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Sample records for cenozoic magmatic rocks

  1. Mesozoic to Cenozoic magmatic history of the Pamir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, James B.; Scoggin, Shane H.; Kapp, Paul; Carrapa, Barbara; Ducea, Mihai N.; Worthington, James; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon; Gadoev, Mustafo

    2018-01-01

    New geochronologic, geochemical, and isotopic data for Mesozoic to Cenozoic igneous rocks and detrital minerals from the Pamir Mountains help to distinguish major regional magmatic episodes and constrain the tectonic evolution of the Pamir orogenic system. After final accretion of the Central and South Pamir terranes during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, the Pamir was largely amagmatic until the emplacement of the intermediate (SiO2 > 60 wt.%), calc-alkaline, and isotopically evolved (-13 to -5 zircon εHf(t)) South Pamir batholith between 120-100 Ma, which is the most volumetrically significant magmatic complex in the Pamir and includes a high flux magmatic event at ∼105 Ma. The South Pamir batholith is interpreted as the northern (inboard) equivalent of the Cretaceous Karakoram batholith and the along-strike equivalent of an Early Cretaceous magmatic belt in the northern Lhasa terrane in Tibet. The northern Lhasa terrane is characterized by a similar high-flux event at ∼110 Ma. Migration of continental arc magmatism into the South Pamir terrane during the mid-Cretaceous is interpreted to reflect northward directed, low-angle to flat-slab subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. Late Cretaceous magmatism (80-70 Ma) in the Pamir is scarce, but concentrated in the Central and northern South Pamir terranes where it is comparatively more mafic (SiO2 roll-back of the Neotethyan oceanic slab, which is consistent with similarly aged extension-related magmatism in the Karakoram terrane and Kohistan. There is an additional pulse of magmatism in the Pamir at 42-36 Ma that is geographically restricted (∼150 km diameter ellipsoidal area) and referred to as the Vanj magmatic complex. The Vanj complex comprises metaluminous, high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic monzonite, syenite, and granite that is adakitic (La/YbN = 13 to 57) with low Mg# (35-41). The Vanj complex displays a range of SiO2 (54-75 wt.%) and isotopic compositions (-7 to -3 εNd(i), 0.706 to

  2. Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 km2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic.

  3. Cenozoic intra-plate magmatism in the Darfur volcanic province: mantle source, phonolite-trachyte genesis and relation to other volcanic provinces in NE Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Friedrich; Pudlo, Dieter; Franz, Gerhard; Romer, Rolf L.; Dulski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Chemical and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of Late Cenozoic to Quaternary small-volume phonolite, trachyte and related mafic rocks from the Darfur volcanic province/NW-Sudan have been investigated. Isotope signatures indicate variable but minor crustal contributions. Some phonolitic and trachytic rocks show the same isotopic composition as their primitive mantle-derived parents, and no crustal contributions are visible in the trace element patterns of these samples. The magmatic evolution of the evolved rocks is dominated by crystal fractionation. The Si-undersaturated strongly alkaline phonolite and the Si-saturated mildly alkaline trachyte can be modelled by fractionation of basanite and basalt, respectively. The suite of basanite-basalt-phonolite-trachyte with characteristic isotope signatures from the Darfur volcanic province fits the compositional features of other Cenozoic intra-plate magmatism scattered in North and Central Africa (e.g., Tibesti, Maghreb, Cameroon line), which evolved on a lithosphere that was reworked or formed during the Neoproterozoic.

  4. Evidence for subduction-related magmatism during the Cretaceous and Cenozoic in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevastjanova, Inga; Sagi, David Adam; Webb, Peter; Masterton, Sheona; Hill, Catherine; Davies, Clare

    2017-04-01

    Myanmar's complex geological history, numerous controversies around its tectonic evolution and the presence of prospective hydrocarbon basins make it a key area of interest for geologists. Understanding whether a passive or an active margin existed in the region during the Cenozoic is particularly important for the production of accurate basin models; active Cenozoic subduction would imply that hydrocarbon basins in the forearc experienced extension due to slab rollback. The geology of Myanmar was influenced by the regional tectonics associated with the Cretaceous and Cenozoic closure of the Neotethys Ocean. During this time, India travelled rapidly from Gondwana to Asia at speeds up to 20 cm/yr. To accommodate the north-eastward motion of India, the Neotethys Ocean was consumed at the subduction zone along the southern margin of Eurasia. Based on our Global Plate Model, this subduction zone can reasonably be expected to extend for the entire width of the Neotethys Ocean as far as Myanmar and Southeast Asia at their eastern extent. Moreover, a) Cretaceous volcanism onshore Myanmar, b) the middle Cenozoic arc-related extension in the Present Day eastern Andaman Sea and c) the late Cenozoic uplift of the Indo-Burman Ranges are all contemporaneous with the subduction ages predicted by the global plate motions. However, because of the geological complexity of the area, additional evidence would augment interpretations that are based on structural data. In an attempt to reduce the uncertainty in the existing interpretations, we have compiled published zircon geochronological data from detrital and igneous rocks in the region. We have used published zircon U-Pb ages and, where available, published Hf isotope data and CL images (core/rim) in order to distinguish 'juvenile' mantle-derived zircons from those of reworked crustal origin. The compilation shows that Upper Cretaceous and Cenozoic zircons, which are interpreted to have a volcanic provenance, are common across the

  5. Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks with carbonatite affinity in the Bohemian Massif: Their sources and magma generation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ulrych, Jaromír; Štěpánková-Svobodová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 46, 1/2 (2014), s. 45-58 ISSN 0369-2086 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300130902 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : alkaline volcanic rocks * melilitic rocks * carbonatites * magma generation * metasomatism * Cenozoic * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  6. Sr-Nd isotope systematics of xenoliths in Cenozoic volcanic rocks from SW Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagami, Hiroo; Iwata, Masatoshi; Iizumi, Shigeru; Nureki, Terukazu.

    1993-01-01

    Based on new and previously published Sr and Nd isotope data, we examined the petrogenetic relationship between deep crust- and upper mantle-derived xenoliths contained in Cenozoic volcanic rocks and Cretaceous-Paleogene granitoid rocks in SW Japan. The deep crust- and upper mantle-derived mafic to ultramafic xenoliths contained in Cenozoic volcanic rocks from SW Japan have comparable initial Sr and Nd isotope ratios to the Cretaceous-Paleogene granitoid rocks in their respective districts. This may suggest that these xenoliths were genetically related to the Cretaceous-Paleogene granitoid rocks in SW Japan, and that regional variations in Sr and Nd isotope ratios observed in the granitoid rocks are attributed to differences in the geochemistry of the magma sources. (author)

  7. Tectonic implications of Mesozoic magmatism to initiation of Cenozoic basin development within the passive South China Sea margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Hue Anh; Chan, Yu Lu; Yeh, Meng Wan; Lee, Tung Yi

    2018-04-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the classical example of a non-volcanic passive margin situated within three tectonic plates of the Eurasian, Indo-Australian and Philippine Sea plate. The development of SCS resulted from interaction of various types of plate boundaries, and complex tectonic assemblage of micro blocks and accretionary prisms. Numerous models were proposed for the formation of SCS, yet none can fully satisfy different aspects of tectonic forces. Temporal and geographical reconstruction of Cretaceous and Cenozoic magmatism with the isochrones of major basins was conducted. Our reconstruction indicated the SE margin of Asia had gone through two crustal thinning events. The sites for rifting development are controlled by localized thermal weakening of magmatism. NW-SE extension setting during Late Cretaceous revealed by magmatism distribution and sedimentary basins allow us to allocate the retreated subduction of Pacific plate to the cause of first crustal thinning event. A magmatic gap between 75 and 65 Ma prior to the initiation of first basin rifting suggested a significant modification of geodynamic setting occurred. The Tainan basin, Pearl River Mouth basin, and Liyue basins started to develop since 65 Ma where the youngest Late Cretaceous magmatism concentrated. Sporadic bimodal volcanism between 65 and 40 Ma indicates further continental extension prior to the opening of SCS. The E-W extension of Malay basin and West Natuna began since late Eocene followed by N-S rifting of SCS as Neotethys subducted. The SCS ridge developed between Pearl River Mouth basin and Liyue basin where 40 Ma volcanic activities concentrated. The interaction of two continental stretching events by Pacific followed by Neotethys subduction with localized magmatic thermal weakening is the cause for the non-volcanic nature of SCS.

  8. Petrographic and geochemical data for Cenozoic volcanic rocks of the Bodie Hills, California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.; John, David A.; Box, Stephen E.; Vikre, Peter G.; Fleck, Robert J.; Cousens, Brian L.

    2013-04-23

    Petrographic and geochemical data for Cenozoic volcanic rocks of the Bodie Hills, California and Nevada // // This report presents petrographic and geochemical data for samples collected during investigations of Tertiary volcanism in the Bodie Hills of California and Nevada. Igneous rocks in the area are principally 15–6 Ma subduction-related volcanic rocks of the Bodie Hills volcanic field but also include 3.9–0.1 Ma rocks of the bimodal, post-subduction Aurora volcanic field. Limited petrographic results for local basement rocks, including Mesozoic granitoid rocks and their metamorphic host rocks, are also included in the compilation. The petrographic data include visual estimates of phenocryst abundances as well as other diagnostic petrographic criteria. The geochemical data include whole-rock major oxide and trace element data, as well as limited whole-rock isotopic data.

  9. From mantle roots to surface eruptions: Cenozoic and Mesozoic continental basaltic magmatism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kämpf, H.; Németh, K.; Puziewicz, J.; Mrlina, Jan; Geissler, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 8 (2015), s. 1909-1912 ISSN 1437-3254 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : continental basaltic volcanism * BASALT 2013 conference * Cenozoic * Mesozoic Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.133, year: 2015

  10. Late cenozoic magmatism in the South Patagonian batholith: SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanning, C.M; Herve, F; Pankhurst, R.J; Thomson, S; Faundez, V

    2001-01-01

    The North Patagonian Batholith (NPB) has a zonal age pattern which includes a well defined belt of Miocene and Mio-Pliocene plutons in its central portion (Pankhurst et al., 1999) which are spatially, and probably genetically related to the Liquine-Ofqui Fault Zone. Previous geochronological studies in the Southern Patagonian Batholith (SPB), as summarized by Bruce et al. (1991), have yielded 9 late Cenozoic K-Ar or Ar-Ar ages out of a total of 116 age determinations. None of these young ages correspond to U-Pb determinations on zircons, and some of the young ages correspond to satellite plutons east of the SPB proper, such as the Torres del Paine intrusion. In this paper we present the first late Cenozoic SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages in the area of the SPB. The morphology of the analysed zircon crystals is described and leads to some inferences on the methodology and on the geological interpretation of the obtained ages (au)

  11. Geochemistry of cenozoic basaltic rocks from Shandong province and its implication for mantle process in North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Yungtan; Chen Juchin; Huang Shaowei; Shih Jyhyi; Lin Menglung; Juang Wenshing; Yang Huaijen

    2006-01-01

    Cenozoic (Miocene to Pleistocene) basaltic rocks found in Shandong province of northern China include tholeiite, olivine tholeiite and alkali basalt. We present major, trace and rare earth elements data of these basalts and together with Sr-Nd isotopic data in the literatures to discuss the petrogenesis of these basalts. The basalts from Penglai area have higher K, Na and P and incompatible elements, but lower Ca, Mg and compatible elements contents than those from Changle area of Shandong province. Spidergrams indicate that Cenozoic basalts from Shandong province have geochemical characteristics similar to those of ocean island basalts (OIB) with slight positive Nb anomaly. The negative Ba, Rb and K anomalies found in the alkali basalts suggest the presence of residual phlogopite in the mantle source, indicating a metasomatic event occurred before the partial melting. The 143 Nd/ 144 Nd vs. 87 Sr/ 86 Sr plot suggested that basalts from Shandong province can be produced by MORB and EM-I components mixing. We propose that the EM-I type lithospheric mantle may have been produced by the recent H 2 O-CO 2 -fluids metasomatism and the fluids may be derived from dehydration of the subducted slab. Based on Shaw's equation, the basalts from eastern and central Shandong province have undergone different degrees of particle melting from the mantle source. Degrees of partial melting and chemical composition of basalts from Shandong province suggest that the lithosphere has thickened progressively since the Miocene. On the basis of Ar-Ar ages of this study and the fractional crystallization model proposed by Brooks and Nielsen (1982), we suggest that basalts from Changle and Penglai areas belong to different magmatic systems which have undergone fractional crystallization and evolved progressively to produce other types of basalts. (author)

  12. Cenozoic mantle composition evolution of southern Tibet indicated by Paleocene ( 64 Ma) pseudoleucite phonolitic rocks in central Lhasa terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yue; Gou, Guo-Ning; Wang, Qiang; Wyman, Derek A.; Jiang, Zi-Qi; Li, Qiu-Li; Zhang, Le

    2018-03-01

    The question of whether continental subduction processes in collisional orogenic belts can trigger wide-spread mantle metesomatism and crustal material recycling remains unresolved. Miocene (25-8 Ma) ultrapotassic rocks in southern Tibet are the only mantle-derived magmatic rocks emplaced after the collision between India and Asia and they have been linked to the onset of east-west extensional stresses as the surface uplift of the Tibetan Plateau reached near-maximum elevation. However, their petrogenesis remains highly controversial, particularly the issue of whether their extremely enriched Sr-Nd isotopic characteristics were related to metasomatism derived from subducted Indian continental materials during the Cenozoic. Here we report on a Paleocene silicate-unsaturated, pseudoleucite phonolitic dike, in the Rongniduo area of central Lhasa terrane. In-situ SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry) apatite U-Pb age indicates the dike was generated at 64.1 ± 4.2 Ma, which slightly predates the age of initial India and Asia collision (about 55-50 Ma). This is the oldest age yet reported for ultrapotassic rocks in southern Tibet. Samples from this dike have distinctly more depleted Sr-Nd (whole rock: (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7064 to 0.7062, εNd(t) = - 1.5 to 0.4; in situ apitite: (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7059 to 0.7060, εNd(t) = - 2.0 to 0.4) isotopic compositions, than those of Miocene (25-8 Ma) ultrapotassic rocks in the central Lhasa terrane ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7106 to 0.7399, εNd(t) = - 10.6 to - 18.5). Our new data provides important constraints on pre-collisional mantle characteristics beneath the Lhasa terrane. We suggest that these 64 Ma pseudoleucite phonolitic rocks were derived from the enriched lithospheric mantle metasomatized by subducted Tethyan oceanic materials in response to Neo-Tethyan slab roll-back. As a consequence, the younger Miocene ultrapotassic rocks, which display different geochemical compositions from the pre-collisional ultrapotassic rocks, were most

  13. Magmatism and cenozoic tectonism in the Cabo Frio region, RJ, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohriak, W.U.; Barros, A.Z.N. de; Fujita, A.

    1990-01-01

    The western portion of the Campos Basin is limited by a hinge line that bounds the deposition of pre-Aptian sediments in the offshore region. The Cabo Frio arch corresponds to a platform with smaller relative subsidence, where Tertiary sediments are deposited directly on shallow basement rocks. Towards the continental slope of the Cabo Frio region, tectonic activity is also observed in the post-Aptian sequence, particularly in the region between the Santos and Campos basins, where a very large graben trends parallel to the pre-Aptian limit of the basin, and is controlled by faults that-affect Upper Miocene rocks. Eastwards of this region, an array of antithetic faults trends in a NE direction. These faults, apparently detaching an the Aptian salt, show unique geometric patterns. The rupturing of Pangea in the Lower Cretaceous is marked by widespread outpouring of mafic magmas in Campos and Santos basins. Radiometric age determinations for this volcanism show a mean of about 139 M.a. After the rift phase, another volcanic episode is observed in the Cabo Frio region, with K/Ar radiometric dating of about 50 M.a. Volcanic mounds are observed within the Eocene sedimentary sequence. An Eocene volcanic episode is characterized by the presence of volcaniclassic rocks, including autoclastic, hydroclastic, epiclastic and pyroclastic sediments. This tectonic episode is also identified within other stratigraphic intervals in the sedimentary column. (author)

  14. Geochemical evolution of Cenozoic-Cretaceous magmatism and its relation to tectonic setting, southwestern Idaho, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, M.D.; Leeman, W.P.

    1989-01-01

    Magmatism in the western United States spanned a change in tectonic setting from Mesozoic and early Tertiary plate convergence to middle and late Tertiary crustal extension. This paper presents new major element, trace element, and isotopic (Sr, Nd, Pb) data on a diverse suite of Cretaceous to Neogene igneous rocks from the Owyhee area of southwestern Idaho to evaluate possible relationships between the evolving tectonic regime and temporal changes in igneous activity. The oldest studied rocks are Cretaceous granitic intrusives that probably formed by large-scale mixing of Precambrian crust with subduction-related magmas. Silicic Eocene tuffs are also rich in crustal components, but have isotopic compositions unlike the Cretaceous intrusives. These data require at least two crustal sources that may correspond to domains of significantly different age (Archean vs. Proterozoic). The oldest mafic lavas in the study area are Oligocene andesites and basalts compositionally similar to subduction-related magmas derived from asthenospheric mantle and erupted through thick continental crust. Direct crustal involvement during oligocene time was limited to minor interaction with the mafic magmas. Miocene activity produced bimodal basalt-rhyolite suites and minor volumes of hybrid lavas. Compositions of Miocene basalts demonstrate the decline of subduction-related processes, and increased involvement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle as a magma source. Crustally-derived Miocene rhyolites have isotopic compositions similar to those of the Cretaceous granitic rocks but trace element abundances more typical of within-plate magmas. (orig./WB)

  15. Characteristics of mesozoic magmatic rocks in western Zhejiang and their relation with uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jiazhi

    2000-01-01

    The author summarizes characteristics of Mesozoic (Yangshanian Period) acid-intermediate volcanics, sub-volcanics and basic intrusive from aspects of formation time of rock series, petrogenic sequence, chemical composition, rock -controlling factors and petrogenic environments. It is suggested that these rocks were originated from different source areas of crust and mantle. Based on the time-space relation between different types uranium deposits and magmatic rocks, the author proposes that: the earlier stage (Earlier Cretaceous) U-hematite ores were originated from acid volcanic magmatism of crustal source, but the later stage (Late Cretaceous) pitchblende-polymetallic sulfide and pitchblende-purple fluorite rich ores were derived from basic magmatism of mantle source. Finally, the author proposes prospecting criteria of the above two types of uranium deposits

  16. Pre-Cenozoic basement rocks of the Proto-Philippine Sea Plate: Constraints for the birthplace of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, K.; Ishizuka, O.; Horie, K.; Barth, A. P.; Harigane, Y.; Ueda, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc is widely regarded to be a typical intra-oceanic arc, with the oceanic Pacific Plate subducting beneath the Philippine Sea Plate, an evolving complex of active and inactive arcs and back-arc basins. However, little is known about the origin of the proto-Philippine Sea Plate, which existed along with the Pacific Plate at the time of subduction initiation in the Eocene. To investigate the crustal structures of the proto-Philippine Sea Plate, we conducted manned-submersible and dredge surveys in the Daito Ridges and the Kyushu-Palau Ridge. The Daito Ridges comprise the northwestern Philippine Sea Plate along with what are regarded as remnants of the proto-Philippine Sea Plate. Submersible observations and rock sampling revealed that the Daito Ridges expose deep crustal sections of gabbroic, granitic, metamorphic, and ultra-mafic rocks, along with volcanic rocks ranging from basalt to andesite. Mesozoic magmatic zircon U-Pb ages have been obtained from the plutonic rocks, and whole-rock geochemistry of the igneous rocks indicates arc origins. Furthermore, mafic schist collected from the Daito Ridge has experienced amphibolite facies metamorphism, with phase assemblages suggesting that the crust was thicker than 20 km at the time. Similar amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks with Proterozoic zircons have been recovered in the southern Kyushu-Palau Ridge, indicating that such distinctively older basement rocks exist as isolated tectonic blocks within the present Philippine Sea Plate. These finds show that the parts of the Daito Ridges and Kyushu-Palau Ridge represent developed crustal sections of the Pre-Cenozoic arc that comprises part of the proto-Philippine Sea Plate, and, together with the tectonic reconstruction of the proto-Philippine Sea Plate (Deschamps and Lallemand 2002, JGR), they suggest that subduction of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc initiated at the continental margin of the Southeast Asia.

  17. Magmatic and Crustal Differentiation History of Granitic Rocks from Hf-O Isotopes in Zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, , A. I. S.; Hawkesworth, , C. J.; Foster, , G. L.; Paterson, , B. A.; Woodhead, , J. D.; Hergt, , J. M.; Gray, , C. M.; Whitehouse, M. J.

    2007-02-01

    Granitic plutonism is the principal agent of crustal differentiation, but linking granite emplacement to crust formation requires knowledge of the magmatic evolution, which is notoriously difficult to reconstruct from bulk rock compositions. We unlocked the plutonic archive through hafnium (Hf) and oxygen (O) isotope analysis of zoned zircon crystals from the classic hornblende-bearing (I-type) granites of eastern Australia. This granite type forms by the reworking of sedimentary materials by mantle-like magmas instead of by remelting ancient metamorphosed igneous rocks as widely believed. I-type magmatism thus drives the coupled growth and differentiation of continental crust.

  18. The final pulse of the Early Cenozoic adakitic activity in the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt (NE Turkey): An integrated study on the nature of transition from adakitic to non-adakitic magmatism in a slab window setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyuboglu, Yener; Dudas, Francis O.; Santosh, M.; Eroğlu-Gümrük, Tuğba; Akbulut, Kübra; Yi, Keewook; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2018-05-01

    The Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt, one of the best examples of a fossil continental arc in the Alpine-Himalayan system, is characterized by adakitic magmatism during the Early Cenozoic. Popular models correlate the adakitic magmatism to syn- or post-collisional processes occurring after the collision between the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt and the Tauride Platform at the end of Late Mesozoic and/or beginning of the Cenozoic. We present new geological, petrological and chronological data from andesites and felsic tuffs exposed in the Bayburt area, in the southern part of the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt, and discuss the nature of the transition from adakitic to non-adakitic activities in a continental arc. Major, trace and rare earth element concentrations of both andesites and felsic tuffs clearly suggest that they are related to arc magmatism in a continental arc with adakitic composition. The isotopic compositions are permissive of mixing between a component similar to depleted mantle and a second component that is either mafic lower crust or subducted oceanic crust. 39Ar/40Ar hornblende and U/Pb zircon dating indicate that this adakitic magmatism in the Bayburt area ended by about 47 Ma, and transformed into non-adakitic, granitoid arc magmatism in the area immediately north of Bayburt in the Lutetian (∼46 Ma). Based on our new results in conjunction with available data, we propose that the beginning of northward rollback of a south-directed subducting slab, and simultaneous opening of a slab window related to ridge subduction, triggered both adakitic magmatism for approximately a 10 Myr period between 57.6 and 47 Ma and arc-parallel extension that caused the opening of the Early Cenozoic sedimentary basins. We also suggest that the shallow marine environment, in which Nummulite-bearing sandy limestones accumulated in the Early Cenozoic, was transformed into a saline-lake environment during the pyroclastic activity that produced the studied felsic tuffs

  19. Age and geochemistry of host rocks of the Cobre Panama porphyry Cu-Au deposit, central Panama: Implications for the Paleogene evolution of the Panamanian magmatic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael J.; Hollings, Peter; Thompson, Jennifer A.; Thompson, Jay M.; Burge, Colin

    2016-04-01

    suggest that evolved calc-alkaline arc magmatism may extend to the late Eocene, at least 10 million years earlier than previously estimated. The crystallisation ages for intrusive rocks associated with mineralisation at Cobre Panama imply that the deposit formed in the early Oligocene, between a period of late Cretaceous to Eocene magmatism (ca. 66-42 Ma; Chagres-Bayano arc) and Cordilleran arc magmatism (22-7 Ma). Similarities in the timing of intrusive suite emplacement and the fingerprinting of magmatic fractionation processes between the Cobre Panama porphyry deposit and the Cerro Colorado porphyry deposit in western Panama (ca. 5.3 Ma) suggest that these features provide favourable geodynamic and geochemical prerequisites for the formation of porphyry deposits along the Panamanian magmatic arc during the Cenozoic.

  20. Hierarchically porous graphene in natural graphitic globules from silicate magmatic rocks

    OpenAIRE

    PONOMARCHUK V.A.; TITOV A.T.; MOROZ T.N.; PYRYAEV A.N.; PONOMARCHUK A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Naturally-occurring nanostructured graphites from silicate magmatic rocks, which are rare, were characterized using electron microscope and X-ray spectroscopy. This graphite consists of porous carbon, nanographite layers, microand nanotubes. The porous carbon is classified as macroporous matter with a small amount of mezopores. Evidence for the unusual properties of porous carbon are given: nanographite layers are created at the exposed surface of sample and the nanotubes occurs in the bulk o...

  1. Radioactivity and decay heat generation in precambrian magmatic rocks (with the South Pamirs as an example)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyrmurzaev, A.S.; Alibekov, G.I.; Bekieva, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The evaluation of the heat generation share in the results of the long-living radioactive elements (RAE) decay in the Earth surface layers is accomplished on the basis of the data on the uranium and thorium concentration in the precambrian magmatic rocks of the South Pamirs. It was supposed by the calculations, that the value of the heat flux, generated by the rocks, is determined mainly by the RAE content in the Earth upper layer crust itself of 10-15 km. It is shown that the radioheat generation share is within the range of 5-10% from the measured values of the geothermal flows [ru

  2. The Achkal Oligocene ring complex: Sr, Nd, Pb evidence for transition between tholeiitic and alkali cenozoic magmatism in Central Hoggar (South Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maza, M.; Dautria, J.M.; Briqueu, L.; Bosch, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Achkal Oligocene ring complex-cuts the Upper Eocene tholeiitic traps located on the top of the Hoggar swell. The plutonic rocks range from tholeiitic gabbros to alkali essexites, monzonites and syenites, whereas the volcanites are restricted to late per-alkaline rhyolites. The affinity change linked to the large isotopic heterogeneities (from EM1 to HIMU) suggests that the parental magmas are issued from two district mantle sources, first lithospheric then deeper. The Achkal has recorded the magmatic evolution of the Hoggar hot spot, between Eocene and Miocene. (authors)

  3. Do Hf isotopes in magmatic zircons represent those of their host rocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Cai, Yue; Goldstein, Steven L.; Yang, Tao

    2018-04-01

    Lu-Hf isotopic system in zircon is a powerful and widely used geochemical tracer in studying petrogenesis of magmatic rocks and crustal evolution, assuming that zircon Hf isotopes can represent initial Hf isotopes of their parental whole rock. However, this assumption may not always be valid. Disequilibrium partial melting of continental crust would preferentially melt out non-zircon minerals with high time-integrated Lu/Hf ratios and generate partial melts with Hf isotope compositions that are more radiogenic than those of its magma source. Dissolution experiments (with hotplate, bomb and sintering procedures) of zircon-bearing samples demonstrate this disequilibrium effect where partial dissolution yielded variable and more radiogenic Hf isotope compositions than fully dissolved samples. A case study from the Neoproterozoic Jiuling batholith in southern China shows that about half of the investigated samples show decoupled Hf isotopes between zircons and the bulk rocks. This decoupling could reflect complex and prolonged magmatic processes, such as crustal assimilation, magma mixing, and disequilibrium melting, which are consistent with the wide temperature spectrum from ∼630 °C to ∼900 °C by Ti-in-zircon thermometer. We suggest that magmatic zircons may only record the Hf isotopic composition of their surrounding melt during crystallization and it is uncertain whether their Hf isotopic compositions can represent the primary Hf isotopic compositions of the bulk magmas. In this regard, using zircon Hf isotopic compositions to trace crustal evolution may be biased since most of these could be originally from disequilibrium partial melts.

  4. Review of and contribution to the Stratigraphy of the Cenozoic Igneous Rocks in the Republic of Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nakhal, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    In Yemen the Cenozoic igneous rocks consists of intrusive and extrusive rocks with interlayered sediments, all of which are included within the Manakha Group (latest Cretaceous-Holocene). This group is subdivided into the Haraz Formation which includes the latest Cretaceous-Tertiary volcanics and the interlayered sediments, the Aden Formation which includes the Late Tertiary-Holocene volcanics, and the Bura Formations are introduced here as new units. The Haraz Formation replaces the informal names: Trap Series, Yemen Volcanics and Aden Trap Series, Yemen Volcanics and Adan Trap Series.The Adan Formation are a readaptation of the term Aden Vocanic Series. A startotype for the Aden Formation is designated in the Shuqra-Ahwar area. (author)

  5. Magmatic evolution of Panama Canal volcanic rocks: A record of arc processes and tectonic change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Farris

    Full Text Available Volcanic rocks along the Panama Canal present a world-class opportunity to examine the relationship between arc magmatism, tectonic forcing, wet and dry magmas, and volcanic structures. Major and trace element geochemistry of Canal volcanic rocks indicate a significant petrologic transition at 21-25 Ma. Oligocene Bas Obispo Fm. rocks have large negative Nb-Ta anomalies, low HREE, fluid mobile element enrichments, a THI of 0.88, and a H2Ocalc of >3 wt. %. In contrast, the Miocene Pedro Miguel and Late Basalt Fm. exhibit reduced Nb-Ta anomalies, flattened REE curves, depleted fluid mobile elements, a THI of 1.45, a H2Ocalc of <1 wt. %, and plot in mid-ocean ridge/back-arc basin fields. Geochemical modeling of Miocene rocks indicates 0.5-0.1 kbar crystallization depths of hot (1100-1190°C magmas in which most compositional diversity can be explained by fractional crystallization (F = 0.5. However, the most silicic lavas (Las Cascadas Fm. require an additional mechanism, and assimilation-fractional-crystallization can reproduce observed compositions at reasonable melt fractions. The Canal volcanic rocks, therefore, change from hydrous basaltic pyroclastic deposits typical of mantle-wedge-derived magmas, to hot, dry bi-modal magmatism at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. We suggest the primary reason for the change is onset of arc perpendicular extension localized to central Panama. High-resolution mapping along the Panama Canal has revealed a sequence of inward dipping maar-diatreme pyroclastic pipes, large basaltic sills, and bedded silicic ignimbrites and tuff deposits. These volcanic bodies intrude into the sedimentary Canal Basin and are cut by normal and subsequently strike-slip faults. Such pyroclastic pipes and basaltic sills are most common in extensional arc and large igneous province environments. Overall, the change in volcanic edifice form and geochemistry are related to onset of arc perpendicular extension, and are consistent with the

  6. Magmatic evolution of Panama Canal volcanic rocks: A record of arc processes and tectonic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Agustin; Montes, Camilo; Foster, David; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Volcanic rocks along the Panama Canal present a world-class opportunity to examine the relationship between arc magmatism, tectonic forcing, wet and dry magmas, and volcanic structures. Major and trace element geochemistry of Canal volcanic rocks indicate a significant petrologic transition at 21–25 Ma. Oligocene Bas Obispo Fm. rocks have large negative Nb-Ta anomalies, low HREE, fluid mobile element enrichments, a THI of 0.88, and a H2Ocalc of >3 wt. %. In contrast, the Miocene Pedro Miguel and Late Basalt Fm. exhibit reduced Nb-Ta anomalies, flattened REE curves, depleted fluid mobile elements, a THI of 1.45, a H2Ocalc of arc basin fields. Geochemical modeling of Miocene rocks indicates 0.5–0.1 kbar crystallization depths of hot (1100–1190°C) magmas in which most compositional diversity can be explained by fractional crystallization (F = 0.5). However, the most silicic lavas (Las Cascadas Fm.) require an additional mechanism, and assimilation-fractional-crystallization can reproduce observed compositions at reasonable melt fractions. The Canal volcanic rocks, therefore, change from hydrous basaltic pyroclastic deposits typical of mantle-wedge-derived magmas, to hot, dry bi-modal magmatism at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. We suggest the primary reason for the change is onset of arc perpendicular extension localized to central Panama. High-resolution mapping along the Panama Canal has revealed a sequence of inward dipping maar-diatreme pyroclastic pipes, large basaltic sills, and bedded silicic ignimbrites and tuff deposits. These volcanic bodies intrude into the sedimentary Canal Basin and are cut by normal and subsequently strike-slip faults. Such pyroclastic pipes and basaltic sills are most common in extensional arc and large igneous province environments. Overall, the change in volcanic edifice form and geochemistry are related to onset of arc perpendicular extension, and are consistent with the idea that Panama arc crust fractured during collision

  7. Water-rock interaction in the magmatic-hydrothermal system of Nisyros Island (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Michele; Doveri, Marco; Fagioli, Maria Teresa; Marini, Luigi; Principe, Claudia; Raco, Brunella

    2010-04-01

    In this work, we investigated the water-rock interaction processes taking place in the hydrothermal reservoir of Nisyros through both: (1) a review of the hydrothermal mineralogy encountered in the deep geothermal borehole Nisyros-2; and (2) a comparison of the analytically-derived redox potentials and acidities of fumarolic-related liquids, with those controlled by redox buffers and pH buffers, involving hydrothermal mineral phases. The propylitic zone met in the deep geothermal borehole Nisyros-2, from 950 to 1547 m (total depth), is characterised by abundant, well crystallised epidote, adularia, albite, quartz, pyrite, chlorite, and sericite-muscovite, accompanied by less abundant anhydrite, stilpnomelane, wairakite, garnet, tremolite and pyroxene. These hydrothermal minerals were produced in a comparatively wide temperature range, from 230 to 300 °C, approximately. Hydrothermal assemblages are well developed from 950 to 1360 m, whereas they are less developed below this depth, probably due to low permeability. Based on the RH values calculated for fumarolic gases and for the deep geothermal fluids of Nisyros-1 and Nisyros-2 wells, redox equilibrium with the (FeO)/(FeO 1.5) rock buffer appears to be closely attained throughout the hydrothermal reservoir of Nisyros. This conclusion may be easily reconciled with the nearly ubiquitous occurrence of anhydrite and pyrite, since RH values controlled by coexistence of anhydrite and pyrite can be achieved by gas separation. The pH of the liquids feeding the fumarolic vents of Stephanos and Polybote Micros craters was computed, by means of the EQ3 code, based on the Cl- δD relationship which is constrained by the seawater-magmatic water mixing occurring at depth in the hydrothermal-magmatic system of Nisyros. The temperature dependence of analytically-derived pH values for the reservoir liquids feeding the fumarolic vents of Stephanos and Polybote Micros craters suggests that some unspecified pH buffer fixes the

  8. Addendum to uranium favorability of Cenozoic sedimentary rocks of the Western Snake River Basin, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marjaniemi, D.K.; Curry, W.E.; Robins, J.W.

    1976-10-01

    Eight appendices are included: stratigraphic and lithologic data for sample localities; gamma-ray spectrometric analyses of rock samples; semiquantitative emission spectroscopic analyses of selected rock samples; average concentrations of trace elements in samples analyzed by emission spectroscopy; petrographic analyses of selected samples; uranium analyses of water samples; list of water wells; and list of petroleum test wells

  9. Geochronology of Cenozoic rocks in the Bodie Hills, California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Robert J.; du Bray, Edward A.; John, David A.; Vikre, Peter G.; Cosca, Michael A.; Snee, Lawrence W.; Box, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present geochronologic data for unaltered volcanic rocks, hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks, and mineral deposits of the Miocene Bodie Hills and Pliocene to Pleistocene Aurora volcanic fields of east-central California and west-central Nevada. Most of the data presented here were derived from samples collected between 2000–13, but some of the geochronologic data, compiled from a variety of sources, pertain to samples collected during prior investigations. New data presented here (tables 1 and 2; Appendixes 1–3) were acquired in three U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 40Ar/39Ar labs by three different geochronologists: Robert J. Fleck (Menlo Park, CA), Lawrence W. Snee (Denver, CO), and Michael A. Cosca (Denver, CO). Analytical methods and data derived from each of these labs are presented separately.

  10. Transfer of Metasupracrustal Rocks to Midcrustal Depths in the North Cascades Continental Magmatic Arc, Skagit Gneiss Complex, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, K. B.; Gordon, S. M.; Miller, R. B.; Vervoort, J. D.; Fisher, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    The metasupracrustal units within the north central Chelan block of the North Cascades Range, Washington, are investigated to determine mechanisms and timescales of supracrustal rock incorporation into the deep crust of continental magmatic arcs. Zircon U-Pb and Hf-isotope analyses were used to characterize the protoliths of metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks from the Skagit Gneiss Complex, metasupracrustal rocks from the Cascade River Schist, and metavolcanic rocks from the Napeequa Schist. Skagit Gneiss Complex metasedimentary rocks have (1) a wide range of zircon U-Pb dates from Proterozoic to latest Cretaceous and (2) a more limited range of dates, from Late Triassic to latest Cretaceous, and a lack of Proterozoic dates. Two samples from the Cascade River Schist are characterized by Late Cretaceous protoliths. Amphibolites from the Napeequa Schist have Late Triassic protoliths. Similarities between the Skagit Gneiss metasediments and accretionary wedge and forearc sediments in northwestern Washington and Southern California indicate that the protolith for these units was likely deposited in a forearc basin and/or accretionary wedge in the Early to Late Cretaceous (circa 134-79 Ma). Sediment was likely underthrust into the active arc by circa 74-65 Ma, as soon as 7 Ma after deposition, and intruded by voluminous magmas. The incorporation of metasupracrustal units aligns with the timing of major arc magmatism in the North Cascades (circa 79-60 Ma) and may indicate a link between the burial of sediments and pluton emplacement.

  11. In situ Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy as a tool to discriminate volcanic rocks and magmatic series, Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, C.P.M., E-mail: clement.roux@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Rakovský, J.; Musset, O. [Laboratoire interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Monna, F. [Laboratoire ARTéHIS, UMR 6298 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, F-21000 Dijon (France); Buoncristiani, J.-F.; Pellenard, P.; Thomazo, C. [Laboratoire Biogéosciences, UMR 6282 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, F-21000 Dijon (France)

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the potentialities of a lab-made pLIBS (portable Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) to sort volcanic rocks belonging to various magmatic series. An in-situ chemical analysis of 19 atomic lines, including Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Si, Sr and Ti, from 21 sampled rocks was performed during a field exploration in Iceland. Iceland was chosen both for the various typologies of volcanic rocks and the rugged conditions in the field in order to test the sturdiness of the pLIPS. Elemental compositions were also measured using laboratory ICP-AES measurements on the same samples. Based on these latter results, which can be used to identify three different groups of volcanic rocks, a classification model was built in order to sort pLIBS data and to categorize unknown samples. Using a reliable statistical scheme applied to LIBS compositional data, the classification capability of the pLIBS system is clearly demonstrated (90–100% success rate). Although this prototype does not provide quantitative measurements, its use should be of particular interest for future geological field investigations. - Highlights: • Portable LIBS applied to field geology • Fast semi-quantitative geochemical analysis of volcanic rocks and magmatic series • Discriminant analysis and statistical treatments for LIBS compositional data.

  12. Palaeomagnetism and K-Ar age of Mesozoic and Cenozoic igneous rocks from Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencio, D.A.; Mendia, J.E.; Vilas, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    A new analysis of palaeomagnetic data for igneous rocks from Deception Island, 25 de Mayo Island (King George Island) and Cape Spring, are given. K-Ar age determinations indicate that most of the igneous samples from 25 de Mayo Island included in the palaeomagnetic study are of Late Mesozoic/Early Tertiary age. The significance of these palaeomagnetic-radiometric data on the hypothesis of oroclinal bending of the Antarctic Peninsula and on the apparent polar movement of Antarctica is discussed. The positions of palaeomagnetic poles for the Andean igneous complex indicate that there has not been any apparent post-Late Cretaceous/Early Tertiary oroclinal bending in the Antarctic Peninsula from 74 0 S to 62 0 S. A comparison of the positions of palaeomagnetic poles for Antarctica and Australia suggests that the direction of apparent polar movement relative to Antarctica reversed after the Miocene. (Auth.)

  13. Unravelling the magmatic system beneath a monogenetic volcanic complex (Jagged Rocks Complex, Hopi Buttes, AZ, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, G.; Palin, J. M.; White, J. D. L.; Parolari, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Jagged Rocks complex is the eroded remnant of the plumbing systems of closely spaced monogenetic alkaline volcanic centres in the southern Hopi Buttes Volcanic Field (AZ, USA). It contains different clinopyroxene populations with distinctive textures and geochemical patterns. In the Northwestern part of the complex, which exposes the best developed system of conduits, most of the clinopyroxenes consist of large- to medium-sized resorbed cores overgrown by euhedral rims (type 1), small moderately resorbed greenish cores with the same overgrown rims (type 2), and phlogopite as an accessory phase. By contrast, in the Southern part of the complex the majority of clinopyroxenes are euhedral with oscillatory zonation (type 3) and are accompanied by minor euhedral olivine. The differences between these mineral assemblages indicate a composite history of crystallization and magmatic evolution for the two parts of the complex, governed by different mechanisms and ascent patterns from a single source at 50 km depth (16 kbar). The Northwest system preserves a high-pressure assemblage that cooled rapidly from near-liquidus conditions, suggesting direct ascent from the source to the surface at high-to-moderate transport rates (average 1.25 m/s). By contrast, the Southern system represents magma that advanced upward at much lower overall ascent rates, stalling at times to form small-volume mid-crustal storage zones (e.g., sills or a network of sheeted intrusions); this allowed the re-equilibration of the magma at lower pressure ( 30 km; 8 kbar), and led to nucleation and growth of euhedral clinopyroxene and olivine phenocrysts.

  14. Late Cenozoic Magmatic and Tectonic Evolution of the Ancestral Cascade Arc in the Bodie Hills, California and Nevada: Insights from Integrated Geologic, Geophysical, Geochemical and Geochronologic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, D. A.; du Bray, E. A.; Box, S. E.; Blakely, R. J.; Fleck, R. J.; Vikre, P. G.; Cousens, B.; Moring, B. C.

    2012-12-01

    Geologic mapping integrated with new geophysical, geochemical, and geochronologic data characterize the evolution of Bodie Hills volcanic field (BHVF), a long-lived eruptive center in the southern part of the ancestral Cascade arc. The ~700 km2 field was a locus of magmatic activity from ~15 to 8 Ma. It includes >25 basaltic andesite to trachyandesite stratovolcanoes and silicic trachyandesite to rhyolite dome complexes. The southeastern part of the BHVF is overlain by the ~3.9 to 0.1 Ma, post-arc Aurora Volcanic Field. Long-lived BHVF magmatism was localized by crustal-scale tectonic features, including the Precambrian continental margin, the Walker Lane, the Basin and Range Province, and the Mina deflection. BHVF eruptive activity occurred primarily during 3 stages: 1) dominantly trachyandesite stratovolcanoes (~15.0 to 12.9 Ma), 2) coalesced trachydacite and rhyolite lava domes and trachyandesite stratovolcanoes (~11.6 to 9.7 Ma), and 3) dominantly silicic trachyandesite to dacite lava dome complexes (~9.2 to 8.0 Ma). Small rhyolite domes were emplaced at ~6 Ma. Relatively mafic stratovolcanoes surrounded by debris flow aprons lie on the margins of the BHVF, whereas more silicic dome fields occupy its center. Detailed gravity and aeromagnetic data suggest the presence of unexposed cogenetic granitic plutons beneath the center of the BHVF. Isotopic compositions of BHVF rocks are generally more radiogenic with decreasing age (e.g., initial Sr isotope values increase from ~0.7049 to 0.7061), which suggests progressively greater magma contamination by crustal components during evolution of the BHVF. Approximately circular, polygenetic volcanoes and scarcity of dikes suggest a low differential horizontal stress field during BHVF formation. Extensive alluvial gravel deposits that grade laterally into fluvial gravels and finer grained lacustrine sediments and the westerly sourced Eureka Valley Tuff (EVT; ~9.4 Ma) blanket large parts of the BHVF. The earliest sediments

  15. GIS database and discussion for the distribution, composition, and age of Cenozoic volcanic rocks of the Pacific Northwest Volcanic Aquifer System study area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.; Keith, Mackenzie K.

    2018-03-30

    A substantial part of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is underlain by Cenozoic volcanic and continental sedimentary rocks and, where widespread, these strata form important aquifers. The legacy geologic mapping presented with this report contains new thematic categorization added to state digital compilations published by the U.S. Geological Survey for Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, and Washington (Ludington and others, 2005). Our additional coding is designed to allow rapid characterization, mainly for hydrogeologic purposes, of similar rocks and deposits within a boundary expanded slightly beyond that of the Pacific Northwest Volcanic Aquifer System study area. To be useful for hydrogeologic analysis and to be more statistically manageable, statewide compilations from Ludington and others (2005) were mosaicked into a regional map and then reinterpreted into four main categories on the basis of (1) age, (2) composition, (3) hydrogeologic grouping, and (4) lithologic pattern. The coding scheme emphasizes Cenozoic volcanic or volcanic-related rocks and deposits, and of primary interest are the codings for composition and age.

  16. Clinopyroxene geobarometry of magmatic rocks. Part 2. Structural geobarometers for basic to acid, tholeiitic and mildly alkaline magmatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimis, Paolo

    . Applications to natural, igneous rocks for which the pressures of crystallization could be constrained based on experimental, petrological or geological evidence yielded pressure estimates that reproduced the expected values to within ca. 2kbar. Compared to the MA-formulation, the TH-formulation appears to be less robust to variations in magma composition. When applied to high-pressure (>10kbar) clinopyroxenes synthesized from very low Na (Na2Opressure of crystallization from a clinopyroxene chemical analysis.

  17. The genesis of Mo-Cu deposits and mafic igneous rocks in the Senj area, Alborz magmatic belt, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabatian, Ghasem; Li, Xian-Hua; Wan, Bo; Honarmand, Maryam

    2017-11-01

    The geochemical and isotopic investigations were provided on the Upper Eocene Senj mafic intrusion and Mo-Cu mineralization to better understand the tectono-magmatic evolution and metallogeny of the central part of the Alborz magmatic belt. The Senj mafic intrusion is composed of gabbro to monzodiorite and monzonite in lithology, and intruded as a sill into volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Eocene Karaj Formation. The Karaj Formation consists of volcano-sedimentary rocks, such as altered crystalline to shaly tuffs. The Senj intrusion (39.7 ± 0.4 Ma) shows LILE and LREE enrichment and negative anomaly of Nb, Ta and Ti, the geochemical signatures similar to those from subduction-related mafic magmas. The Hf-O zircon analyses yield ɛHf(t) values of + 4.1 to + 11.1 and δ18O values of + 4.8 to + 6.2‰. The zircon isotopic signatures together with shoshonitic affinity in the Senj mafic samples suggest partial melting of an enriched lithospheric mantle that had already been metasomatized by slab-derived melts and fluids. The Mo-Cu mineralization mainly occurs as veins and veinlets in the volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Karaj Formation and is dominated by molybdenite with minor amounts of chalcopyrite, bornite, pyrite and tetrahedrite-tennantite. The associated gangue minerals are tremolite, actinolite, quartz, calcite, chlorite and epidote. The Senj Mo-Cu deposit formed in volcano-sedimentary rocks following the emplacement of the Late Eocene Senj sill. The source of molybdenite in the Senj deposit is dominantly from crustal materials as it is revealed by Re contents in the molybdenite minerals (0.5 to 0.7 ppm). In fact, the molybdenite occurrence may be a remobilization process related to the emplacement of the Senj mafic magma.

  18. Constraining lithospheric removal and asthenospheric input to melts in Central Asia: A geochemical study of Triassic to Cretaceous magmatic rocks in the Gobi Altai (Mongolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldrick, Thomas C.; Barry, Tiffany L.; Van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Kempton, Pamela D.

    2018-01-01

    Throughout northeast China, eastern and southern Mongolia, and eastern Russia there is widespread Mesozoic intracontinental magmatism. Extensive studies on the Chinese magmatic rocks have suggested lithospheric mantle removal was a driver of the magmatism. The timing, distribution and potential diachroneity of such lithospheric mantle removal remains poorly constrained. Here, we examine successions of Mesozoic lavas and shallow intrusive volcanic plugs from the Gobi Altai in southern Mongolia that appear to be unrelated to regional, relatively small-scale deformation; at the time of magmatism, the area was 200 km from any active margin, or, after its Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous closure, from the suture of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean. 40Ar/39Ar radiometric age data place magmatic events in the Gobi Altai between 220 to 99.2 Ma. This succession overlaps Chinese successions and therefore provides an opportunity to constrain whether Mesozoic lithosphere removal may provide an explanation for the magmatism here too, and if so, when. We show that Triassic to Lower Cretaceous lavas in the Gobi Altai (from Dulaan Bogd, Noyon Uul, Bulgantiin Uul, Jaran Bogd and Tsagaan Tsav) are all light rare-earth element (LREE) and large-ion lithophile element (LILE)-enriched, with negative Nb and Ta anomalies (Nb/La and Ta/La ≤ 1). Geochemical data suggest that these lavas formed by low degrees of partial melting of a metasomatised lithospheric mantle that may have been modified by melts derived from recycled rutile-bearing eclogite. A gradual reduction in the involvement of garnet in the source of these lavas points towards a shallowing of the depth of melting after 125 Ma. By contrast, geochemical and isotope data from the youngest magmatic rocks in the area - 107-99 Ma old volcanic plugs from Tsost Magmatic Field - have OIB-like trace element patterns and are interpreted to have formed by low degrees of partial melting of a garnet-bearing lherzolite mantle source. These rocks did

  19. Model to Assess the Quality of Magmatic Rocks for Reliable and Sustainable Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Toderaş

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Geomechanical assessment of rocks requires knowledge of phenomena that occur under the influence of internal and external factors at a macroscopic or microscopic scale, when rocks are submitted to different actions. To elucidate the quantitative and qualitative geomechanical behavior of rocks, knowing their geological and physical–mechanical characteristics becomes an imperative. Mineralogical, petrographical and chemical analyses provided an opportunity to identify 15 types of igneous rocks (gabbro, diabases, granites, diorites, rhyolites, andesites, and basalts, divided into plutonic and volcanic rocks. In turn, these have been grouped into acidic, neutral (intermediate and basic magmatites. A new ranking method is proposed, based on considering the rock characteristics as indicators of quantitative assessment, and the grading system, by given points, allowing the rocks framing in admissibility classes. The paper is structured into two parts, experimental and interpretation of experimental data, showing the methodology to assess the quality of igneous rocks analyzed, and the results of theoretical and experimental research carried out on the analyzed rock types. The proposed method constitutes an appropriate instrument for assessment and verification of the requirements regarding the quality of rocks used for sustainable construction.

  20. Cenozoic Tectonic Characteristics in the Adare Basin, West Ross Sea: Evidence From Seismic Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Gao, J.; Ding, W.

    2017-12-01

    Based on the geophysical data obtained from the Adare Basin and its adjacent areas, West Ross Sea, the authors employed the frequency wave-number filtering technique to recover the newly processed dataset with high signal noise ratio and complete seismic event which highly contributes to reveal more detailed deep-seated geological structures than previously thought. The structural features and magmatism of the study area in Cenozoic were classified and analyzed. Combined with glaciation, the associated sedimentary facies were summarized systematically. The authors' analysis revealed that, at 16 Ma, under the influence of the thermal effect caused by residual magmatism and asymmetric spreading of Adare Basin in the initial period, surrounding areas of two flanks of the Adare trough were characterized by uplift folds and tilted uplift zone, respectively. The small-scale uplift fold zone was characterized by nearly upright faults and folds and was located in the southern part of the eastern flank, whereas the tilted uplift zone dominated in the corresponding district of western flank that reached the continental margin. By utilizing the contact relationship between igneous rocks and surrounding rocks, igneous rocks can be divided into two periods: early-stage and late Cenozoic igneous rocks. The early-stage rocks are generally located dispersedly in the tilted uplift zone and the age is poorly known. It is suggested that they were related to the residual magmatism. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of Late Cenozoic igneous rocks, formed not earlier 5.5 Ma, was extensive and scattered, almost covering the whole study area, which indicates that they might be unrelated to the rifting in space and time, instead they were affected by decompression melting of the mantle because of the large-scale deglaciation since Pliocene.

  1. Experimental early crystallization of K-feldspar in granitic systems. Implications on the origin of magmatic fabrics in granitic rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-Alvarado, J.

    2017-07-01

    One of the most outstanding characteristics of some granodioritic to granitic rocks is the presence of K-feldspar megacrysts. For instance, granodiorites and monzogranites of the Spanish Central System batholith present variable amounts of large (up to 10cm in length) euhedral K-feldspar crystals. The porphyritic textures, the euhedral shape, the alignment of plagioclase and biotite inclusions and the magmatic fabrics point to a magmatic origin for these megacrysts. This work presents a phase equilibria study in a high-K2O granodioritic system. A series of experiments were conducted with a granodioritic composition (GEMbiot) to study the crystallization sequence at the emplacement conditions in the Gredos massif, i.e. 4 H2O wt.% and 0.4GPa. Experimental results show that orthopiroxene is the liquidus phase at 1010ºC, which reacts with the H2O-rich melt to stabilize biotite between 980 and 940ºC. Plagioclase crystallizes at around 910ºC, and K-feldspar crystallizes in the matrix between 750 and 700ºC when the crystal fraction is around 0.5. However, at 850 ºC, a pelite-doped experiment shows euhedral K-feldspar (≈5vol%) in both the reactive xenolith domain together with cordierite and the granodioritic domain, where the K2O wt.% rise from 4.5 in the normal experiment to 5.9 in the doped experiment. These results suggest that the bulk-assimilation process promotes the bulk and heterogeneous K2O enrichment in a huge granodioritic magma volume, which triggers an early crystallization of K-feldspar megacrysts. Because of this early crystallization of the megacrysts, the magmatic foliations defined by K-feldspar megacrysts are formed during and after the emplacement processes and are highly influenced by tectonic kinematics.

  2. Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mousumi; Jordan, Thomas H; Pederson, Joel

    2009-06-18

    The forces that drove rock uplift of the low-relief, high-elevation, tectonically stable Colorado Plateau are the subject of long-standing debate. While the adjacent Basin and Range province and Rio Grande rift province underwent Cenozoic shortening followed by extension, the plateau experienced approximately 2 km of rock uplift without significant internal deformation. Here we propose that warming of the thicker, more iron-depleted Colorado Plateau lithosphere over 35-40 Myr following mid-Cenozoic removal of the Farallon plate from beneath North America is the primary mechanism driving rock uplift. In our model, conductive re-equilibration not only explains the rock uplift of the plateau, but also provides a robust geodynamic interpretation of observed contrasts between the Colorado Plateau margins and the plateau interior. In particular, the model matches the encroachment of Cenozoic magmatism from the margins towards the plateau interior at rates of 3-6 km Myr(-1) and is consistent with lower seismic velocities and more negative Bouguer gravity at the margins than in the plateau interior. We suggest that warming of heterogeneous lithosphere is a powerful mechanism for driving epeirogenic rock uplift of the Colorado Plateau and may be of general importance in plate-interior settings.

  3. The nature of transition from adakitic to non-adakitic magmatism in a slab window setting: A synthesis from the eastern Pontides, NE Turkey

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    Yener Eyuboglu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The eastern Pontides orogenic belt provides a window into continental arc magmatism in the Alpine–Himalayan belt. The late Mesozoic–Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of this belt remains controversial. Here we focus on the nature of the transition from the adakitic to non-adakitic magmatism in the Kale area of Gumushane region in NE Turkey where this transition is best preserved. The adakitic lithologies comprise porphyries and hyaloclastites. The porphyries are represented by biotite-rich andesites, hornblende-rich andesite and dacite. The hayaloclastites represent the final stage of adakitic activity and they were generated by eruption/intrusion of adakitic andesitic magma into soft carbonate mud. The non-adakitic lithologies include basaltic-andesitic volcanic and associated pyroclastic rocks. Both rock groups are cutting by basaltic dikes representing the final stage of the Cenozoic magmatism in the study area. We report zircon U-Pb ages of 48.71 ± 0.74 Ma for the adakitic rocks, and 44.68 ± 0.84 Ma for the non-adakitic type, suggesting that there is no significant time gap during the transition from adakitic to non-adakitic magmatism. We evaluate the origin, magma processes and tectonic setting of the magmatism in the southern part of the eastern Pontides orogenic belt. Our results have important bearing on the late Mesozoic–Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean region.

  4. Hf isotope study of Palaeozoic metaigneous rocks of La pampa province and implications for the occurrence of juvenile early Neoproterozoic (Tonian) magmatism in south-central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, C. J.; Zappettini, E. O.; Santos, J. O. S.; Belousova, E.; McNaughton, N. J.

    2011-12-01

    On a global scale, juvenile Tonian (Early Neoproterozoic) magmatic rocks are associated with the extensional events that lead to the breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent. In Argentina, no geological record is available for this time interval, lasting from 1000 to 850 Ma. We present indirect evidence for the existence of Tonian extension in Argentina, as supported by Hf and Nd isotope determinations on Phanerozoic magmatic and sedimentary rocks. We mainly focus on our own Hf isotope determinations carried out on U-Pb SHRIMP dated zircons from Palaeozoic metaigneous rocks of La Pampa province, south-central Argentina, i.e. metagabbros of Valle Daza, dioritic orthogneiss of Estancia Lote 8, and metadiorite of Estancia El Carancho, having found that these rocks were derived from sources of ca. 920 to ca 880 Ma, with ɛHf values between +6.83 and + 9.59. Inherited zircons of this age and character identified in these rocks also point to the same source. We also compile additional Hf and Nd studies from previous work on Phanerozoic magmatic and sedimentary rocks. We preliminarily compare the age of the juvenile Tonian sources referred to in our work with that of two extensional events identified in the São Francisco craton, Brazil.

  5. Comparison of hydrothermal alteration patterns associated with porphyry Cu deposits hosted by granitoids and intermediate-mafic volcanic rocks, Kerman Magmatic Arc, Iran: Application of geological, mineralogical and remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Seyyed Jabber; Ranjbar, Hojjatollah; Alirezaei, Saeed; Dargahi, Sara; Lentz, David R.

    2018-06-01

    The southern section of the Cenozoic Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc (UDMA) of Iran, known as Kerman Magmatic Arc (KMA) or Kerman copper belt, is a major host to porphyry Cu ± Mo ± Au deposits, collectively known as PCDs. In this study, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and spectral angle mapper (SAM) method, combined with field data, mineralogical studies, and spectral analysis are used to determine hydrothermal alteration patterns related to PCDs in the KMA. Gossans developed over some of these porphyry type deposits were mapped using Landsat 8 data. In the NKMA gossans are more developed than in the SKMA due to comparatively lower rate of erosion. The hydrothermal alteration pattern mapped by ASTER data were evaluated using mineralogical and spectral data. ASTER data proved to be useful for mapping the hydrothermal alteration in this semi-arid type of climate. Also Landsat 8 was useful for mapping the iron oxide minerals in the gossans that are associated with the porphyry copper deposits. Our multidisciplinary approach indicates that unlike the PCDs in the northern KMA that are associated with distinct and widespread propylitic alteration, those in the granitoid country rocks lack propylitic alteration or the alteration is only weakly and irregularly developed. The porphyry systems in southern KMA are further distinguished by development of quartz-rich phyllic alteration zones in the outer parts of the PCDs that could be mapped using remote sensing data. Consideration of variations in alteration patterns and specific alteration assemblages are critical in regional exploration for PCDs.

  6. Magmatic formations in the Okhotsk--Chukotka volcanogenic belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipov, A.P.

    1976-05-01

    The relationship between the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanogenic belt of Northeast USSR and the stage of evolution of magnetism and tectonic development of the region are examined. Recognizing the associations of effusive and intrusive rocks that are typical of the southern part of the volcanogenic belt and that are joined together by some characteristic features, a basic plan is presented for examination of the problem of magnetic formations. On the basis of the distinctive characteristics of epigeosynclinal tectonic development of the territory and the sequence of formation of the magmatic rocks within it, three main groups: volcanic, coleanoplutonic, and plutonic, can be distinguished; and a general scheme of development of these types in space and time within the volcanogenic belt can be developed. According to this scheme, four main stages can be recognized in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic magmatic evolution of the Okhotsk-Chukotka belt. This scheme of classification takes into consideration the factor of the structural development of this tectonomagmatic element.

  7. 143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio variations in magmatic rocks of Aleutian island arc as regard to the problem of their petrogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, D.Z.; Chernyshev, I.V.; Tsvetkov, A.A.; Borsuk, A.M.; Agapova, A.A.; Serdyuk, N.I.

    1983-01-01

    The results of precision measurement of isotope composition of neodymium in rocks of Pre-Quaternary magmatic formations of the Aleutian island arc (AIA) (Commander Islands). It has been found summing the Nd and Sr analysis results in AIA magmatic rocks that AIA magmatic melts are of mantle origin. The AIA magma source the full its length off and for all the history of geological development remained isotopically homogeneousm Crust contamination of magmatic melts played a significant role only in the initial and early stages of the AIA development, in the later and conclusive stages this process has been sharply reduced. Sedimentary material practically did not take part in the magmaproduction process at the initial stage of the AIA development, it is hardly probable that its role increased at the later stages. The cause of important 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio variations in the rocks of one AIA petrographic type is the propylitization process with participation of sea water. Variance of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios without taking into account other isotope systems data is not an indisputable proof of magma source heterogeneity

  8. Petrology, mineral chemistry and tectono-magmatic setting of volcanic rocks from northeast Farmahin, north of Arak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Zarei Sahamieh

    2014-10-01

    the presence of labradorite, bytownite, anorthite as the plagioclases in volcanic rocks, as well as augite, pigeonite and clinoenstatite among the pyroxenes are abundant. Microscopic study of these lavas and pyroclastic rocks show evidences of magmatic contamination in the form of oscillatory zoning, resorption rims in plagioclase and presence of basic inclusions. The presence of oxidized amphibole rims (in hornblende indicates the high temperature of the magma at the time of eruption. Based on geochemistry especially the ratio of Eu/Eu* is variable between liquid and solid phases. The calculated of this ratio in studied rocks show negative anomaly (Eu According to classification diagrams is used of different diagrams for example TAS/SiO2, R1-R2 and Zr/TiO2-Nb/Y. TAS/SiO2 diagram show that the rocks are of basaltic-andesite, andesite and dacite. R1-R2 diagram show these rocks are andesite, andesi-basalt, dacite and rhyodacite. Finally, based on Zr/TiO2-Nb/Y the rocks in area under study are andesite, basalt, dacite and rhyodacite type. The geochemical diagrams (such as AFM for identify of mama series show that the rocks studied are calc-alkaline and A/NK-A/CNK show magma is peraluminous to metaluminous in nature. Enrichment of incompatible and LILE elements such as Ba, K and Rb show that contamination of magma with continental crust have been occurred in this area. Similarity between REE patterns in all samples is related to common source for all volcanic rocks in the studied area. Discussion The tectonic setting diagrams show that these rocks belong to the continental margin which have been involved in a subduction zone and belong to the orogenic andesite belt. The position of the samples on the major elements-SiO2 diagrams indicate that magma differentiation has been occurred. Spider diagrams show depletion and enrichment that the type of rocks in studied area have positive anomalous of Rb and negative anomalous of Nb and Ti, this phenomenon shows contamination

  9. A possible connection between post-subduction arc magmatism and adakite-NEB rock association in Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, P. R.

    2007-05-01

    Late Miocene to Recent arc-related magmatism occurs in Baja California, Mexico despite the cessation of plate subduction along its western margin at ~12.5 Ma. It includes calcalkaline and K-rich andesites, tholeiitic basalts and basaltic andesites, alkalic basalts similar to many ocean island basalts (OIB), magnesian and basaltic andesites with adakitic affinity (bajaiites), adakites, and Nb-enriched basalts (NEB). A popular model for the close spatial and temporal association of adakite (plus bajaiite) and NEB in Baja California is these are due to melting of the subducted Farallon/Cocos plate, which in turn is caused by the influx of hot asthenospheric mantle through a window created in the subducted slab directly beneath the Baja California peninsula [e.g., Benoit, M. et. al. (2002) J. Geol. 110, 627-648; Calmus, T. et al. (2003) Lithos 66, 77-105]. Here I propose an alternative model for the cause of post-subduction magmatism in Baja California in particular and origin of adakite-NEB rock association in general. The complicated tectonic configuration of the subducting Farallon/Cocos plate and westward motion of the North American continent caused western Mexico to override the hot, upwelling Pacific mantle that was decoupled from the spreading centers abandoned west of Baja California. The upwelling asthenosphere is best manifested east of the peninsula, beneath the Gulf of California, and is most probably due to a tear or window in the subducted slab there. The upwelling asthenosphere is compositionally heterogeneous and sends materials westward into the mantle wedge beneath the peninsula. These materials provide sources for post-subduction tholeiitic and alkalic magmas. Portions of tholeiitic magmas directly erupted at the surface produce tholeiitic lavas, but some get ponded beneath the crust. Re-melting and/or high-pressure fractional crystallization of the ponded tholeiitic magmas generate adakitic rocks. Alkalic magmas directly erupted at the surface

  10. Determining magmatic series and oxygen fugacity of volcanic rocks in the east of Kamu, north of Isfahan, based on biotite chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic rocks of interest are situated in the middle part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc (UDMA. They are parts of a vast magmatic province located in the north of Bitlis-Zagros suture zone. Having a prevailing porphyritic texture, these rocks include phenocrysts of plagioclase, amphibole and biotite in a matrix composed of feldspar, quartz, opaque, glass and microlite and mineralogically show composition of dacite to andesite. Minerals are mostly fresh. Effects of alteration are limited to weak chloritization and saussuritization in some amphiboles and rim of plagioclases, respectively. All of the analyzed biotites in the Miocene-Pliocene volcanic rocks in the east of Kamu are of Mg-biotite. According to a widespread classification of micas to 6 general end-members, biotites of interest are averagely composed of 55.45% phlogopite, 15.90% talc, 12.72% Ti-phlogopite, 11.44% eastonite, 3.71% ferri-eastonite and 0.78% muscovite. Chemical composition of biotites indicates a calk-alkaline magmatic series for the magma from which biotites are crystallized. Estimation of the oxygen fugacity of magma, based on chemical composition and Fe3+ content of biotite, shows that the oxygen fugacity was limited to FMQ buffer in quality and was about 10-15 bar in quantity. This value accords the oxygen fugacity for intermediate-acidic volcanic rocks.

  11. Thermal modeling of the Clear Lake magmatic system, California: Implications for conventional and hot dry rock geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimac, J.; Goff, F.; Wohletz, K.

    1997-06-01

    The combination of recent volcanism, high heat flow ({ge} HFU or 167 mW/m{sup 2}), and high conductive geothermal gradient (up to 120{degree} C/km) makes the Clear Lake region of northern California one of the best prospects for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal development in the US. The lack of permeability in exploration wells and lack of evidence for widespread geothermal reservoirs north of the Collayomi fault zone are not reassuring indications for conventional geothermal development. This report summarizes results of thermal modeling of the Clear Lake magmatic system, and discusses implications for HDR site selection in the region. The thermal models incorporate a wide range of constraints including the distribution and nature of volcanism in time and space, water and gas geochemistry, well data, and geophysical surveys. The nature of upper crustal magma bodies at Clear Lake is inferred from studying sequences of related silicic lavas, which tell a story of multistage mixing of silicic and mafic magma in clusters of small upper crustal chambers. Thermobarometry on metamorphic xenoliths yield temperature and pressure estimates of {approximately}780--900 C and 4--6 kb respectively, indicating that at least a portion of the deep magma system resided at depths from 14 to 21 km (9 to 12 mi). The results of thermal modeling support previous assessments of the high HDR potential of the area, and suggest the possibility that granitic bodies similar to The Geysers felsite may underlie much of the Clear Lake region at depths as little as 3--6 km. This is significant because future HDR reservoirs could potentially be sited in relatively shallow granitoid plutons rather than in structurally complex Franciscan basement rocks.

  12. Consequences of Melt-Preferred Orientation for Magmatic Segregation in Deforming Mantle Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R. F.; Taylor-West, J.; Allwright, J.; Takei, Y.; Qi, C.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    In partially molten regions of the mantle, deviatoric stresses cause large-scale deformation and mantle flow. The same stresses also lead to preferential wetting of coherently oriented grain boundaries [DK97, T10]. This alignment is called melt-preferred orientation (MPO). Because of the contrast between the physical properties of melt and solid grains, MPO has the potential to introduce anisotropy into the mechanical and transport properties of the liquid/solid aggregate. Here we consider the possible consequences for (and of) anisotropic viscosity and permeability of the partially molten aggregate. The consequences are evaluated in the context of laboratory experiments on partially molten rocks. The controlled experiments involve deformation of an initially uniform mixture of solid olivine and liquid basalt [KZK10]. The resultant patterns of melt segregation include two robust features: (i) melt segregation into bands with high melt fraction oriented at a low angle to the shear plane; and (ii) melt segregation associated with an imposed gradient in shear stress, in experiments where this is present. Although there are other reproducible features of experiments, these are the most robust and provide a challenge to models. A theoretical model for the effect of MPO on mantle viscosity under diffusion creep is available [TH09] and makes predictions that are consistent with laboratory experiments [TK13,KT13,QKKT14,AK14]. We review the mechanics of this model and the predictions for flow in torsional and pipe Poiseuille flow, showing a quantitative comparison with experimental results. Furthermore, it is logical to expect MPO to lead to anisotropy of permeability, and we present a general model of tensorial permeability. We demonstrate the consequences of this anisotropy for simple shear deformation of a partially molten rock. REFERENCES: DK97 = Daines & Kohlstedt (1997), JGR, 10.1029/97JB00393. T10 = Takei (2010), JGR, 10.1029/2009JB006568. KZK10 = King, Zimmerman

  13. K-Ar ages of basalts from the Higashi-Matsuura district, northwestern Kyushu, Japan and regional geochronology of the Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks in eastern Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Eizo; Campbell, I.H.; McDougall, I.

    1986-01-01

    Seven new K-Ar age determinations are presented on whole rock samples from alkaline and tholeiitic basalts of the Higashi-Matsuura district, northwestern Kyushu, Japan. Ages obtained range from 2.92 ± 0.03 Ma to 3.01 ± 0.04 Ma; these ages are essentially identical within analytical errors and yield an average age of 2.98 ± 0.03 Ma (Late Pliocene). When combined on an isochron type diagram the six Higashi-Matsuura samples give an age of 3.00 ± 0.03 Ma with the composition of nonradiogenic 40 Ar/ 36 Ar = 294.2 ± 2.0. The excellent age agreement of samples with different K contents and petrographic characteristics provides strong evidence that the tholeiitic and alkaline basalts were erupted for an extremely short period in the Higashi-Matsuura district. A basalt from Ogawashima Island yields a K-Ar age of 3.58 ± 0.04 Ma. This study and previously reported data support the hypothesis that alkaline volcanic activity in southwestern Japan commenced some 10 Ma ago and continued intermittently until recent times. Systematic variations of age and distribution of Cenozoic alkaline basalts are recognized in northeastern China, Korea and southwestern Japan. It is suggested that these variations are related to the initiation of 'mantle plumes' resulting from convection in the mantle wedge caused or controlled by subduction of the Kula and Pacific plates. (author)

  14. The questa magmatic system: Petrologic, chemical and isotopic variations in cogenetic volcanic and plutonic rocks of the latir volcanic field and associated intrusives, northern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Field, chemical and isotopic data demonstrate that nearly all igneous rocks at Questa resulted from interactions between mantle-derived parental magmas and the crust. Strontium, neodymium and lead isotope ratios of early andesites to rhyolites (28 to 26 Ma) indicate that these magmas assimilated > 25% lower crust. Injection of basaltic magmas extensively modified the strontium and neodymium but not the lead isotope compositions of the lower crust. Eruption of comendite magmas and the peralkaline Amalia Tuff 26 Ma is correlated with inception of regional extension. Lead isotope ratios identify different sources for the metaluminous granites and the peralkaline rocks. 26 Ma metaluminous granite to granodiorite intrusions have chemical and isotopic compositions to those of the precaldera intermediate-composition rocks, and are interpreted as representing the solidified equivalents of the precaldera magmatic episode. However, both conventional and ion-microprobe isotopic data prohibit significant assimilation of crustal rocks at the level of exposure, suggesting that the plutons were emplaced a relatively crystal-rich mushes which did not have sufficient heat to assimilate country rocks. This suggest that in some cases plutonic rocks are better than volcanic rocks in representing the isotopic compositions of their source regions, because the assimilation potential of crystal-rich magmas is significantly less than that of largely liquid magmas

  15. Petrological and geochemical characterization of the plutonic rocks of the Sierra de La Aguada, Province of San Luis, Argentina: Genetic implications with the Famatinian magmatic arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cristofolini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a synthesis on the geology of the crystalline complex that constitute the Sierra de la Aguada, San Luis province, Argentine, from an approach based on field relations, petrologic and structural features and geochemical characteristic. This mountain range exposes a basement dominated by intermediate to mafic calcalkaline igneous rocks and peraluminous felsic granitoids, both emplaced in low to medium grade metamorphic rocks stabilized under low amphibolite facies. All this lithological terrane has been grouped in the El Carrizal-La Aguada Complex. Field relations, petrographic characterization and geochemical comparison of the plutonic rocks from the study area with those belonging to the Ordovician Famatinian suit exposed in the Sierra Grande de San Luis, suggest a genetic and temporal relation linked to the development of the Famatinian magmatic arc.

  16. Late Cenozoic cooling history of the central Menderes Massif and the contribution of erosion to rock exhumation during active continental extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilius, Nils-Peter; Wölfler, Andreas; Heineke, Caroline; Glotzbach, Christoph; Hetzel, Ralf; Hampel, Andrea; Akal, Cüneyt; Dunkl, István

    2017-04-01

    erosion rates from catchments in the exposed footwall of the Büyük Menderes detachment indicates that erosion has contributed 10-40% to the exhumation of metamorphic rocks beneath the detachment. Our finding underlines that the contribution of erosion to rock exhumation cannot be neglected in regions of active continental extension. References Buscher, J.T., Hampel, A., Hetzel, R., Dunkl, I, Glotzbach, C., Struffert, A., Akal, C., Rätz, M. 2013. Quantifying rates of detachment faulting and erosion in the central Menderes Massif (western Turkey) by thermochronology and cosmogenic 10Be. J. Geol. Soc. London. 170, 669-683. Gessner, K., Ring, U., Johnson, C., Hetzel, R., Passchier, C.W., Güngör, T., 2001. An active bivergent rolling-hinge detachment system: Central Menderes metamorphic core complex in western Turkey. Geology 29, 611-614. Gessner, K., Gallardo, L.A., Markwitz, V., Ring, U., Thomson, S.N., 2013. What caused the denudation of the Menderes Massif: Review of crustal evolution, lithosphere structure, and dynamic topography in southwest Turkey. Gondwana Research 24, 243-274. Wölfler, A., Glotzbach, C., Heineke, C., Nilius, N.P., Hetzel, R., Hampel, A., Akal, C., Dunkl, I., Christl, M. (manuscript in revision for Tectonophysics). Late Cenozoic cooling history of the central Menderes Massif: timing and slip rate of the Büyük Menderes detachment and the relative contribution of normal faulting and erosion to rock exhumation.

  17. Emplacement, petrological and magnetic susceptibility characteristics of diverse magmatic epidote-bearing granitoid rocks in Brazil, Argentina and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sial, A. N.; Toselli, A. J.; Saavedra, J.; Parada, M. A.; Ferreira, V. P.

    1999-03-01

    Magmatic epidote (mEp)-bearing granitoids from five Neoproterozoic tectonostratigraphic terranes in Northeastern (NE) Brazil, Early Palaeozoic calc-alkalic granitoids in Northwestern (NW) Argentina and from three batholiths in Chile have been studied. The elongated shape of some of these plutons suggests that magmas filled fractures and that dyking was probably the major mechanism of emplacement. Textures reveal that, in many cases, epidote underwent partial dissolution by host magma and, in these cases, may have survived dissolution by relatively rapid upward transport by the host magma. In plutons where such a mechanism is not evident, unevenly distributed epidote at outcrop scale is armoured by biotite or near-solidus K-feldspar aggregates, which probably grew much faster than epidote dissolution, preventing complete resorption of epidote by the melt. Al-in-hornblende barometry indicates that, in most cases, amphibole crystallized at P≥5 kbar. Kyanite-bearing thermal aureoles surrounding plutons that intruded low-grade metamorphic rocks in NE Brazil support pluton emplacement at intermediate to high pressure. mEp show overall chemical variation from 20 to 30 mol% (mole percent) pistacite (Ps) and can be grouped into two compositional ranges: Ps 20-24 and Ps 27-30. The highest Ps contents are in epidotes of plutons in which hornblende solidified under Pcorrosion of individual epidote crystals included in plagioclase in high-K calc-alkalic granitoids in NE Brazil, emplaced at 5-7 kbar pressure, yielded estimates of magma transport rate from 70 to 350 m year -1. Most of these plutons lack Fe-Ti oxide minerals and Fe +3 is mostly associated with the epidote structure. Consequently, magnetic susceptibility (MS) in the Neoproterozoic granitoids in NE Brazil, as well as Early Palaeozoic plutons in Argentina and Late Palaeozoic plutons in Chile, is usually low (3.0×10 -3 SI, typical of magnetite-series granitoids crystallized under higher oxygen fugacity. In NE

  18. A historical overview of Moroccan magmatic events along northwest edge of the West African Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenne, Moha; Souhassou, Mustapha; Arai, Shoji; Soulaimani, Abderrahmane

    2017-03-01

    Located along the northwestern edge of the West African Craton, Morocco exhibits a wide variety of magmatic events from Archean to Quaternary. The oldest magmatic rocks belong to the Archean Reguibat Shield outcrops in the Moroccan Sahara. Paleoproterozoic magmatism, known as the Anti-Atlas granitoids, is related to the Eburnean orogeny and initial cratonization of the WAC. Mesoproterozoic magmatism is represented by a small number of mafic dykes known henceforth as the Taghdout mafic volcanism. Massive Neoproterozoic magmatic activity, related to the Pan-African cycle, consists of rift-related Tonian magmatism associated with the Rodinia breakup, an Early Cryogenian convergent margin event (760-700 Ma), syn-collisional Bou-Azzer magmatism (680-640 Ma), followed by widespread Ediacaran magmatism (620-555 Ma). Each magmatic episode corresponded to a different geodynamic environment and produced different types of magma. Phanerozoic magmatism began with Early Cambrian basaltic (rift?) volcanism, which persisted during the Middle Cambrian, and into the Early Ordovician. This was succeeded by massive Late Devonian and Carboniferous, pre-Variscan tholeiitic and calc-alkaline (Central Morocco) volcanic flows in basins of the Moroccan Meseta. North of the Atlas Paleozoic Transform Zone, the Late Carboniferous Variscan event was accompanied by the emplacement of 330-300 Ma calc-alkaline granitoids in upper crustal shear zones. Post-Variscan alkaline magmatism was associated with the opening of the Permian basins. Mesozoic magmatism began with the huge volumes of magma emplaced around 200 Ma in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) which was associated with the fragmentation of Pangea and the subsequent rifting of Central Atlantic. CAMP volcanism occurs in all structural domains of Morocco, from the Anti-Atlas to the External Rif domain with a peak activity around 199 Ma. A second Mesozoic magmatic event is represented by mafic lava flows and gabbroic intrusions in

  19. From School of Rock to Building Core Knowledge: Teaching about Cenozoic climate change with data and case studies from the primary literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckie, R. M.; St John, K. K.; Jones, M. H.; Pound, K. S.; Krissek, L. A.; Peart, L. W.

    2011-12-01

    The School of Rock (SoR) began in 2005 as a pilot geoscience professional development program for K-12 teachers and informal educators aboard the JOIDES Resolution (JR). Since then, the highly successful SoR program, sponsored by the Consortium for Ocean Leadership's Deep Earth Academy, has conducted on-shore professional development at the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) core repository in College Station, TX, and on the JR. The success of the SoR program stems from the natural synergy that develops between research scientists and educators when their combined pedagogical skills and scientific knowledge are used to uncover a wealth of scientific ocean drilling discoveries and research findings. Educators are challenged with authentic inquiry based on sediment archives; these lessons from the past are then made transferable to the general public and to classrooms through the creation of age-appropriate student-active learning materials (http://www.oceanleadership.org/education/deep-earth-academy/educators/classroom-activities/). This science made accessible approach was the basis for a successful NSF Course Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) proposal to develop teaching materials for use at the college level. Our Building Core Knowledge project resulted in a series of 14 linked, yet independent, inquiry-based exercise modules around the theme of Reconstructing Earth's Climate History. All of the exercises build upon authentic data from peer reviewed scientific publications. These multiple part modules cover fundamental paleoclimate principles, tools and proxies, and Cenozoic case studies. It is important to teach students how we know what we know. For example, paleoclimate records must be systematically described, ages must be determined, and indirect evidence (i.e., proxies) of past climate must be analyzed. Much like the work of a detective, geoscientists and paleoclimatologists reconstruct what happened in the past, and when and how it

  20. Discovery of Miocene adakitic dacite from the Eastern Pontides Belt (NE Turkey) and a revised geodynamic model for the late Cenozoic evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyuboglu, Yener; Santosh, M.; Yi, Keewook; Bektaş, Osman; Kwon, Sanghoon

    2012-08-01

    The Cenozoic magmatic record within the ca. 500 km long eastern Pontides orogen, located within the Alpine metallogenic belt, is critical to evaluate the tectonic history and geodynamic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean region. In this paper we report for the first time late Miocene adakitic rocks from the southeastern part of the eastern Pontides belt and present results from geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic studies as well as zircon U-Pb geochronology. The Tavdagi dacite that we investigate in this study is exposed as round or ellipsoidal shaped bodies, sills, and dikes in the southeastern part of the belt. Zircons in the dacite show euhedral crystal morphology with oscillatory zoning and high Th/U values (up to 1.69) typical of magmatic origin. Zircon LA-ICPMS analysis yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 7.86 ± 0.15 Ma. SHRIMP analyses of zircons with typical magmatic zoning from another sample yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 8.79 ± 0.19 Ma. Both ages are identical and constrain the timing of dacitic magmatism as late Miocene. The Miocene Tavdagi dacite shows adakitic affinity with high SiO2 (68.95-71.41 wt.%), Al2O3 (14.88-16.02 wt.%), Na2O (3.27-4.12 wt.%), Sr (331.4-462.1 ppm), Sr/Y (85-103.7), LaN/YbN (34.3-50.9) and low Y (3.2-5 ppm) values. Their initial 143Nd/144Nd (0.512723-0.512736) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.70484-0.70494) ratios are, respectively, lower and higher than those of normal oceanic crust. The geological, geochemical and isotopic data suggest that the adakitic magmatism was generated by partial melting of the mafic lower crust in the southeastern part of the eastern Pontide belt during the late Miocene. Based on the results presented in this study and a synthesis of the geological and tectonic information on the region, we propose that the entire northern edge of the eastern Pontides-Lesser Caucasus-Elbruz magmatic arc was an active continental margin during the Cenozoic. We identify a migration of the Cenozoic magmatism towards

  1. U-Pb zircon geochronology of Mesoproterozoic postorogenic rocks and implications for post-Ottawan magmatism and metallogenesis, New Jersey Highlands and contiguous areas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, R.A.; Zartman, R.E.; Moore, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Postorogenic rocks are widespread in Grenville terranes of the north-central Appalachians where they form small, discordant, largely pegmatitic felsic intrusive bodies, veins, and dikes, and also metasomatic calcic skarns that are unfoliated and postdate the regional 1090 to 1030 Ma upper amphibolite- to granulite-facies metamorphism related to the Grenville (Ottawan) Orogeny. Zircons from magmatic and nonmagmatic rocks from northern New Jersey and southern New York were dated to provide information on the regional tectonomagmatic and metallogenic history following Ottawan orogenesis. We obtained U-Th-Pb zircon ages of 1004 ?? 3 Ma for pegmatite associated with the 1020 ?? 4 Ma Mount Eve Granite near Big Island, New York, 986 ?? 4 Ma for unfoliated, discordant pegmatite that intrudes supracrustal marble at the Buckwheat open cut, Franklin, New Jersey, ???990 Ma for a silicate-borate skarn layer in the Franklin Marble at Rudeville, New Jersey, and 940 ?? 2 Ma for a calc-silicate skarn layer at Lower Twin Lake, New York. This new data, together with previously published ages of 1020 ?? 4 to 965 ?? 10 Ma for postorogenic rocks from New Jersey and southern New York, provide evidence of magmatic activity that lasted for up to 60 Ma past the peak of high-grade metamorphism. Postorogenic magmatism was almost exclusively felsic and involved relatively small volumes of metaluminous to mildly peraluminous melt that fractionated from an A-type granite parent source. Field relationships suggest the melts were emplaced along lithosphere-scale fault zones in the Highlands that were undergoing extension and that emplacement followed orogenic collapse by least 30 Ma. Postorogenic felsic intrusions correspond to the niobium-yttrium-fluorine (NYF) class of pegmatites of C??erny?? (1992a). Geochronologic data provide a temporal constraint on late-stage hydrothermal activity and a metallogenic event in New Jersey at ???990 to 940 Ma that mineralized pegmatites with subeconomic to

  2. Orogenic potassic mafic magmatism, a product of alkaline-peraluminous mixing ? Variscan 'calc-alkaline' rocks from the Central Iberian and Ossa Morena Zones, Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarrow, Jane H.; Cambeses, Aitor; Bea, Fernando; Montero, Pilar; Molina, José F.; Moreno, Juan Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Orogenic magmatic rocks provide information about mantle and crust melt-generation and -interaction processes. In this context, minor potassic mafic stocks which are formed of enriched mantle and crustal components and are common as late-orogenic intrusions in granitic plutons give insight into the timing of new crust formation and crustal recycling. Potassic mafic stocks are prevalent, albeit low volume, constituents of granite batholiths all through the European Variscan (350-280 Ma). In the Central Iberia Zone, Spanish Central System, crustal-melt, S-type, granitoid plutons are intruded by minor concomitant ultramafic-intermediate appinitic-vaugneritic stocks. Notwithstanding their whole-rock calc-alkaline composition, the stocks apparently did not have a subduction-related origin. Recent studies have attributed their genesis to mixing of alkaline mantle and peraluminous crustal melts. Their primary alkaline character, as indicated by amphibole and biotite mineral chemistry data, points, rather, towards an extension-related genesis. In the Ossa Morena Zone, south of the Central Iberian Zone, the igneous rocks also have a whole-rock calc-alkaline composition which has been considered to be the result of northward subduction of the South Portuguese Zone. Nevertheless, identification of a 'sill' of significant volume of mafic magma in the middle crust, the ´IBERSEIS reflective body', in a seismic profile across the Ossa Morena and South Portuguese Zones has cast doubt upon the calc-alkaline magmatism-subduction model; leading, instead, to the magmatism being attributed to intra-orogenic extension related to a mantle plume active from 340 Ma to 330 Ma. The aim here, then, is to reinvestigate the petrogenesis and age of the calc-alkaline rocks of the Ossa Morena Zone to determine their tectonomagmatic context be it subduction-, plume- or extension-related, and establish what they may reveal about mantle-crust interactions. Focussing, initially, on the Valencia del

  3. The Wall-Rock Record of Incremental Emplacement in the Little Cottonwood-Alta Magmatic and Hydrothermal System, Wasatch Mountains, Utah, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, M.; Callis, S.; Beno, C.; Bowman, J. R.; Bartley, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Contact aureoles record the cumulative effects on wall rocks of magma emplacement. Like the plutons they surround, contact aureoles have long been regarded to form geologically instantaneously. Protracted incremental emplacement of plutons must be reconciled with the wall-rock record of heat and mass transfer. Fundamental questions include how heat and material move from intrusions into their aureoles and how long that process takes. The Little Cottonwood stock is surrounded by a 2 km-wide contact aureole that contains prograde AFM mineral assemblages in the pelitic layers of the Proterozoic Big Cottonwood Formation. The Alta stock is surrounded by a well characterized 1 km-wide contact aureole containing both prograde AFM and CMS mineral assemblages in Ophir Shale and Mississippian dolostones, respectively. Understanding the petrogenesis of these aureoles requires the timing of magmatism and wall-rock metamorphism to be independently determined. Preliminary petrochronology (U/Th-Pb dates and trace element concentrations collected by LASS-ICP-MS) from the inner aureoles of both intrusions establishes a protracted history of monazite (re)crystallization from 35-25 Ma in the Little Cottonwood aureole and 35 Ma in the Alta aureole. Little Cottonwood aureole monazites are characterized by a positive age correlation with heavy rare earth elements (HREE) and a negative correlation with Eu/Eu*. Alta aureole monazites have a similar range of the HREE concentrations and Eu/Eu* variation. Zircon growth interpreted to record emplacement-level magmatic crystallization of the western Little Cottonwood stock ranges from 33-28 Ma near the contact. Multi-grain U-Pb zircon TIMS dates from the Alta stock range from 35-33 Ma and are interpreted to suggest the full range of emplacement-level magmatism in the Alta stock. Additionally, in situ U-Pb titanite dates from the Alta stock record intermittent high temperature hydrothermal activity in the stock margin from 35-24 Ma. These new

  4. Tracking magmatic processes through Zr/Hf ratios in rocks and Hf and Ti zoning in zircons: An example from the Spirit Mountain batholith, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Claiborne L.E.; Miller, C.F.; Walker, B.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.K.; Bea, F.

    2006-01-01

    Zirconium and Hf are nearly identical geochemically, and therefore most of the crust maintains near-chondritic Zr/Hf ratios of ???35-40. By contrast, many high-silica rhyolites and granites have anomalously low Zr/Hf (15-30). As zircon is the primary reservoir for both Zr and Hf and preferentially incorporates Zr, crystallization of zircon controls Zr/ Hf, imprinting low Zr/Hf on coexisting melt. Thus, low Zr/Hf is a unique fingerprint of effective magmatic fractionation in the crust. Age and compositional zonation in zircons themselves provide a record of the thermal and compositional histories of magmatic systems. High Hf (low Zr/ Hf) in zircon zones demonstrates growth from fractionated melt, and Ti provides an estimate of temperature of crystallization (TTiZ) (Watson and Harrison, 2005). Whole-rock Zr/Hf and zircon zonation in the Spirit Mountain batholith, Nevada, document repeated fractionation and thermal fluctuations. Ratios of Zr/Hf are ???30-40 for cumulates and 18-30 for high-SiO2 granites. In zircons, Hf (and U) are inversely correlated with Ti, and concentrations indicate large fluctuations in melt composition and TTiZ (>100??C) for individual zircons. Such variations are consistent with field relations and ion-probe zircon geochronology that indicate a >1 million year history of repeated replenishment, fractionation, and extraction of melt from crystal mush to form the low Zr/Hf high-SiO2 zone. ?? 2006 The Mineralogical Society.

  5. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous episodic development of the Bangong Meso-Tethyan subduction: Evidence from elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic geochemistry of arc magmatic rocks, Gaize region, central Tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Xiu; Li, Zhi-Wu; Yang, Wen-Guang; Zhu, Li-Dong; Jin, Xin; Zhou, Xiao-Yao; Tao, Gang; Zhang, Kai-Jun

    2017-03-01

    The Bangong Meso-Tethys plays a critical role in the development of the Tethyan realm and the initial elevation of the Tibetan Plateau. However, its precise subduction polarity, and history still remain unclear. In this study, we synthesize a report for the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous two-phase magmatic rocks in the Gaize region at the southern margin of the Qiangtang block located in central Tibet. These rocks formed during the Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous (161-142 Ma) and Early Cretaceous (128-106 Ma), peaking at 146 Ma and 118 Ma, respectively. The presence of inherited zircons indicates that an Archean component exists in sediments in the shallow Qiangtang crust, and has a complex tectonomagmatic history. Geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data show that the two-phase magmatic rocks exhibit characteristics of arc magmatism, which are rich in large-ion incompatible elements (LIIEs), but are strongly depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs). The Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous magmatic rocks mixed and mingled among mantle-derived mafic magmas, subduction-related sediments, or crustally-derived felsic melts and fluids, formed by a northward and steep subduction of the Bangong Meso-Tethys ocean crust. The magmatic gap at 142-128 Ma marks a flat subduction of the Meso-Tethys. The Early Cretaceous magmatism experienced a magma MASH (melting, assimilation, storage, and homogenization) process among mantle-derived mafic magmas, or crustally-derived felsic melts and fluids, as a result of the Meso-Tethys oceanic slab roll-back, which triggered simultaneous back-arc rifting along the southern Qiangtang block margin.

  6. Geochemistry of the late Holocene rocks from the Tolbachik volcanic field, Kamchatka: Quantitative modelling of subduction-related open magmatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnyagin, Maxim; Duggen, Svend; Hauff, Folkmar; Mironov, Nikita; Bindeman, Ilya; Thirlwall, Matthew; Hoernle, Kaj

    2015-12-01

    compositions at different eruption or replenishment rates. Intermediate rocks, including high-K, high-Mg basalts, are formed by mixing of the evolved and primitive magmas. Evolution of Tolbachik magmas is associated with large fractionation between incompatible trace elements (e.g., Rb/Ba, La/Nb, Ba/Th) and is strongly controlled by the relative difference in partitioning between crystal and liquid phases. The Tolbachik volcanic field shows that open-system scenarios provide more plausible and precise descriptions of long-lived arc magmatic systems than simpler, but often geologically unrealistic, closed-system models.

  7. Late Triassic porphyritic intrusions and associated volcanic rocks from the Shangri-La region, Yidun terrane, Eastern Tibetan Plateau: Adakitic magmatism and porphyry copper mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bai-Qiu; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Li, Jian-Wei; Yan, Dan-Ping

    2011-11-01

    Early Mesozoic porphyritic intrusions in the Shangri-La region, southern Yidun terrane, SW China, are spatially associated with andesites and dacites. These intrusions are composed of diorite and quartz diorite, and are closely related to copper mineralization. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of the intrusions range from 230 to 215 Ma. The associated andesites and dacites are interlayered with slates and sandstones and have ages of around 220 Ma. All of the intrusive and extrusive rocks have similar, highly fractionated REE patterns and high La/Yb (13-49) ratios with no prominent Eu anomalies. They display pronounced negative Nb-Ta and Ti anomalies on primitive mantle-normalized spidergrams. Their SiO2 contents range from 56.6 to 67.1 wt.%, Al2O3 from 14.2 to 17.4 wt.% and MgO from1.9 to 4.2 wt.%. All the rocks have high Sr (258-1980 ppm), and low Y (13-21 ppm) with high Sr/Y ratios (29-102). These features suggest that both the volcanic rocks and porphyritic intrusions were derived from adakitic magmas. They have similar initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7058 to 0.7077) and εNd (- 1.88 to - 4.93) values, but belong to high silica (HSA) and low silica adakitic rocks (LSA). The HSA represent an early stage of magmatism (230 to 215 Ma) and were derived from oceanic slab melts with limited interaction with the overlying mantle wedge during ascent. At 215 Ma, more extensive interaction produced the LSA. We propose that the early adakitic magmas (HSA) formed by flat subduction leading to melting of oceanic slab, whereas subsequent slab break-off caused the significant interaction between slab melts and the mantle wedge and thus the generation of the later adakitic magmas (LSA).

  8. Magmatic and petrologic evolution of the mesozvic vulcanic acid rocks from Piraju-Ourinhos region (SP-PR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raposo, M.I.B.

    1987-01-01

    This work presents the result of geological, petrological and geochemical studies, on the volcanic rocks from Piraju-Ourinhos region, SP, with special emphasis on the rocks. A geological mapping was carried out by using images from Landsat satellite. Petrographic and chemical analyses have defined a suite represented by basic lithotype - tholeutic andesibasalt - with high TiO 2 , rich in incompable elements - mainly Sr, Zr, La, Ce, and Ba - and by acid lithotype - rhyolite - rhyodacite. k-Ar ages are determined in feldspar concentrated, and indicate an age of 133+- 4m,y, for the volcanic acid rocks. Determinations of Sr isotopes. In order to explain the genesis of Chapeco type acid magnas quantitative models were tested using both fractional Crystallization [pt

  9. Possibilities of instrumental neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analyses of sedimentary-magmatic metamorphosed rocks from deep borehole drill cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, A.L.; Drynkin, V.I.; Lejpunskaya, D.I.

    1977-01-01

    The possibilities for instrumental neutron-activation and X-ray fluorescence analyses of rocks of metamorphized sedimentary magmatic complexes have been studied with the aid of deep-hole core. The principal characteristics of the conditions of irradiation and of sample measurement ensuring the determination of the content of 26 elements are presented. The use of X-ray fluorescence analysis enables one to determine additionally the content of stron-tium and niobium. Standard specimens of the composition of rocks and complex reference compounds based on phenol formaldehyde resins are used as metrolo.o.ical auxiliaries in the calibration system and in evaluating the correctness of the techniques of instrumental neutron activation and fluorescence analysis. The ranges of the contents to be determined, the sensitivity and relative standard deviation are given. The contribution from the nonuniformity of the specimens to the summary error of element determination is estimated. It is shown that the accuracy and error of analyses are within the allowable range

  10. halogen Contents of igneous minerals as indicators of magmatic evolution of rocks associated with the Ray porphyry copper deposit, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Norman G.

    1976-01-01

    The contents of Cl, F, and H2O+ (calculated) in some hydrous igneous minerals in intrusive rocks of Laramide age (70-60 m.y.) near Ray, Ariz., appear to be related to the age and the chemistry of the whole-rock samples. Apatite and biotite in younger, more silicic rocks contain more F but less Cl and H2O+ than apatite and biotite in older, more mafic rock; the same relations hold for F and H2O+ in sphene. Correlations of the abundance of Cl, F, and H2O+ in hornblende with rock chemistry and age are not as strong as for apatite, biotite, and sphene; igneous (?) epidote does not contain Cl and F in amounts detectable by electron microprobe analysis. The contents of Cl, F, and H2O+ in whole-rock samples decrease with increasing differentiation index and decreasing age. Data for a single pluton of variable composition mirror the results for a suite of different plutons and dikes. The data are satisfactorily although not exclusively explained by postulating that the melts each contained progressively less Cl, F, and H2O and that the hydrons minerals consumed most of the Cl, F, and H2O in the magmas. The data may also be explained by postulating that (1) the stocks evolved Cl-bearing water during their ascent and crystallization, or that (2) Cl and H2O were concentrated during differentiation of the stocks but the minerals failed to record their buildup. Both alternative explanations find problems with and require special conditions to satisfy field, chemical, and experimental data. If many of the special conditions are not met, a nearby batholithic parent to the stocks is not a favorable source of the mineralized fluids at Ray. Propylitic alteration of biotite results in Cl-poor chlorites and may have provided some Cl to hydrothermal fluids; biotite may have also supplied some F to propylitizing fluids through alteration.

  11. Geology and Geochemistry of Magmatic Rocks from the Southern Part of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge in the Philippine Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelikov, E. P.; Sedin, V. T.; Pugachev, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    The paper reports the results of a geochemical study of volcanogenic rocks from the southern part of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge. Volcanic structures, such as plateaulike rises, mountain massifs, and single volcanoes, are the major relief-forming elements of the southern part of the Kyushu-Palau Ridge. They are divided into three types according to the features of the relief and geological structure: shield, cone-shaped, and dome-shaped volcanoes. The ridge was formed on oceanic crust in the Late Mesozoic and underwent several stages of evolution with different significance and application of forces (tension and compression). Change in the geodynamic conditions during the geological evolution of the ridge mostly determined the composition of volcanic rocks of deep-mantle nature. Most of the ridge was formed by the Early Paleogene under geodynamic conditions close to the formation of oceanic islands (shield volcanoes) under tension. The island arc formed on the oceanic basement in the compression mode in the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene. Dome-shaped volcanic edifices composed of alkaline volcanic rocks were formed in the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene under tension. Based on the new geochemical data, detailed characteristics of volcanic rocks making up the shield, cone-shape, and dome-shape stratovolcanoes resulting in the features of these volcanic edifices are given for the first time. Continuous volcanism (with an age from the Cretaceous to the Late Miocene and composition from oceanic tholeiite to calc-alkaline volcanites of the island arc type) resulting in growth of the Earth's crust beneath the Kyushu-Palau Ridge was the major factor in the formation this ridge.

  12. Late Triassic Porphyritic Intrusions And Associated Volcanic Rocks From The Shangri-La Region, Yidun Terrane, Eastern Tibetan Plateau: Implications For Adakitic Magmatism And Porphyry Copper Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Zhou, M.; Li, J.; Yan, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Yidun terrane, located on the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau, has been commonly considered to be a Triassic volcanic arc produced by subduction of the Ganzi-Litang oceanic lithosphere. The Yidun terrane is characterized by numerous arc-affinity granitic intrusions located along a 500-km-long, north-south-trending belt. Among these granitic bodies, several small porphyritic intrusions in the southern segment of the terrane (Shangri-La region) are associated with large porphyry copper deposits. These porphyritc intrusions are composed of diorite and quartz diorite, and spatially associated with andesites and dacites. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of the intrusions range from 230 to 215 Ma. The andesites and dacites are intercalated with slates and sandstones and have ages of around 220 Ma. The intrusive and volcanic rocks have SiO2 contents from 56.6 to 67.1 wt.%, Al2O3 from 14.2 to 17.4 wt.% and MgO from 1.9 to 4.2 wt.%. They show significant negative Nb-Ta anomalies on primitive mantle-normalized spidergrams. They have high La/Yb (13-49) ratios with no prominent Eu anomalies. All the rocks have high Sr (258-1980 ppm), and low Y (13-21 ppm) with high Sr/Y ratios (29-102). The geochemical features indicate that both the volcanic rocks and porphyritic intrusions were derived from adakitic magmas. They have similar initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7058 to 0.7077) and ɛNd (-1.88 to -4.93) values, but can be further divided into two groups: high silica (HSA) and low silica adakitic rocks (LSA). The HSA, representing an early stage of magmatism (230 to 215 Ma), were derived from oceanic slab melts with limited interaction with the overlying mantle wedge. At 215 Ma, more extensive interaction resulted in the formation of LSA. We propose that HSA were produced by flat subduction leading to melting of oceanic slab, whereas subsequent slab break-off caused the significant interaction between slab melts and the mantle wedge and thus the generation of the LSA. Compared with

  13. U-Pb ages of detrital zircon from Cenozoic sediments in the southwestern Tarim Basin, NW China: Implications for Eocene-Pliocene source-to-sink relations and new insights into Cretaceous-Paleogene magmatic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Fu, Ling; Wu, Chaodong; Song, Yan; Jiang, Zhenxue; Luo, Qun; Zhang, Ziya; Zhang, Chen; Zhu, Bei

    2018-05-01

    A detailed investigation of potential provenance is still lacking in the southwestern Tarim Basin, which restricts our complete understanding of Cenozoic source-to-sink relations between the basin interior and the Pamir salient - western Kunlun Mountain Range. Debate also exists concerning the potential sources of the Paleogene and Cretaceous igneous detritus present in the Cenozoic sedimentary sequences. Here, we present U-Pb (LA-ICP-MS) ages of detrital zircons from the continuous Eocene-Pliocene sediment series in the well-exposed Aertashi section to investigate changes in sediment provenance through time. The U-Pb detrital zircon ages range widely from 45 to 3204 Ma and can be divided into seven main groups: 45-65 Ma (sub-peak at 49 Ma), 67-103 Ma (sub-peak at 95 Ma), 196-251 Ma (sub-peak at 208 Ma), 252-416 Ma (sub-peak at 296 Ma), 417-540 Ma (sub-peak at 446 Ma), 550-1429 Ma (sub-peaks at 614 Ma, 828 Ma and 942 Ma) and 1345-3204 Ma (sub-peaks at 1773 Ma and 2480 Ma). These zircons were mainly derived from the western Kunlun Mountain Range and northern Pamir salient to the west and south. The evolution of the provenance and source-to-sink relationship patterns in the southwestern Tarim Basin can be divided into three stages: (1) The Middle Eocene to Lower Oligocene sediments display a wide variety of detrital zircon ages, suggesting that the source area was extensive. (2) A major change in provenance occurred during the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene and was characterized by an abrupt increase in the proportion of Triassic and Lower Paleozoic igneous components, implying a significant adjustment in topography induced by the initial uplift and exhumation of the western Kunlun Mountain Range and northern Pamir salient. (3) In the Late Miocene, the source-to-sink system transformed again, and contributions of Triassic to Lower Paleozoic material weakened substantially due to the sufficient indentation of the Pamir salient. Our integrated analyses of zircon

  14. Magmatism during the accretion of the late Archaean Dharwar Craton (South India): sanukitoids and related rocks in their geological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyen, J.-F.; Martin, H.; Jayananda, M.; Peucat, J.-J.

    2003-04-01

    The South Indian Dharwar Craton assembled during the late-Archaean (ca. 2.5 Ga). This event was associated with intense granite genesis and emplacement. Based on petrography and geochemistry, 4 main types of late Archaean granitoids were distinguished: (1) Anatectic granites (and diatexites), formed by partial melting of TTG gneisses; (2) Classical TTGs; (3) Sanukitoids, generated by interaction between slab melts (TTG) and mantle peridotite; (4) The high HFSE Closepet granite, interpreted as derived from partial melting of a mantle metasomatized by slab melts (TTG). While the 3 later groups all are interpreted as resulting from slab melt/mantle wedge interactions, their differences are related to decreasing felsic melt/peridotite ratios during the ascent “slab melts” in the mantle wedge above an active subduction zone. Field data together with geochronology and isotope geochemistry allow to subdivide the Dharwar craton into three main domains: (1) The Western Dharwar Craton (WDC) is an old (3.3 2.9 Ga ), stable continental block with limited amounts of 2.5 Ga old anatectic granites. (2) The Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC) is subdivided into two parts: (2a) West of Kolar Schist Belt, a region of 3.0-2.7 Ga old basement intruded by 2.5 Ga old anatectic granites; (2b) East of Kolar, an area featuring mainly 2.5 Ga old diatexites and granites, derived of partial melting of a newly accreted TTG crust. Anatectic granites are ubiquitous, and late in the cratonic evolution; they witnessed generalized melting of a juvenile crust. In contrast, deep-originated granites emplaced before this melting and are restricted to the boundaries between the blocks. This structure of distinct terranes separated by narrow bands operating as channels for deep-originated magmas provides independent evidences for a two-stage evolution: an arc accretion context for the TTG, sanukitoids and related rocks, immediately followed by high temperature reworking of the newly accreted craton

  15. Petrology, geochemistry and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology of Paleoproterozoic basement rocks in Bangladesh: An evaluation of calc-alkaline magmatism and implication for Columbia supercontinent amalgamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Ismail; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu; Takahashi, Kazuki

    2018-05-01

    The Paleoproterozoic (1.7 Ga) basement rocks from Maddhapara, Bangladesh show a large range of chemical variations (e.g. SiO2 = 50.7-74.7%) and include diorite, quartz diorite, monzodiorite, quartz monzonite and granite. The pluton overall displays metaluminous, calc-alkaline orogenic suite; mostly I-type suites formed within subduction-related magmatism. The observed major elements show general trends for fractional crystallization. Trace element contents also indicate the possibility of a fractionation or assimilation; explain the entire variation from diorite to monzonite, even granite. The pluton may have evolved the unique chemical features by a process that included partial melting of calc-alkaline lithologies and mixing of mantle-derived magmas, followed by fractional crystallization, and by assimilation of country rocks. The pluton shows evidence of crystal fractionation involving largely plagioclase, amphibole and possibly biotite. Some of the fractionated magmas may have mixed with more potassic melts from distinct parts of the continental lithosphere to produce granites and/or pegmatites. New geochronological results of granitic pegmatite (1722 ± 10 Ma) are indisputably consistent with diorite and tonalite and those data showing credible geochronological sequence (i.e., diorite - tonalite - granitic pegmatite). Identical Paleoproterozoic age (1.7 Ga) with distinctive magmatism of the Maddhapara basement rocks have agreeable relationship with the CITZ, India. The consistent magmatism is also common in the Transamazonian of South America, Trans-Hudson orogeny in North America, Bohemian Massif and the Svecofennian, Poland, have identified the sequential growth of the continent through the amalgamation of juvenile terrains, succeeded by a major collisional orogeny. Such Paleoproterozoic subduction-related orogens in Australia have similar counterparts in Antarctica and other part of the world. These types of Paleoproterozoic magmatism dominantly contributed

  16. The aeromagnetic method as a tool to identify Cenozoic magmatism in the West Antarctic Rift System beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet: a review; Thiel subglacial volcano as possible source of the ash layer in the WAISCOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) flows through the volcanically active West Antarctic Rift System (WARS). The aeromagnetic method has been the most useful geophysical tool for identification of subglacial volcanic rocks, since 1959–64 surveys, particularly combined with 1978 radar ice-sounding. The unique 1991–97 Central West Antarctica (CWA) aerogeophysical survey covering 354,000 km2 over the WAIS, (5-km line-spaced, orthogonal lines of aeromagnetic, radar ice-sounding, and aerogravity measurements), still provides invaluable information on subglacial volcanic rocks, particularly combined with the older aeromagnetic profiles. These data indicate numerous 100–>1000 nT, 5–50-km width, shallow-source, magnetic anomalies over an area greater than 1.2 × 106 km2, mostly from subglacial volcanic sources. I interpreted the CWA anomalies as defining about 1000 “volcanic centers” requiring high remanent normal magnetizations in the present field direction. About 400 anomaly sources correlate with bed topography. At least 80% of these sources have less than 200 m relief at the WAIS bed. They appear modified by moving ice, requiring a younger age than the WAIS (about 25 Ma). Exposed volcanoes in the WARS are The present rapid changes resulting from global warming, could be accelerated by subglacial volcanism.

  17. Magmatic tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, F.; Aams, A.I.; McMurtry, G.M.; Shevenell, L.; Pettit, D.R.; Stimac, J.A.; Werner, C.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Detailed geochemical sampling of high-temperature fumaroles, background water, and fresh magmatic products from 14 active volcanoes reveal that they do not produce measurable amounts of tritium ( 3 H) of deep origin ( 2 O). On the other hand, all volcanoes produce mixtures of meteoric and magmatic fluids that contain measurable 3 H from the meteoric end-member. The results show that cold fusion is probably not a significant deep earth process but the samples and data have wide application to a host of other volcanological topics

  18. Deformation associated with the denudation of mantle-derived rocks at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge 13°-15°N: The role of magmatic injections and hydrothermal alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picazo, Suzanne; Cannat, Mathilde; Delacour, AdéLie; EscartíN, Javier; RouméJon, StéPhane; Silantyev, Sergei

    2012-09-01

    Outcrops of deeply derived ultramafic rocks and gabbros are widespread along slow spreading ridges where they are exposed in the footwall of detachment faults. We report on the microstructural and petrological characteristics of a large number of samples from ultramafic exposures in the walls of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) axial valley at three distinct locations at lat. 13°N and 14°45'N. One of these locations corresponds to the footwall beneath a corrugated paleo-fault surface. Bearing in mind that dredging and ROV sampling may not preserve the most fragile lithologies (fault gouges), this study allows us to document a sequence of deformation, and the magmatic and hydrothermal history recorded in the footwall within a few hundred meters of the axial detachment fault. At the three sampled locations, we find that tremolitic amphiboles have localized deformation in the ultramafic rocks prior to the onset of serpentinization. We interpret these tremolites as hydrothermal alteration products after evolved gabbroic rocks intruded into the peridotites. We also document two types of brittle deformation in the ultramafic rocks, which we infer could produce the sustained low magnitude seismicity recorded at ridge axis detachment faults. The first type of brittle deformation affects fresh peridotite and is associated with the injection of the evolved gabbroic melts, and the second type affects serpentinized peridotites and is associated with the injection of Si-rich hydrothermal fluids that promote talc crystallization, leading to strain localization in thin talc shear zones. We also observed chlorite + serpentine shear zones but did not identify samples with serpentine-only shear zones. Although the proportion of magmatic injections in the ultramafic rocks is variable, these characteristics are found at each investigated location and are therefore proposed as fundamental components of the deformation in the footwall of the detachment faults associated with denudation of

  19. Porphyry Cu-Au mineralization in the Mirkuh Ali Mirza magmatic complex, NW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, A.; Yazdi, M.; Mehrpartou, M.; Vosoughi, M.; Younesi, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Mirkuh Ali Mirza Cu-Au porphyry system in East Azerbaijan Province is located on the western part of the Cenozoic Alborz-Azerbaijan volcanic belt. The belt is also an important Cu-Mo-Au metallogenic province in northwestern Iran. The exposed rocks in the study area consist of a volcaniclastic sequence, subvolcanic rocks and intermediate to mafic lava flows of Neogene age. The volcanic rocks show a typical subduction-related magmatic arc geological and geochemical signature, with low concentration of Nb, Ta, and Ti. Mineralization is hosted by Neogene dacitic tuff and porphyritic dacite situated at the intersections of northeast and northwest faults. Field observations, alteration zonation, geochemical haloes and isotopic data of the Mirkuh Ali Mirza magmatic complex show similarities with typical convergent margin Cu-Au porphyry type deposits. The following features confirm the classic model for Cu-Au porphyry systems: (a) close spatial association with high-K calcalkaline to shoshonitic rock related to post-collision extensional setting (b) low grade Cu (0.57%) (c) stockworks as well as disseminated sulfides (c) zonality of the alteration patterns from intense phyllic at the center to outward weak-phyllic, argillic, and propylitic (d) the presence of a pyritic halo (e) accompanied by sheeted veins and low-sulfidation epithermal gold (f) mineralization spatially associated with intersection of structures, (g) genetically related to diorite porphyry stocks at depth (h) geochemical zonation of (Cu ± Au ± Ag ± Bi) → (Cu + Mo ± Bi ± Au ± Pb ± Zn ± As) → (Au + Mo ± Pb ± Zn) → (As + Ag + Sb + Mn + Ba + Pb + Zn + Hg) → Hg from center to outwards (i) The range of sulfur isotopic values is approximately zero (interpreted to have magmatic source) and similar to other subduction-related porphyry Cu deposits.

  20. Geochemistry and origin of metamorphosed mafic rocks from the Lower Paleozoic Moretown and Cram Hill Formations of North-Central Vermont: Delamination magmatism in the western New England appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coish, Raymond; Kim, Jonathan; Twelker, Evan; Zolkos, Scott P.; Walsh, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The Moretown Formation, exposed as a north-trending unit that extends from northern Vermont to Connecticut, is located along a critical Appalachian litho-tectonic zone between the paleomargin of Laurentia and accreted oceanic terranes. Remnants of magmatic activity, in part preserved as metamorphosed mafic rocks in the Moretown Formation and the overlying Cram Hill Formation, are a key to further understanding the tectonic history of the northern Appalachians. Field relationships suggest that the metamorphosed mafic rocks might have formed during and after Taconian deformation, which occurred at ca. 470 to 460 Ma. Geochemistry indicates that the sampled metamorphosed mafic rocks were mostly basalts or basaltic andesites. The rocks have moderate TiO2 contents (1–2.5 wt %), are slightly enriched in the light-rare earth elements relative to the heavy rare earths, and have negative Nb-Ta anomalies in MORB-normalized extended rare earth element diagrams. Their chemistry is similar to compositions of basalts from western Pacific extensional basins near volcanic arcs. The metamorphosed mafic rocks of this study are similar in chemistry to both the pre-Silurian Mount Norris Intrusive Suite of northern Vermont, and also to some of Late Silurian rocks within the Lake Memphremagog Intrusive Suite, particularly the Comerford Intrusive Complex of Vermont and New Hampshire. Both suites may be represented among the samples of this study. The geochemistry of all samples indicates that parental magmas were generated in supra-subduction extensional environments during lithospheric delamination.

  1. Delamination of lithospheric mantle evidenced by Cenozoic potassic rocks in Yunnan, SW China: A contribution to uplift of the Eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bei; Long, Xiaoping; Wilde, Simon A.; Yuan, Chao; Wang, Qiang; Xia, Xiaoping; Zhang, Zhaofeng

    2017-07-01

    New zircon U-Pb ages, mineral chemical data, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes from the potassium-rich intrusions in the Yunnan area, SW China, were determined to provide constraints on the uplift of the Eastern Tibetan Plateau. The intrusive rocks consist of shoshonitic syenites (high-Mg syenites, low-Mg syenites and syenite porphyries) and potassic granitoids (granite porphyries). Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating indicates coeval emplacement ages of 35 Ma. The shoshonitic syenites have alkaline affinities and the enrichment in LILEs and LREEs (e.g. La, Sr, U, Pb), with depletion of HFSEs (e.g. Nb, Ti, Ta) and weak Eu anomalies. They display uniform Sr-Nd-Lu-Hf isotopic compositions with similar initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7073-0.7079), enriched εNd(t) values (- 6.8 to - 4.3) and mostly negative zircon εHf(t) values ranging from - 4.6 to + 0.1. The high-Mg syenites have high MgO, Fe2O3T, TiO2, CaO, Cr, Ni concentrations and relatively high Mg# (60-68), indicating an origin from enriched lithospheric mantle. The low-Mg syenites and syenite porphyries are geochemically distinct with the high-Mg syenites, but the insignificant variations in major elements, linear trends of La against (La/Yb)N and similar Sr-Nd isotopic compositions to the high-Mg syenites suggest that they were produced by different degrees of partial melting of the same enriched mantle source. The potassic granitic intrusions are sub-alkaline with a strongly peraluminous character. They display an S-type granite affinity, with high Al2O3/TiO2 and low CaO/Na2O and K2O/Al2O3 ratios, suggesting a pelitic source. They are LREE-enriched and have relatively flat HREE patterns with weakly negative Eu anomalies and positive Rb, U, and Pb anomalies and negative Nb, Ta, and Ti anomalies. They have relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7143) and enriched Nd isotopic compositions [εNd(t) = - 4.1]. Their zircon εHf(t) values (- 4.0 to + 0.09) and old two-stage Hf model ages (TDMc = 1.16-1.36 Ga

  2. Petrology and geochemistry of mafic magmatic rocks from the Sarve-Abad ophiolites (Kurdistan region, Iran): Evidence for interaction between MORB-type asthenosphere and OIB-type components in the southern Neo-Tethys Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccani, Emilio; Allahyari, Khalil; Rahimzadeh, Bahman

    2014-05-01

    The Sarve-Abad (Sawlava) ophiolites crop out in the Main Zagros Thrust Zone and represent remnants of the Mesozoic southern Neo-Tethys Ocean that was located between the Arabian shield and Sanandaj-Sirjan continental block. They consist of several incomplete ophiolitic sequences including gabbroic bodies, a dyke complex, and pillow lava sequences. These rocks generally range from sub-alkaline to transitional character. Mineral chemistry and whole-rock geochemistry indicate that they have compositions akin to enriched-type mid-ocean ridge basalts (E-MORB) and plume-type MORB (P-MORB). Nonetheless, the different depletion degrees in heavy rare earth elements (HREE), which can be observed in both E-MORB like and P-MORB like rocks enable two main basic chemical types of rocks to be distinguished as Type-I and Type-II. Type-I rocks are strongly depleted in HREE (YbN 9.0). Petrogenetic modeling shows that Type-I rocks originated from 7 to 16% polybaric partial melting of a MORB-type mantle source, which was significantly enriched by plume-type components. These rocks resulted from the mixing of variable fractions of melts generated in garnet-facies and the spinel-facies mantle. In contrast, Type-II rocks originated from 5 to 8% partial melting in the spinel-facies of a MORB-type source, which was moderately enriched by plume-type components. A possible tectono-magmatic model for the generation of the southern Neo-Tethys oceanic crust implies that the continental rift and subsequent oceanic spreading were associated with uprising of MORB-type asthenospheric mantle featuring plume-type component influences decreasing from deep to shallow mantle levels. These deep plume-type components were most likely inherited from Carboniferous mantle plume activity that was associated with the opening of Paleo-Tethys in the same area.

  3. A review of the paleomagnetic data from Cretaceous to lower Tertiary rocks from Vietnam, Indochina and South China, and their implications for Cenozoic tectonism in Vietnam and adjacent areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cung, Thu'ọ'ng Chí; Geissman, John W.

    2013-09-01

    Available paleomagnetic data from rock formations of Cretaceous age from Vietnam, Indochina and South China are compiled and reviewed in the context of their tectonic importance in a common reference frame with respect to Eurasia's coeval paleopoles. Key factors that play an important role in determining the reliability of a paleomagnetic result for utilization in tectonic studies have been taken into consideration and include the absence of evidence of remagnetization, which is a feature common to many rocks in this region. Overall, the Cretaceous paleomagnetic data from the South China Block show that the present geographic position of the South China Block has been relatively stable with respect to Eurasia since the mid-Cretaceous and that the paleomagnetically detected motion of a coherent lithospheric block must be based on the representative data obtained from different specific localities across the block in order to separate more localized, smaller scale deformation from true lithosphere scale motion (translation and/or rotation) of a tectonic block. Cretaceous to early Tertiary paleomagnetic data from the Indochina-Shan Thai Block reveal complex patterns of intra-plate deformation in response to the India-Eurasia collision. Paleomagnetically detected motions from the margins of tectonic blocks are interpreted to mainly reflect displacement of upper crustal blocks due to folding and faulting processes. Rigid, lithosphere scale block rotation is not necessarily supported by the paleomagnetic data. The paleomagnetic results from areas east and south of the Red River fault system suggest that this major transcurrent fault system has had a complicated slip history through much of the Cenozoic and that it does not demarcate completely non-rotated and significantly rotated parts of the crust in this area. However, most paleomagnetic results from areas east and south of the Red River fault system at the latitude of Yunnan Province are consistent with a very modest

  4. Tibetan Magmatism Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, James B.; Kapp, Paul

    2017-11-01

    A database containing previously published geochronologic, geochemical, and isotopic data on Mesozoic to Quaternary igneous rocks in the Himalayan-Tibetan orogenic system are presented. The database is intended to serve as a repository for new and existing igneous rock data and is publicly accessible through a web-based platform that includes an interactive map and data table interface with search, filtering, and download options. To illustrate the utility of the database, the age, location, and ɛHft composition of magmatism from the central Gangdese batholith in the southern Lhasa terrane are compared. The data identify three high-flux events, which peak at 93, 50, and 15 Ma. They are characterized by inboard arc migration and a temporal and spatial shift to more evolved isotopic compositions.

  5. Pb-Sr-Nd-O isotopic characterization of Mesozoic rocks throughout the northern end of the Peninsular Ranges batholith: Isotopic evidence for the magmatic evolution of oceanic arc–continental margin accretion during the Late Cretaceous of southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Ronald W.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Premo, Wayne R.; Morton, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the duration of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)–based Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP), many samples from the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith were studied for their whole-rock radioisotopic systematics (rubidium-strontium [Rb-Sr], uranium-thorium-lead [U-Th-Pb], and samarium-neodymium [Sm-Nd]), as well as oxygen (O), a stable isotope. The results of three main studies are presented separately, but here we combine them (>400 analyses) to produce a very complete Pb-Sr-Nd-O isotopic profile of an arc-continent collisional zone—perhaps the most complete in the world. In addition, because many of these samples have U-Pb zircon as well as argon mineral age determinations, we have good control of the timing for Pb-Sr-Nd-O isotopic variations.The ages and isotopic variations help to delineate at least four zones across the batholith from west to east—an older western zone (126–108 Ma), a transitional zone (111–93 Ma), an eastern zone (94–91 Ma), and a much younger allochthonous thrust sheet (ca. 84 Ma), which is the upper plate of the Eastern Peninsular Ranges mylonite zone. Average initial 87Sr/86 Sr (Sri), initial 206Pb/204Pb (206 Pbi), initial 208Pb/204Pb (average 208Pbi), initial epsilon Nd (average εNdi), and δ18O signatures range from 0.704, 18.787, 38.445, +3.1, and 4.0‰–9.0‰, respectively, in the westernmost zone, to 0.7071, 19.199, 38.777, −5, and 9‰–12‰, respectively, in the easternmost zone. The older western zone is therefore the more chemically and isotopically juvenile, characterized mostly by values that are slightly displaced from a mantle array at ca. 115 Ma, and similar to some modern island-arc signatures. In contrast, the isotopic signatures in the eastern zones indicate significant amounts of crustal involvement in the magmatic plumbing of those plutons. These isotopic signatures confirm previously published results that interpreted the Peninsular Ranges batholith as a progressively

  6. Cenozoic geology of the Yolomécatl-Tlaxiaco area, Northwestern Oaxaca, Southeastern Mexico: Stratigraphy, structure and regional significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrusquía-Villafranca, Ismael; Ruiz-González, José E.; Torres-Hernández, José Ramón; Anderson, Thomas H.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Martínez-Hernández, Enrique; García-Villegas, Felipe

    2016-12-01

    The Yolomécatl-Tlaxiaco Area, lies in the rugged Sierra Madre del Sur (SMS) of northwestern Oaxaca (YOTLA), southeastern Mexico. Within the area Cenozoic units unconformably overlie metamorphic, clastic and carbonate rock units of Late Paleozoic to Cretaceous ages as well as the Mixteco/Oaxaca Terrane boundary. The Cenozoic sequence, emphasized herein, includes from botton to top: (1) basal, calcilithitic Early Tertiary Tamazulapam Conglomerate, (2) andesitic lava flows of Nduayaco "Group," (3-4) Epiclastic/pyroclastic strata composing Yolomécatl Formation (∼40.3 ± 1.0 Ma), and Tayata Pyroepiclastics (5) Early Oligocene (∼32.9 Ma), felsic, pyroclastic Nundichi "Group," (6) Late Oligocene (∼27.7 ± 0.7 Ma) andesitic lava flows of Nicananduta "Group" containing intercalations of unit (7) ?Chilapa Formation (largely lacustrine). Quaternary deposits unconformably overlie the sequence. The structural record includes NNW-SSE folds in the Mesozoic units, and one in Tayata Pyroepiclastics, as well as numerous fractures/faults of diverse types, whose pattern seems to roughly define four geographic/structural domains, NW, SW, S, and E. The Tertiary sequence records four magmatic and six deformational events: Pre-Late Eocene Extension accommodated by the Tamazulapam fault, along which magma of the Nduayaco "Group" moved upward. The next episode is the earliest Late Eocene extension recorded by the Yucuxaco-Santa Cruz Tayata fault was followed by accumulation of Yolomécatl Formation, Tayata Pyroepiclastics, and synsedimentary emplacement of tuff sheets at ∼40.3 ± 1.0 Ma. After this date, left lateral transpression emplaced a Teposcolula Limestone block over Nduayaco "Group" and ?Yolomécatl Formation, whereas the Tayata Pyroepiclastics was folded into an open anticline. Movement along the Yucuxaco-Santa Cruz Tayayata fault suite influenced accumulation of the Nundichi "Group" strata ca. ∼32.9 Ma. Subsequent ENE-WSW extension affected the Nundichi "Group," partly

  7. Magmatism and fenitization in the Cretaceous potassium-alkaline-carbonatitic complex of Ipanema São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Vincenza; Azzone, Rogério Guitarrari; Brotzu, Pietro; de Barros Gomes, Celso; Melluso, Leone; Morbidelli, Lucio; Ruberti, Excelso; Tassinari, Colombo Celso Gaeta; Brilli, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    The Ipanema alkaline-carbonatitic complex is part of the Meso-Cenozoic alkaline magmatism located within the southeastern part of the Brazilian Platform. Drill-core and field sampling have indicated the occurrence of glimmerites, with subordinate shonkinites (mela-syenites), clinopyroxene-bearing glimmerites, diorites and syenites. The glimmerites are cross-cut by lamprophyric dykes and calciocarbonatites. Fenitization has deeply affected the country rocks, originating dioritic and syenitic rocks. The Ipanema rocks show a distinct potassic affinity. The initial Sr-Nd- isotopic composition of the Ipanema rocks (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70661-0.70754 and 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51169-0.51181) is similar to that of tholeiitic and potassium-rich-alkaline rocks of the Eastern Paraguay. Stable isotope data for the Ipanema calciocarbonatite suggest interaction with fluids at temperatures typical of hydrothermal stages, as hypothesized for other carbonatite complexes from southeastern Brazil. The chemical differences between the lamprophyre, glimmerites, carbonatites, apatitites and magnetitites, and the absence of marked REE enrichment in the evolved lithologies, all indicate that fractional crystallization and accumulus of liquidus phases in a magma reservoir, likely coupled with liquid immiscibility processes, may have played an important role in the genesis of the Ipanema rocks.

  8. Relating Cenozoic North Sea sediments to topography in southern Norway:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Stratford, Wanda Rose

    2010-01-01

    the Shetland platform continued throughout the Cenozoic while supply from southern Norway increased markedly around the Eocene–Oligocene, coeval with the greenhouse–icehouse transition. Mass balance calculations of sediment and eroded rock volumes suggest that while some topography along the western margin...... that Plio-Pleistocene erosion over-deepened a pre-existing topography....

  9. Age and provenance of Triassic to Cenozoic sediments of West and Central Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitfeld, H. Tim; Galin, Thomson; Hall, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Sarawak is located on the northern edge of Sundaland in NW Borneo. West and Central Sarawak include parts of the Kuching and Sibu Zones. These contain remnants of several sedimentary basins with ages from Triassic to Cenozoic. New light mineral, heavy mineral and U-Pb detrital zircon ages show differences in provenance reflecting the tectonic evolution of the region. The oldest clastic sediments are Triassic (Sadong Formation and its deep marine equivalent Kuching Formation). They were sourced by a Triassic (Carnian to Norian) volcanic arc and reworked Paleoproterozoic detritus derived from Cathaysialand. The Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous Pedawan Formation is interpreted as forearc basin fill with distinctive zircon populations indicating subduction beneath present-day West Sarawak which initiated in the Late Jurassic. Subsequent subduction until the early Late Cretaceous formed the Schwaner Mountains magmatic arc. After collision of SW Borneo and other microcontinental fragments with Sundaland in the early Late Cretaceous, deep marine sedimentation (Pedawan Formation) ceased, and there was uplift forming the regional Pedawan-Kayan unconformity. Two episodes of extension followed and were responsible for basin development on land in West Sarawak from the latest Cretaceous onwards, probably in a pull-apart setting. The first episode is associated with sediments of the Kayan Group, deposited in the Latest Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Eocene, and the second episode with Upper Eocene sediments of the Ketungau Basin. Zircon ages indicate volcanic activity throughout the Early Cenozoic in NW Borneo, and inherited zircon ages indicate reworking of Triassic and Cretaceous rocks. A large deep marine basin, the Rajang Basin, was north of the Lupar Line Fault in Central Sarawak (Sibu Zone) from the Late Cretaceous to the Late Eocene. Zircons from sediments of the Rajang Basin indicate they have similar ages and provenance to contemporaneous terrestrial sediments of the Kayan

  10. Constraints of texture and composition of clinopyroxene phenocrysts of Holocene volcanic rocks on a magmatic plumbing system beneath Tengchong, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun-Hao; Song, Xie-Yan; He, Hai-Long; Zheng, Wen-Qin; Yu, Song-Yue; Chen, Lie-Meng; Lai, Chun-Kit

    2018-04-01

    Understanding processes of magma replenishment in a magma plumbing system is essential to predict eruption potential of a dormant volcano. In this study, we present new petrologic and thermobarometric data for youngest lava flows from the Holocene Heikongshan volcano in the Tengchong area, SW China. Clinopyroxene phenocrysts from the trachytic lava flows display various textural/compositional zoning styles (i.e., normal, reverse and oscillatory). Such zoning patterns are indicative of an open magmatic plumbing system with multiphase magma replenishment and mixing, which were likely a key drive of the volcanic eruptions. Thermobarometric calculations of these zoned clinopyroxene phenocrysts yield crystallization pressures of 3.8-7.1 kbar (peak at 4.5-7.0 kbar), corresponding to a magma chamber at depths of 14-21 km. The calculated depths are consistent with the large low-resistivity body at 12-30 km beneath the Heikongshan volcano, implying that the magmatic plumbing system may still be active. Recent earthquakes in the Tengchong area suggest that the regional strike-slip faulting are still active, and may trigger future volcanic eruptions if the magma chamber(s) beneath the Tengchong volcanic field is disturbed, in spite of the volcanic quiescence since 1609 CE.

  11. Active Magmatic Underplating in Western Eger Rift, Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubcová, Pavla; Geissler, Wolfram H.; Bräuer, Karin; Vavryčuk, Václav; Tomek, Čestmír.; Kämpf, Horst

    2017-12-01

    The Eger Rift is an active element of the European Cenozoic Rift System associated with intense Cenozoic intraplate alkaline volcanism and system of sedimentary basins. The intracontinental Cheb Basin at its western part displays geodynamic activity with fluid emanations, persistent seismicity, Cenozoic volcanism, and neotectonic crustal movements at the intersections of major intraplate faults. In this paper, we study detailed geometry of the crust/mantle boundary and its possible origin in the western Eger Rift. We review existing seismic and seismological studies, provide new interpretation of the reflection profile 9HR, and supplement it by new results from local seismicity. We identify significant lateral variations of the high-velocity lower crust and relate them to the distribution and chemical status of mantle-derived fluids and to xenolith studies from corresponding depths. New interpretation based on combined seismic and isotope study points to a local-scale magmatic emplacement at the base of the continental crust within a new rift environment. This concept of magmatic underplating is supported by detecting two types of the lower crust: a high-velocity lower crust with pronounced reflectivity and a high-velocity reflection-free lower crust. The character of the underplated material enables to differentiate timing and tectonic setting of two episodes with different times of origin of underplating events. The lower crust with high reflectivity evidences magmatic underplating west of the Eger Rift of the Late Variscan age. The reflection-free lower crust together with a strong reflector at its top at depths of 28-30 km forms a magma body indicating magmatic underplating of the late Cenozoic (middle and upper Miocene) to recent. Spatial and temporal relations to recent geodynamic processes suggest active magmatic underplating in the intracontinental setting.

  12. Isotopic signature of Madeira basaltic magmatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogarko, L.N.; Karpenko, S.F.; Bibikova, E.V.; Mato, Zh.

    2000-01-01

    Chemical composition of the basalts of Madeira Island is studied. To assess the isotopic sources of magmatism the Pb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Th-Pb systems were investigated in a number of basalts. It is shown that the island's rocks are characterized by the mostly deplet sources in relation to Pb-Sr and Sm-Nd systems ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr - 0.70282-0.70292, 143 Nd/ 144 Nd - 0.52303-0.51314). Isotopic composition of lead testifies that the magmatism reservoir is some enriched. It is concluded that the magmatism of Madeira Island is a new example of world ocean island's volcanism [ru

  13. Evolution of the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene Cordilleran arc magmatism in NW Mexico: a review from updated geochronological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Moreno, M.; Iriondo, A.; Perez-Segura, E.; Noguez-Alcantara, B.

    2007-05-01

    During most of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, the locus of subduction related arc magmatism in northwestern Mexico was relatively mobile, probably due to changes in the mechanical conditions of the Farallon-North America plate convergence. The older Mesozoic events recognized in this region occurred in the Late Triassic and Jurassic, but the associated rocks are poorly preserved. However, a belt of Late Cretaceous through Paleogene magmatic rocks is well exposed along Baja California, Sonora and Sinaloa. Since the late 70's, it was noted that during the Early Cretaceous the igneous activity along this belt remained relatively static in the westernmost part, but migrated eastward in the Late Cretaceous, penetrating more than 1000 km into the continent. The arc magmatism reached western Sonora at about 90 Ma, and then it started to move faster inland, presumably due to flattening of the subducted oceanic slab. Recent U-Pb zircon data revealed unexpected old ages (89-95 Ma) near the eastern edge of Sonora, which are difficult to explain on the basis of the classic tectonic interpretations. A model based on two synchronic sites for magma emplacement may explain the age overlapping observed along the belt; however, a profound re-evaluation a proper geodynamic scenario to support this model is required. Even if restoration of the large Neogene crustal extension is made, particularly for central and northern Sonora, the relatively flat-subduction regime commonly accepted for the Laramide event appears unable to explain the anomalously broad expression of the magmatic belt in northwestern Mexico. An alternative model based on two synchronic sites of magma emplacement, as suggested by the new age data, may better explain the large volume of igneous rocks produced during this time in Sonora and most of Chihuahua. This mechanism may differ southwards in Sinaloa, where the magmatic belt becomes considerably narrower. Moreover, the possible existence of two spatially distinct sites

  14. Uranium and thorium in Cenozoic basaltods of Kamchatka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puzankov, Yu.M.

    1984-01-01

    Regularities in distribution of radioactive elements (RAE) in basaltoids of Kamchatka have been analyzed. The RAE concentration in samples was determined by γ-spectrometric method. The results compared with the instrumental neutron-activation analysis data are found to be in agreement. Results of evaluating the average contents of U, Th and roch-forming elements in ce-- nozoic basaltoids are presented. The radiogeochemical data enable to associate the origin of the Kamchatka Cenozoic basaltoids with both fractional melting of the upper mantle depleted of radioactive elements and the development of magmatic chambers in submerged blocks of the Pre-Cretaceous melanocratic basement the composition of which is close to oceanic tholeiite

  15. Age relationships and tectonic implications of late Cenozoic basaltic volcanism in Northland, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, I E.M. [Department of Geology, Auckland University, Auckland (New Zealand); Okada, T [Okayama University of Science, Hiruzen Research Institute, Okayama (Japan); Itaya, T [Okayama University of Science, Hiruzen Research Institute, Okayama (Japan); Black, P M [Department of Geology, Auckland University, Auckland (New Zealand)

    1993-07-01

    An episode of late Miocene-Recent essentially basaltic volcanism is the latest in a sequence of magmatic events recognised in the tectonically complex geological development of the Northland Peninsula. New K-Ar dates together with an extensive collection of new major and trace element chemical analyses prompt a reassessment of the significance of these late Cenozoic basalts. The main time/space groupings recognised are Tertiary volcanics in the Kaikohe-Bay of Islands, Puhipuhi, Ti Point, and Stony Batter areas and Quaternary basalts in the Kaikohe-Bay of Islands and Whangarei areas and at Tara. Basalts in the Kaikohe-Bay of Islands area are transitional to alkalic in character, while those in the south are transitional to tholeiitic, with the Ti Point and Stony Batter rocks being geochemically distinct. A consistent model for these observations is that the magmas originate from different levels of a layered mantle source in which the upper part carries a geochemical signature inherited from an earlier subduction event. (author). 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Age relationships and tectonic implications of late Cenozoic basaltic volcanism in Northland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, I.E.M.; Okada, T.; Itaya, T.; Black, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    An episode of late Miocene-Recent essentially basaltic volcanism is the latest in a sequence of magmatic events recognised in the tectonically complex geological development of the Northland Peninsula. New K-Ar dates together with an extensive collection of new major and trace element chemical analyses prompt a reassessment of the significance of these late Cenozoic basalts. The main time/space groupings recognised are Tertiary volcanics in the Kaikohe-Bay of Islands, Puhipuhi, Ti Point, and Stony Batter areas and Quaternary basalts in the Kaikohe-Bay of Islands and Whangarei areas and at Tara. Basalts in the Kaikohe-Bay of Islands area are transitional to alkalic in character, while those in the south are transitional to tholeiitic, with the Ti Point and Stony Batter rocks being geochemically distinct. A consistent model for these observations is that the magmas originate from different levels of a layered mantle source in which the upper part carries a geochemical signature inherited from an earlier subduction event. (author). 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  17. Whole-rock and mineral compositional constraints on the magmatic evolution of the Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide ore-bearing Kevitsa intrusion, northern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luolavirta, Kirsi; Hanski, Eero; Maier, Wolfgang; Santaguida, Frank

    2018-01-01

    The 2.06 Ga mafic-ultramafic Kevitsa intrusion is located in the Central Lapland greenstone belt. The lower ultramafic part of the intrusion hosts a large disseminated Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide deposit with Ni tenors ranging widely from architecture, variations in whole-rock and mineral compositions, and the presence of numerous inclusions and xenoliths. The OLPXs are mainly composed of cumulus olivine (Fo77-89) and clinopyroxene (Mg#81-92) with variable amounts of oikocrystic orthopyroxene (Mg#79-84). They comprise the bulk of the ultramafic cumulates and are the dominant host rocks to the sulfide ore. The host rocks to the regular and false ore type are mineralogically and compositionally similar (Fo 80-83, mostly) and show mildly LREE-enriched REE patterns (CeN/YbN 2), characteristic for the bulk of the Kevitsa ultramafic cumulates. The abundance of orthopyroxene and magnetite is lowest in the host rocks to the Ni-PGE ore type, being in line with the mineral compositions of the silicates, which are the most primitive in the intrusion. However, it contrasts with the LREE-enriched nature of the ore type (CeN/YbN 7), indicating significant involvement of crustal material in the magma. The contrasting intrusive stratigraphy in the different parts of the intrusion likely reflects different emplacement histories. It is proposed that the Kevitsa magma chamber was initially filled by stable continuous flow ("single" input) of basaltic magma followed by differentiation in an at least nearly closed system. In the following stage, new magma pulses were repeatedly emplaced into the interior of the intrusion in a dynamic (open) system forming the sulfide ore bodies. To gain the peculiar compositional and mineralogical characteristics of the Ni-PGE ore type, the related magma probably interacted with different country rocks en route to the Kevitsa magma chamber.

  18. Isotopic clues to magmatic source regions for neogene Andean volcanic rocks in the El Teniente area near 38oS latitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, Suzanne Mahlburg; Kurtz, A.C

    2001-01-01

    The origin of isotopic variations in Central Andean arc lavas is a long-standing problem that involves identifying mantle and crustal source regions. Advances have come from analyzing temporal and spatial variations in constrained tectonic settings. The purpose here is to highlight the similarities of temporal variations in an east-west transect of Neogene magmatic units near 34 O S latitude with those from a south-north transect along the modern Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ, e.g. Hildreth and Moorbath 1988, Tormey et al. 1991). The comparison shows the importance of crustal thickening processes associated with compressional shortening and of lithospheric scale adjustments associated with eastward migration of the arc front on magma sources. Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic analyses of 27 Neogene volcanic and plutonic samples from the El Teniente area are presented in Table 1 and plotted along with some analyses from Skewes and Stern (1994) and Stern and Skewes (1995) in Figure 2. The data show a clear progression from older samples with more 'depleted' isotopic signatures (lower 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and Pb isotopic ratios, higher εNd) to younger samples with more 'enriched' signatures (higher 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and Pb isotopic ratios, lower εNd). In detail, four temporal and spatial groups marked by discontinuities in isotopic trends can be defined. Within each group, εNd tends to decrease and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios to increase with SiO2 concentration (au)

  19. Petrogenesis of the Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rock series of the České Středohoří Complex (Bohemian Massif), Czech Republic: A case for two lineages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostal, J.; Schellnutt, J. G.; Ulrych, Jaromír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 317, June (2017), s. 677-706 ISSN 0002-9599 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * Central European volcanic province * continental alcaline volcanism * fractional crystallization * magmatic fluids Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 4.099, year: 2016

  20. PRINCIPLE ROCK TYPES FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibila Borojević Šostarić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Underground geological storage of high- and intermediate/low radioactive waste is aimed to represent a barrier between the surface environment and potentially hazardous radioactive elements. Permeability, behavior against external stresses, chemical reacatibility and absorption are the key geological parameters for the geological storage of radioactive waste. Three principal rock types were discussed and applied to the Dinarides: (1 evaporites in general, (2 shale, and (3 crystalline basement rocks. (1 Within the Dinarides, evaporite formations are located within the central part of a Carbonate platform and are inappropriate for storage. Offshore evaporites are located within diapiric structures of the central and southern part of the Adriatic Sea and are covered by thick Mesozoic to Cenozoic clastic sediment. Under very specific circumstances they can be considered as potential site locations for further investigation for the storage of low/intermediate level radioactive wast e. (2 Thick flysch type formation of shale to phyllite rocks are exposed at the basement units of the Petrova and Trgovska gora regions whereas (3 crystalline magmatic to metamorphic basement is exposed at the Moslavačka Gora and Slavonian Mts. regions. For high-level radioactive waste, basement phyllites and granites may represent the only realistic potential option in the NW Dinarides.

  1. Role of pre-existing structures in controlling the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the eastern Tibetan plateau: New insights from analogue experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming; Yin, An; Yan, Danping; Ren, Hongyu; Mu, Hongxu; Zhu, Lutao; Qiu, Liang

    2018-06-01

    Pre-existing weakness due to repeated tectonic, metamorphic, and magmatic events is a fundamental feature of the continental lithosphere on Earth. Because of this, continental deformation results from a combined effect of boundary conditions imposed by plate tectonic processes and heterogeneous and anisotropic mechanical strength inherited from protracted continental evolution. In this study, we assess how this interaction may have controlled the Cenozoic evolution of the eastern Tibetan plateau during the India-Asia collision. Specifically, we use analogue models to evaluate how the pre-Cenozoic structures may have controlled the location, orientation, and kinematics of the northwest-striking Xianshuihe and northeast-striking Longmen Shan fault zones, the two most dominant Cenozoic structures in eastern Tibet. Our best model indicates that the correct location, trend, and kinematics of the two fault systems can only be generated and maintained if the following conditions are met: (1) the northern part of the Songpan-Ganzi terrane in eastern Tibet has a strong basement whereas its southern part has a weak basement, (2) the northern strong basement consists of two pieces bounded by a crustal-scale weak zone that is expressed by the Triassic development of a northwest-trending antiform exposing middle and lower crustal rocks, and (3) the region was under persistent northeast-southwest compression since ∼35 Ma. Our model makes correct prediction on the sequence of deformation in eastern Tibet; the Longmen Shan right-slip transpressional zone was initiated first as an instantaneous response to the northeast-southwest compression, which is followed by the formation of the Xianshuihe fault about a half way after the exertion of northeast-southwest shortening in the model. The success of our model highlights the importance of pre-existing weakness, a key factor that has been largely neglected in the current geodynamic models of continental deformation.

  2. Evidence of Middle Jurassic magmatism within the Seychelles microcontinent: Implications for the breakup of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellnutt, J. G.; Lee, T.-Y.; Chiu, H.-Y.; Lee, Y.-H.; Wong, J.

    2015-12-01

    The breakup of East and West Gondwana occurred during the Jurassic, but the exact timing is uncertain due to the limited exposure of rocks suitable for radioisotopic dating. Trachytic rocks from Silhouette Island, Seychelles, yielded a range of zircon ages from Paleoproterozoic to Cenozoic. The 206Pb/238U age of the trachyte is 64.9 ± 1.6 Ma (Danian) but the majority of zircons yielded an age of 163.8 ± 1.8 Ma (Callovian) with a small subset yielding an age of 147.7 ± 4.5 Ma (Tithonian). The Hf isotopes of the Callovian (ɛHf(t) = +4.1 to +13.4) and Danian (ɛHf(t) = +1.9 to +7.1) zircons indicate that they were derived from moderately depleted mantle sources whereas the Tithonian zircons (ɛHf(t) = -7.0 to -7.3) were derived from an enriched source. The identification of middle Jurassic zircons indicates that rifting and magmatism were likely contemporaneous during the initial separation of East and West Gondwana.

  3. Interactions between magma and the lithospheric mantle during Cenozoic rifting in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Romain; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

    2010-05-01

    During the Cenozoic, extensive intraplate volcanic activity occurred throughout Central Europe. Volcanic eruptions extend over France (the Massif Central), central Germany (Eifel, Vogelsberg, Rhön; Heldburg), the Czech Republic (the Eger graben) and SW Poland (Lower Silesia), a region ~1,200 km wide. The origin of this predominantly alkaline intraplate magmatism is often genetically linked to one or several mantle plumes, but there is no convincing evidence for this. We have measured Pb isotope ratios, together with major and trace elements, in a representative set of mafic to felsic igneous rocks from the intra-plate Cenozoic Rhön Mts. and the Heldburg dike swarm in order to gain insight into the melting source and petrogenetic history of these melts. Three different mafic rock types (tholeiitic basalt, alkali basalt, basanite) were distinguished based on petrography and geochemistry within the investigated areas. Except for the lherzolite-bearing phonolite from the Veste Heldburg all other evolved magmas are trachytes. REE geochemistry and calculated partial melting modeling experiments for the three mafic magma types point to different degrees of partial melting in a garnet-bearing mantle source. In addition a new version of the ternary Th-Hf-Ta diagram is presented in this study as a useful petrological tool. This diagram is not only able to define potentially involved melting source end-members (e.g. asthenosphere, sub-continental lithospheric mantle and continental crust) but also interactions between these members are illustrated. An advantage of this diagram compared to partial melting degree sensitive multi-element diagrams is that a ternary diagram is a closed system. An earlier version of this diagram has been recently used to establish the nature and extent of crust mantle melt interaction of volcanic rifted margins magmas (Meyer et al. 2009). The Th-Hf-Ta geochemistry of the investigated magmas is similar to spinel and garnet xenoliths from different

  4. The subduction erosion and mantle source region contamination model of Andean arc magmatism: Isotopic evidence from igneous rocks of central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, Charles R

    2001-01-01

    Continental crust may be incorporated in mantle-derived Andean magmas as these magmas rise through the crust (Hildreth and Moorbath, 1988), or alternatively, crust may be tectonically transported into the mantle by subduction of trench sediments and subduction erosion of the continental margin, and then added into the mantle source region of Andean magmas (Stern, 1991). Since the mantle has relatively low Sr, Nd, and Pb concentrations compared to continental crust, differences in the isotopic compositions of magmas erupted in different region of the Andes may be produced by relatively small differences in the amount of subducted crust added to the mantle source region of these magmas. By comparison, significantly larger amounts of crust must be assimilated by mantle-derived magmas to produce isotopic differences of similar magnitude. Therefore, constraining the process by which continental crust is incorporated in Andean magmas has important implications for understanding the chemical cycling that takes place in the Andean subduction-related magma factory. Isotopic data suggest the incorporation of a greater proportion of crust in Andean magmas erupted at the northern portion of the Southern Volcanic Zone of central Chile compared to those erupted in the southern portion of the Southern Volcanic Zone of south central Chile (SSVZ) (Stern et al., 1984; Futa and Stern, 1988; Hildreth and Moorbath, 1988). The NSVZ occurs just south of the current locus of the subduction of the Juan Fernandez Ridge. The southward migration of the locus of subduction of this ridge has resulted in decreasing subduction angle below the NSVZ, the eastward migration of the volcanic front of the Andean arc, and an increase in the crustal thickness below the arc. These factors together have caused changes, since the middle Miocene, in the isotopic composition of Andean igneous rocks of central Chile. The data indicate a close chronologic relation between the southward migrations of the locus

  5. Magmatism and Epithermal Gold-Silver Deposits of the Southern Ancestral Cascade Arc, Western Nevada and Eastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; du Bray, Edward A.; Henry, Christopher D.; Vikre, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Many epithermal gold-silver deposits are temporally and spatially associated with late Oligocene to Pliocene magmatism of the southern ancestral Cascade arc in western Nevada and eastern California. These deposits, which include both quartz-adularia (low- and intermediate-sulfidation; Comstock Lode, Tonopah, Bodie) and quartz-alunite (high-sulfidation; Goldfield, Paradise Peak) types, were major producers of gold and silver. Ancestral Cascade arc magmatism preceded that of the modern High Cascades arc and reflects subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America. Ancestral arc magmatism began about 45 Ma, continued until about 3 Ma, and extended from near the Canada-United States border in Washington southward to about 250 km southeast of Reno, Nevada. The ancestral arc was split into northern and southern segments across an inferred tear in the subducting slab between Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak in northern California. The southern segment extends between 42°N in northern California and 37°N in western Nevada and was active from about 30 to 3 Ma. It is bounded on the east by the northeast edge of the Walker Lane. Ancestral arc volcanism represents an abrupt change in composition and style of magmatism relative to that in central Nevada. Large volume, caldera-forming, silicic ignimbrites associated with the 37 to 19 Ma ignimbrite flareup are dominant in central Nevada, whereas volcanic centers of the ancestral arc in western Nevada consist of andesitic stratovolcanoes and dacitic to rhyolitic lava domes that mostly formed between 25 and 4 Ma. Both ancestral arc and ignimbrite flareup magmatism resulted from rollback of the shallowly dipping slab that began about 45 Ma in northeast Nevada and migrated south-southwest with time. Most southern segment ancestral arc rocks have oxidized, high potassium, calc-alkaline compositions with silica contents ranging continuously from about 55 to 77 wt%. Most lavas are porphyritic and contain coarse plagioclase

  6. Magmatic sulphides in Quaternary Ecuadorian arc magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgatou, Ariadni; Chiaradia, Massimo; Rezeau, Hervé; Wälle, Markus

    2018-01-01

    New petrographic and geochemical data on magmatic sulphide inclusions (MSIs) are presented and discussed for 15 Quaternary volcanic centers of the Ecuadorian frontal, main and back volcanic arc. MSIs occur mostly in Fe-Ti oxides (magnetite and/or magnetite-ilmenite pair) and to a lesser extent in silicate minerals (amphibole, plagioclase, and pyroxene). MSIs are present in all volcanic centers ranging in composition from basalt to dacite (SiO2 = 50-67 wt.%), indicating that sulphide saturation occurs at various stages of magmatic evolution and independently from the volcano location along the volcanic arc. MSIs also occur in dioritic, gabbroic and hornblenditic magmatic enclaves of the volcanic rocks. MSIs display variable sizes (1-30 μm) and shapes (globular, ellipsoidal, angular, irregular) and occur mostly as polymineralic inclusions composed of Fe-rich and Cu-poor (pyrrhotite) and Cu-rich (mostly chalcopyrite) phases. Aerial sulphide relative abundances range from 0.3 to 7 ppm in volcanic host rocks and from 13 to 24 ppm in magmatic enclaves. Electron microprobe analyses of MSIs indicate maximum metal contents of Cu = 65.7 wt.%, Fe = 65.2 wt.%, Ni = 10.1 wt.% for those hosted in the volcanic rocks and of Cu = 57.7 wt.%, Fe = 60.9 wt.%, Ni = 5.1 wt.%, for those hosted in magmatic enclaves. Relationships of the sulphide chemistry to the host whole rock chemistry show that with magmatic differentiation (e.g., increasing SiO2) the Cu and Ni content of sulphides decrease whereas the Fe and S contents increase. The opposite behavior is observed with the increase of Cu in the whole rock, because the latter is anti-correlated with the SiO2 whole rock content. Laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of MSIs returned maximum values of PGEs and noble metals of Pd = 30 ppm, Rh = 8.1 ppm, Ag = 92.8 ppm and Au = 0.6 ppm and Pd = 43 ppm, Rh = 22.6 ppm, Ag = 89 ppm and Au = 1 ppm for those hosted in volcanic rocks and magmatic enclaves, respectively. These PGE contents display a

  7. Study on Sr-Nd isotopes of mesozoic-cenozoic granites in Qinghai-Tibetan plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Ruizhao; Deng Jinfu; Zhou Su; Xiao Qinghui; Cai Zhiyong

    2003-01-01

    Mesozoic-Cenozoic magmatic activities were intensive in Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. Nd-Sr isotopic compositions of representative granitic plutons in western Qinghai-Tibetan plateau are reported in this paper. Combining with past isotopic data, which has reported in eastern Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, Sr-Nd isotopic compositions and material source and genesis of Mesozoic and Cenozoic granites in Qinghai-Tibetan plateau have been studied. The research result indicates there are three types of granite existing in Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, the granites of Late stage of Yanshan Period which distributing on north and south boundary of Gandes block (namely in north and south granitic belts of Dangdes) and cause of oceanic crust subduction, have ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr)i of 0.7041-0.7064, ε (Nd) t of +2.5 - +5.7 and TDM age of 312-562 Ma, positive ε Nd, low ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr)i ratio and young Nd model ages suggest relatively high contents of mantle-derived components in their sources, and this type granite might melt from subduction oceanic crust. The granites occurred intra-Gangdes block which were caused by collision of continent and post-collision, have ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr)i of 0.706-0.719, ε (Nd) t of -5.3 - -8.3 and TDM age of 1323-1496 Ma, negative ε Nd, relative high ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr)i ratio with an mid-Proterozoic Nd model ages, suggest granite has the mixing genesis of mantle-derived components and old crustal components in their sources. With relatively small variation range in ε (Nd) t and TDM age, it might imply granitic isotopic source in Gandes block to keep relative homogenization in long period. The granites in Himalayan block which there is not oceanic material to join in melting and to cause of intra-continental subduction, has most ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr)i ratio more than 0.720, ε (Nd) t of -10.3 - -16.3 and TDM age of 1792-2206 Ma, high ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr)i ratio, low negative ε (Nd)t with old Nd isotopic model ages and consistent with the Sr, Nd isotopic compositions of basement

  8. Felsic magmatism and uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The strongly incompatible behaviour of uranium in silicate magmas results in its concentration in the most felsic melts and a prevalence of granites and rhyolites as primary U sources for the formation of U deposits. Despite its incompatible behavior, U deposits resulting directly from magmatic processes are quite rare. In most deposits, U is mobilized by hydrothermal fluids or ground water well after the emplacement of the igneous rocks. Of the broad range of granite types, only a few have U contents and physico-chemical properties that permit the crystallization of accessory minerals from which uranium can be leached for the formation of U deposits. The first granites on Earth, which crystallized uraninite, dated at 3.1 Ga, are the potassic granites from the Kaapval craton (South Africa) which were also the source of the detrital uraninite for the Dominion Reef and Witwatersrand quartz pebble conglomerate deposits. Four types of granites or rhyolites can be sufficiently enriched in U to represent a significant source for the genesis of U deposits: per-alkaline, high-K met-aluminous calc-alkaline, L-type peraluminous and anatectic pegmatoids. L-type peraluminous plutonic rocks in which U is dominantly hosted in uraninite or in the glass of their volcanic equivalents represent the best U source. Per-alkaline granites or syenites are associated with the only magmatic U-deposits formed by extreme fractional crystallization. The refractory character of the U-bearing minerals does not permit their extraction under the present economic conditions and make them unfavorable U sources for other deposit types. By contrast, felsic per-alkaline volcanic rocks, in which U is dominantly hosted in the glassy matrix, represent an excellent source for many deposit types. High-K calc-alkaline plutonic rocks only represent a significant U source when the U-bearing accessory minerals (U-thorite, allanite, Nb oxides) become metamict. The volcanic rocks of the same geochemistry may be

  9. Felsic magmatism and uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, M.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium strongly incompatible behaviour in silicate magmas results in its concentration in the most felsic melts and a prevalence of granites and rhyolites as primary U sources for the formation of U deposits. Despite its incompatible behaviour, U deposits resulting directly from magmatic processes are quite rare. In most deposits, U is mobilized by hydrothermal fluids or ground water well after the emplacement of the igneous rocks. Of the broad range of granite types, only a few have have U contents and physico-chemical properties that permit the crystallization of accessory minerals from which uranium can be leached for the formation of U deposits. The first granites on Earth which crystallized uraninite appeared at 3.1 Ga, are the potassic granites from the Kaapval craton (South Africa) which were also the source of the detrital uraninite for the Dominion Reef and Witwatersrand quartz pebble conglomerate deposits. Four types of granites or rhyolites can be sufficiently enriched in U to represent a significant source for the genesis of U deposits: peralkaline, high-K metaluminous calc-alkaline, L-type peraluminous ones and anatectic pegmatoids. L-type peraluminous plutonic rocks in which U is dominantly hosted in uraninite or in the glass in their volcanic equivalents represent the best U source. Peralkaline granites or syenites represent the only magmatic U-deposits formed by extreme fractional crystallization. The refractory character of the U-bearing minerals does not permit their extraction at the present economic conditions and make them unfavourable U sources for other deposit types. By contrast, felsic peralkaline volcanic rocks, in which U is dominantly hosted in the glassy matrix, represent an excellent source for many deposit types. High-K calc-alkaline plutonic rocks only represent a significant U source when the U-bearing accessory minerals [U-thorite, allanite, Nb oxides] become metamict. The volcanic rocks of the same geochemistry may be also a

  10. Isotope shifting capacity of rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.; Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt

    1980-01-01

    Any oxygen isotope shifted rock volume exactly defines a past throughput of water. An expression is derived that relates the throughput of an open system to the isotope shift of reservoir rock and present-day output. The small isotope shift of Ngawha reservoir rock and the small, high delta oxygen-18 output are best accounted for by a magmatic water source

  11. Mesozoic–Cenozoic Climate and Neotectonic Events as Factors in Reconstructing the Thermal History of the Source-Rock Bazhenov Formation, Arctic Region, West Siberia, by the Example of the Yamal Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaev, V. I.; Iskorkina, A. A.; Lobova, G. A.; Starostenko, V. I.; Tikhotskii, S. A.; Fomin, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    Schemes and criteria are developed for using the measured and modeled geotemperatures for studying the thermal regime of the source rock formations, as well as the tectonic and sedimentary history of sedimentary basins, by the example of the oil fields of the Yamal Peninsula. The method of paleotemperature modeling based on the numerical solution of the heat conduction equation for a horizontally layered solid with a movable upper boundary is used. The mathematical model directly includes the climatic secular trend of the Earth's surface temperature as the boundary condition and the paleotemperatures determined from the vitrinite reflectance as the measurement data. The method does not require a priori information about the nature and intensities of the heat flow from the Earth's interior; the flow is determined by solving the inverse problem of geothermy with a parametric description of the of the sedimentation history and the history of the thermophysical properties of the sedimentary stratum. The rate of sedimentation is allowed to be zero and negative which provides the possibility to take into account the gaps in sedimentation and denudation. The formation, existence, and degradation of the permafrost stratum and ice cover are taken into account as dynamical lithological-stratigraphic complexes with anomalously high thermal conductivity. It is established that disregarding the paleoclimatic factors precludes an adequate reconstruction of thermal history of the source-rock deposits. Revealing and taking into account the Late Eocene regression provided the computationally optimal and richest thermal history of the source-rock Bazhenov Formation, which led to more correct volumetric-genetic estimates of the reserves. For estimating the hydrocarbon reserves in the land territories of the Arctic region of West Siberia by the volumetric-genetic technique, it is recommended to use the Arctic secular trend of temperatures and take into account the dynamics of the

  12. Arc magmatism as a window to plate kinematics and subduction polarity: Example from the eastern Pontides belt, NE Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yener Eyuboglu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Pontides orogenic belt in the Black Sea region of Turkey offers a critical window to plate kinematics and subduction polarity during the closure of the Paleotethys. Here we provide a brief synthesis on recent information from this belt. We infer a southward subduction for the origin of the Eastern Pontides orogenic belt and its associated late Mesozoic–Cenozoic magmatism based on clear spatial and temporal variations in Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic arc magmatism, together with the existence of a prominent south-dipping reverse fault system along the entire southern coast of the Black Sea. Our model is at variance with some recent proposals favoring a northward subduction polarity, and illustrates the importance of arc magmatism in evaluating the geodynamic milieu associated with convergent margin processes.

  13. Climate vs. tectonic induced variations in Cenozoic sediment supply from western Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gołędowski, Bartosz; Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.

    The scope of this work is the causality of sediment flux variations from western Scandinavia during the Cenozoic. Over the decades of exploration in the North Sea and in the Norwegian shelf most of these variations were given tectonic causes. During the final period of North Atlantic break......-up (Paleocene-Early Eocene) this link is quite striking, especially in the northern British Isles and in the Faeroe-Shetland Platform where sediment production pulses can be correlated with well documented periods of tectonic activity (e.g. magmatism). However, during the subsequent Cenozoic epochs this link...... is much less constrained. For this period we therefore search for an alternative explanation in terms of climate and climate change [1-3] Methods The extensive seismic and well data set allow investigation of inland erosion rates via the offshore distribution of sediments. However, varying marine...

  14. Geodynamic controls on the contamination of Cenozoic arc magmas in the southern Central Andes: Insights from the O and Hf isotopic composition of zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rosemary E.; Kirstein, Linda A.; Kasemann, Simone A.; Dhuime, Bruno; Elliott, Tim; Litvak, Vanesa D.; Alonso, Ricardo; Hinton, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Subduction zones, such as the Andean convergent margin of South America, are sites of active continental growth and crustal recycling. The composition of arc magmas, and therefore new continental crust, reflects variable contributions from mantle, crustal and subducted reservoirs. Temporal (Ma) and spatial (km) variations in these contributions to southern Central Andean arc magmas are investigated in relation to the changing plate geometry and geodynamic setting of the southern Central Andes (28-32° S) during the Cenozoic. The in-situ analysis of O and Hf isotopes in zircon, from both intrusive (granitoids) and extrusive (basaltic andesites to rhyolites) Late Cretaceous - Late Miocene arc magmatic rocks, combined with high resolution U-Pb dating, demonstrates distinct across-arc variations. Mantle-like δ18O(zircon) values (+5.4‰ to +5.7‰ (±0.4 (2σ))) and juvenile initial εHf(zircon) values (+8.3 (±0.8 (2σ)) to +10.0 (±0.9 (2σ))), combined with a lack of zircon inheritance suggests that the Late Cretaceous (∼73 Ma) to Eocene (∼39 Ma) granitoids emplaced in the Principal Cordillera of Chile formed from mantle-derived melts with very limited interaction with continental crustal material, therefore representing a sustained period of upper crustal growth. Late Eocene (∼36 Ma) to Early Miocene (∼17 Ma) volcanic arc rocks present in the Frontal Cordillera have 'mantle-like' δ18O(zircon) values (+4.8‰ (±0.2 (2σ) to +5.8‰ (±0.5 (2σ))), but less radiogenic initial εHf(zircon) values (+1.0 (±1.1 (2σ)) to +4.0 (±0.6 (2σ))) providing evidence for mixing of mantle-derived melts with the Late Paleozoic - Early Mesozoic basement (up to ∼20%). The assimilation of both Late Paleozoic - Early Mesozoic Andean crust and a Grenville-aged basement is required to produce the higher than 'mantle-like' δ18O(zircon) values (+5.5‰ (±0.6 (2σ) to +7.2‰ (±0.4 (2σ))) and unradiogenic, initial εHf(zircon) values (-3.9 (±1.0 (2σ)) to +1.6 (±4.4 (2

  15. A Cenozoic record of the equatorial Pacific carbonate compensation depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pälike, Heiko; Lyle, Mitchell W; Nishi, Hiroshi; Raffi, Isabella; Ridgwell, Andy; Gamage, Kusali; Klaus, Adam; Acton, Gary; Anderson, Louise; Backman, Jan; Baldauf, Jack; Beltran, Catherine; Bohaty, Steven M; Bown, Paul; Busch, William; Channell, Jim E T; Chun, Cecily O J; Delaney, Margaret; Dewangan, Pawan; Dunkley Jones, Tom; Edgar, Kirsty M; Evans, Helen; Fitch, Peter; Foster, Gavin L; Gussone, Nikolaus; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Hathorne, Ed C; Hayashi, Hiroki; Herrle, Jens O; Holbourn, Ann; Hovan, Steve; Hyeong, Kiseong; Iijima, Koichi; Ito, Takashi; Kamikuri, Shin-ichi; Kimoto, Katsunori; Kuroda, Junichiro; Leon-Rodriguez, Lizette; Malinverno, Alberto; Moore, Ted C; Murphy, Brandon H; Murphy, Daniel P; Nakamura, Hideto; Ogane, Kaoru; Ohneiser, Christian; Richter, Carl; Robinson, Rebecca; Rohling, Eelco J; Romero, Oscar; Sawada, Ken; Scher, Howie; Schneider, Leah; Sluijs, Appy; Takata, Hiroyuki; Tian, Jun; Tsujimoto, Akira; Wade, Bridget S; Westerhold, Thomas; Wilkens, Roy; Williams, Trevor; Wilson, Paul A; Yamamoto, Yuhji; Yamamoto, Shinya; Yamazaki, Toshitsugu; Zeebe, Richard E

    2012-08-30

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and climate are regulated on geological timescales by the balance between carbon input from volcanic and metamorphic outgassing and its removal by weathering feedbacks; these feedbacks involve the erosion of silicate rocks and organic-carbon-bearing rocks. The integrated effect of these processes is reflected in the calcium carbonate compensation depth, which is the oceanic depth at which calcium carbonate is dissolved. Here we present a carbonate accumulation record that covers the past 53 million years from a depth transect in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. The carbonate compensation depth tracks long-term ocean cooling, deepening from 3.0-3.5 kilometres during the early Cenozoic (approximately 55 million years ago) to 4.6 kilometres at present, consistent with an overall Cenozoic increase in weathering. We find large superimposed fluctuations in carbonate compensation depth during the middle and late Eocene. Using Earth system models, we identify changes in weathering and the mode of organic-carbon delivery as two key processes to explain these large-scale Eocene fluctuations of the carbonate compensation depth.

  16. Analysing the Cenozoic depositional record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goledowski, Bartosz; Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that sediment deposition in the North Sea and on the Norwegian Shelf varied significantly during the Cenozoic as a consequence of varying erosion rate mainly in Western Scandinavia, in Scotland and in the Alps. Recent results have demonstrated that a causal relationship exists...... of variations in erosion rates. Here we present the rationale behind the project, the data available and some preliminary results. The dense seismic and well coverage in the area makes it possible to estimate the rate of deposition of matrix mass. Assuming that sediment storage is not important, this provides...... models. The matrix mass deposition history will be compared with the paleoclimate record (e.g. oxygen isotope curves) to see if the previously observed correlation in the eastern North Sea can be extended to other ages and locations.  ...

  17. Late Cenozoic cooling history of the central Menderes Massif: Timing of the Büyük Menderes detachment and the relative contribution of normal faulting and erosion to rock exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfler, Andreas; Glotzbach, Christoph; Heineke, Caroline; Nilius, Nils-Peter; Hetzel, Ralf; Hampel, Andrea; Akal, Cüneyt; Dunkl, István; Christl, Marcus

    2017-10-01

    Based on new thermochronological data and 10Be-derived erosion rates from the southern part of the central Menderes Massif (Aydın block) in western Turkey, we provide new insights into the tectonic evolution and landscape development of an area that undergoes active continental extension. Fission-track and (U-Th)/He data reveal that the footwall of the Büyük Menderes detachment experienced two episodes of enhanced cooling and exhumation. Assuming an elevated geothermal gradient of 50 °C/km, the first phase occurred with an average rate of 0.90 km/Myr in the middle Miocene and the second one in the latest Miocene and Pliocene with a rate of 0.43 km/Myr. The exhumation rates between these two phases were lower and range from 0.14 to 0.24 km/Myr, depending on the distance to the detachment. Cosmogenic nuclide-based erosion rates for catchments in the Aydın block range from 0.1 to 0.4 km/Myr. The similarity of the erosion rates on both sides of the Aydın block (northern and southern flank) indicate that a rather symmetric erosion pattern has prevailed during the Holocene. If these millennial erosion rates are representative on a million-year timescale they indicate that, apart from normal faulting, erosion in the hanging wall of the Büyük Menderes detachment fault did also contribute to the exhumation of the metamorphic rocks.

  18. Variability of orogenic magmatism during Mediterranean-style continental collisions : A numerical modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrić, N.; Vogt, K.; Matenco, L.; Cvetković, V.; Cloetingh, S.; Gerya, T.

    The relationship between magma generation and the tectonic evolution of orogens during subduction and subsequent collision requires self-consistent numerical modelling approaches predicting volumes and compositions of the produced magmatic rocks. Here, we use a 2D magmatic-thermomechanical numerical

  19. Geochemical fingerprinting of ∼2.5 Ga forearc-arc-backarc related magmatic suites in the Bastar Craton, central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, Deepanker; Kumar, Sirish; Vind, Aditya Kumar; Zehra, Fatima; Kumar, Harshavardhan; Pophare, Anil M.

    2018-05-01

    The Pitepani volcanic suite of the Dongargarh Supergroup, central India comprises of a calc-alkaline suite and a tholeiitic suite, respectively. The rare earth element (REE) patterns, mantle normalized plots and relict clinopyroxene chemistry of the Pitepani calc-alkaline suite are akin to high-Mg andesites (HMA) and reveal remarkable similarity to the Cenozoic Setouchi HMA from Japan. The Pitepani HMAs are geochemically correlated with similar rocks in the Kotri-Dongargarh mobile belt (KDMB) and in the mafic dykes of the Bastar Craton. The rationale behind lithogeochemical correlations are that sanukitic HMAs represent fore-arc volcanism over a very limited period of time, under abnormally high temperature conditions and are excellent regional and tectonic time markers. Furthermore, the tholeiitic suites that are temporally and spatially associated with the HMAs in the KDMB and in the mafic dykes of the Bastar Craton are classified into: (a) a continental back-arc suite that are depleted in incompatible elements, and (b) a continental arc suite that are more depleted in incompatible elements, respectively. The HMA suite, the continental back-arc and continental arc suites are lithogeochemically correlated in the KDMB and in the mafic dykes of the Bastar Craton. The three geochemically distinct Neoarchaean magmatic suites are temporally and spatially related to each other and to an active continental margin. The identification of three active continental margin magmatic suites for the first time, provides a robust conceptual framework to unravel the Neoarchaean geodynamic evolution of the Bastar Craton. We propose an active continental margin along the Neoarchaen KDMB with eastward subduction coupled with slab roll back or preferably, ridge-subduction along the Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ) to account for the three distinct magmatic suites and the Neoarchean geodynamic evolution of the Bastar Craton.

  20. Reconstruction of crustal blocks of California on the basis of initial strontium isotopic compositions of Mesozoic granitic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Ronald Wayne; Peterman, Zell E.

    1978-01-01

    Initial 87Sr/ 86 Sr was determined for samples of Mesozoic granitic rocks in the vicinity of the Garlock fault zone in California. These data along with similar data from the Sierra Nevada and along the San Andreas fault system permit a reconstruction of basement rocks offset by the Cenozoic lateral faulting along both the San Andreas and Garlock fault systems. The location of the line of initial 87Sr/ 86 Sr = 0.7060 can be related to the edge of the Precambrian continental crust in the western United States. Our model explains the present configuration of the edge of Precambrian continental crust as the result of two stages of rifting that occurred about 1,250 to 800 m.y. ago, during Belt sedimentation, and about 600 to 350 m.y. ago, prior to and during the development of the Cordilleran geosyncline and to left-lateral translation along a locus of disturbance identified in the central Mojave Desert. The variations in Rb, Sr, and initial 87Sr/ 86 Sr of the Mesozoic granitic rocks are interpreted as due to variations in composition and age of the source materials of the granitic rocks. The variations of Rb, Sr, and initial 87Sr/ 86 Sr in Mesozoic granitic rocks, the sedimentation history during the late Precambrian and Paleozoic, and the geographic position of loci of Mesozoic magmatism in the western United States are related to the development of the continental margin and different types of lithosphere during rifting.

  1. Bimodal magmatism produced by progressively inhibited crustal assimilation 2 (PICA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meade, F.C.; Troll, V.R.; Ellam, R.M.; Freda, C.; Font Morales, L.; Donaldson, C.H.; Klonowska, I.

    2014-01-01

    The origin of bimodal (mafic-felsic) rock suites is a fundamental question in volcanology. Here we use major and trace elements, high-resolution Sr, Nd and Pb isotope analyses, experimental petrology and thermodynamic modelling to investigate bimodal magmatism at the iconic Carlingford Igneous

  2. Unusual ruby-sapphire transition in alluvial megacrysts, Cenozoic basaltic gem field, New England, New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Frederick L.; Graham, Ian T.; Harris, Stephen J.; Coldham, Terry; Powell, William; Belousova, Elena A.; Martin, Laure

    2017-05-01

    Rare ruby crystals appear among prevailing sapphire crystals mined from placers within basaltic areas in the New England gem-field, New South Wales, Australia. New England ruby (NER) has distinctive trace element features compared to those from ruby elsewhere in Australia and indeed most ruby from across the world. The NER suite includes ruby (up to 3370 ppm Cr), pink sapphire (up to 1520 ppm Cr), white sapphire (up to 910 ppm) and violet, mauve, purple, or bluish sapphire (up to 1410 ppm Cr). Some crystals show outward growth banding in this respective colour sequence. All four colour zones are notably high in Ga (up to 310 ppm) and Si (up to 1820 ppm). High Ga and Ga/Mg values are unusual in ruby and its trace element plots (laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) and suggests that magmatic-metasomatic inputs were involved in the NER suite genesis. In situ oxygen isotope analyses (secondary ion mass spectrometry) across the NER suite colour range showed little variation (n = 22; δ18O = 4.4 ± 0.4, 2σ error), and are values typical for corundum associated with ultramafic/mafic rocks. The isolated NER xenocryst suite, corroded by basalt transport and with few internal inclusions, presents a challenge in deciphering its exact origin. Detailed consideration of its high Ga chemistry in relation to the known geology of the surrounding region was used to narrow down potential sources. These include Late Palaeozoic-Triassic fractionated I-type granitoid magmas or Mesozoic-Cenozoic felsic fractionates from basaltic magmas that interacted with early Palaeozoic Cr-bearing ophiolite bodies in the New England Orogen. Other potential sources may lie deeper within lower crust-mantle metamorphic assemblages, but need to match the anomalous high-Ga geochemistry of the New England ruby suite.

  3. Geology of the plutonic basement rocks of Stewart Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allibone, A.H.; Tulloch, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Exposures of basement rocks on Stewart Island provide a c. 70 km long by 50 km wide map of part of the Median Batholith that spans the margin of the Western Province. Because of their distance from the present plate boundary, these rocks are relatively unaffected by Cenozoic tectonism, allowing examination of unmodified Carboniferous-Cretaceous relationships within the Median Batholith. Thirty individual plutons (>c.20 km 2 ) have been mapped along with numerous relatively small intrusions ( 2 ). The large plutons form 85-90% of the Median Batholith on Stewart Island while the many smaller intrusions comprise 10-15%, mostly in the north. Lithologies include: biotite ± minor hornblende granodiorite, granite and leucogranite with accessory titanite - magmatic epidote and allanite (c. 50%); biotite ± muscovite ± garnet granite with S-type affinities (c. 10%); alkaline quartz monzonite, granite, and alkali feldspar granite with rare aegirine and blue-green amphibole (c. 3%); quartz monzodiorite and diorite with hornblende > biotite (c. 23%); gabbro and anorthosite (c. 12%) and ultramafic rocks (c. 2%). U-Pb zircon and monazite dating indicates that c. 12% of these plutonic rocks were emplaced during the Carboniferous between 345 and 290 Ma, c. 20% in the Early-Middle Jurassic at c. 170-165 Ma, c. 30% in the latest Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous between 152 and 128 Ma, and c. 38% in the Early Cretaceous between 128 and 100 Ma. The distribution of Pegasus Group schists and peraluminous granitoid rocks indicates that the northern limit of extensive early Paleozoic Western Province basement is located either within the Gutter Shear Zone or at the Escarpment Fault, 10-15 km south of the Freshwater Fault System previously thought to mark this boundary. Carboniferous and Middle Jurassic magmatism extended plutonic basement northwards as far as the Freshwater Fault System, while further magmatism during the latest Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous produced the basement

  4. Mineral chemistry and petrogenesis of the Gurgur Mount volcanic rocks (Northeast Takab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Esmaeily

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Andesitic and andesitic-basaltic lavas are widespread over most of the ground surface of the Gurgur area altered mostly by the hydrothermal solutions. The main rock forming minerals in these rocks are plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine affected by the hydrothermal solutions. The altered rocks do contain minerals including calcite, sericite and chlorite. Given the results obtained and the mineral chemistry studies, the clinopyroxenes formed in the area are, chemically, calkalkaline and of diopside-augite type formed in subvolcanic to near surface levels contemporaneous with magma ascending. Plagioclase minerals show zoning textures and lie within the two andesine and albite-oligoclase fields. These units, in terms of total rock chemistry, are classified as the calk-alkaline volcanic rocks formed in the continental arcs. On the other hand, on the trace elements chondrite-normalized diagrams and enriched mantle-normalized multi- element diagrams, the LREE enrichment relative to the HREE is observed. The LILE (i.e. Rb, K and Th and the LREE (e.g. La, Ce and Nd show an enrichment in comparison to the HFSE (Zr, Hf, Nb, Yb, Y and Sm. Given the Nd/Th (1.42-1.15, Zr/Nb (12.27-21.22, Ba/La (18.64-29.77 as well as LILE enrichment associated with depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti, an environment related to the subduction zones can be proposed for the area under study. Moreover, the similarity between the REE distribution pattern and the incompatible elements point to the genetic relationship between these rocks. Finally, on the base of the obtained data, it can be concluded that the volcanic rocks in the Gurgur Mountain were likely formed during the extended magmatism of the Urumieh-Dokhtar in the Cenozoic.

  5. Cenozoic lithospheric deformation in Northeast Asia and the rapidly-aging Pacific Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Moresi, Louis; Zhao, Dapeng; Sandiford, Dan; Whittaker, Joanne

    2018-06-01

    Northeast Asia underwent widespread rifting and magmatic events during the Cenozoic. The geodynamic origins of these tectonic events are often linked to Pacific plate subduction beneath Northeast Asia. However, the Japan Sea did not open until the late Oligocene, tens of millions of years after Pacific Plate subduction initiation in the Paleocene. Moreover, it is still not clear why the Baikal Rift Zone extension rate increased significantly after the late Miocene, while the Japan Sea opening ceased at the same time. Geodynamic models suggest these enigmatic events are related to the rapidly-aging Pacific Plate at the trench after Izanagi-Pacific spreading ridge subduction. Subduction of the young Pacific Plate delayed the Japan Sea opening during the Eocene while advection of the old Pacific Plate towards the trench increases seafloor age rapidly, allowing the Japan Sea to open after the early Miocene. The Japan Sea opening promotes fast trench retreat and slab stagnation, with subduction-induced wedge zone convection gradually increasing its extent during this process. The active rifting center associated with wedge zone convection upwelling also shifts inland-ward during slab stagnation, preventing further Japan Sea spreading while promoting the Baikal Rift Zone extension. Our geodynamic model provides a good explanation for the temporal-spatial patterns of the Cenozoic tectonic and magmatic events in Northeast Asia.

  6. Cenozoic to Cretaceous paleomagnetic dataset from Egypt: New data, review and global analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Mireille; Saleh, Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    Different phases of igneous activity took place in Egypt during the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic and oriented samples were collected from three Cenozoic localities (Baharya oasis in the Western Desert, Abu Had in the Eastern Desert and Quseir along the Red Sea coast), and four Cretaceous localities (Toshki & Abu Simbel south of Aswan, and Shalaten & Abu Shihat along the Red Sea coast). Rock magnetic properties of the samples indicate magnetite and titanomagnetite as the main carrier of the remanent magnetization. Following stepwise demagnetization, characteristic remanent directions were identified only for 62% of the samples, a fairly low rate for that type of samples, and 8 new paleomagnetic poles were calculated. All our Cenozoic poles fall clearly off Master Polar Wander Paths proposed for South Africa. Therefore, all paleomagnetic results, previously published for Egypt, were compiled from Cretaceous to Quaternary. The published poles largely overlap, blurring the Egyptian Apparent Polar Wander Path. A new analysis at the site level was then carried out. Only poles having a kappa larger than 50 were selected, and new pole positions were calculated by area and by epoch, when at least 3 sites were available. Even though the selection drastically reduced the number of considered poles, it allows definition of a reliable Cenozoic apparent polar wander trend for Egypt that differs from the South African Master Polar Wander Path by about 10-15 °. If the Cretaceous igneous poles are in good agreement with the rest of the African data, the sedimentary poles plot close to the Cenozoic portion of the South African Master Polar Wander Path, a discrepancy that could be related either to inclination flattening and/or error on age and/or remagnetization in the Cenozoic.

  7. Magmatism and deformation during continental breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keir, Derek

    2013-04-01

    The rifting of continents and the transition to seafloor spreading is characterised by extensional faulting and thinning of the lithosphere, and is sometimes accompanied by voluminous intrusive and extrusive magmatism. In order to understand how these processes develop over time to break continents apart, we have traditionally relied on interpreting the geological record at the numerous fully developed, ancient rifted margins around the world. In these settings, however, it is difficult to discriminate between different mechanisms of extension and magmatism because the continent-ocean transition is typically buried beneath thick layers of volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and the tectonic and volcanic activity that characterised breakup has long-since ceased. Ongoing continental breakup in the African and Arabian rift systems offers a unique opportunity to address these problems because it exposes several sectors of tectonically active rift sector development spanning the transition from embryonic continental rifting in the south to incipient seafloor spreading in the north. Here I synthesise exciting, multidisciplinary observational and modelling studies using geophysical, geodetic, petrological and numerical techniques that uniquely constrain the distribution, time-scales, and interactions between extension and magmatism during the progressive breakup of the African Plate. This new research has identified the previously unrecognised role of rapid and episodic dike emplacement in accommodating a large proportion of extension during continental rifting. We are now beginning to realise that changes in the dominant mechanism for strain over time (faulting, stretching and magma intrusion) impact dramatically on magmatism and rift morphology. The challenge now is to take what we're learned from East Africa and apply it to the rifted margins whose geological record documents breakup during entire Wilson Cycles.

  8. East African Cenozoic vegetation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Hans Peter

    2017-11-01

    The modern vegetation of East Africa is a complex mosaic of rainforest patches; small islands of tropic-alpine vegetation; extensive savannas, ranging from almost pure grassland to wooded savannas; thickets; and montane grassland and forest. Here I trace the evolution of these vegetation types through the Cenozoic. Paleogene East Africa was most likely geomorphologically subdued and, as the few Eocene fossil sites suggest, a woodland in a seasonal climate. Woodland rather than rainforest may well have been the regional vegetation. Mountain building started with the Oligocene trap lava flows in Ethiopia, on which rainforest developed, with little evidence of grass and none of montane forests. The uplift of the East African Plateau took place during the middle Miocene. Fossil sites indicate the presence of rainforest, montane forest and thicket, and wooded grassland, often in close juxtaposition, from 17 to 10 Ma. By 10 Ma, marine deposits indicate extensive grassland in the region and isotope analysis indicates that this was a C 3 grassland. In the later Miocene rifting, first of the western Albertine Rift and then of the eastern Gregory Rift, added to the complexity of the environment. The building of the high strato-volcanos during the later Mio-Pliocene added environments suitable for tropic-alpine vegetation. During this time, the C 3 grassland was replaced by C 4 savannas, although overall the extent of grassland was reduced from the mid-Miocene high to the current low level. Lake-level fluctuations during the Quaternary indicate substantial variation in rainfall, presumably as a result of movements in the intertropical convergence zone and the Congo air boundary, but the impact of these fluctuations on the vegetation is still speculative. I argue that, overall, there was an increase in the complexity of East African vegetation complexity during the Neogene, largely as a result of orogeny. The impact of Quaternary climatic fluctuation is still poorly understood

  9. Late Cenozoic Samtskhe-Javakheti Volcanic Highland, Georgia:The Result of Mantle Plumes Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okrostsvaridze, Avtandil

    2017-04-01

    Late Cenozoic Samtskhe-Javakheti continental volcanic highland (1500-2500 m a.s.l) is located in the SW part of the Lesser Caucasus. In Georgia the highland occupies more than 4500 km2, however its large part spreads towards the South over the territories of Turkey and Armenia. One can point out three stages of magmatic activity in this volcanic highland: 1. Early Pliocene activity (5.2-2.8 Ma; zircons U-Pb age) - when a large part of the highland was built up. It is formed from volcanic lava-breccias of andesite-dacitic composition, pyroclastic rocks and andesite-basalt lava flow. The evidences of this structure are: a large volume of volcanic material (>1500 km3); big thickness (700-1100 m in average), large-scale of lava flows (length 35 km, width 2.5-3.5 km, thickness 30-80 m), big thickness of volcanic ash horizons (300 cm at some places) and big size of volcanic breccias (diameter >1 m). Based on this data we assume that a source of this structure was a supervolcano (Okrostsvaridze et al., 2016); 2. Early Pleistocene activity (2.4 -1.6 Ma; zircons U-Pb age) - when continental flood basalts of 100-300 m thickness were formed. The flow is fully crystalline, coarse-grained, which mainly consist of olivine and basic labradorite. There 143Nd/144Nd parameter varies in the range of +0.41703 - +0.52304, and 87Sr/88Sr - from 0.7034 to 0.7039; 3. Late Pleistocene activity (0.35-0.021 Ma; zircons U-Pb age) - when intraplate Abul-Samsari linear volcanic ridge of andesite composition was formed stretching to the S-N direction for 40 km with the 8-12 km width and contains more than 20 volcanic edifices. To the South of the Abul-Samsari ridge the oldest (0.35-0.30 Ma; zircons U-Pb age) volcano Didi Abuli (3305 m a.s.l.) is located. To the North ages of volcano edifices gradually increase. Farther North the youngest volcano Tavkvetili (0.021-0. 030 Ma) is located (2583 m a.s.l.). One can see from this description that the Abul-Samsari ridge has all signs characterizing

  10. Genesis of Cenozoic intraplate high Mg# andesites in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. Q.; Chen, L. H.; Zhong, Y.; Wang, X. J.

    2017-12-01

    High-Mg# andesites (HMAs) are usually generated in the converged plate boundary and have genetic relationships with slab subduction. However, it still remained controversial about the origin of those HMAs erupted in the intra-plate setting. Here we present major, trace element, and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions for the Cenozoic intra-plate HMAs from Northeast China to constrain their origin and formation process. Cenozoic Xunke volcanic rocks are located in the northern Lesser Khingan Range, covering an area of about 3, 000 km2. These volcanic rocks are mainly basaltic andesite and basaltic trachyandesite, with only several classified as trachyandesite and andesites. They have high SiO2 contents (54.3-57.4 wt%) and Mg# (49.6-57.8), falling into the scope of high Mg# andesites. The Xunke HMAs are enriched in large ion lithophile elements but depleted in high field strength elements, with positive Ba, K, Sr and negative Zr-Hf, and Ti anomalies. Their trace element absolute concentrations are between those of potassic basalts and Wuchagou HMAs. The Xunke HMAs have relatively enriched Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes (87Sr/86Sr = 0.705398-0.705764, ɛNd=-8.8-3.8, ɛHf=0.5-11.7), and low radiogenic Pb isotopes (206Pb/204Pb = 16.701-17.198), towards to the EM1 end-member, which indicates that they are ultimately derived from ancient, recycled crustal components. Primitive silica-rich melts were generated from higher degrees of partial melting of recycled crustal materials (relative to potassic basalts) and then interacted with the peridotite to produce the Xunke HMAs.

  11. Review of cenozoic ooidal ironstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houten, Franklyn B.

    1992-06-01

    Cenozoic (Tertiary) ooidal ironstones (COI) in 20 districts (39 deposits) developed between the equatorial zone and 60° N, except for one Eocene district in mid-southern latitude. Stratigraphic distribution. Paleocene OI occur in northern Pakistan, western Siberia, southern Germany, northwestern Venezuela, and northeastern Colombia: Eocene OI in western Siberia, southern Germany, northwestern Romania, central North Africa, central-west Saudi Arabia, southwestern Central Africa, northwestern Venezuela, northeastern Colombia, south-central USA, and northwestern Australia; Oligocene OI in northwest and west-central Kazakhstan, central Denmark, and north-central Iran?; Miocene OI in northwestern Venezuela, northeastern Colombia, and southeastern Malaysia; Pliocene OI in southeastern Ukraine. Geotectonic framework. Ten districts developed in an interior or fractured craton: five along the south-trending Uralian Seaway, and one along the east-trending Northern European Seaway, the south-trending Trans-Saharan Seaway, in or near an early Red Sea embayment, in southeastern Malaysia, and in northwestern Australia. Ten districts lay near a eratonic margin: one along divergent margin and nine along the broad east-trending Caribbean and Tethyan seaways. Almost all COI accumulated during the Paleogene relatively high stand of sea level, especially in Early and Middle Eocene time. As sea level fell gradually in Neogene time COI developed in only three marginal districts (including the giant Pliocene Kerch-Taman deposit in southeastern Ukraine). Sedimentary environment. Almost all of the COI developed in deltaic to shallow marine facies. These are commonly associated with shoaling-upward siliciclastic sequences; a few are in mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sequences. A few COI apparently occurred in fluvial and lacustrine facies; some of these may have been reworked from laterite or from marine ironstones. Sedimentary petrology. Many COI are less than a few tens of centimeters

  12. Cenozoic tectonic jumping and implications for hydrocarbon accumulation in basins in the East Asia Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Yanhui; Li, Sanzhong; Yu, Shan; Somerville, Ian D.; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Shujuan; Dai, Liming

    2014-07-01

    Tectonic migration is a common geological process of basin formation and evolution. However, little is known about tectonic migration in the western Pacific margins. This paper focuses on the representative Cenozoic basins of East China and its surrounding seas in the western Pacific domain to discuss the phenomenon of tectonic jumping in Cenozoic basins, based on structural data from the Bohai Bay Basin, the South Yellow Sea Basin, the East China Sea Shelf Basin, and the South China Sea Continental Shelf Basin. The western Pacific active continental margin is the eastern margin of a global convergent system involving the Eurasian Plate, the Pacific Plate, and the Indian Plate. Under the combined effects of the India-Eurasia collision and retrogressive or roll-back subduction of the Pacific Plate, the western Pacific active continental margin had a wide basin-arc-trench system which migrated or ‘jumped’ eastward and further oceanward. This migration and jumping is characterized by progressive eastward younging of faulting, sedimentation, and subsidence within the basins. Owing to the tectonic migration, the geological conditions associated with hydrocarbon and gashydrate accumulation in the Cenozoic basins of East China and its adjacent seas also become progressively younger from west to east, showing eastward younging in the generation time of reservoirs, seals, traps, accumulations and preservation of hydrocarbon and gashydrate. Such a spatio-temporal distribution of Cenozoic hydrocarbon and gashydrate is significant for the oil, gas and gashydrate exploration in the East Asian Continental Margin. Finally, this study discusses the mechanism of Cenozoic intrabasinal and interbasinal tectonic migration in terms of interplate, intraplate and underplating processes. The migration or jumping regimes of three separate or interrelated events: (1) tectonism-magmatism, (2) basin formation, and (3) hydrocarbon-gashydrate accumulation are the combined effects of the

  13. Review of the upper Cenozoic stratigraphy overlying the Columbia River Basalt Group in western Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strowd, W.B.

    1980-12-01

    This report is a synthesis of information currently available on the rocks that stratigraphically overlie the Columbia River Basalt Group in Idaho. The primary objective is to furnish a brief but comprehensive review of the literature available on upper Cenozoic rocks in western Idaho and to discuss their general stratigraphic relationships. This study also reviews the derivation of the present stratigraphy and notes weaknesses in our present understanding of the geology and the stratigraphy. This report was prepared in support of a study to evaluate the feasibility of nuclear waste storage in the Columbia River Basalt Group of the Pasco Basin, Washington

  14. Magmatic Complexes of the Vetlovaya Marginal Sea Paleobasin (Kamchatka): Composition and Geodynamic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukanov, N. V.; Saveliev, D. P.; Kovalenko, D. V.

    2018-01-01

    This study presents new geochemical and isotope data on igneous rocks of the Vetlovaya marginal sea paleobasin (part of the Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic margin of the northwestern Pacific). The results show that the rock complexes of this marginal sea basin comprise igneous rocks with geochemical compositions similar to those of normal oceanic tholeiites, enriched transitional tholeiites, and ocean island and back-arc basin basalts. Island-arc tholeiitic basalts are present only rarely. The specific geochemical signatures of these rocks are interpreted as being related to mantle heterogeneity and the geodynamic conditions in the basin.

  15. Contraints on the cenozoic position of Sundaland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C. McA.; Johnson, B. D.

    1980-03-01

    The Cenozoic ocean-floor path of the continental fragment, Greater India, is overlapped by the present western part of Malaysia and Sumatra which are now part of a coherent continental block, Sundaland. This part of Southeast Asia must consequently have lain further east during the Cenozoic. The past positions of Greater India, combined with published paleomagnetic data indicating that Sundaland has lain near the Equator since the Permian and rotated anticlockwise since the mid-Cretaceous, are used to reconstruct constraints on the relative motions of Sundaland and the Indian—Australian plate in 10 m.y. intervals. We show that the northern part of Sundaland has rotated a minimum of 550 km westward with respect to India in the last 50 m.y. (since Early Eocene) with most of the rotation occurring in the latter half of the Cenozoic. Accepting geological evidence for an even larger Cenozoic sinistral shear between Sundaland and Australia, we construct a model consistent with ocean-floor and paleomagnetic constraints in which Australia and Sundaland made their closest approach between 10 and 20 m.y. ago (Miocene). The S-shape of the Banda Arcs may have formed since mid-Miocene from an initially linear, E-W trending pair of arcs by the interaction of the large sinistral shear between Sundaland and Australia and the collision of the leading edge of Australia with these paired arcs commencing approximately 15 m.y. ago.

  16. Rb-Sr geochronology of neoproterozoic syenites in parts of northern Tamil Nadu: implication on Pan-African magmatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, U.K.; Prasad, R.N.; Krishna, Veena; Paneer Selvam, A.; Chabria, Tikam

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents Rb-Sr whole rock isochron age data on two syenite plutons viz. Elagiri and Rasimalai, and results of this study may constrain the timing of magmatic event and crystal evolution in northern granulite segment

  17. Geology of the Baskil (Elazığ Area and the Petrology of Baskil Magmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jerf ASUTAY

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The study area which covers the region around Baskil on Eastern Taurus Range comprises of Keban metamorphics and Baskil magmatics overlain by a Tertiary sedimentary cover. The Keban metamorphics are represented by regional and contact metamorphic rocks in the study area. Calc schist and marble associations are widespread on the regional scale. Between Baskil granite and Keban metamorphics exomorphism and endomorphism zones have been developed. Metasomatic effects are observed in the contact metamorphic rocks which reflect the pyroxene-hornfels facies. The sedimentary sequence begins with Middle Paleocene (Thanetian aged rocks in the study area. The same sequence, however, has been deposited starting in Santonian-Campanian in the surrounding area. The sedimentary rock sequence which is composed of Kuşçular conglomerate, Seske formation, Kırkgeçit formation (Paleocene-Plio-Quaternary are represented by conglomerate, carbonates and flysch kind of sedimentary rocks. Baskil magmatics are an association of plutonic, hypabyssal and volcanic rocks. Of this association, Baskil granite contains dioritic, monzonitic and tonalitic kind of magmatic rocks which are mostly observed as transitional. Baskil granite, in the study area, is frequently cut across by basic and acidic dykes which locally intrudes between the granite and the basaltic, andesitic rocks overlying the granite and are transitional with the volcanics. Chemically, Baskil granite is of calc-alkaline type. It is rich in silica and alkaline. Trace element distribution is quite regular. Baskil granite which is determined as of type 'I' is generally rich in hornblende but poor in muscovite and biotite. It shows the features of continental margin magmatism and is an example of systematic differentiation. Considering their features and under the light of plate tectonics concept, Baskil magmatics may be said to be a product of continental margin magmatism. They are, presumably, the products of an

  18. The geochemical evolution of syncollisional magmatism and the implications for significant magmatic-hydrothermal lead-zinc mineralization (Gangdese, Tibet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinsheng; Yang, Zhusen; Hou, Zengqian; Liu, Yingchao; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiong; Zhao, Miao; Ma, Wang

    2017-09-01

    In addition to well-known subduction processes, the collision of two continents also generates abundant ore deposits, as in the case of the Tibetan Plateau, which is the youngest and most spectacular collisional belt on Earth. During the building history of the Gangdese magmatic belt, several magmatic flare-up events developed, however, significant magmatic-hydrothermal lead-zinc mineralization dominantly accompanied the magmatism during the syncollisional period ( 65-41 Ma). Based on integrated geochemical and isotopic data, we provide insights into the genesis and evolution of syncollisional magmas, and their implications for significant magmatic-hydrothermal lead-zinc mineralization. The Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of most syncollisional igneous rocks (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7034-0.7123; εNd(t) = - 9.0 to + 1.8) indicate a mixing origin between mantle-derived basaltic magmas and ancient crustal melts, and fractional crystallization is a fundamental mechanism by which syncollisional magmas evolve towards intermediate to silicic compositions. Most lead-zinc mineralization-related plutons are high silica (76.14% wt.% SiO2 on average), high oxygen fugacity (average ΔFMQ + 2.5) granites with highly evolved chemical signatures [average Eun/Eun* = 0.33, high Rb/Sr (average = 3.9)], and they represent the final products from primary magmas. Due to the contribution of ancient crustal melts to the genesis of mineralization-related parent magmas, the spatial distribution of Pb-Zn deposits within the northern Gangdese magmatic belt is controlled by the lithospheric architecture. In compressional environments, magmas have low evacuation efficiency and long magma chamber lifespan, which is favorable for basaltic parents evolved to high silica granites through sufficient fractional crystallization. This scenario contributes to our understanding of the significant magmatic-hydrothermal lead-zinc mineralization that occurred in the syncollisional period.

  19. Geology, geochronology and geodynamic implications of the Cenozoic magmatic province in W and SE Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berhe, S.M.; Desta, B.; Teferra, M.; Nicoletti, M.

    1987-01-01

    New K-Ar dates are presented for areas in W and SE Ethiopia. In the west, the dates distinguish the Geba Basalts of 40 to 32 Ma from the Welega Shield Volcanics which are shown to range from 11.2 + -2.2 to 7.8 + - 1.6 Ma. In SE Ethiopia, the Lower Stratoid flood basalts range from 30 + - 4.5 to 23.5 + - 4.5 Ma and are unconformably overlain by the Reira-Sanete shield volcanics which range from c. 15 to c. 2 Ma. The unconformity is marked by a palaeosol as are several of the intervals between the major volcanic stages of Ethiopia

  20. Geology, geochronology and geodynamic implications of the Cenozoic magmatic province in W and SE Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berhe, S.M.; Desta, B.; Teferra, M.; Nicoletti, M.

    1987-03-01

    New K-Ar dates are presented for areas in W and SE Ethiopia. In the west, the dates distinguish the Geba Basalts of 40 to 32 Ma from the Welega Shield Volcanics which are shown to range from 11.2 + -2.2 to 7.8 + - 1.6 Ma. In SE Ethiopia, the Lower Stratoid flood basalts range from 30 + - 4.5 to 23.5 + - 4.5 Ma and are unconformably overlain by the Reira-Sanete shield volcanics which range from c. 15 to c. 2 Ma. The unconformity is marked by a palaeosol as are several of the intervals between the major volcanic stages of Ethiopia.

  1. Moho and magmatic underplating in continental lithosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina M.

    2013-01-01

    interacts with the surrounding crustal rocks which leads to smearing of geophysical signals from the underplated material. In terms of processes, there is no direct discriminator between the traditional concept of underplated material and lower crustal magmatic intrusions in the form of batholiths and sill......Underplating was originally proposed as the process of magma ponding at the base of the crust and was inferred from petrologic considerations. This process not only may add high density material to the deep crust, but also may contribute low density material to the upper parts of the crust by magma...... fractionation during cooling and solidification in the lower crust. Separation of the low density material from the high-density residue may be a main process of formation of continental crust with its characteristic low average density, also during the early evolution of the Earth. Despite the assumed...

  2. A Palaeoproterozoic tectono-magmatic lull as a potential trigger for the supercontinent cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Christopher J.; Murphy, J. Brendan; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Liu, Yebo; Mitchell, Ross N.

    2018-02-01

    The geologic record exhibits periods of active and quiescent geologic processes, including magmatism, metamorphism and mineralization. This apparent episodicity has been ascribed either to bias in the geologic record or fundamental changes in geodynamic processes. An appraisal of the global geologic record from about 2.3 to 2.2 billion years ago demonstrates a Palaeoproterozoic tectono-magmatic lull. During this lull, global-scale continental magmatism (plume and arc magmatism) and orogenic activity decreased. There was also a lack of passive margin sedimentation and relative plate motions were subdued. A global compilation of mafic igneous rocks demonstrates that this episode of magmatic quiescence was terminated about 2.2 billion years ago by a flare-up of juvenile magmatism. This post-lull magmatic flare-up is distinct from earlier such events, in that the material extracted from the mantle during the flare-up yielded significant amounts of continental material that amalgamated to form Nuna — Earth's first hemispheric supercontinent. We posit that the juvenile magmatic flare-up was caused by the release of significant thermal energy that had accumulated over some time. This flux of mantle-derived energy could have provided a mechanism for dramatic growth of continental crust, as well as the increase in relative plate motions required to complete the transition to modern plate tectonics and the supercontinent cycle. These events may also be linked to Palaeoproterozoic atmospheric oxygenation and equilibration of the carbon cycle.

  3. U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Paleogene - Neogene volcanism in the NW Anatolia: Its implications for the Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the Aegean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, E. Yalçın; Akal, Cüneyt; Genç, Ş. Can; Candan, Osman; Palmer, Martin R.; Prelević, Dejan; Uysal, İbrahim; Mertz-Kraus, Regina

    2017-10-01

    The northern Aegean region was shaped by subduction, obduction, collision, and post-collisional extension processes. Two areas in this region, the Rhodope-Thrace-Biga Peninsula to the west and Armutlu-Almacık-Nallıhan (the Central Sakarya) to the east, are characterized by extensive Eocene to Miocene post-collisional magmatic associations. We suggest that comparison of the Cenozoic magmatic events of these two regions may provide insights into the Late Mesozoic to Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Aegean. With this aim, we present an improved Cenozoic stratigraphy of the Biga Peninsula derived from a new comprehensive set of U-Pb zircon age data obtained from the Eocene to Miocene volcanic units in the region. The compiled radiometric age data show that calc-alkaline volcanic activity occurred at 43-15 Ma in the Biga Peninsula, 43-17 Ma in the Rhodope and Thrace regions, and 53-38 Ma in the Armutlu-Almacık-Nallıhan region, which are slightly overlapping. We discuss the possible cause for the distinct Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the eastern and western parts of the region, and propose that the Rhodope, Thrace and Biga regions in the north Aegean share the same Late Mesozoic to Cenozoic geodynamic evolution, which is consistent with continuous subduction, crustal accretion, southwestward trench migration and accompanying extension; all preceded by the Late Cretaceous - Paleocene collision along the Vardar suture zone. In contrast, the Armutlu-Almacık-Nallıhan region was shaped by slab break-off and related processes following the Late Cretaceous - Paleocene collision along the İzmir-Ankara suture zone. The eastern and western parts of the region are presently separated by a northeast-southwest trending transfer zone that was likely originally present as a transform fault in the subducted Tethys oceanic crust, and demonstrates that the regional geodynamic evolution can be strongly influenced by the geographical distribution of geologic features on the

  4. Meso-cenozoic extensional tectonics and uranium metallogenesis in southeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuehui; Chen Zuyi; Cai Yuqi; Fu Jin; Feng Quanhong; Shi Zuhai

    1998-12-01

    Through a systematic study on Meso-Cenozoic extensional tectonics in Southeast China, the authors point out that there are three major types of extensional tectonics such as taphrogenic thermo-upwelling, and gravitational extensional tectonics. The characteristics of structural forms, combination patterns, movement style and syn-tectonic magmatism of different extensional tectonics are studied. Then according to the known isotope age data of uranium mineralizations in the area, the relations between the process of extensional tectonics and regional uranium metallogenesis, as well as the corresponding relations in space and time between extensional tectonics and uranium deposits of different types are analyzed. In conclusion, the authors suggest that the uranium mineralizations of different types in Southeast China are characterized by an united ore-forming mechanism due to the apparent control of extensional tectonics to the regional uranium metallogenesis

  5. Geochronology, stratigraphy and geochemistry of Cambro-Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian volcanic rocks of the Saxothuringian Zone in NE Bavaria (Germany)—new constraints for Gondwana break up and ocean-island magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhn, Stefan; Koglin, Nikola; Klopf, Lisa; Schüssler, Ulrich; Tragelehn, Harald; Frimmel, Hartwig E.; Zeh, Armin; Brätz, Helene

    2018-01-01

    Stratigraphically well-defined volcanic rocks in Palaeozoic volcano-sedimentary units of the Frankenwald area (Saxothuringian Zone, Variscan Orogen) were sampled for geochemical characterisation and U-Pb zircon dating. The oldest rock suite comprises quartz keratophyre, brecciated keratophyre, quartz keratophyre tuff and basalt, formed in Upper Cambrian to Tremadocian time (c. 497-478 Ma). Basaltic volcanism continued until the Silurian. Quartz keratophyre shows post-collisional calc-alkaline signature, the Ordovician-Silurian basalt has alkaline signature typical of continental rift environments. The combined datasets provide evidence of Cambro-Ordovician bimodal volcanism and successive rifting until the Silurian. This evolution very likely resulted from break-up of the northern Gondwana margin, as recorded in many terranes throughout Europe. The position at the northern Gondwana margin is supported by detrital zircon grains in some tuffs, with typical Gondwana-derived age spectra mostly recording ages of 550-750 Ma and minor age populations of 950-1100 and 1700-2700 Ma. The absence of N-MORB basalt in the Frankenwald area points to a retarded break-off of the Saxothuringian terrane along a continental rift system from Uppermost Cambrian to Middle Silurian time. Geochemical data for a second suite of Upper Devonian basalt provide evidence of emplacement in a hot spot-related ocean-island setting south of the Rheic Ocean. Our results also require partial revision of the lithostratigraphy of the Frankenwald area. The basal volcanic unit of the Randschiefer Formation yielded a Tremadocian age and, therefore, should be attributed to the Vogtendorf Formation. Keratophyre of the Vogtendorf Formation, previously assigned to the Tremadoc, is most likely of Upper Devonian age.

  6. Heterogeneous Cenozoic cooling of central Britain: insights into the complex evolution of the North Atlantic passive margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuszczak, Katarzyna; Persano, Cristina; Stuart, Finlay

    2015-04-01

    The western flank of the North Atlantic passive margin has experienced multiple episodes of rock uplift and denudation during the Cenozoic that have been locally variable in scale. Two regional scale exhumation events have been identified: early Palaeogene and Neogene [see 1 for review]. The former has been identified both onshore and offshore and it appears to be temporally coincident with basaltic magmatism related to the arrival of the proto-Iceland mantle plume beneath thinned continental lithosphere, which may have cause long wavelength, low amplitude dynamic uplift. Quantifying the amount of early Palaeogene exhumation using mineral thermochronometers may be complicated by elevated heat flow. The magnitude and timing of exhumation during the Neogene is even less clear, as is the driving mechanism. Quantifying the amount of early Palaeogene exhumation, determining the precise timing as well as the amount of uplift and erosion in the Neogene, require detailed application of low temperature thermochronometers. Here we present the first multiple low temperature thermochronometer study from S Scotland, N England and N Wales. New apatite fission track (AFT) data are integrated with apatite and zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe and ZHe, respectively) ages to establish regional rock cooling history from 200°C to 30°C. To precisely constrain the early Palaeogene cooling history, and to better define the possible Neogene cooling event, >20 single grain AHe ages have been produced on key samples and modelled using the newly codified HelFrag technique. The new AFT and AHe ages confirm earlier studies that show the Lake District and North Pennines experienced rapid cooling from >120°C in the Palaeogene. The amount of cooling/exhumation gradually decreases northwards into S Scotland and southwards in N Wales; there is no evidence for the rapid Palaeogene event in areas ~70 km from the Lake District centre. Inverse modelling of the AHe and AFT data suggest that the rapid cooling

  7. Elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic geochemistry of Cretaceous to Early Paleogene granites and volcanic rocks in the Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt (Russian Far East): implications for the regional tectonic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pan; Jahn, Bor-ming; Xu, Bei

    2017-09-01

    The Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt in Russian Far East is an important Late Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic accretionary orogen related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate. This belt was generated by successive accretion of terranes made of accretionary prisms, turbidite basins and island arcs to the continental margin of northeastern Asia (represented by the Bureya-Jiamusi-Khanka Block) from Jurassic to Late Cretaceous. In order to study the tectonic and crustal evolution of this orogenic belt, we carried out zircon U-Pb dating, and whole-rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic analyses on granites and volcanic rocks from the Primorye region of southern Sikhote-Alin. Zircon dating revealed three episodes of granitoid emplacement: Permian, Early Cretaceous and Late Cretaceous to Early Paleogene. Felsic volcanic rocks (mainly rhyolite, dacite and ignimbrite) that overlay all tectonostratigraphic terranes were erupted during 80-57 Ma, postdating the accretionary process in the Sikhote-Alin belt. The Cretaceous-Paleogene magmatism represents the most intense tectonothermal event in the Sikhote-Alin belt. Whole-rock major and trace elemental data show arc-like affinity for granitoids and volcanic rocks, indicating that they were likely generated in a supra-subduction setting. Their initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7048 to 0.7114, and εNd(t) values vary from +1.7 to -3.8 (mostly < 0). Thus, the elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic data suggest that the felsic magmas were generated by partial melting of source rocks comprising mantle-derived juvenile component and recycled crustal component. In addition to the occurrence in the Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt, Cretaceous to Early Paleogene magmatic rocks are also widespread in NE China, southern Korean peninsula, Japanese islands and other areas of Russian Far East, particularly along the coastal regions of the Okhotsk and Bering Seas. These rocks constitute an extended magmatic belt along the continental margin of NE Asia. The

  8. Magmatism on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaut, Chloé; Thorey, Clément; Pinel, Virginie

    2016-04-01

    Volcanism on the Moon is dominated by large fissure eruptions of mare basalt and seems to lack large, central vent, shield volcanoes as observed on all the other terrestrial planets. Large shield volcanoes are constructed over millions to several hundreds of millions of years. On the Moon, magmas might not have been buoyant enough to allow for a prolonged activity at the same place over such lengths of time. The lunar crust was indeed formed by flotation of light plagioclase minerals on top of the lunar magma ocean, resulting in a particularly light and relatively thick crust. This low-density crust acted as a barrier for the denser primary mantle melts. This is particularly evident in the fact that subsequent mare basalts erupted primarily within large impact basins where at least part of the crust was removed by the impact process. Thus, the ascent of lunar magmas might have been limited by their reduced buoyancy, leading to storage zone formation deep in the lunar crust. Further magma ascent to shallower depths might have required local or regional tensional stresses. Here, we first review evidences of shallow magmatic intrusions within the lunar crust of the Moon that consist in surface deformations presenting morphologies consistent with models of magma spreading at depth and deforming an overlying elastic layer. We then study the preferential zones of magma storage in the lunar crust as a function of the local and regional state of stress. Evidences of shallow intrusions are often contained within complex impact craters suggesting that the local depression caused by the impact exerted a strong control on magma ascent. The depression is felt over a depth equivalent to the crater radius. Because many of these craters have a radius less than 30km, the minimum crust thickness, this suggests that the magma was already stored in deeper intrusions before ascending at shallower depth. All the evidences for intrusions are also preferentially located in the internal

  9. Basic rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirainen, T.; Gehoer, S.; Iljina, M.; Kaerki, A.; Paakkola, J.; Vuollo, J.

    1992-10-01

    Basic igneous rocks, containing less than 52% SiO 2 , constitute an important part of the Finnish Archaean and Proterozoic crust. In the Archaean crust exist two units which contain the majority of the basic rocks. The Arcaean basic rocks are metavolcanics and situated in the Greenstone Belts of Eastern Finland. They are divided into two units. The greenstones of the lower one are tholeiites, komatiites and basaltic komatiites. The upper consists of bimodal series of volcanics and the basic rocks of which are Fe-tholeiites, basaltic komatiites and komatiites. Proterozoic basic rocks are divided into seven groups according to their ages. The Proterozoic igneous activity started by the volominous basic magmatism 2.44 Ga ago. During this stage formed the layered intrusions and related dykes in the Northern Finland. 2.2 Ga old basic rocks are situated at the margins of Karelian formations. 2.1 Ga aged Fe-tholeiitic magmatic activity is widespread in Eastern and Northern Finland. The basic rocks of 1.97 Ga age group are met within the Karelian Schist Belts as obducted ophiolite complexes but they occur also as tholeiitic diabase dykes cutting the Karelian schists and Archean basement. The intrusions and the volcanics of the 1.9 Ga old basic igneous activity are mostly encountered around the Granitoid Complex of Central Finland. Subjotnian, 1.6 Ga aged tholeiitic diabases are situated around the Rapakivi massifs of Southern Finland, and postjotnian, 1.2 Ga diabases in Western Finland where they form dykes cutting Svecofennian rocks

  10. Zircon Lu-Hf isotope systematics and U-Pb geochronology, whole-rock Sr-Nd isotopes and geochemistry of the early Jurassic Gokcedere pluton, Sakarya Zone-NE Turkey: a magmatic response to roll-back of the Paleo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsli, Orhan; Dokuz, Abdurrahman; Kandemir, Raif

    2017-05-01

    The early Mesozoic was a critical era for the geodynamic evolution of the Sakarya Zone as transition from accretion to collision events in the region. However, its complex evolutionary history is still debated. To address this issue, we present new in situ zircon U-Pb ages and Lu-Hf isotope data, whole-rock Sr-Nd isotopes, and mineral chemistry and geochemistry data of plutonic rocks to better understand the magmatic processes. The Gokcedere pluton is mainly composed of gabbro and gabbroic diorite. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating reveals that the pluton was emplaced in the early Jurassic (177 Ma). These gabbros and gabbroic diorites are characterized by relatively low SiO2 content of 47.09 to 57.15 wt% and high Mg# values varying from 46 to 75. The samples belong to the calc-alkaline series and exhibit a metaluminous I-type character. Moreover, they are slightly enriched in large ion lithophile elements (Rb, Ba, Th and K) and light rare earth elements and depleted in high field strength elements (Nb and Ti). Gabbroic rocks of the pluton have a depleted Sr-Nd isotopic composition, including low initial 87Sr/86Sr ranging from 0.705124 to 0.705599, relatively high ɛ Nd ( t) values varying from 0.1 to 3.5 and single-stage Nd model ages ( T DM1 = 0.65-0.95 Ga). In situ zircon analyses show that the rocks have variable and positive ɛ Hf ( t) values (4.6 to 13.5) and single-stage Hf model ages ( T DM1 = 0.30 to 0.65 Ga). Both the geochemical signature and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic composition of the gabbroic rocks reveal that the magma of the studied rocks was formed by the partial melting of a depleted mantle wedge metasomatized by slab-derived fluids. The influence of slab fluids is mirrored by their trace-element characteristics. Trace-element modeling suggests that the primary magma was generated by a low and variable degree of partial melting ( 5-15%) of a depleted and young lithospheric mantle wedge consisting of phlogopite- and spinel-bearing lherzolite. Heat to melt the

  11. Formation of continental crust by intrusive magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozel, A. B.; Golabek, G. J.; Jain, C.; Tackley, P. J.; Gerya, T.

    2017-09-01

    How were the continents formed in the Earth? No global numerical simulation of our planet ever managed to generate continental material self-consistently. In the present study, we show that the latest developments of the convection code StagYY enable to estimate how to produce the early continents, more than 3 billion years ago. In our models, melting of pyrolitic rocks generates a basaltic melt and leaves behind a depleted solid residue (a harzburgite). The melt generated in the mantle is transported to the surface. Only basaltic rocks melting again can generate continental crust. Should the basaltic melt always reach the open air and cool down? Should the melt be intruded warm in the pre-existing crust? The present study shows that both processes have to be considered to produce continents. Indeed, granitoids can only be created in a tight window of pressure-temperature. If all basalt is quickly cooled by surface volcanism, the lithosphere will be too cold. If all basalt is intruded warm below the crust then the lithosphere will be too warm. The key is to have both volcanism and plutonism (intrusive magmatism) to reach the optimal temperature and form massive volumes of continental material.

  12. Early cenozoic differentiation of polar marine faunas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Alistair Crame

    Full Text Available The widespread assumption that the origin of polar marine faunas is linked to the onset of major global cooling in the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene is being increasingly challenged. The Antarctic fossil record in particular is suggesting that some modern Southern Ocean taxa may have Early Eocene or even Paleocene origins, i.e. well within the Early Cenozoic greenhouse world. A global analysis of one of the largest marine clades at the present day, the Neogastropoda, indicates that not only is there a decrease in the number of species from the tropics to the poles but also a decrease in the evenness of their distribution. A small number of neogastropod families with predominantly generalist trophic strategies at both poles points to the key role of seasonality in structuring the highest latitude marine assemblages. A distinct latitudinal gradient in seasonality is temperature-invariant and would have operated through periods of global warmth such as the Early Cenozoic. To test this concept a second global analysis was undertaken of earliest Cenozoic (Paleocene neogastropods and this does indeed show a certain degree of faunal differentiation at both poles. The Buccinidae, s.l. is especially well developed at this time, and this is a major generalist taxon at the present day. There is an element of asymmetry associated with this development of Paleocene polar faunas in that those in the south are more strongly differentiated than their northern counterparts; this can in turn be linked to the already substantial isolation of the southern high latitudes. The key role of seasonality in the formation of polar marine faunas has implications for contemporary ecosystem structure and stability.

  13. Late Cenozoic structure and stratigraphy of south-central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidel, S.P.; Fecht, K.R.; Lindsey, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    The structural framework of the Columbia Basin began developing before Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) volcanism. Prior to 17.5 Ma, the eastern part of the basin was a relatively stable area, with a basement of Paleozoic and older crystalline rock. The western part was an area of subsidence in which large volumes of sediment and volcanic rocks accumulated. Concurrent with eruption of the CRBG, anticlinal ridges of the Yakima Fold Belt (YFB) were growing under north-south compression. Topographic expression of these features was later masked by the large volume of CRBG basalt flowing west from fissures in the eastern Columbia Basin. The folds continued to develop after cessation of volcanism, leading to as much as 1,000 m of structural relief in the past 10 million years. Post-CRBG evolution of the Columbia Basin is recorded principally in folding and faulting in the YFB and sediments deposited in the basins. The accompanying tectonism resulted in lateral migration of major depositional systems into subsiding structural lows. Although known late Cenozoic faults are on anticlinal ridges, earthquake focal mechanisms and contemporary strain measurements indicate most stress release is occurring in the synclinal areas under north-south compression. There is no obvious correlation between focal mechanisms for earthquakes whose foci are in the CRBG and the location of known faults. High in situ stress values help to explain the occurrence of microseismicity in the Columbia Basin but not the pattern. Microseismicity appears to occur in unaltered fresh basalt. Faulted basalt associated with the YFB is highly brecciated and commonly altered to clay. The high stress, abundance of ground water in confined aquifers of the CRBG, and altered basalt in fault zones suggest that the frontal faults on the anticlinal ridges probably have some aseismic deformation. 85 refs

  14. Stable isotopes as signposts of fluid throughput in Rotokawa and other geothermal fields, and the difficulty of identifying magmatic fingerprints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.; Woldemichael, S.; Auckland Univ.; Browne, P.R.L.; Auckland Univ.

    1994-01-01

    We present a background for water-rock interaction generally, and new data on the Rotokawa geothermal field. The oxygen isotope shift of total rock samples allow the deduction of past flowpaths and total fluid throughput. Estimates of any input true exsolved magmatic water are difficult as the lithosphere can act as an effective isotopic screen. (authors). 1 fig., 6 refs

  15. Cenozoic extensional tectonics of the Western Anatolia Extended Terrane, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cemen, I; Catlos, E J; Gogus, O; Diniz, E; Hancer, M

    2008-01-01

    The Western Anatolia Extended Terrane in Turkey is located on the eastern side of the Aegean Extended Terrane and contains one of the largest metamorphic core complexes in the world, the Menderes massif. It has experienced a series of continental collisions from the Late Cretaceous to the Eocene during the formation of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone. Based our field work and monazite ages, we suggest that the north-directed postcollisional Cenozoic extension in the region is the product of three consecutive stages, triggered by three different mechanisms. The first stage was initiated about 30 Ma ago, in the Oligocene by the Orogenic Collapse the thermally weakened continental crust along the north-dipping Southwest Anatolian shear zone. The shear zone was formed as an extensional simple-shear zone with listric geometry at depth and exhibits predominantly normal-slip along its southwestern end. But, it becomes a high-angle oblique-slip shear zone along its northeastern termination. Evidence for the presence of the shear zone includes (1) the dominant top to the north-northeast shear sense indicators throughout the Menderes massif, such as stretching lineations trending N10E to N30E; and (2) a series of Oligocene extensional basins located adjacent to the shear zone that contain only carbonate and ophiolitic rock fragments, but no high grade metamorphic rock fragments. During this stage, erosion and extensional unroofing brought high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Central Menderes massif to the surface by the early Miocene. The second stage of the extension was triggered by subduction roll-back and associated back-arc extension in the early Miocene and produced the north-dipping Alasehir and the south-dipping Bueyuek Menderes detachments of the central Menderes massif and the north-dipping Simav detachment of the northern Menderes massif. The detachments control the Miocene sedimentation in the Alasehir, Bueyuek Menderes, and Simav grabens, containing high

  16. Petrography and petrology of Quaternary volcanic rocks from Ghezel Ghaleh, northwest Qorveh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Bajelan

    2014-10-01

    disequilibrium textures in the minerals (zoned state, solution and twinning shows a magmatic contamination in mixing volcanic mass. References Aldanmaz, E., Koprubasi, N.O., Gurer, F., Kaymakci, N. and Gournaud, A., 2006. geochemical constraints on the Cenozoic, OIB-type alkaline volcanic rocks of NW Turkey: implications for mantle sources and melting processes. Lithos, 86 (1–2 pp. 50–76. De La Roche, H., Leterrier, J., Grand claude, P. and Marchel, M., 1980. A classification of volcanic and plutonic rocks using R1-R2 diagrams and major elements, it’s relationships with current nomenclature. Chemical Geology, 29(1-4: 183–210. Hirschman, M., 1998. Origin of the transgressive granophyres in the layered series of the Skaergaard intrusion, East Greenland. In: D.J. Geist and C.M. White (Editors.. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 52(1-3: 185–207. Irvine, T.N. and Baragar, W.R.A., 1971. A guide to chemical classification of the common volcanic rocks. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 5(8: 448– 523. Moein Vaziri, H., 1997. The history of magmatism in Iran. Tehran University Press, Tehran, 440 pp. (in Persian Moein Vaziri, H. and Aminsobhani, A., 1985. Study of young volcanic region being involved in –Qorveh- Takab. Tehran University Press, Tehran, 350 pp. (in Persian Pearce, J.A. and Cann, J.R., 1973. Tectonic setting of basaltic volcanic rocks determind using traceelements analysis. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 19(2: 290– 300. Pearce, J.A. and Norry, M.J., 1979. Petrogenetic implications of Ti, Zr, Y and Nb variation in volcanic rocks. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 69(1: 33– 47. Shelley, D. (Translated by Mohamadzadeh, F., 1993. Igneous and metamorphic rocks under the microscope, classification, textures, microstructures and mineral preferred-orientations. Chapman and Hall, Unwin, London, 445 pp.

  17. Magmatism, ash-flow tuffs, and calderas of the ignimbrite flareup in the western Nevada volcanic field, Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher D. Henry,; John, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Sierra Nevada, which was not a barrier to westward flow of ash flows at that time. At least three tuffs flowed eastward across a north-south paleodivide through central Nevada. That tuffs could flow significant distances apparently uphill raises questions about the absolute elevation of the region and the elevation, relief, and location of the paleodivide.Calderas are equant to slightly elongate, at least 12 km in diameter, and as much as 35 km in longest dimension. Exceptional exposure of two caldera complexes that resulted from extensional faulting and tilting show that calderas subsided as much as 5 km as large piston-like blocks; caldera walls were vertical to steeply inward dipping to depths ≥4–5 km, and topographic walls formed by slumping of wall rock into the caldera were only slightly outboard (≤1 km) of structural margins.Most calderas show abundant post-collapse magmatism expressed as resurgent intrusions, ring-fracture intrusions, or intracaldera lavas that are closely related temporally (∼0–0.5 Ma younger) to caldera formation. Granitoid intrusions, which were emplaced at paleodepths ranging from Mountain epithermal gold deposit, few known caldera-related hydrothermal systems are strongly mineralized. Major middle Cenozoic precious and base metal mineral deposits in and along the margins of the western Nevada volcanic field are mostly related to intrusive rocks that preceded caldera-forming eruptions.

  18. Thermochronological Evidence for Cenozoic Segmentation of Transantarctic Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zattin, M.; Pace, D.; Andreucci, B.; Rossetti, F.; Talarico, F.

    2013-12-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) represent the boundary between the cratonic East Antarctica and the West Antarctica and are thus related to formation of the Western Antarctic Rift system (WARS). However, temporal relationships between timing of TAM uplift and evolution of the WARS are not clear. The large amount of existing thermochronological data indicate that exhumation of the TAM occurred at different times and extents, with main cooling events in the Early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous, and early Cenozoic. Uplift of the different segments of the TAM was not recorded according to regular trends along the mountain chain, but instead appears diachronous and without a recognizable spatial pattern. Here we present apatite fission-track (AFT) data from 20 samples, collected from metamorphic and intrusive rocks from the region comprised between the Blue Glacier and the Byrd Glacier. AFT data show a large variety of ages, ranging from 28.0 to 88.8 Ma and without a clear correlation between age and elevation. As a whole, spatial variations suggest a decrease of ages from S to the region of the Koettlitz Glacier, where ages suddenly raise up to Cretaceous values. A marked increase of ages has been detected also south of Darwin Glacier, that is in correspondence of the Britannia Range. Thermal modelling shows that cooling paths are usually composite, with a main cooling event followed by slower cooling to present day temperatures. Time of main cooling event is late Cretaceous for samples from the Britannia Range whereas it is Eocene-Oligocene for samples from Koettlitz and Mulock areas. In any case, cooling rates are always quite low also during periods of enhanced uplift, with values not exceeding 5°C/Ma. These data support the idea of tectonic block segmentation of the TAM during the last phases of exhumation. Most of vertical displacements occurred during the Oligocene across transverse fault zones such as the Discovery Accommodation Zone to the north and the

  19. Petrography, Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of Volcanic Rocks, NW Ghonabad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Zirjanizadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study area is located in NW Gonabad, Razavi Khorasan Province, northern Lut block and eastern Iran north of the Lut Block. Magmatism in NW Gonabad produced plutonic and volcanic rock associations with varying geochemical compositions. These rocks are related to the Cenozoic magmatic rocks in Iran and belong to the Lut Block volcanic–plutonic belt. In this study, petrogenesis of volcanic units in northwest Gonabad was investigated. The volcanic rocks are andesites/trachyandesites, rhyolites, dacites/ rhyodacites and pyroclastics.These rocks show porphyritic, trachytic and embayed textures in phenocrysts with plagioclase, sanidine and quartz (most notably in dacite and rhyolite, hornblende and rare biotite. The most important alteration zones are propylitic, silicification and argillic.Four kaolinite- bearing clay deposits have been located in areas affectedby hydrothermal alteration of Eocene rhyolite, dacite and rhyodacite. Analytical techniques Five samples were analyzed for major elements by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF and six samples were analyzed for trace elements using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS in the Acme Laboratories, Vancouver (Canada.Sr and Nd isotopic compositions were determined for four whole-rock samples at the Laboratório de GeologiaIsotópica da Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal. Results Petrography. The rocks in this area are consist of trachyte, andesite/ trachyandesite, dacite/ rhyodacite, principally as ignimbrites and soft tuff. The textures of phenocrysts are mainly porphyritic, glomerophyric, trachytic and embayed textures in plagioclase, hornblende and biotite. The groundmasses consist of plagioclase and fine-grainedcrystals of hornblende. Plagioclase phenocrysts and microlitesare by far the most abundant textures in andesite - trachyandesites (>25% and in size from 0.01 to 0.1mm. Euhedral to subhedral hornblende phenocrysts areabundant (3-5%and 0.1 to 0

  20. Tracking the multiple-stage exhumation history and magmatic-hydrothermal events of the West Junggar region, NW China: Evidence from 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiyuan; Chen, Wen; Xiao, Wenjiao; Long, Xiaoping; Tao, Ni; Liu, Li-Ping; Yuan, Chao; Sun, Min

    2018-06-01

    To decipher cooling events in the West Junggar region, biotite and K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar, and zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He isotopic analyses of intrusive rocks were carried out. Previous U-Pb data showed that intrusive bodies in the Baogutu area were emplaced at 315-310 Ma. U-Pb and zircon (U-Th)/He dating results (313-241 Ma) suggest that a magmatic-hydrothermal event lasted for 72 Ma in the Baogutu area of the West Junggar region. Early-stage high temperature alteration (900-300 °C) lasted for 6-2 Ma and was followed by prolonged phyllic and argillic alteration lasting 67-63 Ma between 350 and 200 °C. Finally, slower cooling occurred between 200 and 70 °C, accompanied by post-mineralization uplift and erosion. In this study, three main episodes of relatively rapid cooling were distinguished in the West Junggar region, i.e. late Carboniferous-early Permian (307-277 Ma), middle Triassic (241-232 Ma) and early Cretaceous (145-120 Ma). The first rapid cooling during the late Carboniferous-early Permian was possibly associated with the release of magmatic heat. The middle Triassic and early Cretaceous cooling and exhumation are interpreted as a response to collision(s) between the Qiangtang and Kunlun-Qaidam or Lhasa blocks. The Cenozoic India-Eurasia collision, however, may have had little or no effect on modern tectonic reactivation of the West Junggar region.

  1. The magmatism and metamorphism at the Malayer area, Western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadnejad, V.; Valizadeh, M. V.; Esmaeily, D.

    2009-04-01

    The Malayer area is located in the NW-SE aligned Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic belt, western Iran and consists mainly of Mesozoic schists so-called Hamadan Phyllites, Jurassic to Tertiary intrusive rocks and related contact metamorphic aureoles, aplites and pegmatites. The Sanandj-Sirjan Zone is produced by oblique collisional event between Arabian plate and Central Iran microcontinent. Highest level of regional metamorphism in the area is greenschist facies and injection of felsic magmas is caused contact metamorphism. Magmatism is consist of a general northwest trend large felsic to intermediate intrusive bodies. The main trend of structural features i.e. faults, fractures and other structural features is NW-SE. The Malayer granitoid complex is ellipsoid in shape and has NW-SE foliation especially at the corners of the intrusions. Petrography of the magmatic rocks revealed recrystallization of quartz and feldspars, bending of biotite, and aligment of minerals paralle to the main trend of magmatic and metamorphic country rocks. These indicated that intrusion of felsic magma is coincide to the regional metamorphism and is syn-tectoinc. Non-extensive contact metamorphism aureoles and rareness of pegmatite and aplite in the area are interpreted as injection of felsic magmas into the high-strain metamorphic zone. The regional metamorphic rocks mainly consist of meta-sandstone, slate, phyllite, schist. These gray to dark metasedimentary rocks are consist of quartz, muscovite, turmaline, epidote, biotite and chlorite. Sheeted minerals form extended schistosity and study of porphyroblast-matrix relationships shows that injection of granitic magma into the country rocks is syn to post-tectonic. Syn-tectonic indicating porphyroblast growth synchronous with the development of the external fabric. The thermal contact area of the granite can be observed in the contact margin of granite and regional metamorphic rocks, where it produced hornfelses, andalusit-garnet schists and

  2. Cenozoic plant diversity of Yunnan: A review

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    Yongjiang Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yunnan in southwestern China is renowned for its high plant diversity. To understand how this modern botanical richness formed, it is critical to investigate the past biodiversity throughout the geological time. In this review, we present a summary on plant diversity, floristics and climates in the Cenozoic of Yunnan and document their changes, by compiling published palaeobotanical sources. Our review demonstrates that thus far a total of 386 fossil species of ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms belonging to 170 genera within 66 families have been reported from the Cenozoic, particularly the Neogene, of Yunnan. Angiosperms display the highest richness represented by 353 species grouped into 155 genera within 60 families, with Fagaceae, Fabaceae, Lauraceae and Juglandaceae being the most diversified. Most of the families and genera recorded as fossils still occur in Yunnan, but seven genera have disappeared, including Berryophyllum, Cedrelospermum, Cedrus, Palaeocarya, Podocarpium, Sequoia and Wataria. The regional extinction of these genera is commonly referred to an aridification of the dry season associated with Asian monsoon development. Floristic analyses indicate that in the late Miocene, Yunnan had three floristic regions: a northern subtropical floristic region in the northeast, a subtropical floristic region in the east, and a tropical floristic region in the southwest. In the late Pliocene, Yunnan saw two kinds of floristic regions: a subalpine floristic region in the northwest, and two subtropical floristic regions separately in the southwest and the eastern center. These floristic concepts are verified by results from our areal type analyses which suggest that in the Miocene southwestern Yunnan supported the most Pantropic elements, while in the Pliocene southwestern Yunnan had abundant Tropical Asia (Indo–Malaysia type and East Asia and North America disjunct type that were absent from northwestern Yunnan. From the late Miocene to

  3. Identification of igneous rocks in a superimposed basin through integrated interpretation dominantly based on magnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, S.

    2017-12-01

    Identification of igneous rocks in the basin environment is of great significance to the exploration for hydrocarbon reservoirs hosted in igneous rocks. Magnetic methods are often used to alleviate the difficulties faced by seismic imaging in basins with thick cover and complicated superimposed structures. We present a case study on identification of igneous rocks in a superimposed basin through integrated interpretation based on magnetic and other geophysical data sets. The study area is located in the deepest depression with sedimentary cover of 14,000 m in Huanghua basin, which is a Cenozoic basin superimposed on a residual pre-Cenozoic basin above the North China craton. Cenozoic and Mesozoic igneous rocks that are dominantly intermediate-basic volcanic and intrusive rocks are widespread at depth in the basin. Drilling and seismic data reveal some volcanic units and intrusive rocks in Cenozoic stratum at depths of about 4,000 m. The question remains to identify the lateral extent of igneous rocks in large depth and adjacent areas. In order to tackle the difficulties for interpretation of magnetic data arisen from weak magnetic anomaly and remanent magnetization of igneous rocks buried deep in the superimposed basin, we use the preferential continuation approach to extract the anomaly and magnetic amplitude inversion to image the 3D magnetic units. The resultant distribution of effective susceptibility not only correlates well with the locations of Cenozoic igneous rocks known previously through drilling and seismic imaging, but also identifies the larger scale distribution of Mesozoic igneous rocks at greater depth in the west of the basin. The integrated interpretation results dominantly based on magnetic data shows that the above strategy is effective for identification of igneous rocks deep buried in the superimposed basin. Keywords: Identification of igneous rocks; Superimposed basin; Magnetic data

  4. Beating the Heat: Magmatism in the Low-Temperature Thermochronologic Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K. E.; Reiners, P. W.; Braun, J.; Karlstrom, L.; Morriss, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    The low-temperature thermochronology community was quick to recognize upper-crustal complexities in the geotherm that reflect landscape evolution, but the complex effects of crustal magmatism on thermochronometers can be difficult to independently document and remain underexplored. Because magmatism is common in many regions central to our understanding of tectonics, this is a significant gap in our ability to robustly interpret rock cooling. Here, we use several different numerical approaches to examine how local and regional crustal magmatism affects cooling age patterns and present examples from the western US that demonstrate the importance—and utility—of considering these effects. We modified the finite-element code Pecube to calculate how thermochronometers document the emplacement of simple hot bodies at different crustal levels. Results demonstrate the potential for mid-crustal plutons, emplaced at 10-15 km depth, to reset cooling ages in the overlying rocks at partial-retention depths at the time of magmatism. Permo-Triassic sandstones from the Colorado Plateau's Canyonlands region have apatite cooling ages that exemplify the resulting ambiguity: Oligocene rock cooling can be attributed to either 1 km of erosion or relaxation of a geothermal gradient transiently doubled by mid-crustal magmatism. Despite these complexities, there are compelling reasons to target rocks with magmatic histories. Shallowly emplaced plutons can usefully reset cooling ages in country rocks with protracted near-surface histories, as we have demonstrated in the Colorado Plateau's Henry Mountains. Cooling age patterns are also useful for quantifying magmatic processes themselves. In an ongoing project, we use the pattern of thermochronometer resetting around individual dikes that fed the Columbia River flood basalts, which are exposed in the Wallowa Mountains, to identify long-lived feeder dikes and model their thermal aureoles to further constrain eruptive dynamics. The pattern

  5. The Interplay Between Saline Fluid Flow and Dynamic Permeability in Magmatic-Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, P.

    2014-12-01

    Magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits document the interplay between saline fluid flow and rock permeability. Numerical simulations of multi-phase flow of variably miscible, compressible H20-NaCl fluids in concert with a dynamic permeability model can reproduce characteristics of porphyry copper and epithermal gold systems. This dynamic permeability model incorporates depth-dependent permeability profiles characteristic for tectonically active crust as well as pressure- and temperature-dependent relationships describing hydraulic fracturing and the transition from brittle to ductile rock behavior. In response to focused expulsion of magmatic fluids from a crystallizing upper crustal magma chamber, the hydrothermal system self-organizes into a hydrological divide, separating an inner part dominated by ascending magmatic fluids under near-lithostatic pressures from a surrounding outer part dominated by convection of colder meteoric fluids under near-hydrostatic pressures. This hydrological divide also provides a mechanism to transport magmatic salt through the crust, and prevents the hydrothermal system to become "clogged" by precipitation of solid halite due to depressurization of saline, high-temperature magmatic fluids. The same physical processes at similar permeability ranges, crustal depths and flow rates are relevant for a number of active systems, including geothermal resources and excess degassing at volcanos. The simulations further suggest that the described mechanism can separate the base of free convection in high-enthalpy geothermal systems from the magma chamber as a driving heat source by several kilometers in the vertical direction in tectonic settings with hydrous magmatism. This hydrology would be in contrast to settings with anhydrous magmatism, where the base of the geothermal systems may be closer to the magma chamber.

  6. Cenozoic deformation from the Yakutat-North American collision to the eastern margin of the Northern Canadian Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkelmann, E.

    2017-12-01

    The western margin of the Northern Cordillera of North America is dominated by transform motion of the Yakutat microplate along the Fairweather fault system. In southeast Alaska the transform boundary changes to convergence and the oblique collision of the buoyant Yakutat microplate formed the St. Elias Mountains. One of the outstanding questions in understanding the St. Elias orogeny is how stress from the plate boundary has been transferred inboard and distributed strain in the North American plate. The timing, amount, and spatial pattern of deformation and rock exhumation have been studied using multiple thermochronology methods. Together the data reveal that Late Cenozoic deformation inboard of the Fairweather Fault and the colliding Yakutat plate corner at the St. Elias syntaxis was spatially very limited, resulting in rock exhumation within a cooling associated with Cordilleran deformation, and Paleocene-Eocene cooling due to spreading-ridge subduction. In contrast, the region west of the St. Elias syntaxis is dominated by convergence, which resulted in significant Cenozoic deformation in southeastern and southern Alaska. In the St. Elias orogen itself, most of the Late Cenozoic deformation and exhumation occurs within the Yakutat microplate and its Cenozoic sedimentary cover that composes the fold-thrust belt. The efficient interaction between tectonic uplift and glacial erosion resulted in rapid exhumation (>1 km/Myr) and extreme rates (4 km/Myr) that are localized at the syntaxis region and have shifted southward over the past 10 Myr. Far-field deformation reaches more than 500 km to the northwest of the convergent margin and caused mountain building in south-central Alaska. Deformation to the northeast is unclear. New thermochronology data from the eastern margin of the Northern Canadian Cordillera (Northwest Territory) reveal exhumation during the Oligocene to early Miocene. At this time, transform motion was already dominating the plate margin in the

  7. Sediment underthrusting within a continental magmatic arc: Coast Mountains batholith, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, David M.; MacLeod, Douglas R.; Ducea, Mihai N.; Gehrels, George E.; Jonathan Patchett, P.

    2017-10-01

    Though continental magmatic arcs are factories for new continental crust, a significant proportion of continental arc magmas are recycled from supracrustal material. To evaluate the relative contributions of retroarc underthrusting and trench side partial sediment subduction for introducing supracrustal rocks to the middle and lower crust of continental magmatic arcs, we present results from the deeply exposed country rocks of the Coast Mountains batholith of western British Columbia. Prior work demonstrates that these rocks underwent widespread partial melting that contributed to the Coast Mountains batholith. We utilize U-Pb zircon geochronology, Sm-Nd thermochronology, and field-based studies to document the protoliths and early burial history of amphibolite and granulite-facies metasedimentary rocks in the Central Gneiss Complex. U-Pb detrital zircon data from the structurally highest sample localities yielded 190 Ma unimodal age peaks and suggest that retroarc rocks of the Stikine terrane constitute a substantial portion of the Central Gneiss Complex. These supracrustal rocks underwent thrust-related burial and metamorphism at >25 km depths prior to 80 Ma. These rocks may also be underlain at the deepest exposed structural levels by Upper Cretaceous metasedimentary rocks, which may have been emplaced as a result of trench side underplating or intraarc burial. These results further our understanding of the mechanisms of material transport within the continental lithosphere along Cordilleran subduction margins.

  8. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes of the post-paleozoic magmatism from eastern Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comin-Chiaramonti, P; Gasparon, M; Gomes, C.B; Antonini, P

    2001-01-01

    The Parana Angola-Namibia igneous province (PAN) is characterized by Early Cretaceous flood tholeiites and tholeiitic dyke swarms associated with alkaline rocks of Early and Late Cretaceous ages, respectively, and with scarce post-Mesozoic magmatic rocks (Comin-Chiaramonti et al., 1997; 1999; Marques et al., 1999). The Eastern Paraguay, at the westernmost side of the Parana Basin, is of special interest because: (1) it is located between two main cratonic blocks, i.e. the southernmost tip of the Amazon Craton, and the northermost exposure of the Rio de La Plata Craton; (2) it was the site of repeated Na-K-alkaline magmatism since Late-Permian-Triassic times (i.e.: 250-240 Ma, Na-alkaline; c. 145 Ma, K-alkaline; 128-126 Ma, K-alkaline; 120-90 Ma, Na-alkaline; 61-33 Ma, Na-alkaline; cf. Comin-Chiaramonti and Gomes, 1996; Comin-Chiaramonti et al., 1999), and of Early Cretaceous tholeiitic magmatism, both low- and high-Ti variants, L-Ti and H-Ti, respectively (133-131 Ma; cf. Marzoli et al., 1999); (3) the younger sodic magmatic rocks are closely associated in space to the potassic analogues (Comin- Chiaramonti et al., 1999). The paper aims discussing the most important Sr- Nd-Pb isotope features of the alkaline and tholeiitic magmas from Eastern Paraguay in comparison with the PAN analogues (au)

  9. Duration of Parana magmatism and implications for the evolution and source regions of continental flood basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantovani, M.S.M.; Stewart, K.; Turner, S.; Hawkesworth, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Duration of Continental Floods Basalts magmatism has generally been considered to be extremely short. Ar-Ar data for different magma type, over a broad region within Parana, demonstrate a duration of 10 Ma, an order of magnitude greater than the usually accepted duration of magmatism. The dating method included rigorous geochemical selection tests, to discard altered samples, combined with the analysis of laser spot technique using the isochron approach. This methodology allows discrimination between rocks which yield precise ages and those which are too altered or heterogeneous. The agreement between the determined age and the relative stratigraphic position of samples supports the above statement. 4 figs

  10. Duration of Parana magmatism and implications for the evolution and source regions of continental flood basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantovani, M.S.M. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Astronomico e Geofisico; Stewart, K.; Turner, S.; Hawkesworth, C.J. [Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Duration of Continental Floods Basalts magmatism has generally been considered to be extremely short. Ar-Ar data for different magma type, over a broad region within Parana, demonstrate a duration of 10 Ma, an order of magnitude greater than the usually accepted duration of magmatism. The dating method included rigorous geochemical selection tests, to discard altered samples, combined with the analysis of laser spot technique using the isochron approach. This methodology allows discrimination between rocks which yield precise ages and those which are too altered or heterogeneous. The agreement between the determined age and the relative stratigraphic position of samples supports the above statement. 4 figs.

  11. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Myanmar (Burma) is richly endowed in precious and base metals, having one of the most diverse collections of natural resources in SE Asia. Its geological history is dominated by the staged closing of Tethys and the suturing of Gondwana-derived continental fragments onto the South China craton during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. The country is located at a crucial geologic juncture where the main convergent Tethyan collision zone swings south around the Namche Barwa Eastern Himalayan syntaxis. However, despite recent work, the geological and geodynamic history of Myanmar remains enigmatic. Plate margin processes, magmatism, metasomatism and the genesis of mineral deposits are intricately linked, and there has long been recognized a relationship between the distribution of certain mineral deposit types, and the tectonic settings which favour their genesis. A better knowledge of the regional tectonic evolution of a potential exploration jurisdiction is therefore crucial to understanding its minerals prospectivity. This strong association between tectonics and mineralization can equally be applied in reverse. By mapping out the spatial, and temporal, distribution of presumed co-genetic mineral deposits, coupled with an understanding of their collective metallogenetic origin, a better appreciation of the tectonic evolution of a terrane may be elucidated. Identification and categorization of metallotects within a geodynamically-evolving terrane thus provides a complimentary tool to other methodologies (e.g. geochemical, geochronological, structural, geophysical, stratigraphical), for determining the tectonic history and inferred geodynamic setting of that terrane through time. Myanmar is one such study area where this approach can be undertaken. Here are found two near-parallel magmatic belts, which together contain a significant proportion of that country's mineral wealth of tin, tungsten, copper, gold and silver. Although only a few 100 km's apart, these belts exhibit a

  12. Devonian alkaline magmatic belt along the northern margin of the North China Block: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Qi; Zhang, Shuan-Hong; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Jian-Min

    2018-03-01

    Some Devonian magmatic rocks have been identified from the northern margin of the North China Block (NCB) in recent years. However, their petrogenesis and tectonic setting are still highly controversial. Here we present new geochronological, Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic and whole-rock chemical data on several newly identified and previously reported Devonian alkaline complexes, including mafic-ultramafic rocks (pyroxenites and gabbros), alkaline rocks (syenites, monzonites) and alkaline granites in the northern NCB. We firstly identified some mafic-ultramafic rocks coeval with monzonite and quartz monzonite in the Sandaogou and Wulanhada alkaline intrusions. New zircon U-Pb dating of 16 samples from the Baicaigou, Gaojiacun, Sandaogou, Wulanhada and Chifeng alkaline intrusions combined with previous geochronological results indicate that the Devonian alkaline rocks emplaced during the early-middle Devonian at around 400-380 Ma and constitute an E-W-trending alkaline magmatic belt that extend ca. 900 km long along the northern margin of the NCB. Whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data reveal that the Devonian alkaline rocks were mainly originated from partial melting of a variably enriched lithospheric mantle with different involvement of ancient lower crustal component and fractional crystallization. The Devonian alkaline magmatic belt rocks in the northern NCB are characterized by very weak or no deformations and were most likely related to post-collision extension after arc-continent collision between the Bainaimiao island arc and the northern margin of North China Craton during the latest Silurian. Partial melting of subcontinental lithospheric mantle to produce the Devonian alkaline magmatic rocks suggests that the northern North China Craton has an inhomogeneous, variably enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle and was characterized by significant vertical crustal growth during the Devonian period.

  13. Cenozoic evolution of the Vietnamese coastal margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fyhn, M.B.W.; Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Boldreel, L.O. (Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (DK))

    2007-10-15

    One of the main risk factors regarding petroleum exploration in the Vietnamese offshore basins is the presence of adequate source rock intervals. Onshore data from the ENRECA-1 core through the Song Ba Trough in central Vietnam show, however, that thick intervals of excellent oil- and gas-prone lacustrine mudstone and humic coals may develop even in small basins characterised by high sediment input. Although the Song Ba Trough is an order of magnitude smaller than the Vietnamese offshore basins, seismic data in the latter show apparent depositional similarities suggesting the presence of similar high-quality source rocks in the offshore basins. In addition, seismic facies analysis as well as oil and gas compositions indicate that other source rock types, such as Neogene fluvio-deltaic coals, carbonaceous shales and fore-reef marls are present in some of the basins and thus testify to the great petroleum potential of the Vietnamese margin. (LN)

  14. Cenozoic planktonic marine diatom diversity and correlation to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, David; Barron, John; Renaudie, Johan; Diver, Patrick; Türke, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Marine planktonic diatoms export carbon to the deep ocean, playing a key role in the global carbon cycle. Although commonly thought to have diversified over the Cenozoic as global oceans cooled, only two conflicting quantitative reconstructions exist, both from the Neptune deep-sea microfossil occurrences database. Total diversity shows Cenozoic increase but is sample size biased; conventional subsampling shows little net change. We calculate diversity from a separately compiled new diatom species range catalog, and recalculate Neptune subsampled-in-bin diversity using new methods to correct for increasing Cenozoic geographic endemism and decreasing Cenozoic evenness. We find coherent, substantial Cenozoic diversification in both datasets. Many living cold water species, including species important for export productivity, originate only in the latest Miocene or younger. We make a first quantitative comparison of diatom diversity to the global Cenozoic benthic ∂18O (climate) and carbon cycle records (∂13C, and 20-0 Ma pCO2). Warmer climates are strongly correlated with lower diatom diversity (raw: rho = .92, p2 were only moderately higher than today. Diversity is strongly correlated to both ∂13C and pCO2 over the last 15 my (for both: r>.9, detrended r>.6, all p<.001), but only weakly over the earlier Cenozoic, suggesting increasingly strong linkage of diatom and climate evolution in the Neogene. Our results suggest that many living marine planktonic diatom species may be at risk of extinction in future warm oceans, with an unknown but potentially substantial negative impact on the ocean biologic pump and oceanic carbon sequestration. We cannot however extrapolate our my-scale correlations with generic climate proxies to anthropogenic time-scales of warming without additional species-specific information on proximate ecologic controls.

  15. Cenozoic planktonic marine diatom diversity and correlation to climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lazarus

    Full Text Available Marine planktonic diatoms export carbon to the deep ocean, playing a key role in the global carbon cycle. Although commonly thought to have diversified over the Cenozoic as global oceans cooled, only two conflicting quantitative reconstructions exist, both from the Neptune deep-sea microfossil occurrences database. Total diversity shows Cenozoic increase but is sample size biased; conventional subsampling shows little net change. We calculate diversity from a separately compiled new diatom species range catalog, and recalculate Neptune subsampled-in-bin diversity using new methods to correct for increasing Cenozoic geographic endemism and decreasing Cenozoic evenness. We find coherent, substantial Cenozoic diversification in both datasets. Many living cold water species, including species important for export productivity, originate only in the latest Miocene or younger. We make a first quantitative comparison of diatom diversity to the global Cenozoic benthic ∂(18O (climate and carbon cycle records (∂(13C, and 20-0 Ma pCO2. Warmer climates are strongly correlated with lower diatom diversity (raw: rho = .92, p.9, detrended r>.6, all p<.001, but only weakly over the earlier Cenozoic, suggesting increasingly strong linkage of diatom and climate evolution in the Neogene. Our results suggest that many living marine planktonic diatom species may be at risk of extinction in future warm oceans, with an unknown but potentially substantial negative impact on the ocean biologic pump and oceanic carbon sequestration. We cannot however extrapolate our my-scale correlations with generic climate proxies to anthropogenic time-scales of warming without additional species-specific information on proximate ecologic controls.

  16. Red-Sea rift magmatism near Al Lith, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    A newly recognized Tertiary dike complex and comagmatic volcanic rocks exposed on the central Saudi Arabian coastal plain record early stages of magmatism related to Red Sea rifting. Intrusive and stratigraphic relationships, and new potassium-argon dating indicate episodic magmatism from about 30 Ma to the present. Additional stratigraphic and radiometric evidence suggests that limited rift-related magmatism may have began as early as about 50 Ma ago. An early phase of crustal extension in the region was accompanied by faulting and graben formation and by dike-swarm intrusion. The style of extension and intrusion changed approximately 20 Ma ago. Localized volcanism and sheeted dike injection ceased and were replaced by the intrusion of thick gabbro dikes. This change may mark the onset of sea-floor spreading in the central Red Sea.

  17. Pluton emplacement and magmatic arc construction: A model from the Patagonian batholith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Robert; Nelson, Eric; Weaver, Stephen

    1988-01-01

    A model of batholithic construction in Andean arcs and its applicability to possibly similar environments in the past is described. Age and compositional data from the Patagonian batholith of southern Chile show a long history of magmatism in any given area (total age range is 15 to 157 Ma), but different regions appear to have different magmatic starting ages. Furthermore, mafic rocks seem to be the oldest components of any given region. An assembly line model involving semicontinuous magmatism and uplift was outlined, which has implications for other terranes: uplift rates will be proportional to observed ranges in age, and total uplift will be proportional to the age of the oldest pluton in any given area. It is suggested that misleading results would be obtained if only small areas of similar terranes in the Archean were available for study.

  18. Geodynamic setting of mesozoic magmatism and its relationship to uranium metallogenesis in southeastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Peirong

    2004-01-01

    In the southeastern China, magmatism was developed quite intensely in Mesozoic forming a large quantity of rare and nonferrous metal deposits. The Indosinian orogenic movement ( Early Mesozoic) and the Yanshanian movement (Late Mesozoic) provided the dynamic force for magmatism and metallogenesis in this region. The intra-plate extension was induced by the Indosinian orogenic movement in South China continent under a regionally compressional framework to form Indosinian granites. The Yanshanian movement was a post-orogenic geologic event in relation to the Indosinian orogeny, and characterized by intense lithosphere breaking-up, resulting in large scale magmatic activities and a great amount of mineral resources was formed. The Indosinian granites overprinted by the Yanshanian tectono-magma event were closely related to uranium metallogenesis and were likely a kind of uranium source rock. Therefore, research on the distribution pattern of Indosinian granitoids and factors favorable to uranium ore-formation should be enhanced during prospecting in southern China. (author)

  19. Mg isotope systematics during magmatic processes: Inter-mineral fractionation in mafic to ultramafic Hawaiian xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracke, A.; Tipper, E. T.; Klemme, S.; Bizimis, M.

    2018-04-01

    Observed differences in Mg isotope ratios between bulk magmatic rocks are small, often on a sub per mill level. Inter-mineral differences in the 26Mg/24Mg ratio (expressed as δ26Mg) in plutonic rocks are on a similar scale, and have mostly been attributed to equilibrium isotope fractionation at magmatic temperatures. Here we report Mg isotope data on minerals in spinel peridotite and garnet pyroxenite xenoliths from the rejuvenated stage of volcanism on Oahu and Kauai, Hawaii. The new data are compared to literature data and to theoretical predictions to investigate the processes responsible for inter-mineral Mg isotope fractionation at magmatic temperatures. Theory predicts up to per mill level differences in δ26Mg between olivine and spinel at magmatic temperatures and a general decrease in Δ26Mgolivine-spinel (=δ26Mgolivine - δ26Mgspinel) with increasing temperature, but also with increasing Cr# in spinel. For peridotites with a simple petrogenetic history by melt depletion, where increasing depletion relates to increasing melting temperatures, Δ26Mgolivine-spinel should thus systematically decrease with increasing Cr# in spinel. However, most natural peridotites, including the Hawaiian spinel peridotites investigated in this study, are overprinted by variable extents of melt-rock reaction, which disturb the systematic primary temperature and compositionally related olivine-spinel Mg isotope systematics. Diffusion, subsolidus re-equilibration, or surface alteration may further affect the observed olivine-spinel Mg isotope fractionation in peridotites, making Δ26Mgolivine-spinel in peridotites a difficult-to-apply geothermometer. The available Mg isotope data on clinopyroxene and garnet suggest that this mineral pair is a more promising geothermometer, but its application is restricted to garnet-bearing igneous (garnet pyroxenites) and metamorphic rocks (eclogites). Although the observed δ26Mg variation is on a sub per mill range in bulk magmatic rocks

  20. Application of Clinopyroxene Chemistry to Interpret the Physical Conditions of Ascending Magma, a Case Study of Eocene Volcanic Rocks in the Ghohrud Area (North of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Volcanic rocks with a porphyritic texture have experienced two crystallization stages. The first is slow, resulting in phenocrysts, and the second, which took place at, or near the surface, or during intrusion into a cooler body of rock, result in a groundmass of glass, or fine crystals. The pressure and temperature history of a magma during crystallization is recorded in the chemical composition of the phenocrysts during both stages. These phenocrysts provide valuable data about the physicochemical conditions of the parent magma during the process of crystallization. The composition of clinopyroxene (cpx reflects not only the chemical condition and therefore the magmatic series, but also the physical conditions, i.e., temperature and pressure of a magma at the time when clinopyroxene crystallized. The Ghohrud area lies in the middle part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc , which is part of a much larger magmatic province extending in a vast region of convergence between Arabia and Eurasia north of the Zagros-Bitlis suture zone (Dilek et al., 2010. In the Ghohrud area, north of Isfahan, exposed Eocene volcanic rocks belong to the first pulse of Cenozoic volcanism of Iran (Sayari, 2015, ranging in composition from andesitic basalt to basalt. The basaltic rocks of the Ghohrud area are composed mainly of plagioclase phenocrysts surrounded by smaller crystals of clinopyroxene in a groundmass of microlites, glass and opaques. In this study, the clinopyroxene and plagioclase of these rocks were analyzed in order to estimate the physicochemical conditions of the parent magmas. Results Clinopyroxene and plagioclase phenocrysts of nineteen samples were analyzed with the electron microprobe. The chemical compositions of the clinopyroxenes were used to estimate both the chemical evolution and temperature and pressure conditions of the magmas during crystallization, using SCG, a specialized software for clinopyroxene thermobarometry (Sayari

  1. Magmatic systems of large continental igneous provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sharkov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Large igneous provinces (LIPs formed by mantle superplume events have irreversibly changed their composition in the geological evolution of the Earth from high-Mg melts (during Archean and early Paleoproterozoic to Phanerozoic-type geochemically enriched Fe-Ti basalts and picrites at 2.3 Ga. We propose that this upheaval could be related to the change in the source and nature of the mantle superplumes of different generations. The first generation plumes were derived from the depleted mantle, whereas the second generation (thermochemical originated from the core-mantle boundary (CMB. This study mainly focuses on the second (Phanerozoic type of LIPs, as exemplified by the mid-Paleoproterozoic Jatulian–Ludicovian LIP in the Fennoscandian Shield, the Permian–Triassic Siberian LIP, and the late Cenozoic flood basalts of Syria. The latter LIP contains mantle xenoliths represented by green and black series. These xenoliths are fragments of cooled upper margins of the mantle plume heads, above zones of adiabatic melting, and provide information about composition of the plume material and processes in the plume head. Based on the previous studies on the composition of the mantle xenoliths in within-plate basalts around the world, it is inferred that the heads of the mantle (thermochemical plumes are made up of moderately depleted spinel peridotites (mainly lherzolites and geochemically-enriched intergranular fluid/melt. Further, it is presumed that the plume heads intrude the mafic lower crust and reach up to the bottom of the upper crust at depths ∼20 km. The generation of two major types of mantle-derived magmas (alkali and tholeiitic basalts was previously attributed to the processes related to different PT-parameters in the adiabatic melting zone whereas this study relates to the fluid regime in the plume heads. It is also suggested that a newly-formed melt can occur on different sides of a critical plane of silica undersaturation and can

  2. Carbonatite magmatism in northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D.; Mamallan, R.; Dwivedy, K. K.

    The Shillong Plateau of northeast India is identified as an alkaline province in view of the development of several carbonatite complexes e.g. the Sung Valley (Jaintia Hills), Jasra (Karbi-Anglong), Samchampi and Barpung (Mikir Hills) and lamprophyre dyke swarms (Swangkre, Garo-Khasi Hills). On the basis of limited KAr data, magmatic activity appears to have taken place over a protracted period, ranging from the Late Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous. The carbonatite complexes of the Shillong Plateau share several common traits: they are emplaced along rift zones, either within Archaean gneisses or Proterozoic metasediments and granites, and exhibit enrichment in the light rare-earth elements, U, Th, Nb, Zr, Ti, K and Na. The enrichment in incompatible trace elements can best be accounted for if the parental magmas were of alkali basaltic type (e.g. mela-nephelinite or carbonate-rich alkali picrite).

  3. Understanding the Yellowstone magmatic system using 3D geodynamic inverse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaus, B. J. P.; Reuber, G. S.; Popov, A.; Baumann, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Yellowstone magmatic system is one of the largest magmatic systems on Earth. Recent seismic tomography suggest that two distinct magma chambers exist: a shallow, presumably felsic chamber and a deeper much larger, partially molten, chamber above the Moho. Why melt stalls at different depth levels above the Yellowstone plume, whereas dikes cross-cut the whole lithosphere in the nearby Snake River Plane is unclear. Partly this is caused by our incomplete understanding of lithospheric scale melt ascent processes from the upper mantle to the shallow crust, which requires better constraints on the mechanics and material properties of the lithosphere.Here, we employ lithospheric-scale 2D and 3D geodynamic models adapted to Yellowstone to better understand magmatic processes in active arcs. The models have a number of (uncertain) input parameters such as the temperature and viscosity structure of the lithosphere, geometry and melt fraction of the magmatic system, while the melt content and rock densities are obtained by consistent thermodynamic modelling of whole rock data of the Yellowstone stratigraphy. As all of these parameters affect the dynamics of the lithosphere, we use the simulations to derive testable model predictions such as gravity anomalies, surface deformation rates and lithospheric stresses and compare them with observations. We incorporated it within an inversion method and perform 3D geodynamic inverse models of the Yellowstone magmatic system. An adjoint based method is used to derive the key model parameters and the factors that affect the stress field around the Yellowstone plume, locations of enhanced diking and melt accumulations. Results suggest that the plume and the magma chambers are connected with each other and that magma chamber overpressure is required to explain the surface displacement in phases of high activity above the Yellowstone magmatic system.

  4. Physical processes of magmatism and effects on the potential repository: Synthesis of technical work through Fiscal Year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    This chapter summarizes data collection and model calculations through FY 95 under Study Plan 8.3.1.8.1.2 Physical Processes of Magmatism and Effects on the Potential Repository. The focus of this study plan is to gather information that ultimately constrains the consequences of small-volume, basaltic magmatic activity at or near a potential repository. This is then combined with event probability estimates, described elsewhere in this synthesis report, to yield a magmatic risk assessment. Tere are two basic classes of effects of magmatisms that are considered here: (1) Eruptive effects, whereby rising magma intersects a potential repository, entrains radioactive waste, and erupts it onto the earth's surface. (2) Subsurface effects, which includes a wide range of processes such as hydrothermal flow, alteration of mineral assemblages in the potential repository system, and alteration of hydrologic flow properties of the rocks surrounding a potential repository

  5. Physical processes of magmatism and effects on the potential repository: Synthesis of technical work through Fiscal Year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, G.A.

    1996-09-01

    This chapter summarizes data collection and model calculations through FY 95 under Study Plan 8.3.1.8.1.2 Physical Processes of Magmatism and Effects on the Potential Repository. The focus of this study plan is to gather information that ultimately constrains the consequences of small-volume, basaltic magmatic activity at or near a potential repository. This is then combined with event probability estimates, described elsewhere in this synthesis report, to yield a magmatic risk assessment. Tere are two basic classes of effects of magmatisms that are considered here: (1) Eruptive effects, whereby rising magma intersects a potential repository, entrains radioactive waste, and erupts it onto the earth`s surface. (2) Subsurface effects, which includes a wide range of processes such as hydrothermal flow, alteration of mineral assemblages in the potential repository system, and alteration of hydrologic flow properties of the rocks surrounding a potential repository.

  6. Petrological, geochemical, isotopic, and geochronological constraints for the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous magmatism in SW Gondwana (27-32°LS): an example of geodynamic switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, Juan A.; Alasino, Pablo H.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Morales Cámera, Matías M.; Macchioli Grande, Marcos; da Costa Campos Neto, Mario

    2018-04-01

    We report a study integrating 13 new U-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS zircon ages and Hf-isotope data from dated magmatic zircons together with complete petrological and whole-rock geochemistry data for the dated granitic rocks. Sample selection was strongly based on knowledge reported in previous investigations. Latest Devonian-Early Carboniferous granite samples were collected along a transect of 900 km, from the inner continental region (present-day Eastern Sierras Pampeanas) to the magmatic arc (now Western Sierras Pampeanas and Frontal Cordillera). Based on these data together with ca. 100 published whole-rock geochemical analyses we conclude that Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous magmatism at this latitude represents continuous activity (ranging from 322 to 379 Ma) on the pre-Andean margin of SW Gondwana, although important whole-rock and isotopic compositional variations occurred through time and space. Combined whole-rock chemistry and isotope data reveal that peraluminous A-type magmatism started in the intracontinental region during the Late Devonian, with subsequent development of synchronous Carboniferous peraluminous and metaluminous A-type magmatism in the retro-arc region and calc-alkaline magmatism in the western paleomargin. We envisage that magmatic evolution was mainly controlled by episodic fluctuations in the angle of subduction of the oceanic plate (between flat-slab and normal subduction), supporting a geodynamic switching model. Subduction fluctuations were relatively fast (ca. 7 Ma) during the Late Devonian and Early Carboniferous, and the complete magmatic switch-off and switch-on process lasted for 57 Ma. Hf T DM values of zircon (igneous and inherited) from some Carboniferous peraluminous A-type granites in the retro-arc suggest that Gondwana continental lithosphere formed during previous orogenies was partly the source of the Devonian-Carboniferous granitic magmas, thus precluding the generation of the parental magmas from exotic terranes.

  7. Mantle dynamics and Cretaceous magmatism in east-central China: Insight from teleseismic tomograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoming; Zhang, Guibin; Zhao, Dapeng; Lü, Qingtian; Li, Hongyi; Li, Xinfu

    2015-11-01

    Both the rich mineralization in the Lower Yangtze Block (LYB) and the post-collisional mafic rocks in the Dabie Orogen (DBO) are closely related to the Cretaceous magmatism in east-central China. Various geodynamic models have been proposed for explaining the mechanism of the Cretaceous magmatism, but these models are controversial and even contradictory with each other, especially on the mechanism of adakites. A unified geodynamic model is required for explaining the magmatism in east-central China, in particular, the spatial and temporal correlations of magmatic activity in the DBO and that in the LYB. For this purpose, we apply teleseismic tomography to study P-wave velocity structure down to 800 km depth beneath east-central China. A modified multiple-channel cross-correlation method is used to collect 28,805 high-quality P-wave arrival-time data from seismograms of distant earthquakes recorded by permanent seismic stations and our temporary stations in the study region. To remove the influence of crustal heterogeneity on the mantle tomography, we used the CRUST1.0 model to correct the teleseismic relative residuals. Our tomography revealed distinct high-velocity (high-V) anomalies beneath the DBO and two flanks of the LYB, and low-velocity (low-V) anomalies above the high-V zones. Combining our tomographic images with previous geological, geochemical and geophysical results, we infer that these high-V and low-V anomalies reflect the detached lithosphere and upwelling asthenospheric materials, respectively, which are associated with the Late Mesozoic dynamic process and the Cretaceous magmatism. We propose a double-slab subduction model that a ridge subduction yielded the adakitic rocks in the LYB during 150-135 Ma and the subsequent Pacific Plate subduction played a crucial role in not only the formation of igneous rocks in the LYB but also remelting of the subducted South China Block beneath the DBO during 135-101 Ma.

  8. Continental extension, magmatism and elevation; formal relations and rules of thumb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenbruch, A.H.; Morgan, P.

    1990-01-01

    To investigate simplified relations between elevation and the extensional, magmatic and thermal processes that influence lithosphere buoyancy, we assume that the lithosphere floats on an asthenosphere of uniform density and has no flexural strength. A simple graph relating elevation to lithosphere density and thickness provides an overview of expectable conditions around the earth and a simple test for consistancy of continental and oceanic lithosphere models. The mass-balance relations yield simple general rules for estimating elevation changes caused by various tectonic, magmatic and thermal processes without referring to detailed models. The rules are general because they depend principally on buoyancy, which under our assumptions is specified by elevation, a known quantity; they do not generally require a knowledge of lithosphere thickness and density. The elevation of an extended terrain contains important information on its tectonic and magmatic history. In the Great Basin where Cenozoic extension is estimated to be 100%, the present high mean elevation ( ~ 1.75 km) probably requires substantial low-density magmatic contributions to the extending lithosphere. The elevation cannot be reasonably explained solely as the buoyant residue of a very high initial terrane, or of a lithosphere that was initially very thick and subsequently delaminated and heated. Even models with a high initial elevation typically call for 10 km or so of accumulated magmatic material of near-crustal density. To understand the evolution of the Great Basin, it is important to determine whether such intruded material is present; some could replenish the stretching crust by underplating and crustal intrusion and some might reside in the upper mantle. The elevation maintained or approached by an intruded extending lithosphere depends on the ratio B of how fast magma is supplied from the asthenosphere ( b km/Ma) to how fast the lithosphere spreads the magma out by extension (?? Ma-1). For a

  9. Expansion of the granitic post-orogenic magmatism in the formation of Serrinha (Northeastern Bahia, B R), Sao Francisco craton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, Debora Correia; Conceicao, Herbet; Rosa, Maria de Lourdes da Silva; Marinho, Moacyr Moura; Davis, Donaldo Wayne

    2005-01-01

    The Pedra Vermelha Granitic Massif, located at the North area of Serrinha Nucleus, presents a circular shape, being intrusive at the Archaean geoscience-magmatic basement rocks and the Paleoproterozoic volcano sedimentary sequences. The single zircon U-Pb dating yield a crystallization age of 2080 ± 8 Ma. The geological, petrographic al and litogeochemical characteristics of the studied rocks are similar to those of the Morro do Lopes granitic magmatism (2076 ± 6 a 2071 ± 6 Ma), which is located at the South area of this nucleus. These allow us to infer that those post-orogenic alkaline bodies are widespread throughout the Serrinha Nucleus and constitute its last Paleoproterozoic magmatic expression. (author)

  10. Dating emplacement and evolution of the orogenic magmatism in the internal Western Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Alfons; Thomsen, Tonny B.; Ovtcharova, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Canavese Line in the Western Alps represents the position in the Alpine chain, where alkaline and calc-alkaline magmatism occur in close spatial and temporal association. In addition to available data on the alkaline Valle del Cervo Pluton, we present petrological and geochemical data...... on the Miagliano tonalite. The latter is of special interest, because it is located in the south-eastern side of the Canavese Line, in contrast to most Periadriatic Plutons. The dioritic to tonalitic rocks of the Miagliano Pluton represent an intermediate stage of a calc-alkaline differentiation, demonstrated...... by relics of two different pyroxenes as well as the texture of allanite. Hornblende barometry indicates pressures of similar to 0.46 GPa consistent with the presence of magmatic epidote. Field relationships between the two Plutons, the volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Biella Volcanic Suite...

  11. Magmatic development of the outer Vøring Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Asbjorn; Faleide, Jan Inge; Mjelde, Rolf; Flueh, Ernst; Murai, Yoshio

    2013-04-01

    The Vøring Plateau off mid-Norway is a volcanic passive margin, located north of the East Jan Mayen Fracture Zone (EJMFZ). Large volumes of magmatic rocks were emplaced during Early Eocene margin formation. In 2003, an ocean bottom seismometer survey was acquired on the Vøring and Lofoten margins. One profile crosses from the Vøring Plateau to the Vøring Spur, an oceanic plateau north of the EJMFZ. The P-wave data were modeled by ray-tracing in a 2D velocity model of the crust. The process behind the excess magmatism can be estimated by comparing seismic velocity (VP) with igneous thickness (H). This profile and two other profiles farther north show a positive H-VP correlation, consistent with a hot mantle reservoir of finite extent under the margin at breakup. However, during the first two million years, magma production appears to be augmented by a secondary process. By 51-51.5 Ma melting may be caused by elevated mantle temperature alone. Seismic stratigraphy around the Vøring Spur shows at least two inversion events, with the main episode tentatively in the Upper Miocene, apparently through igneous growth to create the up to 15 km crustal thickness. The H-VP correlation of the spur is low, indicating constant and moderate-degree mantle melting not tied to the breakup magmatism. The admittance function between bathymetry and free-air gravity shows that the high is near local isostatic equilibrium, discounting that compressional flexure at the EJMFZ shaped the high. We also find no evidence for the proposed Early Eocene triple junction in the area.

  12. Rock fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S.; Green, S.J.; Hakala, W.W.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Maurer, W.C. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Experts in rock mechanics, mining, excavation, drilling, tunneling and use of underground space met to discuss the relative merits of a wide variety of rock fragmentation schemes. Information is presented on novel rock fracturing techniques; tunneling using electron beams, thermocorer, electric spark drills, water jets, and diamond drills; and rock fracturing research needs for mining and underground construction. (LCL)

  13. Hot subduction: Magmatism along the Hunter Ridge, SW Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, A.J.; Verbeeten, A.; Danyushevsky, L.V.; Sigurdsson, I.A.; Maillet, P.; Monzier, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Hunter 'fracture zone' is generally regarded as a transform plate boundary linking the oppositely dipping Tongan and Vanuatu subduction systems. Dredging along the Hunter Ridge and sampling of its northernmost extent, exposed as the island of Kadavu in Fiji, has yielded a diversity of magmatic suites, including arc tholeiites and high-Ca boninites, high-Mg lavas with some affinities to boninites and some affinities to adakites, and true adakitic lavas associated with remarkable low-Fe, high-Na basalts with 8-16 ppm Nb (herein high-Nb basalts). Lavas which show clear evidence of slab melt involvement in their petrogenesis occur at either end of the Hunter Ridge, whereas the arc tholeiites and high-Ca boninites appear to be restricted to the south central part of the ridge. Mineralogical and whole rock geochemical data for each of these suites are summarized, and a tectono-magmatic model for their genesis and distribution is suggested. Trace element features and radiogenic isotope data for the Hunter Ridge lavas indicate compositions analogue to Pacific MORB-like mantle

  14. Geothermal constraints on Emeishan mantle plume magmatism: paleotemperature reconstruction of the Sichuan Basin, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chuanqing; Hu, Shengbiao; Qiu, Nansheng; Jiang, Qiang; Rao, Song; Liu, Shuai

    2018-01-01

    The Middle-Late Permian Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP) in southwestern China represents a classic example of a mantle plume origin. To constrain the thermal regime of the ELIP and contemporaneous magmatic activity in the northeastern Sichuan Basin, maximum paleotemperature profiles of deep boreholes were reconstructed using vitrinite reflectance (Ro) and apatite fission track data. Two heating patterns were identified: (1) heating of the overlying lithosphere by magma storage regions and/or magmatic activity related to the mantle plume, which resulted in a relatively strong geothermal field and (2) direct heating of country rock by stock or basalt. Borehole Ro data and reconstructed maximum paleotemperature profiles near the ELIP exhibit abrupt tectonothermal unconformities between the Middle and Late Permian. The profiles in the lower subsections (i.e., pre-Middle Permian) exhibited significantly higher gradients than those in the upper subsections. Distal to the basalt province, high paleo-geotemperatures (hereafter, paleotemperatures) were inferred, despite deformation of the paleogeothermal curve due to deep faults and igneous rocks within the boreholes. In contrast, Ro profiles from boreholes without igneous rocks (i.e., Late Permian) contained no break at the unconformity. Paleotemperature gradients of the upper and the lower subsections and erosion at the Middle/Late Permian unconformity revealed variations in the thermal regime. The inferred spatial distribution of the paleothermal regime and the erosion magnitudes record the magmatic and tectonic-thermal response to the Emeishan mantle plume.

  15. Effects of magmatic processes on the potential Yucca Mountain repository: Field and computational studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, G.A.; Groves, K.R.; Gable, C.W.; Perry, F.V.; Crowe, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    Assessing the risk of future magmatic activity at a potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository requires, in addition to event probabilities, some knowledge of the consequences of such activity. Magmatic consequences are divided into an eruptive component, which pertains to the possibility of radioactive waste being erupted onto the surface of Yucca Mountain, and a subsurface component, which occurs whether there is an accompanying eruption or not. The subsurface component pertains to a suite of processes such as hydrothermal activity, changes in country rock properties, and long term alteration of the hydrologic flow field which change the waste isolation system. This paper is the second in a series describing progress on studies of the effects of magmatic activity. We describe initial results of field analog studies at small volume basaltic centers where detailed measurements are being conducted of the amount of wall rock debris that can be erupted as a function of depth in the volcanic plumbing system. Constraints from field evidence of wall rock entrainment mechanisms are also discussed. Evidence is described for a mechanism of producing subhorizontal sills versus subvertical dikes, an issue that is important for assessing subsurface effects. Finally, new modeling techniques, which are being developed in order to capture the three dimensional complexities of real geologic situations in subsurface effects, are described

  16. Magmatism and petroleum exploration in the Brazilian Paleozoic basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomaz Filho, Antonio; Antonioli, Luzia [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Faculdade de Geologia, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, no 524/2030, CEP 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mizusaki, Ana Maria Pimentel [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Geociencias, Avenida Bento Goncalves, no 9500, Campus do Vale, CEP 91509-900, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2008-02-15

    Petroleum exploration in the Paleozoic sedimentary basins of Brazil has proven very challenging for explorationists. Except for the Solimoes Basin, in which transcurrent tectonism formed prospective structural highs, Brazilian Paleozoic basins lack intense structural deformation, and hence the detection and prospecting of place is often difficult. Magmatic intrusive and associated rocks in all these basins have traditionally been considered heat sources and hydrocarbon traps. The role of tholeiitic basic dikes in the generation, migration and accumulation of petroleum in the Anhembi oil occurrence (Sao Paulo State) is discussed herein. It follows that similar geological settings in other Paleozoic basins can be regarded as promising sites for oil accumulation that warrant investigation via modern geological and geophysical methods. (author)

  17. Patterns of Cenozoic sediment flux from western Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gołędowski, Bartosz; Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.

    2012-01-01

    deposits in the North Sea, the post-mid-Miocene Molo and Kai Formations of the Norwegian Shelf, the southern North Sea delta system and large volumes of the Late Pliocene-Holocene Naust Formation. The sediment flux from Scandinavia during the Cenozoic is in general agreement with the detrital flux...

  18. Uranium deposits in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimori, R.K.; Ragland, P.C.; Rogers, J.J.W.; Greenberg, J.K.

    1977-01-01

    This report is a review of published data bearing on the geology and origin of uranium deposits in granitic, pegmatitic and migmatitic rocks with the aim of assisting in the development of predictive criteria for the search for similar deposits in the U.S. Efforts were concentrated on the so-called ''porphyry'' uranium deposits. Two types of uranium deposits are primarily considered: deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in gneiss terrains, and disseminations of uranium in high-level granites. In Chapter 1 of this report, the general data on the distribution of uranium in igneous and metamorphic rocks are reviewed. Chapter 2 contains some comments on the classification of uranium deposits associated with igneous rocks and a summary of the main features of the geology of uranium deposits in granites. General concepts of the behavior of uranium in granites during crustal evolution are reviewed in Chapter 3. Also included is a discussion of the relationship of uranium mineralization in granites to the general evolution of mobile belts, plus the influence of magmatic and post-magmatic processes on the distribution of uranium in igneous rocks and related ore deposits. Chapter 4 relates the results of experimental studies on the crystallization of granites to some of the geologic features of uranium deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in high-grade metamorphic terrains. Potential or favorable areas for igneous uranium deposits in the U.S.A. are delineated in Chapter 5. Data on the geology of specific uranium deposits in granitic rocks are contained in Appendix 1. A compilation of igneous rock formations containing greater than 10 ppM uranium is included in Appendix 2. Appendix 3 is a report on the results of a visit to the Roessing area. Appendix 4 is a report on a field excursion to eastern Canada

  19. Mass Balance of Cenozoic Andes-Amazon Source to Sink System—Marañón Basin, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérôme Calvès

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the mass balance of the Cenozoic Andes-Amazon source to sink system using rock uplift proxies and solid sedimentation of the Marañón Basin in Peru. The evolution of sedimentation rates is calibrated with regional structural restored cross-section. The quantification of eroded sediments from reliefs to sedimentary basin is achieved with ×10 Myr resolution and compared to present day proxies from the HYBAM (HYdrologie et Biogéochimie du Bassin Amazonien Critical Zone Observatory. Erosion of the early Andean landforms started during the Upper Mesozoic period, but sediment rates significantly increase during the Neogene. This is in agreement with the calibrated increase of rock uplift in the Andean orogenic belt.

  20. High-resolution 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of volcanic rocks from the Siebengebirge (Central Germany)—Implications for eruption timescales and petrogenetic evolution of intraplate volcanic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyla, Thomas; Pfänder, Jörg A.; Münker, Carsten; Kolb, Melanie; Becker, Maike; Hamacher, Uli

    2017-11-01

    A key parameter in understanding mantle dynamics beneath continents is the temporal evolution of intraplate volcanism in response to lithospheric thinning and asthenospheric uplift. To contribute to a better understanding of how intraplate volcanic fields evolve through time, we present a high precision 40Ar/39Ar age dataset for volcanic rocks from the Siebengebirge volcanic field (SVF) from central Germany, one of the best studied and compositionally most diverse intraplate volcanic fields of the Cenozoic Central European Volcanic Province (CEVP). Petrological and geochemical investigations suggest that the formation of the different rock types that occur in the SVF can be explained by a combination of assimilation and fractional crystallisation processes, starting from at least two different parental magmas with different levels of silica saturation (alkali basaltic and basanitic), and originating from different mantle sources. These evolved along two differentiation trends to latites and trachytes, and to tephrites and tephriphonolites, respectively. In contrast to their petrogenesis, the temporal evolution of the different SVF suites is poorly constrained. Previous K/Ar ages suggested a time of formation between about 28 and 19 Ma for the mafic rocks, and of about 27 to 24 Ma for the differentiated rocks. Our results confirm at high precision that the differentiated lithologies of both alkaline suites (40Ar/39Ar ages from 25.3 ± 0.2 Ma to 25.9 ± 0.3 Ma) erupted contemporaneously within a very short time period of 0.6 Ma, whereas the eruption of mafic rocks (basanites) lasted at least 8 Ma (40Ar/39Ar ages from 22.2 ± 0.2 Ma to 29.5 ± 0.3 Ma). This implies that felsic magmatism in the central SVF was likely a single event, possibly triggered by an intense phase of rifting, and that ongoing melting and eruption of mostly undifferentiated mafic lavas dominate the > 8 Ma long magmatic history of this region. Among the mafic lavas, most basanites and tephrites

  1. Deformation style of the Mesozoic sedimentary rocks in southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanapayont, Pitsanupong

    2014-10-01

    Mesozoic sedimentary rocks in southern Thailand are widespread from NNE-SSW and N-S in Chumphon and Trang provinces. The Mesozoic stratigraphic units are the marine Triassic Sai Bon Formation and the non-marine Jurassic-Cretaceous Thung Yai Group, the latter subdivided into Khlong Min, Lam Thap, Sam Chom, and Phun Phin Formations. These units overlie Permian carbonate rocks with an angular unconformity, and are overlain unconformably by Cenozoic units and the Quaternary sediments. The Mesozoic rocks have been folded to form two huge first-ordered syncline or synclinoria, the Chumphon and Surat Thani-Krabi-Trang synclinoria. These synclinoria are elongated in NNE-SSW to N-S direction, and incorporate asymmetric lower-order parasitic folds. The folds have moderately to steeply dipping eastward limbs and more gently dipping westward limbs. These folds were transected by brittle fractures in four major directions. These geologic structures indicate WNW-ESE to E-W contraction with top-to-the-east simple shear at some time before the deposition of the Cenozoic sedimentary units. No major deformation has affected the rocks subsequently, apart from the formation of the fault-controlled Cenozoic basins.

  2. Local distribution of uranium in rocks and miner:als as an indicator of its geochemical history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omel'yanenko, B.I.; Kozlova, P.S.; Eliseeva, O.P.; Simonova, L.I.

    1983-01-01

    Uranium behaviour at all stages of magmatic and postmagnetic processes is s tudied. The data obtained ground the orn-generating ability of magmatic melts. The basic tendencies of geohemical uranium history in crystalline rocks are det ermined by the process of its redistribution with a transition from accessory mi nerals to secondary minerals-concentrates

  3. The parent magma of the Nakhla (SNC) meteorite: Reconciliation of composition estimates from magmatic inclusions and element partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1993-01-01

    The composition of the parent magma of the Nakhla meteorite was difficult to determine, because it is accumulate rock, enriched in olivine and augite relative to a basalt magma. A parent magma composition is estimated from electron microprobe area analyses of magmatic inclusions in olivine. This composition is consistent with an independent estimate based on the same inclusions, and with chemical equilibria with the cores of Nakhla's augites. This composition reconciles most of the previous estimates of Nakhla's magma composition, and obviates the need for complex magmatic processes. Inconsistency between this composition and those calculated previously suggests that magma flowed through and crystallized into Nakhla as it cooled.

  4. The parent magma of xenoliths in shergottite EETA79001: Bulk and trace element composition inferred from magmatic inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Lindstrom, David J.; Martinez, Rene R.

    1994-01-01

    The SNC meteorites are samples of the Martian crust, so inferences about their origins and parent magmas are of wide planetologic significance. The EETA79001 shergottite, a basalt, contains xenoliths of pyroxene-olivine cumulate rocks which are possibly related to the ALHA77005 and LEW88516 SNC lherzolites. Olivines in the xenoliths contain magmatic inclusions, relics of magma trapped within the growing crystals. The magmatic inclusions allow a parent magma composition to be retrieved; it is similar to the composition reconstructed from xenolith pyroxenes by element distribution coefficients. The xenolith parent magma is similar but not identical to parent magmas for the shergottite lherzolites.

  5. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  6. The granolites from Tanquinho blok, Bahia - Example of metamorphic and metassomatic evolution in a magmatic sequence, during the Transamazonic cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, S.M.O.

    1980-01-01

    Petrographic and geochemical study of the granulitic rocks from Tanquinho block, in NE of Bahia state, Brazil. The petrographic analysis showed four differents groups of granulitic rocks. This work explains, through the minerals coexistence, through the time of its inclusion in the rocks and by the minerals transformation process, the kind of the rocks facies and the transformation process it was subfected. Through the geochemical observation of the different elements, like Na, Al and K conduct, wich showed be the rock from magmatic origin. The elements observation, like Zr, Ti, Nb and Y, permit classify the rock complex in a sublakaline serie, diversified by the fractional crystallization process. The variable elements conduct - K, Na, Rb and Si, showed the important migration which is perfectly concordant with the petrographic observations. (C.D.G.) [pt

  7. Crustal inheritance and arc magmatism: Magnetotelluric constraints from the Washington Cascades on top-down control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, P.; Peacock, J.; Bowles-martinez, E.; Schultz, A.; Hill, G.

    2017-12-01

    Worldwide, arc volcanism occurs along relatively narrow magmatic arcs, the locations of which are considered to mark the onset of dehydration reactions within the subducting slab. This `bottom-up' approach, in which the location of arc volcanism reflects where fluids and melt are generated, explains first-order differences in trench-to-arc distance and is consistent with known variations in the thermal structure and geometry of subducting slabs. At a finer scale, arc segmentation, magmatic gaps, and anomalous forearc and backarc magmatism are also frequently interpreted in terms of variations in slab geometry, composition, or thermal structure.The role of inherited crustal structure in controlling faulting and deformation is well documented; less well examined is the role of crustal structure in controlling magmatism. While the source distribution of melt and subduction fluids is critical to determining the location of arc magmatism, we argue that crustal structure provides `top-down' control on patterns or seismicity and deformation as well as the channeling and ascent of arc magmas. We present evidence within the Washington Cascades based upon correlation between a new three-dimensional resistivity model, potential-field data, seismicity, and Quaternary volcanism. We image a mid-Tertiary batholith, intruded within an Eocene crustal suture zone, and extending throughout much of the crustal column. This and neighboring plutons are interpreted to channel crustal fluids and melt along their margins within steeply dipping zones of marine to transitional metasedimentary rock. Mount St. Helens is interpreted to be fed by fluids and melt generated further east at greater slab depths, migrating laterally (underplating?) beneath the Spirit Lake batholith, and ascending through metasedimentary rocks within the brittle crust. At a regional scale, we argue that this concealed suture zone controls present-day deformation and seismicity as well as the distribution of forearc

  8. Fires in the Cenozoic: a late flowering of flammable ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Modern flammable ecosystems include tropical and subtropical savannas, steppe grasslands, boreal forests, and temperate sclerophyll shrublands. Despite the apparent fiery nature of much contemporary vegetation, terrestrial fossil evidence would suggest we live in a time of low fire activity relative to the deep past. The inertinite content of coal, fossil charcoal, is strikingly low from the Eocene to the Pleistocene and no charcoalified mesofossils have been reported for the Cenozoic. Marine...

  9. A synthesis of Cenozoic sedimentation in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Rasmussen, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    study provides a regional synthesis of sedimentation based on a comprehensive interpretation of a regionally covering reflection seismic data set. We relate observations of sediment characteristics and unconformities to the geological evolution. The timing, regional expression and stratigraphic...... characteristics of many unconformities indicate that they were generated by eustatic sea-level fall, often in conjunction with other processes. Early Cenozoic unconformities, however, relate to tectonism associated with the opening of the North Atlantic. From observation on a regional scale, we infer...

  10. Late-Cenozoic relief evolution under evolving climate: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Champagnac Jean Daniel; Valla Pierre G.; Herman Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The present review paper is an attempt to summarize quantitative evidence of Late Cenozoic changes in topographic relief. Different meanings of the word "relief" as it is commonly used and detail the metrics used to quantify it. We then specify methodological tools used to quantify relief change (primarily low temperature thermochronometry and terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides) and analyze published evidence for different regions.Our review first shows that relief changes and rates of changes a...

  11. Upper Cretaceous to Pleistocene melilitic volcanic rocks of the Bohemian Massif: Petrology and mineral chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skála, Roman; Ulrych, Jaromír; Krmíček, Lukáš; Fediuk, F.; Balogh, K.; Hegner, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 3 (2015), s. 197-216 ISSN 1335-0552 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * Cenozoic volcanism * isotope geochemistry * melilitic rock * mineralogy * petrology Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.523, year: 2015

  12. Constraints on early Cenozoic underplating-driven uplift and denudation of western Scotland from low temperature thermochronometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persano, Cristina; Barfod, Dan N.; Stuart, Finlay M.; Bishop, Paul

    2007-11-01

    Apatite (U-Th)/He and fission track data from profiles in western Scotland constrain the timing and magnitude of denudation during the early Cenozoic when the north Atlantic region was the site of intense magmatic activity related to the proto-Icelandic plume. Apatite helium ages vary from 77 ± 8 to 265 ± 27 Ma (± 2 σ) at Sgorr Dhonuill, Ballachulish, and from 104 ± 10 Ma to 166 ± 17 Ma at Clisham, Outer Hebrides. At both locations apatite fission track (AFT) ages are older than the corresponding He ages; at Clisham they vary from 189 ± 28 Ma to 242 ± 26 Ma, and from 186 ± 6 Ma to 257 ± 12 Ma at Sgorr Dhonuill. Apatite He ages increase linearly with elevation suggesting that the cooling rate remained constant in the late Mesozoic. However, the apatite He age profile requires a period of rapid cooling after ˜ 100 Ma. Apatite He ages predicted from the AFT-derived thermal histories are indistinguishable from measured He ages for a rapid cooling event of 1 to 10 Myr duration between 61 and 47 Ma at Sgorr Dhonuill and 65 to 49 Ma at Clisham. The combined apatite FT- and He-derived thermal histories constrain the early Cenozoic geothermal gradient at 39 ± 9 °C/km at Sgorr Dhonuill and 19 ± 6 °C/km at Clisham. Amounts of denudation related to the rapid cooling event vary from 1330 ± 230 m at Sgorr Dhonuill to 2250 ± 750 m at Clisham, in agreement with models that predict greater amounts of denudation where magmatic underplating is thicker. However, the direct correlation between underplating-driven surface uplift and denudation may only be apparent and a more complex link between spatial variation of surface uplift and denudation is suggested. The integration of results from multiple low-temperature thermochronometers, combined with inverse and forward modelling, provides a convincing and quantitative method to deduce onshore erosional histories, and provides critical information about the spatial distribution of erosion that cannot be derived from the

  13. 'Escher' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  14. Cretaceous magmatism in North-Eastern India and Gondwanaland ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    jsray

    Cretaceous magmatism of NEI: Major Objectives. • Age and duration of Sylhet Traps and its connection to Kerguelene hotspot and Gondwanaland breakup? • Age of carbonatite magmatism associated with the traps? • Relationship of basaltic-carbonatite magmatism with. Aptian (~116 Ma) Mass Extinction event? • Nature of ...

  15. Modes, tempo and spatial variability of Cenozoic cratonic denudation: morphoclimatic constraints from West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Anicet; Chardon, Dominique

    2010-05-01

    After the onset of Gondwana break-up in the Early Mesozoic, the emerged part of the African plate underwent long Greenhouse effect climatic periods and epeirogeny. The last Greenhouse effect period in the Early Cenozoic and the alternation of wet and dry climatic periods since the Eocene enhanced episodes of rock chemical weathering and laterite production, forming bauxites and ferricretes, interrupted by drier periods of dominantly mechanical denudation, shaping glacis [1]. In Sub-Saharan West Africa, this evolution resulted in pulsate and essentially climatically-forced denudation that has shaped an ubiquitous sequence of five stepped lateritic paleosurfaces that synchronously developed over Cenozoic times. The modes, timing and spatial variability of continental denudation of the region are investigated by combining geomorphologic and geochronological data sets. The geomorphologic data set comprises the altitudinal distribution of the lateritic paleosurfaces relicts and their differential elevation from 42 locations in Sub-Saharan West Africa where the sequence (or part of it) has been documented. The geochronological data set consists in the age ranges of each paleosurface tackled by radiometric 39Ar-40Ar dating of the neoformed oxy-hydroxides (i.e., cryptomelane, K1-2Mn8O16, nH2O, [4]) carried by their laterites at the Tambao reference site, Burkina Faso [1, 3]. Five groups of 39Ar-40Ar ages, ~ 59 - 45 Ma, ~ 29 - 24 Ma, ~ 18 - 11.5 Ma, ~ 7.2 - 5.8 Ma, and ~ 3.4 - 2.9 Ma, characterize periods of chemical weathering whereas the time laps between these groups of ages correspond to episodes of mechanical denudation that reflect physical shaping of the paleosurfaces. For the last 45 Ma, the denudation rate estimates (3 to 8 m Ma-1) are comparable with those derived on shorter time scale (103 to 106 y.) in the same region by the cosmogenic radionuclide method [2]. Combined with the geomorphologic data set, these age ranges allow the visualization of the regional

  16. Multiple episodes of hydrothermal activity and epithermal mineralization in the southwestern Nevada volcanic field and their relations to magmatic activity, volcanism and regional extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, S.I.; Noble, D.C.; Jackson, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Volcanic rocks of middle Miocene age and underlying pre-Mesozoic sedimentary rocks host widely distributed zones of hydrothermal alteration and epithermal precious metal, fluorite and mercury deposits within and peripheral to major volcanic and intrusive centers of the southwestern Nevada volcanic field (SWNVF) in southern Nevada, near the southwestern margin of the Great Basin of the western United States. Radiometric ages indicate that episodes of hydrothermal activity mainly coincided with and closely followed major magmatic pulses during the development of the field and together spanned more than 4.5 m.y. Rocks of the SWNVF consist largely of rhyolitic ash-flow sheets and intercalated silicic lava domes, flows and near-vent pyroclastic deposits erupted between 15.2 and 10 Ma from vent areas in the vicinity of the Timber Mountain calderas, and between about 9.5 and 7 Ma from the outlying Black Mountain and Stonewall Mountain centers. Three magmatic stages can be recognized: the main magmatic stage, Mountain magmatic stage (11.7 to 10.0 Ma), and the late magmatic stage (9.4 to 7.5 Ma)

  17. Magmatism in the brazilian sedimentary basins and the petroleum geology; Magmatismo nas bacias sedimentares brasileiras e sua influencia na geologia do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomaz Filho, Antonio; Antonioli, Luzia [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Geologia]. E-mails: antoniothomaz@globo.com; antonioli@novanet.com.br; Mizusaki, Ana Maria Pimentel [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: ana.mizusaki@ufrgs.br

    2008-06-15

    In the recent years, the researches on the magmatic events that occurred in the Brazilian sedimentary basins had shown the importance of these episodes for the hydrocarbons exploration. The generation (heating), migration (structural and petrographic alterations), accumulation (basalt fractures) and migrations barriers (sills and dykes) of the hydrocarbons, produced for these rocks, are cited in the marginal and intra continental Brazilian basins. The magmatism produce the temperature increase in the sedimentary basin, around its intrusion, and this propitiate the maturation of the organic matter contained in the hydrocarbons generating rocks of the basin. At the same time, has been verified that the contacts dykes/sedimentary rocks can represent important ways for the hydrocarbons migrations. Recent studies have shown that the magmatism, in its extrusive manifestations, can be analyzed in view of the possibility of having acted as effective hydrocarbon seals and, in consequence, making possible the accumulation of hydrocarbons generated in the underlying sediments. The magmatism of predominantly basic to intermediary character is generated in the asthenosphere, that is, below the lithosphere. The dykes that had introduced in the basement of our sedimentary basins are good heat conductors and we can expect the geothermal gradients increase in the overlapped sedimentary deposits. The more detailed study of the magmatic processes in the Brazilian sedimentary basins must lead to new forms of hydrocarbons exploration in our sedimentary basins, also in those basins where the traditional exploration activities have not occasioned the waited expected successes. (author)

  18. Occurrence model for magmatic sulfide-rich nickel-copper-(platinum-group element) deposits related to mafic and ultramafic dike-sill complexes: Chapter I in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Seal, Robert R.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Chandler, Val W.; Mars, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Magmatic sulfide deposits containing nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu), with or without (±) platinum-group elements (PGE), account for approximately 60 percent of the world’s nickel production. Most of the remainder of the Ni production is derived from lateritic deposits, which form by weathering of ultramafic rocks in humid tropical conditions. Magmatic Ni-Cu±PGE sulfide deposits are spatially and genetically related to bodies of mafic and/or ultramafic rocks. The sulfide deposits form when the mantle-derived mafic and/or ultramafic magmas become sulfide-saturated and segregate immiscible sulfide liquid, commonly following interaction with continental crustal rocks.

  19. Quaternary Magmatism in the Cascades - Geologic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes

    2007-01-01

    Foreward The Cascade magmatic arc is a belt of Quaternary volcanoes that extends 1,250 km from Lassen Peak in northern California to Meager Mountain in Canada, above the subduction zone where the Juan de Fuca Plate plunges beneath the North American Plate. This Professional Paper presents a synthesis of the entire volcanic arc, addressing all 2,300 known Quaternary volcanoes, not just the 30 or so visually prominent peaks that comprise the volcanic skyline. Study of Cascade volcanoes goes back to the geological explorers of the late 19th century and the seminal investigations of Howel Williams in the 1920s and 1930s. However, major progress and application of modern scientific methods and instrumentation began only in the 1970s with the advent of systematic geological, geophysical, and geochemical studies of the entire arc. Initial stimulus from the USGS Geothermal Research Program was enhanced by the USGS Volcano Hazards Program following the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. Together, these two USGS Programs have provided more than three decades of stable funding, staffing, and analytical support. This Professional Paper summarizes the resultant USGS data sets and integrates them with the parallel contributions of other investigators. The product is based upon an all-encompassing and definitive geological database, including chemical and isotopic analyses to characterize the rocks and geochronology to provide the critical time constraints. Until now, this massive amount of data has not been summarized, and a systematic and uniform interpretation firmly grounded in geological fact has been lacking. Herein lies the primary utility of this Cascade volume. It not only will be the mandatory starting point for new workers, but also will provide essential geological context to broaden the perspectives of current investigators of specific Cascade volcanoes. Wes Hildreth's insightful understanding of volcanic processes and his uncompromising scientific integrity make him

  20. The evolution of Yellowstone's magmatic system over the past 630 kyr: Insights from the crystal record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelten, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field in northwestern Wyoming is one of the world's largest, active silicic volcanic centers, and has produced three caldera-forming "super eruptions" over the past 2.1 Myr. As a result, the petrologic evolution of Yellowstone's magmatic system has been the focus of numerous studies over the past 60 years. Early studies at Yellowstone focused on characterizing whole-rock chemical and isotopic variations observed in magmas erupted over Yellowstone's lifetime. While these have provided important insights into the source of Yellowstone magmas and the processes controlling their compositional evolution though time, whole-rock studies are limited in their ability to identify the mechanisms and timescales of rhyolite generation. In contrast, much of the recent work at Yellowstone has focused on applying micro-analytical techniques to characterize the age and composition of phenocrysts hosted in Yellowstone rhyolites. These studies have greatly advanced our understanding of the magmatic system at Yellowstone and have provided crucial new insights into the mechanisms and timescales of rhyolite generation. In particular, recent work has focused on applying micro-analytical techniques to study the age and origin of the [1] three caldera-forming eruptions that produced the Huckleberry Ridge, Mesa Falls, Lava Creek tuffs and [2] post-Lava Creek tuff intracaldera rhyolites that compose the Plateau Rhyolite. As a result, a wealth of crystal-chemical data now exists for rhyolites erupted throughout Yellowstone's 2.1 Myr history. These data provide a unique opportunity to create a detailed reconstruction of Yellowstone's magmatic system through time. In this contribution, I integrate available age, chemical, and isotopic data for phenocrysts hosted in Yellowstone rhyolites to construct a model for the evolution of Yellowstone's magmatic system from the caldera-forming eruption of the Lava Creek tuff at ca. 0.63 Ma to the present day. In particular

  1. Carbonate reservoirs modified by magmatic intrusions in the Bachu area, Tarim Basin, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas exploration in carbonate rocks was extremely successful in recent years in the Ordovician in Tarim Basin, NW China. Here, we investigate the carbonate reservoirs in the Bachu area of the Tarim Basin through petrological and geochemical studies combined with oil and gas exploration data. Geochemical analysis included the major, trace, and rare earth elements; fluid inclusion thermometry; clay mineral characterization; and carbon and oxygen isotopes of the carbonate rocks. Homogenization temperatures of the fluid inclusions of Well He-3 in the Bachu area indicate three groups, 60–80 °C, 90–130 °C, and 140–170 °C, and suggest that the carbonate rocks experienced modification due to heating events. The porosity in the reservoir is defined by fractures and secondary pores, and there is a notable increase in the porosity of the carbonate reservoirs in proximity to magmatic intrusion, particularly approximately 8–10 m from the intrusive rocks. The development of secondary pores was controlled by lithofacies and corrosion by various fluids. We identify supercritical fluids with high density (138.12–143.97 mg/cm3 in the Bachu area. The negative correlations of δ13C (−2.76‰ to −0.97‰ and δ18O (−7.91‰ to −5.07‰ suggest that the carbonate rocks in the study area were modified by high-salinity hydrothermal fluid. The formation of clay minerals, such as illite and montmorillonite, caused a decrease in porosity. Our study demonstrates the effect of magmatic intrusions in modifying the reservoir characteristics of carbonate rocks and has important implications for oil and gas exploration.

  2. Carboniferous - Early Permian magmatic evolution of the Bogda Range (Xinjiang, NW China): Implications for the Late Paleozoic accretionary tectonics of the SW Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Guzalnur; Wang, Bo; Cluzel, Dominique; Zhong, Linglin

    2018-03-01

    The Late Paleozoic magmatic evolution of the Bogda Range (Chinese North Tianshan) is important for understanding the accretionary history of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. We investigated the Carboniferous and Lower Permian volcanic and sedimentary sequences of the Daheyan section, southern Bogda Range, and present new zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock geochemical data for the volcanic rocks. One Carboniferous rhyolite is dated at 298 ± 8 Ma; a Permian basalt yielded many Proterozoic zircon xenocrysts, and its maximum age (∼297 Ma) is constrained by the detrital zircon ages of the sandstone that stratigraphically underlies it. These volcanic rocks belong to calc-alkaline series. We further synthesize previous geochronological, geochemical and isotopic data of magmatic and sedimentary rocks in the Bogda Range. The available data indicate that the magmatism occurred continuously from 350 Ma to 280 Ma. A comprehensive analysis allows us to propose that: (1) the Carboniferous to Early Permian magmatic rocks of the Bogda Range generally show consistent arc-type features; (2) increasing mantle input through time suggests intra-arc extension in a supra-subduction zone; (3) the localized occurrence of Early Permian alkaline pillow basalts and deep water sediments close to the major shear zone advocate a transtensional crustal thinning during the transition from Carboniferous convergence to Early Permian transcurrent tectonics; (4) occurrence of a large number of Proterozoic zircon xenocrysts in the Late Paleozoic magmatic rocks, and Proterozoic detrital zircons in the coeval clastic sediments suggest a continental or transitional basement of the Bogda Arc; (5) subduction in the Bogda area terminated prior to the deposition of Middle Permian terrestrial sediments.

  3. Recreating Rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R

    2008-01-01

    Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers.......Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers....

  4. Detrital zircon U-Pb and (U-Th)/He double-dating of Upper Cretaceous-Cenozoic Zagros foreland basin strata in the Kurdistan Region of northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, D. E.; Stockli, D. F.; Koshnaw, R. I.; Horton, B. K.; Tamar-Agha, M. Y.; Kendall, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The NW Zagros orogen is the result of the multistage collisional history associated with Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian continents and final closure of Neotethys. Siliciclastic strata preserved within a ~400 km segment of the NW Zagros fold-thrust belt and foreland basin in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region (IKR) provide a widespread record of exhumation and sedimentation. As a means of assessing NW Zagros foreland basin evolution and chronostratigraphy, we present coupled detrital zircon (DZ) U-Pb and (U-Th)/He geo-thermochronometric data of Upper Cretaceous to Pliocene siliciclastic strata from the Duhok, Erbil, and Suleimaniyah provinces of IKR. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age analyses reveal that the foreland basin fill in IKR in general was dominantly derived from Pan-African/Arabian-Nubian, Peri-Gondwandan, Eurasian, and Cretaceous volcanic arc terrenes. However, the provenance of these strata varies systematically along strike and through time, with an overall increase in complexity upsection. DZ age distribution of Paleocene-Eocene strata is dominated by a ~95 Ma grain age population, likely sourced from the Late Cretaceous Hassanbag-Bitlis volcanic arc complex along the northern margin of Arabia. In contrast, DZ U-Pb age distributions of Neogene strata show a major contribution derived from various Eurasian (e.g., Iranian, Tauride, Pontide; ~45, 150, 300 Ma) and Pan-African (~550, 950 Ma) sources. The introduction of Eurasian DZ ages at the Paleogene-Neogene transition likely records the onset of Arabian-Eurasian collision. Along strike to the southeast, the DZ U-Pb spectra of Neogene strata show a decreased percentage of Pan-African, Peri-Gondwandan, Tauride, and Ordovician ages, coupled with a dramatic increase in 40-50 Ma DZ ages that correspond to Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic rocks in Iran. Combined with paleocurrent data, this suggests that Neogene sediments were transported longitudinally southeastward through an unbroken foreland basin

  5. Remarks on some rock neutron parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czubek, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A method to calculate the thermal neutron parameters of rocks is given in the paper. It is based on a proper energy averaging of cross-sections for all rock matrix and rock saturating liquid constituents. The diffusion lengths in different lithologies in function of the variable rock porosity have been calculated. An influence of the thermal neutron spectrum on the shape of the porosity calibration curves for the dual spacing neutron method is shown. Magmatic rocks as a possible source of geothermal energy are now becoming a target of neutron loggings for the porosity determination. Here the knowledge of the slowing-down lengths is of great importance in the problem of the estimation of the calibration curves. A semi-analytical approach to get this parameter is given in the paper. It was found, as far as concerns the slowing-down of fast neutrons, that all magmatic rocks behave as sandstone with, however, different content of bound water in the rock matrix and different rock matrix density. Some neutron methods are based on the detection of epithermal neutrons. For theoretical considerations it is important to know the physical meaning of the registered signal. From the discussion of experimental data reported in the literature it seems that it is the slowing-down density that is the physical quantity being measured. This conclusion has a very important practical implication - the porosity calibration curves depend upon the slowing-down length alone and are independent of the slowing-down cross-section for epithermal neutrons

  6. Genesis of the Hengling magmatic belt in the North China Craton: Implications for Paleoproterozoic tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Guo, Jinghui; Zhai, Mingguo; Windley, Brian F.; Li, Tiesheng; Liu, Fu

    2012-09-01

    The 2200-1880 Ma igneous rocks in the central and eastern parts of the North China Craton (NCC) constitute a new Hengling magmatic belt (HMB), which includes the ~ 2147 Ma Hengling mafic sill/dyke swarm, the ~ 2060 Ma Yixingzhai mafic dyke swarm, and the ~ 1973 Ma Xiwangshan mafic dyke swarm. The three swarms are contiguous and have experienced variable degrees of metamorphism from greenschist to low amphibolite facies (Hengling), medium granulite facies (Yixingzhai), and medium/high-pressure granulite facies (Xiwangshan). They are all tholeiitic in composition typically with 47-52 wt.% SiO2 and 4-10 wt.% MgO, and all show light rare earth element enrichments and Nb- and Ta-depletion. Their Nd TDM ages are in the range of 2.5-3.0 Ga. Specifically, the Hengling and Yixingzhai dykes/sills are depleted in Th, U, Zr, Hf and Ti, whereas the Xiwangshan dykes are enriched in U and weakly depleted in other elements. Variable Sr-anomalies indicate significant feldspar accumulation (positive anomalies) or fractionation. The ɛNd(t) values of the three swarms are: - 3.2-+3.0 (Hengling), - 1.7-+ 1.8 (Yixingzhai) and - 1.4-+ 1.0 (Xiwangshan). These mafic representatives of the HMB originated from the > 2.5 Ga sub-continental lithospheric mantle of the NCC, and with A-type granites and other igneous associations in this belt they likely evolved in an intra-continental rift. The progressive changing compositions of the three swarms are interpreted in terms of their source regions at different depths, i.e., shallower and shallower through time. And the decrease in scale and size of the intrusions and their magma volumes indicate the progressive weakening of magmatism in this rift. The rocks in this belt are different chronologically, petrologically and chemically from those in the Xuwujia magmatic belt (XMB). We propose that the two magmatic belts represent two different magmatic systems in different blocks of the NCC, i.e., an eastern block (with the HMB) and a western block

  7. Stratigraphy and Mesozoic–Cenozoic tectonic history of northern Sierra Los Ajos and adjacent areas, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Gray, Floyd; Iriondo, Alexander; Miggins, Daniel P.; Blodgett, Robert B.; Maldonado, Florian; Miller, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Geologic mapping in the northern Sierra Los Ajos reveals new stratigraphic and structural data relevant to deciphering the Mesozoic–Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the range. The northern Sierra Los Ajos is cored by Proterozoic, Cambrian, Devonian, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian strata, equivalent respectively to the Pinal Schist, Bolsa Quartzite and Abrigo Limestone, Martin Formation, Escabrosa Limestone, and Horquilla Limestone. The Proterozoic–Paleozoic sequence is mantled by Upper Cretaceous rocks partly equivalent to the Fort Crittenden and Salero Formations in Arizona, and the Cabullona Group in Sonora, Mexico.Absence of the Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous Bisbee Group below the Upper Cretaceous rocks and above the Proterozoic–Paleozoic rocks indicates that the Sierra Los Ajos was part of the Cananea high, a topographic highland during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Deposition of Upper Cretaceous rocks directly on Paleozoic and Proterozoic rocks indicates that the Sierra Los Ajos area had subsided as part of the Laramide Cabullona basin during Late Cretaceous time. Basal beds of the Upper Cretaceous sequence are clast-supported conglomerate composed locally of basement (Paleozoic) clasts. The conglomerate represents erosion of Paleozoic basement in the Sierra Los Ajos area coincident with development of the Cabullona basin.The present-day Sierra Los Ajos reaches elevations of greater than 2600 m, and was uplifted during Tertiary basin-and-range extension. Upper Cretaceous rocks are exposed at higher elevations in the northern Sierra Los Ajos and represent an uplifted part of the inverted Cabullona basin. Tertiary uplift of the Sierra Los Ajos was largely accommodated by vertical movement along the north-to-northwest-striking Sierra Los Ajos fault zone flanking the west side of the range. This fault zone structurally controls the configuration of the headwaters of the San Pedro River basin, an important bi-national water resource in the US

  8. A Cenozoic record of the equatorial Pacific carbonate compensation depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pälike, H.; Lyle, M.W.; Nishi, H.; Raffi, I.; Ridgwell, A.; Gamage, K.; Klaus, A.; Acton, G.; Anderson, L.; Backman, J.; Baldauf, J.; Beltran, C.; Bohaty, S.M.; Bown, P.; Busch, W.; Channell, J.E.T.; Chun, C.O.J.; Delaney, M.; Dewangan, P.; Jones, T.D.; Edgar, K.M.; Evans, H.; Fitch, P.; Foster, G.L.; Gussone, N.; Hasegawa, H.; Hathorne, E.C.; Hayashi, H.; Herrle, J.O.; Holbourn, A.; Hovan, S.; Hyeong, K.; Iijima, K.; Ito, T.; Kamikuri, S.; Kimoto, K.; Kuroda, J.; Leon-Rodriguez, L.; Malinverno, A.; Moore, T.C.; Murphy, B.H.; Murphy, D.P.; Nakamura, H.; Organe, K.; Ohneiser, C.; Richter, C.; Robinson, R.; Rohling, E.J.; Romero, O.; Sawada, K.; Scher, H.; Schneider, L.; Sluijs, A.; Takata, H.; Tian, J.; Tsujimoto, A.; Wade, B.S.; Westerhold, T.; Wilkens, R.; Williams, T.; Wilson, P.A.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamazaki, T.; Zeebe, R.E.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and climate are regulated on geological timescales by the balance between carboninput fromvolcanicandmetamorphicoutgassingandits removalbyweathering feedbacks; these feedbacks involve the erosion of silicate rocks and organic-carbon-bearing rocks. The

  9. 3-D thermal effect of late Cenozoic erosion and deposition within the Lofoten-Vesterålen segment of the Mid-Norwegian continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maystrenko, Yuriy Petrovich; Gernigon, Laurent; Olesen, Odleiv; Ottesen, Dag; Rise, Leif

    2018-05-01

    A 3-D subsurface temperature distribution within the Lofoten-Vesterålen segment of the Mid-Norwegian continental margin and adjacent areas has been studied to understand the thermal effect of late Cenozoic erosion of old sedimentary and crystalline rocks and subsequent deposition of glacial sediments during the Pleistocene. A lithosphere-scale 3-D structural model of the Lofoten-Vesterålen area has been used as a realistic approximation of the geometries of the sedimentary infill, underlying crystalline crust and lithospheric mantle during the 3-D thermal modelling. The influence of late Cenozoic erosion and sedimentation has been included during the 3-D thermal calculations. In addition, the 3-D thermal modelling has been carried out by taking also into account the influence of early Cenozoic continental breakup. The results of the 3-D thermal modelling demonstrate that the mainland is generally colder than the basin areas within the upper part of the 3-D model. The thermal influence of the early Cenozoic breakup is still clearly recognizable within the western and deep parts of the Lofoten-Vesterålen margin segment in terms of the increased temperatures. The thermal effects of the erosion and deposition within the study area also indicate that a positive thermal anomaly exists within the specific subareas where sedimentary and crystalline rocks were eroded. A negative thermal effect occurs in the subareas affected by subsidence and sedimentation. The erosion-related positive thermal anomaly reaches its maximum of more than +27 °C at depths of 17-22 km beneath the eastern part of the Vestfjorden Basin. The most pronounced deposition-related negative anomaly shows a minimum of around -70 °C at 17-20 km depth beneath the Lofoten Basin. The second negative anomaly is located within the northeastern part of the Vøring Basin and has minimal values of around -48 °C at 12-14 km depth. These prominent thermal anomalies are associated with the subareas where

  10. Assessment of magmatic vs. metasomatic processes in rare-metal granites: A case study of the Cínovec/Zinnwald Sn–W–Li deposit, Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Breiter, Karel; Ďurišová, Jana; Hrstka, Tomáš; Korbelová, Zuzana; Hložková Vaňková, M.; Vašinová Galiová, M.; Kanický, V.; Rambousek, P.; Knésl, I.; Dobeš, P.; Dosbaba, M.

    292/293, November (2017), s. 198-217 ISSN 0024-4937 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-13600S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : rare-metal granite * Cínovec/Zinnwald deposit * rock textures * metasomatic processes * magmatic processes Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 3.677, year: 2016

  11. Petrogenesis and U-Pb and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Taquaral granite: record of an orosirian continental magmatic arc in the region of Corumba - MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Alexandre Redes

    Full Text Available The Taquaral Granite is located on southern Amazon Craton in the region of Corumbá, westernmost part of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS, near Brazil-Bolivia frontier. This intrusion of batholitic dimensions is partially covered by sedimentary rocks of the Urucum, Tamengo Bocaina and Pantanal formations and Alluvial Deposits. The rock types are classified as quartz-monzodiorites, granodiorites, quartz-monzonites, monzo and syenogranites. There are two groups of enclaves genetically and compositionally different: one corresponds to mafic xenoliths and the second is identified as felsic microgranular enclave. Two deformation phases are observed: one ductile (F1 and the other brittle (F2. Geochemical data indicate intermediate to acidic composition for these rocks and a medium to high-K, metaluminous to peraluminous calk-alkaline magmatism, suggesting also their emplacement into magmatic arc settings. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb geochronological data of these granites reveals a crystallization age of 1861 ± 5.3 Ma. Whole rock Sm-Nd analyses provided εNd(1,86 Ga values of -1.48 and -1.28 and TDM model ages of 2.32 and 2.25 Ga, likely indicating a Ryacian crustal source. Here we conclude that Taquaral Granite represents a magmatic episode generated at the end of the Orosirian, as a part of the Amoguija Magmatic Arc.

  12. Dynamic topography and the Cenozoic carbonate compensation depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S. M.; Moucha, R.; Raymo, M. E.; Derry, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    The carbonate compensation depth (CCD), the ocean depth at which the calcium carbonate accumulation rate goes to zero, can provide valuable insight into climatic and weathering conditions over the Cenozoic. The paleoposition of the CCD can be inferred from sediment core data. As the carbonate accumulation rate decreases linearly with depth between the lysocline and CCD, the CCD can be calculated using a linear regression on multiple sediment cores with known carbonate accumulation rates and paleodepths. It is therefore vital to have well-constrained estimates of paleodepths. Paleodepths are typically calculated using models of thermal subsidence and sediment loading and compaction. However, viscous convection-related stresses in the mantle can warp the ocean floor by hundreds of meters over broad regions and can also vary significantly over millions of years. This contribution to paleobathymetry, termed dynamic topography, can be calculated by modeling mantle flow backwards in time. Herein, we demonstrate the effect dynamic topography has on the inference of the late Cenozoic CCD with an example from the equatorial Pacific, considering sites from IODP Expeditions 320/321. The equatorial Pacific, given its large size and high productivity, is closely tied to the global carbon cycle. Accordingly, long-term changes in the equatorial Pacific CCD can be considered to reflect global changes in weathering fluxes and the carbon cycle, in addition to more regional changes in productivity and thermohaline circulation. We find that, when the dynamic topography contribution to bathymetry is accounted for, the equatorial Pacific CCD is calculated to be appreciably shallower at 30 Ma than previous estimates would suggest, implying a greater deepening of the Pacific CCD over the late Cenozoic.

  13. Cenozoic Methane-Seep Faunas of the Caribbean Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Kiel

    Full Text Available We report new examples of Cenozoic cold-seep communities from Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Trinidad, and Venezuela, and attempt to improve the stratigraphic dating of Cenozoic Caribbean seep communities using strontium isotope stratigraphy. Two seep faunas are distinguished in Barbados: the late Eocene mudstone-hosted 'Joes River fauna' consists mainly of large lucinid bivalves and tall abyssochrysoid gastropods, and the early Miocene carbonate-hosted 'Bath Cliffs fauna' containing the vesicomyid Pleurophopsis, the mytilid Bathymodiolus and small gastropods. Two new Oligocene seep communities from the Sinú River basin in Colombia consist of lucinid bivalves including Elongatolucina, thyasirid and solemyid bivalves, and Pleurophopsis. A new early Miocene seep community from Cuba includes Pleurophopsis and the large lucinid Meganodontia. Strontium isotope stratigraphy suggests an Eocene age for the Cuban Elmira asphalt mine seep community, making it the oldest in the Caribbean region. A new basal Pliocene seep fauna from the Dominican Republic is characterized by the large lucinid Anodontia (Pegophysema. In Trinidad we distinguish two types of seep faunas: the mudstone-hosted Godineau River fauna consisting mainly of lucinid bivalves, and the limestone-hosted Freeman's Bay fauna consisting chiefly of Pleurophopsis, Bathymodiolus, and small gastropods; they are all dated as late Miocene. Four new seep communities of Oligocene to Miocene age are reported from Venezuela. They consist mainly of large globular lucinid bivalves including Meganodontia, and moderately sized vesicomyid bivalves. After the late Miocene many large and typical 'Cenozoic' lucinid genera disappeared from the Caribbean seeps and are today known only from the central Indo-Pacific Ocean. We speculate that the increasingly oligotrophic conditions in the Caribbean Sea after the closure of the Isthmus of Panama in the Pliocene may have been unfavorable for such large

  14. Magmatic Hydrothermal Fluids: Experimental Constraints on the Role of Magmatic Sulfide Crystallization and Other Early Magmatic Processes in Moderating the Metal Content of Ore-Forming Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, P. M.; Candela, P. A.

    2006-05-01

    It has been recognized for some time that sulfide phases, although common in intermediate-felsic volcanic rocks, are not as common in their plutonic equivalents. That sulfide crystallization, or the lack thereof, is important in the protracted magmatic history of porphyry Cu and related systems is supported by the work of e.g., Rowins (2000). Candela and Holland (1986) suggested that sulfide crystallization could moderate the ore metal concentrations in porphyry environments. Experiments show clearly that Au and Cu can partition into Cl-bearing vapor and brine. This effect can be enhanced by S (Simon, this session). However, in some instances enhances this effect. That is, the partitioning of Au and Cu into vapor+brine is highly efficient (e.g. Simon et al. 2003; Frank et al 2003). This suggests that if sulfides do not sequester ore metals early during the history of a magma body from the melt, they will partition strongly into the volatile phases. Whether volatile release occurs in the porphyry ore environment, or at deeper levels upon magma rise, is a yet unsolved question. Little is known about deep release of volatiles (during magma transport at lower- to mid-crustal levels). Saturation of melts with a CO2-bearing fluid could happen at levels much deeper than those typical of ore formation. CO2 is released preferentially, so a high CO2 concentration in fluids in the porphyry ore environment argues against deep fluid release. Of course, this depends upon the specific processes of crystallization and fluid release, which may be complex. Our experiments on sulfides have concentrated on pyrrhotite and Iss. Our partitioning data for Po/melt exhibit wide variations from metal to metal: Cu (2600); Co (170); Au (140); Ni (100); Bi, Zn and Mn (2). These results suggest that crystallization of Po can contribute to variable ore metal ratios (e.g. Cu/Au). Other sulfides behave differently. If a melt is Iss (Cpy) saturated, then Cu will be buffered at a high value, and Au

  15. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  16. Glacial removal of late Cenozoic subglacially emplaced volcanic edifices by the West Antarctic ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, John C.; Blankenship, D.D.; Damaske, D.; Cooper, A. K.

    1995-01-01

    Local maxima of the horizontal gradient of pseudogravity from closely spaced aeromagnetic surveys over the Ross Sea, northwestern Ross Ice Shelf, and the West Antarctic ice sheet, reveal a linear magnetic rift fabric and numerous subcircular, high-amplitude anomalies. Geophysical data indicate two or three youthful volcanic edifices at widely separated areas beneath the sea and ice cover in the West Antarctic rift system. In contrast, we suggest glacial removal of edifices of volcanic sources of many more anomalies. Magnetic models, controlled by marine seismic reflection and radar ice-sounding data, allow us to infer that glacial removal of the associated late Cenozoic volcanic edifices (probably debris, comprising pillow breccias, and hyaloclastites) has occurred essentially concomitantly with their subglacial eruption. "Removal' of unconsolidated volcanic debris erupted beneath the ice is probably a more appropriate term than "erosion', given its fragmented, ice-contact origin. The exposed volcanoes may have been protected from erosion by the surrounding ice sheet because of more competent rock or high elevation above the ice sheet. -from Authors

  17. Mantle refertilization and magmatism in old orogenic regions: The role of late-orogenic pyroxenites

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Lydéric; Chazot, Gilles; Kornprobst, Jacques; Dallai, Luigi; Vannucci, Riccardo; Grégoire, Michel; Bertrand, Hervé; Boivin, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Pyroxenites and garnet pyroxenites are mantle heterogeneities characterized by a lower solidus temperature than the enclosing peridotites; it follows that they are preferentially involved during magma genesis. Constraining their origin, composition, and the interactions they underwent during their subsequent evolution is therefore essential to discuss the sources of magmatism in a given area. Pyroxenites could represent either recycling of crustal rocks in mantle domains or mantle originated rocks (formed either by olivine consuming melt-rock reactions or by crystal fractionation). Petrological and geochemical (major and trace elements, Sr-Nd and O isotopes) features of xenoliths from various occurrences (French Massif-Central, Jordan, Morocco and Cameroon) show that these samples represent cumulates crystallized during melt percolation at mantle conditions. They formed in mantle domains at pressures of 1-2 GPa during post-collisional magmatism (possibly Hercynian for the French Massif-Central, and Panafrican for Morocco, Jordan and Cameroon). The thermal re-equilibration of lithospheric domains, typical of the late orogenic exhumation stages, is also recorded by the samples. Most of the samples display a metasomatic overprint that may be either inherited or likely linked to the recent volcanic activity that occurred in the investigated regions. The crystallization of pyroxenites during late orogenic events has implications for the subsequent evolution of the mantle domains. The presence of large amounts of mantle pyroxenites in old orogenic regions indeed imparts peculiar physical and chemical characteristics to these domains. Among others, the global solidus temperature of the whole lithospheric domain will be lowered; in turn, this implies that old orogenic regions are refertilized zones where magmatic activity would be enhanced.

  18. MESOZOIC BASALTIC MAGMATISM OF THE SIDI SAID MAACHOU BASIN (WESTERN MESETA, MOROCCO): PETROGRAPHY, GEOCHEMISTRY AND GEODYNAMIC IMPLICATIONS.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelkbir Hminna; Hafid Saber; Abdelouahed Lagnaoui.

    2017-01-01

    The late Triassic-early Jurassic volcanism of Sidi Sa?d Maachou basin belongs to the costalMeseta and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP). The volcanic pile conformably overlies the red siltstones of Machraa Boujamaa Formation. This set includes a stack of several lava flows 40 to 80 m thick. The petrographic study shows that the textures vary from porphyritic to microlitic porphyritic. These igneous rocks have the geochemical characteristics of an intra-continental tholeiitic serie...

  19. Rock Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2017-01-01

    Rock physics is the discipline linking petrophysical properties as derived from borehole data to surface based geophysical exploration data. It can involve interpretation of both elastic wave propagation and electrical conductivity, but in this chapter focus is on elasticity. Rock physics is based...... on continuum mechanics, and the theory of elasticity developed for statics becomes the key to petrophysical interpretation of velocity of elastic waves. In practice, rock physics involves interpretation of well logs including vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and analysis of core samples. The results...

  20. Feedbacks of lithosphere dynamics and environmental change of the Cenozoic West Antarctic Rift System.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wateren, F.M.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.

    1999-01-01

    This special issue of Global and Planetary Change contains 11 contributions dealing with various aspects of the Cenozoic West Antarctic Rift System. During the last two decades, investigations of the interplay of tectonics and climate greatly improved understanding of Cenozoic global change. Major

  1. Comparison between the chemistry of igneous and hydrothermal biotite in the igneous rocks of Sakhtehesar mountain

    OpenAIRE

    Farima Ayati; Sayide Mahdevari

    2015-01-01

    Sakhtehesar mountain is located in Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt and is composed of volcanic and subvolcanic rocks (Pliocene andesite to dacite) which intruded the volcanics and pyroclastics of Paleocene age. Three alteration zones including potassic, phyllic and propylitic are recognized in the area. In this paper, the mineral chemistry of magmatic and primary biotite and the mineral chemistry of biotite in potassic and phyllic alteration zones have been studied. Investigations show that pri...

  2. Monzonitoid magmatism of the copper-porphyritic Lazurnoe deposit (South Primor'e): U-Pb and K-Ar geochronology and peculiarities of ore-bearing magma genesis by the data of isotopic-geochemical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhno, V. G.; Kovalenko, S. V.; Alenicheva, A. A.

    2011-05-01

    Magmatic rocks from the copper-porphyritic Lazurnoe deposit (Central Primor'e) have been studied. It has been found that rocks from the Lazurnyi massif are referred to gabbro-monzodiorites, monzodiorites, and monzo-granodiorites formed during two magmatic phases of different ages. The earlier phase is represented by gabbro-monzodiorites and diorites of the North Stock, and the later one, by gabbro-monzodiorites and monzo-grano-diorites of the South Stock. On the basis of isotopic dating by the U-Pb (SHRIMP) method for zircon and by the K-Ar method for hornblendes and biotites, the age of magmatic rocks is determined at 110 ± 4 for the earlier phase and at 103.5 ± 1.5 for the later one. Examination of the isotopic composition for Nd, Sr, Pb, Hf, δ18O, and REE spectra has shown that melts of the first phase are contaminated with crustal rocks and they are typical for a high degree of secondary alterations. Potassiumfeldspar, biotite, propylitic alterations, and sulfidization are manifested in these rocks. The rocks of the later stage of magmatism are characteristic for a primitive composition of isotopes and the absence of secondary alterations. They carry the features of adakite specifics that allows us to consider them derivatives of mantle generation under high fluid pressure. The intrusion of fluid-saturated melts of the second phase into the magmatic source of the first phase caused both an alteration pattern of rocks and copper-porphyritic mineralization. Isotopes of sulfur and oxygen allow us to consider the ore component to be of magmatic origin.

  3. Shallow magmatic degassing into the hydrothermal system of Copahue, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J.; Ouimette, A.; Kreulen, R.; Delpino, D.; Bermudez, A.

    2001-05-01

    Copahue volcano has a crater lake and acid hot springs that discharge into the Rio Agrio river system. These fluids are very concentrated (up to 6 percent sulfate), rich in rock-forming elements (up to 2000 ppm Mg) and small spheres of native sulfur float in the crater lake. The stable isotope composition of the waters (delta 18O =-2.1 to + 3.6 per mille; delta D = -49 to -26 per mille) indicates that the hot spring waters are at their most concentrated about 70 percent volcanic brine and 30 percent glacial meltwater. The crater lake waters have similar mixing proportions but added isotope effects from intense evaporation. Further dilution of the waters in the Rio Agrio gives values closer to local meteoric waters (delta 18O = -11 per mille; delta D = -77 per mille), whereas evaporation in closed ponds led to very heavy water (up to delta 18O = +12 per mille). The delta 34S value of dissolved sulfate is +14.2 per mille, whereas the native sulfur has values of -8.2 to -10.5 per mille. The heavy sulfate probably formed when SO2 disproportionated into bisulfate and native sulfur. We measured the sulfate fluxes in the Rio Agrio, and from these flux values and the stoichiometry of the disproportionation reaction we calculated the rate of liquid sulfur storage inside the volcano (6000 m3/year). During the eruptions of 1995/2000, large amounts of that stored liquid sulfur were ejected as pyroclastic sulfur. The calculated rate of rock dissolution (from rock- forming element fluxes in the Rio Agrio) suggests that the void space generated by rock dissolution is largely filled by native sulfur. The isotopic signature of the magmatic sulfur can be reconstituted at about +7 per mille, which is a source signature with superposed effects of shallow degassing. Lead isotope and 129Iodine data from the fluids indicate that subducted components may have played a role in the Copahue magma formation. Primary glass inclusions in plagioclase and olivine have 1110-1670 ppm Cl, 90-400 ppm

  4. Rocking pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Rijkers, Ger T.; Rodriguez Gomez, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Ever since Chuck Berry coined the term “rocking pneumonia” in his 1956 song “Roll over Beethoven”, pneumonia has been mentioned frequently in modern blues and rock songs. We analyzed the lyrics of these songs to examine how various elements of pneumonia have been represented in popular music, specifically the cause of pneumonia, the risk groups, comorbidity (such as the boogie woogie flu), the clinical symptoms, and treatment and outcome. Up to this day, songwriters suggest that pneumonia is ...

  5. Late Cenozoic Paleoceanography of the Central Arctic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Regan, Matt

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and perhaps least accessible of the worlds oceans. It occupies only 26% of the global ocean area, and less than 10% of its volume. However, it exerts a disproportionately large influence on the global climate system through a complex set of positive and negative feedback mechanisms directly or indirectly related to terrestrial ice and snow cover and sea ice. Increasingly, the northern high latitude cryosphere is seen as an exceptionally fragile part of the global climate system, a fact exemplified by observed reductions in sea ice extent during the past decades [2]. The paleoceanographic evolution of the Arctic Ocean can provide important insights into the physical forcing mechanisms that affect the form, intensity and permanence of ice in the high Arctic, and its sensitivity to these mechanisms in vastly different climate states of the past. However, marine records capturing the late Cenozoic paleoceanography of the Arctic are limited - most notably because only a single deep borehole exists from the central parts of this Ocean. This paper reviews the principal late Cenozoic (Neogene/Quaternary) results from the Arctic Coring Expedition to the Lomonosov Ridge and in light of recent data and observations on modern sea ice, outlines emerging questions related to three main themes: 1) the establishment of the 'modern' Arctic Ocean and the opening of the Fram Strait 2) the inception of perennial sea ice 3) The Quaternary intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciations.

  6. A coccolithophore concept for constraining the Cenozoic carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderiks, J.; Rickaby, R. E. M.

    2007-06-01

    An urgent question for future climate, in light of increased burning of fossil fuels, is the temperature sensitivity of the climate system to atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO>sub>2). To date, no direct proxy for past levels of pCO2 exists beyond the reach of the polar ice core records. We propose a new methodology for placing a constraint on pCO2 over the Cenozoic based on the physiological plasticity of extant coccolithophores. Specifically, our premise is that the contrasting calcification tolerance of various extant species of coccolithophore to raised pCO2 reflects an "evolutionary memory" of past atmospheric composition. The different times of evolution of certain morphospecies allows an upper constraint of past pCO2 to be placed on Cenozoic timeslices. Further, our hypothesis has implications for the response of marine calcifiers to ocean acidification. Geologically "ancient" species, which have survived large changes in ocean chemistry, are likely more resilient to predicted acidification.

  7. The inception of a Paleotethyan magmatic arc in Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a compilation of recent U-Pb (zircon ages of late Carboniferous–early Permian (LC–EP calc-alkaline batholiths from Iberia, together with a petrogenetic interpretation of magma generation based on comparisons with Mesozoic and Tertiary Cordilleran batholiths and experimental melts. Zircon U-Pb ages distributed over the range ca. 315–280 Ma, indicate a linkage between calc-alkaline magmatism, Iberian orocline generation and Paleotethys subduction. It is also shown that Iberian LC–EP calc-alkaline batholiths present unequivocal subduction-related features comparable with typical Cordilleran batholiths of the Pacific Americas active margin, although geochemical features were partially obscured by local modifications of magmas at the level of emplacement by country rock assimilation. When and how LC–EP calc-alkaline batholiths formed in Iberia is then discussed, and a new and somewhat controversial interpretation for their sources and tectonic setting (plume-assisted relamination is suggested. The batholiths are proposed to have formed during the subduction of the Paleotethys oceanic plate (Pangaea self-subduction and, consequently, they are unrelated to Variscan collision. The origin of the Iberian batholiths is related to the Eurasian active margin and probably represents the inception of a Paleotethyan arc in the core of Pangaea.

  8. Dating the magmatism of Maio, Cape Verde Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J G [Newcastle upon Tyne Univ. (UK). School of Physics; Le Bas, M J [Leicester Univ. (UK). Dept. of Geology; Furnes, H [Bergen Univ. (Norway). Geologisk Inst.

    1983-07-01

    Conventional K-Ar and /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar studies of Mesozoic ocean floor basalts and Tertiary plutonic and volcanic rocks from Maio, Cape Verde Islands, have been determined to elucidate the magmatic evolution of this ocean island. Pillow lavas of the Basement Complex yield a minimum age of 113 +- 8 Ma though thermal overprinting of their formation age by the younger Central Intrusive Complex (CIC) and subsequent sheet intrusions is in some cases almost total. Activity in the CIC began before 20 Ma and plutons continued to develop until about 8 Ma, the youngest ages possibly indicating a cooling history of more than 2 Ma for these bodies relative to their volcanic counterparts. Sheet intrusion occurred throughout the period 20 to 9 Ma though the peak of this activity probably occurred 11 Ma ago. Field relations allow the time of thrusting(s) on the Monte Branco Thrust to be bracketed between 9 and 7 Ma. Volcanic activity began in the Tertiary, probably before 12 Ma, and culminated in the development of a stratovolcano at 7 Ma.

  9. K/Ar dating of the Eastern Rhodope Paleogene magmatism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilov, P.; Yanev, Y.; Marchev, P.

    1987-12-01

    Paleogene magmatic rocks from the Eastern Rhodope Mountains have seldom been an object of radiogeochronological studies and very few data are available from the geological literature. Until now their dating relied heavily on paleontological data from fossil-bearing sediments, alternating with the lava flows. However, there are also many cross bodies (extrusions, dikes and intrusions) as well as volcanic areas of no sediments or of fossil-free sediments which require the combined use of both methods. This paper aims at characterizing geochronologically the Eastern Rhodope Paleogene volcanism. The K/Ar method was used to date reference volcanoes (mostly with well-defined positions in the Paleogene sequence) associated with the various phases of volcanic activity, as well as some separate intrusive bodies. Nomenclature of volcanics followed the classification of the Soviet Petrographic Commission and that of Peccerillo and Taylor as supplemented by Marchey. The paper characterizes only two of the three main volcanic districts, the Momcilgrad-Arda and the Borovica districts. The third one, Susica district, has restricted exposures near the state boundary between Bulgari and Greece and was excluded from the study. The results obtained are compared with the geochronological scales proposed by Odin and Cavelier and Pomerol which correlate radiogeochronological and paleontological data (nannoplancton data included).

  10. Neogene magmatism and its possible causal relationship with hydrocarbon generation in SW Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Mónica; Altenberger, Uwe; Romer, Rolf L.

    2009-07-01

    The Cretaceous oil-bearing source and reservoir sedimentary succession in the Putumayo Basin, SW Colombia, was intruded by gabbroic dykes and sills. The petrological and geochemical character of the magmatic rocks shows calc-alkaline tendency, pointing to a subduction-related magmatic event. K/Ar dating of amphibole indicates a Late Miocene to Pliocene age (6.1 ± 0.7 Ma) for the igneous episode in the basin. Therefore, we assume the intrusions to be part of the Andean magmatism of the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ). The age of the intrusions has significant tectonic and economic implications because it coincides with two regional events: (1) the late Miocene/Pliocene Andean orogenic uplift of most of the sub-Andean regions in Peru, Ecuador and Colombia and (2) a pulse of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion that has reached the gas window. High La/Yb, K/Nb and La/Nb ratios, and the obtained Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions suggest the involvement of subducted sediments and/or the assimilation of oceanic crust of the subducting slab. We discuss the possibility that magma chamber(s) west of the basin, below the Cordillera, did increase the heat flow in the basin causing generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons and CO2.

  11. Melilitites and associated alkaline silica-undersaturated rocks of the Vogtland/W-Bohemia (Germany/Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abratis, M.; Viereck-Goette, L.; Ulrych, Jaromír; Munsel, D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 34, 4/6 (2008), s. 1325145-1325145 ISSN 0161-6951. [International Geological Congress /33./. 06.08.2008-14.08.2008, Oslo ] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : melilitic rock, * Bohemian Massif, * Central European Cenozoic Igneous Province * W Bohemia * Vogtland Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  12. Aspects of possible magmatic disruption of a high-level radioactive waste repository in southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.; Amos, R.; Perry, F.; Self, S.; Vaniman, D.

    1982-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) region is located within the central section of a north-northeast-trending basaltic volcanic belt of late Cenozoic age, a part of the Quaternary volcanic province of the Great Basin. Future volcanism within the belt represents a potential hazard to storage of high-level radioactive waste within a buried repository located in the southwestern NTS. The hazards of future volcanism in the region are being characterized through a combination of volcanic hazards studies, probability determinations, and consequence analyses. Basaltic activity within the NTS regions is divided into two age groups consisting of relatively large-volume silicic cycle basalts (8 to 10 Myr) and rift basalts (< 8 to 0.3 Myr). This paper describes the processes of basaltic magmatism ranging from derivation of basalt melts at depth, through ascent through the upper mantle and crust, to surface eruption. Each stage in the evolution and dispersal of basaltic magma is described, and the disruption and potential dispersal of stored radioactive waste is evaluated. These data document areas of knowns and unknowns in the processes of basaltic volcanisms and provide background data necessary to assist calculations of radiation release levels due to disruption of a repository. 9 figures, 11 tables

  13. Unravelling the sulphur isotope systematics of an alkaline magmatic province: implications for REE mineralization and exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, W.; Finch, A.; Boyce, A.; Friis, H.; Borst, A. M.; Horsburgh, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    Some of the world's best alkaline rare earth element (REE) deposits are formed in magmatic systems that are sealed (i.e., those that are autometasomatised and maintain reducing conditions). Conversely, in open systems where oxidizing fluids infiltrate, it is commonly assumed that REE are redistributed over a wider (less concentrated) zone. Sulphur isotope fractionation is sensitive to variations in temperature and redox, and, although sulphide minerals are relatively abundant in alkaline systems, there have been few attempts to test these hypotheses and develop a sulphur isotope proxy for alkaline metasomatism and formation of associated REE deposits. The Gardar Rift Province in southern Greenland was volcanically active in two periods between 1300 and 1100 Ma and is an ideal natural laboratory to explore sulphur isotope systematics because a near-complete alkaline magmatic lineage is exposed. We present new δ34S from across the province with a particular focus on three alkaline systems (Ilímaussaq, Motzfeldt and Ivigtût) that also host major REE deposits. Primitive mafic rocks from regional Gardar dykes and lavas have a restricted range of δ34S between 0 and 3 ‰ and fractional crystallization imparts no observable change in δ34S. In a few cases high-δ34S rocks (>15 ‰) occur when intrusive units have assimilated local sedimentary crust (δ34S = 25 ‰). Most δ34S variation takes place in the roof zones of alkaline intrusions during late-magmatic and hydrothermal stages, and we identify clear differences between the complexes. At Ilímaussaq, where the magmatic series is exceptionally reduced (below QFM buffer), roof zone δ34S remains narrow (0-3 ‰). At Motzfeldt, a more open oxidizing roof zone (MH buffer), δ34S ranges from -12 ‰ in late-stage fluorite veins to +12 ‰ where local crust has been assimilated. Ivigtût is intermediate between these end-members varying between -5 to +5 ‰. The δ34S variations primarily relate to temperature and

  14. Petrography, mineral chemistry and geochemistry of post-ophiolitic volcanic rocks in the Ratouk area (south of Gazik, east of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Vahedi Tabas

    2017-11-01

    environments and active fault zone and originated from enriched mantle or asthenosphere. Lithospheric thickness maps derived from the speed of shear waves show that the lithosphere is thin in east of Iran and volcanic activity has occurred along strike-slip faults (Walker et al., 2009. Therefore, according to other similar basaltic eruptions that have occurred in the Sistan suture zone, we can say that all of them are from the same origin and as a result of deep fractures within continental plates that provide conditions for the eruption of basaltic magma. Andesitic units in the Ratouk area are located within the active continental margin and show similar characteristics to rocks of the Subduction Zone in terms of composition. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank reviewers for the constructive comments which greatly contributed to the improvement of the manuscript. References Alici, P., Temel, A. and Gourgaud, A., 2002. Pb-Nd Sr isotope and trace element geochemistry of Quaternary extension-related alkaline volcanism: a case study of Kula region western Anatolia, Turkey. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 115(3: 487-510. Alishahi, E., 2012. Petrology and Geochemistry of volcanic rocks in Nasfandeh area (east of Nehbandan –Iran. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran, 211 pp. (in Persian with English abstract Chen, Y., Zhang, Y., Graham, D., Su, S. and Deng, J., 2007. Geochemistry of Cenozoic basalts and mantle xenoliths in Northeast China. Lithos, 96(1: 108–126. Emami, M.H., 2000. Magmatism in Iran. Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran, 608 pp. Ghasempour, M.R., Byabangard, H., Boomeri, M. and Moridi, A., 2011. Geochemistry and tectonic setting of Plio-Quaternary basaltic rocks in SE Nehbandan, eastern Iran. Iranian Journal of Crystallography and Mineralogy, 18(4: 695-708. (in Persian with English abstract Guillou, Y., Maurizot, P., Vaslet, D. and Dellavillen, H., 1981. Geological map of Gazik, Scale1:100000. Geological Survey of Iran

  15. Cenozoic basin thermal history reconstruction and petroleum systems in the eastern Colombian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Mauricio; Mora, Andres; Ketcham, Richard A.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Almendral, Ariel

    2017-04-01

    Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic retro-arc foreland basins along the eastern margin of the Andes in South America host the world's best detrital record for the study of subduction orogenesis. There, the world's most prolific petroleum system occur in the northernmost of these foreland basin systems, in Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela, yet over 90% of the discovered hydrocarbons there occur in one single province in norteastern Venezuela. A successful industry-academy collaboration applied a multidisciplinary approach to the study of the north Andes with the aim of investigating both, the driving mechanisms of orogenesis, and its impact on hydrocarbon accumulation in eastern Colombia. The Eastern Cordillera is an inversion orogen located at the leading edge of the northern Andes. Syn-rift subsidence favored the accumulation of km-thick organic matter rich shales in a back-arc basin in the early Cretaceous. Subsequent late Cretaceous thermal subsidence prompted the accumulation of shallow marine sandstones and shales, the latter including the Turonian-Cenomanian main hydrocarbon source-rock. Early Andean uplift since the Paleocene led to development of a flexural basin, filled with mainly non-marine strata. We have studied the Meso-Cenozoic thermal evolution of these basins through modeling of a large thermochronometric database including hundreds of apatite and zircon fission-track and (U-Th)/He data, as well as paleothermometric information based on vitrinite reflectance and present-day temperatures measured in boreholes. The detrital record of Andean construction was also investigated through detrital zircon U-Pb geochronometry in outcrop and borehole samples. A comprehensive burial/exhumation history has been accomplished through three main modeling strategies. First, one-dimensional subsidence was used to invert the pre-extensional lithospheric thicknesses, the magnitude of stretching, and the resulting heat flow associated to extension. The amount of eroded section and

  16. Rock-brine chemical interactions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-01

    The results of experimental interaction of powdered volcanic rock with aqueous solutions are presented at temperatures from 200 to 400/sup 0/C, 500 to 1000 bars fluid pressure, with reaction durations of approximately 30 days under controlled laboratory conditions. The aim of this research is to develop data on the kinetics and equilibria of rock solution interactions that will provide insight into the complex geochemical processes attending geothermal reservoir development, stimulation, and reinjection. The research was done in the Stanford Hydrothermal Lab using gold cell equipment of the Dickson design. This equipment inverts the solution rock mixture several times a minute to ensure thorough mixing. Solution samples were periodically withdrawn without interruption of the experimental conditions. The data from these experiments suggests a path dependent series of reactions by which geothermal fluids might evolve from meteoric or magmatic sources.

  17. Brittle reactivation of mylonitic fabric and the origin of the Cenozoic Rio Santana Graben, southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontijo-Pascutti, Ambrosina; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Terra, Emanuele La; Almeida, Julio C. H.

    2010-03-01

    In the Ribeira belt, southeastern Brazil, the Precambrian mylonitic fabric mainly formed during the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogeny (640-480 Ma) and was reactivated as fault zones in the Cretaceous and Cenozoic. The reactivation process led to the development of the System of Continental Rifts of southeastern Brazil, from the Paleogene to the Quaternary. We investigated the brittle reactivation of a mylonitic zone, which is part of a major mylonitic belt, Arcádia-Areal. We used geological and geomorphological mapping, resistivity survey, controlled source audiomagnetotelluric survey, and luminescence dating. Our results indicate that this shear zone was reactivated and formed a 15 km long and 2 km wide sedimentary-filled trough, the Rio Santana Graben. It is located on the northwest border of a major structure, the Guanabara Graben, in the State of Rio de Janeiro. The Rio Santana Graben forms an almost entirely fault-bounded, NE-elongated depression that was accommodated entirely within the Arcádia-Areal shear zone. The graben consists of two main depocenters separated by a relay ramp. The graben formed by means of multistage activity of several faults during at least two main periods. The first period formed silicified fault breccia and occurred during alkaline magmatism in the Paleogene. The second formed fault breccia and gouge in shallow conditions and occurred at least until the Quaternary. The NE-trending and NW-dipping Precambrian fabric was reactivated as dip-slip and strike-slip faults. These faults triggered clastic-sediment deposition at least 300 m thick. The upper part of the graben consists of Quaternary alluvial and colluvial sediment fill, which yielded maximum luminescence deposition ages from 49 to 13 ka in the center of the trough. An organic layer at the top of the Quaternary alluvial deposits yielded 14C ages at ˜6000 years BP. The lower part of the graben may be composed of Paleogene to Neogene sedimentary deposits, which occur in other

  18. 50 Myr of pulsed mafic magmatism in the High Arctic Large Igneous Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D. G.; Dockman, D. M.; Heaman, L. M.; Gibson, S. A.; Sarkar, C.

    2017-12-01

    Extensive and voluminous Cretaceous mafic magmatism in the Sverdrup Basin of Arctic Canada forms the circum-Arctic High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP). The small number of published high-precision ages for this LIP indicate its eruption over a considerable timespan raising concerns over whether the HALIP can be strictly defined as a single LIP and questioning the role of a single or multiple plumes in its genesis. Here we present an integrated geochemical and geochronological study to better constrain the timing and cause of mafic magma genesis in the Canadian HALIP. Six new U-Pb and four 40Ar/39Ar ages of mafic lavas and intrusive sheets range from 121 Ma to 78 Ma. The U-Pb ages are the first analyzed from the mafic intrusions of Axel Heiberg and Ellesmere Islands. The new geochronology, combined with other published high-precision ages, reveal a > 50 Myr duration of mafic magmatism in the HALIP defined by three main pulses. Tholeiites dominate the initial 25 Myr of magmatism, transitioning to coeval emplacement of alkali and tholeiitic basalts. Whole-rock Sr-Nd isotope ratios indicate that both magma types are derived from a similar source dominated by convecting mantle. Rare-earth-element inversion models reveal that the alkalic and tholeiitic magmas were generated beneath a bimodal lithospheric `lid' thickness of 65 ± 5 and 45 ± 4 km, respectively. We suggest that the early 128 - 122 Ma tholeiitic event is primarily plume-generated and correlates across the circum-Arctic with the other HALIP tholeiites. Younger HALIP magmatism, with coeval alkalic and tholeiitic magmas erupting over 25 Myr, may be explained by alternating modes of edge-driven mantle convection as the primary control on magma genesis. A distal plume may have intensified magma production by edge-driven convection.

  19. Modulation of magmatic processes by carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricchi, L.; Sheldrake, T. E.; Blundy, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Volatile solubility in magmas increases with pressure, although the solubility of CO2 is much lower than that of H2O. Consequently, magmas rising from depth release CO2-rich fluids, which inevitably interact with H2O-poor magmas in the upper crust (CO2-flushing). CO2-flushing triggers the exsolution of H2O-rich fluids, leading to an increase of volume and magma crystallisation. While the analyses of eruptive products demonstrates that this process operates in virtually all magmatic system, its impact on magmatic and volcanic processes has not been quantified. Here we show that depending on the initial magma crystallinity, and the depth of magma storage, CO2-flushing can lead to volcanic eruptions or promote conditions that favour the impulsive release of mineralising fluids. Our calculations show that the interaction between a few hundred ppm of carbonic fluids, and crystal-poor magmas stored at shallow depths, produces rapid pressurisation that can potentially lead to an eruption. Further addition of CO2 increases magma compressibility and crystallinity, reducing the potential for volcanic activity, promoting the formation of ore deposits. Increasing the depth of fluid-magma interaction dampens the impact of CO2-flushing on the pressurisation of a magma reservoir. CO2-flushing may result in surface inflation and increases in surface CO2 fluxes, which are commonly considered signs of an impending eruption, but may not necessarily result in eruption depending on the initial crystallnity and depth of the magmatic reservoir. We propose that CO2-flushing is a powerful agent modulating the pressurisation of magma reservoirs and the release of mineralising fluids from upper crustal magma reservoirs.

  20. A deposit model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide deposits related to Proterozoic massif anorthosite plutonic suites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Fey, David L.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide (Fe-Ti-oxide) deposits hosted by Proterozoic age massif-type anorthosite and related rock types presents their geological, mineralogical, geochemical, and geoenvironmental attributes. Although these Proterozoic rocks are found worldwide, the majority of known deposits are found within exposed rocks of the Grenville Province, stretching from southwestern United States through eastern Canada; its extension into Norway is termed the Rogaland Anorthosite Province. This type of Fe-Ti-oxide deposit dominated by ilmenite rarely contains more than 300 million tons of ore, with between 10- to 45-percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), 32- to 45-percent iron oxide (FeO), and less than 0.2-percent vanadium (V). The origin of these typically discordant ore deposits remains as enigmatic as the magmatic evolution of their host rocks. The deposits clearly have a magmatic origin, hosted by an age-constrained unique suite of rocks that likely are the consequence of a particular combination of tectonic circumstances, rather than any a priori temporal control. Principal ore minerals are ilmenite and hemo-ilmenite (ilmenite with extensive hematite exsolution lamellae); occurrences of titanomagnetite, magnetite, and apatite that are related to this deposit type are currently of less economic importance. Ore-mineral paragenesis is somewhat obscured by complicated solid solution and oxidation behavior within the Fe-Ti-oxide system. Anorthosite suites hosting these deposits require an extensive history of voluminous plagioclase crystallization to develop plagioclase-melt diapirs with entrained Fe-Ti-rich melt rising from the base of the lithosphere to mid- and upper-crustal levels. Timing and style of oxide mineralization are related to magmatic and dynamic evolution of these diapiric systems and to development and movement of oxide cumulates and related melts. Active mines have developed large open pits with extensive waste-rock piles, but

  1. Magmatism and mineralization ages from northeast area of La Sierra de San Luis, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulacco, Jose H

    2001-01-01

    Three igneous rock groups, characterized as pre, sin and post-kinematics, have intruded the crystalline basement of Sierra de San Luis, Argentina. The ore deposits are associated with Devonian to Carboniferous epizonal granite stocks and batholiths in an area underlain by metamorphic rocks. This granitoids are characterized as post-kinematics magmatism. Model lead ages on the ore deposits (338,8 - 292,1 Ma) are strongly supported by K-Ar ages of the intrusives. The bulk of the north Sierra de San Luis ore deposits are genetically related to late Carboniferous granite plutons. The ore bodies are tungsten veins with greisen envelopes, lead veins, epithermal fluorite veins and REE and Th deposit. A generalized scheme of ore bodies related to granites is proposed. The ore deposits and their lithotectonic setting are characteristic of Gondwana metallogenetic Epoch in the Sierra de San Luis (au)

  2. Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution and its relation to sandstone-type uranium mineralization in northern Tarim area--Evidence from apatite fission track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongxu; Dong Wenming; Liu Zhangyue; Chen Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    The apatite fission track dating and inversion result of geological thermal history of four rock specimens from Sawafuqi area and Talike area in northern Tarim Basin show that two areas uplifted at different ages. The apatite fission track ages of Sawafuqi range from 3.5 to 3.9 Ma, while the ages of Talike range from 53 to 59 Ma. The thermal history recorded by rock samples reveals that there are at least three prominent cooling phases since Late Cretaceous epoch. Detailed study was made on the division of uplifting stages during Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic evolution with the existing data in northern Tarim area. And new ideas on tectonic evolution and sandstone-type uranium mineralization have been put forward by combining with the sandstone-type uranium mineralization ages in this area.(authors)

  3. The McMurdo Dry Valleys Magmatic Laboratory Workshop of 2005 in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.; Simon, A.; Charrier, A. D.; Hersum, T. G.; Eschholz, E.

    2005-12-01

    In January of 2005, twenty-five petrologists, volcanologists, geochemists, structural geologists, and magma dynamicists spent two weeks studying and discussing the Magmatic Mush Column represented by the 180 Ma Ferrar Dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. This exceptionally well-exposed system shows a series of massive interconnected sills culminating in a capping of regional flood basalts. The lowermost sill, the Basement Sill, contains a massive ultramafic tongue of large phenocrysts of orthopyroxene (Opx) with subordinate Cpx and much smaller plagioclase. The 3-D distribution of this Opx Tongue serves as a tracer for the filling dynamics and local motion of the magma. Ponding of the Basement Sill has resulted in a small (500 m), but exceedingly diversified and extensively layered ultramafic intrusion, the Dais Intrusion. Because of the relatively rapid cooling time of this body, the Dais textures have been preserved before extensive annealing, which presents the possibility of using these textures to understand those of much larger, slowly cooled bodies. The combination of seeing in detail a wide variety of exceptional field relations depicting layering, sill emplacement mechanics, internal ordering and crystal sorting in the Opx Tongue, dike and fissure distributions, wall rock thermal effects, and many other first order features of central interest to understanding magmatic processes and performing research in real time was a new challenge to all involved. Facilities were set up at McMurdo Station for rock cutting, thin-section making, map making, GIS analysis, petrographic analysis, and computer modeling using existing chemical and physical data on a spectrum of the representative rock types. At any one time half the group was housed in the field in Bull Pass near Wright Valley and the remaining group was shuttled in by helicopter each day. The principal groups were switched about every three days. Areas for daily field-work were decided upon by

  4. Source rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakr F. Makky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro, and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members, Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history and calculate the levels of thermal maturity of the Fayoum-1X well based on calibration of measured %Ro and Tmax against calculated %Ro model. The calculated Total Organic Carbon (TOC content from well log data compared with the measured TOC from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in Fayoum-1X well is shown to match against the shale source rock but gives high values against the limestone source rock. For that, a new model is derived from well log data to calculate accurately the TOC content against the limestone source rock in the study area. The organic matter existing in Abu Roash (F member is fair to excellent and capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbons (oil prone produced from (mixed type I/II kerogen. The generation potential of kerogen in Abu Roash (E and G members and Betty formations is ranging from poor to fair, and generating hydrocarbons of oil and gas prone (mixed type II/III kerogen. Eventually, kerogen (type III of Kharita Formation has poor to very good generation potential and mainly produces gas. Thermal maturation of the measured %Ro, calculated %Ro model, Tmax and Production index (PI indicates that Abu Roash (F member exciting in the onset of oil generation, whereas Abu Roash (E and G members, Kharita and Betty formations entered the peak of oil generation.

  5. Magmatism at different crustal levels in the ancient North Cascades magmatic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, E. K.; Bowring, S. A.; Miller, R. B.; Miller, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The mechanisms of magma ascent and emplacement inferred from study of intrusive complexes have long been the subject of intense debate. Current models favor incremental construction based on integration of field, geochemical, geochronologic, and modeling studies. Much of this work has been focused on a single crustal level. However, study of magmatism throughout the crust is critical for understanding how magma ascends through and intrudes surrounding crustal material. Here, we present new geochronologic and geochemical work from intrusive complexes emplaced at a range of crustal depths in the Cretaceous North Cascades magmatic arc. These complexes were intruded between 92 and 87 Ma at depths of at ≤5 -10 km, ~20 km, and ~25 km during this time. U-Pb CA-TIMS geochronology in zircon can resolve Jack-Entiat intrusive complex, a highly elongate amalgamation of intrusions recording two episodes of magmatism between~92-88 Ma and ~80-77 Ma. Each of these complexes provides a window into crustal processes that occur at different depths. Our data suggest assembly of the Black Peak intrusive complex occurred via a series of small (0.5-2 km2) magmatic increments from ~92 Ma to ~87 Ma. Field relations and zircon trace element geochemistry indicate each of these increments were emplaced and crystallized as closed systems-we find no evidence for mixing between magmas in the complex. However, zircon inheritance becomes more common in younger intrusions, indicating assimilation of older plutonic material, possibly during magma production or transport. The Seven-Fingered Jack intrusive complex, emplaced around 15-20 km, preserves a much more discontinuous record of intrusion than the Black Peak. Our data indicate major magmatism in the complex occurred between ~92.1-91.1 Ma. Inheritance in the Seven-Fingered Jack is common, particularly along contacts between intrusions. The Tenpeak intrusive complex, assembled between ~92 Ma and 89 Ma, represents one of the deepest exhumed

  6. Magmatic and fragmentation controls on volcanic ash surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayris, Paul M.; Diplas, Spyros; Damby, David E.; Hornby, Adrian J.; Cimarelli, Corrado; Delmelle, Pierre; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-04-01

    The chemical effects of silicate ash ejected by explosive volcanic eruptions on environmental systems are fundamentally mediated by ash particle surfaces. Ash surfaces are a composite product of magmatic properties and fragmentation mechanisms, as well as in-plume and atmospheric alteration processes acting upon those surfaces during and after the eruption. Recent attention has focused on the capacity of alteration processes to shape ash surfaces; most notably, several studies have utilised X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), a technique probing the elemental composition and coordination state of atoms within the top 10 nm of ash surfaces, to identify patterns of elemental depletions and enrichments relative to bulk ash chemical composition. Under the presumption of surface and bulk equivalence, any disparities have been previously attributed to surface alteration processes, but the ubiquity of some depletions (e.g., Ca, Fe) across multiple ash studies, irrespective of eruptive origin, could suggest these to be features of the surface produced at the instant of magma fragmentation. To investigate this possibility further, we conducted rapid decompression experiments at different pressure conditions and at ambient and magmatic temperature on porous andesitic rocks. These experiments produced fragmented ash material untouched by secondary alteration, which were compared to particles produced by crushing of large clasts from the same experiments. We investigated a restricted size fraction (63-90 μm) from both fragmented and crushed materials, determining bulk chemistry and mineralogy via XRF, SEM-BSE and EPMA, and investigated the chemical composition of the ash surface by XPS. Analyses suggest that fragmentation under experimental conditions partitioned a greater fraction of plagioclase-rich particles into the selected size fraction, relative to particles produced by crushing. Trends in surface chemical composition in fragmented and crushed particles mirror that

  7. Radiolarians decreased silicification as an evolutionary response to reduced Cenozoic ocean silica availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, David B; Kotrc, Benjamin; Wulf, Gerwin; Schmidt, Daniela N

    2009-06-09

    It has been hypothesized that increased water column stratification has been an abiotic "universal driver" affecting average cell size in Cenozoic marine plankton. Gradually decreasing Cenozoic radiolarian shell weight, by contrast, suggests that competition for dissolved silica, a shared nutrient, resulted in biologic coevolution between radiolaria and marine diatoms, which expanded dramatically in the Cenozoic. We present data on the 2 components of shell weight change--size and silicification--of Cenozoic radiolarians. In low latitudes, increasing Cenozoic export of silica to deep waters by diatoms and decreasing nutrient upwelling from increased water column stratification have created modern silica-poor surface waters. Here, radiolarian silicification decreases significantly (r = 0.91, P stratification and abundance of diatoms. In high southern latitudes, Southern Ocean circulation, present since the late Eocene, maintains significant surface water silica availability. Here, radiolarian silicification decreased insignificantly (r = 0.58, P = 0.1), from approximately 0.13 at 35 Ma to 0.11 today. Trends in shell size in both time series are statistically insignificant and are not correlated with each other. We conclude that there is no universal driver changing cell size in Cenozoic marine plankton. Furthermore, biologic and physical factors have, in concert, by reducing silica availability in surface waters, forced macroevolutionary changes in Cenozoic low-latitude radiolarians.

  8. Fires in the Cenozoic: a late flowering of flammable ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William John Bond

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern flammable ecosystems include tropical and subtropical savannas, steppe grasslands, boreal forests and temperate sclerophyll shrublands. Despite the apparent fiery nature of much contemporary vegetation, terrestrial fossil evidence would suggest we live in a time of low fire activity relative to the deep past. The inertinite content of coal, fossil charcoal, is strikingly low from the Eocene to the Pleistocene and no charcoalified mesofossils have been reported for the Cenozoic. Marine cores have been analysed for charcoal in the North Pacific, the north and south Atlantic off Africa, and the south China sea. These tell a different story with the oldest records indicating low levels of fire activity from the Eocene but a surge of fire from the late Miocene (~7 Ma. Phylogenetic studies of woody plants adapted to frequent savanna fires show them beginning to appear from the Late Miocene with peak origins in the late Pliocene in both South American and African lineages. Phylogenetic studies indicate ancient origins (60 Ma+ for clades characteristic of flammable sclerophyll vegetation from Australia and the Cape region of South Africa. However, as for savannas, there was a surge of speciation from the Late Miocene associated with the retreat of closed fire-intolerant forests. The wide geographic spread of increased fire activity in the last few million years suggests a global cause. However none of the potential global factors (oxygen, rainfall seasonality, CO2 , novel flammable growth forms provides an adequate explanation as yet. The global patterns and processes of fire and flammable vegetation in the Cenozoic, especially since the Late Miocene, deserve much more attention to better understand fire in the earth system.

  9. Fires in the Cenozoic: a late flowering of flammable ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, William J

    2014-01-01

    Modern flammable ecosystems include tropical and subtropical savannas, steppe grasslands, boreal forests, and temperate sclerophyll shrublands. Despite the apparent fiery nature of much contemporary vegetation, terrestrial fossil evidence would suggest we live in a time of low fire activity relative to the deep past. The inertinite content of coal, fossil charcoal, is strikingly low from the Eocene to the Pleistocene and no charcoalified mesofossils have been reported for the Cenozoic. Marine cores have been analyzed for charcoal in the North Pacific, the north and south Atlantic off Africa, and the south China sea. These tell a different story with the oldest records indicating low levels of fire activity from the Eocene but a surge of fire from the late Miocene (~7 Ma). Phylogenetic studies of woody plants adapted to frequent savanna fires show them beginning to appear from the Late Miocene with peak origins in the late Pliocene in both South American and African lineages. Phylogenetic studies indicate ancient origins (60 Ma+) for clades characteristic of flammable sclerophyll vegetation from Australia and the Cape region of South Africa. However, as for savannas, there was a surge of speciation from the Late Miocene associated with the retreat of closed fire-intolerant forests. The wide geographic spread of increased fire activity in the last few million years suggests a global cause. However, none of the potential global factors (oxygen, rainfall seasonality, CO2, novel flammable growth forms) provides an adequate explanation as yet. The global patterns and processes of fire and flammable vegetation in the Cenozoic, especially since the Late Miocene, deserve much more attention to better understand fire in the earth system.

  10. The Axum-Adwa basalt-trachyte complex: a late magmatic activity at the periphery of the Afar plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, C.; Beccaluva, L.; Bianchini, G.; Siena, F.

    2013-08-01

    The Axum-Adwa igneous complex consists of a basalt-trachyte (syenite) suite emplaced at the northern periphery of the Ethiopian plateau, after the paroxysmal eruption of the Oligocene (ca 30 Ma) continental flood basalts (CFB), which is related to the Afar plume activity. 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar ages, carried out for the first time on felsic and basaltic rocks, constrain the magmatic age of the greater part of the complex around Axum to 19-15 Ma, whereas trachytic lavas from volcanic centres NE of Adwa are dated ca 27 Ma. The felsic compositions straddle the critical SiO2-saturation boundary, ranging from normative quartz trachyte lavas east of Adwa to normative (and modal) nepheline syenite subvolcanic domes (the obelisks stones of ancient axumites) around Axum. Petrogenetic modelling based on rock chemical data and phase equilibria calculations by PELE (Boudreau 1999) shows that low-pressure fractional crystallization processes, starting from mildly alkaline- and alkaline basalts comparable to those present in the complex, could generate SiO2-saturated trachytes and SiO2-undersaturated syenites, respectively, which correspond to residual liquid fractions of 17 and 10 %. The observed differentiation processes are consistent with the development of rifting events and formation of shallow magma chambers plausibly located between displaced (tilted) crustal blocks that favoured trapping of basaltic parental magmas and their fractionation to felsic differentiates. In syenitic domes, late- to post-magmatic processes are sometimes evidenced by secondary mineral associations (e.g. Bete Giorgis dome) which overprint the magmatic parageneses, and mainly induce additional nepheline and sodic pyroxene neo-crystallization. These metasomatic reactions were promoted by the circulation of Na-Cl-rich deuteric fluids (600-400 °C), as indicated by mineral and bulk rock chemical budgets as well as by δ18O analyses on mineral separates. The occurrence of this magmatism post-dating the

  11. Extensive crustal melting during craton destruction: Evidence from the Mesozoic magmatic suite of Junan, eastern North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Santosh, M.; Tang, Li

    2018-05-01

    The cratonic destruction associated with the Pacific plate subduction beneath the eastern North China Craton (NCC) shows a close relationship with the widespread magmatism during the Late Mesozoic. Here we investigate a suite of intrusive and extrusive magmatic rocks from the Junan region of the eastern NCC in order to evaluate the role of extensive crustal melting related to decratonization. We present petrological, geochemical, zircon U-Pb geochronological and Lu-Hf isotopic data to evaluate the petrogenesis, timing and tectonic significance of the Early Cretaceous magmatism. Zircon grains in the basalt from the extrusive suite of Junan show multiple populations with Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic xenocrystic grains ranging in age from 764 Ma to 495 Ma as well as Jurassic grains with an age range of 189-165 Ma. The dominant population of magmatic zircon grains in the syenite defines three major age peaks of 772 Ma, 132 Ma and 126 Ma. Zircons in the granitoids including alkali syenite, monzonite and granodiorite yield a tightly restricted age range of 124-130 Ma representing their emplacement ages. The Neoproterozoic (841-547 Ma) zircon grains from the basalt and the syenite possess εHf(t) values of -22.9 to -8.4 and from -18.8 to -17.3, respectively. The Early Paleozoic (523-494 Ma) zircons from the basalt and the syenite also show markedly negative εHf(t) values of -22.7 to -18.0. The dominant population of Early Cretaceous (134-121 Ma) zircon grains presented in all the samples also displays negative εHf(t) values range from -31.7 to -21.1, with TDM of 1653-2017 Ma and TDMC in the range of 2193-3187 Ma. Accordingly, the Lu-Hf data suggest that the parent magma was sourced through melting of Mesoarchean to Paleoproterozoic basement rocks. Geochemical data on the Junan magmatic suite display features similar to those associated with the arc magmatic rocks involving subduction-related components, with interaction of fluids and melts in the suprasubduction

  12. Petrogenesis of the Mairupt microgranite: A witness of an Uppermost Silurian magmatism in the Rocroi Inlier, Ardenne Allochton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobert, Corentin; Baele, Jean-Marc; Boulvais, Philippe; Poujol, Marc; Decrée, Sophie

    2018-03-01

    Magmatism in the Rocroi inlier (Ardenne Allochton, southeastern Avalonia during eo-Hercynian times) consists of a swarm of bimodal dykes (diabase and/or microgranite) emplaced in Middle to Upper Cambrian siliciclastics (Revin Group). Felsic volcanites interbedded within the Upper Silurian/Lower Devonian transgressive strata on the eastern edge of the inlier were interpreted as belonging to the same magmatic event. This was subsequently invalidated by zircon U-Pb dating of the Mairupt and Grande Commune magmatic rocks, which yielded an Upper Devonian age. Here we report a reevaluation of the age of the Mairupt microgranite based on LA-ICP-MS in situ U-Pb zircon geochronology, which yields a concordant age of 420.5 ± 2.9 Ma (Late Silurian/Early Devonian). This new dating restores the consistency between the different magmatic occurrences in the Rocroi inlier. The geochemical and petrographical data furthermore indicate a major crustal contribution, which fits well within the context of crust thinning of the Ardenne margin (southeastern Avalonia) in the transtensional Rheno-Hercynian back-arc basin.

  13. Geochemical modeling of magmatic gas scrubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gambardella

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The EQ3/6 software package, version 7.2 was successfully used to model scrubbing of magmatic gas by pure water at 0.1 MPa, in the liquid and liquid-plus-gas regions. Some post-calculations were necessary to account for gas separation effects. In these post-calculations, redox potential was considered to be fixed by precipitation of crystalline a-sulfur, a ubiquitous and precocious process. As geochemical modeling is constrained by conservation of enthalpy upon water-gas mixing, the enthalpies of the gas species of interest were reviewed, adopting as reference state the liquid phase at the triple point. Our results confirm that significant emissions of highly acidic gas species (SO2(g, HCl(g, and HF(g are prevented by scrubbing, until dry conditions are established, at least locally. Nevertheless important outgassing of HCl(g can take place from acid, HCl-rich brines. Moreover, these findings support the rule of thumb which is generally used to distinguish SO2-, HCl-, and HF-bearing magmatic gases from SO2-, HCl-, and HF-free hydrothermal gases.

  14. Long-lasting Cadomian magmatic activity along an active northern Gondwana margin: U-Pb zircon and Sr-Nd isotopic evidence from the Brunovistulian Domain, eastern Bohemian Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejono, Igor; Janoušek, Vojtěch; Žáčková, Eliška; Sláma, Jiří; Konopásek, Jiří; Machek, Matěj; Hanžl, Pavel

    2017-09-01

    Cadomian magmatic complexes of the Brunovistulian Domain crop out at the eastern termination of the Bohemian Massif. However, the age, nature and geotectonic affinity of some of pre-Variscan (meta-)igneous rock complexes from this domain are still unknown. Geochronological and geochemical study of the granitic rocks across the Brunovistulian Domain reveals new information about the timing and nature of this magmatic activity originally situated along the northern margin of Gondwana. Zircon U-Pb data (601 ± 3 Ma, Brno Massif; 634 ± 6 Ma, paraautochtonous core of the Svratka Dome; 568 ± 3 Ma, Bíteš orthogneiss) from the allochtonous Moravicum indicate the prolonged magmatic activity within the Brunovistulian Domain during the Ediacaran. The major- and trace-element and Sr-Nd isotopic signatures show heterogeneous geochemical characteristics of the granitic rocks and suggest a magmatic-arc geotectonic setting. The two-stage Depleted Mantle Nd model ages ( c. 1.3-2.0 Ga) indicate derivation of the granitic rocks from a relatively primitive crustal source, as well as from an ancient and evolved continental crust of the Brunovistulian Domain. These results constrain the magmatic-arc activity to c. 635-570 Ma and provide a further evidence for a long-lived (at least c. 65 Myr) and likely episodic subduction-related magmatism at the northern margin of Gondwana. The presence of granitic intrusions derived from variously mature crustal sources at different times suggests heterogeneous crustal segments to having been involved in the magmatic-arc system during its multistage evolution.

  15. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  16. Igneous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Bruce R.

    “Igneous Rocks was written for undergraduate geology majors who have had a year of college-level chemistry and a course in mineralogy … and for beginning graduate students. Geologists working in industry, government, or academia should find this text useful as a guide to the technical literature up to 1981 and as an overview of topics with which they have not worked but which may have unanticipated pertinence to their own projects.” So starts the preface to this textbook.As one who works part time in research on igneous rocks, especially as they relate to mineral deposits, I have been looking for such a book with this avowed purpose in a field that has a choking richness of evolving terminology and a bewildering volume of interdisciplinary literature. In addition to the standard topics of igneous petrology, the book contains a chapter on the role of igneous activity in the genesis of mineral deposits, its value to geothermal energy, and the potential of igneous rocks as an environment for nuclear waste disposal. These topics are presented rather apologetically in the preface, but the author is to be applauded for including this chapter. The apology shows just how new these interests are to petrology. Recognition is finally coming that, for example, mineral deposits are not “sports of nature,” a view held even by many economic geologists as recently as the early 1960's; instead they are perfectly ordinary geochemical features formed by perfectly ordinary geologic processes. In fact, the mineral deposits and their attendant alteration zones probably have as much to tell us about igneous rocks as the igneous rocks have to tell us about mineral deposits.

  17. Cenozoic Uplift and Climate Change of the Northeast Tibetan Plateau: Evidence from Leaf Wax Stable Isotopic Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, M.; Zhuang, G.; Wu, M.

    2017-12-01

    Topics about the deformation history and uplift mechanism of Tibetan Plateau have been largely debated in the past few decades. Different geodynamic models present different predictions on the mountain building processes and hence the surface uplift history. For example, one tectonic model suggests a rapid uplift (>1.0 to 2.0 km) of the Tibetan Plateau in the period of ca. 10 to 8 Ma as result of isostatic rebound due to the removal of over-thickened mental lithosphere beneath. Whilst the stepwise uplift model infers that the high topography was growing progressively from south to north with the Northeast Tibetan Plateau being built in the Pliocene to present. In this case, the timing of Cenozoic uplift of Northeast Tibetan Plateau would provide information for distinguishing competing geodynamic processes. The stable isotope based paleoaltimetry holds the key to answering when the high topography was built. Additionally, the evolution of Cenozoic Asian climate was argued to be closely related to the high topography built up on the Tibetan Plateau since the India-Asian collision and/or impacted by the global change. To understand when the high topography was built and how the growth of Tibetan Plateau impacted the climate, we reconstructed the long-term histories of paleohydrology from hinterland and foreland basins in the Northeast Tibetan Plateau. We applied the compound-specific isotope hydrogen analysis to leaf wax n-alkanes (δ2Hn-alk) that are preserved in well-dated stratigraphic series (ca. 24 Ma to the present) in the Northeast Tibetan Plateau. The newly reconstructed δ2Hn-alk supports the inference of high topography on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau was built during the middle to late Miocene. Our inference is consistent with sedimentary and basement rock studies that show fundamental changes in facies and provenance and exhumation history. The new δ2Hn-alk record also reveals that the regional climate became drier since the middle Miocene following the

  18. Mesozoic and Cenozoic uplift and exhumation of the Bogda Mountain, NW China: Evidence from apatite fission track analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Apatite fission track (AFT analysis on samples collected from a Paleozoic series is used to constrain the cooling history of the Bogda Mountain, northwest China. AFT ages range from 136.2 to 85.6 Ma and are younger than rock depositional ages and the mean confined track lengths (11.0–13.2 μm mostly showing unimodal distribution are shorten, indicating significant track-annealing. Thermal histories modeling based on the distribution of fission-track lengths combined with the regional geological data show that two rapid cooling phases occurred in the latest Jurassic–early Cretaceous and the Oligocene–Miocene. Those new data together with previous published data show that the AFT ages become younger from the southwest to northeast in the western Bogda Mountain and its adjacent areas. The fission-track ages of the southwest area are relatively older (>100 Ma, recording the earlier rapid uplift phase during the late Jurassic–Cretaceous, while the ages in the north piedmont of the Bogda Mountain (namely the northeast part are younger (<60 Ma, mainly reflecting the later rapid uplift phase in the Oligocene–Miocene. The trend of younger AFT ages towards the northeast might be explained by post-Cretaceous large-scale crustal tilting towards the southwest. In the thrust fault-dominated northern limbs of the Bogda Mountain, AFT ages reveal a discontinuous pattern with age-jumps across the major fault zones, showing a possible strata tilting across each thrust faults due to the thrust ramps during the Cenozoic. The two rapid uplift stages might be related to the accretion and collision in the southern margin of the Asian continent during the late Jurassic and late Cenozoic, respectively.

  19. Stratigraphy and Folding in the Cenozoic Cover of a Fold-Thrust Belt in the Nallıhan Region (Ankara, Central Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaaǧaç, Serdal; Koral, Hayrettin

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates stratigraphy and structural features in the Cenozoic sedimentary sequence of the fold-thrust belt of the Nallıhan-Ankara region, located to the north of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone. Permian-Triassic age marble intercalated with schist-phyllites, the upper Jurassic-lower Cretaceous age limestone and the upper Cretaceous age sandstone-shale alternation compose the basement in the study area. These rocks are unconformably overlain by the Cenozoic age terrestrial sedimentary and volcanic units. The Cenozoic stratigraphy begins with the Paleocene-Eocene age coal-bearing, at times, volcanic intercalated conglomerate-sandstone-mudstone alternation of alluvial-fluvial origins (Aksaklar Formation) and the tuff intercalated with lacustrine limestone, bituminous limestone (Kabalar Formation). These units are conformably overlain by the Eocene age basalt-andesite and pyroclastic rocks (Meyildere volcanics). The Paleocene-Eocene aged units are unconformably overlain by the conglomerate-sandstone-mudstone-marl of a lower-middle Miocene lacustrine environment (Hançili Formation). The terrestrial conglomerate-sandstone alternation (Örencik Formation) is the youngest unit in the Cenozoic stratigraphy, and is assumed to be of Pliocene age based its stratigraphic position on older units. Field study shows existence of both folds and faults in the sedimentary cover. Stereographic projections of bedding measured in the field shows N25W/45NW and N60W/4SE-oriented fold axes in the Paleocene-Eocene age units. There are also N76W/12SE and N88E/8NE-oriented folds. The difference in fold-axis orientations suggests that some folds may have been rotated in blocks bound by faults during the post-Paleocene/Eocene period. Whereas, the lower-middle Miocene units manifest N88W/13SE-oriented fold axes. It is thus proposed that the observed difference in the azimuth of fold axes represent two different folding phases, one with NE-SW and the other with N

  20. Cenozoic intraplate tectonics in Central Patagonia: Record of main Andean phases in a weak upper plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianni, G. M.; Echaurren, A.; Folguera, A.; Likerman, J.; Encinas, A.; García, H. P. A.; Dal Molin, C.; Valencia, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    Contraction in intraplate areas is still poorly understood relative to similar deformation at plate margins. In order to contribute to its comprehension, we study the Patagonian broken foreland (PBF) in South America whose evolution remains controversial. Time constraints of tectonic events and structural characterization of this belt are limited. Also, major causes of strain location in this orogen far from the plate margin are enigmatic. To unravel tectonic events, we studied the Cenozoic sedimentary record of the central sector of the Patagonian broken foreland (San Bernardo fold and thrust belt, 44°30‧S-46°S) and the Andes (Meseta de Chalia, 46°S) following an approach involving growth-strata detection, U-Pb geochronology and structural modeling. Additionally, we elaborate a high resolution analysis of the effective elastic thickness (Te) to examine the relation between intraplate contraction location and variations in lithospheric strength. The occurrence of Eocene growth-strata ( 44-40 Ma) suggests that contraction in the Andes and the Patagonian broken foreland was linked to the Incaic phase. Detection of synextensional deposits suggests that the broken foreland collapsed partially during Oligocene to early Miocene. During middle Miocene times, the Quechua contractional phase produced folding of Neogene volcanic rocks and olistostrome deposition at 17 Ma. Finally, the presented Te map shows that intraplate contraction related to Andean phases localized preferentially along weak lithospheric zones (Te < 15 km). Hence, the observed strain distribution in the PBF appears to be controlled by lateral variations in the lithospheric strength. Variations in this parameter could be related to thermo-mechanical weakening produced by intraplate rifting in Paleozoic-Mesozoic times.

  1. Types of Cenozoic Mollusca from Java in the Martin Collection of Naturalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leloux, J.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2009-01-01

    An updated type catalogue of the Martin Collection (fossil Mollusca, predominantly from the Cenozoic of Java, Indonesia) is presented. Type specimen data, updated locality data, and illustrations are given.

  2. Geological, petrogical and geochemical characteristics of granitoid rocks in Burma: with special reference to the associated WSn mineralization and their tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, Khin

    The granitoid rocks in Burma extend over a distance of 1450 km from Putao, Kachin State in the north, through Mogok, Kyaukse, Yamethin and Pyinmana in the Mandalay Division, to Tavoy and Mergui areas, Tenasserim Division, in the south. The Burmese granitoids can be subdivided into three N-S trending, major belts viz. western granitoid belt, central graniotoid belt and eastern granitoid belt. The Upper Cretaceous-Lower Eocene western belt granitoids are characterized by high-level intrusions associated with porphyry Cu(Au) related, younger volcanics; these plutonic and volcanic rocks are thought to have been emplaced as a magmatic-volcanic arc (inner magmatic-volcanic arc) above an east-dipping, but westwardly migrating, subduction zone related to the prolonged plate convergence which occurred during Upper Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The central granitoid belt is characterized by mesozonal, Mostly Upper Cretaceous to Lower Eocene plutons associated with abundant pegmalites and aplites, numerous vein-type W-Sn deposits and rare co-magmatic volcanics. The country rocks are structurally deformed, metamorphic rocks of greenschist to upper amphibolite facies ranging in age as early as Upper Precambrian to Upper Paleozoic and locally of fossiliferous, metaclastic rocks (Mid Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous). Available K/Ar radiometric data indicate significant and possibly widespread thermal disturbances in the central granitoid belt during the Tertiary (mostly Miocence). In this study, the distribution, lithological, textural and structural characteristics of the central belt granitoids are reviewed, and their mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical features are presented. A brief description of W-Sn ore veins associated with these granitoid plutons is also reported. Present geological, petrological and geochemical evidences demonstrate that the W-Sn related, central belt granitoids are mostly granodiorite and granite which are commonly transformed into granitoid gneisses

  3. Oxygen isotope studies of early Precambrian granitic rocks from the Giants Range batholith, northeastern Minnesota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, S.

    1974-01-01

    Oxygen isotope studies of granitic rocks from the 2.7 b.y.-old composite Giants Range batholith show that: (1) ??(O18)quartz values of 9 to 10 permil characterize relatively uncontaminated Lower Precambrian, magmatic granodiorites and granites; (2) granitic rocks thought to have formed by static granitization have ??(O18)quartz values that are 1 to 2 permil higher than magmatic granitic rocks; (3) satellite leucogranite bodies have values nearly identical to those of the main intrusive phases even where they transect O18-rich metasedimentary wall rocks; (4) oxygen isotopic interaction between the granitic melts and their O18-rich wall rocks was minimal; and (5) O18/O18 ratios of quartz grains in a metasomatic granite are largely inherited from the precursor rock, but during the progression - sedimentary parent ??? partially granitized parent ??? metasomatic granite ??? there is gradual decrease in ??(O18)quartz by 1 to 2 permil. ?? 1974.

  4. White Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  5. Multiscale magmatic cyclicity, duration of pluton construction, and the paradoxical relationship between tectonism and plutonism in continental arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Blanquat, Michel; Horsman, Eric; Habert, Guillaume; Morgan, Sven; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Law, Richard; Tikoff, Basil

    2011-03-01

    The close relationship between crustal magmatism, an expression of heat dissipation, and tectonics, an expression of stress dissipation, leads to the question of their mutual relationships. Indeed, the low viscosity of magmas and the large viscosity contrast between magmas and surrounding rocks favor strain localization in magmas, and then possible "magmatic" initiation of structures at a wide range of scales. However, new data about 3-d pluton shape and duration of pluton construction perturb this simple geological image, and indicate some independence between magmatism and tectonics. In some cases we observe a direct genetic link and strong arguments for physical interactions between magmas and tectonics. In other cases, we observe an absence of these interactions and it is unclear how magma transfer and emplacement are related to lithospheric-plate dynamics. A simple explanation of this complexity follows directly from the pulsed, incremental assembly of plutons and its spatial and temporal characteristics. The size of each pluton is related to a magmatic pulsation at a particular time scale, and each of these coupled time/space scales is related to a specific process: in small plutons, we can observe the incremental process, the building block of plutons; in larger plutons, the incremental process is lost, and the pulsation, which consists of a cycle of injections at different timescales, must be related to the composition and thermal regime of the source region, itself driving magmatic processes (melting, segregation, and transfer) that interact with tectonic boundary conditions. The dynamics of pulsed magmatism observed in plutonic systems is then a proxy for deep lithospheric and magmatic processes. From our data and a review of published work, we find a positive corelation between volume and duration of pluton construction. The larger a pluton, the longer its construction time. Large/fast or small/slow plutons have not been identified to date. One

  6. Retrowedge-related Carboniferous units and coeval magmatism in the northwestern Neuquén province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Chernicoff, Carlos J.; Santos, Joao O. S.; Dalponte, Marcelo; Belousova, Elena; McNaughton, Neal

    2012-11-01

    The studied Carboniferous units comprise metasedimentary (Guaraco Norte Formation), pyroclastic (Arroyo del Torreón Formation), and sedimentary (Huaraco Formation) rocks that crop out in the northwestern Neuquén province, Argentina. They form part of the basement of the Neuquén Basin and are mostly coeval with the Late Paleozoic accretionary prism complex of the Coastal Cordillera, south-central Chile. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of detrital zircon yielded a maximum depositional age of 374 Ma (Upper Devonian) for the Guaraco Norte Formation and 389 Ma for the Arroyo del Torreón Formation. Detrital magmatic zircon from the Guaraco Norte Formation are grouped into two main populations of Devonian and Ordovician (Famatinian) ages. In the Arroyo del Torreón Formation, zircon populations are also of Devonian and Ordovician (Famatinian), as well as of Late Neoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic ages. In both units, there is a conspicuous population of Devonian magmatic zircon grains (from 406 ± 4 Ma to 369 ± 5 Ma), indicative of active magmatism at that time range. The ɛHf values of this population range between -2.84 and -0.7, and the TDM-(Hf) are mostly Mesoproterozoic, suggesting that the primary sources of the Devonian magmatism contained small amounts of Mesoproterozoic recycled crustal components. The chemical composition of the Guaraco Norte Formation corresponds to recycled, mature polycyclic sediment of mature continental provenance, pointing to a passive margin with minor inputs from continental margin magmatic rocks. The chemical signature of the Huaraco Formation indicates that a magmatic arc was the main provenance for sediments of this unit, which is consistent with the occurrence of tuff—mostly in the Arroyo del Torreón Formation and very scarcely in the Huaraco Formation—with a volcanic-arc signature, jointly indicating the occurrence of a Carboniferous active arc magmatism during the deposition of the two units. The Guaraco Norte Formation is interpreted

  7. High salinity volatile phases in magmatic Ni-Cu-platinum group element deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J. J.; Mungall, J. E.

    2004-12-01

    The role of "deuteric" fluids (exsolved magmatic volatile phases) in the development of Ni-Cu-PGE (platinum group element) deposits in mafic-ultramafic igneous systems is poorly understood. Although considerable field evidence demonstrates unambiguously that fluids modified most large primary Ni-Cu-PGE concentrations, models which hypothesize that fluids alone were largely responsible for the economic concentration of the base and precious metals are not widely accepted. Determination of the trace element composition of magmatic volatile phases in such ore-forming systems can offer considerable insight into the origin of potentially mineralizing fluids in such igneous environments. Laser ablation ICP-MS microanalysis allows researchers to confirm the original metal budget of magmatic volatile phases and quantify the behavior of trace ore metals in the fluid phase in the absence of well-constrained theoretical or experimental predictions of ore metal solubility. In this study, we present new evidence from major deposits (Sudbury, Ontario, Canada; Stillwater Complex, Montana, U.S.A.) that compositionally distinct magmatic brines and halide melt phases were exsolved from crystallizing residual silicate melt and trapped within high-T fluid conduits now comprised of evolved rock compositions (albite-quartz graphic granite, orthoclase-quartz granophyre). Petrographic evidence demonstrates that brines and halide melts coexisted with immiscible carbonic phases at the time of entrapment (light aliphatic hydrocarbons, CO2). Brine and halide melt inclusions are rich in Na, Fe, Mn, K, Pb, Zn, Ba, Sr, Al and Cl, and homogenize by either halite dissolution at high T ( ˜450-700° C) or by melting of the salt phase (700-800° C). LA-ICPMS analyses of single inclusions demonstrate that high salinity volatile phases contained abundant base metals (Cu, Fe, Sn, Bi) and precious metals (Pt, Pd, Au, Ag) at the time of entrapment. Notably, precious metal concentrations in the inclusions

  8. The Volcanic Myths of the Red Sea - Temporal Relationship Between Magmatism and Rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockli, D. F.; Bosworth, W.

    2017-12-01

    The Cenozoic Red Sea is one of the premier examples of continental rifting and active break-up. It has been cited as an example for both prototypical volcanic, pure shear rift systems with limited crustal stretching as well as magma-poor simple-shear rifting and highly asymmetric rift margins characterized by low-angle normal faults. In light of voluminous Oligocene continental flood basalts in the Afar/Ethiopian region, the Red Sea has often been viewed as a typical volcanic rift, despite evidence for asymmetric extension and hyperextended crust (Zabargad Island). An in-depth analysis of the timing, spatial distribution, and nature of Red Sea volcanism and its relationship to late Cenozoic extensional faulting should shed light on some of the misconceptions. The Eocene appearance of the East African super-plume was not accompanied by any recognized significant extensional faulting or rift-basin formation. The first phase of volcanism more closely associated with the Red Sea occurred in northern Ethiopia and western Yemen at 31-30 Ma and was synchronous with the onset of continental extension in the Gulf of Aden. Early Oligocene volcanism has also been documented in southern and central Saudi Arabia and southern Sudan. However, this voluminous Oligocene volcanism entirely predates Red Sea extensional faulting and rift formation. Marking the onset of Red Sea rifting, widespread, spatially synchronous intrusion of basaltic dikes occurred at 24-21 Ma along the entire Red Sea-Gulf of Suez rift and continuing into northern Egypt. While the initiation of lithospheric extension in the central and northern and central Red Sea and Gulf of Suez was accompanied by only sparse basaltic volcanism and possible underplating, the main phase of rifting in the Miocene Red Sea/Gulf of Suez completely lacks any significant rift-related volcanism, suggesting plate-boundary forces probably drove overall separation of Arabia from Africa. During progressive rifting, there is also no

  9. Cenozoic stratigraphy and structure of the Chesapeake Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powars, David S.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Kidwell, Susan M.; Schindler, J. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The Salisbury embayment is a broad tectonic downwarp that is filled by generally seaward-thickening, wedge-shaped deposits of the central Atlantic Coastal Plain. Our two-day field trip will take us to the western side of this embayment from the Fall Zone in Washington, D.C., to some of the bluffs along Aquia Creek and the Potomac River in Virginia, and then to the Calvert Cliffs on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay. We will see fluvial-deltaic Cretaceous deposits of the Potomac Formation. We will then focus on Cenozoic marine deposits. Transgressive and highstand deposits are stacked upon each other with unconformities separating them; rarely are regressive or lowstand deposits preserved. The Paleocene and Eocene shallow shelf deposits consist of glauconitic, silty sands that contain varying amounts of marine shells. The Miocene shallow shelf deposits consist of diatomaceous silts and silty and shelly sands. The lithology, thickness, dip, preservation, and distribution of the succession of coastal plain sediments that were deposited in our field-trip area are, to a great extent, structurally controlled. Surficial and subsurface mapping using numerous continuous cores, auger holes, water-well data, and seismic surveys has documented some folds and numerous high-angle reverse and normal faults that offset Cretaceous and Cenozoic deposits. Many of these structures are rooted in early Mesozoic and/or Paleozoic NE-trending regional tectonic fault systems that underlie the Atlantic Coastal Plain. On Day 1, we will focus on two fault systems (stops 1–2; Stafford fault system and the Skinkers Neck–Brandywine fault system and their constituent fault zones and faults). We will then see (stops 3–5) a few of the remaining exposures of largely unlithified marine Paleocene and Eocene strata along the Virginia side of the Potomac River including the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum boundary clay. These exposures are capped by fluvial-estuarine Pleistocene terrace

  10. Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic exhumation history of the Malay Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Thomas; Daanen, Twan; Matenco, Liviu; Willingshofer, Ernst; van der Wal, Jorien

    2015-04-01

    The evolution of Peninsular Malaysia up to the collisional period in the Triassic is well described but the evolution since the collision between Indochina and the Sukhothai Arc in Triassic times is less well described in the literature. The processes affecting Peninsular Malaysia during the Jurassic up to current day times have to explain the emplacement multiple intrusions (the Stong Complex, and the Kemahang granite), the Jurassic/Cretaceous onland basins, the Cenozoic offshore basins, and the asymmetric extension, which caused the exhumation of Taku Schists dome. The orogenic period in Permo-Triassic times, which also formed the Bentong-Raub suture zone, resulted in thickening of the continental crust of current day Peninsular Malaysia due to the collision of the Indochina continental block and the Sukhothai Arc, and is related to the subduction of oceanic crust once present between these continental blocks. The Jurassic/Cretaceous is a period of extension, resulting in the onland Jurassic/Cretaceous basins, synchronous melting of the crust, resulting in the emplacement Stong Complex and the Kemahang granite and thinning of the continental crust on the scale of the Peninsular, followed by uplift of the Peninsular. Different models can explain these observations: continental root removal, oceanic slab detachment, or slab delamination. These models all describe the melting of the lower crust due to asthenospheric upwelling, resulting in uplift and subsequent extension either due to mantle convective movements or gravitational instabilities related to uplift. The Cenozoic period is dominated by extension and rapid exhumation in the area as documented by low temperature thermocrological ages The extension in this period is most likely related to the subduction, which resumed at 45 Ma, of the Australian plate beneath the Eurasian plate after it terminated in Cretaceous times due to the collision of an Australian microcontinental fragment with the Sunda margin in the

  11. Seismic structure of the western U.S. mantle and its relation to regional tectonic and magmatic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmandt, Brandon

    Vigorous convective activity in the western U.S. mantle has long been inferred from the region's widespread intra-plate crustal deformation, volcanism, and high elevations, but the specific form of convective activity and the degree and nature of lithospheric involvement have been strongly debated. I design a seismic travel-time tomography method and implement it with seismic data from the EarthScope Transportable Array and complementary arrays to constrain three-dimensional seismic structure beneath the western U.S. Tomographic images of variations in compressional velocity, shear velocity, and the ratio of shear to compressional velocity in the western U.S. mantle to a depth of 1000 km are produced. Using these results I investigate mantle physical properties, Cenozoic subduction history, and the influence of small-scale lithospheric convection on regional tectonic and magmatic activity, with particular focus on southern California and the Pacific Northwest. This dissertation includes previously published co-authored material. Chapter II presents a travel-time tomography method I designed and first implemented with data from southern California and the surrounding southwestern U.S. The resulting images provide a new level of constraint on upper mantle seismic anomalies beneath the Transverse Ranges, southern Great Valley, Salton Trough, and southwestern Nevada volcanic field. Chapter III presents tomographic images of the western U.S. mantle, identifies upper mantle volumes where partial melt is probable, and discusses implications of the apparently widespread occurrence of gravitational instabilities of continental lithsophere and the complex geometry and buoyancy of subducted ocean lithosphere imaged beneath the western U.S. In Chapter IV, tomography images are used in conjunction with geologic constraints on major transitions in crustal deformation and magmatism to construct a model for Pacific Northwest evolution since the Cretaceous. Accretion in the Pacific

  12. Magma Mixing: Magmatic Enclaves in Morne Micotrin, Dominica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickernell, S.; Frey, H. M.; Manon, M. R. F.; Waters, L. E.

    2017-12-01

    Magmatic enclaves in volcanic rocks provide direct evidence of magma mingling/mixing within a magma reservoir and may reinvigorate the system and trigger eruption, as documented at the Soufriere Hills in Montserrat. Lava domes on the neighboring island of Dominica also contain multiple enclave populations and may be evidence for similar magma chamber processes. The central dome of Micotrin is at the head of the Roseau Valley, which was filled with 3 km3 of pyroclastic deposits from eruptions spanning 65 - 25 ka. There appear to be two distinct types of enclaves in the crystal-rich Micotrin andesites (60 wt% SiO2), fine-grained and coarse-grained. Fine-grained mafic enclaves (52 wt% SiO2) vary in size from 1 to 15 cm in diameter, whereas the coarse-grained enclaves are generally larger and range from 3-20 cm. Fine-grained enclaves are saturated in plag (35%) + opx (35%) + cpx (20%) + oxides (10%). Average pyroxenes are 0.01 to 0.02 cm in size, whereas plagioclase averages 0.05 cm and up to 0.1 cm. The texture of the fine-grained enclaves is cumulate-like, devoid of microlites and matrix glass. Coarse-grained enclaves lack cpx and have different modal abundances and textures: plag (75%) + opx (10%) + oxides (5%) + plag microlites (10%). Plagioclase are 0.1 cm in size and orthopyroxenes average 0.05 cm. The coarse-grained enclaves are highly vesicular, a notable difference from the host as well as the fine-grained enclaves. The boundaries of both the fine- and coarse-grained enclaves are quite sharp and distinct and there do not appear to be enclave minerals disaggregated in the host rock. Temperatures were determined by two oxides. The fine-grained enclaves had two populations of magnetite, yielding 847 + 21° and 920 + 17°C. The coarse-grained enclave was 890 + 42 °C, but the oxides were extensively exsolved. Plagioclase composition in both coarse and fine-grained samples was comparable, ranging from An50 to An80. Despite compositional similarity the textures of

  13. Along-Axis Structure and Crustal Construction Processes of Spreading Segments in Iceland: Implications for Magmatic Rifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, D. L.; Karson, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    Magmatic rift systems are composed of discrete spreading segments defined by morphologic, structural, and volcanic features that vary systematically along strike. In Iceland, structural features mapped in the glaciated and exhumed Miocene age upper crust correlate with analogous features in the seismically and volcanically active neovolcanic zone. Integrating information from both the active rift zones and ancient crust provides a three-dimensional perspective of crustal structure and the volcanic and tectonic processes that construct crust along spreading segments. Crustal exposures in the Skagi region of northern Iceland reveal significant along-strike variations in geologic structure. The upper crust at exhumed magmatic centers (segment centers) is characterized by a variety of intrusive rocks, high-temperature hydrothermal alteration, and geologic evidence for kilometer-scale subsidence. In contrast, the upper crust along segment limbs, which extend along strike from magmatic centers, is characterized by thick sections of gently dipping lava flows, cut by varying proportions of subvertical dikes. This structure implies relatively minor upper crustal subsidence and lateral dike intrusion. The differing modes of subsidence beneath segment centers and segment limbs require along-axis mass redistribution in the underlying upper, middle, and lower crust during crustal construction. This along-axis material transport is accomplished through lateral dike intrusion in the upper crust and by along-axis flow of magmatic to high-temperature solid-state gabbroic material in the middle and lower crust. These processes, inferred from outcrop evidence in Skagi, are consistent with processes inferred to be important during active rifting in Iceland and at analogous magmatic oceanic and continental rifts.

  14. Tectono-Magmatic Evolution of the South Atlantic Continental Margins with Respect to Opening of the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melankholina, E. N.; Sushchevskaya, N. M.

    2018-03-01

    The history of the opening of the South Atlantic in Early Cretaceous time is considered. It is shown that the determining role for continental breakup preparation has been played by tectono-magmatic events within the limits of the distal margins that developed above the plume head. The formation of the Rio Grande Rise-Walvis Ridge volcanic system along the trace of the hot spot is considered. The magmatism in the South Atlantic margins, its sources, and changes in composition during the evolution are described. On the basis of petrogeochemical data, the peculiarities of rocks with a continental signature are shown. Based on Pb-Sr-Nd isotopic studies, it is found that the manifestations of magmatism in the proximal margins had features of enriched components related to the EM I and EM II sources, sometimes with certain participation of the HIMU source. Within the limits of the Walvis Ridge, as magmatism expanded to the newly formed oceanic crust, the participation of depleted asthenospheric mantle became larger in the composition of magmas. The role played by the Tristan plume in magma generation is discussed: it is the most considered as the heat source that determined the melting of the ancient enriched lithosphere. The specifics of the tectono-magmatic evolution of the South Atlantic is pointed out: the origination during spreading of a number of hot spots above the periphery of the African superplume. The diachronous character of the opening of the ocean is considered in the context of northward progradation of the breakup line and its connection with the northern branch of the Atlantic Ocean in the Mid-Cretaceous.

  15. Zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic constraints on the magmatic evolution of the Northern Luzon Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ming Lai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete volcanic sequences restored in the Coastal Range of Taiwan are key archives for better understanding the magmatic and tectonic evolution of the Northern Luzon Arc. This paper reports (1 new zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic data of fourteen volcanic samples from different sequences of four major volcanoes in the Coastal Range, (2 Hf isotopic data of dated magmatic and detrital zircons from two offshore volcanic islands, Lutao and Lanyu. These data indicate that the arc magmatism in the Coastal Range started at ~15 Ma, most active at ~9 Ma, and ceased at ~4.2 Ma. Magmatic zircons from the arc rocks show a significant variation in Hf isotopic composition, with εHf(T values varying from +24.9 to +4.8. As pointed out by our previous studies, old continental zircons that show Cathaysian-type ages and Hf isotope features are common in samples from the Yuemei, Chimei, and Lanyu volcanoes, supporting the notion for the influence of the existence of an accreted micro-continent or continental fragment plays a role in the petrogenesis. Such inherited zircons are not observed in the Chengkuang’ao and Tuluanshan volcanoes and uncommon in Lutao, implying the discontinuity or a limited extent of the accreted continental fragment. The εHf(T values are high and positive from ~15 - 8 Ma (+25 to +15; ±5ε-unit variation, and became lower from ~6 to 4.2 Ma (+20 to +8; ±6ε units and the lowest from ~1.3 Ma (+19 to +5; ±7ε units. Such a temporal variation in zircon Hf isotopic ratios can be also identified in whole-rock Hf and Nd isotopic compositions, which decrease from ~6 Ma when the Northern Luzon Arc may have started colliding with the Eurasian continental margin.

  16. Efficient cooling of rocky planets by intrusive magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Diogo L.; Rozel, Antoine B.; Gerya, Taras; Tackley, Paul J.

    2018-05-01

    The Earth is in a plate tectonics regime with high surface heat flow concentrated at constructive plate boundaries. Other terrestrial bodies that lack plate tectonics are thought to lose their internal heat by conduction through their lids and volcanism: hotter planets (Io and Venus) show widespread volcanism whereas colder ones (modern Mars and Mercury) are less volcanically active. However, studies of terrestrial magmatic processes show that less than 20% of melt volcanically erupts, with most melt intruding into the crust. Signatures of large magmatic intrusions are also found on other planets. Yet, the influence of intrusive magmatism on planetary cooling remains unclear. Here we use numerical magmatic-thermo-mechanical models to simulate global mantle convection in a planetary interior. In our simulations, warm intrusive magmatism acts to thin the lithosphere, leading to sustained recycling of overlying crustal material and cooling of the mantle. In contrast, volcanic eruptions lead to a thick lithosphere that insulates the upper mantle and prevents efficient cooling. We find that heat loss due to intrusive magmatism can be particularly efficient compared to volcanic eruptions if the partitioning of heat-producing radioactive elements into the melt phase is weak. We conclude that the mode of magmatism experienced by rocky bodies determines the thermal and compositional evolution of their interior.

  17. Rock stresses (Grimsel rock laboratory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, A.; Heusermann, S.; Braeuer, V.; Gloeggler, W.

    1989-01-01

    On the research and development project 'Rock Stress Measurements' the BGR has developed and tested several test devices and methods at GTS for use in boreholes at a depth of 200 m and has carried out rock mechanical and engineering geological investigations for the evaluation and interpretation of the stress measurements. The first time a computer for data processing was installed in the borehole together with the BGR-probe. Laboratory tests on hollow cylinders were made to study the stress-deformation behavior. To validate and to interprete the measurement results some test methods were modelled using the finite-element method. The dilatometer-tests yielded high values of Young's modulus, whereas laboratory tests showed lower values with a distinct deformation anisotropy. Stress measurements with the BGR-probe yielded horizontal stresses being higher than the theoretical overburden pressure and vertical stresses which agree well with the theoretical overburden pressure. These results are comparable to the results of the hydraulic fracturing tests, whereas stresses obtained with CSIR-triaxial cells are generally lower. The detailed geological mapping of the borehole indicated relationships between stress and geology. With regard to borehole depth different zones of rock structure joint frequency, joint orientation, and orientation of microfissures as well as stress magnitude, stress direction, and degree of deformation anisotropy could be distinguished. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Constraints on the depth of generation and emplacement of a magmatic epidote-bearing quartz diorite pluton in the Coast Plutonic Complex, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.M.; Andronicos, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    Petrology and P-T estimates indicate that a magmatic epidote-bearing quartz diorite pluton from Mt. Gamsby, Coast Plutonic Complex, British Columbia, was sourced at pressures below ???1.4 GPa and cooled nearly isobarically at ???0.9 GPa. The P-T path indicates that the magma was within the stability field of magmatic epidote early and remained there upon final crystallization. The pluton formed and crystallized at depths greater than ???30 km. REE data indicate that garnet was absent in the melting region and did not fractionate during crystallization. This suggests that the crust was less than or equal to ???55 km thick at 188 Ma during the early phases of magmatism in the Coast Plutonic Complex. Late Cretaceous contractional deformation and early Tertiary extension exhumed the rocks to upper crustal levels. Textures of magmatic epidote and other magmatic phases, combined with REE data, can be important for constraining the P-T path followed by magmas. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Syn-collisional felsic magmatism and continental crust growth: A case study from the North Qilian Orogenic Belt at the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuo; Niu, Yaoling; Xue, Qiqi

    2018-05-01

    The abundant syn-collisional granitoids produced and preserved at the northern Tibetan Plateau margin provide a prime case for studying the felsic magmatism as well as continental crust growth in response to continental collision. Here we present the results from a systematic study of the syn-collisional granitoids and their mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs) in the Laohushan (LHS) and Machangshan (MCS) plutons from the North Qilian Orogenic Belt (NQOB). Two types of MMEs from the LHS pluton exhibit identical crystallization age ( 430 Ma) and bulk-rock isotopic compositions to their host granitoids, indicating their genetic link. The phase equilibrium constraints and pressure estimates for amphiboles from the LHS pluton together with the whole rock data suggest that the two types of MMEs represent two evolution products of the same hydrous andesitic magmas. In combination with the data on NQOB syn-collisional granitoids elsewhere, we suggest that the syn-collisional granitoids in the NQOB are material evidence of melting of ocean crust and sediment. The remarkable compositional similarity between the LHS granitoids and the model bulk continental crust in terms of major elements, trace elements, and some key element ratios indicates that the syn-collisional magmatism in the NQOB contributes to net continental crust growth, and that the way of continental crust growth in the Phanerozoic through syn-collisional felsic magmatism (production and preservation) is a straightforward process without the need of petrologically and physically complex processes.

  20. Petrology, Geochemistry and Tectonomagmatic Setting of Farmahin Volcanic Rocks (North of Arak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Zarei Sahamieh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study area includes Alam Baghi, Vashaghan, Sar Band and Ghermez Cheshmeh and is located in the northeast of Farmahin and the southwest of Tafresh. Based on the structural subdivisions of Iran, the mentioned area is a part of Central Iran and the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt (Hajian, 1970. The studied volcanic rocks consist of trachybasalt, trachyandesite, basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, rhyodacite, rhyolite, ignimbrite, tuff and tuffit in composition and in terms of age they belong to the middle and upper Eocene. It seems that the volcanic activities are related to folding and faulting in the studied area. On the other hand, in addition to causing orogenic activity, at the middle and upper Eocene (Ghasemi and Talbot, 2006, locally extensional regime has played a main role in volcanic eruption. Similar to this scenario happened in other areas such as Taft and Khizrabad in Central Iran (Zarei Sahamieh et al., 2008. Porphyritic, microlite porphyritic and microlitic are the main textures in these rocks. Mineralogically, they contain plagioclase, clinopyroxene, amphibole, quartz and biotite as the main minerals and zircon, apatite, and opaque minerals as accessories. Materials and methods The major and trace elements of mineral composition are determined by electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA using a Cameca SX100 instrument in the Iran Mineral Processing Research Center (IMPRC. Moreover, the whole-rock major and some trace elements analyses for a few samples were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF, using an ARL Advant-XP automated X-ray spectrometer. Results Based on EPMA analyses, plagioclase mineral in basaltic andesite and trachybasalt samples range from labradorite to bytownite in andesite and trachyandesite has oligoclase- andesine and in dacite, rhyodacite, rhyolite has an albite-oligoclase composition. In the Wo-En-Fs diagram, all clinopyroxenes show augitic and a lessor amount of clinoenstatite composition and in the Q

  1. Changing provenance of late Cenozoic sediments in the Jianghan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Yangtze River is one of the most important components of the East Asia river system. In this study, sediments in the Jianghan Basin, middle Yangtze River, were selected for trace element and rare earth element (REE measurements, in order to decipher information on the change of sediment provenance and evolution of the Yangtze River. According to the elemental variations, the late Cenozoic sediments of the Jianghan Basin could be divided into four parts. During 2.68–2.28 Ma and 1.25–0 Ma, provenance of the sediments was consistent, whereas sediments were derived from variable sources during 2.28–1.25 Ma. Comparison of the elemental compositions between the Pliocene and Quaternary sediments revealed a change in sediment source from a more felsic source area to a more basic source area around the Pliocene–Quaternary boundary. Input from the Emeishan LIP should account for this provenance change. Based on the provenance analysis of sediments in the Jianghan Basin, we infer that the Yangtze River developed into a large river with its drainage basin extended to the Emeishan LIP no later than the Pliocene–Quaternary boundary.

  2. Cenozoic mountain building on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lease, Richard O.

    2014-01-01

    Northeastern Tibetan Plateau growth illuminates the kinematics, geodynamics, and climatic consequences of large-scale orogenesis, yet only recently have data become available to outline the spatiotemporal pattern and rates of this growth. I review the tectonic history of range growth across the plateau margin north of the Kunlun fault (35°–40°N) and east of the Qaidam basin (98°–107°E), synthesizing records from fault-bounded mountain ranges and adjacent sedimentary basins. Deformation began in Eocene time shortly after India-Asia collision, but the northeastern orogen boundary has largely remained stationary since this time. Widespread middle Miocene–Holocene range growth is portrayed by accelerated deformation, uplift, erosion, and deposition across northeastern Tibet. The extent of deformation, however, only expanded ~150 km outward to the north and east and ~150 km laterally to the west. A middle Miocene reorganization of deformation characterized by shortening at various orientations heralds the onset of the modern kinematic regime where shortening is coupled to strike slip. This regime is responsible for the majority of Cenozoic crustal shortening and thickening and the development of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau.

  3. Mid Cenozoic freshwater wetlands of the Sunda region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Morley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Sunda region was the scene of widespread rifting during the mid-Cenozoic, resulting in the development of numerous large lake-filled rifts, analogous in scale to the rift valley system of East Africa. The Tonle Sap in Cambodia forms the closest modern analogue for these lakes in the Southeast Asian region. Many of the palaeolakes were long lived, continuing uninterrupted as open lakes for several millions of years during the Oligocene. Smaller rift systems infilled with fluvial sediments, but the larger ones remained as lakes, and with Late Oligocene subsidence, were transformed by brackish, and in the earliest Miocene, by marine incursion, into large inland seas. These seas reached their greatest extent at the time of the mid Miocene thermal maximum. This paper describes the development and eventual demise of these lakes following marine transgression, and, based on their rich content of pollen and spores, illustrates the variety of fresh and brackish water swamp communities which developed around their margins. The marginal swamps can be divided into: i seasonally inundated swamps, mainly during the Oligocene, characterised by Barringtonia, Lagerstroemia and grasses/sedges; ii fern swamps and iii from the Late Oligocene onward alluvial swamps, often characterised by Pandanus; and iv peat swamps. The latter can be differentiated into kerapah peat swamps, first occurring during the Oligocene, and basinal peat swamps, becoming widespread from the Early Miocene onward.

  4. Uranium and thorium in rocks and minerals of Zaangarsk alkaline massif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhmodin, S.M.; Gofman, A.M.; Ksenzova, V.I.; Malmova, Z.V.; Nemirovskaya, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    U and Th distribution in rocks of the massif of alkaline-granitoid formation is studied using the methods of γ-spectrometry and neutron- fragment radiography. Predominant accumulation of U and Th in final products of magmatic differentiation - foyaites - is established. U and Th concentrations increased sharply during postmagmatic stage of alkaline massif formation - in permatites and metasomatically alterated rocks (Th/U and U/K ratios can serve as criteria for identification of such formations). The increase of U part, connected with accessory minerals in pegmatites and metasomatically alterated rocks, is pointed out. For U in postmagmatically alterated rocks high concentrations due to microcracks are characteristic [ru

  5. Thermal Inertia of Rocks and Rock Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mellon, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    The effective thermal inertia of rock populations on Mars and Earth is derived from a model of effective inertia versus rock diameter. Results allow a parameterization of the effective rock inertia versus rock abundance and bulk and fine component inertia. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Towards an integrated magmatic, structural and metamorphic model for the 1.1-0.9 Ga Sveconorwegian orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagstad, Trond; Roberts, Nick M. W.; Røhr, Torkil S.; Marker, Mogens K.

    2013-04-01

    juxtaposition of hot asthenosphere and lower crust. This is a plausible explanation for the UTH event, in contrast to simple crustal thickening and radiogenic self-heating that are generally considered unable to produce such PT conditions. 3) long-lived (990-920 Ma) ferroan magmatism, temporally associated with high-grade metamorphism and large-scale deformation, probably reflecting formation inboard of an alternating compressional/extensional continental margin. We have no known record of events after ca. 920 Ma, but it is conceivable that the active margin persisted well into the Neoproterozoic, possibly indicated by metamorphic and magmatic activity recorded in Grenville/Sveconorwegian orogen-derived sedimentary rocks.

  7. Paleoproterozoic (ca. 1.8 Ga) arc magmatism in the Lützow-Holm Complex, East Antarctica: Implications for crustal growth and terrane assembly in erstwhile Gondwana fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuki; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Santosh, M.; Takamura, Yusuke; Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu

    2018-05-01

    The Lützow-Holm Complex (LHC) of East Antarctica forms a part of the latest Neoproterozoic-Cambrian high-grade metamorphic segment of the East African-Antarctic Orogen. Here we present new petrological, geochemical, and zircon U-Pb geochronological data on meta-igneous rocks from four localities (Austhovde, Telen, Skallevikshalsen, and Skallen) in the LHC, and evaluate the regional Paleoproterozoic (ca. 1.8 Ga) arc magmatism in this terrane for the first time. The geochemical features reveal a volcanic-arc affinity for most of the meta-igneous rocks from Austhovde and Telen, suggesting that the protoliths of these rocks were derived from felsic to mafic arc magmatic rocks. The protoliths of two mafic granulites from Austhovde are inferred as non-volcanic-arc basalt such as E-MORB, suggesting the accretion of remnant oceanic lithosphere together with the volcanic-arc components during the subduction-collision events. The weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of the dominant population of magmatic zircons in felsic orthogneisses from Austhovde and Telen show 1819 ± 19 Ma and 1830 ± 10 Ma, respectively, corresponding to Paleoproterozoic magmatic event. The magmatic zircons in orthogneisses from other two localities yield upper intercept ages of 1837 ± 54 Ma (Skallevikshalsen), and 1856 ± 37 Ma and 1854 ± 45 Ma (Skallen), which also support Paleoproterozoic magmatism. The earlier thermal events during Neoarchean to Early Paleoproterozoic are also traced by 206Pb/238U ages of xenocrystic zircons in the felsic orthogneisses from Austhovde (2517 ± 17 Ma and 2495 ± 15 Ma) and Telen (2126 ± 16 Ma), suggesting partial reworking of the basement of a 2.5 Ga microcontinent during ca. 1.8 Ga continental-arc magmatism. The timing of peak metamorphism is inferred to be in the range of 645.6 ± 10.4 to 521.4 ± 12.0 Ma based on 206Pb/238U weighted mean ages of metamorphic zircon grains. The results of this study, together with the available magmatic ages as well as geophysical and

  8. Magmatic underplating beneath the Rajmahal Traps: Gravity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Thickness of this layer varies from 16 km to the west of the Rajmahal towards north to .... The eastern boundary of the. Rajmahal .... field values of the crustal structure with flat transi- .... tions: Key indicators in applying plate tectonics to old rocks ...

  9. Magmatic intrusions in the lunar crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaut, C.; Thorey, C.

    2015-10-01

    The lunar highlands are very old, with ages covering a timespan between 4.5 to 4.2 Gyr, and probably formed by flotation of light plagioclase minerals on top of the lunar magma ocean. The lunar crust provides thus an invaluable evidence of the geological and magmatic processes occurring in the first times of the terrestrial planets history. According to the last estimates from the GRAIL mission, the lunar primary crust is particularly light and relatively thick [1] This low-density crust acted as a barrier for the dense primary mantle melts. This is particularly evident in the fact that subsequent mare basalts erupted primarily within large impact basin: at least part of the crust must have been removed for the magma to reach the surface. However, the trajectory of the magma from the mantle to the surface is unknown. Using a model of magma emplacement below an elastic overlying layer with a flexural wavelength Λ, we characterize the surface deformations induced by the presence of shallow magmatic intrusions. We demonstrate that, depending on its size, the intrusion can show two different shapes: a bell shape when its radius is smaller than 4 times Λ or a flat top with small bended edges if its radius is larger than 4 times Λ[2]. These characteristic shapes for the intrusion result in characteristic deformations at the surface that also depend on the topography of the layer overlying the intrusion [3].Using this model we provide evidence of the presence of intrusions within the crust of the Moon as surface deformations in the form of low-slope lunar domes and floor-fractured craters. All these geological features have morphologies consistent with models of magma spreading at depth and deforming an overlying elastic layer. Further more,at floor-fractured craters, the deformation is contained within the crater interior, suggesting that the overpressure at the origin of magma ascent and intrusion was less than the pressure due to the weight of the crust removed by

  10. Intense magmatic degassing through the lake of Copahue volcano, 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburello, G.; Agusto, M.; Caselli, A.; Tassi, F.; Vaselli, O.; Calabrese, S.; Rouwet, D.; Capaccioni, B.; Di Napoli, R.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Bitetto, M.; Brusca, L.; Bellomo, S.; Aiuppa, A.

    2015-09-01

    Here we report on the first assessment of volatile fluxes from the hyperacid crater lake hosted within the summit crater of Copahue, a very active volcano on the Argentina-Chile border. Our observations were performed using a variety of in situ and remote sensing techniques during field campaigns in March 2013, when the crater hosted an active fumarole field, and in March 2014, when an acidic volcanic lake covered the fumarole field. In the latter campaign, we found that 566 to 1373 t d-1 of SO2 were being emitted from the lake in a plume that appeared largely invisible. This, combined with our derived bulk plume composition, was converted into flux of other volcanic species (H2O ~ 10989 t d-1, CO2 ~ 638 t d-1, HCl ~ 66 t d-1, H2 ~ 3.3 t d-1, and HBr ~ 0.05 t d-1). These levels of degassing, comparable to those seen at many open-vent degassing arc volcanoes, were surprisingly high for a volcano hosting a crater lake. Copahue's unusual degassing regime was also confirmed by the chemical composition of the plume that, although issuing from a hot (65°C) lake, preserves a close-to-magmatic signature. EQ3/6 models of gas-water-rock interaction in the lake were able to match observed compositions and demonstrated that magmatic gases emitted to the atmosphere were virtually unaffected by scrubbing of soluble (S and Cl) species. Finally, the derived large H2O flux (10,988 t d-1) suggested a mechanism in which magmatic gas stripping drove enhanced lake water evaporation, a process likely common to many degassing volcanic lakes worldwide.

  11. Magmatic development of the outer Vøring margin from seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Asbjørn; Faleide, Jan Inge; Mjelde, Rolf; Flueh, Ernst; Murai, Yoshio

    2014-09-01

    The Vøring Plateau off mid-Norway is a volcanic passive margin, located north of the East Jan Mayen Fracture Zone (EJMFZ). Large volumes of magmatic rocks were emplaced during Early Eocene margin formation. In 2003, an ocean bottom seismometer survey was acquired over the margin. One profile crosses from the Vøring Plateau to the Vøring Spur, a bathymetric high north of the EJMFZ. The P wave data were ray traced into a 2-D crustal velocity model. The velocity structure of the Vøring Spur indicates up to 15 km igneous crustal thickness. Magmatic processes can be estimated by comparing seismic velocity (VP) with igneous thickness (H). This and two other profiles show a positive H-VP correlation at the Vøring Plateau, consistent with elevated mantle temperature at breakup. However, during the first 2 Ma magma production was augmented by a secondary process, possibly small-scale convection. From ˜51.5 Ma excess melting may be caused by elevated mantle temperature alone. Seismic stratigraphy around the Vøring Spur shows that it was created by at least two uplift events, with the main episode close to the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Low H-VP correlation of the spur is consistent with renewed igneous growth by constant, moderate-degree mantle melting, not related to the breakup magmatism. The admittance function between bathymetry and free-air gravity shows that the high is near local isostatic equilibrium, precluding that compressional flexure at the EJMFZ uplifted the high. We find a proposed Eocene triple junction model for the margin to be inconsistent with observations.

  12. Paleomagnetic evidence for counterclockwise rotation of the Dofan magmatic segment, Main Ethiopian Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugsse, Kahsay; Muluneh, Ameha A.; Kidane, Tesfaye

    2018-04-01

    Twenty-six paleomagnetic sites in basalt and trachyte flows and ignimbrite deposits sampled in the Dofan magmatic segment, Main Ethiopian Rift (MER). From each site, 6 to 8 core samples were collected. The samples were then cut into 200 standard specimens and their Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) directions were measured using a JR6A spinner magnetometer. Most specimens were subjected to stepwise alternating field (AF) and at least one specimen per site to thermal (TH) demagnetization. The directional analysis of these individual specimens revealed either one or two components of NRM. Where two components are present, the first is isolated below a temperature of 300 °C or AF field below 20 mT; the second is isolated above those steps and mostly defined straight lines directed towards the origin and are interpreted as the Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM) acquired during cooling. Rock magnetic experiments on representative specimens indicate that the dominant magnetic minerals are titanium poor titanomagnetite and in few cases titanohematites. The overall mean directions calculated for the 23 sites of Dofan is Dec = 354.1°, Inc. = +11.6° (N = 23, K = 35.1, α95 = 5.2°). When these values are compared with the 1.5 Ma expected mean geomagnetic dipole reference field directions Dec = 1.0°, Inc. = +16.4° (N = 32, K = 105.6, α95 = 2.3°), obtained from African Apparent Polar Wander Path Curve; a difference in declination ΔD = -6.9° ± 4.7° and inclination ΔI = +4.8° ± 5.5° are determined. The declination difference is interpreted as a very slight counterclockwise rotation about vertical axis of the Dofan magmatic segment and the result is consistent with previous paleomagnetic reports and analogue modeling in Fentale magmatic segment.

  13. Genetic relationships between skarn ore deposits and magmatic activity in the Ahar region, Western Alborz, NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollai Habib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Paleocene to Oligocene tectonic processes in northwest Iran resulted in extensive I-type calc-alkaline and alkaline magmatic activity in the Ahar region. Numerous skarn deposits formed in the contact between Upper Cretaceous impure carbonate rocks and Oligocene-Miocene plutonic rocks. This study presents new field observations of skarns in the western Alborz range and is based on geochemistry of igneous rocks, mineralogy of the important skarn deposits, and electron microprobe analyses of skarn minerals. These data are used to interpret the metasomatism during sequential skarn formation and the geotectonic setting of the skarn ore deposit related igneous rocks. The skarns were classified into exoskarn, endoskarn and ore skarn. Andraditic garnet is the main skarn mineral; the pyroxene belongs to the diopside-hedenbergite series. The skarnification started with pluton emplacement and metamorphism of carbonate rocks followed by prograde metasomatism and the formation of anhydrous minerals like garnet and pyroxene. The next stage resulted in retro gradation of anhydrous minerals along with the formation of oxide minerals (magnetite and hematite followed by the formation of hydrosilicate minerals like epidote, actinolite, chlorite, quartz, sericite and sulfide mineralization. In addition to Fe, Si and Mg, substantial amounts of Cu, along with volatile components such as H2S and CO2 were added to the skarn system. Skarn mineralogy and geochemistry of the igneous rocks indicate an island arc or subduction-related origin of the Fe-Cu skarn deposit.

  14. Physical ages of igneous rocks in the district of Potosi, Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, M.; Pilot, J.

    1980-01-01

    Age determinations of igneous rocks in the district of Potosi, Bolivia, have been performed using the K-Ar and Rb-Sr methods. The results obtained permit to draw conclusions with regard to the tectono-magmatic evolution of Eastern Cordilleres of Bolivia, and to the prospection and exploration of new deposits in the metallogenetic province

  15. Using the magmatic record to constrain the growth of continental crust-The Eoarchean zircon Hf record of Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Christopher M.; Vervoort, Jeffrey D.

    2018-04-01

    Southern West Greenland contains some of the best-studied and best-preserved magmatic Eoarchean rocks on Earth, and these provide an excellent vantage point from which to view long-standing questions regarding the growth of the earliest continental crust. In order to address the questions surrounding early crustal growth and complementary mantle depletion, we present Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS) analyses of the U-Pb and Hf isotope compositions of zircon from eleven samples of the least-altered meta-igneous rocks from the Itsaq (Amîtsoq) Gneisses of the Isukasia and Nuuk regions of southern West Greenland. This analytical technique allows a less ambiguous approach to determining the age and Hf isotope composition of complicated zircon. Results corroborate previous findings that Eoarchean zircon from the Itsaq Gneiss (∼3.85 Ga to ∼3.63 Ga) were derived from a broadly chondritic source. In contrast to the Sm-Nd whole rock isotope record for southern West Greenland, the zircon Lu-Hf isotope record provides no evidence for early mantle depletion, nor does it suggest the presence of crust older than ∼3.85 Ga in Greenland. Utilizing LASS U-Pb and Hf data from the Greenland zircons studied here, we demonstrate the importance of focusing on the magmatic (rather than detrital) zircon record to more confidently understand early crustal growth and mantle depletion. We compare the Greenland Hf isotope data with other Eoarchean magmatic complexes such as the Acasta Gneiss Complex, Nuvvuagittuq greenstone belt, and the gneissic complexes of southern Africa, and all lack zircons with suprachondritic Hf isotope compositions. In total, these data suggest only a very modest volume of crust was produced during (or survived from) the Hadean and earliest Eoarchean. There remains no record of planet-scale early Earth mantle depletion in the Hf isotope record prior to 3.8 Ga.

  16. Petrography and Mineral Chemistry of Magmatic and Hydrothermal Biotite in Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposits: A Tool for Understanding Mineralizing Fluid Compositional Changes During Alteration Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Arifudin Idrus

    2018-01-01

    DOI: 10.17014/ijog.5.1.47-64This study aims to understand the petrography and chemistry of both magmatic and hydrothermal biotites in porphyry copper-gold deposits, and to evaluate the fluid compositional changes during alteration processes. A total of 206 biotite grains from selected rock samples taken from the Batu Hijau porphyry Cu-Au deposit was analyzed. Detailed petrography and biotite chemistry analysis were performed on thin sections and polished thin sections, respectively, represent...

  17. Drilling to investigate processes in active tectonics and magmatism

    OpenAIRE

    J. Shervais; J. Evans; V. Toy; J. Kirkpatrick; A. Clarke; J. Eichelberger

    2014-01-01

    Coordinated drilling efforts are an important method to investigate active tectonics and magmatic processes related to faults and volcanoes. The US National Science Foundation (NSF) recently sponsored a series of workshops to define the nature of future continental drilling efforts. As part of this series, we convened a workshop to explore how continental scientific drilling can be used to better understand active tectonic and magmatic processes. The workshop, held in Park C...

  18. Polyphase tectono-magmatic and fluid history related to mantle exhumation in an ultra-distal rift domain: example of the fossil Platta domain, SE Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epin, Marie-Eva; Manatschal, Gianreto; Amann, Méderic; Lescanne, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Despite the fact that many studies have investigated mantle exhumation at magma-poor rifted margins, there are still numerous questions concerning the 3D architecture, magmatic, fluid and thermal evolution of these ultra-distal domains that remain unexplained. Indeed, it has been observed in seismic data from ultra-distal magma-poor rifted margins that top basement is heavily structured and complex, however, the processes controlling the morpho-tectonic and magmatic evolution of these domains remain unknown. The aim of this study is to describe the 3D top basement morphology of an exhumed mantle domain, exposed over 200 km2 in the fossil Platta domain in SE Switzerland, and to define the timing and processes controlling its evolution. The examined Platta nappe corresponds to a remnant of the former ultra-distal Adriatic margin of the Alpine Tethys. The rift-structures are relatively well preserved due to the weak Alpine tectonic and metamorphic overprint during the emplacement in the Alpine nappe stack. Detailed mapping of parts of the Platta nappe enabled us to document the top basement architecture of an exhumed mantle domain and to investigate its link to later, rift/oceanic structures, magmatic additions and fluids. Our observations show a polyphase and/or complex: 1) deformation history associated with mantle exhumation along low-angle exhumation faults overprinted by later high-angle normal faults, 2) top basement morphology capped by magmato-sedimentary rocks, 3) tectono-magmatic evolution that includes gabbros, emplaced at deeper levels and subsequently exhumed and overlain by younger extrusive magmatic additions, and 4) fluid history including serpentinization, calcification, hydrothermal vent, rodingitization and spilitization affecting exhumed mantle and associated magmatic rocks. The overall observations provide important information on the temporal and spatial evolution of the tectonic, magmatic and fluid systems controlling the formation of ultra

  19. Tensile rock mass strength estimated using InSAR

    KAUST Repository

    Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2012-11-01

    The large-scale strength of rock is known to be lower than the strength determined from small-scale samples in the laboratory. However, it is not well known how strength scales with sample size. I estimate kilometer-scale tensional rock mass strength by measuring offsets across new tensional fractures (joints), formed above a shallow magmatic dike intrusion in western Arabia in 2009. I use satellite radar observations to derive 3D ground displacements and by quantifying the extension accommodated by the joints and the maximum extension that did not result in a fracture, I put bounds on the joint initiation threshold of the surface rocks. The results indicate that the kilometer-scale tensile strength of the granitic rock mass is 1–3 MPa, almost an order of magnitude lower than typical laboratory values.

  20. Tensile rock mass strength estimated using InSAR

    KAUST Repository

    Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2012-01-01

    The large-scale strength of rock is known to be lower than the strength determined from small-scale samples in the laboratory. However, it is not well known how strength scales with sample size. I estimate kilometer-scale tensional rock mass strength by measuring offsets across new tensional fractures (joints), formed above a shallow magmatic dike intrusion in western Arabia in 2009. I use satellite radar observations to derive 3D ground displacements and by quantifying the extension accommodated by the joints and the maximum extension that did not result in a fracture, I put bounds on the joint initiation threshold of the surface rocks. The results indicate that the kilometer-scale tensile strength of the granitic rock mass is 1–3 MPa, almost an order of magnitude lower than typical laboratory values.

  1. Geochronologic evidence of a large magmatic province in northern Patagonia encompassing the Permian-Triassic boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppo, Tomás; López de Luchi, Mónica G.; Rapalini, Augusto E.; Martínez Dopico, Carmen I.; Fanning, Christopher M.

    2018-03-01

    The Los Menucos Complex (northern Patagonia) consists of ∼6 km thick succession of acidic and intermediate volcanic and pyroclastic products, which has been traditionally assigned to the Middle/Late Triassic. New U/Pb (SHRIMP) zircon crystallization ages of 257 ± 2 Ma at the base, 252 ± 2 Ma at an intermediate level and 248 ± 2 Ma near the top of the sequence, indicate that this volcanic event took place in about 10 Ma around the Permian-Triassic boundary. This volcanism can now be considered as the effusive terms of the neighboring and coeval La Esperanza Plutono-Volcanic Complex. This indicates that the climax of activity of a large magmatic province in northern Patagonia was coetaneous with the end-Permian mass extinctions. Likely correlation of La Esperanza- Los Menucos magmatic province with similar volcanic and plutonic rocks across other areas of northern Patagonia suggest a much larger extension than previously envisaged for this event. Its age, large volume and explosive nature suggest that the previously ignored potential role that this volcanism might have played in climatic deterioration around the Permian-Triassic boundary should be investigated.

  2. Seismic anisotropy from compositional banding in granulites from the deep magmatic arc of Fiordland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyprych, Daria; Piazolo, Sandra; Almqvist, Bjarne S. G.

    2017-11-01

    We present calculated seismic velocities and anisotropies of mafic granulites and eclogites from the Cretaceous deep lower crust (∼40-65 km) of Fiordland, New Zealand. Both rock types show a distinct foliation defined by cm-scale compositional banding. Seismic properties are estimated using the Asymptotic Expansion Homogenisation - Finite Element (AEH-FE) method that, unlike the commonly used Voigt-Reuss-Hill homogenisation, incorporates the phase boundary network into calculations. The predicted mean P- and S-wave velocities are consistent with previously published data for similar lithologies from other locations (e.g., Kohistan Arc), although we find higher than expected anisotropies (AVP ∼ 5.0-8.0%, AVS ∼ 3.0-6.5%) and substantial S-wave splitting along foliation planes in granulites. This seismic signature of granulites results from a density and elasticity contrast between cm-scale pyroxene ± garnet stringers and plagioclase matrix rather than from crystallographic orientations alone. Banded eclogites do not show elevated anisotropies as the contrast in density and elastic constants of garnet and pyroxene is too small. The origin of compositional banding in Fiordland granulites is primarily magmatic and structures described here are expected to be typical for the base of present day magmatic arcs. Hence, we identify a new potential source of anisotropy within this geotectonic setting.

  3. Water - rock interaction in different rock environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamminen, S.

    1995-01-01

    The study assesses the groundwater geochemistry and geological environment of 44 study sites for radioactive waste disposal. Initially, the study sites were divided by rock type into 5 groups: (1) acid - intermediate rocks, (2) mafic - ultramafic rocks, (3) gabbros, amphibolites and gneisses that contain calc-silicate (skarn) rocks, (4) carbonates and (5) sandstones. Separate assessments are made of acid - intermediate plutonic rocks and of a subgroup that comprises migmatites, granite and mica gneiss. These all belong to the group of acid - intermediate rocks. Within the mafic -ultramafic rock group, a subgroup that comprises mafic - ultramafic plutonic rocks, serpentinites, mafic - ultramafic volcanic rocks and volcanic - sedimentary schists is also evaluated separately. Bedrock groundwaters are classified by their concentration of total dissolved solids as fresh, brackish, saline, strongly saline and brine-class groundwaters. (75 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.)

  4. Emplacement and deformation of the Cerro Durazno Pluton delineates stages of the lower Paleozoic tectono-magmatic evolution in NW-Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongn, F.; Riller, U.

    2003-04-01

    Regional-scale transpression and transtension are considered to be important in the lower Paleozoic tectono-magmatic evolution of metamorphic and granitoid basement rocks of the southern central Andes. In order to test whether such kinematic changes affected Paleozoic basement rocks on the local scale, i.e. in the Eastern Cordillera of NW-Argentina, we performed a detailed field-based structural analysis of the 456 Ma granitoid Cerro Durazno pluton (CDP). The results of our analysis point to the following stages in the geodynamic evolution of this area: (1) Metamorphism and deformation of Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic basement rocks occurred at high T and low to medium P prior to emplacement of the CDP. This lead to the formation of schists and migmatites characterized by pervasive planar and linear mineral shape fabrics and the growth of andalusite, cordierite and fibrolite. (2) Magmatic foliation in the CDP is defined by the shape-preferred orientation of euhedral feldspar phenocrysts and microgranitoid enclaves. These fabrics are concordant to the NE-SW striking intrusive contact with migmatitic host rocks. The lack of submagmatic or high-T solid-state fabrics in the CDP may indicate that cooling and solidification of granitoid magma was not accompanied by regional deformation. Alternatively, emplacement of granitoid magma may have been facilitated by the creation of open space at mid-crustal level induced by regional deformation. (3) Ductile deformation under greenschist metamorphic conditions overprinted magmatic fabrics of the CDP. This is evident by NW-SE striking metamorphic foliation surfaces transecting magmatic shape fabrics at high angles. During this deformation, the pluton was thrust on a SW-dipping shear zone toward the NE over low-grade metamorphic host rocks which lead to a condensation of metamorphic isograds in the host rocks. Ages of strained pegmatitic dikes indicate that this deformation occurred at about 430 Ma. In summary, the difference in age

  5. Hydrologic properties of shale and related argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseyev, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    This report is the result of a bibliographic study designed primarily to collect hydrologic data on American clay-rich rocks. The following information was also sought: stratigraphy, environment of deposition, mineralogic composition, and diagenetic changes. The collected numerical data are presented in tables which contain densities, porosities, and/or hydraulic conductivities of approximately 360 samples. Additional data include hydraulic diffusivities, resistivities, flow rates, and rock strengths. Geologic information suggests that large deposits of shale which may be suited for waste repository belong to all ages and were formed in both marine and continental environments. Of the studied units, the most promising are Paleozoic in the eastern half of the country, Mesozoic in the central part, and Cenozoic in the Gulf Coast area and the West. Less widespread units locally present some additional possibilities. Mineralogic investigations suggest that the smectite content in rocks shows a decrease in time (70% in Recent rocks; 35% in pre-Mesozoic rocks). Because of this predominance of smectite in younger rocks, the modeling of repositories in post-Paleozoic formations might require knowledge of additional and poorly known parameters. Results of investigations into the mathematical relationships between porosity and permeability (or hydralic conductivity) suggest that in situ permeabilities could be estimated from sonic logs and fluid pressure changes at depth. 16 figures, 8 tables

  6. Arachania, A neo proterozoic magmatic arc and its fragments in south America and Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaucher, C.; Bossi, J.; Frimmel, H.

    2010-01-01

    The name Arachania has been recently proposed for the block that comprises the Cuchilla Dionisio-Pelotas, Marmora, Tygerberg and correlative terranes at both sides of the south Atlantic, which is considered a fragment of the Kalahari Craton that a later stage (660-550 Ma) evolved into an active margin. The block played a key role in the amalgamation of southwestern Gondwana, which has been only recently recognized. Arachania is composed of three different lithotectonic elements: (1) a high-grade metamorphic basement of Namaquan age with evidence of older, Eburnean components that crop out mainly in southern Uruguay; (2) a voluminous calc alkaline granitic batholith s mostly within the 660-550 Ma age range, representing the roots of a Neo proterozoic magmatic arc; and (3) deep-water, turbiditic, Ediacaran sedimentary successions marking the eastern border of Arachania, often associated with mafic to ultramafic rocks

  7. MESOZOIC MAGMATISM IN EAST URUGUAY: PETROLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS RELATED TO THE SIERRA SAN MIGUEL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conti Bruno

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents new results of a detailed geological and structural investigation focusing the easternmost Uruguayan Mesozoic magmatic occurrences related to the south Atlantic opening. Lithological descriptions, their stratigraphic relationships and complimentary lithochemical characterizations carried out in the San Miguel region (East Uruguay are presented. Three volcanic/sub-volcanic units have been recognized. The felsic volcanic association is composed by rhyolitic - dacitic flows, mainly with porphyritic textures and sub-alkalinenature and related pyroclastic rocks. The felsic sub-volcanic association is characterized by granophyres of about 25 km2 of exposed area, cross- cut by mafic and felsic dykes. Finally, a mafic association has been identified characterized by dykes and a small intrusion of gabbroic composition.All these units are Mesozoic in age (130 - 127 Ma and according to their chemical nature they correspond tosub-alkaline to weak peralkaline magmas.

  8. Jurassic-Paleogene intraoceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, north-central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarifakioglu, E.; Dilek, Y.; Sevin, M.

    2014-02-01

    Neotethys was an open ocean with its MORB-type oceanic lithosphere by the early Triassic (or earlier). The latest Cretaceous-early Paleocene island arc volcanic, dike and plutonic rocks with subalkaline to alkaline geochemical affinities represent intraoceanic magmatism that developed on and across the subduction-accretion complex above a N-dipping, southward-rolling subducted lithospheric slab within the northern Neotethys. The Ankara Mélange thus exhibits the record of ∼ 120-130 million years of oceanic magmatism in geological history of the northern Neotethys.

  9. Jurassic-Paleogene intra-oceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, North-Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarifakioglu, E.; Dilek, Y.; Sevin, M.

    2013-11-01

    Oceanic rocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ) in North-Central Anatolia include locally coherent ophiolite complexes (~179 Ma and ~80 Ma), seamount or oceanic plateau volcanic units with pelagic and reefal limestones (96.6 ± 1.8 Ma), metamorphic rocks with ages of 187.4 ± 3.7 Ma, 158.4 ± 4.2 Ma, and 83.5 ± 1.2 Ma, and subalkaline to alkaline volcanic and plutonic rocks of an island arc origin (~67-63 Ma). All but the arc rocks occur in a shaly-graywacke and/or serpentinite matrix, and are deformed by south-vergent thrust faults and folds that developed in the Middle to Late Eocene due to continental collisions in the region. Ophiolitic volcanic rocks have mid-ocean ridge (MORB) and island arc tholeiite (IAT) affinities showing moderate to significant LILE enrichment and depletion in Nb, Hf, Ti, Y and Yb, which indicate the influence of subduction-derived fluids in their melt evolution. Seamount/oceanic plateau basalts show ocean island basalt (OIB) affinities. The arc-related volcanic rocks, lamprophyric dikes and syeno-dioritic plutons exhibit high-K shoshonitic to medium-to high-K calc-alkaline compositions with strong enrichment in LILE, REE and Pb, and initial ϵNd values between +1.3 and +1.7. Subalkaline arc volcanic units occur in the northern part of the mélange, whereas the younger alkaline volcanic rocks and intrusions (lamprophyre dikes and syeno-dioritic plutons) in the southern part. The Early to Late Jurassic and Late Cretaceous epidote-actinolite, epidote-chlorite and epidote-glaucophane schists represent the metamorphic units formed in a subduction channel in the Northern Neotethys. The Middle to Upper Triassic neritic limestones spatially associated with the seamount volcanic rocks indicate that the Northern Neotethys was an open ocean with its MORB-type oceanic lithosphere by the Early Triassic. The Latest Cretaceous-Early Paleocene island arc volcanic, dike and plutonic rocks with

  10. The Mesozoic-Cenozoic igneous intrusions and related sediment-dominated hydrothermal activities in the South Yellow Sea Basin, the Western Pacific continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumao, Pang; Xunhua, Zhang; Guolin, Xiao; Luning, Shang; Xingwei, Guo; Zhenhe, Wen

    2018-04-01

    Various igneous complexes were identified in multi-channel seismic reflection profiles from the South Yellow Sea Basin. It is not rare that magmatic intrusions in sedimentary basins cause strong thermal perturbations and hydrothermal activities. Some intrusion-related hydrothermal vent complexes have been identified and they are considered to originate from the deep sedimentary contact aureole around igneous intrusions and terminate in upper vents structures, and are linked by a vertical conduit system. The upper vent complexes are usually eye-shaped, dome-shaped, fault-related, crater-shaped or pock-shaped in seismic profiles. A schematic model was proposed to illustrate the structures of different types of hydrothermal vent complexes. A conceptual conduit model composed of an upper pipe-like part and a lower branching part was also derived. Hydrothermal vent complexes mainly developed during the Middle-Late Cretaceous, which is coeval with, or shortly after the intrusion. The back-arc basin evolution of the area which is related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic may be the principal factor for voluminous igneous complexes and vent complexes in this area. It is significant to study the characteristics of igneous complexes and related hydrothermal vent complexes, which will have implications for the future study of this area.

  11. Pliocene to late Pleistocene magmatism in the Aurora Volcanic Field, Nevada and California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdon, S.; Cousens, B.; John, D. A.; du Bray, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    The 3.9- 0.1 Ma Aurora Volcanic Field (AVF) covers 325 km2 east and southeast of the Bodie Hills, north of Mono Lake, California, USA. The AVF is located immediately northwest of the Long Valley magmatic system and adjacent and overlapping the Miocene Bodie Hills Volcanic Field (BHVF). Rock types range from trachybasalt to trachydacite, and high-silica rhyolite. The trachybasalts to trachydacites are weakly to moderately porphyritic (1-30%) with variable phenocryst assemblages that are some combination of plagioclase, hornblende, clinopyroxene, and lesser orthopyroxene, olivine, and/or biotite. Microphenocrysts are dominated by plagioclase, and include opaque oxides, clinopyroxene, and apatite. These rocks are weakly to strongly devitrified. The high-silica rhyolites are sparsely porphyritic with trace to 10% phenocrysts of quartz, sanidine, plagioclase, biotite, (+/- hornblende), accessory opaque oxide minerals, titanite, allanite, (+/-apatite, zircon), and have glassy groundmasses. Rocks in the AVF are less strongly porphyritic than those of BHVF. Plagioclase phenocrysts are often oscillatory zoned and many have sieve texture. Amphiboles have distinct black opaque rims. Xenocrystic quartz and plagioclase are rare. AVF lavas have bimodal SiO2 compositions, ranging from 49 to 78 wt%, with a gap between 65 and 75 wt%. They are high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic in composition, and are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous. They are enriched in rare earth elements (REE), especially light REEs, compared to the Miocene BHVF rocks. Primordial mantle-normalized incompatible element patterns show arc- or subduction-related signatures, with enrichment in Ba and Pb, and depletion in Nb and Ta. Enrichment in K and Sr and depletion in Ti are less pronounced than in the BHVF rocks. There is no correlation between lead isotope ratios and silica (initial 206Pb/204Pb ratios range from 18.974 to 19.151). Neodymium isotope ratios show a moderate negative correlation with silica

  12. Intraplate mafic magmatism: New insights from Africa and N. America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, C. J.; van der Lee, S.; Tepp, G.; Pierre, S.

    2017-12-01

    Plate tectonic concepts consider that continental interiors are stable, with magmatism and strain localized to plate boundaries. We re-evaluate the role of pre-existing and evolving lithospheric heterogeneities in light of perspectives afforded by surface to mantle results from active and ancient rift zones in Africa and N. America. Our process-oriented approach addresses the localization of strain and magmatism and stability of continental plate interiors. In both Africa and N. America, geophysical imaging and xenolith studies reveal that thick, buoyant, and chemically distinct Archaean cratons with deep roots may deflect mantle flow, and localize magmatism and strain over many tectonic cycles. Studies of the Colorado Plateau and East African rift reveal widespread mantle metasomatism, and high levels of magma degassing along faults and at active volcanoes. The volcanoes and magmatic systems show a strong dependence on pre-existing heterogeneities in plate structure. Syntheses of the EarthScope program ishow that lateral density contrasts and migration of volatiles that accumulated during subduction can refertilize mantle lithosphere, and enable volatile-rich magmatism beneath relatively thick continental lithosphere. For example, the passive margin of eastern N. America shows uplift and magmatism long after the onset of seafloor spreading, demonstrating the dynamic nature of coupling between the lithosphere, asthenosphere, and deeper mantle. As demonstrated by the East African Rift, the Mid-Continent Rift, and other active and ancient rift zones, the interiors of continents, including thick, cold Archaean cratons are not immune to mafic magmatism and tectonism. Recent studies in N. America and Africa reveal ca. 1000 km-wide zones of dynamic uplift, low upper mantle velocities, and broadly distributed strain. The distribution of magmatism and volatile release, in combination with geophysical signals, indicates a potentially convective origin for widespread

  13. A constrained African craton source for the Cenozoic Numidian Flysch: Implications for the palaeogeography of the western Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M. F. H.; Bodin, S.; Redfern, J.; Irving, D. H. B.

    2010-07-01

    The provenance of the Numidian Flysch in the western Mediterranean remains a controversial subject which hinders understanding of this regionally widespread depositional system. The Numidian Flysch is a deep marine formation dated as Oligocene to Miocene which outcrops throughout the Maghreb and into Italy. Evidence that is widely used for provenance analysis has not previously been reviewed within the context of the Maghrebian Flysch Basin as a whole. The structural location within the Alpine belt indicates deposition proximal to the African margin, while the uniformity of the Numidian Flysch petrofacies suggests a single cratonic source, in stark contrast to heterolithic and immature flysch formations from the north of the basin. Detrital zircon ages constrain a source region with Pan-African and Eburnian age rocks, unaffected by either Hercynian or Alpine tectonic events, which precludes the European basement blocks to the north of the basin. Palaeocurrent trends which suggest a northern source are unreliable given foreland basin analogues and observed structural complications. An African craton source remains the only viable option once these data are reviewed in their entirety, and the Numidian Flysch therefore represents a major Cenozoic drainage system on the North African margin. Deposition is concurrent with regional Atlas uplift phases, and coincidental with globally cooling climates and high sea levels. The Numidian Flysch is therefore interpreted to represent a highstand passive margin deposit, with timing of deposition controlled primarily by hinterland uplift and climatic fluctuations.

  14. Zircon (U-Th)/He Thermochronometric Constraints on Himalayan Thrust Belt Exhumation, Bedrock Weathering, and Cenozoic Seawater Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleps, Cody L.; McKenzie, N. Ryan; Stockli, Daniel F.; Hughes, Nigel C.; Singh, Birendra P.; Webb, A. Alexander G.; Myrow, Paul M.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Horton, Brian K.

    2018-01-01

    Shifts in global seawater 187Os/188Os and 87Sr/86Sr are often utilized as proxies to track global weathering processes responsible for CO2 fluctuations in Earth history, particularly climatic cooling during the Cenozoic. It has been proposed, however, that these isotopic records instead reflect the weathering of chemically distinctive Himalayan lithologies exposed at the surface. We present new zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometric and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic evidence from the Himalaya of northwest India to explore these contrasting interpretations concerning the driving mechanisms responsible for these seawater records. Our data demonstrate in-sequence southward thrust propagation with rapid exhumation of Lesser Himalayan strata enriched in labile 187Os and relatively less in radiogenic 87Sr at ˜16 Ma, which directly corresponds with coeval shifts in seawater 187Os/188Os and 87Sr/86Sr. Results presented here provide substantial evidence that the onset of exhumation of 187Os-enriched Lesser Himalayan strata could have significantly impacted the marine 187Os/188Os record at 16 Ma. These results support the hypothesis that regional weathering of isotopically unique source rocks can drive seawater records independently from shifts in global-scale weathering rates, hindering the utility of these records as reliable proxies to track global weathering processes and climate in deep geologic time.

  15. Influence of volatile degassing on the eruptibility of large igneous province magmatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, T.; Richards, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Magmatic volatiles, in particular their buoyancy, may play a critical role in determining whether a magma reservoir can build up enough overpressure leading to drive flood basalt eruptions (Black & Manga 2017). Thus, it is important to understand the extent to which volatiles can remain trapped in a magmatic system and how they influence the eruptibility. Although the high-temperature metamorphic aureloe around a magma chamber is typically considered to have low permeability due to ductile creep, recent theoretical, experimental, and field work (e.g. Noriaki et al. 2017) have highlighted the role of dynamic permeability in magmatic systems. Consequently, the effective permeability of the crust when magma is present in the system can be orders of magnitude larger than that of exhumed rock samples. We model dynamic permeability changes as a competition between hydro-fracturing (increased porosity) and fracture closure by ductile creep and hydrothermal mineral precipitation (reduced porosity) and find yearly-to-decadal time-scales for periodic fracturing and fluid loss events and an increase in average permeability. We then use a fully coupled poro-thermo-elastic framework to model to explore the macroscopic influence of volatile loss on the stress state of the crust in this higher time-averaged permeability setting. We derive new semi-analytical solutions and combine them with a magma chamber box model (modified from Degruyter & Huber 2014) to analyze system-scale dynamics for both basaltic and silicic magmatic systems. We find that passive degassing likely has a substantial temporal influence on the stress distribution in the crust and the highly crystalline mush zone immediately surrounding a magma reservoir, and find an additional scale : pore-pressure diffusion timescale that exerts a first-order control on the magnitude and frequency of volcanic eruptions. We also explore how disconnected magma batches interact indirectly with each other and its implications for

  16. Apatite: A New Tool For Understanding The Temporal Variability Of Magmatic Volatile Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, M. J.; Humphreys, M.; Smith, V.; Pyle, D. M.; Isaia, R.

    2015-12-01

    The apatite crystal structure is capable of incorporating H2O, F and Cl, as well as trace CO2 and sulphur. These can be related to parental magma compositions through application of a series of pressure and temperature-dependent exchange reactions (Piccoli and Candela, 1994), permitting apatite crystals to preserve a record of all major volatile species in the melt. Furthermore, due to the general incompatibility of P in other rock-forming minerals, apatite is ubiquitous in igneous systems and often begins crystallising early, such that apatite inclusions within phenocrysts record melt volatile contents throughout magmatic differentiation. In this work, we compare the compositions of apatite inclusions and microphenocrysts with pyroxene-hosted melt inclusions from the Astroni 1 eruption of Campi Flegrei, Italy. These data are coupled with magmatic differentiation models (Gualda et al., 2012), experimental volatile solubility data (Webster et al., 2014) and thermodynamic models of apatite compositional variations (Piccoli and Candela, 1994) to determine a time-series of magmatic volatile evolution in the build-up to eruption. We find that apatite halogen/OH ratios decreased through magmatic differentiation, while melt inclusion F and Cl concentrations increased. Melt inclusion H2O contents are constant at ~2.5 wt%. These data are best explained by volatile-undersaturated differentiation over most of the crystallisation history of the Astroni 1 melt, with melt inclusion H2O contents reset during ascent, due to rapid H diffusion through the phenocryst hosts (Woods et al., 2000). Given the rapid diffusivity of volatiles in apatite (Brenan, 1993), preservation of undersaturated compositions in microphenocrysts suggests that saturation was only achieved a few days to months before eruption and that it may have been the transition into a volatile-saturated state that ultimately triggered eruption. Piccoli and Candela, 1994. Am. J. of Sc., 294, 92-135. Gualda et al., 2012

  17. Cenozoic structures and the tectonic evolution of the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.; Egholm, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    Abundant seismic sections and well data from the Cenozoic succession in the eastern North Sea area generally reveal normal faulting, salt tectonics and localized tectonic inversion. However, inferences on the Cenozoic dynamic evolution of the region require thorough analysis of interactions between...... or cover tectonism took place. Our objectives are thus 1) to analyze the interaction between basement and cover structures, and if possible 2) to relate the structures to the regional tectonic evolution. The Zechstein evaporites pinch out onto the Ringkøbing-Fyn High, which in the eastern North Sea...... influencede.g. Miocene deposition and controlled the generation of second order faults. The latter detached along the top Chalk Group due to the topography generated during faulting, i.e. they are second order detachment surfaces. We conclude that the regional tectonic significance of the Cenozoic structures...

  18. Post-Hercynian subvolcanic magmatism in the Serre Massif (Central-Southern Calabria, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, V.; Cirrincione, R.; Fiannacca, P.; Mazzoleni, P.; Tranchina, A.

    2009-04-01

    In the Serre Massif (Central-Southern Calabria, Italy) dykes and subvolcanic bodies intrude diffusively both Hercynian metamorphic rocks and late-Hercynian granitoids. They range in composition from basaltic andesites to dacite-rhyodacites and can be ascribed to the extensive magmatic activity that affects the entire Hercynian orogenic belt in late Paleozoic - early Mesozoic time. The geodinamic framework of the magmatic activity is still matter of debate, nevertheless most authors agree in correlating magmatism both to the late-orogenic collapse of the Hercynian belt and to the lithosphere thinning responsible for the subsequent continental rifting. In this work, we propose a petrogenetic model for acidic to basic hypabissal bodies from southern Calabria in order to define the nature of sources, discriminate magmatic processes and supply a contribution in the geodynamic reconstruction of the Late Palaeozoic in the Calabria-Peloritani Orogen. In relation to their geochemical affinity, studied dykes have been divided in two groups: a medium- to high-K calc-alkaline and a tholeiitic one. Dykes belonging to the former group, andesitic and dacitic-rhyodacitic in composition, show typical features of subduction-related magmatism, such as LILE and LREE enrichments, depletions in HFSE, peaks in Rb, Th and Ce, accentuated troughs in Ba, Nb-Ta, P and Ti (White and Dupré, 1986; McCulloch and Gamble, 1991), contrasting with the late Hercynian collisional context. On the other side, features typical of intra-plate magmatic activity, such as a moderate enrichment in Ta, Nb, Ce, P, Zr, Hf and Sm relative to MORB composition are also present in studied rocks (Shimizu & Arculus, 1975; Pearce, 1982). REE-patterns are strongly to weakly fractionated for the andesitic rocks (Lan/Ybn = 10.03-13.98) and the dacitic-rhyodacitic ones (Lan/Ybn = 6.00 to 2.82), respectively. The latter rocks exhibit a very slight negative Eu anomaly, whereas no Eu anomaly is recognizable in the andesite

  19. Uranium in the rock fragments from Lunar soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, A.N.; Sergeev, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Uranium content and distribution in Lunar rock fragments 0.4-0.9 mm in size from ''Lunar-16+ -20, -24'' stations were studied by the method of autoradiography. Uranium is almost absent in rock-forming minerals and is concentrated in some accessory mineral. Uranium content in microgabro fragments from ''Lunar-20 and -24'' equals (0.0n - n.0)16 -6 g/g. Variations are not related to fragment representation. Radiogra-- phies of fragments from Lunar soil showed the uranium distribution from uniform (in glasses) to extremely nonuniform in some holocrystalline rocks. It was pointed out, that uranium micro distributions in Lunar and Earth (effusive and magmatic) rocks have common features. In both cases rock-forming minerals don't contain appreciable uranium amount in the form of isomorphic admixture; uranium is highly concentrated in some accessory minerais. The difference lies in tne absence of hydroxyl -containing secondary minerals, which are enriched with uranium on Earth, in Lunar rocks. ''Film'' uranium micromineralization, which occurs in rocks of the Earth along the boundaries of mineral grains is absent in Lunar rocks as well

  20. CERN Rocks

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The 15th CERN Hardronic Festival took place on 17 July on the terrace of Rest 3 (Prévessin). Over 1000 people, from CERN and other International Organizations, came to enjoy the warm summer night, and to watch the best of the World's High Energy music. Jazz, rock, pop, country, metal, blues, funk and punk blasted out from 9 bands from the CERN Musiclub and Jazz club, alternating on two stages in a non-stop show.  The night reached its hottest point when The Canettes Blues Band got everybody dancing to sixties R&B tunes (pictured). Meanwhile, the bars and food vans were working at full capacity, under the expert management of the CERN Softball club, who were at the same time running a Softball tournament in the adjacent "Higgs Field". The Hardronic Festival is the main yearly CERN music event, and it is organized with the support of the Staff Association and the CERN Administration.

  1. Geochemical characteristics of Antarctic magmatism connected with Karoo-Maud and Kerguelen mantle plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushchevskaya, Nadezhda; Krymsky, Robert; Belyatsky, Boris; Antonov, Anton; Migdisova, Natalya

    2013-04-01

    Emplacement (130-115 m.y. ago) of dikes and sills of alkaline-ultrabasic composition within Jetty oasis (East Antarctica) is suggested as a later appearance of plume magmatism within the East-Antarctic Shield [Andronikov et al., 1993, 2001; Laiba et al., 1987]. This region is located opposite Kerguelen Islands and possibly could be properly connected with activity of the Kerguelen-plume [Foley et al., 2001, 2006]. Jurassic-Cretaceous dykes, stocks and sills of alkaline-ultrabasic rocks, relatively close to kimberlite-type, are exposed within Jetty oasis and on the southern shore of the Raddock Lake. This alkaline-ultrabasic magmatism has appeared to be connected with the main Mesozoic stage of the evolution of the Lambert and Amery glaciers riftogenic structure [Kurinin et al., 1980, 1988]. The alkaline-ultrabasic dikes and sills within Jetty oasis cut the rocks of the Beaver complex, Permo-Triassic terrigeneous successions of the Amery complex, and late Paleozoic low-alkaline basic dikes as well. Dashed chain of 6 stock bodies spread out on 15 km along the eastern shore of the Beaver Lake, marked their allocation with submeridianal zone of the deep cracks, boarded of the eastern side of the Beaver Lake trough. At the same time, new data upon Quaternary magmatism of the mountain Gaussberg has confirmed the unique features of ultra-potassium alkaline magmatism (up to 14-17% K2O) formed under exclusively continental conditions [Murphy et al., 2002]. Volcanic cone is located at the continuation of Gaussberg rift zone which is possibly a part of Lambert fracture zone. Its formation is connected with the early stages of Gondwana development, perhaps, reactivated in different Precambrian events and according to numerous data is a single rift zone which is traced Indian inland (Indrani graben, [Golynsky, 2011]). The time of lamproitic magmas eruption is estimated at 56000±5000 yeas ago [Tingey et al., 1983]. Earlier it had been shown the Mesozoic (about 170 Ma) basaltic

  2. Copahue volcano and its regional magmatic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J C; Zareski, J E; Camfield, L M; Todd, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Copahue volcano (Province of Neuquen, Argentina) has produced lavas and strombolian deposits over several 100,000s of years, building a rounded volcano with a 3 km elevation. The products are mainly basaltic andesites, with the 2000–2012 eruptive products the most mafic. The geochemistry of Copahue products is compared with those of the main Andes arc (Llaima, Callaqui, Tolhuaca), the older Caviahue volcano directly east of Copahue, and the back arc volcanics of the Loncopue graben. The Caviahue rocks resemble the main Andes arc suite, whereas the Copahue rocks are characterized by lower Fe and Ti contents and higher incompatible element concentrations. The rocks have negative Nb-Ta anomalies, modest enrichments in radiogenic Sr and Pb isotope ratios and slightly depleted Nd isotope ratios. The combined trace element and isotopic data indicate that Copahue magmas formed in a relatively dry mantle environment, with melting of a subducted sediment residue. The back arc basalts show a wide variation in isotopic composition, have similar water contents as the Copahue magmas and show evidence for a subducted sedimentary component in their source regions. The low 206Pb/204Pb of some backarc lava flows suggests the presence of a second endmember with an EM1 flavor in its source. The overall magma genesis is explained within the context of a subducted slab with sediment that gradually looses water, water-mobile elements, and then switches to sediment melt extracts deeper down in the subduction zone. With the change in element extraction mechanism with depth comes a depletion and fractionation of the subducted complex that is reflected in the isotope and trace element signatures of the products from the main arc to Copahue to the back arc basalts.

  3. Geochemistry, U-Pb SHRIMP zircon dating and Hf isotopes of the Gondwanan magmatism in NW Argentina: petrogenesis and geodynamic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poma, Stella; Zappettini, Eduardo O; Quenardelle, Sonia; Santos, Joao O; Koukharsky, Magdalena; Belousova, Elena; McNaughton, Neil

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out zircon U-Pb SHRIMP dating and Hf isotope determinations as well as geochemical analyses on three plutonic units of Gondwanan magmatism that crop out in NW Argentina. Two episodes of different age and genesis have been identified. The older one includes gabbros and diorites (Rio Grande Unit) of 267±3 Ma and granitoids (belonging to the Llullaillaco Unit) of 263±1 Ma (late Permian, Guadalupian); the parent magmas were generated in an intraplate environment and derived from an enriched mantle but were subsequently contaminated by crustal components. The younger rocks are granodiorites with arc signature (Chuculaqui Unit) and an age of 247±2 Ma (middle Triassic-Anisian). Hf isotope signature of the units indicates mantle sources as well as crustal components. Hf model ages obtained are consistent with the presence of crustal Mesoproterozoic (mainly Ectasian to Calymnian (T DM(c) =1.24 to 1.44 Ga-negative ε Hf m) and juvenile Cryogenian sources (T DM =0.65 to 0.79 Ga-positiveε Hf(T) , supporting the idea of a continuous, mostly Mesoproterozoic, basement under the Central Andes, as an extension of the Arequipa-Antofalla massif. The tectonic setting and age of the Gondwanan magmatism in NW Argentina allow to differentiate: a. Permian intra-plate magmatism developed under similar conditions to the upper section of the Choiyoi magmatism exposed in the Frontal Cordillera and San Rafael Block, Argentina; b. Triassic magmatism belonging to a poorly known subduction-related magmatic arc segment of mostly NS trend with evidence of porphyry type mineralization in Chile, allowing to extend this metallotect into Argentina

  4. The gap in the Arctic Cenozoic Record: Expect the Unexpected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangiorgi, F.; Brumsack, H.; Schouten, S.; Brinkhuis, H.; Kaminski, M. A.; Reichart, G.; Stickley, C. E.; Willard, D. A.; Sinninghe Damste', J. S.

    2006-12-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 302, a.k.a. the Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX), drilled more than 400 meters below the seafloor at the central Lomonosov Ridge, ca 250 km from the modern North Pole in water depths of about 1300 m. The partially recovered sediments provide a unique record of the geological and paleoceanographical evolution of the Arctic Ocean during the Cenozoic. The record indicates a transition from a "greenhouse world", characterized by a relative shallow marine setting, with organic-rich sediment and frequent brackish or even fresh surface waters during the latest Palaeocene and the early Eocene, to an "icehouse world" of hemipelagic sedimentation affected by the occurrence of sea ice from the middle Miocene to present. Much to our surprise, these two states are separated by a major hiatus, not obvious from the seismic record and the lithology of the cores, spanning at least 25 Ma as derived from dinocyst and benthic foraminifer stratigraphies. These testify that deposits of probable late early Miocene age directly overlie early middle Eocene sediments. To unravel the nature of the hiatus, we performed a multiproxy micropaleontological and geochemical study on the surrounding record, i.e. lithological units 1/6, 1/5 and 1/4, where the sediment changes from homogeneous dark into a cm-scaled alternation ("zebra-like") black and grey bands to light grey, blue and reddish-brown. Paleoenvironmental reconstructions based on organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts, pollen and spores, benthic foraminifera, inorganic and organic geochemistry and siliceous remains reveal conspicuous changes, suggesting a transition from brackish-freshwater to shallow-lagoonal and to open marine environments. These environmental turnovers, coupled with the occurrence of such a large hiatus, cannot be due to climatic shifts alone, but suggest that major tectonic rearrangements likely changed the depositional setting. On-going organic geochemical analysis will be

  5. Shallow gas in Cenozoic sediments of the Southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampe, Anna F.; Lutz, Rüdiger; Franke, Dieter; Thöle, Hauke; Arfai, Jashar

    2013-04-01

    Shallow petroleum systems in the southern North Sea are known for several decades but they were not actively explored for a long time. In recent years these unconventional shallow petroleum systems are studied in greater detail and one shallow gas field (A-12) is in production in the Netherlands. Additionally, oil was encountered in Miocene sandstones in the southern Danish North Sea (Lille John well) just north of the Danish-German border. Seismic amplitude anomalies are an indication for hydrocarbons in sediments. Therefore we have mapped the occurrence of seismic amplitude anomalies in the German North Sea based on more than 25.000 km of 2D seismic data and around 4.000 km2 of 3D seismic data. Amplitude anomalies are ubiquitous phenomena in the study area. These anomalies are not only caused by hydrocarbons but also by changing lithologies e.g. peat or fluid migration. Therefore several classes of seismic anomalies, e.g. bright spots, chimneys, blanking areas and velocity pull-down were mapped. Examples for these classes were studied with AVO (amplitude variation with offset) analyses to verify the existence or non-existence of gas in the sediments. Shallow gas can be produced and transported through the dense pipeline grid of the southern and central North Sea or it could be burned offshore close to wind parks in small power plants and the electric energy then transported through the existing power connections of the wind parks. Thus enabling a continuous energy supply during calm wind periods. This study is carried out within the framework of the project "Geoscientific Potential of the German North Sea (GPDN)" in which the Cenozoic sedimentary system was mapped in great detail. A detailed model of delta evolution (Baltic river system) was developed which serves as a structural framework. The studied interval is time equivalent to the Utsira formation which is used offshore Norway for sequestration of CO2. These different possibilities of using or exploiting

  6. The Cenozoic geological evolution of the Central and Northern North Sea based on seismic sequence stratigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordt, Henrik

    1996-03-01

    This thesis represents scientific results from seismic sequence stratigraphic investigations. These investigations and results are integrated into an ongoing mineralogical study of the Cenozoic deposits. the main results from this mineralogical study are presented and discussed. The seismic investigations have provided boundary conditions for a forward modelling study of the Cenozoic depositional history. Results from the forward modelling are presented as they emphasise the influence of tectonics on sequence development. The tectonic motions described were important for the formation of the large oil and gas fields in the North Sea.

  7. The Alto Ribeira magmatic arc (Parana State-Southern Brazil): Geochemical and isotopic evidence of magmatic focus migration and its tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prazeres Fihlo, H.J.; Baei, M.A.S.; Harara, O.M.M.; Passarelli, C.R.; Siga Jr, O; Reis Neto, J.M; Sato, K

    2001-01-01

    The present location of the geological units which comprise the Precambrian of the south-southeastern part of the Ribeira fold belt in Parana State, Brazil, is the result of a series of superposed tectono-metamorphic events. During this evolution, and especially at the end of the Neoproterozoic, between 640 and 550 Ma, an important crustal accretion event within the Brasiliano Megacycle was responsible for the generation of the Alto Ribeira magmatic arc (ARMA). This arc is now represented by a large volume of granitic rocks amongst which the Cunhaporanga (CPB) and Tres Corregos (TCB) granitic batholiths stand out. The SSE part of the Ribeira belt forms an long, NE strip with a mainly NE trend, formed by deformed middle to upper crustal rocks, metamorphosed in greenschist to amphibolite facies (Basei et.al.1992; Fiori, 1993; Hackspacher et.al. 1997; Campanha and Sadowski 1999). These rocks are intruded by the Neoproterozoic CPB, TCB and the Agudos Grandes batholith, and many granite stocks. The CPB and TCB are elongated bodies with NE-SW major axes which occur north and south, respectively, of the Itaiacoca metavolcano-sedimentary sequence. Together, they occupy about 6,500 km 2 . The southeastern contact between the CPB and the Itaiacoca country rocks is intrusive, while the northwestern contact of the BCT with this group is tectonic, represented by the Itapirapua shear zone. Its contact with rocks of the Agua Clara Formation of the Acungui Group is intrusive. The mineral assemblages in the rocks of the two main batholiths are typically calc-alkaline. The CPB is more homogeneous, being mainly composed of porphyritic to inequigranular, isotropic monzogranite which are accompanied by rare granodiorite. The TCB is more heterogeneous, and includes undeformed or deformed quartz monzonite, granodiorite and monzogranite, as well as rare tonalite and syenogranite. The rocks of the CPB (with 65 - 73% SiO 2 ) and the TCB (60-76% SiO 2 ) are meta- to weakly per-aluminous in

  8. Constraints on the source of Cu in a submarine magmatic-hydrothermal system, Brothers volcano, Kermadec island arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Manuel; Haase, Karsten M.; Klemd, Reiner; Smith, Daniel J.; Schwarz-Schampera, Ulrich; Bach, Wolfgang

    2018-05-01

    Most magmatic-hydrothermal Cu deposits are genetically linked to arc magmas. However, most continental or oceanic arc magmas are barren, and hence new methods have to be developed to distinguish between barren and mineralised arc systems. Source composition, melting conditions, the timing of S saturation and an initial chalcophile element-enrichment represent important parameters that control the potential of a subduction setting to host an economically valuable deposit. Brothers volcano in the Kermadec island arc is one of the best-studied examples of arc-related submarine magmatic-hydrothermal activity. This study, for the first time, compares the chemical and mineralogical composition of the Brothers seafloor massive sulphides and the associated dacitic to rhyolitic lavas that host the hydrothermal system. Incompatible trace element ratios, such as La/Sm and Ce/Pb, indicate that the basaltic melts from L'Esperance volcano may represent a parental analogue to the more evolved Brothers lavas. Copper-rich magmatic sulphides (Cu > 2 wt%) identified in fresh volcanic glass and phenocryst phases, such as clinopyroxene, plagioclase and Fe-Ti oxide suggest that the surrounding lavas that host the Brothers hydrothermal system represent a potential Cu source for the sulphide ores at the seafloor. Thermodynamic calculations reveal that the Brothers melts reached volatile saturation during their evolution. Melt inclusion data and the occurrence of sulphides along vesicle margins indicate that an exsolving volatile phase extracted Cu from the silicate melt and probably contributed it to the overlying hydrothermal system. Hence, the formation of the Cu-rich seafloor massive sulphides (up to 35.6 wt%) is probably due to the contribution of Cu from a bimodal source including wall rock leaching and magmatic degassing, in a mineralisation style that is hybrid between Cyprus-type volcanic-hosted massive sulphide and subaerial epithermal-porphyry deposits.

  9. Asymmetric Early Crust-Building Magmatism on the Lunar Nearside Due to KREEP-Induced Melting Point Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elardo, S. M.; Shearer, C. K.; McCuddin, F. M.

    2018-01-01

    The lunar magnesian-suite, or Mg-suite, is a series of ancient plutonic rocks from the lunar crust with ages and compositions indicating that they represent crust-building magmatism occurring immediately after the end of magma ocean crystallization. Samples of the Mg-suite were found at every Apollo landing site except 11 and ubiquitously have geochemical characteristics indicating the involvement of KREEP in their petrogenesis. This observation has led to the suggestion that the presence of the KREEP reservoir under the lunar nearside was responsible for this episode of crust building. The lack of any readily identifiable Mg-suite rocks in meteoritic regolith breccias sourced from outside the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT) seemingly supports this interpretation.

  10. Geomechanical rock properties of a basaltic volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N Schaefer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In volcanic regions, reliable estimates of mechanical properties for specific volcanic events such as cyclic inflation-deflation cycles by magmatic intrusions, thermal stressing, and high temperatures are crucial for building accurate models of volcanic phenomena. This study focuses on the challenge of characterizing volcanic materials for the numerical analyses of such events. To do this, we evaluated the physical (porosity, permeability and mechanical (strength properties of basaltic rocks at Pacaya Volcano (Guatemala through a variety of laboratory experiments, including: room temperature, high temperature (935 °C, and cyclically-loaded uniaxial compressive strength tests on as-collected and thermally-treated rock samples. Knowledge of the material response to such varied stressing conditions is necessary to analyze potential hazards at Pacaya, whose persistent activity has led to 13 evacuations of towns near the volcano since 1987. The rocks show a non-linear relationship between permeability and porosity, which relates to the importance of the crack network connecting the vesicles in these rocks. Here we show that strength not only decreases with porosity and permeability, but also with prolonged stressing (i.e., at lower strain rates and upon cooling. Complimentary tests in which cyclic episodes of thermal or load stressing showed no systematic weakening of the material on the scale of our experiments. Most importantly, we show the extremely heterogeneous nature of volcanic edifices that arise from differences in porosity and permeability of the local lithologies, the limited lateral extent of lava flows, and the scars of previous collapse events. Input of these process-specific rock behaviors into slope stability and deformation models can change the resultant hazard analysis. We anticipate that an increased parameterization of rock properties will improve mitigation power.

  11. A preserved early Ediacaran magmatic arc at the northernmost portion of the Transversal Zone central subprovince of the Borborema Province, Northeastern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamim Bley de Brito Neves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Magmatic arcs are an essential part of crust-forming events in planet Earth evolution. The aim of this work was to describe an early Ediacaran magmatic arc (ca. 635-580 Ma exposed in the northernmost portion of the Transversal Zone, central subprovince of Borborema Province, northeast Brazil. Our research took advantage of several syntheses by different authors, including theses and dissertations, carried out on magmatic rocks of the study area for the last 30 years. The ca. 750 km long and up to 140 km wide arc, trending ENE-WSW, is preserved to the south of the Patos Lineament, between 35º15' and 42º30'W and 7º15' and 8ºS. About 90 different stocks and batholiths of I-type granitic rocks were mapped along this orogenic zone, preferentially intruding low-grade schists of the Cryogenian-Ediacaran Piancó-Alto Brígida (SPAB belt. Three igneous supersuites are recognized: a epidote-bearing granodiorites and tonalites ("Conceição" type; b high-K calc-alkaline granites ("Itaporanga" type; c biotite granodiorites of trondhjemite affinity ("Serrita" type. A fourth group of peralkalic and shoshonitic rocks occurs to the south of the previous ones, reflecting special tectonic conditions. NNE-SSW trending Paleoproterozoic fold belts, surrounding Archean nuclei, characterize the continental part of the northern lower plate. The oceanic fraction of this lower plate was recycled by subduction and scarce remnants of which may be seen either within the enclosing low-grade schists or as xenoliths within the arc intrusions. The upper continental plate presents WSW-ENE structural trends and is composed of Neoproterozoic fold belts and Paleoproterozoic reworked basement inliers. Available data bear clear evidence of an Ediacaran magmatic arc built at the northern portion of the Transversal Zone in the Borborema Province, northeast Brazil.

  12. Argon isotopes as recorders of magmatic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, P. W.; Gardner, J. E.; Mora Chaparro, J. C.; Arce, J. L.

    2003-12-01

    Argon isotopic ratios vary enough between different reservoirs (atmosphere, crust, mantle) and diffuse fast enough through most minerals at magmatic temperatures (700-1200 C) to make them ideal for looking at magma chamber dynamics. Indeed, diffusion is sufficiently fast to allow short time scales to be deciphered, setting argon apart from many other isotopic methods. A mineral's ability to retain "excess" argon (40Ar/36Ar ratios greater than the atmospheric value and apparent ages older than the known eruption age) during post-eruption cooling is key to Ar studies. Previous work shows that both phenocrysts (crystallizing in the magma chamber; e.g. Mt St. Helens; Layer and Gardner, 2001) and xenocrysts (introduced into the magma chamber; e.g Toba; Gardner et al., 2002) preserve excess argon, which enables magma chamber processes to be deciphered through the variable diffusion rates between crystal phases. Single crystal 40Ar/39Ar step-heating of biotite from the 10.5 ka eruption of Nevado de Toluca volcano, Mexico indicates that they are xenocrystic and resided for only a short (< 1 year) time in the magma before it erupted. The biotite has reaction rims of hornblende, orthopyroxene and plagioclase, and failed to grow experimentally at pressure-temperature conditions of the magma, confirming the xenocrystic nature of this phase. Single-step fusion of plagioclase phenocrysts from eruptions of El Chichon volcano, Mexico, shows evidence of excess (mantle) argon, whereas hornblende from the same eruptions contains little or none. In this case, faster diffusion of Ar in plagioclase than in hornblende allow plagioclase to incorporate excess argon during magma recharge; hornblende does not. Combining such results with other isotopic systems may in fact better determine magma chamber processes. At El Chichon, Sr isotopes suggest magma recharges ocurred (Tepley et al., 2000), whereas the argon isotopes suggest such pulses occurred just before each eruption. The fast and

  13. Did the Bering Sea Form as a Cenozoic Backarc Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, R. J.; Barth, G. A.; Scheirer, D. S.; Scholl, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the origins of Bering Sea marginal basins (Aleutian, Bowers, and Komandorsky basins; AB, BB, KB) is key for reconstructing N. Pacific tectonic and magmatic evolution. New acquisitions and recompilations of MCS, OBS, and potential field data (Barth et al. poster. this session) for USGS Extended Continental Shelf project and selection of Aleutians as GeoPrisms Subduction Cycles and Deformation focus site stimulate reconsideration of BB, KB, and especially AB origins. AB has long been regarded as N. Pacific crust trapped when the Aleutian subduction began ~45-50 Ma. BB and KB probably formed together as Miocene backarc basins. Presence of Oligo-Miocene arc volcanics on Bowers and Shirshov ridges suggests that these are remnant arcs, orphaned by AB and KB opening. Seven lines of evidence suggest that AB formed as a Paleogene backarc basin: 1) AB heatflow suggests an age of about 44 Ma (Langseth et al 1980 JGR). 2) Formation of NNW-trending rift basins on Bering shelf (Navarin, Pribilof, and St. George basins) in Paleogene time indicate extension at this time. 3) The early Paleogene "red unconformity" of the Beringian margin could indicate uplift, erosion, and subsidence associated with AB opening. 4) ~N-S magnetic anomalies in AB contrasts with E-W Kula anomalies on N. Pacific, indicating that the two tracts of oceanic crust formed at different spreading ridges. 5) Thicker sediment in AB (2-4 km) vs. BB and KB (oceanic crust.ectonic scenario for formation of Aleutian Arc and Bering Sea basins. Green = present land; yellow = shelf; AB = Aleutian Basin; KB = Komandorsky Basin; BB = Bowers Basin; SR = Shirshov Ridge, BR = Bowers Ridge; Red = active volcanism and spreading ; Blue = extinct volcanism and spreading

  14. Isotopic feature and uranium dating of the volcanic rocks in the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Volcanic rocks from the northern and middle Okinawa Trough were dated by uranium-series dating method. Differential fractions using magnetic procedure were designed to separate samples. New report on the ages and isotopic data of rocks in the northern trough (especially black pumice) was discussed. Based on the uranium dates and Sr-Nd isotopic ratio, magmatic evolution process of the Okinawa Trough was noted. Firstly, there have been wide silicic volcanic activities in the Okinawa Trough from late Pleistocene to present, and the volcanic rocks can be divided into three subgroups. Secondly, magma generally came from PREMA source area under the Okinawa Trough. Magmatic evolution in the northern trough was similar to the middle, but different to the south. Finally, volcanic activities indicated that opening of the southern Okinawa Trough did not happen due to the collision between Luson Arc and Eurasian Plate until the early Pleistocene.

  15. The neoproterozoic Goias magmatic arc, central Brazil: a review and new Sm-Nd isotopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Gioia, Simone Maria Costa Lima

    2000-01-01

    In this study we review the main characteristics and geochronological/isotopic data of metaigneous rocks of the juvenile Neoproterozoic Goias Magmatic Arc in central Brazil. Some new Sm-Nd isotopic data are also presented for both the southern (Arenopolis) and northern (Mara Rosa) sections of the arc. In the south, granitoids of the Choupana-Turvania area yielded a Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron age of 863± 97 Ma and e Nd (T) of +4.1 T D M model ages vary between 0.94 and 1.13 Ga. Metavolcanic rocks in the Pontalina region have a Sm-Nd whole rock isochron age of 762 ± 77 Ma and e Nd (T) of +2.9. T DM values are between 0.96 and 1.10 Ga. In the northern section of the Goias Arc, mylonitic gneisses of the Serra Azul ridge, an important N30E shear zone, were investigated and have a Sm-Nd isochron age of 3058 ± 120 Ma and initial e Nd value of ca.+ 2.1. This data suggests that the Serra Azul ridge might represent either a mylonitized fragment of the Archaen terranes exposed just to the south, or the sialic basement of the Araguaia Belt supracrustal, along the eastern margin of the Amazon Craton. The geochronological data available so far indicate a long history of arc formation and amalgamation on the western margin of the Sao Francisco-Congo continent during the Neoproterozoic. The history of convergence of continental masses is partially coeval with the fragmentation of Rodinia, indicating that the western margin (present geographic reference) of that continent occupied a peripheral setting in the Rodinia super continent. (author)

  16. The neoproterozoic Goias magmatic arc, central Brazil: a review and new Sm-Nd isotopic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Gioia, Simone Maria Costa Lima [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: marcio@unb.br

    2000-03-01

    In this study we review the main characteristics and geochronological/isotopic data of metaigneous rocks of the juvenile Neoproterozoic Goias Magmatic Arc in central Brazil. Some new Sm-Nd isotopic data are also presented for both the southern (Arenopolis) and northern (Mara Rosa) sections of the arc. In the south, granitoids of the Choupana-Turvania area yielded a Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron age of 863{+-} 97 Ma and e{sub Nd} (T) of +4.1 T{sub D}M model ages vary between 0.94 and 1.13 Ga. Metavolcanic rocks in the Pontalina region have a Sm-Nd whole rock isochron age of 762 {+-} 77 Ma and e{sub Nd} (T) of +2.9. T {sub DM} values are between 0.96 and 1.10 Ga. In the northern section of the Goias Arc, mylonitic gneisses of the Serra Azul ridge, an important N30E shear zone, were investigated and have a Sm-Nd isochron age of 3058 {+-} 120 Ma and initial e{sub Nd} value of ca.+ 2.1. This data suggests that the Serra Azul ridge might represent either a mylonitized fragment of the Archaen terranes exposed just to the south, or the sialic basement of the Araguaia Belt supracrustal, along the eastern margin of the Amazon Craton. The geochronological data available so far indicate a long history of arc formation and amalgamation on the western margin of the Sao Francisco-Congo continent during the Neoproterozoic. The history of convergence of continental masses is partially coeval with the fragmentation of Rodinia, indicating that the western margin (present geographic reference) of that continent occupied a peripheral setting in the Rodinia super continent. (author)

  17. Cristallisation fractionnée et contamination crustale dans la série magmatique jurassique transitionnelle du Haut Atlas central (Maroc)Fractional crystallisation and crustal contamination in the transitional Jurassic magmatic series of Central High Atlas (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayane, Rachid; Essaifi, Abderrahim; Maury, René C.; Piqué, Alain; Laville, Edgard; Bouabdelli, Mohamed

    The Middle Jurassic plutonism of the Central High Atlas (Morocco) was emplaced in N45° trending anticlinal ridges. It is characterised by various petrographic facies including mafic rocks (troctolites), intermediate rocks (diorites, monzodiorites), and evolved rocks (syenites), together with heterogeneous facies resulting from mixing between acidic and the intermediate magmas. Mineralogical and chemical data show ( i) the transitional character of the Jurassic magmatic series of the Central High Atlas and ( ii) the implication of continental crust as a contaminant during fractional crystallization. To cite this article: R. Zayane et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 97-104.

  18. Comparison between the chemistry of igneous and hydrothermal biotite in the igneous rocks of Sakhtehesar mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farima Ayati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sakhtehesar mountain is located in Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt and is composed of volcanic and subvolcanic rocks (Pliocene andesite to dacite which intruded the volcanics and pyroclastics of Paleocene age. Three alteration zones including potassic, phyllic and propylitic are recognized in the area. In this paper, the mineral chemistry of magmatic and primary biotite and the mineral chemistry of biotite in potassic and phyllic alteration zones have been studied. Investigations show that primary and secondary biotites are different from each other and hydrothermal fluids associated with the potassic alteration are distinctively different from the fluids associated with the phyllic alteration zone in the area.

  19. Mercury distribution in coals influenced by magmatic intrusions, and surface waters from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, Anhui, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Zhicao; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu; Wu, Dun; Wu, Bin; Zhou, Chuncai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Hg concentrations in coal and surface water samples were determined. • Hg is enriched in the Huaibei coals. • Magmatic activities imparted influences on Hg content and distribution. • Hg contents in surface waters are relative low at the present status. - Abstract: The Hg concentrations in 108 samples, comprising 81 coal samples, 1 igneous rock, 2 parting rock samples and 24 water samples from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, China, were determined by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The abundance and distribution of Hg in different coal mines and coal seams were studied. The weighted average Hg concentration for all coal samples in the Huaibei Coalfield is 0.42 mg/kg, which is about twice that of average Chinese coals. From southwestern to northeastern coalfield, Hg concentration shows a decreasing trend, which is presumably related to magmatic activity and fault structures. The relatively high Hg levels are observed in coal seams Nos. 6, 7 and 10 in the southwestern coal mines. Correlation analysis indicates that Hg in the southwestern and southernmost coals with high Hg concentrations is associated with pyrite. The Hg concentrations in surface waters in the Huaibei Coal Mining District range from 10 to 60 ng/L, and display a decreasing trend with distance from a coal waste pile but are lower than the regulated levels for Hg in drinking water

  20. Rollerjaw Rock Crusher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Fuerstenau, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock-crushing industries. Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.

  1. Modulation of magmatic processes by CO2 flushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricchi, Luca; Sheldrake, Tom E.; Blundy, Jon

    2018-06-01

    Magmatic systems are the engines driving volcanic eruptions and the source of fluids responsible for the formation of porphyry-type ore deposits. Sudden variations of pressure, temperature and volume in magmatic systems can produce unrest, which may culminate in a volcanic eruption and/or the abrupt release of ore-forming fluids. Such variations of the conditions within magmatic systems are commonly ascribed to the injection of new magma from depth. However, as magmas fractionating at depth or rising to the upper crust release CO2-rich fluids, the interaction between carbonic fluids and H2O-rich magmas stored in the upper crust (CO2 flushing), must also be a common process affecting the evolution of subvolcanic magma reservoirs. Here, we investigate the effect of gas injection on the stability and chemical evolution of magmatic systems. We calculate the chemical and physical evolution of magmas subjected to CO2-flushing using rhyolite-MELTS. We compare the calculations with a set of melt inclusion data for Mt. St. Helens, Merapi, Etna, and Stromboli volcanoes. We provide an approach that can be used to distinguish between melt inclusions trapped during CO2 flushing, magma ascent and decompression, or those affected by post-entrapment H2O-loss. Our results show that CO2 flushing is a widespread process in both felsic and mafic magmatic systems. Depending upon initial magma crystallinity and duration of CO2 input, flushing can either lead to volcanic eruption or fluid release. We suggest that CO2 flushing is a fundamental process modulating the behaviour and chemical evolution of crustal magmatic systems.

  2. The Amazonian Craton and its influence on past fluvial systems (Mesozoic-Cenozoic, Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Roddaz, M.; Dino, R.; Soares, E.; Uba, C.; Ochoa-Lozano, D.; Mapes, R.; Hoorn, C.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2010-01-01

    The Amazonian Craton is an old geological feature of Archaean/Proterozoic age that has determined the character of fluvial systems in Amazonia throughout most of its past. This situation radically changed during the Cenozoic, when uplift of the Andes reshaped the relief and drainage patterns of

  3. Late Cenozoic History of the Genus Micromys (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, I.; Knitlová, M.; Wagner, Jan; Kordos, L.; Nadachowski, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2013), e62498 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0184 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Mammalia * Rodentia * Genus Micromys * Late Cenozoic Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  4. Adakite-like volcanism of Ecuador: lower crust magmatic evolution and recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaradia, Massimo; Müntener, Othmar; Beate, Bernardo; Fontignie, Denis

    2009-11-01

    .7040-0.70435). Rare earth element patterns are characterized by variably fractionated light to heavy REE (La/YbN = 5.7-34) and by the absence of Eu negative anomalies suggesting evolution of these rocks with limited plagioclase fractionation. We interpret the petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic data as indicating open-system evolution at all volcanic centers characterized by fractional crystallization and magma mixing processes at different lower- to mid-crustal levels as well as by assimilation of mafic lower crust and/or its partial melts. Thus, we propose that the adakite-like signatures of Ecuadorian rocks (e.g., high Sr/Y and La/Yb values) are primarily the result of lower- to mid-crustal processing of mantle-derived melts, rather than of slab melts and slab melt-mantle interactions. The isotopic signatures of the least evolved adakite-like rocks of the active and recent volcanoes are the same as those of Tertiary ”normal” calc-alkaline magmatic rocks of Ecuador suggesting that the source of the magma did not change through time. What changed was the depth of magmatic evolution, probably as a consequence of increased compression induced by the stronger coupling between the subducting and overriding plates associated with subduction of the aseismic Carnegie Ridge.

  5. Intrusion of Magmatic Bodies Into the Continental Crust: 3-D Numerical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyk, Weronika; Vogt, Katharina

    2018-03-01

    Magma intrusion is a major material transfer process in the Earth's continental crust. Yet the mechanical behavior of the intruding magma and its host are a matter of debate. In this study we present a series of numerical thermomechanical simulations on magma emplacement in 3-D. Our results demonstrate the response of the continental crust to magma intrusion. We observe change in intrusion geometries between dikes, cone sheets, sills, plutons, ponds, funnels, finger-shaped and stock-like intrusions, and injection time. The rheology and temperature of the host are the main controlling factors in the transition between these different modes of intrusion. Viscous deformation in the warm and deep crust favors host rock displacement and plutons at the crust-mantle boundary forming deep-seated plutons or magma ponds in the lower to middle crust. Brittle deformation in the cool and shallow crust induces cone-shaped fractures in the host rock and enables emplacement of finger- or stock-like intrusions at shallow or intermediate depth. Here the passage of magmatic and hydrothermal fluids from the intrusion through the fracture pattern may result in the formation of ore deposits. A combination of viscous and brittle deformation forms funnel-shaped intrusions in the middle crust. Intrusion of low-density magma may more over result in T-shaped intrusions in cross section with magma sheets at the surface.

  6. Geology, geochemistry and 40K-40Ar geochronometry of Miocene magmatism in Algiers area, Northern Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanteur, O.; Ouabadi, A.; Semroud, B.; Megartsi, M.H.; Fourcade, S.

    1995-01-01

    Miocene magmatic rocks outcrop within a narrow coastal strip east of Algiers. They include basaltic and andesitic lava flows and intrusions (Dellys, Cap Djinet), the Thenia granodioritic plug and the dacitic to rhyolitic lavas and pyroclastic flows from Zemmouri El Bahri and El Kerma. Despite the effects of hydrothermal alteration, 40 K- 40 Ar ages coupled with micropalaeontological data lead to recognition of two emplacement events at 16-15 and 14-12 Ma, respectively. All the studied calc-alkaline to potassic calc-alkaline rocks are enriched in highly incompatible elements and display negative Nb anomalies. Acid magmas have a pronounced crustal imprint ( 87 Sr 86 Sr i =3D 0.7082 to 0.7155; δ 18 O =3D +9 to +13 per mill) which together with La/Nb ratios argues for the occurrence of upper crustal contamination processes. However, the Nb-depletion of the associated basalts suggest that the studied magmas derive from a mantle source which underwent subduction-related metasomatic enrichments prior to their Miocene emplacement. (authors). 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Source and tectonic implications of tonalite-trondhjemite magmatism in the Klamath Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C.G.; Petersen, S.W.; Kistler, R.W.; Murray, R.; Kays, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the Klamath Mountains, voluminous tonalite-trondhjemite magmatism was characteristic of a short period of time from about 144 to 136 Ma (Early Cretaceous). It occurred about 5 to l0 m.y. after the ??? 165 to 159 Ma Josephine ophiolite was thrust beneath older parts of the province during the Nevadan orogeny (thrusting from ??? 155 to 148 Ma). The magmatism also corresponds to a period of slow or no subduction. Most of the plutons crop out in the south-central Klamath Mountains in California, but one occurs in Oregon at the northern end of the province. Compositionally extended members of the suite consist of precursor gabbroic to dioritic rocks followed by later, more voluminous tonalitic and trondhjemitic intrusions. Most plutons consist almost entirely of tonalite and trondhjemite. Poorlydefined concentric zoning is common. Tonalitic rocks are typically of the Iow-Al type but trondhjemites are generally of the high-Al type, even those that occur in the same pluton as low-Al tonalite??. The suite is characterized by low abundances of K2O, Rb, Zr, and heavy rare earth elements. Sr contents are generally moderate ( ???450 ppm) by comparison with Sr-rich arc lavas interpreted to be slab melts (up to 2000 ppm). Initial 87Sr/ 86Sr, ??18O, and ??Nd are typical of mantle-derived magmas or of crustally-derived magmas with a metabasic source. Compositional variation within plutons can be modeled by variable degrees of partial melting of a heterogeneous metabasaltic source (transitional mid-ocean ridge to island arc basalt), but not by fractional crystallyzation of a basaltic parent. Melting models require a residual assemblage of clinopyroxene+garnet??plagioclase??amphibole; residual plagioclase suggests a deep crustal origin rather than melting of a subducted slab. Such models are consistent with the metabasic part of the Josephine ophiolite as the source. Because the Josephine ophiolite was at low T during Nevadan thrusting, an external heat source was probably

  8. Late Mesozoic basin and range tectonics and related magmatism in Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezi Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the Late Mesozoic Middle Jurassic–Late Cretaceous, basin and range tectonics and associated magmatism representative of an extensional tectonic setting was widespread in southeastern China as a result of Pacific Plate subduction. Basin tectonics consists of post-orogenic (Type I and intra-continental extensional basins (Type II. Type I basins developed in the piedmont and intraland during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, in which coarse-grained terrestrial clastic sediments were deposited. Type II basins formed during intra-continental crustal thinning and were characterized by the development of grabens and half-grabens. Graben basins were mainly generated during the Middle Jurassic and were associated with bimodal volcanism. Sediments in half-grabens are intercalated with rhyolitic tuffs and lavas and are Early Cretaceous in age with a dominance of Late Cretaceous–Paleogene red beds. Ranges are composed of granitoids and bimodal volcanic rocks, A-type granites and dome-type metamorphic core complexes. The authors analyzed lithological, geochemical and geochronological features of the Late Mesozoic igneous rock assemblages and proposed some geodynamical constraints on forming the basin and range tectonics of South China. A comparison of the similarities and differences of basin and range tectonics between the eastern and western shores of the Pacific is made, and the geodynamical evolution model of the Southeast China Block during Late Mesozoic is discussed. Studied results suggest that the basin and range terrane within South China developed on a pre-Mesozoic folded belt was derived from a polyphase tectonic evolution mainly constrained by subduction of the western Pacific Plate since the Late Mesozoic, leading to formation of various magmatism in a back-arc extensional setting. Its geodynamic mechanism can compare with that of basin and range tectonics in the eastern shore of the Pacific. Differences of basin and range

  9. An overview on the origin of post-collisional Miocene magmatism in the Kabylies (northern Algeria): Evidence for crustal stacking, delamination and slab detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazot, Gilles; Abbassene, Fatiha; Maury, René C.; Déverchère, Jacques; Bellon, Hervé; Ouabadi, Aziouz; Bosch, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    Miocene (17-11 Ma) magmatic activity in the Kabylies emplaced K-rich (and minor medium-K) calc-alkaline plutonic and volcanic rocks in five zones, delineating a ∼450 km long EW trending strip located along the northern coast of Algeria, between Annaba and Algiers. Their most likely source is the Kabylian subcontinental lithospheric mantle previously metasomatized during the Paleogene subduction of the Tethys oceanic lithosphere. Our preferred tectono-magmatic model involves a Tethyan slab detachment combined with African mantle delamination and crustal stacking, leading to the superimposition of the African continental crust over the Kabylian metasomatized lithospheric mantle. At ca. 17 Ma, the asthenospheric upwelling arising from lithospheric delamination and Tethyan slab tear triggered the thermal erosion of the latter mantle, inducing its partial melting. The corresponding mafic medium-K calc-alkaline magmas interacted with the African basement units during their ascent, generating intermediate to felsic K-rich calc-alkaline melts that display a characteristic trace element and isotopic crustal signature. Later on, slab tears propagated eastward and westward, promoting slab rollback perpendicular to plate convergence and inducing the emplacement of magmatic rocks of decreasing ages from central-eastern Algeria towards Tunisia and Morocco.

  10. Magmatism and polymetallic mineralization in southwestern Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xudong; Lu, Jianjun; Wang, Rucheng; Ma, Dongsheng

    2016-04-01

    As Neoproterozoic suture zone between the Yangtze Block and Cathaysia Block, Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt is one of the 21 key metallogenic belts in China. Intensive multiple-aged felsic magmatism and related polymetallic mineralization take place in this belt. Although Neoproterozoic, Paleozoic, Triassic granites and associated deposits have been found in southwestern Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt, Middle-Late Jurassic (150-165 Ma) magmatism and related mineralization is of the most importance. Three major kinds of Middle-Late Jurassic granitoids have been distinguished. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids are slightly differentiated, calc-alkaline and metaluminous dioritic to granodioritic rocks. Sn-(W)-bearing granites contain dark microgranular enclaves and have high contents of REE and HFSE, suggesting affinities of aluminous A-type (A2) granites. W-bearing granites are highly differentiated and peraluminous rocks. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids have ɛNd(t) values of -11 ˜ -4 and ɛHf(t) values of -12 ˜ -7, corresponding to TDMC(Nd) from 1.4 to 1.8 Ga and TDMC(Hf) from 1.6 to 2.0 Ga, respectively. The ɛNd(t) values of W-bearing granites vary from -11 to -8 with TDMC(Nd) of 1.6 ˜ 1.9 Ga and ɛHf(t) values change from -16 to -7 with TDMC(Hf) of 1.5 ˜ 2.0 Ga. Compared with (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids and W-bearing granites, the Sn-(W)-bearing granites have higher ɛNd(t) (-8 ˜ -2) and ɛHf(t) (-8 ˜ -2) values and younger TDMC(Nd) (1.1 ˜ 1.6 Ga) and TDMC(Hf) (1.2 ˜ 1.8 Ga) values, showing a more juvenile isotopic character. Sn-(W)-bearing granites originate from partial melting of granulitized lower crust involved with some mantle-derived materials. W-bearing granites are derived from partial melting of crust. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids are also derived from crust but may be influenced by more mantle-derived materials. For (Cu)-Pb-Zn deposits, skarn and carbonate replacement are the most important mineralization types. Cu ore bodies mainly

  11. Crust-mantle contribution to Andean magmatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, J; Hildreth, W; Chesley, J

    2001-01-01

    There has long been great interest in quantifying the contributions of the continental crust to continental arc magmas, such as those of the Andes using osmium isotopes (Alves et al., 1999; Borg et al., 2000; Brandon et al., 1996; McInnes et al., 1999). In general, Andean volcanic rocks of all compositions show relatively low Sr-isotope ratios and positive to mildly negative epsilon Nd values. Nonetheless, in the Southern Volcanic Zone of central Chile, basalt-andesite-dacite volcanoes along the Quaternary volcanic front were shown (by Hildreth and Moorbath, 1988) to have latitudinally systematic chemical variations, as well as a monotonic increase in 87Sr/Sr86 from ca. 0.7035 to 0.7055 and a decrease in epsilon Nd values from ca. +3 to -1. The isotopic variations correlate with basement elevation of the volcanic edifices and with Bouguer gravity anomalies, both of which are thought to reflect along-arc variations in thickness and average age of the underlying crust. Volcanoes with the most evolved isotopic signatures were fed through the thickest crust. Correlation of chemical and isotopic variations with crustal thickness was interpreted to be caused by Melting (of deep-crustal host rocks), Assimilation, Storage, and Homogenization (MASH) of mantle-derived magmas in long-lived lower-crustal reservoirs beneath each center prior to eruption. We have now determined Os-isotope ratios for a sample suite from these volcanoes (33-36 S lat.), representing a range of crustal thickness from ca. 60-35 km. The samples range in MgO from ca. 8-4% and in SiO2 from 51-57%. The most evolved eruptive products occur above the thickest crust and have 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7054 and epsilon Nd values of -1.5. The 187Os/188Os ratios correlate with the other isotopic systems and with crustal thickness. Volcanoes on the thinnest crust have 187Os/188Os ratios of 0.18-0.21. Those on the thickest crust have 187Os/188Os ratios as high as 0.64. All the Os values are much too radiogenic to

  12. Viscosity characteristics of selected volcanic rock melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobiger, Manuel; Sonder, Ingo; Büttner, Ralf; Zimanowski, Bernd

    2011-02-01

    A basic experimental study of the behavior of magma rheology was carried out on remelted volcanic rocks using wide gap viscometry. The complex composition of magmatic melts leads to complicated rheologic behavior which cannot be described with one simple model. Therefore, measurement procedures which are able to quantify non-Newtonian behavior have to be employed. Furthermore, the experimental apparatus must be able to deal with inhomogeneities of magmatic melts. We measured the viscosity of a set of materials representing a broad range of volcanic processes. For the lower viscous melts (low-silica compositions), non-Newtonian behavior is observed, whereas the high-silica melts show Newtonian behavior in the measured temperature and shear rate range (T = 1423 K - 1623 K, γ˙ = 10 - 2 s - 1 - 20 s - 1 ). The non-Newtonian materials show power-law behavior. The measured viscosities η and power-law indexes m lie in the intervals 8 Pa s ≤ η ≤ 210 3 Pa s, 0.71 ≤ m ≤ 1.0 (Grímsvötn basalt), 0.9 Pa s ≤ η ≤ 350 Pa s, 0.61 ≤ m ≤ 0.93 (Hohenstoffeln olivine-melilitite), and 8 Pa s ≤ η ≤ 1.510 4 Pa s, 0.55 ≤ m ≤ 1.0 (Sommata basalt). Measured viscosities of the Newtonian high-silica melts lie in the range 10 4 Pa s ≤ η ≤ 310 5 Pa s.

  13. The transition from granite to banded aplite-pegmatite sheet complexes: An example from Megiliggar Rocks, Tregonning topaz granite, Cornwall

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Breiter, Karel; Ďurišová, Jana; Hrstka, Tomáš; Korbelová, Zuzana; Vašinová Galiová, M.; Müller, A.; Simons, B.; Shail, R. K.; Williamson, B. J.; Davies, J. A.

    302/303, March 2018 (2018), s. 370-388 ISSN 0024-4937 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-13600S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : granite * aplite * pegmatite * magmatic layering * Megiliggar Rocks * Cornwall Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 3.677, year: 2016

  14. Geochemical studies, magmatic evolution, microstructures and replacement mechanisms in Jebale-Barez granitoid Complex (East and Southeast Jiroft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Rasouli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Jebale-Barez Plutonic Complex (JBPC is composed of many intrusive bodies and is located in the southeastern province of Kerman on the longitude of the 57◦ 45 ' east to 58◦ 00' and Northern latitudes 28◦ 30' to 29◦ 00'. The petrologic composition is composed of granodiorite, quartzdiorite, granite, alkali-granite, and trace amounts of tonalite with dominant granodiorite composition. Previously, the JBPC was separated into three plutonic phases by Ghorbani (2014. The first plutonic phase is the main body of the complex with composition of quartz-diorite to granodiorite. After differentiation of magma in the magmatic chamber, the porphyritic and not fully consolidated magmas have intruded into the main body. Their compositions were dominantly granodiorite and granite that are defined as the second plutonic phase. Finally, the last phase was started by an intrusion of the holo- leucogranite into the previous bodies. This plutonic activity was pursued by the minor Quaternary basaltic volcanism that shows metamorphic haloes in the contacts. They are dominantly porphyric leucogranites. However, some bodies show dendritic texture that may imply the existence of silicic fluids in the latest crystallization stages. Materials and methods In this article different analysis methods were used. For example, we used a total of two hundred samples of the various granitoids that were selected for common thin section study. Forty four representative samples from the different granitic rocks were selected for whole rock chemical analyses. The analyses of both major and trace elements were performed at the Department of Earth Sciences, the University of Perugia, Italy. The analysis for all major elements was carried out by an X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF using a tube completed with a Rn and W anode under conditions with acceleration voltage of 40-45 kV and electric current ranging from I=30-35 mA. After calcination of powdered

  15. Role of deep-Earth water cycling in the growth and evolution of continental crust: Constraints from Cretaceous magmatism in southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Xuan-Ce; Wilde, Simon A.; Liu, Liang; Li, Wu-Xian; Yang, Xuemei

    2018-03-01

    The late Mesozoic igneous province in southeast China provides an excellent opportunity to understand the processes that controlled the growth and evolution of Phanerozoic continental crust. Here we report petrological, whole-rock geochemical and isotopic data, and in situ zircon U-Pb-Lu-Hf isotopic data from granitoids and associated gabbros in the Pingtan and Tong'an complexes, southeast China. Through combining the new results with published datasets in southeast China, we show that the Early Cretaceous magmatic rocks are dominated by juvenile Nd-Hf isotopic compositions, whereas the Late Cretaceous ones display less radiogenic Nd-Hf isotope signatures. Furthermore, Nd-Hf isotope systematics are coupled with decreasing abundance of hydrous minerals and an increase of zircon saturation temperatures. Compiled zircon Hf-O data indicates that the 117-116 Ma granites have zircon δ18O values ranging from mantle values (close to 5.3‰) to as low as 3.9‰, but with dominantly positive initial epsilon Hf (εHf(t)) values. Zircon grains from 105 to 98 Ma rocks have δ18O values plotting within the mantle-like range (6.5‰ - 4.5‰), but mainly with negative εHf(t) values. Zircon grains from ca. 87 Ma rocks have positive εHf(t) values (+ 9.8 to + 0.7) and a large range of δ18O values (6.3‰ - 3.5‰). The variations in Hf-Nd-O isotopic compositions are correlated with decreasing abundance of magma water contents, presenting a case that water-fluxed melting generated large-scale granitic magmatism. Deep-Earth water cycling provides an alternative or additional mechanism to supply volatiles (e.g., H2O) for hydrous basaltic underplating, continental crustal melting, and magmatic differentiation.

  16. From magma-poor Ocean Continent Transitions to steady state oceanic spreading: the balance between tectonic and magmatic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Morgane; Manatschal, Gianreto; Autin, Julia; Decarlis, Alessandro; Sauter, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of magma-poor rifted margins is linked to the development of a transition zone whose basement is neither clearly continental nor oceanic. The development of this Ocean-Continent Transition (OCT) is generally associated to the exhumation of serpentinized mantle along one or several detachment faults. That model is supported by numerous observations (IODP wells, dredges, fossil margins) and by numerical modelling. However, if the initiation of detachment faults in a magma-poor setting tends to be better understood by numerous studies in various area, the transition with the first steady state oceanic crust and the associated processes remain enigmatic and poorly studied. Indeed, this latest stage of evolution appears to be extremely gradual and involves strong interactions between tectonic processes and magmatism. Contrary to the proximal part of the exhumed domain where we can observe magmatic activity linked to the exhumation process (exhumation of gabbros, small amount of basalts above the exhumed mantle), in the most distal part the magmatic system appears to be independent and more active. In particular, we can observe large amounts of extrusive material above a previously exhumed and faulted basement (e.g. Alps, Australia-Antarctica margins). It seems that some faults can play the role of feeder systems for the magma in this area. Magmatic underplating is also important, as suggested by basement uplift and anomalously thick crust (e.g. East Indian margin). It results that the transition with the first steady state oceanic crust is marked by the presence of a hybrid basement, composed by exhumed mantle and magmatic material, whose formation is linked to several tectonic and magmatic events. One could argue that this basement is not clearly different from an oceanic basement. However, we consider that true, steady state oceanic crust only exists, if the entire rock association forming the crust is created during a single event, at a localized

  17. Microchemistry, geochemistry and geochronology of the Lagoa Real Uranium Province (BA) magmatic association: petrological and evolutionary significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Lucas Eustaquio Dias

    2016-01-01

    characterized by low content of U, Sr, and Ba. Based on the chemical-compositional data of titanite in granites and albite gneisses and mineral reactions, it was possible to distinguish three hydrothermal events that affected the rocks of magmatic association. These events promoted, in a sequential but separately way, the formation of various minerals which composition reflect the chemistry of these events. A first event, tardi to post-magmatic, is comprised by a fluid rich in F and Cl, generated amphibole and biotite at the expense of pyroxene. The second hydrothermal event, is post-magmatic and characterized by presenting a fluid with F, HREE, Th and ± V. During this event occurred a 11 reaction between ilmenite, plagioclase and hornblende/biotite resulting in the crystallization of titanite. Finally, the last hydrothermal event which is also post-magmatic, is characterized by the presence of F, ±CO_3"2"-, PO_4"3"- ±, LREE, Th, U, Zr. During this last event, the formation of a second generation of titanite and allanite has occurred, both in expense of the previously titanite. Also during this event fluoro-carbonates and REE phosphates, thorite and a second generation of zircon were precipitated. Finally, isotopic studies, geochronological and chemistry mineral data allowed to contribute to a better understanding of the petrological/temporal evolution occurred in the Lagoa Real magmatic association and in the crust segment which the PULR is located. (author)

  18. Miocene magmatism and tectonics within the Peri-Alboran orogen (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Azzouzi, M.; Bellon, H.; Coutelle, A.; Réhault, J.-P.

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper concerns Miocene igneous activity in the Alboran Sea and Peri-Alboran area (northern Morocco, western Algeria and Betic Cordilleras in Spain), considering its age and its location with regard to major tectonics structures. We have compiled previous K-Ar isotopic ages of lavas and plutonic boulders and intrusives with an error of ±1σ and completed this set by a new K-Ar isotopic age for andesitic tuffites from Alboran Island. Geochemistry of most of these samples has been considered after previous analyses completed with new data for Spain magmatism. These two sets of data allow us to place the magmatic activity within the regional stratigraphy and tectonics and their chronological framework of the three major tectonic phases of the Maghrebian orogen, at 17 Ma (Burdigalian), 15 Ma (Langhian) and 9 Ma (Tortonian). Petro-geochemical characteristics are compared through time and geographical locations. A major goal of this coupled approach is to help the elaboration of possible geodynamical processes. As an application, we present the case study of the Dellys, Djinet and Thenia region (east of Algiers) where the successive magmatic events between 19.4 ± 1 and 11.6 ± 0.5 Ma are closely related to the local tectonics and sedimentation. The Peri-Alboran igneous activity is placed in a multidisciplinary framework. Timing of activity is defined according to the ages of the neighbouring sedimentary units and the K-Ar ages of igneous rocks. In Spain, the Cabo de Gata-Carboneras magmatic province displays late Oligocene and early Miocene leucogranitic dikes, dated from 24.8 ± 1.3 to 18.1 ± 1.2 Ma; three following andesitic to rhyolitic events took place around 15.1 ± 0.8 to 14.0 ± 0.7 Ma, 11.8 ± 0.6 to 9.4 ± 0.4 Ma, 8.8 ± 0.4 to 7.9 ± 0.4 Ma; this last event displays also granitic rocks. Lamproitic magmas dated between 8.4 ± 0.4 and 6.76 ± 0.04 Ma were emplaced after the Tortonian phase. In Morocco, after the complex building of the Ras Tarf

  19. Geochronology of granitic magmatism from Caraculo-Bibala region (SW Angola) and its correlation with Ribeira fold belt (SE Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Heitor de; Tassinari, Colombo C.G.

    1992-01-01

    Rb-Sr whole-rock analyses of representative granitic rocks from the Bibala-Caraculo region, southwestern Angola, are used to determine the age and evolution of the acid plutonic events in this segment of the Angolan continental crust. The granitoids present a wide range of lithological types and compositions. Three time-intervals have been defined for the magmatism: 1,950 - 1,900 Ma; 1,750 - 1,700 Ma; 1,550 - 1,500 Ma. The oldest, though not very well defined, was obtained for the Chicalengue granitoid, the second one represents the Serra dos Gandarengos and Chonga granitoids and Luchipa-Pungue Granitic Complex and the youngest one comprises the Chicate and Caraculo granitic bodies and Numhino Granitic Complex. The initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios show characteristic values for each time-interval, as follows; 1,950 -1,900 Ma = 0,7015; 1,750 - 1,700 Ma = 0,7060 to 0,7075; 1,550 - 1,500 Ma 0,7048 - 0,7057, suggesting different sources for the granitoids within each geological period. In addition are presented two K-Ar ages for the basic rocks in SW Angola, with values of 1700 and 600 Ma, which represent a minimum ages for these rocks and are probably related to the Damara Orogeny. (author). 24 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Magmatic densities control erupted volumes in Icelandic volcanic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Margaret; Maclennan, John

    2018-04-01

    Magmatic density and viscosity exert fundamental controls on the eruptibility of magmas. In this study, we investigate the extent to which magmatic physical properties control the eruptibility of magmas from Iceland's Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ). By studying subaerial flows of known age and volume, we are able to directly relate erupted volumes to magmatic physical properties, a task that has been near-impossible when dealing with submarine samples dredged from mid-ocean ridges. We find a strong correlation between magmatic density and observed erupted volumes on the NVZ. Over 85% of the total volume of erupted material lies close to a density and viscosity minimum that corresponds to the composition of basalts at the arrival of plagioclase on the liquidus. These magmas are buoyant with respect to the Icelandic upper crust. However, a number of small-volume eruptions with densities greater than typical Icelandic upper crust are also found in Iceland's neovolcanic zones. We use a simple numerical model to demonstrate that the eruption of magmas with higher densities and viscosities is facilitated by the generation of overpressure in magma chambers in the lower crust and uppermost mantle. This conclusion is in agreement with petrological constraints on the depths of crystallisation under Iceland.

  1. Magmatic Densities Control Erupted Volumes in Icelandic Volcanic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Hartley

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Magmatic density and viscosity exert fundamental controls on the eruptibility of magmas. In this study, we investigate the extent to which magmatic physical properties control the eruptibility of magmas from Iceland's Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ. By studying subaerial flows of known age and volume, we are able to directly relate erupted volumes to magmatic physical properties, a task that has been near-impossible when dealing with submarine samples dredged from mid-ocean ridges. We find a strong correlation between magmatic density and observed erupted volumes on the NVZ. Over 85% of the total volume of erupted material lies close to a density and viscosity minimum that corresponds to the composition of basalts at the arrival of plagioclase on the liquidus. These magmas are buoyant with respect to the Icelandic upper crust. However, a number of small-volume eruptions with densities greater than typical Icelandic upper crust are also found in Iceland's neovolcanic zones. We use a simple numerical model to demonstrate that the eruption of magmas with higher densities and viscosities is facilitated by the generation of overpressure in magma chambers in the lower crust and uppermost mantle. This conclusion is in agreement with petrological constraints on the depths of crystallization under Iceland.

  2. Recording the transition from flare-up to steady-state arc magmatism at the Purico-Chascon volcanic complex, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Dale H.; de Silva, Shanaka L.; Tepley, Frank; Schmitt, Axel K.; Loewen, Matthew W.

    2015-07-01

    The long-term evolution of continental magmatic arcs is episodic, where a few transient events of high magmatic flux or flare-ups punctuate the low-flux magmatism or "steady state" that makes up most of the arc history. How this duality manifests in terms of differences in crustal architecture, magma dynamics and chemistry, and the time scale over which transitions occur is poorly known. Herein we use multiscale geochemical and isotopic characteristics coupled with geothermobarometry at the Purico-Chascon Volcanic Complex (PCVC) in the Central Andes to identify a transition from flare-up to steady state arc magmatism over ∼800 kyr during which significant changes in upper crustal magmatic dynamics are recorded. The PCVC is one of the youngest volcanic centers related to a 10-1 Ma ignimbrite flare-up in the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex of the Central Andes. Activity at the PCVC initiated 0.98 ± 0.03 Ma with the eruption of a large 80-100 km3 crystal-rich dacite ignimbrite. High, restricted 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios between 0.7085 and 0.7090 in the bulk rock and plagioclase crystals from the Purico ignimbrite, combined with mineral chemistry and phase relationships indicate the dacite magma accumulated and evolved at relatively low temperatures around 800-850 °C in the upper crust at 4-8 km depth. Minor andesite pumice erupted late in the ignimbrite sequence records a second higher temperature (965 °C), higher pressure environment (17-20 km), but with similar restricted radiogenic bulk rock 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7089-0.7091 to the dacites. The compositional and isotopic characteristics of the Purico ignimbrite implicate an extensive zone of upper crustal mixing, assimilation, storage and homogenization (MASH) between ∼30 and 4 km beneath the PCVC ∼1 Ma. The final eruptions at the PCVC engine". High magmatic fluxes during the flare-up would lead to elevated geothermal gradients and efficient crustal processing leading to a dominantly "crustal" magmatism feeding the

  3. Devonian alkaline magmatism in the northern North China Craton: Geochemistry, SHRIMP zircon U-Pb geochronology and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingling Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wulanhada pluton is among the rare suite of Devonian alkaline plutons occurring along the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC. The intrusion is mainly composed of quartz-monzonite. Here we report zircon SHRIMP U-Pb data from this intrusion which shows emplacement age of ca. 381.5 Ma. The rock is metaluminous with high (Na2O + K2O values ranging from 8.46 to 9.66 wt.%. The REE patterns of the rocks do not show any Eu anomaly whereas the primitive-mantle-normalized spider diagram shows strong positive Sr and Ba anomalies. The Wulanhada rocks exhibit high initial values of (87Sr/86Srt = 0.70762–0.70809, low ɛNd(t = −12.76 to −12.15 values and negative values of ɛHf(t = −23.49 to −17.02 with small variations in (176Hf/177Hft (0.281873–0.282049. These geochemical features and quantitative isotopic modeling results suggest that the rocks might have been formed through the partial melting of Neoarchean basic rocks in the lower crust of the NCC. The Wulanhada rocks, together with the Devonian alkaline rocks and mafic-ultramafic complex from neighboring regions, constitute a post-collisional magmatic belt along the northern NCC.

  4. Formation of magmatic brine lenses via focussed fluid-flow beneath volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, Andrey; Blundy, Jon; Melnik, Oleg; Sparks, Steve

    2018-03-01

    Many active or dormant volcanoes show regions of high electrical conductivity at depths of a few kilometres beneath the edifice. We explore the possibility that these regions represent lenses of high-salinity brine separated from a single-phase magmatic fluid containing H2O and NaCl. Since chloride-bearing fluids are highly conductive and have an exceptional capacity to transport metals, these regions can be an indication of an active hydrothermal ore-formation beneath volcanoes. To investigate this possibility we have performed hydrodynamic simulations of magma degassing into permeable rock. In our models the magma source is located at 7 km depth and the fluid salinity approximates that expected for fluids released from typical arc magmas. Our model differs from previous models of a similar process because it is (a) axisymmetric and (b) includes a static high-permeability pathway that links the magma source to the surface. This pathway simulates the presence of a volcanic conduit and/or plexus of feeder dykes that are typical of most volcanic systems. The presence of the conduit leads to a number of important hydrodynamic consequences, not observed in previous models. Importantly, we show that an annular brine lens capped by crystallised halite is likely to form above an actively degassing sub-volcanic magma body and can persist for more than 250 kyr after degassing ceases. Parametric analysis shows that brine lenses are more prevalent when the fluid is released at temperatures above the wet granite solidus, when magmatic fluid salinity is high, and when the high-permeability pathway is narrow. The calculated depth, form and electrical conductivity of our modelled system shares many features with published magnetotelluric images of volcano subsurfaces. The formation and persistence of sub-volcanic brine lenses has implications for geothermal systems and hydrothermal ore formation, although these features are not explored in the presented model.

  5. Re-evaluating Gondwana breakup: Magmatism, movement and microplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Jordan, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Gondwana breakup is thought to have initiated in the Early- to Mid-Jurassic between South Africa and East Antarctica. The critical stages of continental extension and magmatism which preceded breakup remain controversial. It is agreed that extensive magmatism struck this region 180 Ma, and that significant extension occurred in the Weddell Sea Rift System (WSRS) and around the Falkland Plateau. However, the timing and volume of magmatism, extent and mechanism of continental extension, and the links with the wider plate circuit are poorly constrained. Jordan et al (Gondwana Research 2017) recently proposed a two-stage model for the formation of the WSRS: initial extension and movement of the Ellsworth Whitmore Mountains microplate along the margin of the East Antarctic continent on a sinistral strike slip fault zone, followed by transtensional extension closer to the continental margin. Here we identify some key questions raised by the two-stage model, and identify regions where these can be tested. Firstly, is the magmatism inferred to have facilitated extension in the WSRS directly linked to the onshore Dufek Intrusion? This question relates to both the uncertainty in the volume of magmatism and potentially the timing of extension, and requires improved resolution of aeromagnetic data in the eastern WSRS. Secondly, did extension in the WSRS terminate against a single strike slip fault zone or into a distributed fault system? By integrating new and existing aeromagnetic data along the margin of East Antarctica we evaluate the possibility of a distributed shear zone penetrating the East Antarctic continent, and identify critical remaining data gaps. Finally we question how extension within the WSRS could fit into the wider plate circuit. By integrating the two-stage model into Gplates reconstructions we identify regions of overlap and areas where tracers of past plate motion could be identified.

  6. Tomographically-imaged subducted slabs and magmatic history of Caribbean and Pacific subduction beneath Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Olaya, R.; Mann, P.; Vargas, C. A.; Koulakov, I.

    2013-12-01

    We define the length and geometry of eastward and southeastward-subducting slabs beneath northwestern South America in Colombia using ~100,000 earthquake events recorded by the Colombian National Seismic Network from 1993 to 2012. Methods include: hypocenter relocation, compilation of focal mechanisms, and P and S wave tomographic calculations performed using LOTOS and Seisan. The margins of Colombia include four distinct subduction zones based on slab dip: 1) in northern Colombia, 12-16-km-thick oceanic crust subducts at a modern GPS rate of 20 mm/yr in a direction of 110 degrees at a shallow angle of 8 degrees; as a result of its low dip, Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic rocks are present 400 km from the frontal thrust; magmatic arc migration to the east records 800 km of subduction since 58 Ma ago (Paleocene) with shallow subduction of the Caribbean oceanic plateau starting ~24-33 Ma (Miocene); at depths of 90-150 km, the slab exhibits a negative velocity anomaly we associate with pervasive fracturing; 2) in the central Colombia-Panama area, we define an area of 30-km-thick crust of the Panama arc colliding/subducting at a modern 30/mm in a direction of 95 degrees; the length of this slab shows subduction/collision initiated after 20 Ma (Middle Miocene); we call this feature the Panama indenter since it has produced a V-shaped indentation of the Colombian margin and responsible for widespread crustal deformation and topographic uplift in Colombia; an incipient subduction area is forming near the Panama border with intermediate earthquakes at an eastward dip of 70 degrees to depths of ~150 km; this zone is not visible on tomographic images; 3) a 250-km-wide zone of Miocene oceanic crust of the Nazca plate flanking the Panama indenter subducts at a rate of 25 mm/yr in a direction of 55 degrees and at a normal dip of 40 degrees; the length of this slab suggests subduction began at ~5 Ma; 4) the Caldas tear defines a major dip change to the south where a 35 degrees

  7. Controlling factors on earthquake swarms associated with magmatic intrusions; constraints from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, R.; Sigmundsson, F.; Einarsson, P.; Brandsdottir, B.; Arnadottir, T.

    2005-12-01

    Intrusion of magma into the Earth's crust is frequently associated with seismic activity, often occurring as distinct earthquake swarms. Understanding the nature of these swarms is important for evaluating crisis situations in volcanic areas. However, there often seem to be little correlation between the amount of seismic energy release, the spatial extent of the volume of rock affected by the stress perturbations, and the volume of magma on the move, which complicates the immediate risk evaluation. A number of factors may influence the evolution of a magmatically induced seismic swarm and the resulting seismic energy release. A number of factors need to be evaluated in each individual case. These are, in random order: the crustal thickness, presence/absence of a crustal magma chamber, geothermal gradient, magmatic flow rate/stressing rate, intrusion volume, depth of intrusion, tectonic setting of the intruded area, regional stresses and tectonic history. Based on three case studies, where seismic swarm activities have been confirmed through deformation measurements to be related to magmatic movements, we attempt to evaluate the relative importance of the assumed controlling factors. All case examples are located within Iceland, but in different tectonic settings. 1. The Hengill triple junction, situated where two extensional plate boundaries join a transform zone. The area experienced a period of unusually persistent earthquake activity from 1994 to 1999, contemporaneously with ground uplift at a rate of 1-2 cm/yr. The uplift was modeled as a response to magma injection at about 7 km depth. 2. The Eyjafjallajokull volcano, situated in a volcanic flank zone where extensional fractures are only poorly developed. Two minor seismic swarms, in 1994 and 1999; were associated with a cumulative surface uplift of more than 35 cm. The two uplift events were modeled as sill intrusions at depths of 4.5 to 6.5 km. 3. The Krafla rift segment, forming part of an extensional

  8. A geochemical approach to distinguishing competing tectono-magmatic processes preserved in small eruptive centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Lucy E.; Brahm, Raimundo; Rowe, Michael C.; Handley, Heather K.; Morgado, Eduardo; Lara, Luis E.; Turner, Michael B.; Vinet, Nicolas; Parada, Miguel-Ángel; Valdivia, Pedro

    2017-06-01

    Small eruptive centres (SECs) representing short-lived, isolated eruptions are effective samples of mantle heterogeneity over a given area, as they are generally of basaltic composition and show evidence of little magmatic processing. This is particularly powerful in volcanic arcs where the original melting process generating stratovolcanoes is often obscured by additions from the down-going slab (fluids and sediments) and the overlying crust. The Pucón area of southern Chile contains active and dormant stratovolcanoes, Holocene, basaltic SECs and an arc-scale strike-slip fault (the Liquiñe Ofqui Fault System: LOFS). The SECs show unexpected compositional heterogeneity considering their spatial proximity. We present a detailed study of these SECs combining whole rock major and trace element concentrations, U-Th isotopes and olivine-hosted melt inclusion major element and volatile contents to highlight the complex inter-relations in this small but active area. We show that heterogeneity preserved at individual SECs relates to different processes: some start in the melting region with the input of slab-derived fluids, whilst others occur later in a centre's magmatic history with the influence of crustal contamination prior to olivine crystallisation. These signals are deduced through the combination of the different geochemical tools used in this study. We show that there is no correlation between composition and distance from the arc front, whilst the local tectonic regime has an effect on melt composition: SECs aligned along the LOFS have either equilibrium U-Th ratios or small Th-excesses instead of the large—fluid influenced—U-excesses displayed by SECs situated away from this feature. One of the SECs is modelled as being generated from fluid-enriched depleted mantle, a source which it may share with the stratovolcano Villarrica, whilst another SEC with abundant evidence of crustal contamination may share its plumbing system with its neighbouring

  9. Portrait of a giant deep-seated magmatic conduit system: The Seiland Igneous Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Rune B.; Grant, Thomas; Sørensen, Bjørn E.; Tegner, Christian; McEnroe, Suzanne; Pastore, Zeudia; Fichler, Christine; Nikolaisen, Even; Grannes, Kim R.; Church, Nathan; ter Maat, Geertje W.; Michels, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    The Seiland Igneous Province (SIP), Northern Norway, contains > 5000 km2 of mafic and ultramafic intrusions with minor alkaline, carbonatite and felsic rocks that were intruded into the lower continental crust at a depth of 25 to as much as 35 km. The SIP can be geochemically and temporally correlated to numerous dyke swarms throughout Scandinavia at 560-610 Ma, and is linked to magmatic provinces in W-Greenland and NE-America that are collectively known as the Central Iapetus Magmatic Province (CIMP). Revised mapping show that the SIP exposes 85-90% layered tholeiitic- alkaline- and syeno-gabbros, 8-10% peridotitic complexes, 2-5% carbonatite, syenite and diorite that formed within a narrow (mela-gabbro over pyroxenites that grades in to an olivine-clinopyroxenite zone, which is followed by a wehrlite zone and, finally, the centre of the complexes comprises pure dunite. From pyroxenite to dunite, olivine changes from Fo72 to Fo85 and clinopyroxene from Di80 to Di92 i.e. the complexes observe a reverse fractional crystallisation sequence with time. Parental melt compositions modelled from early dykes indicate komatiitic to picritic melts with 16-22 wt% MgO, Cr of 1594 ppm and Ni of 611 ppm, which were emplaced at 1450-1500 °C. Melt compositions calculated from clinopyroxene compositions from Reinfjord are OIB-like with LREE enriched over HREE. The high abundance of carbonatites and lamproites demonstrates the volatile-rich nature of the mantle source region and is further corroborated by the unusually high abundance of magmatic sulphides (0.5-1%) and carbonated and hydrous assemblages (c. 1%) throughout the region. In Reinfjord, they are also closely associated with PGE-Cu-Ni reef deposits. Essentially, the ultramafic complexes in the SIP comprises deep-seated transient magma chambers that facilitated mixing and homogenisation of a rich diversity of fertile asthenospheric melts en route to the upper parts of the continental crust.

  10. Neoproterozoic alkaline magmatism in Ilha do Cardoso, southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Werner; Basei, Miguel A.S.; Siga Junior, Oswaldo; Sato, Kei

    2001-01-01

    This work focuses on the geology and geochronology of rocks cropping out on Cardoso Island, on the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State, close to the boundary with Parana State. The island, with an area of about 151 km 2 is a protected area administered by the Forest Institute of the Secretariat for the Environment of the State of Sao Paulo. It is mountainous, with a peak at 814 m, and is covered by dense Atlantic Forest vegetation. The island is made up mainly of an igneous complex with light grey leucocratic, inequigranular, medium to coarse-grained syenites. The Tres Irmaos Syenite (STI), composed of pyroxene, hornblende, and perthitic to mesoperthitic microcline, predominates has magmatic flow structures, and it cut by the pinkish grey, leucocratic medium-grained Cambriu alkali-feldspar granites (GC). Geochemical analysis of STI and GC demonstrate their metaluminous alkaline nature and late orogenic to anorogenic character. The bodies formed between 620 and 570 Ma according to U-Pb dating of zircons and cooled between 597 and 531 Ma (K-Ar in amphiboles). Whole rock Sm-Nd analyses yield Meso- and Paleoproterozoic TDM ages (1,500 - 2,200 Ma). A belt of low-grade metasedimentary rocks occurs in the northern part of the island. Quartz schist, quartz-mica schist and mica-quartz schist, often-containing andalusite and cordierite, predominate. Geochemical and geochronological data suggest that the sources of the metasediments were continental arc andesites of whose protoliths separated from the mantle between 1,800 and 2,200 Ma during the Paleoproterozoic. These metasediments probably continue on the continent in the Taquari region and extend southwards in narrow strips between the granitoids of the Paranagua Domain. (author)

  11. Rocks Can Wow? Yes, Rocks Can Wow!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Sally; Luke, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Rocks and fossils appear in the National Curriculum of England science programmes of study for children in year 3 (ages 7-8). A frequently asked question is "How do you make the classification of rocks engaging?" In response to this request from a school, a set of interactive activities was designed and organised by tutors and students…

  12. A deposit model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide deposits related to Proterozoic massif anorthosite plutonic suites: Chapter K in Mineral Deposit Models for Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Fey, David L.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide (Fe-Ti-oxide) deposits hosted by Proterozoic age massif-type anorthosite and related rock types presents their geological, mineralogical, geochemical, and geoenvironmental attributes. Although these Proterozoic rocks are found worldwide, the majority of known deposits are found within exposed rocks of the Grenville Province, stretching from southwestern United States through eastern Canada; its extension into Norway is termed the Rogaland Anorthosite Province. This type of Fe-Ti-oxide deposit dominated by ilmenite rarely contains more than 300 million tons of ore, with between 10- to 45-percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), 32- to 45-percent iron oxide (FeO), and less than 0.2-percent vanadium (V).

  13. Post-Eocene volcanics of the Abazar district, Qazvin, Iran: Mineralogical and geochemical evidence for a complex magmatic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiabanha, A.; Bardintzeff, J. M.; Kananian, A.; Rahimi, G.

    2012-02-01

    The style of volcanism of post-Eocene volcanism in the Alborz zone of northern Iran is different to that of Eocene volcanism (Karaj Formation). Indeed, the volcanic succession of the Abazar district, located in a narrow volcanic strip within the Alborz magmatic assemblage, is characterized by distinct mineralogical and chemical compositions linked to a complex magmatic evolution. The succession was produced by explosive eruptions followed by effusive eruptions. Two main volcanic events are recognized: (1) a thin rhyolitic ignimbritic sheet underlain by a thicker lithic breccia, and (2) lava flows including shoshonite, latite, and andesite that overlie the first event across a reddish soil horizon. Plagioclase in shoshonite (An 48-92) shows normal zoning, whereas plagioclase in latite and andesite (An 48-75) has a similar composition but shows reverse and oscillatory zoning. QUILF temperature calculations for shoshonites and andesites yield temperatures of 1035 °C and 1029 °C, respectively. The geothermometers proposed by Ridolfi et al. (2010) and Holland and Blundy (1994) yield temperatures of 960 °C and 944 °C for latitic lava, respectively. The samples of volcanic rock show a typical geochemical signature of the continental arc regime, but the andesites clearly differ from the shoshonites, the latites and the rhyolites. The mineralogical and chemical characteristics of these rocks are explained by the following petrogenesis: (1) intrusion of a hot, mantle-depth mafic (shoshonitic) magma, which differentiated in the magma chamber to produce a latitic and then a rhyolitic liquid; (2) rhyolitic ignimbritic eruptions from the top of the magma chamber, following by shoshonitic and then latitic extrusions; (3) magma mingling between the latitic and andesitic magmas, as indicated by the occurrence of andesite clasts within the latite; and (4) andesitic effusions. The youngest volcanic events in the Alborz zone show a close chemical relationship with continental arc

  14. Geochronology of La Tinta Upper Proterozoic sedimentary rocks, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cingolani, C.A.; Bonhomme, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Olavarria-Sierras Bayas, Barker-San Manuel and Balcarce-Mar del Plata fine-grained sedimentary rocks from La Tinta Formation, the pre-Cenozoic cover of the Tandilia region, were studied using the Rb-Sr and K-Ar geochronology. The mineralogical study of the fine fraction has shown that only the Olavarria-Sierras Bayas area presents suitable material comprising typical sedimentary clays, affected only by diagenetic processes. Two Rb-Sr isochrons were obtained from Olavarria-Sierras Bayas rocks. They show: (1) an age of 769 +- 12 Ma with ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) 0 = 0.7121 +- 0.0005, for Aust Quarry rocks; and (2) an age of 723 +- 21 Ma with ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) 0 = 0.7171 +- 0.0012 for Cerro Negro and Losa Quarries rocks. Considering the above-mentioned isochron data and the mineralogy of the clays studied, the conclusion is drawn that the ages obtained reflect the isotopic setting of a late diagenetic process, dated back to nearly 720 Ma. K-Ar data also support the Rb-Sr isochrons and the late diagenetic clay origin. The lower section of La Tinta sequence in the Sierras Bayas area must then be considered as Upper Proterozoic in age. These new data support the recently reported stratigraphical divisions and ages. (Auth.)

  15. Late Carboniferous to Early Permian magmatic pulses in the Uliastai continental margin linked to slab rollback: Implications for evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Hui; Wang, Qingfei; Tao, Jixiong; Santosh, M.; Ma, Tengfei; Zhao, Rui

    2018-05-01

    The Paleo Asian Ocean underwent a protracted closure history during Late Paleozoic. Here we investigate the magmatic evolution during this process based on a detailed study in the Baiyinwula region along the Uliastai continental margin. The major rock types in this area are Late Carboniferous-Early Permian volcanic sequences and coeval intrusions. We identified four stages of magmatic evolution based on the diverse assemblages and their precise isotopic ages. The first stage is represented by andesites with a zircon 206Pb/238U age of ca. 326 ± 12 Ma. These rocks are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous, high-K calc-alkaline, and possess high Na2O/K2O ratios in the range of 1.23 to 2.45. They also display enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and depletion of high field strength elements (HFSE), with markedly positive zircon εHf (t) varying from 8.1 to 15.6.The geochemical features of these andesites are similar to those of typical arc volcanic rocks. The second stage includes granodiorites emplaced at 318.6 + 1.8 Ma. The rocks are high-K calc-alkaline with A/CNK values ranging from 0.95 to 1.06, and show enrichment in LILE and depletion in HFSE. They show geochemical affinities to adakites, with high Sr and low Y and Yb contents, indicating magma derivation from thickened lower crust. Zircon grains from these rocks display positive initial εHf (t) values ranging from 11.1 to 14.6 with corresponding two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) of 394-622 Ma. The third stage consists of syenogranite together with a volcanic suite ranging in composition from rhyolite todacite, which formed during 303.4 ± 1.2 to 285.1 ± 2.2 Ma. They possess elevated silica and alkali contents, high FeOt/MgO and Ga/Al ratios, low Al2O3, MgO and CaO contents, and high Rb, Y, Nb, Ce, Zr, Y, and Ga contents, strong negative Ba, Sr and Eu anomalies, showing I- to A-type granitic affinities. Zircons in these rocks show elevated Hf isotopic compositions (εHf (t) = 9.9 to 14.6) with TDM2

  16. Magmatism evolution in the Nori'lsk region (Siberian trap province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivolutskaya, Nadezhda

    2010-05-01

    The NW Siberian trap province is very important for our understanding of evolution of huge magmatic system (T1) and origin unique Pt-Cu-Ni deposits. To solve these genetic problems (including correlation between effusive and intrusive rocks) it is necessary to get accurate information about magmatism migration in space and in time inside different tectonic structures in the Noril'sk region. Thed latter takes outstanding place on the Siberian platform due to its geological features. It consists of two main areas covered by volcanic rocks: I. Kharaelakhsky trough (on West) and II. plateau Putorana (on East) are subdivided by carbonate-terrigenouse rocks (C-P2) of Khantaisko-Rybninsky swell . These two zones differ one from another by thickness of basalts and their composition.The fist zone extents along the Khatanga fault and contains all suits, including three lowest ones - ivakinsky (Iv), syverminsky (Sv), gudchikhinsky (Gd). II zone essentially consists of the middle and upper suits - hakanchansky (Hk), tuklonsky (Tk), nadezhdinsky (Nd), morongovsky (Mr), mokulaevsky (Mk), kharaekakhsky (Kh), kumginsky (Km) and samoedsky (Sm). Usually it is constructed the complete section of the Noril'sk volcanites from rocks of two zones. But every suit has its own areal extent., which to contour it not so easy because volcanic rocks represent very similar tholeiitic basalts ( in term of texture and petrochemistry). Their differentiation is just possible using rare elements and isotopes contents in the rocks [1]. We have studied a lot of basalt sections based on their outcrops and cores of drill holes (4 570 m) and intrusive bodies graduated in mineralization (internal structure, geochemistry, mineralogy, isotopes composition). According new data areoles of the lowers and the upper suits separate in space. The thicknesses Iv and Sv suits (TiO2=2-4 mas. %; Gg/Yb = 2.2.) decreases synchronously from NW Kharaelakh and the towards Putorana at 30%. Gd suit (TiO2=1-2 mas.% and Gd

  17. Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonics of the eastern and central Alaska Range: Progressive basin development and deformation in a suture zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridgway, K.D.; Trop, J.M.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Davidson, C.M.; Eastham, K.R. [Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Earth & Atmospheric Science

    2002-07-01

    Analysis of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary basins, metamorphic rocks, and major faults in the eastern and central Alaska Range documents the progressive development of a suture zone that formed as a result of collision of an island-arc assemblage (the Wrangellia composite terrane) with the former North American continental margin. New basin-analysis, structural, and geochronologic data indicate the following stages in the development of the suture zone: (1) Deposition of 3-5 km of Upper Jurassic-Upper Cretaceous marine strata (the Kahiltna assemblage) recorded the initial collision of the island-arc assemblage with the continental margin. (2) Metamorphism of submarine-fan deposits of the Kahiltna basin, located near the leading edge of the island-arc assemblage, occurred at ca. 74 Ma, as determined from a new U-Pb zircon age for a synkinematic sill. (3) Shortening and exhumation of the suture zone peaked from 65 to 60 Ma on the basis of metamorphic and geochronologic data. (4) From 60 to 54 Ma, about 3 km of volcanic strata were deposited over deformed sedimentary strata of the Cantwell basin, and several granitic plutons (the McKinley sequence) were emplaced along the suture zone. (5) Following igneous activity, strike-slip displacement occurred from ca. 54 to 24 Ma along the Denali fault system, which had developed in the existing suture zone. (6) Regional transpressive shortening characterized the suture zone from ca. 24 Ma to the present. Regional subsidence resulted in Miocene coal seams up to 20 m thick and well-developed lacustrine deposits. Overlying the Miocene deposits are about 1.2 km of Pliocene and Holocene conglomeratic deposits. These mapping relationships provide evidence that regional shortening continues to the present in the eastern and central Alaska Range.

  18. Paleomagnetic constraints on the Cenozoic kinematic evolution of the Pamir plateau from the Western Kunlun Shan foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenyu; Ding, Lin; Lippert, Peter C.; Wei, Honghong

    2013-09-01

    Thick Cenozoic marine and terrestrial sediments are widely distributed along the perimeter of the Pamir plateau and provide valuable information on the kinematic evolution of the region. Here, we report new biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic results from the piedmont of the Western Kunlun Shan to constrain the magnitude and timing of vertical-axis rotations along the eastern margin of the Pamir. Sampling sites were selected by rock formations and ages, which are based on previous field mapping and on litholostratigraphic and biostratigraphic work presented here. Thermomagnetic analysis, step-wise thermal demagnetization behavior, and positive field tests all suggest that the characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) directions most probably have a primary detrital and chemical origin. Our results indicate variable, minor, but in some intervals significant vertical axis rotations with respect to a stable Asian reference frame. This pattern of rotations is similar to paleomagnetic data reported in previously published studies from the Eastern Pamir foreland. In contrast, published paleomagnetic data from the Western Pamir foreland consistently indicate significant CCW rotations within that region. Collectively, these results challenge simple oroclinal bending models for the origin of the Pamir salient, and instead are more consistent with an asymmetric "half-orocline" kinematic model in which the curvature of the Western Pamir is the product of a combination of lithospheric bending of an originally quasi-linear mountain belt and radial thrusting, and the subdued curvature of the eastern edge of the plateau is the result of lateral translation of the Pamir plateau northward past Tibet and Tarim along the Kashgar-Yecheng transfer system. Our results are consistent with activity on the Kashgar-Yecheng transfer system in the Early Miocene.

  19. Lower-crustal xenoliths from Jurassic kimberlite diatremes, upper Michigan (USA): Evidence for Proterozoic orogenesis and plume magmatism in the lower crust of the southern Superior Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zartman, Robert E.; Kempton, Pamela D.; Paces, James B.; Downes, Hilary; Williams, Ian S.; Dobosi, Gábor; Futa, Kiyoto

    2013-01-01

    Jurassic kimberlites in the southern Superior Province in northern Michigan contain a variety of possible lower-crustal xenoliths, including mafic garnet granulites, rare garnet-free granulites, amphibolites and eclogites. Whole-rock major-element data for the granulites suggest affinities with tholeiitic basalts. P–T estimates for granulites indicate peak temperatures of 690–730°C and pressures of 9–12 kbar, consistent with seismic estimates of crustal thickness in the region. The granulites can be divided into two groups based on trace-element characteristics. Group 1 granulites have trace-element signatures similar to average Archean lower crust; they are light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched, with high La/Nb ratios and positive Pb anomalies. Most plot to the left of the geochron on a 206Pb/€204Pb vs 207Pb/€204Pb diagram, and there was probably widespread incorporation of Proterozoic to Archean components into the magmatic protoliths of these rocks. Although the age of the Group 1 granulites is not well constrained, their protoliths appear to be have been emplaced during the Mesoproterozoic and to be older than those for Group 2 granulites. Group 2 granulites are also LREE-enriched, but have strong positive Nb and Ta anomalies and low La/Nb ratios, suggesting intraplate magmatic affinities. They have trace-element characteristics similar to those of some Mid-Continent Rift (Keweenawan) basalts. They yield a Sm–Nd whole-rock errorchron age of 1046 ± 140 Ma, similar to that of Mid-Continent Rift plume magmatism. These granulites have unusually radiogenic Pb isotope compositions that plot above the 207Pb/€204Pb vs 206Pb/€204Pb growth curve and to the right of the 4·55 Ga geochron, and closely resemble the Pb isotope array defined by Mid-Continent Rift basalts. These Pb isotope data indicate that ancient continental lower crust is not uniformly depleted in U (and Th) relative to Pb. One granulite xenolith, S69-5, contains quartz, and has a

  20. Origin of sulfur and crustal recycling of copper in polymetallic (Cu-Au-Co-Bi-U ± Ag) iron-oxide-dominated systems of the Great Bear Magmatic Zone, NWT, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Góngora, P.; Gleeson, S. A.; Samson, I. M.; Corriveau, L.; Ootes, L.; Jackson, S. E.; Taylor, B. E.; Girard, I.

    2018-03-01

    The Great Bear Magmatic Zone, in northwest Canada, contains numerous polymetallic mineral occurrences, prospects, and deposits of the iron oxide copper-gold deposit (IOCG) family. The mineralization is hosted by the Treasure Lake Group and igneous rocks of the Great Bear arc and was deposited concomitantly with the arc magmatism (ca. 1.88 to 1.87 Ga). In situ δ 34S ( n = 48) and δ 65Cu ( n = 79) analyses were carried out on ore-related sulfides from a number of these systems. The δ 34S values mainly vary between 0 and +5‰, consistent with derivation of sulfur from the mantle. Lower δ 34S values (-7.7 to +1.4‰) from the Sue-Dianne breccia may indicate SO2 disproportionation of a magmatic hydrothermal fluid. The δ 65Cu values vary between -1.2 and -0.3‰, and are lower than the igneous δ 65Cu range of values (0.0 ± 0.27‰). The S and Cu isotopic data are decoupled, which suggests that Cu (and possibly some S) was dissolved and remobilized from supracrustal rocks during early stages of alteration (e.g., sodic alteration) and then precipitated by lower temperature, more oxidizing fluids (e.g., Ca-Fe-K alteration). A limited fluid inclusion dataset and δ 13C and δ 18O values are also presented. The δ 18Ofluid values are consistent with a magmatic origin or a host-rock equilibrated meteoric water source, whereas the δ 13Cfluid values support a marine carbonate source. Combined, the S and Cu isotopic data indicate that while the emplacement of the Great Bear magmatic bodies may have driven fluid convection and may be the source of fluids and sulfur, metals such as Cu could have been recycled from crustal sources.

  1. Early Permian intrusions of the Alai range: Understanding tectonic settings of Hercynian post-collisional magmatism in the South Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopelko, D.; Wilde, S. A.; Seltmann, R.; Romer, R. L.; Biske, Yu. S.

    2018-03-01

    We present geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope data as well as the results of single grain U-Pb zircon dating for ten granitoid and alkaline intrusions of the Alai segment of Kyrgyz South Tien Shan (STS). The intrusions comprise four geochemically contrasting series or suites, including (1) I-type and (2) shoshonitic granitoids, (3) peraluminous granitoids including S-type leucogranites and (4) alkaline rocks and carbonatites, closely associated in space. New geochronological data indicate that these diverse magmatic series of the Alai segment formed in a post-collisional setting. Five single grain U-Pb zircon ages in the range 287-281 Ma, in combination with published ages, define the main post-collisional magmatic pulse at 290-280 Ma, which is similar to ages of post-collisional intrusions elsewhere in the STS. An age of 287 ± 4 Ma, obtained for peraluminous graniodiorite of the Liayliak massif, emplaced in amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks of the Zeravshan-Alai block, is indistinguishable from ca. 290 Ma age of peraluminous granitoids emplaced coevally with Barrovian-type metamorphism in the Garm block, located ca. 40 km south-west of the research area. The Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions of the studied intrusions are consistent with the reworking of crustal material with 1.6-1.1 Ga average crustal residence times, indicating the formation of the Alai segment on a continental basement with Mesoproterozoic or older crust. The pattern of post-collisional magmatism in the Alai segment, characterized by emplacement of I-type and shoshoninitic granitoids in combination with coeval Barrovian-type metamorphism, is markedly different from the pattern of post-collisional magmatism in the adjacent Kokshaal segment of the STS with predominant A-type granitoids that formed on a former passive margin of the Tarim Craton. We suggest that during the middle-late Carboniferous the Alai segment probably comprised a microcontinent with Precambrian basement located between

  2. Rock slope design guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This Manual is intended to provide guidance for the design of rock cut slopes, rockfall catchment, and : rockfall controls. Recommendations presented in this manual are based on research presented in Shakoor : and Admassu (2010) entitled Rock Slop...

  3. Rock Slope Design Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary : rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, : and siltstones ...

  4. The Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  5. Numerical modeling of the late Cenozoic geomorphic evolution of Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    The late Cenozoic geomorphic evolution of Grand Canyon has been influenced by three primary tectonic and drainage adjustment events. First, incision into the Paleozoic strata of the southwestern margin of the Colorado Plateau began at 16 Ma in response to relief production along the Grand Wash Fault. Second, the ancestral Upper Colorado River reversed drainage and became integrated with the Lower Colorado River basin through Grand Canyon between 5.5 and 6 Ma. Third, the Colorado River was influenced by Plio- Quaternary normal faulting along the Hurricane and Toroweap Faults. Despite the relatively firm constraints available on the timing of these events, the geomorphic evolution of Grand Canyon is still not well constrained and many questions remain. For example, was there a deeply-incised gorge in western Grand Canyon before Colorado River integration? How and where was the Colorado River integrated? How have incision rates varied in space and time? In this paper, I describe the results of a numerical modeling study designed to address these questions. The model integrates the stream power model for bedrock channel erosion with cliff retreat and the flexural-isostatic response to erosion. The model honors the structural geology of the Grand Canyon region, including the variable erodibility of rocks in the Colorado Plateau and the occurrence of Plio-Quaternary normal faulting along the Hurricane-Toroweap Fault system. We present the results of two models designed to bracket the possible drainage architectures of the southwestern margin of the Colorado Plateau in Miocene time. In the first model, we assume a 13,000 km2 drainage basin primarily sourced from the Hualapai and Coconino Plateaux. The results of this model indicate that relief production along the Grand Wash fault initiated the formation of a large (700 m) knickpoint that migrated headward at a rate of 15 km/Myr prior to drainage integration at 6 Ma to form a deep gorge in western Grand Canyon. This model

  6. The Kalatongke magmatic Ni-Cu deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NW China: product of slab window magmatism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chusi; Zhang, Mingjie; Fu, Piaoer; Qian, Zhuangzhi; Hu, Peiqing; Ripley, Edward M.

    2012-01-01

    The Permian Kalatongke Ni-Cu deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt are among the most important Ni-Cu deposits in northern Xinjiang, western China. The deposits are hosted by three small mafic intrusions comprising mainly norite and diorite. Its tectonic context, petrogenesis, and ore genesis have been highly contested. In this paper, we present a new model involving slab window magmatism for the Kalatongke intrusions. The origin of the associated sulfide ores is explained in the context of this new model. Minor amounts of olivine in the intrusions have Fo contents varying between 71 and 81.5 mol%, which are similar to the predicted values for olivine crystallizing from coeval basalts in the region. Analytic modeling based on major element concentrations suggests that the parental magma of the Kalatongke intrusions and the coeval basalts represent fractionated liquids produced by ˜15% of olivine crystallization from a primary magma, itself produced by 7-8% partial melting of depleted mantle peridotite. Positive ɛ Nd values (+4 to +10) and significant negative Nb anomalies for both intrusive and extrusive rocks can be explained by the mixing of magma derived from depleted mantle with 6-18% of a partial melt derived from the lower part of a juvenile arc crust with a composition similar to coeval A-type granites in the region, plus up to 10% contamination with the upper continental crust. Our model suggests that a slab window was created due to slab break-off during a transition from oceanic subduction to arc-arc or arc-continent collision in the region in the Early Permian. Decompression melting in the upwelling oceanic asthenosphere produced the primary magma. When this magma ascended to pond in the lower parts of a juvenile arc crust, it underwent olivine crystallization and at the same time triggered partial melting of the arc crust. Mixing between these two magmas followed by contamination with the upper crust after the magma ascended to higher crustal

  7. Preliminary Depositional and Provenance Records of Mesozoic Basin Evolution and Cenozoic Shortening in the High Andes, La Ramada Fold-Thrust Belt, Southern-Central Andes (32-33°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackaman-Lofland, C.; Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.; Constenius, K. N.; McKenzie, R.; Alvarado, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Argentinian Andes define key examples of retroarc shortening and basin evolution above a zone of active subduction. The La Ramada fold-thrust belt (RFTB) in the High Andes provides insights into the relative influence and temporal records of diverse convergent margin processes (e.g. flat-slab subduction, convergent wedge dynamics, structural inversion). The RFTB contains Mesozoic extensional basin strata deformed by later Andean shortening. New detrital zircon U-Pb analyses of Mesozoic rift sediments reveal: (1) a dominant Permo-Triassic age signature (220-280 Ma) associated with proximal sources of effective basement (Choiyoi Group) during Triassic synrift deposition; (2) upsection younging of maximum depositional ages from Late Triassic through Early Cretaceous (230 to 100 Ma) with the increasing influence of western Andean arc sources; and (3) a significant Late Cretaceous influx of Paleozoic (~350-550 Ma) and Proterozoic (~650-1300 Ma) populations during the earliest shift from back-arc post-extensional subsidence to upper-plate shortening. The Cenozoic detrital record of the Manantiales foreland basin (between the Frontal Cordillera and Precordillera) records RFTB deformation prior to flat-slab subduction. A Permo-Triassic Choiyoi age signature dominates the Miocene succession, consistent with sources in the proximal Espinacito range. Subordinate Mesozoic (~80-250 Ma) to Proterozoic (~850-1800 Ma) U-Pb populations record exhumation of the Andean magmatic arc and recycling of different structural levels in the RFTB during thrusting/inversion of Mesozoic rift basin strata and subjacent Paleozoic units. Whereas maximum depositional ages of sampled Manantiales units cluster at 18-20 Ma, the Estancia Uspallata basin (~50 km to the south) shows consistent upsection younging of Cenozoic populations attributed to proximal volcanic centers. Ongoing work will apply low-temperature thermochronology to pinpoint basin accumulation histories and thrust timing.

  8. Dating of zircon from high-grade rocks: Which is the most reliable method?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Kröner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Magmatic zircon in high-grade metamorphic rocks is often characterized by complex textures as revealed by cathodoluminenscence (CL that result from multiple episodes of recrystallization, overgrowth, Pb-loss and modifications through fluid-induced disturbances of the crystal structure and the original U-Th-Pb isotopic systematics. Many of these features can be recognized in 2-dimensional CL images, and isotopic analysis of such domains using a high resolution ion-microprobe with only shallow penetration of the zircon surface may be able to reconstruct much of the magmatic and complex post-magmatic history of such grains. In particular it is generally possible to find original magmatic domains yielding concordant ages. In contrast, destructive techniques such as LA-ICP-MS consume a large volume, leave a deep crater in the target grain, and often sample heterogeneous domains that are not visible and thus often yield discordant results which are difficult to interpret. We provide examples of complex magmatic zircon from a southern Indian granulite terrane where SHRIMP II and LA-ICP-MS analyses are compared. The SHRIMP data are shown to be more precise and reliable, and we caution against the use of LA-ICP-MS in deciphering the chronology of complex zircons from high-grade terranes.

  9. 118-115 Ma magmatism in the Tethyan Himalaya igneous province: Constraints on Early Cretaceous rifting of the northern margin of Greater India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Sheng; Fan, Wei-Ming; Shi, Ren-Deng; Liu, Xiao-Han; Zhou, Xue-Jun

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the dynamics of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) is critical to deciphering processes associated with rupturing continental lithosphere. Microcontinental calving, the rifting of microcontinents from mature continental rifted margins, is particularly poorly understood. Here we present new insights into these processes from geochronological and geochemical analyses of igneous rocks from the Tethyan Himalaya. Early Cretaceous mafic dikes are widely exposed in the eastern and western Tethyan Himalaya, but no such rocks have been reported from the central Tethyan Himalaya. Here we present an analysis of petrological, geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Hf-Os isotopic data for bimodal magmatic rocks from the center-east Tethyan Himalaya. Zircon U-Pb dating yields six weighted-mean concordant 206Pb/238U ages of 118 ± 1.2 to 115 ± 1.3 Ma. Mafic rocks display MORB-like compositions with flat to depleted LREE trends, and positive εNd(t) (+2.76 to +5.39) and εHf(t) (+8.0 to +11.9) values. The negative Nb anomalies and relatively high 187Os/188Os ratios (0.15-0.19) of these rocks are related to variable degrees (up to 10%) of crustal contamination. Geochemical characteristics indicate that mafic rocks were generated by variable degrees (2-20%) of partial melting of spinel lherzolites in shallow depleted mantle. Felsic rocks are enriched in Th and LREE, with negative Nb anomalies and decoupling of Nd (εNd(t) = -13.39 to -12.78) and Hf (εHf(t) = -4.8 to -2.0), suggesting that they were derived mainly from garnet-bearing lower continental crust. The geochemical characteristics of the bimodal magmatic associations are comparable to those of associations that form in a continental rift setting. Results indicate that Early Cretaceous magmatism occurred across the whole Tethyan Himalaya, named here as the "Tethyan Himalaya igneous province". Separation of the Tethyan Himalaya from the Indian craton may have occurred during ongoing Early Cretaceous extension

  10. Magmatism and Tectonics in the Meso-Archean Pongola Supergroup, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Allan

    2013-04-01

    The Pongola Supergroup is one of the most extensive and well preserved volcano-sedimentary successions emplaced in a continental setting in the Meso-Archean (c. 2.95 Ga). It contrasts with both the older (Barberton type c.3.5 Ga) and younger (Belingwe type c.2.7 Ga) greenstone belts in southern Africa in that the sequence has not undergone the strong horizontal compressional tectonics typically related to greenstone belt-TTG environments. However, it is appropriate to compare this sequence with rocks of the Barberton greenstone belt by which the final phase of deposition preceded that of the juxtaposed Pongola basin with a relatively small time interval. The Pongola succession, which commenced with the first major magmatic event after the Barberton greenstone belt, overlies granitoids and remnants of greenstone belts in SE South Africa and in SW Swaziland. Formation was not in a continental rift environment but most likely in a marginal epicontinental basin with syn-depositional subsidence in a half-graben fault system in the type area. The Pongola rocks occur in two domains related to a NW-trending central basement high in the Kaapvaal Craton and achieving a maximum thickness of 8 km in the northern areas. The lower section (Nsuze group 3.7 km thick) is made up mainly of lavas and pyroclastic rocks and the upper section (Mozaan Group 4.3 km thick) is aranaceous sediments and argillites with a thick volcanic unit observed in the south-eastern facies. Chemical affinities of the lavas include tholeiite and calc-alkaline over the compositional range of basalt to rhyolite. There is a preponderance of andesites in the compositional array. The preservation of these rocks gives insight into the range of volcanic processes that took place at this stage of Earth history and in some areas it is possible to identify eruptions from a single source over several kilometres, as well as feeder-dyke systems to the lava flows. Simultaneous eruption of contrasting magmas from several

  11. Climate vs. tectonic induced variations in Cenozoic sediment supply from western Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gołędowski, Bartosz; Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.

    Eocene times tectonic activity related to the final stage of opening of the North Atlantic was apparently controlling the sediment input in the North Sea as sediment pulses correlate well with tectonic events. Although there is no signs of Cenozoic tectonic activity onshore Scandinavia (igneous bodies......, faulting), tectonic disturbance related to ocean opening could be responsible for deposition of thick Paleocene wedges along the western coast of Norway. During subsequent Cenozoic periods domal structures in the Norwegian shelf are a proof for mild and protracted compression. However, depositional...... patterns from offshore Scandinavia have been interpreted as a result of significant tectonic movements. In the absence of proofs for active tectonic agents we attempt to explain these sediment input variations as a result of climate fluctuations. The Eocene-Oligocene greenhouse-icehouse climate transition...

  12. LATE CREATACEOUS-CENOZOIC SEDIMENTS OF THE BAIKAL RIFT BASIN AND CHANGING NATURAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor D. Mats

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The late Cretaceous-Cenozoic sediments of fossil soils and weathering crusts of the Baikal rift have been subject to long-term studies. Based on our research results, it is possible to distinguish the following litho-stratigraphic complexes which are related to particular stages of the rift development: the late Cretaceous–early Oligocene (crypto-rift Arheo-baikalian, the late Oligocene–early Pliocene (ecto-rift early orogenic Pra-baikalian, and the late Pliocene-Quaternary (ecto-rift late orogenic Pra-baikalian – Baikalian complexes. Changes of weathering modes (Cretaceous-quarter, soil formation (Miocene-quarter and differences of precipitation by vertical and lateral stratigraphy are analysed with regard to specific features of climate, tectonics and facial conditions of sedimentation. Tectonic phases are defined in the Cenozoic period of the Pribaikalie.

  13. Calcium isotope fractionation in a silicate dominated Cenozoic aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junxia; DePaolo, Donald J.; Wang, Yanxin; Xie, Xianjun

    2018-04-01

    To understand the characteristics of Ca isotope composition and fractionation in silicate-dominated Quaternary aquifer system, hydrochemical and isotope studies (87Sr/86Sr, 13CDIC and 44/40Ca) were conducted on groundwater, sediment and rock samples from the Datong basin, China. Along the groundwater flow path from the basin margin to the center, groundwater hydrochemical type evolves from Ca-HCO3 to Na-HCO3/Na-Cl type, which results from aluminosilicate hydrolysis, vertical mixing, cation exchange between CaX2 and NaX, and calcite/dolomite precipitation. These processes cause the decrease in groundwater Ca concentration and the associated modest fractionation of groundwater Ca isotopes along the flowpath. The groundwater δ44/40Ca value varies from -0.11 to 0.49‰. The elevated δ44/40Ca ratios in shallow groundwater are attributed to vertical mixing involving addition of irrigation water, which had the average δ44/40Ca ratio of 0.595‰. Chemical weathering of silicate minerals and carbonate generates depleted δ44/40Ca signatures in groundwater from Heng Mountain (east area) and Huanghua Uplift (west area), respectively. Along the groundwater flow path from Heng Mountain to central area of east area, cation exchange between CaX2 and NaX on clay mineral results in the enrichment of heavier Ca isotope in groundwater. All groundwater samples are oversaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite. The groundwater environment rich in organic matter promotes the precipitation of carbonate minerals via the biodegradation of organic carbon, thereby further promoting the elevation of groundwater δ44/40Ca ratios.

  14. Tectonic Mechanism for the Mid-Cretaceous - Early Paleogene Intraplate Magmatism from the Gulf of Mexico to Northwestern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Murphy, M. A.; Snow, J. E.; van Wijk, J.; Cannon, J. M.; Parsons, C.

    2017-12-01

    Tectonic mechanisms have remained controversial for a number of intraplate igneous suites of mid-Cretaceous - early Paleogene age across North America. They span the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM), through Arkansas and Kansas in the US, to Saskatchewan and Northwestern Territories in Canada, resembling a belt that is located 1000+ km inboard from, and aligned sub-parallel to, the western margin of North America. The northern GoM magmatism is characterized by lamproites, carbonatites, nephelinites, with other alkaline rocks, whereas the rest igneous provinces are dominated by kimberlites. Their geochemical signatures, in general, point to a sub-lithospheric mantle origin. Hypotheses that explain the tectonic origin of these magmatic rocks include: (1) hotspots and mantle plumes, (2) edge-driven convection, (3) lithospheric reactivation, and (4) low-angle subduction. Evaluation based on our integration of published geological and geophysical data shows that contradictions exist in each model between observations and predictions. To explain this plate-scale phenomenon, we propose that the Farallon slab may have stagnated within or around the mantle transition zone during the Early Cretaceous, with its leading edge reaching ca. 1600 km inland beneath the North American plate. Dehydration and decarbonation of the slab produces sporadic, dense, low-degree partial melts at the mantle transition zone depths. As the slab descends into the lower mantle, Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are induced at slab edges, causing passive upwelling that brings alkali-rich carbonate silicate melts to the base of the overriding plate. Subsequently, the North American lithosphere with varying thicknesses, discontinuities, and compositions interacts with the rising partial melts, generating a spectrum of igneous rocks. Fragments of the once-stagnated slab may still be detectable in the lower mantle beneath eastern US in seismic tomography models. This study highlights a profound plate

  15. Seismic facies and stratigraphy of the Cenozoic succession in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica: Implications for tectonic, climatic and glacial history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, C.R.; Whittaker, J.; Henrys, S.A.; Wilson, T.J.; Nash, T.R.

    2007-01-01

    A new stratigraphic model is presented for the evolution of the Cenozoic Victoria Land Basin of the West Antarctic Rift, based on integration of seismic reflection and drilling data. The Early Rift phase (?latest Eocene to Early Oligocene) comprises wedges of strata confined by early extensional faults, and which contain seismic facies consistent with drainage via coarse-grained fans and deltas into discrete, actively subsiding grabens and half-grabens. The Main Rift phase (Early Oligocene to Early Miocene) comprises a lens of strata that thickens symmetrically from the basin margins into a central depocenter, and in which stratal events pass continuously over the top of the Early Rift extensional topography. Internal seismic facies and lithofacies indicate a more organized, cyclical shallow marine succession, influenced increasingly upward by cycles of glacial advance and retreat into the basin. The Passive Thermal Subsidence phase (Early Miocene to ?) comprises an evenly distributed sheet of strata that does not thicken appreciably into the depocentre, with more evidence for clinoform sets and large channels. These patterns are interpreted to record accumulation under similar environmental conditions but in a regime of slower subsidence. The Renewed Rifting phase (? to Recent, largely unsampled by coring thus far) has been further divided into 1, a lower interval, in which the section thickens passively towards a central depocentre, and 2. an upper interval, in which more dramatic thickening patterns are complicated by magmatic activity. The youngest part of the stratigraphy was accumulated under the influence of flexural loading imposed by the construction of large volcanic edifices, and involved minimal sediment supply from the western basin margin, suggesting a change in environmental (glacial) conditions at possibly c. 2 Ma.

  16. Stratigraphy of the late Cenozoic sediments beneath the 216-B and C crib facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.; Last, G.V.; Marratt, M.C.

    1979-02-01

    The stratigraphy of the late Cenozoic sediments beneath the 216-B and C Crib Facilities is presented as lithofacies cross sections and is based on textural variations of the sedimentary sequence lying above the basalt bedrock. The primary source of data in this study is geologic information obtained from well drilling operations and geophysical logging. Stratigraphic interpretations are based primarily on textural analysis and visual examination of sediment samples and supplemented by drillers logs and geophysical logs

  17. Stratigraphy of the late Cenozoic sediments beneath the 216-A Crib Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.; Last, G.V.; Marratt, M.C.

    1979-02-01

    The stratigraphy of the late Cenozoic sediments beneath the 216-A Crib Facilities is presented as lithofacies cross sections and is based on textural variations of the sedimentary sequence lying above the basalt bedrock. The primary source of data in this study is geologic information obtained from well drilling operations and geophysical logging. Stratigraphic interpretations are based primarily on textural analysis and visual examination of sediment samples and supplemented by drillers logs and geophysical logs

  18. Cenozoic deposits exposed along Rio de la Plata coast in the Canelones Department (Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso Aguilar, C.; Spoturno, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper allows to know some sedimentological and stratigraphical features of the Cenozoic deposits exposed along Rio de la Plata coast in the Canelones department, Uruguay. The results, mainly collected from metric thickness of local stratigraphical sections and coastal outcrops of that region are presented. Both Tertiary and Quaternary sediments are present, however transitional Pleistocenic deposits of Chuy Formation and continental sediments of Libertad Formation are more dominant [es

  19. Geochemistry and petrology of pyroxenite xenoliths from Cenozoic alkaline basalts, Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ackerman, Lukáš; Špaček, Petr; Medaris Jr., G.; Hegner, E.; Svojtka, Martin; Ulrych, Jaromír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2012), s. 199-219 ISSN 1802-6222 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/09/1170 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516; CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985530 Keywords : pyroxenite * xenolith * Cenozoic * basalt * Sr-Nd isotopes * geothermobarometry Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 0.804, year: 2012

  20. Rock History and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Two ambitious works written by French-speaking scholars tackle rock music as a research object, from different but complementary perspectives. Both are a definite must-read for anyone interested in the contextualisation of rock music in western popular culture. In Une histoire musicale du rock (i.e. A Musical History of Rock), rock music is approached from the point of view of the people – musicians and industry – behind the music. Christophe Pirenne endeavours to examine that field from a m...

  1. Distribution of Cenozoic plant relicts in China explained by drought in dry season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongjiang; Jacques, Frédéric M B; Su, Tao; Ferguson, David K; Tang, Hui; Chen, Wenyun; Zhou, Zhekun

    2015-09-15

    Cenozoic plant relicts are those groups that were once widespread in the Northern Hemisphere but are now restricted to some small isolated areas as a result of drastic climatic changes. They are good proxies to study how plants respond to climatic changes since their modern climatic requirements are known. Herein we look at the modern distribution of 65 palaeoendemic genera in China and compare it with the Chinese climatic pattern, in order to find a link between the plant distribution and climate. Central China and Taiwan Island are shown to be diversity centres of Cenozoic relict genera, consistent with the fact that these two regions have a shorter dry season with comparatively humid autumn and spring in China. Species distribution models indicate that the precipitation parameters are the most important variables to explain the distribution of relict genera. The Cenozoic wide-scale distribution of relict plants in the Northern Hemisphere is therefore considered to be linked to the widespread humid climate at that time, and the subsequent contraction of their distributional ranges was probably caused by the drying trend along with global cooling.

  2. Construction of the seawater 87Sr/86Sr curve for the Cenozoic and Cretaceous: supporting data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koepnick, R.B.; Burke, W.H.; Denison, R.E.; Hetherington, E.A.; Nelson, H.F.; Otto, J.B.; Waite, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    We present the data used to construct the Cenozoic and Cretaceous portion of the Phanerozoic curve of seawater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr that had been given in summary form by W.H. Burke and coworkers. All Cenozoic samples (128) and 22 Cretaceous samples are foram-nannofossil oozes and limestones from DSDP cores distributed among 13 sites in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, and the Caribbean Sea. Non-DSDP Cretaceous samples (126) include limestone, anhydrite and phosphate samples from North America, Europe and Asia. Determination of the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr value of seawater at particular times in the past is based on comparison of ratios derived from coeval marine samples from widely separated geographic areas. The general configuration of the Cenozoic and Cretaceous curve appears to be strongly influenced by the history of plate interactions and sea-floor spreading. Specific rises and falls in the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr of seawater, however, may be caused by a variety of factors such as variation in lithologic composition of the crust exposed to weathering, configuration and topographic relief of continents, volcanic activity, rate of sea-floor spreading, extent of continental inundation by epeiric seas, and variations in both climate and paleo-oceanographic conditions. Many or all of these factors are probably related to global tectonic processes, yet their combined effect on the temporal variation of seawater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr can complicate a direct plate-tectonic interpretation for portions of the seawater curve. (Auth.)

  3. Early Miocene rapid exhumation in southern Tibet: Insights from P-T-t-D-magmatism path of Yardoi dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Rubatto, Daniela; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Liu, Xiao-Chi

    2018-04-01

    Reconstructing the evolution of Gneiss domes within orogenic belts poses challenges because domes can form in a variety of geodynamic settings and by multiple doming mechanisms. For the North Himalayan gneiss domes (NHGD), it is debated whether they formed during shortening, extension or collapse of the plateau, and what is the spatial and temporal relationship of magmatism, metamorphism and deformation. This study investigates the Yardoi dome in southern Tibet using field mapping, petrography, phase equilibria modelling and new monazite ages. The resulting P-T-time-deformation-magmatism path for the first time reveals the spatial and temporal relationship of metamorphism, deformation and magmatism in the Yardoi dome: a) the dome mantle recorded prograde loading to kyanite-grade Barrovian metamorphic conditions of 650 ± 30 °C and 9 ± 1 kbar (M2) in the Early Miocene (18-17 Ma); b) the main top-to-the-north deformation fabric (D2) formed syn- to post-peak-metamorphism; c) the emplacement of leucorgranites related to doming is syn-metamorphism at 19-17 Ma. The link between the detachment shear zone in the Yardoi dome and the South Tibetan detachment system (STDS) is confirmed. By comparing with orogen-scale tectonic processes in the Himalaya, we suggest that north-south extension in a convergent geodynamic setting during Early Miocene accounts for formation of the Yardoi dome. In a wider tectonic context, the Early Miocene rapid exhumation of deep crustal rocks was contemporaneous with the rapid uplift of southern Tibet and the Himalayan orogen.

  4. Petrogenesis of the Zheduoshan Cenozoic granites in the eastern margin of Tibet: Constraints on the initial activity of the Xianshuihe Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shao-cong; Zhao, Shao-wei

    2018-06-01

    The Zheduoshan Miocene granitic pluton is exposed at the eastern margin of Tibet and along the strike-slip Xianshuihe Fault, and is the product of syn-tectonic magmatism closely related to this fault. This paper is focused on the petrogenesis of different granitic lithological units in the Zheduoshan composite intrusion, and the results of geochronology and lithology show that the Zheduoshan Miocene granitic pluton is incremental assembly by three stages of granitic magma influx and growth, represented by fine-grain biotite granite at 18.0 Ma, corase-grain and porphyraceous biotite monzogranite at 16.0 Ma and medium-grain two-mica monzogranite at 14.0 Ma. Combining with the geochemical signatures, these granitic rocks have high intial 87Sr/86Sr ratios, enriched Nd and Hf isotopic compositions, revealing that the sources of these granitic rocks are metabasatic rocks for fine-grain biotite granite, greywackes for coarse-grain biotite monzogranite and medium-grain monzogranite. These granites have high Sr/Y ratios, revealing that these granitic magma form at high pressure condition. The Sr/Y ratios and calculated crystallization pressure gradually decreased, implying the pressure gradually decreasing with the formation of these three stages of granites, which is probably caused by the tectonic mechanism transition from compression to strike-slip extension during the generation of these granites at 18.0-14.4 Ma. This tectonic mechanism change implied the initial activity of Xianshuihe Fault at least before 14.4 Ma.

  5. Geochemical and modal data for igneous rocks associated with epithermal mineral deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this report are to (1) present available geochemical and modal data for igneous rocks associated with epithermal mineral deposits and (2) to make those data widely and readily available for subsequent, more in-depth consideration and interpretation. Epithermal precious and base-metal deposits are commonly associated with subduction-related calc-alkaline to alkaline arc magmatism as well as back-arc continental rift magmatism. These deposits form in association with compositionally diverse extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks. Temperature and depth regimes prevailing during deposit formation are highly variable. The deposits form from hydrothermal fluids that range from acidic to near-neutral pH, and they occur in a variety of structural settings. The disparate temperature, pressure, fluid chemistry, and structural controls have resulted in deposits with wide ranging characteristics. Economic geologists have employed these characteristics to develop classification schemes for epithermal deposits and to constrain the important genetic processes responsible for their formation.

  6. Magmatic gases in fluid inclusions from hydrothermal ore deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graney, J.; Kesler, S. (University of Michigan, MI (United States))

    1992-08-31

    In this study, magmatic gases in fluid inclusions from hydrothermal ore deposits have been analyzed. The gas composition of fluid inclusions from a wide range of extinct hydrothermal systems as represented by different ore deposit types was determined using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Most samples used for analysis consisted of transparent quartz, although barite, jasperoid, opal, sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and bornite were also analyzed. H2O was the dominant volatile component in fluid inclusions, and composed 95-99 mole percent of the inclusion fluid. CO2 comprised most of the remaining volatile component and the other gases were generally present in amounts smaller than 0.1 mole percent. Analysis from porphyry and acid-sulfate deposits, in which magmatic gas contributions are considered to be largest, plotted closest to the fumarolic gas compositions. These inclusion fluid volatile component comparisons have shown that there are systematic differences in inclusion fluids from different hydrothermal systems. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Influence of magmatic volatiles on boron isotope compositions in vent fluids from the Eastern Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilckens, F. K.; Kasemann, S.; Bach, W.; Reeves, E. P.; Meixner, A.; Seewald, J.

    2016-12-01

    In this study we present boron (B), lithium (Li) and strontium (Sr) concentrations and isotopic composition of submarine hydrothermal fluids collected in 2006 and 2011 from PACMANUS, DESMOS and SuSu Knolls vent fields located in the Eastern Manus Basin [1,2]. Hydrothermal vent fluids within the Eastern Manus Basin range from high-temperature black smoker fluids to low-temperature diffuse fluids and acid-sulfate fluids. In general, the different fluid types show variable water-rock ratios during water-rock interaction and different inputs of magmatic volatiles. End-member black smoker fluids, which have in general high temperatures (mostly higher than 280°C) and pH values higher than 2 (measured at 25°C) are characterized by low δ7Li values (3.9 to 5.9‰) and 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.704 to 0.705) similar to the values for island arc basalts. These results suggest low water-rock ratios during hydrothermal circulation. B concentrations and isotopic compositions in these fluids range from 1.0 to 2.6μM and 13 to 20‰, respectively. These data match with other vent fluids from island arc settings in the Western Pacific and plot in a B versus δ11B diagram on a two-component mixing line between seawater and island arc basalts [3]. Sr and Li isotopic composition of white smoker and acid-sulfate fluids overlap generally with the isotopic ratios for the black smoker fluids. However, in some fluids Sr isotope ratios are up to 0.709 near seawater composition suggesting higher water-rock ratios during water-rock interaction. B concentrations and isotope ratios in the white smoker and acid-sulfate fluids range from 0.6 to 2.2μM and 9 to 16‰, respectively which are lower compared with the values of black smoker fluids. In addition, these fluids do not fit on the mixing line between seawater and island arc basalt, and define another mixing trend in a B versus δ11B diagram. To explain this contradictory trend, a third mixing endmember is required that shifts B concentrations

  8. The belt of metagabbros of La Pampa: Lower Paleozoic back-arc magmatism in south-central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, Carlos J.; Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Villar, Luisa M.; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; Hernández, Laura

    2009-12-01

    Combined geological, geochronological, geochemical and geophysical studies have led to identification of a large (˜300 km long, ˜5 km wide) N-S trending belt of metagabbros in the province of La Pampa, south-central Argentina. This belt, though only poorly exposed in the localities of Valle Daza and Sierra de Lonco Vaca, stands out in the geophysical data (aeromagnetics and gravity). Modeling of the aeromagnetic data permits estimation of the geometry of the belt of metagabbros and surrounding rocks. The main rock type exposed is metagabbros with relict magmatic nucleii where layering is preserved. A counterclockwise P-T evolution affected these rocks, i.e., during the Middle Ordovician the protolith reached an initial granulite facies of metamorphism (M1), evolving to amphibolite facies (M2). During the Upper Devonian, a retrograde, greenschist facies metamorphism (M3) partially affected the metagabbros. The whole-rock Sm-Nd data suggest a juvenile source from a depleted mantle, with model ages ranging from 552 to 574 Ma, and positive Epsilon values of 6.51-6.82. A crystallization age of 480 Ma is based on geological considerations, i.e. geochronological data of the host rocks as well as comparisons with the Las Aguilas mafic-ultramafic belt of Sierra de San Luis (central Argentina). The geochemical studies indicate an enriched MORB and back-arc signature. The La Pampa metagabbros are interpreted to be originated as a result of the extension that took place in a back-arc setting coevally with the Famatinian magmatic arc (very poorly exposed in the western part of the study area). The extensional event was 'aborted' by the collision of the Cuyania terrane with Pampia-Gondwana in the Middle Ordovician, causing deformation and metamorphism throughout the arc-back-arc region. The similarities between the La Pampa metagabbros and the mafic-ultramafic Las Aguilas belt of the Sierra de San Luis are very conspicuous, for example, the age (Lower Paleozoic), geochemical

  9. Magnesium Isotopic Evidence for Ancient Subducted Oceanic Crust in LOMU-Like Potassium-Rich Volcanic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yang; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Ying, Ji-Feng; Su, Ben-Xun; Hu, Yan; Fan, Qi-Cheng; Zhou, Xin-Hua

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the role of subducted oceanic crust in the genesis of potassium-rich magmas, we report high-precision Mg isotopic data for a set of Cenozoic volcanic rocks from Northeast China. These rocks overall are lighter in Mg isotopic composition than the normal mantle and display considerable Mg isotopic variations, with δ26Mg ranging from -0.61 to -0.23. The covariation of δ26Mg with TiO2 in these rocks suggests that their light Mg isotopic compositions were derived from recycled oceanic crust in the form of carbonated eclogite in the source region. The strong correlations between δ26Mg and (Gd/Yb)N ratio as well as Sr-Pb isotopes further indicate a multicomponent and multistage origin of these rocks. Magnesium isotopes may thus be used as a novel tracer of recycled oceanic crust in the source region of mantle-derived magmas.

  10. Active Magmatic Underplating in Western Eger Rift, Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubcová, Pavla; Geissler, W.H.; Bräuer, K.; Vavryčuk, Václav; Tomek, Č.; Kämpf, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 12 (2017), s. 2846-2862 ISSN 0278-7407 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-19297S; GA ČR GC16-19751J Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : active intraplate magmatic underplating * mantle-derived fluids * high-velocity lower crust * reflection-free magma body Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Volcanology Impact factor: 3.784, year: 2016

  11. The Magmatic Plumbing System of the Campi Flegrei Caldera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, C.; Ilenia, A.; Massimo, D.; Valeria, D.; Mauro, D.; Giovanni, O.

    2006-12-01

    The Campi Flegrei caldera is a nested and resurgent structure generated by at least two major collapses. Large sectors of the structural boundary of both calderas resulted from partial reactivation of pre-existing faults generated by regional tectonism. Its magmatic system is still active with the last eruption occurring in 1538 A.D. (Monte Nuovo), widespread fumaroles and hot springs activity, and the unrest episodes in the last 35 years, with a maximum net uplift of about 3.5 m in the Pozzuoli area. The definition of the history of the magmatic feeding system of this caldera, in terms of composition, time- scale and depth of crystallization, relation between composition of the erupted magma and structural position of the vent, and magma chamber processes, is of extreme importance for a better understanding of the dynamic conditions of the present day magma chamber and for evaluating of the extent to which the behavior of the magmatic system can be predicted. The Campi Flegrei caldera magmatic plumbing system is characterized by deep and shallow reservoirs. Campi Flegrei magmas originated in a subduction modified mantle source, stagnate at mid crustal level (20- 10 km depth), where they differentiated and are contaminated with the continental crust. From the "deep reservoir" shoshonitic to latitic magmas rise towards the surface along the NE aligned regional fault reactivated during the caldera collapse, whereas trachytic magmas rise mostly along faults and fractures bordering the resurgent block and the southern part of the Campi Flegrei caldera. Repeated arrival of trachytic to phonolitic magmas form shallow reservoirs at 4-3 km depth, in which differentiation and mixing processes occur before and during the eruption.

  12. Failed magmatic eruptions: Late-stage cessation of magma ascent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, S.C.; Newhall, C.; Roman, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    When a volcano becomes restless, a primary question is whether the unrest will lead to an eruption. Here we recognize four possible outcomes of a magmatic intrusion: "deep intrusion", "shallow intrusion", "sluggish/viscous magmatic eruption", and "rapid, often explosive magmatic eruption". We define "failed eruptions" as instances in which magma reaches but does not pass the "shallow intrusion" stage, i. e., when magma gets close to, but does not reach, the surface. Competing factors act to promote or hinder the eventual eruption of a magma intrusion. Fresh intrusion from depth, high magma gas content, rapid ascent rates that leave little time for enroute degassing, opening of pathways, and sudden decompression near the surface all act to promote eruption, whereas decreased magma supply from depth, slow ascent, significant enroute degassing and associated increases in viscosity, and impingement on structural barriers all act to hinder eruption. All of these factors interact in complex ways with variable results, but often cause magma to stall at some depth before reaching the surface. Although certain precursory phenomena, such as rapidly escalating seismic swarms or rates of degassing or deformation, are good indicators that an eruption is likely, such phenomena have also been observed in association with intrusions that have ultimately failed to erupt. A perpetual difficulty with quantifying the probability of eruption is a lack of data, particularly on instances of failed eruptions. This difficulty is being addressed in part through the WOVOdat database. Papers in this volume will be an additional resource for scientists grappling with the issue of whether or not an episode of unrest will lead to a magmatic eruption.

  13. Late Cretaceous extension and exhumation of the Stong and Taku magmatic and metamorphic complexes, NE Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, T.; Md Ali, M. A.; Matenco, L.; Willingshofer, E.; Ng, T. F.; Taib, N. I.; Shuib, M. K.

    2017-08-01

    Fragmentation of large continental areas by post-orogenic extension requires favourable geodynamic conditions and frequently occurs along pre-existing suture zones or nappe contacts, as exemplified by the Stong and Taku magmatic and metamorphic complexes of northern Peninsular Malaysia. For this case, we have employed a field and microstructural kinematic study combined with low temperature thermo-chronology to analyse the tectonic and exhumation history. The results show that the Late Palaeozoic - Triassic Indosinian orogeny created successive phases of burial related metamorphism, shearing and contractional deformation. This orogenic structure was subsequently dismembered during a Cretaceous thermal event that culminated in the formation of a large scale Late Santonian - Early Maastrichtian extensional detachment, genetically associated with crustal melting, the emplacement of syn-kinematic plutons and widespread migmatisation. The emplacement of these magmatic rocks led to an array of simultaneously formed structures that document deformation conditions over a wide temperature range, represented by amphibolite- and greenschist- facies mylonites and as well as brittle structures, such as cataclastic zones and normal faults that formed during exhumation in the footwall of the detachment. The formation of this detachment and a first phase of Late Cretaceous cooling was followed by renewed Eocene - Oligocene exhumation, as evidenced from our fission track ages. We infer that an initial Cretaceous thermal anomaly was responsible for the formation of an extensional gneiss dome associated with simple shear and rotation of normal faults. These Cretaceous processes played a critical role in the establishment of the presently observed crustal structure of Peninsular Malaysia.

  14. Geochemistry Petrography, thermobarometry and investigation of magmatic series in Mirabad- Chehel Khane granitoid body (east of Bouin– Miandasht, Isfahan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Tabatabaei Manesh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available On the base of petrology, the Mirabad- Chehel Khane granitoid, east of Bouin-Miandasht, dominantly consists of syenogranite, monzogranite, alkali granite and granodiorites. The main minerals of these rocks are quartz, alkali feldspar (Orthoclase, plagioclase (Albite - Oligoclase, biotite, ± amphibole with minor amount of allanite, zircon, titanite, apatite, ± tourmaline.  The biotite from the granites are Fe-rich type (annite and primary magmatic in origin. The composition of the biotites studied principally falls in the calc-alkaline subduction related I-type granite on the tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams, which stand on their major element oxides. Which is consistent with the nature of their host rocks. The studied amphiboles are classified as calcic (ferro-hornblende which points to the I-type nature of the granitoid.  The tourmaline composition plots on the schorl - foitite field. The temperature for the alteration, on the base of chlorite composition from the syenogranite, is estimated around 350°C and from the monzogranite rocks about 341°C.  Based on the application of Al-in amphibole, a 3 Kbar pressure was determined for the syenogranite unit corresponding to the depth of 8-11 Km for the emplacement of the pluton. Hornblende- plagioclase thermometer shows 694 to 700°C for the equilibrium of these two minerals.

  15. Granitoid magmatism of Alarmaut granite-metamorphic dome, West Chukotka, NE Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sokolov, S. D.; Bondarenko, G. E.; Katkov, S. M.

    2009-04-01

    relation between magmatism, metamorphism and deformations, accompanying formation of dome structure. Structural data also indicate the dome formation between two regional strike-slips. Strike-slip deformations of terminal stage of collision might have resulted in local zones of extensions [6, 8]. Intrusive contacts of studied granitoid plutons with already deformed host deposits indicate their postcollisional origin. Wide petrographical spectrum of granitoids, hornblende and biotite existence in granites, metaluminous high-K and shoshonite character, biotites compositions allow belonging them to high-K granites of I-type. Appearance of I-type granites in postcollisional setting is usually related to crustal anatexis under the influence of hot asthenospheric mantle due to delamination of lower parts of lithosphere. At the same time the processes of mingling of magmas of different composition, assimilation, fractional crystallization take place. Thus, in tectonic scenario of Alarmaut dome formation except dominating submergence of Chukotka microcontinent margin beneath the structures of North-Asian craton active margin we should assume slab-breakoff or delamination of lithospheric mantle which might have facilitated heat transfer, necessary for melting of granite magma. Aptian-Albian volcanism, localized in postcollisional extensional structures, confirms this assumption. Interrelations of major oxides in granitoids show that compositions of Alarmaut intermediate rocks fall in the fields of melts, experimentally obtained during partial melting of amphibolites, and compositions of granodiorites and granites, along the boundary zone of partial melts of greywackes and dacites, tonalites. Heterogeneity of granitoids source composition or different level of magma contamination by ancient crustal material is confirmed by Sr-Nd data. It is expressed in significant dispersal of ɛNd(Т) and 87Sr/86Sr values in granitoids. Work is carried out at the financial support of RFBR

  16. Early Cretaceous Na-rich granitoids and their enclaves in the Tengchong Block, SW China: Magmatism in relation to subduction of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethys ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ren-Zhi; Lai, Shao-Cong; Santosh, M.; Qin, Jiang-Feng; Zhao, Shao-Wei

    2017-08-01

    The Na-rich intermediate-to-felsic granitic rocks provide insights into the generation of magmas in subduction zones. This paper presents zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages as well as whole-rock geochemical, mineral chemical, and in situ zircon Hf isotopic data on Na-rich granitic rocks from the Tengchong Block, SW China. The granodiorites and associated mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs) from the Menglian batholith yield zircon U-Pb ages of 116.1 ± 0.8 to 117.8 ± 0.6 Ma and 117.7 ± 0.7 Ma, respectively. Both host granodiorites and enclaves show calc-alkaline and sodium-rich nature, enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs), and variable depletion in zircon Hf isotopic compositions. Euhedral amphiboles in both granodiorites and associated enclaves are magnesian-hornblende with high Mg and Ca and contain euhedral plagioclase inclusions of labradorite to andesine (An36-57) composition. The granodiorite was most likely derived through the mixing of partial melts derived from juvenile basaltic lower crust and a minor evolved component of ancient crustal sources. The quartz monzodiorite-granodiorites and associated MMEs from the Xiaotang-Mangdong batholith yield zircon U-Pb ages of 120.3 ± 1.3 to 122.6 ± 0.8 Ma and 120.7 ± 1.5 Ma. These rocks are also sodium-rich and show calc-alkaline trend with negative zircon Hf isotopic compositions (- 5.55 to + 0.58). The MMEs in the host intrusions are monzogabbro with variable and depleted zircon Hf isotopic compositions. The amphiboles in the both host intrusions and the enclaves show Al-rich ferro-tschermakite composition. We infer that the quartz monzodiorite-granodiorites were derived from magmas generated by the melting of ancient basaltic rocks in the lower arc crust induced by the underplating of mantle-derived mafic magmas. The formation of the different types of Na-rich granitic rocks is correlated to the subduction of Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan ocean. A comparison with magmatism in the northern magmatic belt suggests

  17. Ring complexes and related rocks in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, J. R.

    Over 625 igneous complexes throughout Africa and Arabia have been selected and classified on the basis of petrographic association and chronology into six broad age groups forming 29 provinces. The groups range from Mid-Proterozoic to Tertiary and include gabbro, granite, syenite, foid syenite and carbonatite plutonic rocks, the majority in the form of ring-dykes, cone-sheets, plugs, circular intrusions, and their associated extrusive phases. Pan-African late or post-orogenic complexes (720-490 Ma) are common in the Arabian-Nubian and Tuareg shields of north Africa originating from subduction zone derived magmatism. Anorogenic complexes in Egypt, NE and central Sudan, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Zaïre-Burundi, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Namibia and Angola span 550 to 50 Ma and are dominantly alkali granites and foid syenites. Many groups occur as en-echelon bands within linear arrays, and show migrating centres of intrusion in variable directions. In W. Africa there was a progressive shift of emplacement southwards during early Ordovician to Mid-Cretaceous times. Distribution patterns suggest thatdeep seated features, such as shear zones associated with lithospheric plate movements,controlled melting, and the resultant location of the complexes. Economic mineralization is not widespread in the rocks of the African ring complexes and is mainly restricted to small deposits of Sn, W, F, U and Nb.

  18. Semi-adakitic magmatism of the Satkatbong diorite, South Korea: Geochemical implications for post-adakitic magmatism in southeastern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hoseong; Woo, Hyeon Dong; Myeong, Bora; Park, Jongkyu; Jang, Yun-Deuk

    2018-04-01

    The Satkatbong diorite (190 Ma) and the older Yeongdeok granite (250 Ma) in the Yeongnam massif, which is part of the southeastern margin of the Eurasian plate, are affected by a subduction system that is associated with the Izanagi and Farallon plates. The Satkatbong diorite is characterized by its abundant mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs), mantle affinity, and intermediate adakitic Sr/Y vs. Y signature, whereas the Yeongdeok granite is distinctly adakitic and felsic and contains few MMEs. These differences in adakitic features might be due to differences in the lithospheric mantle material and/or different mafic MME sources. The results of rare earth element (REE) analyses and newly proposed Sr/La modeling in this study indicate that these two plutons were both generated by slab-mantle mixing and continental assimilation, whereas the Satkatbong diorite was additionally affected by the injection of a mafic source of MMEs, which "diluted" its adakitic chemistry. The young and hot subducting ridge passing toward the northeast due to the oblique subduction of the Izanagi and Farallon plates during the Early Mesozoic could have given rise to slab melting and asthenospheric influence through slab melting regions and a slab window, respectively. This implies that the adakitic Yeongdeok granite produced by slab melting and then the semi-adakitic Satkatbong diorite produced by asthenospheric influence, including other similar adakitic to semi-adakitic magmatism, might have occurred along the areas affected by ridge subduction. We suggest that this sequential magmatism would be applicable for many continental arcs which experienced ridge subduction being one of the mechanisms of adakite to semi-adakite magmatism.

  19. Magmatic-dominated fluid evolution in the Jurassic Nambija gold skarn deposits (southeastern Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Jean; Fontboté, Lluís; Chiaradia, Massimo; Markowski, Agnès; Schmidt, Susanne; Vennemann, Torsten

    2009-05-01

    The Jurassic (approximately 145 Ma) Nambija oxidized gold skarns are hosted by the Triassic volcanosedimentary Piuntza unit in the sub-Andean zone of southeastern Ecuador. The skarns consist dominantly of granditic garnet (Ad20-98) with subordinate pyroxene (Di46-92Hd17-42Jo0-19) and epidote and are spatially associated with porphyritic quartz-diorite to granodiorite intrusions. Endoskarn is developed at the intrusion margins and grades inwards into a potassic alteration zone. Exoskarn has an outer K- and Na-enriched zone in the volcanosedimentary unit. Gold mineralization is associated with the weakly developed retrograde alteration of the exoskarn and occurs mainly in sulfide-poor vugs and milky quartz veins and veinlets in association with hematite. Fluid inclusion data for the main part of the prograde stage indicate the coexistence of high-temperature (500°C to >600°C), high-salinity (up to 65 wt.% eq. NaCl), and moderate- to low-salinity aqueous-carbonic fluids interpreted to have been trapped at pressures around 100-120 MPa, corresponding to about 4-km depth. Lower-temperature (510-300°C) and moderate- to low-salinity (23-2 wt.% eq. NaCl) aqueous fluids are recorded in garnet and epidote of the end of the prograde stage. The microthermometric data (Th from 513°C to 318°C and salinity from 1.0 to 23 wt.% eq. NaCl) and δ18O values between 6.2‰ and 11.5‰ for gold-bearing milky quartz from the retrograde stage suggest that the ore-forming fluid was dominantly magmatic. Pressures during the early retrograde stage were in the range of 50-100 MPa, in line with the evidence for CO2 effervescence and probable local boiling. The dominance of magmatic low-saline to moderately saline oxidizing fluids during the retrograde stage is consistent with the depth of the skarn system, which could have delayed the ingression of external fluids until relatively low temperatures were reached. The resulting low water-to-rock ratios explain the weak retrograde alteration

  20. Magmatic context of Bou Skour copper deposit (Eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco): Petrogrography, geochemistry and alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL Azmi, Daoud; Aissa, M.; Ouguir, H.; Mahdoudi, M. L.; El Azmi, M.; Ouadjo, A.; Zouhair, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Bou Skour copper deposit is located in the western part of the Saghro massif (Eastern Anti-Atlas), about 50 km East of the city of Ouarzazate. It is subdivided into several areas that are, from North to South: “Panthère”, “Chaigne”, “Anne Marie”, “Chapeau de fer” and “Patte d'Oie”. The latter is economically the most important and is the object of this study. The “Patte d'Oie” district consists mainly of extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks. The extrusive rocks are represented by andesites spatially associated with pyroclastic terms (ignimbrites and pyroclastic breccias). This volcanic unit is intruded by a pink granite pluton and a I-type granodiorite with equigranular texture (Bou Skour granodiorite) showing to the border a microgranular facies (microgranodiorite). All these magmatic formations are intersected by rhyolitic dykes (NNE-SSW) and doleritic dykes (WNW-ESE to NW-SE). The granodiorite and andesite have undergone a polyphase hydrothermal alteration: (i) potassic alteration, (ii) phyllitic alteration, (iii) silicification, (iv) argillic alteration and (v) propylitic alteration. The analysis of geochemical data of granodiorite, granite, andesite and dolerite confirmed: (i) their petrographic natures, (ii) the medium-K calc-alkaline affiliation of andesite and granodiorite, which would have been set up into an active geotectonic environment, probably of island arc or collision, during the Pan-African orogeny, (iii) The high-K calc-alkaline character of granite indicating a post-collision development during the Pan-African orogeny and (iv) The alkaline affinity of the dolerite which is linked to an extensive post-orogenic setting (post-Pan-African). The copper mineralization of “Patte d'Oie” area is hosted, exclusively, in the andesitic and granodioritic facies. It is represented, essentially, by chalcopyrite and bornite minerals and is, probably, related to a porphyry system (disseminated and stockwork mineralization

  1. Seismogenic frictional melting in the magmatic column as the driving force of stick-slip motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, J. E.; Lavallee, Y.; Hirose, T.; Di Toro, G.; Hornby, A.; De Angelis, S.; Henton De Angelis, S.; Ferk, A.; Hess, K.; Leonhardt, R.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Lava dome eruptions subjected to high extrusion rates commonly evolve from endogenous to exogenous growth and limits to their structural stability hold catastrophic potential as explosive eruption triggers. In the conduit strain localisation in magma, accompanied by seismogenic failure, marks the onset of brittle magma ascent dynamics. The rock record of exogenous dome structures preserves vestiges of cataclastic processes and of thermal anomalies, key to unravelling subsurface processes. A combined structural, thermal and magnetic investigation of shear bands from Mount St. Helens (MSH) and Soufrière Hills volcano (SHV) reveal evidence of faulting and frictional melting within the magmatic column. High velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments demonstrate the propensity for melting of andesitic and dacitic material (from SHV and MSH respectively) at upper conduit stress conditions. Such melting events may be linked to the step-wise extrusion of magma accompanied by repetitive long-period (LP) seismicity. Using a source duration calculated from the waveforms at seismic stations around SHV, and slip distance per drumbeat calculated from extrusion rate, frictional melting of SHV andesite in a high velocity rotary shear apparatus can be achieved at small slip distances (HVR experiments which mimic rapid velocity fluctuations in stick-slip behavior demonstrate velocity-weakening behavior of melt, with a tendency for unstable slip. We postulate that pseudotachylyte generation could be the underlying cause of stick-slip motion and associated seismic 'drumbeats', which are so commonly observed at dome-building volcanoes, allowing for a fixed spatial locus and the occurrence of 'families' of similar seismic events. We conclude that, given the ease with which melting is achieved in volcanic rocks, and considering the high ambient temperatures in volcanic conduits, frictional melting is a highly probable consequence of viscous magma ascent.

  2. Assessment of lithogenic radioactivity in the Euganean Hills magmatic district (NE Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tositti, Laura; Cinelli, Giorgia; Brattich, Erika; Galgaro, Antonio; Mostacci, Domiziano; Mazzoli, Claudio; Massironi, Matteo; Sassi, Raffaele

    2017-01-01

    The Euganean Hills of North East Italy have long been recognised as an area characterized by a higher than average natural radiation background. This is due to two main reasons: a) primary lithogenic radiation due to rhyolitic and trachytic outcrops, which are "acidic alkaline" magmatic rocks potentially enriched in uranium and thorium; b) secondary sources related to a geothermal field - widely exploited for spa tourism in the area since the Roman age - producing surface release of radon-enriched fluids. Though radioactivity levels in the Euganean district have been often investigated in the past - including recent works aimed at assessing the radiation doses from radon and/or total gamma radiation - no effort has been put so far into producing a thorough assessment linking radiation protection data to geological-structural features (lithology, faults, water, organic matter content, etc.). This work represents the first part of the interdisciplinary project "Geological and geochemical control on Radon occurrence and natural radioactivity in the Euganean Hills district (North-Eastern Italy)", aimed at producing detailed results of the actual radiation levels in connection mainly with lithological parameters. A detailed sampling strategy, based on lithostratigraphy, petrology and mineralogy, has been adopted. The 151 rock samples collect