Eastern Block, North China Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Kuen Wu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As one of the areas where typical late Archean crust is exposed in the Eastern Block of the North China Craton, the northern Laioning Complex consists principally of tonalitic-trondhjemitic-granodioritic (TTG gneisses, massive granitoids and supracrustal rocks. The supracrustal rocks, named the Qingyuan Group, consist of interbedded amphibolite, hornblende granulite, biotite granulite and BIF. Petrological evidence indicates that the amphibolites experienced the early prograde (M1, peak (M2 and post-peak (M3 metamorphism. The early prograde assemblage (M1 is preserved as mineral inclusions, represented by actinotite + hornblende + plagioclase + epidote + quartz + sphene, within garnet porphyroblasts. The peak assemblage (M2 is indicated by garnet + clinopyroxene + hornblende + plagioclase + quartz + ilmenite, which occur as major mineral phases in the rock. The post-peak assemblage (M3 is characterized by the garnet + quartz symplectite. The P–T pseudosections in the NCFMASHTO system constructed by using THERMOCALC define the P–T conditions of M1, M2 and M3 at 490–550 °C/<4.5 kbar, 780–810 °C/7.65–8.40 kbar and 630–670 °C/8.15–9.40 kbar, respectively. As a result, an anticlockwise P–T path involving isobaric cooling is inferred for the metamorphic evolution of the amphibolites. Such a P–T path suggests that the late Archean metamorphism of the northern Liaoning Complex was related to the intrusion and underplating of mantle-derived magmas. The underplating of voluminous mantle-derived magmas leading to metamorphism with an anticlockwise P–T path involving isobaric cooling may have occurred in continental magmatic arc regions, above hot spots driven by mantle plumes, or in continental rift environments. A mantle plume model is favored because this model can reasonably interpret many other geological features of late Archean basement rocks from the northern Liaoning Complex in the Eastern Block of

  1. Tectonic, volcanic, and climatic geomorphology study of the Sierras Pampeanas Andes, northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, A. L.; Strecker, M. R.; Fielding, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    A proposed analysis of Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) data extends current research in the Sierras Pampeanas and the Puna of northwestern Argentina to the determination - by the digital analysis of mountain-front sinuousity - of the relative age and amount of fault movement along mountain fronts of the late-Cenozoic Sierras Pampeanas basement blocks; the determination of the age and history of the boundary across the Andes at about 27 S latitude between continuing volcanism to the north and inactive volcanism to the south; and the determination of the age and extent of Pleistocene glaciation in the High Sierras, as well as the comparative importance of climatic change and tectonic movements in shaping the landscape. The integration of these studies into other ongoing geology projects contributes to the understanding of landform development in this active tectonic environment and helps distinguish between climatic and tectonic effects on landforms.

  2. Impacts and tectonism in Earth and moon history of the past 3800 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1992-01-01

    The moon's surface, unlike the Earth's, displays a comparatively clear record of its past bombardment history for the last 3800 Myr, the time since active lunar tectonism under the massive premare bombardment ended. From Baldwin's (1987) tabulation of estimated ages for a representative sample of large lunar craters younger than 3800 Ma, six major cratering episodes can be discerned. These six bombardment episodes, which must have affected the Earth too, appear to match in time the six major episodes of orogenic tectonism on Earth, despite typical resolution errors of +/- 100 Myr and the great uncertainties of the two chronologies. Since more highly resolved events during the Cenozoic and Mesozoic Eras suggest the same correlation, it is possible that large impacts have influenced plate tectonics and other aspects of geologic history, perhaps by triggering flood basalt eruptions.

  3. Simulation of tectonic evolution of the Kanto basin of Japan since 1 Ma due to subduction of the Pacific and Philippine sea plates and collision of the Izu-Bonin arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashima, Akinori; Sato, Toshinori; Sato, Hiroshi; Asao, Kazumi; Furuya, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Shuji; Kameo, Koji; Miyauchi, Takahiro; Ito, Tanio; Tsumura, Noriko; Kaneda, Heitaro

    2015-04-01

    The Kanto basin, the largest lowland in Japan, developed by flexure as a result of (1) the subduction of the Philippine Sea (PHS) and the Pacific (PAC) plates and (2) the collision of the Izu-Bonin arc with the Japanese island arc. Geomorphological, geological, and thermochronological data on long-term vertical movements over the last 1 My suggest that subsidence initially affected the entire Kanto basin after which the area of subsidence gradually narrowed until, finally, the basin began to experience uplift. In this study, we modelled the tectonic evolution of the Kanto basin following the method of Matsu'ura and Sato (1989) for a kinematic subduction model with dislocations, in order to quantitatively assess the effects of PHS and PAC subduction. We include the steady slip-rate deficit (permanent locking rate at the plate interface) in our model to account for collision process. We explore how the arc-arc collision process has been affected by a westerly shift in the PHS plate motion vector with respect to the Eurasian plate, thought to have occurred between 1.0-0.5 Ma, using long-term vertical deformation data to constrain extent of the locked zone on the plate interface. We evaluated the change in vertical deformation rate for two scenarios: (1) a synchronous shift in the orientation of the locked zone as PHS plate motion shifts and (2) a delayed shift in the orientation of the locked zone following a change in plate motion. Observed changes in the subsidence/uplift pattern are better explained by scenario (2), suggesting that recent (<1 My) deformation in the Kanto basin shows a lag in crustal response to the shift in plate motion. We also calculated recent stress accumulation rates and found a good match with observed earthquake mechanisms, which shows that intraplate earthquakes serve to release stress accumulated through long-term plate interactions.

  4. Simulation of tectonic evolution of the Kanto Basin of Japan since 1 Ma due to subduction of the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates and the collision of the Izu-Bonin arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashima, Akinori; Sato, Toshinori; Sato, Hiroshi; Asao, Kazumi; Furuya, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Shuji; Kameo, Koji; Miyauchi, Takahiro; Ito, Tanio; Tsumura, Noriko; Kaneda, Heitaro

    2016-06-01

    The Kanto Basin, the largest lowland in Japan, developed by flexure as a result of (1) the subduction of the Philippine Sea (PHS) and the Pacific (PAC) plates and (2) the repeated collision of the Izu-Bonin arc fragments with the Japanese island arc. Geomorphological, geological, and thermochronological data on vertical movements over the last 1 My suggest that subsidence initially affected the entire basin after which the area of subsidence gradually narrowed until, finally, the basin began to experience uplift. In this study, we modeled the tectonic evolution of the Kanto Basin following the method of Matsu'ura and Sato (1989) for a kinematic subduction model with dislocations, in order to quantitatively assess the effects of PHS and PAC subduction. We include the steady slip-rate deficit (permanent locking rate at the plate interface) in our model to account for collision process. We explore how the latest collision of the Izu Peninsula block has been affected by a westerly shift in the PHS plate motion vector with respect to the Eurasian plate, thought to have occurred between 1.0-0.5 Ma, using long-term vertical deformation data to constrain extent of the locked zone on the plate interface. We evaluated the change in vertical deformation rate for two scenarios: (1) a synchronous shift in the orientation of the locked zone as PHS plate motion shifts and (2) a delayed shift in the orientation of the locked zone following the shift in plate motion. Observed changes in the uplift/subsidence pattern are better explained by scenario (2), suggesting that recent (< 1 My) deformation in the Kanto Basin shows a lag in crustal response to the plate motion shift. We also calculated stress accumulation rates and found a good match with observed earthquake mechanisms, which shows that intraplate earthquakes serve to release stress accumulated through long-term plate interactions.

  5. Comment on ;Evolution of high-pressure mafic granulites and pelitic gneisses from NE Madagascar: Tectonic implications;. Tectonophysics, 662, 219-242 (2015) by Ishwar-Kumar et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Philippe; Brandt, Sönke; Nicollet, Christian; Tucker, Robert

    2017-05-01

    Determining the possible tectonic regimes active during the Neoproterozoic is crucial for the knowledge of the evolution of the super-continent Gondwana. In Madagascar, that occupies a key position in Gondwana, there is an on-going debate regarding the location of possible suture zones and the implications in terms of paleo-geography. Recognizing high-pressure to ultra-high pressure conditions in mafic rocks is commonly viewed as a strong argument for paleo-subduction zones. Ishwar-Kumar et al. (2015) report unusual high pressure conditions (24 kbar) in Neoproterozoic to Cambrian rocks from North-Central Madagascar (Andriamena Complex). They propose a geodynamic model in which exhumation of the high pressure terranes from up to 80 km to 40 km occurred via vertical extrusion during the collision of various crustal blocks after subduction and closure of an oceanic domain during the formation of Gondwana in the late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian. We question this model and in particular the (ultra-)high pressure conditions reported, because their estimation is based on a misinterpretation of the petrography and inaccurate thermodynamic modeling for the crucial metabasite sample. The authors suggest that garnet-quartz coronas around orthopyroxene and ilmenite coexist with clinopyroxene. The postulated garnet-clinopyroxene-quartz assemblage is interpreted to document an eclogite facies overprint. However, the presence of abundant plagioclase in the sample and the lack of high jadeite content in clinopyroxene clearly refute the postulated eclogite facies conditions. According to the presented photographs clinopyroxene is part of the rock matrix. We therefore suggest that the sample represents a common two-pyroxene granulite, formed at mid- to low-pressure granulite facies conditions of > 700 °C and Madagascar, this interpretation is not justified by the data presented by Ishwar-Kumar et al. (2015).

  6. Active faults paragenesis and the state of crustal stresses in the Late Cenozoic in Central Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sankov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Active faults of the Hangay-Hentiy tectonic saddle region in Central Mongolia are studied by space images interpretation, relief analysis, structural methods and tectonic stress reconstruction. The study results show that faults activation during the Late Cenozoic stage was selective, and a cluster pattern of active faults is typical for the study region. Morphological and genetic types and the kinematics of faults in the Hangay-Hentiy saddle region are related the direction of the ancient inherited structural heterogeneities. Latitudinal and WNW trending faults are left lateral strike-slips with reverse or thrust component (Dzhargalantgol and North Burd faults. NW trending faults are reverse faults or thrusts with left lateral horizontal component. NNW trending faults have right lateral horizontal component. The horizontal component of the displacements, as a rule, exceeds the vertical one. Brittle deformations in fault zones do not conform with the Pliocene and, for the most part, Pleistocene topography. With some caution it may be concluded that the last phase of revitalization of strike slip and reverse movements along the faults commenced in the Late Pleistocene. NE trending disjunctives are normal faults distributed mainly within the Hangay uplift. Their features are more early activation within the Late Cenozoic and the lack of relation to large linear structures of the previous tectonic stages. According to the stress tensor reconstructions of the last phase of deformation in zones of active faults of the Hangay-Hentiy saddle using data on tectonic fractures and fault displacements, it is revealed that conditions of compression and strike-slip with NNE direction of the axis of maximum compression were dominant. Stress tensors of extensional type with NNW direction of minimum compression are reconstructed for the Orkhon graben. It is concluded that the activation of faults in Central Mongolia in the Pleistocene-Holocene, as well as

  7. The influence of tectonic and volcanic processes on the morphology of the Iberian continental margins; Influencia de los procesos tectonicos y volcanicos en la morfologia de los margenes continentales ibericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maestro, A.; Bohoyo, F.; Lopez-Martinez, J.; Acosta, J.; Gomez-Ballesteros, M.; Llaave, E.; Munoz, A.; Terrinha, P. G.; Dominguez, M.; Fernandez-Saez, F.

    2015-07-01

    The Iberian continental margins are mainly passive margins. Nevertheless, the northern sector of the margin was active during some stages of its geological evolution. The southern sector is considered as a transformed margin, which defines the boundary between the Iberian and African plates. This margin was also an active margin in the past. The different types, origins and intensities of the endogenic processes that have affected he Iberian continental margins have led to the development of various tectonic and volcanic morphologies. The North Atlantic rifting allowed the development of large marginal platforms in the Cantabrian and Galician margins the North-Atlantic Ocean spreading. The reactivation of Variscan faults during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic controlled the strike of some of the largest canyons in the Iberian margins. The Gulf of Cadiz margin is characterized by the development of morphologies related to salt tectonic, fluid seepage, thrust fronts and strike-slip fault lineaments hundreds of kilometres long. The Alboran basin and the Betic margin show morphologies connected with the Miocene rift phase, which generated volcanic edifices and various structural reliefs, and with the subsequent compressive phase, when folds and strike-slip, reverse faults, diapirs and mud volcanoes were developed. Finally, the Catalan-Valencian margin and the Balearic promontory are characterized by the presence of horst and graben structures related to the development of the Valencia trough during the Paleogene. The morphological features of endogenic origin have largely controlled the location and extent of the sedimentary processes and morphological products along the Iberian margins. (Author)

  8. Tectonic design strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    2000-01-01

    as the poetics of construction, thus it may be considered as an essential activity in the development of the architectural design process.  Similar to the complex nature of the tectonic, the design process is an ongoing movement of interpretation, mediation, and decision making where the skills of the architect...

  9. Tectonic vision in architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    1999-01-01

    By introducing the concept; Tectonic Visions, The Dissertation discusses the interrelationship between the basic idea, the form principles, the choice of building technology and constructive structures within a given building. Includes Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Eames, Jorn Utzon, Louis Kahn...

  10. Cretacic tectonics in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Rifas, C.

    2012-01-01

    This work is about Cretacic tectonics in Uruguay, this formation is characterized by high level cortex because the basament is cratonized since Middle Devonian. There were formed two main grabens such as Santa Lucia and Mirim-Pelotas which are filled with basalt and sediments.

  11. North America-Greenland-Eurasian relative motions: implications for circum-arctic tectonic reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, D.B.; Lottes, A.L.; Ziegler, A.M.

    1985-02-01

    The Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Circum-Arctic region is based on constraints imposed by (1) relative motion histories of the three major plates (North America, Greenland, and Eurasia) and a number of smaller pieces, and (2) distribution and age of sutures, accretionary prisms, volcanic arcs, fold-thrust belts, stretched continental crust, strike-slip faults, and ocean floor. The authors conclude that: (1) North America and Eurasia remained relatively fixed to each other until the latest Cretaceous-Paleocene opening of the Labrador Sea-Baffin Bay and Greenland-Norwegian and Eurasian basins (earlier convergence between North America and Eurasia in the Bering Sea region shown on many reconstructions are artifacts of incorrect plate reconstructions); (2) the North Slope-Seward-Chukotka block has constituted an isthmus connection between North America and northeast Asia since at least the middle Paleozoic and did not rotate away from the Canadian Arctic; (3) the Canada basin opened behind a clockwise-rotating Alpha Cordillera-Mendeleyev ridge arc during the Early to middle Cretaceous and consumed older, Paleozoic(.) Makarov basin ocean floor (the Chukchi cap is a detached continental fragment derived from the Beaufort Sea; the North Slope Arctic margin is a left-lateral transform fault associated with the opening of the Canada basin); and (4) the Nares Strait fault has a net relative displacement of approximately 25 km, but actual motion between Greenland and northern Ellesmere was about 250 km of strongly transpressive motion that resulted in the Eurekan and Svalbardian orogenies.

  12. Pacific plate slab pull and intraplate deformation in the early Cenozoic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Butterworth

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Large tectonic plates are known to be susceptible to internal deformation, leading to a~range of phenomena including intraplate volcanism. However, the space and time dependence of intraplate deformation and its relationship with changing plate boundary configurations, subducting slab geometries, and absolute plate motion is poorly understood. We utilise a buoyancy-driven Stokes flow solver, BEM-Earth, to investigate the contribution of subducting slabs through time on Pacific plate motion and plate-scale deformation, and how this is linked to intraplate volcanism. We produce a series of geodynamic models from 62 to 42 Ma in which the plates are driven by the attached subducting slabs and mantle drag/suction forces. We compare our modelled intraplate deformation history with those types of intraplate volcanism that lack a clear age progression. Our models suggest that changes in Cenozoic subduction zone topology caused intraplate deformation to trigger volcanism along several linear seafloor structures, mostly by reactivation of existing seamount chains, but occasionally creating new volcanic chains on crust weakened by fracture zones and extinct ridges. Around 55 Ma, subduction of the Pacific-Izanagi ridge reconfigured the major tectonic forces acting on the plate by replacing ridge push with slab pull along its northwestern perimeter, causing lithospheric extension along pre-existing weaknesses. Large-scale deformation observed in the models coincides with the seamount chains of Hawaii, Louisville, Tokelau and Gilbert during our modelled time period of 62 to 42 Ma. We suggest that extensional stresses between 72 and 52 Ma are the likely cause of large parts of the formation of the Gilbert chain and that localised extension between 62 and 42 Ma could cause late-stage volcanism along the Musicians volcanic ridges. Our models demonstrate that early Cenozoic changes in Pacific plate driving forces only cause relatively minor changes in Pacific

  13. Quaternary tectonics of recent basins in northwestern Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, V. G.; Shalaeva, E. A.; Saakyan, L. Kh.; Bachmanov, D. M.; Lebedev, V. A.; Trikhunkov, Ya. I.; Simakova, A. N.; Avagyan, A. V.; Tesakov, A. S.; Frolov, P. D.; Lyubin, V. P.; Belyaeva, E. V.; Latyshev, A. V.; Ozherelyev, D. V.; Kolesnichenko, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    New data on the stratigraphy, faults, and formation history of lower to middle Pleistocene rocks in Late Cenozoic basins of northwestern Armenia are presented. It has been established that the low-mountain topography created by tectonic movements and volcanic activity existed in the region by the onset of the Pleistocene. The manifestations of two geodynamic structure-forming factors became clear in Pleistocene: (i) collisional interaction of plates due to near-meridional compression and (ii) deep tectogenesis and magma formation expressed in the distribution of vertical movements and volcanism. The general uplift of the territory, which was also related to deep processes, reached 350-500 m in basins and 600-800 m in mountain ranges over the last 0.5 Ma. The early Pleistocene ( 1.8 Ma) low- and medium-mountain topography has been reconstructed by subtraction of the latest deformations and uplift of the territory. Ancient human ancestry appeared at that time.

  14. Understanding the uplift pattern in Mesozoic and Cenozoic,, eastern Dabie area, China using fission track dating of apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qianhong; Liu Shunsheng

    2002-01-01

    By using the fission track dating technique, a preliminary study was carried out on the fission track ages (FTA) of apatite, their distribution patterns and hints over the tectonics activities during Mesozoic and Cenozoic in the east Dabie area. Attempts were also made to improve the conventional statistical method for the tracks. Ranging from 59.4 +- 3.4 Ma to 105.6 +- 9.8 Ma, the FTA results of apatite spread in the wide range and increased rapidly from the east to the west area. Sine 95 Ma, the uplift rate has been quite slow and asymmetry. The FTA value in the middle area of Xiaotian-Mozitan Fault may imply its uplift in Cretaceous. The faulting should be the main control factor for the uplift of this area

  15. Tectonic Vocabulary & Materialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Beim, Anne; Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    . On the occasion of the Second International Conference on Structures & Architecture held in July 2013 in Portugal the authors organized a special session entitled From open structures to the cladding of control bringing together researchers from the Nordic countries to discuss this issue. Likewise the initiative......By referring to the fundamental question of how we unite aesthetics and technology – tectonic theory is necessarily a focal point in the development of the architectural discipline. However, a critical reconsideration of the role of tectonic theory seems necessary when facing the present everyday...... conditions of the built environment. We see an increasing number of square meters in ordinary housing, in commercial buildings and in public buildings such as hospitals and schools that are dealt with as performative structural frameworks rather than qualitative spaces for habitation and contemplation...

  16. Relating Cenozoic North Sea sediments to topography in southern Norway:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Stratford, Wanda Rose

    2010-01-01

    the Shetland platform continued throughout the Cenozoic while supply from southern Norway increased markedly around the Eocene–Oligocene, coeval with the greenhouse–icehouse transition. Mass balance calculations of sediment and eroded rock volumes suggest that while some topography along the western margin...... that Plio-Pleistocene erosion over-deepened a pre-existing topography....

  17. Patterns of Cenozoic sediment flux from western Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gołędowski, Bartosz; Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.

    2012-01-01

    deposits in the North Sea, the post-mid-Miocene Molo and Kai Formations of the Norwegian Shelf, the southern North Sea delta system and large volumes of the Late Pliocene-Holocene Naust Formation. The sediment flux from Scandinavia during the Cenozoic is in general agreement with the detrital flux...

  18. Shallow gas in Cenozoic sediments of the Southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampe, Anna F.; Lutz, Rüdiger; Franke, Dieter; Thöle, Hauke; Arfai, Jashar

    2013-04-01

    Shallow petroleum systems in the southern North Sea are known for several decades but they were not actively explored for a long time. In recent years these unconventional shallow petroleum systems are studied in greater detail and one shallow gas field (A-12) is in production in the Netherlands. Additionally, oil was encountered in Miocene sandstones in the southern Danish North Sea (Lille John well) just north of the Danish-German border. Seismic amplitude anomalies are an indication for hydrocarbons in sediments. Therefore we have mapped the occurrence of seismic amplitude anomalies in the German North Sea based on more than 25.000 km of 2D seismic data and around 4.000 km2 of 3D seismic data. Amplitude anomalies are ubiquitous phenomena in the study area. These anomalies are not only caused by hydrocarbons but also by changing lithologies e.g. peat or fluid migration. Therefore several classes of seismic anomalies, e.g. bright spots, chimneys, blanking areas and velocity pull-down were mapped. Examples for these classes were studied with AVO (amplitude variation with offset) analyses to verify the existence or non-existence of gas in the sediments. Shallow gas can be produced and transported through the dense pipeline grid of the southern and central North Sea or it could be burned offshore close to wind parks in small power plants and the electric energy then transported through the existing power connections of the wind parks. Thus enabling a continuous energy supply during calm wind periods. This study is carried out within the framework of the project "Geoscientific Potential of the German North Sea (GPDN)" in which the Cenozoic sedimentary system was mapped in great detail. A detailed model of delta evolution (Baltic river system) was developed which serves as a structural framework. The studied interval is time equivalent to the Utsira formation which is used offshore Norway for sequestration of CO2. These different possibilities of using or exploiting

  19. Late Cenozoic fluvial successions in northern and western India: an overview and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, R.; Kumar, R.; Sinha, S.; Tandon, S. K.; Gibling, M. R.

    2007-11-01

    Late Cenozoic fluvial successions are widespread in India. They include the deposits of the Siwalik basin which represent the accumulations of the ancient river systems of the Himalayan foreland basin. Palaeomagnetic studies reveal that fluvial architecture and styles of deposition were controlled by Himalayan tectonics as well as by major climatic fluctuations during the long (∼13 Ma) span of formation. The Indo-Gangetic plains form the world's most extensive Quaternary alluvial plains, and display spatially variable controls on sedimentation: Himalayan tectonics in the frontal parts, climate in the middle reaches, and eustasy in the lower reaches close to the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta. Climatic effects were mediated by strong fluctuations in the SW Indian Monsoon, and Himalayan rivers occupy deep valleys in the western Ganga plains where stream power is high, cut in part during early Holocene monsoon intensification; the broad interfluves record the simultaneous aggradation of plains-fed rivers since ∼100 ka. The eastward increase in precipitation across the Ganga Plains results in rivers with low stream power and a very high sediment flux, resulting in an aggradational mode and little incision. The river deposits of semi-arid to arid western India form important archives of Quaternary climate change through their intercalation with the eolian deposits of the Thar Desert. Although the synthesis documents strong variability-both spatial and temporal-in fluvial stratigraphy, climatic events such as the decline in precipitation during the Last Glacial Maximum and monsoon intensification in the early Holocene have influenced fluvial dynamics throughout the region.

  20. Three-dimensional geologic mapping of the Cenozoic basin fill, Amargosa Desert basin, Nevada and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Emily M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the subsurface geologic framework of the Cenozoic basin fill that underlies the Amargosa Desert in southern Nevada and southeastern California has been improved by using borehole data to construct three-dimensional lithologic and interpreted facies models. Lithologic data from 210 boreholes from a 20-kilometer (km) by 90-km area were reduced to a limited suite of descriptors based on geologic knowledge of the basin and distributed in three-dimensional space using interpolation methods. The resulting lithologic model of the Amargosa Desert basin portrays a complex system of interfingered coarse- to fine-grained alluvium, playa and palustrine deposits, eolian sands, and interbedded volcanic units. Lithologic units could not be represented in the model as a stacked stratigraphic sequence due to the complex interfingering of lithologic units and the absence of available time-stratigraphic markers. Instead, lithologic units were grouped into interpreted genetic classes, such as playa or alluvial fan, to create a three-dimensional model of the interpreted facies data. Three-dimensional facies models computed from these data portray the alluvial infilling of a tectonically formed basin with intermittent internal drainage and localized regional groundwater discharge. The lithologic and interpreted facies models compare favorably to resistivity, aeromagnetic, and geologic map data, lending confidence to the interpretation.

  1. LOWLID FORMATION AND PLATE TECTONICS ON EXOPLANETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenkovic, V.; Noack, L.; Breuer, D.

    2009-12-01

    The last years of astronomical observation have opened the doors to a universe filled with extrasolar planets. Detection techniques still only offer the possibility to detect mainly Super-Earths above five Earth masses. But detection techniques do steadily improve and are offering the possibility to detect even smaller planets. The observations show that planets seem to exist in many possible sizes just as the planets and moons of our own solar system do. It is only a natural question to ask if planetary mass has an influence on some key habitability factors such as on plate tectonics, allowing us to test which exoplanets might be more likely habitable than others, and allowing us to understand if plate tectonics on Earth is a stable or a critical, instable process that could easily be perturbed. Here we present results derived from 1D parameterized thermal evolution and 2D/3D computer models, showing how planetary mass influences the propensity of plate tectonics for planets with masses ranging from 0.1 to 10 Earth masses. Lately [2, 3] studied the effect of planetary mass on the ability to break plates and hence initiate plate tectonics - but both derived results contradictory to the other. We think that one of the reasons why both studies [2, 3] are not acceptable in their current form is partly due to an oversimplification. Both treated viscosity only temperature-dependent but neglected the effect pressure has on enlarging the viscosity in the deep mantle. More massive planets have therefore a stronger pressure-viscosity-coupling making convection at high pressures sluggish or even impossible. For planets larger than two Earth masses we observe that a conductive lid (termed low-lid) forms above the core-mantle boundary and thus reduces the effective convective part of the mantle when including a pressure-dependent term into the viscosity laws as shown in [1]. Moreover [2, 3] use time independent steady state models neglecting the fact that plate tectonics is a

  2. Cenozoic pulsed compression of Da'an-Dedu Fault Zone in Songliao Basin (NE China) and its implications for earthquake potential: Evidence from seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Peizhen; Min, Wei; Wei, Qinghai; Zhao, Bin

    2018-01-01

    The Da'an-Dedu Fault Zone (DDFZ) is a major tectonic feature cutting through the Songliao Basin from south to north in NE China. Pulsed compression deformation of DDFZ during the Cenozoic implies a complex geodynamic process, and the latest stage of which occurred in the Quaternary directly influences the present seismicity of the interior basin. Although most of the evidence for Quaternary deformation about the Songliao Basin in the past decades was concentrated in marginal faults, all five earthquake swarms with magnitudes over 5.0 along the buried DDFZ with no surface expression during the past 30 years suggest it is a main seismogenic structure with seismic potential, which should deserve more attention of geologists. However, limited by the coverage of the Quaternary sedimentary and absence of strong historic and instrumental earthquakes records (M > 7), the geometric pattern, Quaternary activity and seismic potential of the DDFZ remain poorly understood. Thus, unlike previous geophysical studies focused on crust/mantle velocity structure across the fault and the aim of exploring possible mineral resources in the basin, in this study we have integrated a variety of the latest seismic data and drilling holes from petroleum explorations and shallow-depth seismic reflection profiles, to recognize the Cenozoic pulsed compression deformation of the DDFZ, and to discuss its implication for earthquake potential. The results show that at least four stages of compression deformation have occurred along the DDFZ in the Cenozoic: 65 Ma, 23 Ma, 5.3 Ma, and 1.8 Ma, respectively, although the geodynamic process behind which still in dispute. The results also imply that the tectonic style of the DDFZ fits well with the occurrence of modern seismic swarms. Moderate earthquake potential (M ≤ 7.0) is suggested along the DDFZ.

  3. Cyclic Sequences, Events and Evolution of the Sino-Korean Plate,with a Discussion on the Evolution of Molar-tooth Carbonates,Phosphorites and Source Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xianghua; GE Ming

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an account of the research that the authors conducted on the cyclic sequences, events and evolutionary history from Proterozoic to Meso-Cenozoic in the Sino-Korean plate based on the principle of the Cosmos-Earth System. The authors divided this plate into 20 super-cyclic or super-mega-cyclic periods and more than 100 Oort periods. The research focused on important sea flooding events, uplift interruption events, tilting movement events, molar-tooth carbonate events, thermal events, polarity reversal events, karst events, volcanic explosion events and storm events, as well as types of resource areas and paleotectonic evolution. By means of the isochronous theory of the Cosmos-Earth System periodicity and based on long-excentricity and periodicity, the authors elaborately studied the paleogeographic evolution of the aulacogen of the Sino-Korean plate, the oolitic beach platform formation, the development of foreland basin and continental rift valley basin, and reconstructed the evolution of tectonic paleogeography and stratigraphic framework in the Sino-Korean plate in terms of evolutionary maps. Finally, the authors gave a profound discussion on the formation and development of molar-tooth carbonates, phosphorites and source rocks.

  4. Mantle structure and tectonic history of SE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert; Spakman, Wim

    2015-09-01

    that detached in the Early Miocene such as the Sula slab, now found in the lower mantle north of Lombok, and the Proto-South China Sea slab now at depths below 700 km curving from northern Borneo to the Philippines. Based on our tectonic model we interpret virtually all features seen in upper mantle and lower mantle to depths of at least 1200 km to be the result of Cenozoic subduction.

  5. Fires in the Cenozoic: a late flowering of flammable ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Modern flammable ecosystems include tropical and subtropical savannas, steppe grasslands, boreal forests, and temperate sclerophyll shrublands. Despite the apparent fiery nature of much contemporary vegetation, terrestrial fossil evidence would suggest we live in a time of low fire activity relative to the deep past. The inertinite content of coal, fossil charcoal, is strikingly low from the Eocene to the Pleistocene and no charcoalified mesofossils have been reported for the Cenozoic. Marine...

  6. Preliminary discussion on prospecting potential for sandstone-type uranium deposits in meso-cenozoic basins, northern Ordos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Yongqiang

    2002-01-01

    Characteristics of the regional stratigraphy, tectonic movement, geologic evolution and hydrogeology are briefly introduced. Using the metallogenic theory and prospecting criteria for interlayer oxidation zone sandstone-type uranium deposits, the author analyses the prospecting potential and main prospecting targets in the region, and proposes suggestions for further prospecting work as well

  7. Late Tharsis tectonic activity and implications for Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouley, S.; Baratoux, D.; Paulien, N.; Missenard, Y.; Saint-Bezar, B.

    2017-12-01

    Constraining the timing of Tharsis volcanism is critical to understanding the planet's evolution including its climate, surface environment and mantle dynamics. The tectonic history of the Tharsis bulge was previously documented from the distribution and ages of related tectonic features [1]. Here we revisit the ages of 7493 Tharsis-related tectonic features based on their relationship with stratigraphic units defined in the new geological map [2]. Conversely to previous tectonic mapping [1], which suggested that Tharsis growth was nearly achieved during the Noachian, we find a protracted growth of Tharsis during the Hesperian. Faulting at Tempe Terra, Claritas and Coracis Fossae and Thaumasia Planum confirms that tectonic deformation started during the Noachian. Accumulated tectonic deformation was maximum in the Early Hesperian for compressional strain (Solis, Lunae and Ascuris Planum) and extended over time from Noachian to Amazonian for extensional strain (Noctis Labyrinthus and Fossae, Sinai Planum and Tractus, Ulysses and Fortuna fossae, Alba Patera). This new scenario is consistent with a protracted growth of Tharsis dome during the Hesperian and with the timing a large Tharsis-driven true polar wander post-dating the incision of Late Noachian/Hesperian valley networks[3]. References:[1] Anderson et al. JGR-Planets 106, E9, 20,563-20,585 (2001).[2] Tanaka, K.L. et al. Geologic map of Mars (2014). [3] Bouley et al. Nature doi:10.1038 (2016)

  8. Active Tectonics Revealed by River Profiles along the Puqu Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Lu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Puqu Fault is situated in Southern Tibet. It is influenced by the eastward extrusion of Northern Tibet and carries the clockwise rotation followed by the southward extrusion. Thus, the Puqu Fault is bounded by the principal dynamic zones and the tectonic evolution remains active alongside. This study intends to understand the tectonic activity in the Puqu Fault Region from the river profiles obtained from the remotely sensed satellite imagery. A medium resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM, 20 m was generated from an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER stereo pair of images and the stream network in this region was extracted from this DEM. The indices of slope and drainage area were subsequently calculated from this ASTER DEM. Based on the stream power law, the area-slope plots of the streams were delineated to derive the indices of channel concavity and steepness, which are closely related to tectonic activity. The results show the active tectonics varying significantly along the Puqu Fault, although the potential influence of glaciations may exist. These results are expected to be useful for a better understanding of tectonic evolution in Southeastern Tibet.

  9. Extending Whole-earth Tectonics To The Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, V. R.; Maruyama, S.; Dohm, J. M.

    Based on the need to explain a great many geological and geophysical anomalies on Mars, and stimulated by the new results from the Mars Global Surveyor Mission, we propose a conceptual model of whole-EARTH (Episodic Annular Revolving Thermal Hydrologic) tectonics for the long-term evolution of terrestrial planets. The theory emphasizes (1) the importance of water in planetary evolution, and (2) the physi- cal transitions in modes of mantle convection in relation to planetary heat produc- tion. Depending on their first-order geophysical parameters and following accretion and differentiation from volatile-rich planetessimals, terrestrial planets should evolve through various stages of mantle convection, including magma ocean, plate tectonic, and stagnant lid processes. If a water ocean is able to condense from the planet's early steam atmosphere, an early regime of plate tectonics will follow the initial magma ocean. This definitely happened on earth, probably on Mars, and possibly on Venus. The Mars history led to transfer of large amounts of water to the mantle during the pe- riod of heavy bombardment. Termination of plate tectonics on Mars during the heavy bombardment period led to initiation of superplumes at Tharsis and Elysium, where long-persistent volcanism and water outbursts dominated much of later Martian his- tory. For Venus, warming of the early sun made the surface ocean unstable, eliminating its early plate-tectonic regime. Although Venus now experiences stagnant-lid convec- tion with episodic mantle overturns, the water subducted to its lower mantle during the ancient plate-tectonic regime manifests itself in the initation of volatile-rich plumes that dominate its current tectonic regime.

  10. End Late Paleozoic tectonic stress field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ju

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the end Late Paleozoic tectonic stress field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin by interpreting stress-response structures (dykes, folds, faults with slickenside and conjugate joints. The direction of the maximum principal stress axes is interpreted to be NW–SE (about 325°, and the accommodated motion among plates is assigned as the driving force of this tectonic stress field. The average value of the stress index R′ is about 2.09, which indicates a variation from strike-slip to compressive tectonic stress regime in the study area during the end Late Paleozoic period. The reconstruction of the tectonic field in the southern edge of Junggar Basin provides insights into the tectonic deformation processes around the southern Junggar Basin and contributes to the further understanding of basin evolution and tectonic settings during the culmination of the Paleozoic.

  11. Tectonic Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Marie; Fisker, Anna Marie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    ’ is an example of this sensuous interior transformation of a house into a home, a level of detailing which is, however, seldom represented in the prefabricated house. Consequently, this paper investigates whether interiority can be developed as a tectonic theory and design principle for uniting home and system...... and assembly processes, seems a paradoxical challenge which has left prefabricated houses raw constructions rather than inhabitable homes. Based on the hypothesis that home is determined spatially via sensuous impressions of interiority at the threshold of furniture: The bath in Le Corbusier’s ‘Villa Savoye...... in the development of novel prefab solutions. This is pursued trough a deductive study comparing Gottfried Semper’s theories on the origins of construction with Werner Blaser’s technical and practical studies of the joint. In combining Blaser’s constructive understanding of the joint with the interior softness...

  12. Did the Bering Sea Form as a Cenozoic Backarc Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, R. J.; Barth, G. A.; Scheirer, D. S.; Scholl, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the origins of Bering Sea marginal basins (Aleutian, Bowers, and Komandorsky basins; AB, BB, KB) is key for reconstructing N. Pacific tectonic and magmatic evolution. New acquisitions and recompilations of MCS, OBS, and potential field data (Barth et al. poster. this session) for USGS Extended Continental Shelf project and selection of Aleutians as GeoPrisms Subduction Cycles and Deformation focus site stimulate reconsideration of BB, KB, and especially AB origins. AB has long been regarded as N. Pacific crust trapped when the Aleutian subduction began ~45-50 Ma. BB and KB probably formed together as Miocene backarc basins. Presence of Oligo-Miocene arc volcanics on Bowers and Shirshov ridges suggests that these are remnant arcs, orphaned by AB and KB opening. Seven lines of evidence suggest that AB formed as a Paleogene backarc basin: 1) AB heatflow suggests an age of about 44 Ma (Langseth et al 1980 JGR). 2) Formation of NNW-trending rift basins on Bering shelf (Navarin, Pribilof, and St. George basins) in Paleogene time indicate extension at this time. 3) The early Paleogene "red unconformity" of the Beringian margin could indicate uplift, erosion, and subsidence associated with AB opening. 4) ~N-S magnetic anomalies in AB contrasts with E-W Kula anomalies on N. Pacific, indicating that the two tracts of oceanic crust formed at different spreading ridges. 5) Thicker sediment in AB (2-4 km) vs. BB and KB (oceanic crust.ectonic scenario for formation of Aleutian Arc and Bering Sea basins. Green = present land; yellow = shelf; AB = Aleutian Basin; KB = Komandorsky Basin; BB = Bowers Basin; SR = Shirshov Ridge, BR = Bowers Ridge; Red = active volcanism and spreading ; Blue = extinct volcanism and spreading

  13. Tectonic forward modelling of positive inversion structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, C. [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie; Schmidt, C. [Landesamt fuer Bergbau, Energie und Geologie (LBEG), Hannover (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Positive tectonic inversion structures are common features that were recognized in many deformed sedimentary basins (Lowell, 1995). They are characterized by a two phase fault evolution, where initial normal faulting was followed by reverse faulting along the same fault, accompanied by the development of hanging wall deformation. Analysing the evolution of such inversion structures is important for understanding the tectonics of sedimentary basins and the formation of hydrocarbon traps. We used a 2D tectonic forward modelling approach to simulate the stepwise structural evolution of inversion structures in cross-section. The modelling was performed with the software FaultFold Forward v. 6, which is based on trishear kinematics (Zehnder and Allmendinger, 2000). Key aspect of the study was to derive the controlling factors for the geometry of inversion structures. The simulation results show, that the trishear approach is able to reproduce the geometry of tectonic inversion structures in a realistic way. This implies that inversion structures are simply fault-related folds that initiated as extensional fault-propagation folds, which were subsequently transformed into compressional fault-propagation folds when the stress field changed. The hanging wall deformation is a consequence of the decrease in slip towards the tip line of the fault. Trishear angle and propagation-to-slip ratio are the key controlling factors for the geometry of the fault-related deformation. We tested trishear angles in the range of 30 - 60 and propagation-to-slip ratios between 1 and 2 in increments of 0.1. Small trishear angles and low propagation-to-slip ratios produced tight folds, whereas large trishear angles and high propagation-to-slip ratios led to more open folds with concentric shapes. This has a direct effect on the size and geometry of potential hydrocarbon traps. The 2D simulations can be extended to a pseudo 3D approach, where a set of parallel cross-sections is used to describe

  14. Characterization of Stream Channel Evolution Due to Extensional Tectonics Along the Western Margin of North Boulder Basin (Bull Mountain), SW Montana with the Use of Geologic Mapping and Thermochronologic (U-Th/He) Dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, K.; Douglas, B. J.; Yanites, B.

    2017-12-01

    Landscape response to active tectonics, such as fault motion or regional uplift, can be recorded in river profiles as changes in slope (i.e. knickpoints) or topography. North Boulder basin region (SW Montana), experienced two separate phases of extension, from 45 - 35 Ma and again beginning 14 Ma to the present, producing basin-and-range style fault-blocks. Focusing on the Bull Mountain region, located on the western margin of the North Boulder basin, data is collected to test the hypothesis that Bull Mountain is located on the hanging wall of a half-graben. Our objective is to elucidate the active tectonics of the study area within a regional context by utilizing river profile analysis and thermochronometric data. High-resolution (distribution of water, which is an important commodity in SW Montana for ranchers and farmers. Thus, the ability to discern the probability of recurring tectonic events and the effects on the regional watersheds, could help facilitate solutions before these events take place.

  15. Discovery of Latest Cretaceous OIB-type alkaline gabbros in the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt, NE Turkey: Evidence for tectonic emplacement of seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyuboglu, Yener; Dudas, Francis O.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Liu, Ze; Yılmaz-Değerli, Sedanur

    2018-06-01

    The Meso-Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt, a mountain chain extending parallel to the southeastern margin of the Black Sea, has been controversial for the last forty years. Here we present data for a newly discovered alkaline gabbro body and its surrounding basaltic rocks in the northern part of the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt. We also provide a comprehensive assessment of the Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean region. The gabbroic body is bounded by reverse faults along its northern and southern borders and is surrounded by vesicular, pillow-fragment breccias and pillow basalts. Mineral compositions suggest that crystallization of the gabbros began at about 1170 °C, and the lowest preserved crystallization T is near 1000 °C. Estimated pressure at the beginning of crystallization is 5.7-7.4 kb. The 40Ar/39Ar dating of kaersutite and plagioclase and Usbnd Pb dating of titanite indicated that the Hayrat gabbro crystallized at 67 Ma (Late Maastrichtian). Whole rock major-trace-rare earth element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data indicate that the gabbros and basalts have different origins. The gabbros are alkaline and exhibit the geochemical features of OIB, whereas the basalts are tholeiitic and reveal depletions of HFSE that are similar to those of arc rocks. The gabbros are strongly fractionated, and derive from an enriched, lithospheric mantle source, with partial melting occurring in a garnet-stable environment. The basalts are less fractionated, and probably derive from a shallower source in which spinel peridotite was the predominant lithology. Considering all new and old geological, geochemical, geochronological and geophysical data from the Black Sea Basin and the Eastern Pontides-Lesser Caucasus-Alborz Orogenic Belt, we suggest that the alkaline Hayrat gabbro formed in an oceanic intraplate setting, and was accreted to the forearc region of the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt during

  16. Cenozoic intra-plate magmatism in the Darfur volcanic province: mantle source, phonolite-trachyte genesis and relation to other volcanic provinces in NE Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Friedrich; Pudlo, Dieter; Franz, Gerhard; Romer, Rolf L.; Dulski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Chemical and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of Late Cenozoic to Quaternary small-volume phonolite, trachyte and related mafic rocks from the Darfur volcanic province/NW-Sudan have been investigated. Isotope signatures indicate variable but minor crustal contributions. Some phonolitic and trachytic rocks show the same isotopic composition as their primitive mantle-derived parents, and no crustal contributions are visible in the trace element patterns of these samples. The magmatic evolution of the evolved rocks is dominated by crystal fractionation. The Si-undersaturated strongly alkaline phonolite and the Si-saturated mildly alkaline trachyte can be modelled by fractionation of basanite and basalt, respectively. The suite of basanite-basalt-phonolite-trachyte with characteristic isotope signatures from the Darfur volcanic province fits the compositional features of other Cenozoic intra-plate magmatism scattered in North and Central Africa (e.g., Tibesti, Maghreb, Cameroon line), which evolved on a lithosphere that was reworked or formed during the Neoproterozoic.

  17. Metallogenesis and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Eremin, Roman A.; Ratkin, Vladimir V.; Dawson, Kenneth M.; Shpikerman, Vladimir I.; Goryachev, Nikolai A.; Byalobzhesky, Stanislav G.; Frolov, Yuri F.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Koch, Richard D.; Monger, James W.H.; Pozdeev, Anany I.; Rozenblum, Ilya S.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Scotese, Christopher R.; Sidorov, Anatoly A.

    2005-01-01

    The Proterozoic and Phanerozoic metallogenic and tectonic evolution of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera is recorded in the cratons, craton margins, and orogenic collages of the Circum-North Pacific mountain belts that separate the North Pacific from the eastern North Asian and western North American Cratons. The collages consist of tectonostratigraphic terranes and contained metallogenic belts, which are composed of fragments of igneous arcs, accretionary-wedge and subduction-zone complexes, passive continental margins, and cratons. The terranes are overlapped by continental-margin-arc and sedimentary-basin assemblages and contained metallogenic belts. The metallogenic and geologic history of terranes, overlap assemblages, cratons, and craton margins has been complicated by postaccretion dismemberment and translation during strike-slip faulting that occurred subparallel to continental margins. Seven processes overlapping in time were responsible for most of metallogenic and geologic complexities of the region (1) In the Early and Middle Proterozoic, marine sedimentary basins developed on major cratons and were the loci for ironstone (Superior Fe) deposits and sediment-hosted Cu deposits that occur along both the North Asia Craton and North American Craton Margin. (2) In the Late Proterozoic, Late Devonian, and Early Carboniferous, major periods of rifting occurred along the ancestral margins of present-day Northeast Asia and northwestern North America. The rifting resulted in fragmentation of each continent, and formation of cratonal and passive continental-margin terranes that eventually migrated and accreted to other sites along the evolving margins of the original or adjacent continents. The rifting also resulted in formation of various massive-sulfide metallogenic belts. (3) From about the late Paleozoic through the mid-Cretaceous, a succession of island arcs and contained igneous-arc-related metallogenic belts and tectonically paired

  18. Tectonic predictions with mantle convection models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltice, Nicolas; Shephard, Grace E.

    2018-04-01

    Over the past 15 yr, numerical models of convection in Earth's mantle have made a leap forward: they can now produce self-consistent plate-like behaviour at the surface together with deep mantle circulation. These digital tools provide a new window into the intimate connections between plate tectonics and mantle dynamics, and can therefore be used for tectonic predictions, in principle. This contribution explores this assumption. First, initial conditions at 30, 20, 10 and 0 Ma are generated by driving a convective flow with imposed plate velocities at the surface. We then compute instantaneous mantle flows in response to the guessed temperature fields without imposing any boundary conditions. Plate boundaries self-consistently emerge at correct locations with respect to reconstructions, except for small plates close to subduction zones. As already observed for other types of instantaneous flow calculations, the structure of the top boundary layer and upper-mantle slab is the dominant character that leads to accurate predictions of surface velocities. Perturbations of the rheological parameters have little impact on the resulting surface velocities. We then compute fully dynamic model evolution from 30 and 10 to 0 Ma, without imposing plate boundaries or plate velocities. Contrary to instantaneous calculations, errors in kinematic predictions are substantial, although the plate layout and kinematics in several areas remain consistent with the expectations for the Earth. For these calculations, varying the rheological parameters makes a difference for plate boundary evolution. Also, identified errors in initial conditions contribute to first-order kinematic errors. This experiment shows that the tectonic predictions of dynamic models over 10 My are highly sensitive to uncertainties of rheological parameters and initial temperature field in comparison to instantaneous flow calculations. Indeed, the initial conditions and the rheological parameters can be good enough

  19. Dynamic topography and the Cenozoic carbonate compensation depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S. M.; Moucha, R.; Raymo, M. E.; Derry, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    The carbonate compensation depth (CCD), the ocean depth at which the calcium carbonate accumulation rate goes to zero, can provide valuable insight into climatic and weathering conditions over the Cenozoic. The paleoposition of the CCD can be inferred from sediment core data. As the carbonate accumulation rate decreases linearly with depth between the lysocline and CCD, the CCD can be calculated using a linear regression on multiple sediment cores with known carbonate accumulation rates and paleodepths. It is therefore vital to have well-constrained estimates of paleodepths. Paleodepths are typically calculated using models of thermal subsidence and sediment loading and compaction. However, viscous convection-related stresses in the mantle can warp the ocean floor by hundreds of meters over broad regions and can also vary significantly over millions of years. This contribution to paleobathymetry, termed dynamic topography, can be calculated by modeling mantle flow backwards in time. Herein, we demonstrate the effect dynamic topography has on the inference of the late Cenozoic CCD with an example from the equatorial Pacific, considering sites from IODP Expeditions 320/321. The equatorial Pacific, given its large size and high productivity, is closely tied to the global carbon cycle. Accordingly, long-term changes in the equatorial Pacific CCD can be considered to reflect global changes in weathering fluxes and the carbon cycle, in addition to more regional changes in productivity and thermohaline circulation. We find that, when the dynamic topography contribution to bathymetry is accounted for, the equatorial Pacific CCD is calculated to be appreciably shallower at 30 Ma than previous estimates would suggest, implying a greater deepening of the Pacific CCD over the late Cenozoic.

  20. Cenozoic Methane-Seep Faunas of the Caribbean Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Kiel

    Full Text Available We report new examples of Cenozoic cold-seep communities from Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Trinidad, and Venezuela, and attempt to improve the stratigraphic dating of Cenozoic Caribbean seep communities using strontium isotope stratigraphy. Two seep faunas are distinguished in Barbados: the late Eocene mudstone-hosted 'Joes River fauna' consists mainly of large lucinid bivalves and tall abyssochrysoid gastropods, and the early Miocene carbonate-hosted 'Bath Cliffs fauna' containing the vesicomyid Pleurophopsis, the mytilid Bathymodiolus and small gastropods. Two new Oligocene seep communities from the Sinú River basin in Colombia consist of lucinid bivalves including Elongatolucina, thyasirid and solemyid bivalves, and Pleurophopsis. A new early Miocene seep community from Cuba includes Pleurophopsis and the large lucinid Meganodontia. Strontium isotope stratigraphy suggests an Eocene age for the Cuban Elmira asphalt mine seep community, making it the oldest in the Caribbean region. A new basal Pliocene seep fauna from the Dominican Republic is characterized by the large lucinid Anodontia (Pegophysema. In Trinidad we distinguish two types of seep faunas: the mudstone-hosted Godineau River fauna consisting mainly of lucinid bivalves, and the limestone-hosted Freeman's Bay fauna consisting chiefly of Pleurophopsis, Bathymodiolus, and small gastropods; they are all dated as late Miocene. Four new seep communities of Oligocene to Miocene age are reported from Venezuela. They consist mainly of large globular lucinid bivalves including Meganodontia, and moderately sized vesicomyid bivalves. After the late Miocene many large and typical 'Cenozoic' lucinid genera disappeared from the Caribbean seeps and are today known only from the central Indo-Pacific Ocean. We speculate that the increasingly oligotrophic conditions in the Caribbean Sea after the closure of the Isthmus of Panama in the Pliocene may have been unfavorable for such large

  1. Modes, tempo and spatial variability of Cenozoic cratonic denudation: morphoclimatic constraints from West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Anicet; Chardon, Dominique

    2010-05-01

    After the onset of Gondwana break-up in the Early Mesozoic, the emerged part of the African plate underwent long Greenhouse effect climatic periods and epeirogeny. The last Greenhouse effect period in the Early Cenozoic and the alternation of wet and dry climatic periods since the Eocene enhanced episodes of rock chemical weathering and laterite production, forming bauxites and ferricretes, interrupted by drier periods of dominantly mechanical denudation, shaping glacis [1]. In Sub-Saharan West Africa, this evolution resulted in pulsate and essentially climatically-forced denudation that has shaped an ubiquitous sequence of five stepped lateritic paleosurfaces that synchronously developed over Cenozoic times. The modes, timing and spatial variability of continental denudation of the region are investigated by combining geomorphologic and geochronological data sets. The geomorphologic data set comprises the altitudinal distribution of the lateritic paleosurfaces relicts and their differential elevation from 42 locations in Sub-Saharan West Africa where the sequence (or part of it) has been documented. The geochronological data set consists in the age ranges of each paleosurface tackled by radiometric 39Ar-40Ar dating of the neoformed oxy-hydroxides (i.e., cryptomelane, K1-2Mn8O16, nH2O, [4]) carried by their laterites at the Tambao reference site, Burkina Faso [1, 3]. Five groups of 39Ar-40Ar ages, ~ 59 - 45 Ma, ~ 29 - 24 Ma, ~ 18 - 11.5 Ma, ~ 7.2 - 5.8 Ma, and ~ 3.4 - 2.9 Ma, characterize periods of chemical weathering whereas the time laps between these groups of ages correspond to episodes of mechanical denudation that reflect physical shaping of the paleosurfaces. For the last 45 Ma, the denudation rate estimates (3 to 8 m Ma-1) are comparable with those derived on shorter time scale (103 to 106 y.) in the same region by the cosmogenic radionuclide method [2]. Combined with the geomorphologic data set, these age ranges allow the visualization of the regional

  2. The Ecology of Urban Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    2016-01-01

    This paper is related to previous research by the authors that examine the phenomenon of tectonics as architectural design theory and method. These studies have shown that the notion of tectonics at large is associated with exclusive architecture, and that, as a profession architects have...... to develop methods for applying tectonic knowledge extracted from significant existing examples for developing future practical methods (Frampton 2002: 81). The specific intention of this paper is to push the understanding of tectonics further, into the scale of the urban context and thereby to discuss...... using Hansen’s work as a case study. (Beim & Madsen (ed.) 2014) Methodologically this has been done by applying the notion of ‘urban tectonics’ inspired by the work of Eduard F. Sekler, as a critical lens. (Sekler 1964, Sekler 1965) Through this lens we study how Hansen was able to treat culture...

  3. Uranium and thorium in Cenozoic basaltods of Kamchatka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puzankov, Yu.M.

    1984-01-01

    Regularities in distribution of radioactive elements (RAE) in basaltoids of Kamchatka have been analyzed. The RAE concentration in samples was determined by γ-spectrometric method. The results compared with the instrumental neutron-activation analysis data are found to be in agreement. Results of evaluating the average contents of U, Th and roch-forming elements in ce-- nozoic basaltoids are presented. The radiogeochemical data enable to associate the origin of the Kamchatka Cenozoic basaltoids with both fractional melting of the upper mantle depleted of radioactive elements and the development of magmatic chambers in submerged blocks of the Pre-Cretaceous melanocratic basement the composition of which is close to oceanic tholeiite

  4. The Post-Eocene Evolution of the Doruneh Fault Region (Central Iran): The Intraplate Response to the Reorganization of the Arabia-Eurasia Collision Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayon, Meisam; Rossetti, Federico; Zattin, Massimiliano; Nozaem, Reza; Calzolari, Gabriele; Madanipour, Saeed; Salvini, Francesco

    2017-12-01

    The Cenozoic deformation history of Central Iran has been dominantly accommodated by the activation of major intracontinental strike-slip fault zones, developed in the hinterland domain of the Arabia-Eurasia convergent margin. Few quantitative temporal and kinematic constraints are available from these strike-slip deformation zones, hampering a full assessment of the style and timing of intraplate deformation in Iran and the understanding of the possible linkage to the tectonic reorganization of the Zagros collisional zone. This study focuses on the region to the north of the active trace of the sinistral Doruneh Fault. By combing structural and low-temperature apatite fission track (AFT) and (U-Th)/He (AHe) thermochronology investigations, we provide new kinematic and temporal constraints to the deformation history of Central Iran. Our results document a post-Eocene polyphase tectonic evolution dominated by dextral strike-slip tectonics, whose activity is constrained since the early Miocene in response to an early, NW-SE oriented paleo-σ1 direction. A major phase of enhanced cooling/exhumation is constrained at the Miocene/Pliocene boundary, caused by a switch of the maximum paleo-σ1 direction to N-S. When integrated into the regional scenario, these data are framed into a new tectonic reconstruction for the Miocene-Quaternary time lapse, where strike-slip deformation in the intracontinental domain of Central Iran is interpreted as guided by the reorganization of the Zagros collisional zone in the transition from an immature to a mature stage of continental collision.

  5. Discontinuities and sequences in the Tarat formation (Upper Visean) and the Arlit Unit (Namurian-Westphalian) at Arlit (Niger). Sedimentary climatic and tectonic evolution of the area during Carboniferous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sempere, T.; Beaudoin, B.

    1984-01-01

    The Tarat Formation is composed at Arlit of three sequences consisting of sandstones and black mudstones rich in organic matter of continental origin. The three of them are interpreted as estuarine sediments deposited in different tectonic frameworks. The Arlit Unit consists of motley argillaceous sandstones deposited in a very flat lacustrine or alluvial environment and under an arid climate. These formations are separated by a fundamental discontinuity linked to the structuration of the Tim Mersoi Trough. At regional scale, the sediments lying below this discontinuity are grouped in tectono-sedimentary supersequences, which are interpreted as biorhexistasic rhythms; their deposition was horizontally directed by complex evolving synsedimentary tectonics controlled by the N-S In Azawa Lineament, and was influenced by the permanent proximity of a northern sea. The sediments lying above the fundamental discontinuity belong to the ''Continental Intercalaire'' Supergroup; their deposition was influenced by the Tim Mersoi Trough. The whole Carboniferous sedimentation took place in a climatic context which evolved from cold (Lower Visean) to warm and arid (Upper Carboniferous) through temperate climates [fr

  6. Assessment of relative active tectonics, south central Alborz (north Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavari, R.; Ghorashi, M.; Arian, M.

    2009-04-01

    The paper present a method for evaluating relative active tectonics based on geomorphic indices useful in evaluating morphology and topography. Indices used include: stream length-gradient index (SL), drainage basin asymmetry (Af), hypsometric integral (Hi), ratio of valley-floor width to valley height (Vf), index of drainage basin shape (Bs), and index of mountain front sinuosity (Smf). Results from the analysis are accumulated and expressed as an index of relative active tectonics (Iat), which we divide into four classes from relatively low to highest tectonic activity. The study area along the south flank of the central Alborz mountain range in north Iran is an ideal location to test the concept of an index to predict relative tectonic activity on a basis of area rather than a single valley or mountain front. The recent investigations show that neotectonism has played a key role in the geomorphic evolution of this part of the Alborz mountain range. Geomorphic indices indicate the presence of differential uplifting in the geological past. The area surrounding the Amirkabir lake shows very high relative tectonic activity.

  7. A Cenozoic record of the equatorial Pacific carbonate compensation depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pälike, Heiko; Lyle, Mitchell W; Nishi, Hiroshi; Raffi, Isabella; Ridgwell, Andy; Gamage, Kusali; Klaus, Adam; Acton, Gary; Anderson, Louise; Backman, Jan; Baldauf, Jack; Beltran, Catherine; Bohaty, Steven M; Bown, Paul; Busch, William; Channell, Jim E T; Chun, Cecily O J; Delaney, Margaret; Dewangan, Pawan; Dunkley Jones, Tom; Edgar, Kirsty M; Evans, Helen; Fitch, Peter; Foster, Gavin L; Gussone, Nikolaus; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Hathorne, Ed C; Hayashi, Hiroki; Herrle, Jens O; Holbourn, Ann; Hovan, Steve; Hyeong, Kiseong; Iijima, Koichi; Ito, Takashi; Kamikuri, Shin-ichi; Kimoto, Katsunori; Kuroda, Junichiro; Leon-Rodriguez, Lizette; Malinverno, Alberto; Moore, Ted C; Murphy, Brandon H; Murphy, Daniel P; Nakamura, Hideto; Ogane, Kaoru; Ohneiser, Christian; Richter, Carl; Robinson, Rebecca; Rohling, Eelco J; Romero, Oscar; Sawada, Ken; Scher, Howie; Schneider, Leah; Sluijs, Appy; Takata, Hiroyuki; Tian, Jun; Tsujimoto, Akira; Wade, Bridget S; Westerhold, Thomas; Wilkens, Roy; Williams, Trevor; Wilson, Paul A; Yamamoto, Yuhji; Yamamoto, Shinya; Yamazaki, Toshitsugu; Zeebe, Richard E

    2012-08-30

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and climate are regulated on geological timescales by the balance between carbon input from volcanic and metamorphic outgassing and its removal by weathering feedbacks; these feedbacks involve the erosion of silicate rocks and organic-carbon-bearing rocks. The integrated effect of these processes is reflected in the calcium carbonate compensation depth, which is the oceanic depth at which calcium carbonate is dissolved. Here we present a carbonate accumulation record that covers the past 53 million years from a depth transect in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. The carbonate compensation depth tracks long-term ocean cooling, deepening from 3.0-3.5 kilometres during the early Cenozoic (approximately 55 million years ago) to 4.6 kilometres at present, consistent with an overall Cenozoic increase in weathering. We find large superimposed fluctuations in carbonate compensation depth during the middle and late Eocene. Using Earth system models, we identify changes in weathering and the mode of organic-carbon delivery as two key processes to explain these large-scale Eocene fluctuations of the carbonate compensation depth.

  8. Along-strike structural variation and thermokinematic development of the Cenozoic Bitlis-Zagros fold-thrust belt, Turkey and Iraqi Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Douglas E.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Koshnaw, Renas I.; Tamar-Agha, Mazin Y.; Yilmaz, Ismail O.

    2016-04-01

    The Bitlis-Zagros orogen in northern Iraq is a principal element of the Arabia-Eurasia continent collision and is characterized by the lateral intersection of two structural domains: the NW-SE trending Zagros proper system of Iran and the E-W trending Bitlis fold-thrust belt of Turkey and Syria. While these components in northern Iraq share a similar stratigraphic framework, they exhibit along-strike variations in the width and style of tectonic zones, fold morphology and trends, and structural inheritance. However, the distinctions of the Bitlis and Zagros segments remains poorly understood in terms of timing and deformation kinematics as well as first-order controls on fold-thrust development. Structural and stratigraphic study and seismic data combined with low-T thermochronometry provide the basis for reconstructions of the Bitlis-Zagros fold-thrust belt in southeastern Turkey and northern Iraq to elucidate the kinematic and temporal relationship of these two systems. Balanced cross-sections were constructed and incrementally restored to quantify the deformational evolution and use as input for thermokinematic models (FETKIN) to generate thermochronometric ages along the topographic surface of each cross-section line. The forward modeled thermochronometric ages from were then compared to new and previously published apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He and fission-track ages from southeastern Turkey and northern Iraq to test the validity of the timing, rate, and fault-motion geometry associated with each reconstruction. The results of these balanced theromokinematic restorations integrated with constraints from syn-tectonic sedimentation suggest that the Zagros belt between Erbil and Suleimaniyah was affected by an initial phase of Late Cretaceous exhumation related to the Proto-Zagros collision. During the main Zagros phase, deformation advanced rapidly and in-sequence from the Main Zagros Fault to the thin-skinned frontal thrusts (Kirkuk, Shakal, Qamar) from middle

  9. Is There a Tectonically Driven Supertidal Cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J. A. M.; Molloy, J. L.; Davies, H. S.; Duarte, J. C.

    2018-04-01

    Earth is 180 Myr into the current supercontinent cycle, and the next supercontinent is predicted to form in 250 Myr. The continuous changes in continental configuration can move the ocean between resonant states, and the semidiurnal tides are currently large compared to the past 252 Myr due to tidal resonance in the Atlantic. This leads to the hypothesis that there is a "supertidal" cycle linked to the supercontinent cycle. Here this is tested using new tectonic predictions for the next 250 Myr as bathymetry in a numerical tidal model. The simulations support the following hypothesis: a new tidal resonance will appear 150 Myr from now, followed by a decreasing tide as the supercontinent forms 100 Myr later. This affects the dissipation of tidal energy in the oceans, with consequences for the evolution of the Earth-Moon system, ocean circulation and climate, and implications for the ocean's capacity of hosting and evolving life.

  10. Soft Plate and Impact Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoff, Basil

    In the field of tectonics, most of our ideas are published in journals. This is not true of other fields, such as history, in which ideas are primarily published in books. Within my own field of structural geology, I can recall only one book, Strain Fades by E. Hansen (Springer-Verlag, 1971), which presents a new idea in book form. However, even this book is more useful for its philosophical approach and particular methodology of determining directions of folding, than for its overarching idea.Enter Soft Plate and Impact Tectonics, a new book with an interesting hypothesis that has been informally discussed in the geoscience community: A fundamental tenet of plate tectonics is incorrect—namely, that the plates are rigid. This assertion is evident when looking at any mountain range, and is perhaps most clearly stated in Molnar [1988].

  11. Radiolarians decreased silicification as an evolutionary response to reduced Cenozoic ocean silica availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, David B; Kotrc, Benjamin; Wulf, Gerwin; Schmidt, Daniela N

    2009-06-09

    It has been hypothesized that increased water column stratification has been an abiotic "universal driver" affecting average cell size in Cenozoic marine plankton. Gradually decreasing Cenozoic radiolarian shell weight, by contrast, suggests that competition for dissolved silica, a shared nutrient, resulted in biologic coevolution between radiolaria and marine diatoms, which expanded dramatically in the Cenozoic. We present data on the 2 components of shell weight change--size and silicification--of Cenozoic radiolarians. In low latitudes, increasing Cenozoic export of silica to deep waters by diatoms and decreasing nutrient upwelling from increased water column stratification have created modern silica-poor surface waters. Here, radiolarian silicification decreases significantly (r = 0.91, P stratification and abundance of diatoms. In high southern latitudes, Southern Ocean circulation, present since the late Eocene, maintains significant surface water silica availability. Here, radiolarian silicification decreased insignificantly (r = 0.58, P = 0.1), from approximately 0.13 at 35 Ma to 0.11 today. Trends in shell size in both time series are statistically insignificant and are not correlated with each other. We conclude that there is no universal driver changing cell size in Cenozoic marine plankton. Furthermore, biologic and physical factors have, in concert, by reducing silica availability in surface waters, forced macroevolutionary changes in Cenozoic low-latitude radiolarians.

  12. Tectonics: The meaning of form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karl; Brandt, Per Aage

    Tectonics – The meaning of form deals with one of the core topics of architecture: the relationship between form and content. In the world of architecture, form is not only made from brick, glass and wood. Form means something. When a material is processed with sufficient technical skill and insi...... perspectives. You can read the chapters in any order you like – from the beginning, end or the middle. There is no correct order. The project is methodologically inductive: the more essays you read, the broader your knowledge of tectonics get....

  13. On the origin and distribution of magnolias: Tectonics, DNA and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebda, R. J.; Irving, E.

    Extant magnolias have a classic disjunct distribution in southeast Asia and in the Americas between Canada and Brazil, and nowhere in between. Of the 17 sections (about 210 species) in two subgenera, only two, Tulipastrum and Rhytidospermum, are truly disjunct. Molecular analyses reveal that several North American species are basal forms suggesting that magnolias originated in North America, as indicated by their fossil record. We recognize four elements in their evolution. (1) Ancestral magnolias originated in the Late Cretaceous of North America in high mid-latitudes (45°-60°N) at low altitudes in a greenhouse climate. (2) During the exceptionally warm climate of the Eocene, magnolias spread eastwards, via the Disko Island and Thulean isthmuses, first to Europe, and then across Asia, still at low altitudes and high mid-latitudes. (3) With mid-Cenozoic global cooling, they shifted to lower mid-latitudes (30°-45°N), becoming extinct in Europe and southern Siberia, dividing a once continuous distribution into two, centred in eastern Asia and in North America. (4) In the late Cenozoic, as ice-house conditions developed, magnolias migrated southward from both centres into moist warm temperate upland sites in the newly uplifted mountains ranges of South and Central America, southeast Asia, and the High Archipelago, where they diversified. Thus the late Cenozoic evolution of magnolias is characterized by impoverishment of northern and diversification of southern species, the latter being driven by a combination of high relief and climate oscillations, and neither of the present centers of diversity is the center of origin. Disjunction at the generic level and within section Tulipastrum likely occurred as part of the general mid-Cenozoic southward displacement assisted by the development of north-south water barriers, especially the Turgai Strait across western Siberia. Disjunction in section Rhytidospermum could be Neogene.

  14. Tectonic microplates in a wax model of sea-floor spreading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Richard F; Ragnarsson, Rolf; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    Rotating, growing microplates are observed in a wax analogue model of sea-floor spreading. Wax microplates are kinematically similar to sea-floor tectonic microplates in terms of spreading rate and growth rate. Furthermore, their spiral pseudofault geometry is quantitatively consistent with Schouten's oceanic microplate model. These results suggest that Schouten's edge-driven microplate model captures the kinematics of tectonic microplate evolution on Earth. Based on the wax observations, a theory for the nucleation of overlapping spreading centres, the precursors of tectonic microplates, is developed

  15. Genesis of Cenozoic intraplate high Mg# andesites in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. Q.; Chen, L. H.; Zhong, Y.; Wang, X. J.

    2017-12-01

    High-Mg# andesites (HMAs) are usually generated in the converged plate boundary and have genetic relationships with slab subduction. However, it still remained controversial about the origin of those HMAs erupted in the intra-plate setting. Here we present major, trace element, and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions for the Cenozoic intra-plate HMAs from Northeast China to constrain their origin and formation process. Cenozoic Xunke volcanic rocks are located in the northern Lesser Khingan Range, covering an area of about 3, 000 km2. These volcanic rocks are mainly basaltic andesite and basaltic trachyandesite, with only several classified as trachyandesite and andesites. They have high SiO2 contents (54.3-57.4 wt%) and Mg# (49.6-57.8), falling into the scope of high Mg# andesites. The Xunke HMAs are enriched in large ion lithophile elements but depleted in high field strength elements, with positive Ba, K, Sr and negative Zr-Hf, and Ti anomalies. Their trace element absolute concentrations are between those of potassic basalts and Wuchagou HMAs. The Xunke HMAs have relatively enriched Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes (87Sr/86Sr = 0.705398-0.705764, ɛNd=-8.8-3.8, ɛHf=0.5-11.7), and low radiogenic Pb isotopes (206Pb/204Pb = 16.701-17.198), towards to the EM1 end-member, which indicates that they are ultimately derived from ancient, recycled crustal components. Primitive silica-rich melts were generated from higher degrees of partial melting of recycled crustal materials (relative to potassic basalts) and then interacted with the peridotite to produce the Xunke HMAs.

  16. Fires in the Cenozoic: a late flowering of flammable ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William John Bond

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern flammable ecosystems include tropical and subtropical savannas, steppe grasslands, boreal forests and temperate sclerophyll shrublands. Despite the apparent fiery nature of much contemporary vegetation, terrestrial fossil evidence would suggest we live in a time of low fire activity relative to the deep past. The inertinite content of coal, fossil charcoal, is strikingly low from the Eocene to the Pleistocene and no charcoalified mesofossils have been reported for the Cenozoic. Marine cores have been analysed for charcoal in the North Pacific, the north and south Atlantic off Africa, and the south China sea. These tell a different story with the oldest records indicating low levels of fire activity from the Eocene but a surge of fire from the late Miocene (~7 Ma. Phylogenetic studies of woody plants adapted to frequent savanna fires show them beginning to appear from the Late Miocene with peak origins in the late Pliocene in both South American and African lineages. Phylogenetic studies indicate ancient origins (60 Ma+ for clades characteristic of flammable sclerophyll vegetation from Australia and the Cape region of South Africa. However, as for savannas, there was a surge of speciation from the Late Miocene associated with the retreat of closed fire-intolerant forests. The wide geographic spread of increased fire activity in the last few million years suggests a global cause. However none of the potential global factors (oxygen, rainfall seasonality, CO2 , novel flammable growth forms provides an adequate explanation as yet. The global patterns and processes of fire and flammable vegetation in the Cenozoic, especially since the Late Miocene, deserve much more attention to better understand fire in the earth system.

  17. Fires in the Cenozoic: a late flowering of flammable ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, William J

    2014-01-01

    Modern flammable ecosystems include tropical and subtropical savannas, steppe grasslands, boreal forests, and temperate sclerophyll shrublands. Despite the apparent fiery nature of much contemporary vegetation, terrestrial fossil evidence would suggest we live in a time of low fire activity relative to the deep past. The inertinite content of coal, fossil charcoal, is strikingly low from the Eocene to the Pleistocene and no charcoalified mesofossils have been reported for the Cenozoic. Marine cores have been analyzed for charcoal in the North Pacific, the north and south Atlantic off Africa, and the south China sea. These tell a different story with the oldest records indicating low levels of fire activity from the Eocene but a surge of fire from the late Miocene (~7 Ma). Phylogenetic studies of woody plants adapted to frequent savanna fires show them beginning to appear from the Late Miocene with peak origins in the late Pliocene in both South American and African lineages. Phylogenetic studies indicate ancient origins (60 Ma+) for clades characteristic of flammable sclerophyll vegetation from Australia and the Cape region of South Africa. However, as for savannas, there was a surge of speciation from the Late Miocene associated with the retreat of closed fire-intolerant forests. The wide geographic spread of increased fire activity in the last few million years suggests a global cause. However, none of the potential global factors (oxygen, rainfall seasonality, CO2, novel flammable growth forms) provides an adequate explanation as yet. The global patterns and processes of fire and flammable vegetation in the Cenozoic, especially since the Late Miocene, deserve much more attention to better understand fire in the earth system.

  18. A constrained African craton source for the Cenozoic Numidian Flysch: Implications for the palaeogeography of the western Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M. F. H.; Bodin, S.; Redfern, J.; Irving, D. H. B.

    2010-07-01

    The provenance of the Numidian Flysch in the western Mediterranean remains a controversial subject which hinders understanding of this regionally widespread depositional system. The Numidian Flysch is a deep marine formation dated as Oligocene to Miocene which outcrops throughout the Maghreb and into Italy. Evidence that is widely used for provenance analysis has not previously been reviewed within the context of the Maghrebian Flysch Basin as a whole. The structural location within the Alpine belt indicates deposition proximal to the African margin, while the uniformity of the Numidian Flysch petrofacies suggests a single cratonic source, in stark contrast to heterolithic and immature flysch formations from the north of the basin. Detrital zircon ages constrain a source region with Pan-African and Eburnian age rocks, unaffected by either Hercynian or Alpine tectonic events, which precludes the European basement blocks to the north of the basin. Palaeocurrent trends which suggest a northern source are unreliable given foreland basin analogues and observed structural complications. An African craton source remains the only viable option once these data are reviewed in their entirety, and the Numidian Flysch therefore represents a major Cenozoic drainage system on the North African margin. Deposition is concurrent with regional Atlas uplift phases, and coincidental with globally cooling climates and high sea levels. The Numidian Flysch is therefore interpreted to represent a highstand passive margin deposit, with timing of deposition controlled primarily by hinterland uplift and climatic fluctuations.

  19. ACADEMICIAN N.A. LOGATCHEV AND HIS SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL: CONTRUBITION TO STUDIES OF THE CENOZOIC CONTINENTAL RIFTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Rasskazov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available N.A. Florensov and N.A. Logatchev pioneered development of fundamental concepts of the structure and evolution of the Baikal system of rift basins. At the turn to the 21st century, in view of the wide availability of scientific research data on the Cenozoic continental rift zones located in Eurasia, Africa and North America, and taking into account the application of new research methods and options to process and analyze huge amounts of geological and geophysical data, a priority was comprehensive modeling of rifting from its origin to the current period of time. This scientific challenge was addressed by the research team under the leadership of N.A. Logachev.

  20. Mass Balance of Cenozoic Andes-Amazon Source to Sink System—Marañón Basin, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérôme Calvès

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the mass balance of the Cenozoic Andes-Amazon source to sink system using rock uplift proxies and solid sedimentation of the Marañón Basin in Peru. The evolution of sedimentation rates is calibrated with regional structural restored cross-section. The quantification of eroded sediments from reliefs to sedimentary basin is achieved with ×10 Myr resolution and compared to present day proxies from the HYBAM (HYdrologie et Biogéochimie du Bassin Amazonien Critical Zone Observatory. Erosion of the early Andean landforms started during the Upper Mesozoic period, but sediment rates significantly increase during the Neogene. This is in agreement with the calibrated increase of rock uplift in the Andean orogenic belt.

  1. Dynamic computer model for the metallogenesis and tectonics of the Circum-North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotese, Christopher R.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Monger, James W.H.; Norton, Ian O.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Dawson, Kenneth M.; Eremin, Roman A.; Frolov, Yuri F.; Fujita, Kazuya; Goryachev, Nikolai A.; Pozdeev, Anany I.; Ratkin, Vladimir V.; Rodinov, Sergey M.; Rozenblum, Ilya S.; Scholl, David W.; Shpikerman, Vladimir I.; Sidorov, Anatoly A.; Stone, David B.

    2001-01-01

    The digital files on this report consist of a dynamic computer model of the metallogenesis and tectonics of the Circum-North Pacific, and background articles, figures, and maps. The tectonic part of the dynamic computer model is derived from a major analysis of the tectonic evolution of the Circum-North Pacific which is also contained in directory tectevol. The dynamic computer model and associated materials on this CD-ROM are part of a project on the major mineral deposits, metallogenesis, and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera. The project provides critical information on bedrock geology and geophysics, tectonics, major metalliferous mineral resources, metallogenic patterns, and crustal origin and evolution of mineralizing systems for this region. The major scientific goals and benefits of the project are to: (1) provide a comprehensive international data base on the mineral resources of the region that is the first, extensive knowledge available in English; (2) provide major new interpretations of the origin and crustal evolution of mineralizing systems and their host rocks, thereby enabling enhanced, broad-scale tectonic reconstructions and interpretations; and (3) promote trade and scientific and technical exchanges between North America and Eastern Asia.

  2. The tectonic plates are moving!

    CERN Document Server

    Livermore, Roy

    2018-01-01

    Written in a witty and informal style, this book explains modern plate tectonics in a non-technical manner, showing not only how it accounts for phenomena such as great earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, but also how it controls conditions at the Earth’s surface, including global geography and climate, making it suitable for life. The book presents the advances that have been made since the establishment of plate tectonics in the 1960s, highlighting, on the fiftieth anniversary of the theory, the contributions of a small number of scientists who have never been widely recognized for their discoveries. Beginning with the publication of a short article in Nature by Vine and Matthews, the book traces the development of plate tectonics through two generations of the theory. First-generation plate tectonics covers the exciting scientific revolution of the 1960s, its heroes, and its villains. The second generation includes the rapid expansions in sonar, satellite, and seismic technologies during the 1...

  3. Age and provenance of basement metasediments from the Kubor and Bena Bena Blocks, central Highlands, Papua New Guinea: constraints on the tectonic evolution of the northern Australian cratonic margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyck, N.V.; Williams, I.S.

    2002-01-01

    Detrital zircon from two basement blocks (Kubor and Bena Bena) in the central Highlands of Papua New Guinea has an age signature that strongly suggests a northern Australian provenance. Samples of the Omung Metamorphics, southeastern Kubor Block, together yield principal zircon populations with ages of ca 1.8 Ga (∼10 of the total), ca 1.55 Ga (∼10), 470-440 Ma (∼15), ca 340 Ma (∼ 10) and 290-260 Ma (∼40). Two tonalite stocks of the Kubor Intrusive Complex, which intrude the Omung Metamorphics, yield indistinguishable ages of 244.8 ± 4.9 Ma and 239.1 ± 4.2 Ma. Therefore, the deposition and subsequent deformation of the Omung Metamorphics is Late Permian to Early Triassic. A sample of Goroka Formation (Bena Bena Block) contains detrital zircon of similar ages to the Omung Metamorphics, ca 1.8 Ga (5), ca 1.55 Ga (∼45), ca 430 Ma (∼5) and ca 310 Ma (∼40), suggesting that the Goroka Formation has a similar provenance and might be correlative. In contrast, a metapsammite from the Bena Bena Formation yielded only ages of 290-280 Ma (85) and ca 240 Ma (15). A tuff interbedded in the Bena Bena Formation yielded only igneous zircon with a Late Triassic age of 221 ± 3 Ma. Contrary to previous interpretations, the Bena Bena Formation is probably younger than the Goroka Formation. Ages of New Guinea detrital zircon closely match those of igneous and detrital zircon from the Coen Inlier, northeastern Queensland, but contrast with the ages of zircon from terranes further south, east and west. The Kubor and Bena Bena Blocks are not suspect terranes, but rather form part of the Australian craton. The craton margin, modified by rifting during the Mesozoic, was re-inverted during Cenozoic compression. The Australian craton, in the eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea, extends at least as far north as the Markham Valley, the northern edge of the Bena Bena terrane. All analyses were made on the SHRIMP II sensitive high resolution ion microprobe at the Australian

  4. Satellite Gravity Transforms Unmask Tectonic Pattern of Arabian-African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Katz, Youri

    2017-04-01

    basement and Mesozoic-Cenozoic structures play dominating structural- geodynamic role in this region. Precambrian generations include two main structural elements: (1) Archean platforms (Eastern Arabian, Tanzanian and Eastern Saharan cratons), and (2) Neoproterozoic belt. In the Neoproterozoic belt we distinguish: (a) final Proterozoic back-arc belts with ophiolites, and (b) more ancient Early/Middle Proterozoic massifs (detected both in some previous works of various authors and recognized by the authors of the present investigation using a set of geological-geophysical indicators). In the areas of development of sedimentary Phanerozoic cover in the northern part of Arabian and African (Nubian) Plates, boundaries of Early/Middle Proterozoic massifs (Tabuk, Haif-Rutfah, Widyan and Nile Cone) and Neoproterozoic belts (Azraq-Sirhan, Ga'ara and Northern Western Desert) were delineated by analysis of: (1) land and airborne geophysical data, and (2) satellite derived gravity data. Meso-Cenozoic structures of the region contain two tectonic complexes of its forming. 1st complex (from Permian to present) is associated with the Neotethys Ocean evolution. 2nd complex (from Oligocene to present) is associated with initial phases of spreading in the Arabian-African segment of Earth's crust. 1st complex structurally and geodynamically is a multiple generation since the Neotethys Ocean evolution was accompanied by processes of spreading, movements of some giant blocks along tectonic transforms, and collisions. These processes have formed structures of three types: (1) Mesozoic terrane belt, (2) Cenozoic orogenic belt, and (3) remain depressions of the Neotethys with oceanic crust. Western (Levantine) part of the Mesozoic terrane belt is characterized by more ancient (Hauterive) age of consolidation comparing with the eastern part of the belt (Persian-Oman). Its terranes (from Zagros to Makran) and ophiolites were joined to Arabian platform in the Middle Cretaceous (Senomanian

  5. Types of Cenozoic Mollusca from Java in the Martin Collection of Naturalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leloux, J.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2009-01-01

    An updated type catalogue of the Martin Collection (fossil Mollusca, predominantly from the Cenozoic of Java, Indonesia) is presented. Type specimen data, updated locality data, and illustrations are given.

  6. Quantitative analysis of the tectonic subsidence in the Potiguar Basin (NE Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Juliana A. G.; de Castro, David L.; Bertotti, Giovanni

    2018-06-01

    The Potiguar Basin, located in the Brazilian Equatorial Margin, evolved from a complex rifting process implemented during the Atlantic Ocean opening in the Jurassic/Cretaceous. Different driving mechanisms were responsible for the onset of an aborted onshore rift and an offshore rift that initiated crustal rupture and the formation of a continental transform margin. Therefore, we applied the backstripping method to quantify the tectonic subsidence during the rift and post-rift phases of Potiguar Basin formation and to analyze the spatial variation of subsidence during the two successive and distinct tectonic events responsible for the basin evolution. The parameters required to apply this methodology were extracted from 2D seismic lines and exploratory well data. The tectonic subsidence curves present periods with moderate subsidence rates (up to 300 m/My), which correspond to the evolution of the onshore Potiguar Rift (∼141 to 128 Ma). From 128-118 Ma, the tectonic subsidence curves show no subsidence in the onshore Potiguar Basin, whereas subsidence occurred at high rates (over 300 m/My) in the offshore rift. The post-rift phase began ca. 118 Ma (Aptian), when the tectonic subsidence drastically slowed to less than 35 m/My, probably related to thermal relaxation. The tectonic subsidence rates in the various sectors of the Potiguar Rift, during the different rift phases, indicate that more intense faulting occurred in the southern portion of the onshore rift, along the main border faults, and in the southeastern portion of the offshore rift. During the post-rift phase, the tectonic subsidence rates increased from the onshore portion towards the offshore portion until the continental slope. The highest rates of post-rift subsidence (up to 35 m/My) are concentrated in the central region of the offshore portion and may be related to lithospheric processes related to the continental crust rupture and oceanic seafloor spreading. The variation in subsidence rates and

  7. Late-Variscan Tectonic Inheritance and Salt Tectonics Interplay in the Central Lusitanian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Carlos R.; Marques, Fernando O.

    2017-04-01

    Tectonic inheritance and salt structures can play an important role in the tectono-sedimentary evolution of basins. The Alpine regional stress field in west Iberia had a horizontal maximum compressive stress striking approximately NNW-SSE, related to the Late Miocene inversion event. However, this stress field cannot produce a great deal of the observed and mapped structures in the Lusitanian Basin. Moreover, many observed structures show a trend similar to well-known basement fault systems. The Central Lusitanian basin shows an interesting tectonic structure, the Montejunto structure, generally assigned to this inversion event. Therefore, special attention was paid to: (1) basement control of important observed structures; and (2) diapir tectonics (vertical maximum compressive stress), which can be responsible for significant vertical movements. Based on fieldwork, tectonic analysis and interpretation of geological maps (Portuguese Geological Survey, 1:50000 scale) and geophysical data, our work shows: (1) the Montejunto structure is a composite structure comprising an antiform with a curved hinge and middle Jurassic core, and bounding main faults; (2) the antiform can be divided into three main segments: (i) a northern segment with NNE-SSW trend showing W-dipping bedding bounded at the eastern border by a NNE-SSW striking fault, (ii) a curved central segment, showing the highest topography, with a middle Jurassic core and radial dipping bedding, (iii) a western segment with ENE-WSW trend comprising an antiform with a steeper northern limb and periclinal termination towards WSW, bounded to the south by ENE-WSW reverse faulting, (3) both fold and fault trends at the northern and western segments are parallel to well-known basement faults related to late-Variscan strike-slip systems with NNE-SSW and ENE-WSW trends; (4) given the orientation of Alpine maximum compressive stress, the northern segment border fault should be mostly sinistral strike-slip and the western

  8. Cenozoic global sea level, sequences, and the New Jersey transect: Results from coastal plain and continental slope drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K.G.; Mountain, Gregory S.; Browning, J.V.; Kominz, M.; Sugarman, P.J.; Christie-Blick, N.; Katz, M.E.; Wright, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The New Jersey Sea Level Transect was designed to evaluate the relationships among global sea level (eustatic) change, unconformity-bounded sequences, and variations in subsidence, sediment supply, and climate on a passive continental margin. By sampling and dating Cenozoic strata from coastal plain and continental slope locations, we show that sequence boundaries correlate (within ??0.5 myr) regionally (onshore-offshore) and interregionally (New Jersey-Alabama-Bahamas), implicating a global cause. Sequence boundaries correlate with ??18O increases for at least the past 42 myr, consistent with an ice volume (glacioeustatic) control, although a causal relationship is not required because of uncertainties in ages and correlations. Evidence for a causal connection is provided by preliminary Miocene data from slope Site 904 that directly link ??18O increases with sequence boundaries. We conclude that variation in the size of ice sheets has been a primary control on the formation of sequence boundaries since ~42 Ma. We speculate that prior to this, the growth and decay of small ice sheets caused small-amplitude sea level changes (changes on mid-ocean ridges. Although our results are consistent with the general number and timing of Paleocene to middle Miocene sequences published by workers at Exxon Production Research Company, our estimates of sea level amplitudes are substantially lower than theirs. Lithofacies patterns within sequences follow repetitive, predictable patterns: (1) coastal plain sequences consist of basal transgressive sands overlain by regressive highstand silts and quartz sands; and (2) although slope lithofacies variations are subdued, reworked sediments constitute lowstand deposits, causing the strongest, most extensive seismic reflections. Despite a primary eustatic control on sequence boundaries, New Jersey sequences were also influenced by changes in tectonics, sediment supply, and climate. During the early to middle Eocene, low siliciclastic and

  9. Evolution: from cosmogenesis to biogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Berczi, Sz.; Molnar, I.; Paal, G.

    1990-11-01

    The volume contains the material of an interdisciplinary evolution symposium. The purpose was to shed some light on possible connections between steps of evolution of matter on different levels of organisation. The topics involved are as follow: cosmogenesis; galactic and stellar evolution; formation and evolution of the solar system; global atmospheric and tectonic changes of Earth; viral evolution; phylogeny and evolution of terrestrial life; evolution of neural system; hominization. The material also includes some discussions of the underlying phenomena and laws of nature. (author)

  10. Stress states in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt from passive margin to collisional tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navabpour, Payman; Barrier, Eric

    2012-12-01

    The present-day Zagros fold-and-thrust belt of SW-Iran corresponds to the former Arabian passive continental margin of the southern Neo-Tethyan basin since the Permian-Triassic rifting, undergoing later collisional deformation in mid-late Cenozoic times. In this paper an overview of brittle tectonics and palaeostress reconstructions of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt is presented, based on direct stress tensor inversion of fault slip data. The results indicate that, during the Neo-Tethyan oceanic opening, an extensional tectonic regime affectedthe sedimentary cover in Triassic-Jurassic times with an approximately N-S trend of the σ3 axis, oblique to the margin, which was followed by some local changes to a NE-SW trend during Jurassic-Cretaceous times. The stress state significantly changed to thrust setting, with a NE-SW trend of the σ1 axis, and a compressional tectonic regime prevailed during the continental collision and folding of the sedimentary cover in Oligocene-Miocene times. This compression was then followed by a strike-slip stress state with an approximately N-S trend of the σ1 axis, oblique to the belt, during inversion of the inherited extensional basement structures in Pliocene-Recent times. The brittle tectonic reconstructions, therefore, highlighted major changes of the stress state in conjunction with transitions between thin- and thick-skinned structures during different extensional and compressional stages of continental deformation within the oblique divergent and convergent settings, respectively.

  11. Detrital Zircon Provenance Record of Pre-Andean to Modern Tectonics in the Northern Andes: Examples from Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, S. W. M.; Jackson, L. J.; Horton, B. K.

    2015-12-01

    Detrital zircon U-Pb age distributions from modern rivers and Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin fill in the northern Andes provide insights into pre-Andean, Andean, and active uplift and exhumation of distinctive sediment source regions. Diagnostic age signatures enable straightforward discrimination of competing sediment sources within the Andean magmatic arc (Western Cordillera-Central Cordillera), retroarc fold-thrust belt (Eastern Cordillera-Subandean Zone), and Amazonian craton (composed of several basement provinces). More complex, however, are the mid/late Cenozoic provenance records generated by recycling of basin fill originally deposited during early/mid Mesozoic extension, late Mesozoic thermal subsidence, and early Cenozoic shortening. Although subject to time-transgressive trends, regionally significant provenance patterns in Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia reveal: (1) Triassic-Jurassic growth of extensional subbasins fed by local block uplifts (with commonly unimodal 300­-150 Ma age peaks); (2) Cretaceous deposition in an extensive postrift setting fed by principally cratonic sources (with common 1800-900 Ma ages); and (3) Cenozoic growth of a broad flexural basin fed initially fed by magmatic-arc rocks (100-0 Ma), then later dominance by thrust-belt sedimentary rocks with progressively greater degrees of basin recycling (yielding diverse and variable age populations from the aforementioned source regions). U-Pb results from modern rivers and smaller subbasins prove useful in evaluating source-to-sink relationships, downstream mixing relationships, hinterland-foreland basin connectivity, paleodrainage integration, and tectonic/paleotopographic reconstructions. Most but not all of the elevated intermontane basins in the modern hinterland of the northern Andes contain provenance records consistent with genesis in a broader foreland basin developed at low elevation. Downstream variations within modern axial rivers and Cenozoic axial basins inform predictive models of